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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Chemical process safety at fuel cycle facilities  

SciTech Connect

This NUREG provides broad guidance on chemical safety issues relevant to fuel cycle facilities. It describes an approach acceptable to the NRC staff, with examples that are not exhaustive, for addressing chemical process safety in the safe storage, handling, and processing of licensed nuclear material. It expounds to license holders and applicants a general philosophy of the role of chemical process safety with respect to NRC-licensed materials; sets forth the basic information needed to properly evaluate chemical process safety; and describes plausible methods of identifying and evaluating chemical hazards and assessing the adequacy of the chemical safety of the proposed equipment and facilities. Examples of equipment and methods commonly used to prevent and/or mitigate the consequences of chemical incidents are discussed in this document.

Ayres, D.A.

1997-08-01

2

Application of TRIZ creativity intensification approach to chemical process safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops a modified method of TRIZ to improve safety in chemical process design. This method is modified by the theory of TRIZ, which is inventive problem solving theory, for retrofit design of chemical process considering safety.The original TRIZ is difficult to access to chemical process safety due to inapplicability and ambiguity of terminology in classification of these parameters.

Junghwan Kim; Jinkyung Kim; Younghee Lee; Wonsub Lim; Il Moon

2009-01-01

3

Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

2005-04-01

4

PROCESS SAFETY MANAGEMENT: RESOURCES FROM THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERS FOR USE BY INDUSTRIAL HYGIENISTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial hygienists often work closely with engineers to control occupational safety and health hazards. This working relationship involves an educational process in which both engineers and industrial hygienists learn from one another. The Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) is expanding the opportunity for interdisciplinary cooperation and education by producing a series

James A. Gideon; Thomas W. Carmody

1992-01-01

5

Assessment of environment-, health- and safety aspects of fine chemical processes during early design phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most environmental-, health- and safety problems (EHS) of a chemical process are fixed during the early stages of the design process, when the chemical reaction pathway and the reaction parameters (e.g. solvents, temperature) are selected. Although a large variety of methods exist for assessing EHS problems of existing processes, none of them can be applied as a general method during

Guntram Koller; Ulrich Fischer; Konrad Hungerbühler

1999-01-01

6

Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals. DOE Handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the document is to assist U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of the Oc...

1996-01-01

7

Practicing chemical process safety: a look at the layers of protection.  

PubMed

This presentation will review a few public perceptions of safety in chemical plants and refineries, and will compare these plant workplace risks to some of the more traditional occupations. The central theme of this paper is to provide a "within-the-fence" view of many of the process safety practices that world class plants perform to pro-actively protect people, property, profits as well as the environment. It behooves each chemical plant and refinery to have their story on an image-rich presentation to stress stewardship and process safety. Such a program can assure the company's employees and help convince the community that many layers of safety protection within our plants are effective, and protect all from harm. PMID:15518976

Sanders, Roy E

2004-11-11

8

A chemical process design framework including different stages of environmental, health and safety (EHS) assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we present a novel framework for the design of chemical processes. This framework includes four design stages and aims at a multiobjective decision-making at each stage using suitable environmental, health and safety (EHS) assessment methods in conjunction with technical and economic performance indicators. The different stages that have been defined comprise decisions on the synthesis route, the

Hirokazu Sugiyama; Ulrich Fischer; Masahiko Hirao; Konrad Hungerbühler

2006-01-01

9

Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in Chemical Engineering Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the use of "conservation of life" as a concept and unifying theme for increasing awareness, application, and integration of process safety in chemical engineering education. Students need to think of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of life as equally important in engineering design and analysis.…

Klein, James A.; Davis, Richard A.

2011-01-01

10

Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in Chemical Engineering Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores the use of "conservation of life" as a concept and unifying theme for increasing awareness, application, and integration of process safety in chemical engineering education. Students need to think of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of life as equally important in engineering design and analysis.…

Klein, James A.; Davis, Richard A.

2011-01-01

11

The EPA's process safety management program for preventing accidental chemical releases (40 CFR 68)  

SciTech Connect

Section 304, Chemical Process Safety Management,'' of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 required the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to develop a complete integrated process safety management program regulation. In February 1992, OSHA published rule 29 CFR 1910.119, Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals''. The 1990 CAA Amendment section 112(r), Prevention of Accidental Releases'', required the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish measures for owners and operators of facilities processing or handling hazardous materials to prevent accidental releases of regulated substances and other extremely hazardous substances to the air. Additionally, it required the consequence of releases to be minimized by focusing preventative measures on those chemicals that pose the greatest risk. Section 112(r) begins with a general duty clause requiring owners and operators to: identify hazards that may result from releases; design and maintain a safe facility; and minimize the consequences of releases when they occur. The major difference between the two regulations concerns the areas affected by the potential release of a regulated substance. The OSHA 29 CFR 1910.119 regulation limits the concern to incidents that could result in an exposure to employees within the boundaries of the facility. The proposed EPA 40 CFR regulation will address significant accidental releases that have a potential for off-site effects on humans and the environment. The provisions of the new EPA regulation would require additional resources and increase the formal documentation and record keeping requirements beyond those of the older OSHA regulation.

Brown, C.A.; Sharma, P. (Brown and Root Petroleum and Chemicals Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-04-01

12

Enhancing the Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Curriculum with an Industrial Process Safety Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper summarizes the industrial process risk analysis approach that was used to enhance a chemical engineering unit operations laboratory, training the students about process safety in an inherently low-risk environment. The approach is based on more than ten years of industrial process hazards analysis experience, which includes assessing for process-related hazards and reducing process-related risks. Before the students began the experimental phase of their laboratory project, they documented that they understood the potential hazardous events related to their project. The students completed a series of Project Risk Analysis (PRA) check sheets which listed both the hazards addressed in the OSHA Process Safety Management standard (i.e., fire, explosion, and toxic release) as well as other area and personnel safety-related hazards (e.g., noise, utilities, etc.). Then the students evaluated the risks of these worst case events using a consequence versus likelihood risk matrix, with the consequences, the likelihood, and the risk qualitatively ranked as low, medium, or high. Before running their experiments, the students documented that the risks had been addressed and were reduced as much as is practical. They noted the design and implementation of any engineering controls, any administrative controls, and, if needed, any required personal protective equipment (PPE). The students documented awareness of potential hazards in their surroundings by documenting an area tour, as well. Whether the students continue onto graduate school or begin their careers at a plant site, this approach provides them with awareness tools that will help them ensure their safety when working in their new and potentially hazardous environment.

Vaughen, Bruce

2011-06-23

13

Toxicology and Chemical Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Topics addressed in this discussion of toxicology and chemical safety include routes of exposure, dose/response relationships, action of toxic substances, and effects of exposure to chemicals. Specific examples are used to illustrate the principles discussed. Suggests prudence in handling any chemicals, whether or not toxicity is known. (JN)

Hall, Stephen K.

1983-01-01

14

Toxicology and Chemical Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Topics addressed in this discussion of toxicology and chemical safety include routes of exposure, dose/response relationships, action of toxic substances, and effects of exposure to chemicals. Specific examples are used to illustrate the principles discussed. Suggests prudence in handling any chemicals, whether or not toxicity is known. (JN)|

Hall, Stephen K.

1983-01-01

15

Crop Protection Chemical Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... use of the chemical; its proper handling, safe storage and first aid information. • Obtain Material Safety Data ... sure to keep a set separate from the storage area. • Have on hand and wear the personal ...

16

Comparison of methods for assessing environmental, health and safety (EHS) hazards in early phases of chemical process design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares, qualitatively and quantitatively, some simple environmental, health and safety (EHS) assessment methods that are used in the early phases of chemical process design. The qualitative work summarises the methods into a set of categories, the parameters needed within each category and how each method uses the different parameters to calculate the assessment score. The quantitative part involves

Isaac Kweku Adu; Hirokazu Sugiyama; Ulrich Fischer; Konrad Hungerbühler

2008-01-01

17

Laboratory Safety and Chemical Hazards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Toxicology/chemical hazards, safety policy, legal responsibilities, adequacy of ventilation, chemical storage, evaluating experimental hazards, waste disposal, and laws governing chemical safety were among topics discussed in 10 papers presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982). Several topics…

Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

1983-01-01

18

Laboratory Safety and Chemical Hazards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Toxicology/chemical hazards, safety policy, legal responsibilities, adequacy of ventilation, chemical storage, evaluating experimental hazards, waste disposal, and laws governing chemical safety were among topics discussed in 10 papers presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982). Several topics…

Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

1983-01-01

19

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents the Safety Guide used in the Research Center at Monsanto Chemical Company (St. Louis). Topics include: general safety practices, safety glasses and shoes, respiratory protection, electrical wiring, solvent handling and waste disposal. Procedures are given for evacuating, "tagging out, and "locking out. Special mention is given to…

Steere, Norman V.

1969-01-01

20

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the Safety Guide used in the Research Center at Monsanto Chemical Company (St. Louis). Topics include: general safety practices, safety glasses and shoes, respiratory protection, electrical wiring, solvent handling and waste disposal. Procedures are given for evacuating, "tagging out, and "locking out. Special mention is given to…

Steere, Norman V.

1969-01-01

21

Safety of Chemical Smog Suppressor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes information needed to evaluate the safety of chemicals proposed as smog suppressors and means for obtaining this information. Los Angeles and other large cities have frequent and severe smog conditions that result from photochemical re...

D. L. Warf

1977-01-01

22

Chemical Safety in Animal Care, Use, and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical safety is an essential element of an effective oc- cupational health and safety program. Controlling expo- sures to chemical agents requires a careful process of hazard recognition, risk assessment, development of control mea- sures, communication of the risks and control measures, and training to ensure that the indicated controls will be utilized. Managing chemical safety in animal care and

Wayne R. Thomann

23

Safety in Handling Hazardous Chemicals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual describes safety procedures which should be observed in the chemistry laboratory. Accidents which may occur when working with chemicals such as peroxides, phosphorus, heavy metals, acids, etc., need special treatment. Quite suitable descriptions of such treatment are listed for each kind of possible accident in the laboratory.…

1971

24

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the offering of a course in chemical and industrial hazards for junior and senior chemistry majors at City College of New York in 1972. Suggests inclusion of laboratory and industrial safety education as a formal part of chemistry or science curricula. (CC)

Steere, Norman V., Ed.

1974-01-01

25

The 5th World Congress of chemical engineering: Technologies critical to a changing World. Volume II: Agriculture, food biotechnology biomedical electric power process safety  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 of the proceedings from the 5th World Congress of Chemical Engineering covers four major topic areas from which papers were selected for the database: Agriculture, Food; Biotechnology; Electric Power, and Process Safety. Pertinent subtopics include: Renewable Resource Engineering; Special Processes in the Food Industry; Advances in Metabolite Production; Advances in Fermentation and Cell Culture Engineering; Coal and Nuclear Central Station Power Plants; Large Natural Gas Fired Power Stations; Distributed Generation; Potential Impact of Biomass Energy; and Chemical Hazards in Plant Design. 29 papers were selected from Volume 1 for the database.

NONE

1996-12-31

26

International chemical safety cards and global harmonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSCs) project began in 1986 and is an undertaking of the International Programme on Chemical Safety (UNEP, ILO and WHO). It is being developed in co-operation with the Commission of the European Communities. ICSCs are comprehensive, concise, and simple summaries of essential health and safety information on specific chemicals for use as basic information and

Richard W. Niemeier; Isaac Obadia

2001-01-01

27

Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group Report  

SciTech Connect

This report marks the culmination of a 4-month review conducted to identify chemical safety vulnerabilities existing at DOE facilities. This review is an integral part of DOE's efforts to raise its commitment to chemical safety to the same level as that for nuclear safety.

Not Available

1994-09-01

28

Safety-Conscious Process Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study strives first to identify the deficiencies and problems in current process design practice. Three common practices to address safety have been studied: adherence to good practice, safety analyses and inherently safer design. The problems in the...

R. Koivisto

1996-01-01

29

CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN SOILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

“Chemical Processes in Soils” edited by Tabatabai and D.L. Sparks (2005) is a key review useful for soil scientists, agronomists, conservationists, environmental scientists and other related professionals who need to understand these processes of chemical reactions and how they may be related to the...

30

Chemical Processing of Glasses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of chemical processing methods for the fabrication of glass and ceramic shapes for photonic applications is frequently Edisonian in nature. In Part, this is because the numerous variables that must be optimized to obtain a given material w...

R. M. Laine

1992-01-01

31

Nuclear explosive safety study process  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

NONE

1997-01-01

32

Chemical Food Safety of Traditional Grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Looking in general at the chemical food safety of traditional grains mycotoxins must be expected to be the major issue. A survey of the scientific literature and of alerts from the EU food safety system demonstrates that the problems to be foreseen for an intensified import into the EU will be more or less the same as for conventional

L. Brimer

33

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background leading to a reorganization of the environmental health and safety program at the University of Florida; describes the reorganized program, and discusses experiences from the first year of operation. (MLH)

Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.

1977-01-01

34

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides background leading to a reorganization of the environmental health and safety program at the University of Florida; describes the reorganized program, and discusses experiences from the first year of operation. (MLH)|

Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.

1977-01-01

35

Chemical Lab Safety Rules Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This learning module - Chemical Lab Safety Rules - covers safety rules for one's personal safety when working with and around chemicals, handling and pouring chemicals properly, the specifics for working with solvents vs. corrosives, spill or leak response, and many other areas. An activity and assessment are including in this learning module along with an observation checklist that you could use to observe participants in a laboratory environment and ensure that the safety rules are being followed. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and login in order to access the full set of resources.

2011-09-23

36

Fundamentals of Chemical Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a course that provides students with a fundamental understanding of the chemical, catalytic, and engineering sciences related to the chemical reactions taking place in a variety of reactors of different configurations. Also describes the eight major lecture topics, course examinations, and term papers. The course schedule is included.…

Moser, William R.

1985-01-01

37

Safety monitoring in process and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety Functions provide a method of ensuring the safe operation of any large-scale processing plant. Successful implementation of safety functions requires continuous monitoring of safety function values and trends. Because the volume of information handled by a plant operator occassionally can become overwhelming, attention may be diverted from the primary concern of maintaining plant safety. With this in mind EG

V. Jr. Esparza; D. E. Sebo

1984-01-01

38

Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure o...

1994-01-01

39

Safety plan process for public sports buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Finland, safety planning for public sports buildings is a challenging process because buildings are in multipurpose use and numerous organizations and personnel groups are also operating under the same roof. Local staff lacks instructions and tools to help them with safety planning. This paper presents a process model for establishing a safety plan for public sports buildings. The model

T. Hyytinen

2008-01-01

40

ILO activities in the area of chemical safety.  

PubMed

The ILO has been active in the area of safety in the use of chemicals at work since the year of its creation in 1919, including the development of international treaties and other technical instruments, the provision of technical assistance to its member States, and the development of chemical safety information systems. The two key ILO standards in this area are the Conventions on safety in the use of chemicals at work (No. 170, 1990), and the Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents (No. 174, 1993). The ILO Programme on occupational safety, health and environment (Safe Work) is currently responsible for ILO chemical safety activities. In the past two decades, most of ILO work in this area has been carried out within the context of inter-agency collaboration frameworks linking the ILO, WHO, UNEP, FAO, UNIDO, UNITAR, and the OECD, including the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the Inter-Organisation Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), and the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS). Apart from the regular development, updating and dissemination of chemical safety information data bases such as the IPCS International Chemical Cards, the elaboration of a Globally harmonized system for the classification and labelling of Chemicals (GHS) has been the most outstanding achievement of this international collaboration on chemical safety. PMID:12909402

Obadia, Isaac

2003-08-21

41

Pantex: safety in nuclear weapons processing.  

PubMed

The Pantex Plant, located in the Texas panhandle near Amarillo, is a major Department of Energy (DOE) participant in maintaining the safety of the nation's nuclear weapons resources and protecting the employees, public, and environment. With more than 168,000 person-years of operations involving nuclear materials, explosives, and hazardous chemicals, Pantex has maintained a notable safety record. This article overviews the nuclear weapon activities at Pantex and describes their safety culture. PMID:11045518

Johannesen, R E; Farrell, L M

2000-11-01

42

Chemically treated kindling and process  

SciTech Connect

A chemically treated kindling and process for the production thereof wherein the kindling is comprised of a pressed mixture of wood fibers, alum, and cornstarch, and is saturated with a prepared composition comprising a plurality of chemically distinct compositions, each of the compositions containing a different predetermined amount of refined petroleum wax and refined oil.

Earlywine, R.T.

1984-10-09

43

Chemical waterflood process development  

SciTech Connect

A waterflood process is claimed wherein a slug of biopolymer is injected into a formation, followed by a slug of synthetic polymer. The biopolymer slug protects the synthetic polymer from degradation due to presence of salts or surfactants in the formation.

Chang, H.L.

1980-04-01

44

New Chemical Review Process Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the manual is to provide an introduction to the new chemical review process as it takes place in the Office of Toxic Substances (OTS) in EPA. The manual presents the process in terms of component procedures and meetings. A flow diagram of t...

1986-01-01

45

ILO activities in the area of chemical safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ILO has been active in the area of safety in the use of chemicals at work since the year of its creation in 1919, including the development of international treaties and other technical instruments, the provision of technical assistance to its member States, and the development of chemical safety information systems. The two key ILO standards in this area

Isaac Obadia

2003-01-01

46

Chemical Safety and Scientific Ethics in a Sophomore Chemistry Seminar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description of a course on chemical safety and scientific ethics is presented. The goals of this course are to impress upon the students the importance of safety in their professional lives; to empower the students to take charge of their own personal safety when working with chemicals; to illustrate and emphasize the vital importance of honesty and integrity within the scientific enterprise; and to explore issues of honesty and integrity through case studies that allow ethical decisions to be critically examined. The recent approaches and activities used to accomplish these goals are detailed. These include readings from chemical safety textbooks, chemical safety reports from news sources, and group discussions springing from problems in scientific ethics.

Moody, Anne E.; Griffith Freeman, R.

1999-09-01

47

Inventory or Consequence-Based Evaluation of Hazardous Chemicals: Recommendations for DOE Facility Safety Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different methods are in use for establishing the safety of facilities, processes, or operations involving hazardous chemicals. One sets inventory limits using Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) threshold quantity (TQ), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Clean Air Act Amendment threshold quantity (CAA-TQ), threshold planning quantity (TPQ) or reportable quantity (RQ), values published in the Federal Register. The second method

Blanchard

1999-01-01

48

78 FR 48029 - Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...shall consult with the Chemical Safety Board (CSB...determine what, if any, changes are required to existing...shall identify a list of chemicals, including poisons...addition to the CFATS Chemicals of Interest list...i) identify any changes that need to be...

2013-08-07

49

Evaluation of chemical and physical (high-pressure and temperature) treatments to improve the safety of minimally processed mung bean sprouts during refrigerated storage.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of combined high hydrostatic pressure and temperature treatments with different chemical sanitation treatments (water, sodium hypochlorite, and hydrogen peroxide) on the microbiological properties of mung bean sprouts. In a first study, the raw product was subjected to several combined high-pressure and temperature treatments for calculating a mathematical model by a response surface methodology. The number of pressure-temperature (150 to 400 MPa; 20 to 40 degrees C) combinations was limited to 10. In addition, a model system consisting of mung bean sprout juice was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes (CECT 4032). Microbial inactivation with this model system was also investigated by a response surface methodology. The highest aerobic mesophilic bacteria and L. monocytogenes inactivation was achieved at maximum pressure and temperature (5.5 and 1.8 log cycles, respectively). In a second study, the effect of five different processing lines on the microbial load reduction of minimally processed mung bean sprouts during refrigerated storage was studied. All treatments reduced the initial population of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and fecal coliforms, with the physical treatment of 400 MPa and 40 degrees C being the most effective, showing initial reductions of 5.8 and 7.8 log CFU/ g, respectively. Recovery of bacteria from sprouts treated under these conditions was not observed during storage. However, the sprouts that received washing treatments with water, sodium hypochlorite, and hydrogen peroxide exhibited increases in aerobic mesophilic and fecal coliform counts after 3 days of storage at 4 degrees C. PMID:17066918

Muńoz, Marina; De Ancos, Begońa; Sįnchez-Moreno, Concepción; Pilar Cano, M

2006-10-01

50

Chemical process control education and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical process control textbooks and courses differ significantly from their electrical or mechanical control equivalents. The primary goals of this article are to i) emphasize the distinctly challenging characteristics of chemical processes, ii) present a typical process control curriculum and iii) discuss how chemical process control courses can be revised to better meet the needs of a typical BSc-level chemical

B. Wayne Bequette; Babatunde A. Ogunnaike

2001-01-01

51

Environmental and safety obligations of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

Among its many unique and precedent-setting provisions, the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) includes important requirements for States Parties to protect the public safety and the environment in the course of carrying out the treaty. These obligations will apply to the destruction of chemical weapons, of former chemical weapons production facilities, and to other activities under the Convention such as the verification scheme. This morning, I will briefly discuss the Convention`s safety and environmental obligations, concentrating on their effects in this country as the United States chemical weapons stockpile is destroyed.

Tanzman, E.A.

1994-04-07

52

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY AND BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING WITH A CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FOUNDATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical Engineering principles are utilized in a variety of industries such as semiconductor processing, environmental engineering and biotechnology. One main characteristic of these fields is their multidisciplinary nature. Thus, parts of the chemical engineering curriculum can be an integrated into the training of engineers desiring to work in these fields. We will describe an industry-driven engineering Environmental Health and Safety

Melanie McNeil; Art Diaz; Michael Jennings; Claire Komives

53

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements  

SciTech Connect

In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

Griebenow, B.

1996-03-01

54

Support from Afar: Using Chemical Safety Information on the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the major challenges facing people committed to Teaching Safety in High Schools, Colleges, and Universities is keeping up with both the wide range of relevant technical information about potential hazards (ranging from fire protection to chemical hazards to biological issues) and the ever-changing world of safety regulations and standards.…

Stuart, Ralph

55

10 CFR 830.203 - Unreviewed safety question process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Unreviewed safety question process. ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis...category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility discovers or...inadequacy of the documented safety analysis, it...

2013-01-01

56

Neural network based approach for optimization of industrial chemical processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process optimization involves the minimization (or maximization) of an objective function, that can be established from a technical and\\/or economic viewpoint. In general, the decision variables are subject to constraints such as valid ranges (max and min limits) as well as constraints related to safety considerations and those that arise from the process model equations. Usually in chemical engineering problems,

Clįudio Augusto Oller Nascimento; Reinaldo Giudici; Roberto Guardani

2000-01-01

57

Chemical process control education and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goals of this paper are: 1) to emphasize the distinctly challenging characteristics of chemical processes, 2) present a typical process control curriculum, and 3) discuss how chemical process control courses can be revised to better meet the needs of a typical BS-level chemical engineer. In addition to a review of material covered in a standard process control course,

B. Wayne Bequette; Babatunde A. Ogunnaike

1999-01-01

58

Chemical safety: asking the right questions  

SciTech Connect

Recent reports have shown that, despite efforts to the contrary, chemical accidents continue to occur at an unacceptable rate and there is no evidence that this rate is decreasing. Based on this observation, one can conclude that previous analyses have not accurately identified and implemented appropriate fixes to eliminate identified root causes for chemical events. Based on this, it is time to reevaluate chemical accident data with a fresh eye and determine (a) what corrective actions have already been identified but have not been implemented, (b) what other root causes may be involved, and (c) what new corrective actions should be taken to eliminate these newly identified root causes.

Whyte, Helena M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Quigley, David [Y-12/NSC; Simmons, Fred [SRS; Freshwater, David [DOE/NNSA; Robertson, Janeen [LLNL

2008-01-01

59

CHEMICAL SAFETY: ASKING THE RIGHT QUESTIONS  

SciTech Connect

Recent reports have shown that, despite efforts to the contrary, chemical accidents continue to occur at an unacceptable rate and there is no evidence that this rate is decreasing. Based on this observation, one can conclude that previous analyses have not accurately identified and implemented appropriate fixes to eliminate identified root causes for chemical events. Based on this, it is time to reevaluate chemical accident data with a fresh eye and determine (a) what corrective actions have already been identified but have not been implemented, (b) what other root causes may be involved, and (c) what new corrective actions should be taken to eliminate these newly identified root causes.

Simmons, F

2008-08-05

60

Scope on Safety: Common sense and chemicals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This monthās column features two true stories about the use of chemicals in the middle school science classroom. The lesson of these stories is simple. Certainly, it is prudent to have age-appropriate experiences in science, given the developmental constraints of students in middle school. On the other hand, when the curriculum necessitates experiences to support concepts, theories, and ideas, a little investigation into materials or chemicals used in best practice will help you decide what is best for your classroom.

Roy, Ken

2010-01-01

61

Chemical processes for energy storage and transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical reaction, adsorption of a gas in a solid, or adsorption of gas in a liquid solvent can be used to solve problems in conservation, storage and transmission of energy. Possible applications of such processes are chemical heat pumps, cooling systems, heat transformers, chemical heat pipes, separation, storage and transmission of hydrogen. In the present paper, the principal chemical processes

G. Cacciola; N. Giordano

1986-01-01

62

Policy Manual - General Safety - Biological Safety Cabinets, Chemical Fume Hoods, and other Primary Barrier Protections  

Cancer.gov

All Biological Safety Cabinets (BSC) and Chemical Fume Hoods (CFH) within the Laboratory of Pathology are maintained and monitored for effectiveness by the Technical Assistance Branch of the Division of Occupational Health and Safety (DOHS) provides various services regarding certification, maintenance, repair, and decontamination of specific primary barrier equipment.

63

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Flood Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes events leading to a flood in the Wehr Chemistry Laboratory at Marquette University, discussing steps taken to minimize damage upon discovery. Analyzes the problem of flooding in the chemical laboratory and outlines seven steps of flood control: prevention; minimization; early detection; stopping the flood; evaluation; clean-up; and…

Pollard, Bruce D.

1983-01-01

64

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOEpatents

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77389)

1987-01-01

65

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOEpatents

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77379)

1987-01-01

66

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOEpatents

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-11-24

67

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

SciTech Connect

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77379)

1987-01-01

68

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOEpatents

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-06-23

69

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

SciTech Connect

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77389)

1987-01-01

70

Chemical Safety Management Program for Lockheed Martin Energy Systems operations at the Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

Operated by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems), the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is a manufacturing facility that plays an integral role in the DOE nuclear weapons complex. Fulfilling the national security mission at the Y-12 Plant, continuing to be the cornerstone of uranium and lithium technologies for DOE, and providing customers with solutions for challenging manufacturing needs requires usage of a variety of chemicals and chemical processes. Performing this work safely while protecting workers, the public, and the environment is their commitment. The purpose of this document is to provide a description of the essential components of chemical safety, the integration of these components into the Y-12 Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), and the functional integration of chemical safety issues across Y-12 organizations and programs managed by Energy Systems.

C.W. McMahon

2000-03-24

71

RUBBER-PROCESSING CHEMICALS DATA BASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research program was to compile a data base covering all the commercially significant organic rubber-processing chemicals produced or imported in the United States. The Rubber-Processing Chemicals Data Base contains the following elements: chemical informati...

72

Scope on Safety: Chemicals from cradle to grave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

School districts are not immuned to fines assessed by the Environmental Protection Agency or of becoming vicitims of unscrupulous business practices. With this in mind, schools need to consider adopting a protocol for the purchase, storage, use, and disposal of chemicals. This article will address these factors to ensure safety in your lab.

Roy, Ken

2005-04-01

73

Raman chemical imaging technology for food safety and quality evaluation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Raman chemical imaging combines Raman spectroscopy and digital imaging to visualize composition and morphology of a target. This technique offers great potential for food safety and quality research. Most commercial Raman instruments perform measurement at microscopic level, and the spatial range ca...

74

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS Pastoor, Timothy1, Barton, Hugh2 1 Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC, USA. 2 EPA, Office of Research and Development-NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. A multi-stakeholder series of discussions d...

75

Pollution control. Information on chemical industry safety equipment expenditures  

SciTech Connect

Recent expenditures by the chemical and allied products industry on safety-related equipment and associated operating and maintenance costs are reported. Information on capital and operating expenditures for pollution control equipment by wastes category for the chemical and allied products industry are given. The Department of Commerce complies data on pollution abatement costs and expenditures on an annual basis. Information for 1977-83 for the chemicals and allied products industry is summarized. Summary data are provided for the United States and several states, including California, Illinois, Louisiana, Missouri, New Jersey, Texas, and West Virginia.

Not Available

1985-12-01

76

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: An Undergraduate Chemical Laboratory Safety Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a two-quarter hour college chemistry course focusing on laboratory safety. Includes lists of topics/assignments, problem sets (toxicology, storage, and energy) and videotapes, films, and slide sets used in the course. (JN)

Nicholls, L. Jewel

1982-01-01

77

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: An Undergraduate Chemical Laboratory Safety Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a two-quarter hour college chemistry course focusing on laboratory safety. Includes lists of topics/assignments, problem sets (toxicology, storage, and energy) and videotapes, films, and slide sets used in the course. (JN)|

Nicholls, L. Jewel

1982-01-01

78

Behavior of Mercury during DWPF Chemical Process Cell Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mer...

D. Koopman J. Zamecnik

2012-01-01

79

Chemical Process for Removing Selenium from Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application discusses a chemical process for selectively removing organoselenium compounds and selenate from water supplies. The process utilizes a combination of a transition metal selected from the group consisting of nickel and copper and an...

A. P. Murphy

1990-01-01

80

ISV safety, processing, and starter path issues  

SciTech Connect

Numerous experiments and studies related to safety concerns in the in situ vitrification (ISV) process have been conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Topics of interest include (1) combustible inclusions, (2) sealed containers, (3) radiant heat surge, (4) electrical shock, (5) general risk analysis, and (6) Pu criticality. The data and analyses are those used for the initial ISV development and subsequent improvement; the majority was performed in 1987 or earlier. The purpose of this report is to document these analyses for reference purposes; knowledge gained more recently is, or will be, incorporated in other documents. 33 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

Hilliard, D K; Kindle, C H [comps.

1991-04-01

81

Near miss reporting in the chemical process industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study aimed at showing that near miss reporting and analysis is a substantial step forward in solving problems in industrial safety management is presented. The following design aspects are discussed and illustrated: the modeling of 'human error' in relation to technical and organization failure; the use of such a classification model as the basis of a framework for a complete 'near miss management system'. A first step towards validating through a series of discussions with safety managers in the chemical process industry is described.

Vanderschaaf, Tjerk Woutherus

82

International Peer Review of FSANZ GM Food Safety Assessment Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

FSANZ has established itself internationally as one of the leading regulatory authorities to regulate and conduct safety assessment of Genetically Modified (GM) foods. A small but knowledgeable, dedicated team of scientists in the Risk Assessment Chemical Safety Section and Product Safety Standards Section of FSANZ routinely conduct robust, risk-based and evidence-based pre-market safety assessment of GM foods. FSANZ has also

William Yan

83

Process safety and risk management: Is your facility under control?  

SciTech Connect

By 1990, the US Congress had passed two significant pieces of legislation dealing with the prevention of accidents involving hazardous chemical substances--Section 112(r) of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, and legislation that required the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to issue its Process Safety Management regulations. On June 20, 1996, the final Rule on Risk Management Plans (RMP) for Chemical Accident Prevention was published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The final RMP Rule requires facilities with covered processes to be in full compliance with EPA`s Risk Management and Certification requirements by June 21, 1999. Meanwhile, the OSHA regulations, issued in final form in February 1992 (29CFR1910.119), provided a five-year compliance phase-in. One principal difference between the EPA and OSHA Rules arises from EPA`s position on exemptions: there are none under EPA`s Rule. With the RMP Rule, only the presence of a process containing a regulated substance above its threshold quantity determines applicability; the nature of the business is not considered in determining specific compliance requirements. Compliance of these regulations is discussed.

Sulkowski, J. [Sulkowski (John), Charleston, SC (United States)

1997-08-01

84

The Bhopal tragedy: its influence on process and community safety as practiced in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical accident at 12:45 AM on December 3, 1984 in Bhopal India had a profound effect on the practice of chemical process safety in the United States. Fearing the possibility of similar events occurring in the United States, the United States Congress convened several hearings and investigations into the causes of the disaster. The inquiries focused both on the

Ronald J. Willey; Daniel A. Crowl; Wil Lepkowski

2005-01-01

85

Dynamic simulator for evaluation of safety objects in batch process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel methodology for batch plant safety analysis is proposed using process dynamic modelling. Batch processes are divided into several safety objects that are linked to operation level. Safety objects are evaluated by dynamic simulation and fault propagation models are generated. By using this model, an improved fault tree analysis (FTA) method using house event-time (HET) is

D. Rizal; S. Tani; K. Nishiyama; K. Suzuki

2005-01-01

86

Chemical vapor infiltration process modeling and optimization  

SciTech Connect

Chemical vapor infiltration is a unique method for preparing continuous fiber ceramic composites that spares the strong but relatively fragile fibers from damaging thermal, mechanical, and chemical degradation. The process is relatively complex and modeling requires detailed phenomenological knowledge of the chemical kinetics and mass and heat transport. An overview of some of the current understanding and modeling of CVI and examples of efforts to optimize the processes is given. Finally, recent efforts to scale-up the process to produce tubular forms are described.

Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matlin, W.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-12-31

87

Assessing safety, health, and environmental impact early during process development  

SciTech Connect

During chemical process development, potential safety, health, and environmental (SHE) hazards must be identified, analyzed, and managed as early as possible to avoid negative consequences (higher risks, higher costs, longer development times). The main problem of early SHE assessment is the lack of substance data and process information, especially when batch processes are considered. A new method is presented that closes this gap considerably. SHE aspects are assessed in 11 effect categories. For each substance of a given chemical process and each effect category, the most reliable data are selected out of a variety of different substance databases or estimation methods. After identifying SHE problems as dangerous properties, their magnitude is analyzed as potential of danger and can be reduced by technological measures. In this paper, first the goal and scope of the method is outlined. Then the detailed definitions of all categories as well as the exact way of combining information is presented and discussed with respect to current practices in risk analysis and environmental assessment. Finally the method is applied to a case study from pharmaceutical industry. Major SHE hazards of the process are identified and discussed.

Koller, G.; Fischer, U.; Hungerbuehler, K.

2000-04-01

88

The Role of Patient Safety in the Device Purchasing Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine how patient safety considerations are incorporated into medical device purchasing decisions, individuals involved in recent infusion pump purchasing decisions at three different health care organizations were interviewed using a structured interview process. Interview questions covered triggers for the purchasing process; the purchasing process itself; how safety was evaluated and incorporated into the process; and the perceived decision and

Todd R. Johnson; Jiajie Zhang; Vimla L. Patel; Alla Keselman; Xiaozhou Tang; Juliana J. Brixey; Danielle Paige; James P. Turley

89

Statistical signal processing for automotive safety systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of software in general and safety systems in particular increases rapidly in the automotive industry. The trend is that functionality is decentralized, so new safety functions are distributed to common shared computer hardware, sensors and actuators using central data buses. This paper overviews recent and future safety systems, and high-lights the big challenges for researchers in the signal

Fredrik Gustafsson

2005-01-01

90

Chemical Process for the Denitrification of Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent applicate relates to a chemical process for denitrification of water wherein natural or reclaimed water is treated with a metal sufficiently electropositive to decompose water while regulating the pH within a range effective to permit efficient...

A. Murphy

1990-01-01

91

Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure o...

1994-01-01

92

Microwave-enhanced chemical processes  

DOEpatents

A process for disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Effecting intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400.degree. C. in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient to break the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds and provide detoxification values in excess of 80 and further detoxifying the bed followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes.

Varma, Ravi (Hinsdale, IL)

1990-01-01

93

Quantum-Chemical Studies on TATB Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum chemical studies have gained paramount importance in screening of thermodynamically feasible chemical processes. The current investigation attempts to select an appropriate process for the synthesis of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitro benzene (TATB), a reasonably powerful insensitive high explosive (IHE) through density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Although, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene (THB) routes for synthesis of TATB have been well established, this article

R. S. Patil; S. Radhakrishnan; P. M. Jadhav; V. D. Ghule; T. Soman

2010-01-01

94

Microwave-enhanced chemical processes  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to a process for disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Effecting intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400{degree}C. In the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient to break the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds and provide detoxification values in excess of 80 and further detoxifying the bed followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes.

Varma, R.

1988-09-15

95

Views on chemical safety information and influences on chemical disposal behaviour in the UK.  

PubMed

This study examined how groups representing four tiers in the chemical supply chain (manufacturers, vendors, workers and consumers) understood safety information, and the factors that influenced disposal behaviour. Data from seven, semi-structured, focus groups was analysed both qualitatively (textual analysis) and quantitatively (network analysis). Such combined analytical methods enabled us to achieve both detailed insights into perceptions and behaviour and an objective understanding of the prevailing opinions that occurred within and between the focus group discussions. We found issues around awareness, trust, access and disposal behaviours differed between groups within the supply chain. Participants from the lower tiers perceived chemical safety information to be largely inaccessible. Labels were the main source of information on chemical risks for the middle and bottom tiers of the supply chain. Almost all of the participants were aware of the St Andrew's Cross and skull and crossbones symbols but few were familiar with the Volatile Organic Compound logo or the fish and tree symbol. Both the network and thematic analysis demonstrated that whilst frequent references to health risks associated with chemicals were made environmental risks were usually only articulated after prompting. It is clear that the issues surrounding public understanding of chemical safety labels are highly complex and this is compounded by inconsistencies in the cognitive profiles of chemical users. Substantially different cognitive profiles are likely to contribute towards communication difficulties between different tiers of the supply chain. Further research is needed to examine the most effective ways of communicating chemical hazards information to the public. The findings demonstrate a need to improve and simplify disposal guidance to members of the public, to raise public awareness of the graphic symbols in the CHIP 3.1, 2005 regulations and to improve access to disposal guidance. PMID:19036406

Hinks, J; Bush, J; Andras, P; Garratt, J; Pigott, G; Kennedy, A; Pless-Mulloli, T

2008-11-25

96

Proposed OSHA safety regs target process plant procedures  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses how proposed OSHA safety regs target process plant procedures. OSHA's proposed standard on process-plant safety targets many of the procedures that already exist in U.S. hydrocarbon-processing facilities. But the proposed standard will require operators to maintain more-detailed and structured information on plant operations.

Corbett, R.A.

1990-08-20

97

Safety analysis of SISL process module  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an assessment of various postulated accidental occurrences within an experimental process module which is part of a Special Isotope Separation Laboratory (SISL) currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The process module will contain large amounts of molten uranium and various water-cooled structures within a vacuum vessel. Special emphasis is therefore given to potential accidental interactions of molten uranium with water leading to explosive and/or rapid steam formation, as well as uranium oxidation and the potential for combustion. Considerations are also given to the potential for vessel melt-through. Evaluations include mechanical and thermal interactions and design implications both in terms of design basis as well as once-in-a-lifetime accident scenarios. These scenarios include both single- and multiple-failure modes leading to various contact modes and locations within the process module for possible thermal interactions. The evaluations show that a vacuum vessel design based upon nominal operating conditions would appear sufficient to meet safety requirements in connection with both design basis as well as once-in-a-lifetime accidents. Controlled venting requirements for removal of steam and hydrogen in order to avoid possible long-term pressurization events are recommended. Depending upon the resulting accident conditions, the vacuum system (i.e., the roughing system) could also serve this purpose. Finally, based upon accident evaluations of this study, immediate shut-off of all coolant water following an incident leak is not recommended, as such action may have adverse effects in terms of cool-down requirements for the melt crucibles etc. These requirements have not been assessed as part of this study.

Not Available

1983-05-01

98

Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

Burnham, A.K.

1993-07-01

99

Secondary market for chemical processing equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

More money is now spent, as a percentage of total capital, on used machinery and equipment, such as centrifuges, than ever before. Used equipment has several advantages including price, which can be 20–70% of new replacement costs. Gregg P Epstein, Perry Videx LLC, USA, discusses how to purchase and sell used process machinery, using the chemical processing industry as an

Gregg P Epstein

2002-01-01

100

U-GAS process for chemical manufacture  

SciTech Connect

The U-GAS coal gasification process and its potential application to the manufacture of two important industrial chemicals, methanol and ammonia, are described. Pilot plant results, the current status of the process, and economic projections for the cost of manufacture of methanol and ammonia are presented.

Dihu, R.; Leppin, D.; Patel, J.G.

1980-01-01

101

BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly

J. Zamecnik; D. Koopman

2012-01-01

102

Process safety improvement--quality and target zero.  

PubMed

Process safety practitioners have adopted quality management principles in design of process safety management systems with positive effect, yet achieving safety objectives sometimes remain a distant target. Companies regularly apply tools and methods which have roots in quality and productivity improvement. The "plan, do, check, act" improvement loop, statistical analysis of incidents (non-conformities), and performance trending popularized by Dr. Deming are now commonly used in the context of process safety. Significant advancements in HSE performance are reported after applying methods viewed as fundamental for quality management. In pursuit of continual process safety improvement, the paper examines various quality improvement methods, and explores how methods intended for product quality can be additionally applied to continual improvement of process safety. Methods such as Kaizen, Poke yoke, and TRIZ, while long established for quality improvement, are quite unfamiliar in the process safety arena. These methods are discussed for application in improving both process safety leadership and field work team performance. Practical ways to advance process safety, based on the methods, are given. PMID:18374483

Van Scyoc, Karl

2008-02-17

103

The process of magnetization by chemical change  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the well-known processes of magnetization of rocks are discussed and compared and contrasted with the magnetization formed when a ferromagnetic mineral undergoes a chemical change within the influence of an external magnetic field. The thermal stability of the ‘chemical-magnetization’ so produced is examined and compared with the magnetizations produced isothermally and thermo-remanently in iron oxides under similar

G. Haigh

1958-01-01

104

Enzymes toughen up for chemical processing  

SciTech Connect

While enzymes have been making tremendous inroads into detergent formulation and food processing, the penetration of these protein-based catalysts into other chemical-process manufacture and hazardous waste treatment--where they are slated to replace heavy metal catalysts and other processing aids--has been relatively slow. Recently, however, enhancements in the enzyme`s properties are opening the door wider for such broadened usage. Some of these non-traditional uses of enzymes are described.

Hairston, D.

1995-05-01

105

Results of Safety Inspections of College Laboratory and Chemical Storage Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Results of on-site inspections of 11 New York colleges, laboratories and storage facilities are summarized according to: (1) chemical storage and disposal; (2) safety equipment; (3) ventilation; (4) general housekeeping; and (5) safety education. (Author/SK)|

Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.

1982-01-01

106

Safety Considerations for Renovation and Demolition of Facilities Contaminated with Chemical Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principle objective of a safety program for renovation and demolition operations with facilities contaminated with chemical agent is to insure safety, consistent with mission requirements, is incorporated into the operations. All hazards that may be e...

T. S. Kartachak G. E. Collins

1984-01-01

107

21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19 Section 570.19 Food...Provisions Ā§ 570.19 Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed...

2009-04-01

108

21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19 Section 170.19 Food...Provisions Ā§ 170.19 Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed...

2009-04-01

109

21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19 Section 570.19 Food...Provisions Ā§ 570.19 Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed...

2013-04-01

110

21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19 Section 170.19 Food...Provisions Ā§ 170.19 Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed...

2013-04-01

111

21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 true Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19 Section 170.19 Food...Provisions Ā§ 170.19 Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed...

2010-01-01

112

IDEFO activity modeling for integrated process design considering environmental, health and safety (EHS) aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an activity model of novel chemical process design. This model defines different stages of early process design, i.e. process chemistry and conceptual design, with appropriate process evaluation indicators. Environmental, health and safety (EHS) aspects are considered new assessment criteria together with conventional economic and technical indicators. The type-zero method of Integrated DEFinition language or IDEF0 is selected as

Masahiko Hirao; Hirokazu Sugiyama; Ulrich Fischer; Konrad Hungerbühler

2008-01-01

113

Fast Reactor Spent Fuel Processing: Experience and Criticality Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses operational and criticality safety experience associated with the Idaho National Laboratory Fuel Conditioning Facility which uses a pyrometallurgical process to treat spent fast reactor metallic fuel. The process is conducted in an in...

C. Pope

2007-01-01

114

Safety assessment of the liquid-fed ceramic melter process  

SciTech Connect

As part of its development program for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste, Pacific Northwest Laboratory assessed the safety issues for a complete liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process. The LFCM process, an adaption of commercial glass-making technology, is being developed to convert high-level liquid waste from the nuclear fuel cycle into glass. This safety assessment uncovered no unresolved or significant safety problems with the LFCM process. Although in this assessment the LFCM process was not directly compared with other solidification processes, the safety hazards of the LFCM process are comparable to those of other processes. The high processing temperatures of the glass in the LFCM pose no additional significant safety concerns, and the dispersible inventory of dried waste (calcine) is small. This safety assessment was based on the nuclear power waste flowsheet, since power waste is more radioactive than defense waste at the time of solidification, and all accident conditions for the power waste would have greater radiological consequences than those for defense waste. An exhaustive list of possible off-standard conditions and equipment failures was compiled. These accidents were then classified according to severity of consequence and type of accident. Radionuclide releases to the stack were calculated for each group of accidents using conservative assumptions regarding the retention and decontamination features of the process and facility. Two recommendations that should be considered by process designers are given in the safety assessment.

Buelt, J.L.; Partain, W.L.

1980-08-01

115

Safety of dermal diphoterine application: an active decontamination solution for chemical splash injuries.  

PubMed

Diphoterine (Laboratoire Prevor, Valmondois, France) is an active, amphoteric, polyvalent, chelating, slightly hypertonic decontamination solution for chemical splashes to the skin and eyes. It chemically binds a large number of chemical substances present on the skin surface without causing a significant release of heat (exothermic reactions). Because of its amphoteric properties, it can bind chemically opposite substances such as acids and bases or oxidizers and reducing agents. No adverse effects have been observed in an ongoing postmarketing surveillance program during many years of use in European industrial facilities. Diphoterine has more recently been used in hospitals for delayed management of chemical burns to the skin and eyes. There is interest in having protocols for both immediate and delayed diphoterine use for skin decontamination. Whereas studies of diphoterine efficacy, clinical and in vitro or ex vivo, have been published or are in the process of being prepared for publication, no review has yet been published focusing solely on the safety of this decontamination solution. Therefore, all available studies on the safety of diphoterine are described here, including recent studies demonstrating no harmful effects on the skin. Diphoterine can be used, even on damaged skin, without toxic, irritant, allergenic, or sensitizing effects. PMID:19888884

Hall, Alan H; Cavallini, Maurizio; Mathieu, Laurence; Maibach, Howard I

2009-01-01

116

Process energy of the advanced chemical uranium enrichment process  

SciTech Connect

Process energy of the chemical uranium enrichment process is discussed using the dynamic enrichment factor, avoiding a cluster of commonly used equations that correlate relevant engineering parameters. An advanced process, whose process energy was found to be much smaller than in the original process in both laboratory and bench tests, has been recently developed and applied to a pilot plant. The basic principle underlying the improvement is an inverse redox reaction induced by the increased sorbability of multi-coordinated metal-complex ions onto an ion-exchange resin. The energy requirement for the advanced process will be reduced to <100 kW . h/kg . separative work unit.

Takeda, K.; Onitsuka, H.; Obanawa, H.; Saito, S. (Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., Uranium Enrichment Lab., 1-1 Takeshima, Hyuga-shi 883 (JP))

1988-06-01

117

A Novel Chemical Nitrate Destruction Process  

SciTech Connect

Nitrates represent one of the most significant pollutant discharged to the Baltic Sea by the Sliiamae hydrometallurgical plant. This article contains a brief overview of the existing nitrate destruction technologies followed by the description of a new process developed by the authors. The new chemical process for nitrate destruction is cost effective and simple to operate. It converts the nitrate to nitrogen gas which goes to the atmosphere.

Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.

1999-03-01

118

Chemical process for removing selenium from water  

SciTech Connect

The patent application discusses a chemical process for selectively removing organoselenium compounds and selenate from water supplies. The process utilizes a combination of a transition metal selected from the group consisting of nickel and copper and an electropositive metal selected from the group consisting of magnesium and aluminum to effectively remove selenium whether present in the water as organic or inorganic compounds or in ionic or non-ionic form.

Murphy, A.P.

1990-11-09

119

Synthesis and optimization of integrated chemical processes  

SciTech Connect

This is the final technical report for the project titled ''Synthesis and optimization of integrated chemical processes''. Progress is reported on novel algorithms for the computation of all heteroazeotropic compositions present in complex liquid mixtures; the design of novel flexible azeotropic separation processes using middle vessel batch distillation columns; and theory and algorithms for sensitivity analysis and numerical optimization of hybrid discrete/continuous dynamic systems.

Barton, Paul I.; Evans, Lawrence B.

2002-04-26

120

A graded approach to safety documentation at processing facilities  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has over 40 major Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) in preparation for non-reactor facilities. These facilities include nuclear material production facilities, waste management facilities, support laboratories and environmental remediation facilities. The SARs for these various projects encompass hazard levels from High to Low, and mission times from startup, through operation, to shutdown. All of these efforts are competing for scarce resources, and therefore some mechanism is required for balancing the documentation requirements. Three of the key variables useful for the decision making process are Depth of Safety Analysis, Urgency of Safety Analysis, and Resource Availability. This report discusses safety documentation at processing facilities.

Cowen, M.L.

1992-01-01

121

A graded approach to safety documentation at processing facilities  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has over 40 major Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) in preparation for non-reactor facilities. These facilities include nuclear material production facilities, waste management facilities, support laboratories and environmental remediation facilities. The SARs for these various projects encompass hazard levels from High to Low, and mission times from startup, through operation, to shutdown. All of these efforts are competing for scarce resources, and therefore some mechanism is required for balancing the documentation requirements. Three of the key variables useful for the decision making process are Depth of Safety Analysis, Urgency of Safety Analysis, and Resource Availability. This report discusses safety documentation at processing facilities.

Cowen, M.L.

1992-09-01

122

Chemical engineering applications of electrical process tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical tomographic imaging has been applied to a broad range of chemical engineering processes, including: bubble columns, fluidised beds, pneumatic transport, liquid mixing, cyclonic separation, pressure filtration, liquid pipe-flow, polymerisation, emergency depressurisation, and paste extrusion. Two imaging approaches are described, electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) and electrical impedance tomography (EIT). To date, these have primarily been used as low-cost research tools

H. S. Tapp; A. J. Peyton; E. K. Kemsley; R. H. Wilson

2003-01-01

123

Chemical Processes in Astrophysical Radiation Fields  

SciTech Connect

The effects of stimulated photon emission on chemical processes in a radiation field are considered and their influence on the chemistry of the early universe and other astrophysical environments is investigated. Spontaneous and stimulated radiative attachment rate coefficients for H(-), Li(-) and C(-) are presented.

Stancil, P.C.; Dalgarno, A.

1997-12-31

124

Silicones: unique chemicals of petroleum processing  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the nature of silicones and the physical and chemical properties which make them unique. The relationship of these properties to present and potential applications in the petroleum industry are discussed. Specific emphasis is on their use as foam control agents in petroleum processes. 22 refs.

Pape, P.G.

1981-01-01

125

Safety Methods in Software Process Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even if the application developers produce software in accordance with the customer requirements, they cannot guarantee that the software will behave in a safe way during the lifetime of the software. We define a system as safe if the risks related to its use are judged to be acceptable (1). Safety must not be confused with security which broadly is

Torgrim Lauritsen; Tor Stålhane

2005-01-01

126

Data processing program for calculating laser safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer program which calculates both maximum safe power and safety range when using a laser is presented. The health limits are based on the American National Standard for the safe use of lasers (1976; American National Standards Institute). A complete listing of the program is provided. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find

P. Strandberg; O. Steinvall

1980-01-01

127

Advanced microlithography process with chemical shrink technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) has developed an advanced microlithographic process for producing 0.1 micrometer contact holes (CH). A chemical shrink technology, RELACSTM (Resolution Enhancement Lithography Assisted by Chemical Shrink), utilizes the crosslinking reaction catalyzed by the acid component existing in a predefined resist pattern. This 'RELACSTM' process is a hole shrinking procedure that includes simple coating, baking, and rinse steps applied after conventional photolithography. This paper examines the process parameters affecting shrinkage of CH size. We subsequently evaluated the dependency of CH shrinkage on resist formulation. We conducted investigations of shrink magnitude dependency on each process parameter. (1) Photoresist lithography process: CH size, exposure dose, post development bake temperature. (2) AZR R200 [a product of Clariant (Japan) K.K.] RELACSTM process: Soft bake temperature, film thickness, mixing bake temperature (diffusion bake temperature), etc. We found that the mixing bake condition (diffusion bake temperature) is one of most critical parameters to affect the amount of CH shrink. Additionally, the structural influence of photoacid generators on shrinkage performance was also investigated in both high and low activation energy resist systems. The shrinkage behavior by the photoacid generator of the resist is considered in terms of the structure (molecular volume) of the photogenerated acid and its acidity (pKa). The results of these studies are discussed in terms of base polymer influence on shrinkage performance and tendency. Process impact of the structure and acidity of the photogenerated acid is explored. Though the experimental acetal type KrF positive resist (low activation energy system) can achieve around 0.1 micrometer CH after RELACSTM processing under the optimized condition, the experimental acrylate type positive resist (high activation energy system) showed less shrinkage under the same process condition. The shrinkage performance of RELACSTM process largely depends on the resist chemistry used as the underlying layer. Further, shrinkage degree can be controlled by process optimization even for the high activation energy type photoresist.

Kanda, Takashi; Tanaka, Hatsuyuki; Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Watase, Natsuo; Eakin, Ronald J.; Ishibashi, Takeo; Toyoshima, Toshiyuki; Yasuda, Naoki; Tanaka, Mikihiro

2000-06-01

128

A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

129

Laser spectroscopy for studying chemical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, various methods have been developed to observe and to influence the course of chemical reactions using laser radiation. By selectively increasing the translational, rotational, and vibrational energies and by controlling the relative orientation of the reaction partners with tunable infrared and UV lasers, direct insight can be gained into the molecular course of the breaking and re-forming of chemical bonds. As exmaples for the application of lasers in chemical synthesis the production of monomers and catalysts is discussed. The application of linear and nonlinear laser spectroscopic methods, such as laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS), infrared-absorption measurements with tunable diode and molecular lasers is described for non-intrusive observation of the interaction of transport processes with chemical reactions used in industrial processes with high temporal, spectral and spatial resolution. Finally the application of a UV laser microbeam apparatus in genetic engineering for laser-induced cell fusion, genetic transformation of plant cells as well as diagnosis of human diseases by laser-microdissection of chromosomes is described.

Wolfrum, J.

1988-07-01

130

Fluidic microchemomechanical integrated circuits processing chemical information.  

PubMed

Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technology has blossomed into a major new technology fundamentally influencing the sciences of life and nature. From a systemic point of view however, microfluidics is still in its infancy. Here, we present the concept of a microfluidic central processing unit (CPU) which shows remarkable similarities to early electronic Von Neumann microprocessors. It combines both control and execution units and, moreover, the complete power supply on a single chip and introduces the decision-making ability regarding chemical information into fluidic integrated circuits (ICs). As a consequence of this system concept, the ICs process chemical information completely in a self-controlled manner and energetically self-sustaining. The ICs are fabricated by layer-by-layer deposition of several overlapping layers based on different intrinsically active polymers. As examples we present two microchips carrying out long-term monitoring of critical parameters by around-the-clock sampling. PMID:23038405

Greiner, Rinaldo; Allerdissen, Merle; Voigt, Andreas; Richter, Andreas

2012-12-01

131

Solar chemical process for sludge treatment  

SciTech Connect

A solar chemical process for converting sewer sludge from a gelatinous mass into a manageable product suitable for fertilizer includes the manufacture of a carbonaceous product by treating cellulose waste such as newspaper with sulfuric acid and heating the mixture until the cellulose product becomes substantially black. The black product is mixed with sludge in a ratio to produce a grainy product that can be chlorinated for sterility and spread as fertilizer. In a modified version of the process, coal ash is added to the sludge with the carbonaceous product for its nutrient value, and sand may be added with the coal ash to aid in aeration of the soil.

Boyko, M.

1980-03-04

132

Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) Reactor Evaluation Study: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of an independent study by United Engineers and Constructors (UNITED) of the SECURE-P Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) Reactor Concept which is presently under development by the Swedish light water reactor vendor A...

1987-01-01

133

VULCAN: A Vulnerability Calculation Method for Process Safety Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microprocessors are increasingly replacing electromechanical relays in safety systems in the process industry. A new method for VULnerability Calculation (VULCAN) is presented which may serve as a tool for identification of cost-effective configurations a...

L. Bodsberg

1993-01-01

134

Agglomeration of pharmaceutical, detergent, chemical and food powders — Similarities and differences of materials and processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product developers tend to make a distinction between different types of agglomerated powders depending on whether they are produced by the pharmaceutical, detergent, chemical or food industry. This is perfectly valid for the hygiene, quality, safety or economical aspects of processes and products. However, from a process engineering point of view a different classification is needed in order to identify

St. Palzer

2011-01-01

135

Development of a polysilicon process based on chemical vapor deposition, phase 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a dichlorosilane-based reductive chemical vapor deposition process for the production of polycrystalline silicon is discussed. Experimental data indicate that the ease of ignition and explosion severity of dichlorosilane (DCS)\\/air mixtures is substantially attenuated if the DCS is diluted with hydrogen. Redesign of the process development unit to accommodate safety related information is described. Several different sources of

J. McCormick; K. Sharp; A. Arvidson; D. Sawyer

1981-01-01

136

Economic-Oriented Stochastic Optimization in Advanced Process Control of Chemical Processes  

PubMed Central

Finding the optimal operating region of chemical processes is an inevitable step toward improving economic performance. Usually the optimal operating region is situated close to process constraints related to product quality or process safety requirements. Higher profit can be realized only by assuring a relatively low frequency of violation of these constraints. A multilevel stochastic optimization framework is proposed to determine the optimal setpoint values of control loops with respect to predetermined risk levels, uncertainties, and costs of violation of process constraints. The proposed framework is realized as direct search-type optimization of Monte-Carlo simulation of the controlled process. The concept is illustrated throughout by a well-known benchmark problem related to the control of a linear dynamical system and the model predictive control of a more complex nonlinear polymerization process.

Dobos, Laszlo; Kiraly, Andras; Abonyi, Janos

2012-01-01

137

Safety assessment of the tape processing facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An assessment of specific processes performed in the Mound tape processing facility was done to determine the potential risk to the operator. A fault tree methodology was used, with quantitative aspects obtained from risk matrices and histograms derived f...

P. W. Seabaugh M. D. Prisc C. D. Barklay

1991-01-01

138

SAFETY EVALUATION OF RENOVATED WASTEWATER FROM A POULTRY PROCESSING PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

A three-phase evaluation of reclaimed process wastewater for reuse was undertaken at the Sterling Processing Corporation plant in Oakland, Maryland. The main objective was to evaluate the safety for human consumption of poultry exposed during processing to an average 50 percent m...

139

Use of process hazard analysis to control chemical process hazards  

SciTech Connect

One objective of this project was to demonstrate how the PrHA could satisfy OSHA`s requirements. OSHA requires that the PrHA address: the hazards of the process; the identification of any previous incident which had a likely potential for catastrophic consequences in the workplace; engineering and administrative controls applicable to the hazards and their interrelationships; consequences of failure of engineering and administrative controls; facility siting; human factors; and a qualitative evaluation of a range of the possible safety and health effects of failure of controls on employees in the workplace. In addition, OSHA requires that the PrHA must be conducted by a team with at least one member having expertise in engineering and process operations, one having experience and knowledge specific to the process being evaluated, and a team leader knowledgeable in the specific PrHA methodology being used.

Piatt, J.A.

1994-07-01

140

Scope on Safety: Chemical tracking systems--not your usual global positioning system!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The haphazard storing and tracking of chemicals in the laboratory is a serious safety issue facing science teachers. To get control of your chemicals, try implementing a chemical tracking system. A chemical tracking system (CTS) is a database of chemicals used in the laboratory. If implemented correctly, a CTS will reduce purchasing costs, eliminate overstocking, and reduce disposal costs. It will also allow you to respond more effectively to accidents, fires, and other hazardous situations.

Roy, Ken

2007-04-01

141

Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process Application in Safety Risk Management of Aviation Maintenance Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aviation accidents caused by maintenance errors have increased year after year. It is necessary to carry out the safety risk management during the aviation maintenance process. There are a lot of uncertainty factors in the process of safety risk management. The research in this paper focuses on formulating a fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (Fuzzy AHP) to solve it. The priority

Wang Yanqing; Liu Xueyan

2010-01-01

142

Assessing Chemical Retention Process Controls in Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small ponds are a ubiquitous component of the landscape and have earned a reputation as effective chemical retention devices. The most common characterization of pond chemical retention is the retention coefficient, Ri= ([Ci]inflow-[Ci] outflow)/[Ci]inflow. However, this parameter varies widely in one pond with time and among ponds. We have re-evaluated literature reported (Borden et al., 1998) monthly average retention coefficients for two ponds in North Carolina. Employing a simple first order model that includes water residence time, the first order process responsible for species removal have been separated from the water residence time over which it acts. Assuming the rate constant for species removal is constant within the pond (arguable at least), the annual average rate constant for species removal is generated. Using the annual mean rate constant for species removal and monthly water residence times results in a significantly enhanced predictive capability for Davis Pond during most months of the year. Predictive ability remains poor in Davis Pond during winter/unstratified periods when internal loading of P and N results in low to negative chemical retention. Predictive ability for Piedmont Pond (which has numerous negative chemical retention periods) is improved but not to the same extent as Davis Pond. In Davis Pond, the rate constant for sediment removal (each month) is faster than the rate constant for water and explains the good predictability for sediment retention. However, the removal rate constant for P and N is slower than the removal rate constant for sediment (longer water column residence time for P,N than for sediment). Thus sedimentation is not an overall control on nutrient retention. Additionally, the removal rate constant for P is slower than for TOC (TOC is not the dominate removal process for P) and N is removed slower than P (different in pond controls). For Piedmont Pond, sediment removal rate constants are slower than the removal rate constant for water indicating significant sediment resuspension episodes. It appears that these sediment resuspension events are aperiodic and control the loading and the chemical retention capability of Piedmont Pond for N,P,TOC. These calculated rate constants reflect the differing internal loading processes for each component and suggest means and mechanisms for the use of ponds in water quality management.

Torgersen, T.; Branco, B.; John, B.

2002-05-01

143

Solar production of industrial process steam in chemical process industries  

SciTech Connect

The solar system consists of 950 square meters of Del single-axis, tracking, parabolic-trough, concentrating collectors. It was designed to produce a portion of the 420/degree/-530/degree/K steam utilized in a drying operation to reduce the moisture content of hectorite ore from 10 percent to 4 percent. (Hectorite is a hydrous magnesium silicate which, when refined, is of significant commercial interest because of its applications in various chemical and food processes). It is estimated that implementation of this solar system could result in an annual savings of 3.545 billion KJ (3.360 billion Btus), of the equivalent of 90 cubic meters (600 barrels) of oil and a net reduction of 1,860 kilograms (4100 pounds) of air pollutants annually. The technical, economic and institutional issues encountered in the course of this project are also discussed. The impact of the commercialization of solar energy applications in chemical processing industries is evaluated. 5 refs.

Sundaram, S.; Eldridge, B.G.

1981-01-01

144

DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY EFFICIENT CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. Process emissio...

145

Safety Assurance Process for FRMS: eJcase Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chapter 6: Safety Assurance Process for FRMS - eJcase Implementation\\u000a\\u000aThe European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowledge and methodology to address key challenges for aviation (current and future) including a performance based approach for safety

S. Stewart; F. Koornneef; R. Akselsson; P. Barton

2009-01-01

146

Introducing Proper Chemical Hygiene and Safety in the General Chemistry Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical safety is an important component of science education for everyone, not just for chemistry majors. Developing a responsible and knowledgeable attitude towards chemical safety best starts at the early stages of a student's career. In many colleges and universities, safety education in undergraduate chemistry has been relegated primarily to a few regulatory documents at the beginning of a laboratory course, or an occasional warning in the description of a specific experiment in a prelaboratory lecture. Safety issues are seldom raised in general chemistry or organic chemistry lecture-based chemistry courses. At Iowa State University we have begun to implement a program, Chemical Hygiene and Safety in the Laboratory, into the undergraduate chemistry curriculum. This program is designed to increase the awareness and knowledge of proper chemical hygiene and laboratory safety issues among all students taking general chemistry and organic chemistry courses. Laboratory protocol, use of safety equipment, familiarity with MSD sheets, basics of first aid, some specific terminology surrounding chemical hygiene, EPA and OSHA requirements, and the use of the World Wide Web to search and locate chemical safety information are topics that are applied throughout the chemistry curriculum. The novelty of this approach is to incorporate MSD sheets and safety information that can be located on the World Wide Web in a series of safety problems and assignments, all related to the chemistry experiments students are about to perform. The fundamental idea of our approach is not only to teach students what is required for appropriate safety measures, but also to involve them in the enforcement of basic prudent practices.

Miller, Gordon J.; Heideman, Stephen A.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

2000-09-01

147

A statistical approach for evaluating inherent benign-ness of chemical process routes in early design stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice of chemical process routes is one of the key decisions in the early design stages. An “inherently safer” route will help eliminate many hazards as well as obviate many risk control devices. Many inherent safety indices have been proposed to quantify hazards, health and environmental impact of a chemical process route. These indices measure a route's inherent benign-ness

Rajagopalan Srinivasan; Nguyen Trong Nhan

2008-01-01

148

Demystifying the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Inspection Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

•BEING PREPARED FOR an Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspection can save a facility money, as well as potentially protect employees from serious illness or injury.•THIS ARTICLE EXPLAINS the OSHA inspection process, types of violations that may be cited, and the appeals process for employers and employees.•ACTUAL CITATIONS GIVEN in four recent OSHA health care facility inspections are discussed

Lowell L. Price; Terri Goodman

2006-01-01

149

Demystifying the Occupational Safety and Health Administration inspection process  

Microsoft Academic Search

•BEING PREPARED FOR an Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspection can save a facility money, as well as potentially protect employees from serious illness or injury.•THIS ARTICLE EXPLAINS the OSHA inspection process, types of violations that may be cited, and the appeals process for employers and employees.•ACTUAL CITATIONS GIVEN in four recent OSHA health care facility inspections are discussed

Lowell L. Price; Terri Goodman

2006-01-01

150

Novel food processing innovations to improve food safety and health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Innovative food processing can be used to improve safety of specialty crops and their co-products, while improving sustainability of agricultural and food processing operations and enhancing overall nutritional quality of foods for both domestic and international consumers. The potential of various...

151

Safety of High Explosives Comminution Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The explosives which are of interest include HMX, RDX, TATB, NQ, TNT, PETN and HNS and mixtures of these materials. These explosives are subjected to a variety of milling processes on the experimental and pilot plant scale. The quantities involved range f...

R. Applin

1982-01-01

152

Increasing process safety using analytical redundancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper integrates demands for safe processing and fault detection techniques. An early detection of the fault occurrence is vitally important since it contributes to avoidance of product deterioration, performance degradation, major damages to the machinery itself and damages to human health or even loss of lives. Some fault detection methods using analytical redundancy are described and principles are outlined

Stojan Per’; Boris Tovornik; Drago Valh

2002-01-01

153

Scope on Safety: Yes, you need a Chemical Hygiene Officer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chemical Hygiene Officer's (CHO) role is absolutely critical in fostering and ensuring both chemical hygiene practices and the chemical hygiene plan. OSHA defines the Chemical Hygiene Officer as an "employee who is designated by the employer, and who is qualified by training or experience, to provide technical guidance in the development and implementation of the provisions of the Chemical Hygiene Plan." The CHO position is also essential in helping to facilitate the safeguards put in place as part of the chemical hygiene plan to protect both the teacher and students.

Roy, Ken

2009-04-01

154

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Impressions of Safety in Universities in the United States of America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a report on a study done in 1976 of safety arrangements and procedures in teaching, research, and medical establishments in the United States. The results show that the Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA) has not yet had much impact as far as safety in teaching and research is concerned. (BB)

Bush, Dick; Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.

1979-01-01

155

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Impressions of Safety in Universities in the United States of America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is a report on a study done in 1976 of safety arrangements and procedures in teaching, research, and medical establishments in the United States. The results show that the Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA) has not yet had much impact as far as safety in teaching and research is concerned. (BB)|

Bush, Dick; Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.

1979-01-01

156

The Acquisition and Application of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Data in Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessments  

SciTech Connect

The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) formed the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee in the year 2000 to design a toxicity testing scheme that would incorporate current understanding of pesticide toxicology and exposure and recognize the specificity of agricultural products. The purpose of and background for the ACSA project are described in detail in the companion paper by Carmichael et al. (2006). As the proposed tiered testing approach for agricultural chemical safety assessment evolved, the ACSA Technical Committee and its task forces (Carmichael et al., 2006; Cooper et al., 2006; Doe et al., 2006) worked toward the following objectives: (1) Provide information that can be applied to a range of relevant human exposure situations. (2) Characterize effects that have the potential to damage human health at exposure levels approximating those that might be encountered in the use of these compounds. (3) Avoid high doses that cause unnecessary public concern (e.g., safety assessments should focus on doses that are relevant to realistic human exposures while maintaining adequate power for the experimental studies to detect toxicity). (4) Use the minimum number of animals necessary to produce a thorough safety assessment of the chemicals of interest. (5) Inflict the minimum amount of distress on animals. (6) Minimize excessive and unnecessary use of resources by regulatory authorities and industry, which could be used to address other issues of concern. (7) Increase both the efficiency and relevance of the current safety assessment process.

Barton, H. A.; Pastoor, Timothy P.; Baetcke, Karl; Chambers, Janice E.; Diliberto, Janet; Doerrer, Nancy G.; Driver, Jeffrey H.; Hastings, Charles E.; Iyengar, Seshadri; Krieger, Robert; Stahl, Bernhard; Timchalk, Chuck

2006-01-01

157

Odor processing in multiple chemical sensitivity.  

PubMed

Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is characterized by somatic distress upon exposure to odors. As in other idiopathic environmental intolerances, the mechanisms behind the reported hypersensitivity are unknown. Using the advantage of the well-defined trigger (odor), we investigated whether subjects with MCS could have an increased odor-signal response in the odor-processing neuronal circuits. Positron emission tomography (PET) activation studies with several different odorants were carried out in 12 MCS females and 12 female controls. Activation was defined as a significant increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during smelling of the respective odorant compared to smelling of odorless air. The study also included online measurements of respiratory frequency and amplitude and heart rate variations by recording of R wave intervals (RR) on the surface electrocardiogram. The MCS subjects activated odor-processing brain regions less than controls, despite the reported, and physiologically indicated (decreased RR interval) distress. In parallel, they showed an odorant-related increase in activation of the anterior cingulate cortex and cuneus-precuneus. Notably, the baseline rCBF was normal. Thus, the abnormal patterns were observed only in response to odor signals. Subjects with MCS process odors differently from controls, however, without signs of neuronal sensitization. One possible explanation for the observed pattern of activation in MCS is a top-down regulation of odor-response via cingulate cortex. PMID:16767766

Hillert, Lena; Musabasic, Vildana; Berglund, Hans; Ciumas, Carolina; Savic, Ivanka

2007-03-01

158

Life cycle costs for chemical process pumps  

SciTech Connect

Though construction and startup costs are always a concern, proper investment in equipment and installation will save money down the line. This is particularly important for heavily used items, such as centrifugal pumps, one of the workhouses of the chemical process industries (CPI). By properly sizing and installing a centrifugal pump, the life and efficiency of the pump can be increased. At the same time, maintenance costs can be reduced. When considering a new pump, there are several areas that require attention. The first is the baseplate design. The impeller is another area of concern. The seal chamber, the third area of importance, must be designed for proper heat dissipation and lubrication of seal faces. Lastly, the power end must be considered. Optimum bearing life, effective oil cooling and minimum shaft deflection are all vital. The paper discusses installation costs, operating cost, maintenance cost, seal environment, and extended bearing life.

Urwin, B.; Blong, R.; Jamieson, C.; Erickson, B. [Goulds Pumps, Seneca Falls, NY (United States)

1998-01-01

159

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant failure rate database  

SciTech Connect

This report represents the first major upgrade to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Failure Rate Database. This upgrade incorporates additional site-specific and generic data while improving on the previous data reduction techniques. In addition, due to a change in mission at the ICPP, the status of certain equipment items has changed from operating to standby or off-line. A discussion of how this mission change influenced the relevance of failure data also has been included. This report contains two data sources: the ICPP Failure Rate Database and a generic failure rate database. A discussion is presented on the approaches and assumptions used to develop the data in the ICPP Failure Rate Database. The generic database is included along with a short discussion of its application. A brief discussion of future projects recommended to strengthen and lend credibility to the ICPP Failure Rate Database also is included.

Alber, T.G.; Hunt, C.R.; Fogarty, S.P.; Wilson, J.R.

1995-08-01

160

[Water quality safety of ozonation and biologically activated carbon process in application].  

PubMed

Ozonation and biologically activated carbon process, one of advanced treatment technologies, has been applied in many places at home and abroad. However, some emerging water quality problems appeared in operation. Drinking water treatment plant (6 x 10(5) m3/d) with ozonation and biologically activated carbon process (O3-BAC process) was investigated systematically, including microbial safety, the excessive growth of aquatic microorganism and chemical stability of water quality. And some experiments were done in the pilot plant (10 m3/h) at the same time. O3-BAC process is reliable in microbial safety, but operation management should be enhanced. A good number of aquatic microorganisms grow immoderately during operation of O3-BAC process, which is more serious especially in place with high temperature and humidity. With prolong of runtime, the growth of aquatic microorganisms varies regularly. That is hazardous to water quality safety. When raw water is low with alkalinity, decrease of pH in O3-BAC process is obvious. That will seriously affect on chemical stability. PMID:20063746

Qiao, Tie-Jun; Zhang, Xi-Hui

2009-11-01

161

Foundations for Excellence in the Chemical Process Industries. Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document discusses the Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers Project and issues of relevance to the education and employment of chemical laboratory technicians (CLTs) and process technicians (PTs). Section 1 consists of the following background information: overview of the chemical process industries,…

Hofstader, Robert; Chapman, Kenneth

162

49 CFR 1106.4 - The Safety Integration Plan process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTROL Ā§ 1106.4 The Safety Integration Plan process. (a...environmental documentation within the time limits prescribed by SEA...proposed SIP received during the time established for submitting...Board when, in its view, the integration of the applicants'...

2009-10-01

163

49 CFR 1106.4 - The Safety Integration Plan process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTROL Ā§ 1106.4 The Safety Integration Plan process. (a...environmental documentation within the time limits prescribed by SEA...proposed SIP received during the time established for submitting...Board when, in its view, the integration of the applicants'...

2010-10-01

164

Material processing and safety aspects of the femtosecond laser technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. At present, applications of ultrashort pulse lasers in the femtosecond pulse length are leaving the laboratories. In the near future, they will be increasingly put to use in several industrial fields of laser material processing, micro-system technology, medical technology, and others. To investigate beam material interactions especially with safety equipment, and to provide knowledge for technical

H. Haferkamp; A. Ostendorf; M. Goede; J. Bunte

2000-01-01

165

Assuring the Safety of Chemicals through Improved Exposure Science  

EPA Science Inventory

Thousands of chemicals are currently in commercial use and hundreds more are introduced each year. Of these, only a small fraction has been assessed adequately for potential risks. Existing chemical testing and exposure measurement protocols are expensive and time consuming. Fu...

166

Margins of Safety Provided by COSHH Essentials and the ILO Chemical Control Toolkit  

Microsoft Academic Search

COSHH Essentials, developed by the UK Health and Safety Executive, and the Chemical Control Toolkit (Toolkit) proposed by the International Labor Organization, are 'control banding' approaches to workplace risk management intended for use by proprietors of small and medium-sized businesses. Both systems group chemical substances into hazard bands based on toxicological endpoint and potency. COSSH Essentials uses the European Union's

RACHAEL M. JONES; MARK NICAS

2006-01-01

167

An intelligent approach to conceptual design automation of chemical processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present the problem definitions, methodologies, and implementation of conceptual design automation of chemical processes. The problems and difficulties existing in conceptual design automation of chemical processes are first identified. Then, a general problem-solving strategy and control structure of the software is proposed. The authors describe an integrated distributed intelligent system (Meta-COOP) to accomplish the conceptual design of chemical

Murray Stevenson; Qun Wang; Ming Rao

1993-01-01

168

Chemical food safety, public awareness and risk communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice of subject for a credit paper to pass a university course in food toxicology was analysed as a measure of the curiosity towards different topics. The investigation covers 575 students over 28 years. The choices were analysed against investigations on food safety concerns, the development in the period, the official risk communication campaigns and media detailed scandals. Food

Leon Brimer

2004-01-01

169

The Implementation and Maintenance of a Behavioral Safety Process in a Petroleum Refinery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A values-centered and team-based behavioral safety process was implemented in a petroleum oil refinery. Employee teams defined the refinery's safety values and related practices, which were used to guide the process design and implementation. The process included (a) a safety assessment; (b) the clarification of safety-related values and related…

Myers, Wanda V.; McSween, Terry E.; Medina, Rixio E.; Rost, Kristen; Alvero, Alicia M.

2010-01-01

170

ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES (AOP'S FOR THE TREATMENT OF CCL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Research on treatment of Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) chemicals is being conducted. Specific groups of contaminants on the CCL will be evaluated using numerous advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Initially, these CCL contaminants will be evaluated in groups based on chemical...

171

Applying the Extended Parallel Process Model to workplace safety messages.  

PubMed

The extended parallel process model (EPPM) proposes fear appeals are most effective when they combine threat and efficacy. Three studies conducted in the workplace safety context examine the use of various EPPM factors and their effects, especially multiplicative effects. Study 1 was a content analysis examining the use of EPPM factors in actual workplace safety messages. Study 2 experimentally tested these messages with 212 construction trainees. Study 3 replicated this experiment with 1,802 men across four English-speaking countries-Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The results of these three studies (1) demonstrate the inconsistent use of EPPM components in real-world work safety communications, (2) support the necessity of self-efficacy for the effective use of threat, (3) show a multiplicative effect where communication effectiveness is maximized when all model components are present (severity, susceptibility, and efficacy), and (4) validate these findings with gory appeals across four English-speaking countries. PMID:23330856

Basil, Michael; Basil, Debra; Deshpande, Sameer; Lavack, Anne M

2013-01-01

172

A system safety approach to the FAA surveillance process  

SciTech Connect

As commercial air travel grows in terms of the number of passenger miles flown, there is expected to be a corresponding dramatic increase in the absolute number of accidents. This despite an enviable safety record and a very low accident rate. The political environment is such that an increase in the absolute number of accidents is not acceptable, with a stated goal of a factor of five reduction in the aviation fatal accident rate within ten years. The objective of this project is to develop an improved surveillance process that will provide measurements of the current state-of-health and predictions of future state of health of aircraft, operators, facilities, and personnel. Methodologies developed for nuclear weapon safety, in addition to more well known system safety and high-consequence engineering techniques, will be used in this approach.

Werner, P.W.; Olson, D.R.

1997-08-08

173

Chemical kinetics models for semiconductor processing  

SciTech Connect

Chemical reactions in the gas-phase and on surfaces are important in the deposition and etching of materials for microelectronic applications. A general software framework for describing homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction kinetics utilizing the Chemkin suite of codes is presented. Experimental, theoretical and modeling approaches to developing chemical reaction mechanisms are discussed. A number of TCAD application modules for simulating the chemically reacting flow in deposition and etching reactors have been developed and are also described.

Coltrin, M.E.; Creighton, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meeks, E.; Grcar, J.F.; Houf, W.G. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Kee, R.J. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

1997-12-31

174

Process hazards analysis (PrHA) program, bridging accident analyses and operational safety  

SciTech Connect

Recently the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 55 (TA-55) was revised and submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE). As a part of this effort, over seventy Process Hazards Analyses (PrHAs) were written and/or revised over the six years prior to the FSAR revision. TA-55 is a research, development, and production nuclear facility that primarily supports US. defense and space programs. Nuclear fuels and material research; material recovery, refining and analyses; and the casting, machining and fabrication of plutonium components are some of the activities conducted at TA-35. These operations involve a wide variety of industrial, chemical and nuclear hazards. Operational personnel along with safety analysts work as a team to prepare the PrHA. PrHAs describe the process; identi fy the hazards; and analyze hazards including determining hazard scenarios, their likelihood, and consequences. In addition, the interaction of the process to facility systems, structures and operational specific protective features are part of the PrHA. This information is rolled-up to determine bounding accidents and mitigating systems and structures. Further detailed accident analysis is performed for the bounding accidents and included in the FSAR. The FSAR is part of the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) that defines the safety envelope for all facility operations in order to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. The DSA is in compliance with the US. Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management and is approved by DOE. The DSA sets forth the bounding conditions necessary for the safe operation for the facility and is essentially a 'license to operate.' Safely of day-to-day operations is based on Hazard Control Plans (HCPs). Hazards are initially identified in the PrI-IA for the specific operation and act as input to the HCP. Specific protective features important to worker safety are incorporated so the worker can readily identify the safety parameters of the their work. System safety tools such as Preliminary Hazard Analysis, What-If Analysis, Hazard and Operability Analysis as well as other techniques as necessary provide the groundwork for both determining bounding conditions for facility safety, operational safety, and day-to-clay worker safety.

Richardson, J. A. (Jeanne A.); McKernan, S. A. (Stuart A.); Vigil, M. J. (Michael J.)

2003-01-01

175

The Process of Setting Safety Standards in the Courts, Congress, and Administrative Agencies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article explores some of the federal safety standards in several different areas. The key factors that enter into the process of creating safety standards are discussed and compared with factors considered in common law concepts of safety. The problem...

M. J. Wollan

1968-01-01

176

Speleothems as Examples of Chemical Equilibrium Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chemical formation of speleothems such as stalactites and stalagmites is poorly understood by introductory geology instructors and misrepresented in most textbooks. Although evaporation may be a controlling factor in some caves, it is necessary to consider chemical precipitation as more important in controlling the diagenesis of calcium…

Wilson, James R.

1984-01-01

177

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Product Denitrator Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The upgrade and redesign of a fluidized-bed denitrator for production of uranium trioxide from uranyl nitrate solution is discussed. The success of the project in improving process efficiency and personnel safety is also addressed based on subsequent operation.

N /A

1982-05-01

178

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Synthesis-Laboratory Fumehoods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described is a procedure by which the performance of chemical hoods can be tested. This procedure uses a mixture of dry ice and water to create a "smoke" for use in the test. Implications for sash design, performance evaluations and testing under standard and nonstandard conditions are discussed. (CW)|

Adams, John B., Jr.

1989-01-01

179

Chemical Process Simulation on Parallel Computers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors have developed a core code to model the cylindrical polar and Cartesian incompressible turbulent Navier-Stokes equations with application to chemical reactor problems. A conventional co-located finite volume method is used to discretise the co...

R. J. Blake D. R. Emerson

1998-01-01

180

Silicones: unique chemicals for petroleum processing  

SciTech Connect

Silicones are specialty chemicals that are often critical in certain production operations. Their primary use in petroleum applications is as foam control agents. The physical and chemical properties of silicones are described, and foam and antifoam theory is discussed. State-of-the-art silicone use in selected key petroleum applications is outlined. The unique properties of silicones that should be considered by petroleum engineers in solving problems in other types of applications are emphasized.

Pape, P.G.

1983-06-01

181

EVALUATING AND DESIGNING CHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemicals and chemical processes are at the heart of most environmental problems. This isn't surprising since chemicals make up all of the products we use in our lives. The common use of cjhemicals makes them of high interest for systems analysis, particularly because of environ...

182

Safety Evaluation for Hull Waste Treatment Process in JNC  

SciTech Connect

Hull wastes and some scrapped equipment are typical radioactive wastes generated from reprocessing process in Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). Because hulls are the wastes remained in the fuel shearing and dissolution, they contain high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started the project of Hull Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF) to treat these solid wastes using compaction and incineration methods since 1993. It is said that Zircaloy fines generated from compaction process might burn and explode intensely. Therefore explosive conditions of the fines generated in compaction process were measured. As these results, it was concluded that the fines generated from the compaction process were not hazardous material. This paper describes the outline of the treatment process of hulls and results of safety evaluation.

Kojima, H.; Kurakata, K.

2002-02-26

183

Laboratory conditions and safety in a chemical warfare agent analysis and research laboratory.  

PubMed

Toxic chemicals have been used as weapons of war and also as means of terrorist attacks on civilian populations. Research focusing on chemical warfare agents (CWAs) may be associated with an increased risk of exposure to and contamination by these agents. This article summarizes some of the regulations concerning designation and safety in a CWA analysis and research laboratory and medical countermeasures in case of an accidental exposure. The design of such a laboratory, coupled with a set of safety guidelines, provides for the safe conduct of research and studies involving CWAs. Thus, a discussion of decontamination and protection means against CWAs is also presented. PMID:12188231

Kenar, Levent; Karayilano?lu, Turan; Kose, Songul

2002-08-01

184

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Tested Disposal Methods for Chemical Wastes from Academic Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes procedures for disposing of dichromate cleaning solution, picric acid, organic azides, oxalic acid, chemical spills, and hydroperoxides in ethers and alkenes. These methods have been tested under laboratory conditions and are specific for individual chemicals rather than for groups of chemicals. (JN)

Armour, M. A.; And Others

1985-01-01

185

Program Prepares Students for Chemical-Processing Careers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a chemical-processing program at Saginaw Career Complex in Saginaw, Michigan. The program is preparing 42 11th- and 12th-graders to work as chemical-processing operators or technicians by the time they graduate from high school. It was developed in partnership with the Saginaw Career Complex--one of 51 centers in the state…

Jorgensen, Haley

2005-01-01

186

The chromatographic uranium enrichment process by Asahi chemical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel uranium absorbents and catalysts for accelerating the electronexchange reaction between uranous and uranyl ions, as well as other technical developments since 1972, have drastically improved the basis of the chemical exchange process. A unit of a few packed towers is the basic enrichment module for the Asahi Chemical Enrichment Process. A stationary concentration profile of uranium isotopes is formed

S. Maomi; T. Hunihiko; M. Tetsuya

1982-01-01

187

Task Group report to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health on oversight of chemical safety at the Department of Energy. Volume 2, Appendices  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a preliminary review of chemical safety within the Department of Energy (DOE). The review was conducted by Chemical Safety Oversight Review (CSOR) Teams composed of Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) staff members and contractors. The primary objective of the CSOR was to assess, the safety status of DOE chemical operations and identify any significant deficiencies associated with such operations. Significant was defined as any situation posing unacceptable risk, that is, imminent danger or threat to workers, co-located workers, the general public, or the environment, that requires prompt action by EH or the line organizations. A secondary objective of the CSOR was to gather and analyze technical and programmatic information related to chemical safety to be used in conjunction with the longer-range EH Workplace Chemical Accident Risk Review (WCARR) Program. The WCARR Program is part of the ongoing EH oversight of nonnuclear safety at all DOE facilities. `` The program objective is to analyze DOE and industry chemical safety programs and performance and determine the need for additional or improved safety guidance for DOE. During the period June 6, 1992, through July 31, 1992, EH conducted CSORs at five DOE sites. The sites visited were Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Savannah River Site (SRS), the Y-12 Plant (Y-12), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

Not Available

1992-11-01

188

Chemical and electrochemical basis of bioleaching processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioleaching of sulfide minerals involves electrochemical and chemical reactions of the mineral with the leach liquor and the extra-cellular polysaccharide layers on the microorganisms. The microorganisms derive energy by oxidising the sulfur moiety and ferrous iron, which can be interpreted using electrochemistry and chemiosmotic theory. Recently, significant advances have been made in understanding the mechanism by which the bioleaching

G. S Hansford; T Vargas

2001-01-01

189

A framework for chemical plant safety assessment under uncertainty.  

SciTech Connect

We construct a framework for assessing the risk that the uncertainty in the plant feed and physical parameters may mask the loss of a reaction product. To model the plant, we use a nonlinear, quasi-steady-state model with stochastic input and parameters. We compute the probability that more than a certain product amount is diverted, given the statistics of the uncertainty in the plant feed, in the values of the chemical parameters, and in the output measurement. The uncertainty in the physical parameters is based on the one provided by the recently developed concept of thermochemical tables. We use Monte Carlo methods to compute the probabilities, based on a Cauchy-theorem-like approach to avoid making anything but the safest asymptotic assumptions, as well as to avoid the excessive noise in the region of low-probability events.

Zeng, X.; Anitescu, M.; Pereira, C.; Regalbuto, M.

2009-03-01

190

Evaluation on the Safety of Chemical Industrial Parks Based on Membership Degree Transformation New Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The core of fuzzy evaluation on the safety of chemical industrial park is membership degree transformation. But the transformation methods should be questioned, because redundant data in index membership degree is also used to compute object membership degree, which is not useful for object classification. The new algorithm is: using data mining technology based on entropy to mine knowledge information

Kai-di Liu; Jin Wang; Jun-hu Ruan

2009-01-01

191

Chemical safety of conventionally and organically produced foodstuffs: a tentative comparison under Belgian conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper goes through the chemical risks able to affect the organic and the conventional agro-food products. For each type of contaminant a tentative assessment has been made in considering not only the levels of exposure but also the toxicological data when available. When comparing both production systems with regards to food safety, it appears that, for the well-known toxicants

Luc Pussemier; Yvan Larondelle; Carlos Van Peteghem

192

Animal Use in the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals: Harmonization and Emerging Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is provided of the legal framework in Europe for the use of experimental animals set by European Union (EU) Directive 86\\/609\\/EEC and of the activities of EU member states to implement this directive for regulatory testing in animals. The use of animal data in the safety assessment of chemicals by services of the EU Commission and by EU

Horst Spielmann

193

Efficiency of chemical process development increased by computerized control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

New chemical processes are developed at a $12 million research facility operated by Halcon SD in Montvale, NJ. Since its founding in 1946, Halcon SD has contributed an estimated one-fourth of the petrochemical industry's major process discoveries. Included are Halcon's ethylene oxide process, a terephthalic acid process sold to Standard Oil of Indiana, and many other patented technologies for producing

B. Palmer; J. Powers

1984-01-01

194

A Process-Integrated Conceptual Design Environment for Chemical Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process industries (chemicals, food, oil, ...) are characterized by - - continuous or batch -- processes of material transformation. The design of such processes, and their mapping to the available equipment (plants composed of production units in which reactions take place), is a complex process that determines the competitiveness of these industries, as well as their environ- mental impact.

Matthias Jarke; Thomas List; Klaus Weidenhaupt

1999-01-01

195

Chemical Sensing for Buried Landmines - Fundamental Processes Influencing Trace Chemical Detection  

SciTech Connect

Mine detection dogs have a demonstrated capability to locate hidden objects by trace chemical detection. Because of this capability, demining activities frequently employ mine detection dogs to locate individual buried landmines or for area reduction. The conditions appropriate for use of mine detection dogs are only beginning to emerge through diligent research that combines dog selection/training, the environmental conditions that impact landmine signature chemical vapors, and vapor sensing performance capability and reliability. This report seeks to address the fundamental soil-chemical interactions, driven by local weather history, that influence the availability of chemical for trace chemical detection. The processes evaluated include: landmine chemical emissions to the soil, chemical distribution in soils, chemical degradation in soils, and weather and chemical transport in soils. Simulation modeling is presented as a method to evaluate the complex interdependencies among these various processes and to establish conditions appropriate for trace chemical detection. Results from chemical analyses on soil samples obtained adjacent to landmines are presented and demonstrate the ultra-trace nature of these residues. Lastly, initial measurements of the vapor sensing performance of mine detection dogs demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of dogs in sensing landmine signature chemicals; however, reliability at these ultra-trace vapor concentrations still needs to be determined. Through this compilation, additional work is suggested that will fill in data gaps to improve the utility of trace chemical detection.

PHELAN, JAMES M.

2002-05-01

196

An analysis of the chemical safety of secondary effluent for reuse purposes and the requirement for advanced treatment.  

PubMed

This paper presents a study on the chemical safety of the secondary effluent for reuse purposes and the requirement of advanced treatment. Water quality analysis was conducted regarding conventional chemical items, hazardous metals, trace organics and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Generally speaking, the turbidity, COD, BOD, TN and TP of the secondary effluent can meet the Chinese standards for urban miscellaneous water reuse but higher colour is a problem. Further removal of BOD and TP may still be required if the water is reused for landscape and environmental purposes especially relating to recreation. In addition, Hazardous metals, trace organics and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are not the main problems for water reuse. At the same time, several tertiary treatment processes were evaluated. The coagulation-filtration process is effective process for further improvement of the conventional water quality items and removal of hazardous metals but less effective in dealing with dissolved organic matter. The ultrafiltration (UF) can achieve almost complete removal of turbid matter while its ability to remove dissolved substances is limited. The ozone-biofiltration is the most effective for colour and organic removal but it can hardly remove the residual hazardous metals. Therefore, the selection of suitable process for different water quality is important for water use. PMID:23384543

Jin, Pengkang; Jin, Xin; Wang, Xiaochang C; Shi, Xinbin

2013-02-04

197

Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure: A Safety Program Manual. Participatory Education with Farmworkers in Pesticide Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure among North Carolina Farmworkers (PACE) is a project designed to describe farmworker pesticide exposure and to develop an educational intervention to reduce farmworker pesticide exposure. The PACE project used a community participation framework to ensure that the community played a significant role in…

Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC. Dept. of Family and Community Medicine.

198

BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly since the Mercury Water Wash Tank was replaced after the seventh batch of Sludge Batch 5. Since this time, essentially no recovery of mercury has been seen. Pertinent literature was reviewed, previous lab-scale data on mercury stripping and recovery was examined, and new lab-scale CPC Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were conducted. For previous lab-scale data, many of the runs with sufficient mercury recovery data were examined to determine what factors affect the stripping and recovery of mercury and to improve closure of the mercury material balance. Ten new lab-scale SRAT runs (HG runs) were performed to examine the effects of acid stoichiometry, sludge solids concentration, antifoam concentration, form of mercury added to simulant, presence of a SRAT heel, operation of the SRAT condenser at higher than prototypic temperature, varying noble metals from none to very high concentrations, and higher agitation rate. Data from simulant runs from SB6, SB7a, glycolic/formic, and the HG tests showed that a significant amount of Hg metal was found on the vessel bottom at the end of tests. Material balance closure improved from 12-71% to 48-93% when this segregated Hg was considered. The amount of Hg segregated as elemental Hg on the vessel bottom was 4-77% of the amount added. The highest recovery of mercury in the offgas system generally correlated with the highest retention of Hg in the slurry. Low retention in the slurry (high segregation on the vessel bottom) resulted in low recovery in the offgas system. High agitation rates appear to result in lower retention of mercury in the slurry. Both recovery of mercury in the offgas system and removal (segregation + recovery) from the slurry correlate with slurry consistency. Higher slurry consistency results in better retention of Hg in the slurry (less segregation) and better recovery in the offgas system, but the relationships of recovery and retention with consistency are sludge dependent. Some correlation with slurry yield stress and acid stoichiometry was also found. Better retention of mercury in the slurry results in better recovery in the offgas system because the mercury in the slurry is stripped more easily than the segregated mercury at the bottom of the vessel. Although better retention gives better recovery, the time to reach a particular slurry mercury content (wt%) is longer than if the retention is poorer because the segregation is faster. The segregation of mercury is generally a faster process than stripping. The stripping factor (mass of water evaporated per mass of mercury stripped) of mercury at the start of boiling were found to be less than 1000 compared to the assumed design basis value of 750 (the theoretical factor is 250). However, within two hours, this value increased to at least 2000 lb water per lb Hg. For runs with higher mercury recovery in the offgas system, the stripping factor remained around 2000, but runs with low recovery had stripping factors of 4000 to 40,000. DWPF data shows similar trends with the stripping factor value increasing during boiling. These high values correspond to high segregation and low retention of mercury in the sludge. The stripping factor for a pure Hg metal bead in water was found to be about 10,000 lb/lb. About 10-36% of the total Hg evaporated in a SRAT cycle was refluxed back to the SRAT during formic acid addition and boiling. Mercury is dissolved as a result of nitric acid formation from absorption of NO{sub x}. The actual solubility of dissolved mercury in the acidic condensate is about 100 times higher than the actual concentrations measured. Mercury metal present in the MWWT from previous batch

Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

2012-04-09

199

Chemical Engineering: Process Dynamics and Controls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the OpenCourseWare (OCW) initiative, the University of Michigan is offering this course as part of their generous contributions to the OCW archive. The course uses an open textbook, and all of the materials here were written by senior chemical engineering students, and subsequently reviewed by graduate students and faculty associated with the course. Visitors can click on one of four sections here: "Overview", "Highlights", "Materials", and "Sessions". The "Overview" provides a bit of introduction to how the course is structured, and "Highlights" talks a bit about the open textbook used in the course. The site has some great bells-and-whistles, including a "Live Study Group" area. In the "Sessions" area visitors can listen and watch all of the lectures from the course, and they can also download them for future reference.

200

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory--Chemical Management: A Method for Waste Reduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses methods for reducing or eliminating waste disposal problems in the chemistry laboratory, considering both economic and environmental aspects of the problems. Proposes inventory control, shared use, solvent recycling, zero effluent, and various means of disposing of chemicals. (JM)|

Pine, Stanley H.

1984-01-01

201

Chemical process for backsurging fluid through well casing perforations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemical process for initiating a backsurging of fluid through well casing perforations and perforation tunnels that interconnect a wellbore with a subterranean reservoir are described. A chemically delayed gas-generating aqueous liquid solution is injected through the well conduits, perforations and perforation tunnels and into the reservoir. The injected solution contains the following: 1) at least one compound which has

E. A. Richardson; R. F. Sheuerman; D. C. Berkshire

1980-01-01

202

EFFECTS OF TOXIC CHEMICAL ON NUTRIENT CYCLING PROCESSES IN SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Assessing the risk of toxic chemicals to soil nutrient cycling processes involves an understanding of the potential for chemical effects on the diversity and the activity of the microbial communities and higher life forms in the natural system. ssessments of risk associated with ...

203

Modeling chemical and physical processes of wood and biomass pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review reports the state of the art in modeling chemical and physical processes of wood and biomass pyrolysis. Chemical kinetics are critically discussed in relation to primary reactions, described by one- and multi-component (or one- and multi-stage) mechanisms, and secondary reactions of tar cracking and polymerization. A mention is also made of distributed activation energy models and detailed mechanisms

Colomba Di Blasi

2008-01-01

204

Identification of chemical processes using canonical variate analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new identification strategy is used to estimate process models of three chemical processes. The approach is based on canonical variate analysis to select a state coordinate system that relates inputs to future outputs. Regression techniques are then used to determine a multi-input multi-output process model. The Akaike information criterion is used to determine an appropriate model order. The CVA

C. D. Schaper; Wallace E. Larimore; Dale E. Seborg; Duncan A. Mellichamp

1990-01-01

205

Multi-agent based distributed chemical process monitoring and diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiagent technology offers a number of characteristics that make it well suited for distributed process monitoring and fault diagnosis tasks. This paper describes a general architecture to implement distributed applications for chemical process monitoring and diagnosis as a set of cooperating intelligent agents. Agents in this application encapsulate different distributed hardware\\/software entities: a real-time process data acquisition system, auto knowledge

Jing-Gao Sun; Xin-Bin Yang; Dao Huang

2002-01-01

206

CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR FUGITIVE VOC EMISSIONS FROM CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

This handbook contains information concerning volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the synthetic organic chemicals manufacturing industry (SOCMI), petroleum refineries, on-shore natural gas processing plants, polymer manufacturing plants, benzene from particular equipme...

207

Biotechnology Trends: Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, Healthcare and Food Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a preliminary study of the application of Biotechnology to two sectors viz Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals and Healthcare, and Food Processing and includes a state of the art review of current and expected developments internationally in the two ...

1981-01-01

208

2. OVERHEAD CHEMICAL PROCESS PIPING BETWEEN BUILDINGS 422, ON RIGHT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. OVERHEAD CHEMICAL PROCESS PIPING BETWEEN BUILDINGS 422, ON RIGHT, AND 431, ON LEFT. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Crude Mustard & Aldrin Manufacturing, 1200 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 600 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

209

The impact of food safety standards on processed food exports from developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of food safety standards on processed food exports in developing countries. A panel data econometric analysis of processed food exports in developing countries was undertaken. The Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standard (SPS) is incorporated into the model to capture the impact of food safety standards. The empirical model shows that food safety standards imposed by developed

Juthathip Jongwanich

2009-01-01

210

Chemical processing in geothermal nuclear chimney  

DOEpatents

A closed rubble filled nuclear chimney is provided in a subterranean geothermal formation by detonation of a nuclear explosive device therein, with reagent input and product output conduits connecting the chimney cavity with appropriate surface facilities. Such facilities will usually comprise reagent preparation, product recovery and recycle facilities. Proccsses are then conducted in the nuclear chimney which processes are facilitated by temperature, pressure, catalytic and other conditions existent or which are otherwise provided in the nuclear chimney. (auth)

Krikorian, O.H.

1973-10-01

211

The safety climate and its relationship to safety practices, safety of the work environment and occupational accidents in eight wood-processing companies.  

PubMed

Employees continuously observe their work environment and the actions of their fellow workers and superiors, and they use such observations as a basis for the creation of cognitive models associated with safety. These models regulate their actions in the workplace and thus have an influence on safety. This study attempts to define the structure of the safety climate as perceived by workers and the correlations between the safety climate, on the one hand, and the safety practices of the company, the safety level of the work environment and occupational accidents on the other. The variables used in this study were the same as those employed in two previous Finnish safety climate studies carried out in the plywood industry, shipyards, the forestry industry, building construction and stevedoring. The safety climate was measured by means of a questionnaire. Workers from four sawmills, two plywood factories and two parquet plants participated. The total number of participants was 508 in 1990 and 548 in 1993. The variables formed four factors, whose contents and reliabilities closely resembled the results obtained in the earlier studies. These results indicate that the structure of the safety climate among Finnish workers is quite stable. The safety climate correlated both with the safety level of the work environment and with the safety practices of the company, but the correlation between the safety climate and the safety of the work environment was stronger. This result differs from those of the previous studies, in which the safety climate was defined specifically in terms of an individual's perceptions of the safety practices of the company and of the behavior of other employees. The two safety climate factors that described a company's attitudes to safety and its safety precautions correlated with the accident rates. The better the safety climate of the company was, the lower was the accident rate. Four companies with an accident rate below the average for the wood-processing industry had a better safety climate than four similar companies with an accident rate above the average. PMID:10994603

Varonen, U; Mattila, M

2000-11-01

212

Chemical and physical processes in Tank 241-SY-101: A preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

Since 1942, chemical and radioactive waste have been stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. In March 1981 one of the double shell tanks, 241-SY-101 (called 101-SY), began venting large quantities of gas, primarily hydrogen and nitrous oxide. Because of the potential for explosion Westinghouse Hanford Company and the US Department of Energy realized the need for knowledge about the processes occurring in this tank that lead to generation of the gases. In June 1990, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory began assembling a Tank Waste Science Panel to develop a better understanding of the processes occurring the Tank 101-SY. This knowledge is necessary to provide a technically defensible basis for the safety analyses, which will allow the tank contents to be sampled, as well as for the future remediation of the tank and its contents. The Panel concluded that the data available on Tank 101-SY are insufficient to allow the critical chemical and physical processes giving rise to gas formation and release to be unambiguously identified. To provide the needed information the Panel recommends that Tank 101-SY by physically and chemically characterized as fully as possible and as expeditiously as safety considerations allow, and laboratory studies and modeling efforts be undertaken the chemical and physical processes involved in gas generation and release. Finally, the Panel recommends that no remediation steps be taken until there is a better understanding of the chemical and physical phenomena occurring in Tank 101-SY. Premature remediation steps may only serve to compound the problem. Furthermore, such steps may change the chemical and physical characteristics of the tank and prevent a true understanding of the phenomena involved. As a consequence, similar problems in other tanks on the site may not be adequately addressed. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1991-02-01

213

Microlenses with focal length controlled by chemical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of chemical processing on the optical properties of microlenses formed on a gelatin-sensitized layer was investigated. The gelatin is sensitized with tot'hema and eosin, irradiated with a Gaussian profile laser beam and subsequently chemically processed. Microlenses with a focal length of 400??m were obtained after alcohol processing. Additionally, focal lengths could be controlled by varying the alum concentration, and lenses with focal length up to 1.2?mm were obtained. The microlenses become stable after alum processing. Their optical properties remain unchanged.

Muric, B. D.; Panic, B. M.

2012-05-01

214

Trends in chemical engineering education: Process, product and sustainable chemical engineering challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching chemical engineering has always been faced with a dilemma: either keep in touch with industry needs or incorporate new scientific concepts into the curriculum. In this paper, a short historical analysis of the evolution of chemical engineering teaching is presented and the recent trends of the two previous facets (industry and science) are briefly reviewed. The process vs product

Eric Favre; Véronique Falk; Christine Roizard; Eric Schaer

2008-01-01

215

Deformation band formation as coupled mechanical and chemical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Processes of deformation localization in granular or porous sediments and sedimentary rock control strength, permeability, and frictional properties of the upper few kilometer of the Earth's crust. Structures resulting from these processes, referred to as deformation bands, have been recognized and described with an emphasis on the mechanical processes including grain translation, rotation, and breakage, and particle mixing and differentiation with increasing strain. The interaction of these mechanical processes with chemical processes has received little study. Such chemical reactions include the precipitation of carbonate and quartz cement, dissolution and albitization of feldspar, and the neoformation and infiltration of clay minerals. It is shown that the mechanical process of deformation localization is strongly controlled by chemical processes including pre- kinematic pore-filling cement, syn-kinematic cement filling intra- and transgranular fractures, and stress- enhanced dissolution reactions. Prekinematic cements reduce the strength contrast between grain and aggregate thus favoring deformation localization into narrow, well defined deformation bands. Prekinematic cementation and compaction may even favor thoroughgoing opening mode fractures and prevent localization in the form of deformation bands entirely. Synkinematic cements within deformation bands will result in local strain hardening of bands and thus oppose further deformation localization with increasing strain. By comparing these mechanical-chemical interactions in deformation bands in sand and sandstone from a variety of depositional, structural, and burial settings we attempt to assess the effects of initial sediment composition, compaction state, loading conditions, and chemical environment on deformation localization and its implications on strength, failure mode, and permeability evolution.

Eichhubl, P.; Aydin, A.; Lander, R. H.; Laubach, S. E.; Reed, R. M.; Boles, J. R.; Du Bernard, X.

2006-12-01

216

Safety Issues of Hg and Pb as IFE Target Materials: Radiological Versus Chemical Toxicity  

SciTech Connect

We have performed a safety assessment of mercury and lead as possible hohlraum materials for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) targets, including for the first time a comparative analysis of the radiological and toxicological consequences of an accidental release. In order to calculate accident doses to the public, we have distinguished between accidents at the target fabrication facility and accidents at other areas of the power plant. Regarding the chemical toxicity assessment, we have used the U.S. DOE regulations to determine the maximum allowable release in order to protect the public from adverse health effects. Opposite to common belief, it has been found that the chemical safety requirements for these materials appear to be more stringent than the concentrations that would result in an acceptable radiological dose.

Reyes, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Latkowski, J.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Cadwallader, L.C. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States); Moir, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Gomez del Rio, J.; Sanz, J

2003-09-15

217

Safety Issues of HG and PB as IFE Target Materials: Radiological Versus Chemical Toxicity  

SciTech Connect

We have performed a safety assessment of mercury and lead as possible hohlraum materials for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) targets, including for the first time a comparative analysis of the radiological and toxicological consequences of an accidental release. In order to calculate accident doses to the public, we have distinguished between accidents at the target fabrication facility and accidents at other areas of the power plant. Regarding the chemical toxicity assessment, we have used the USDOE regulations to determine the maximum allowable release in order to protect the public from adverse health effects. Opposite to common belief, it has been found that the chemical safety requirements for these materials appear to be more stringent than the concentrations that would result in an acceptable radiological dose.

Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Cadwallader, L C; Moir, R W; Rio, G. D; Sanz, J

2002-11-11

218

[Chemical compound safety: typology of competency accreditation for assay centers and analytical laboratories].  

PubMed

The use of chemicals warrants many benefits on which modern society is entirely dependent. On the other hand, the lack of reliable information about the impact of the use of chemicals raises increasing concern. In order to guarantee the safety of chemicals it is mandatory to proceed to risk assessment, which in turn consists of hazard evaluation and exposure estimation. These activities are strictly dependent upon the availability of reliable data and information, produced by, e.g., test facilities, test laboratories and clinical laboratories, the specific competence of which has been properly recognised. All this applies in the pre-marketing phase as well as during the use of chemical substances. In this latter phase it is necessary to carry out an appropriate monitoring of environment, food and, in specific situations, human beings (biological monitoring). In the field of chemical safety, standards, legal instruments and operative instruments are nowadays available. These tools make it possible to assess both the quality of data and the competence of the entities involved in the production of the data themselves. PMID:12122899

Menditto, Antonio; Chiodo, Ferdinando

2002-01-01

219

Hydrogen Sulfide Gas Treatment by a Chemical?Biological Process: Chemical Absorption and Biological Oxidation Steps  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to remove high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas from anaerobic wastewater treatments in livestock farming, a novel process was evaluated for H2S gas abatement involving the combination of chemical absorption and biological oxidation processes. In this study, the extensive experiments evaluating the removal efficiency, capacity, and removal characteristics of H2S gas by the chemical absorption reactor were

2003-01-01

220

STATISTICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR AUTOMOTIVE SAFETY SYSTE MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of software in general and safety systems in particular increases rapidly in the automotive industry. T he trend is that functionality is decentralized, so new safety functions are distributed to common shared computer hard- ware, sensors and actuators using central data buses. This paper overviews recent and future safety systems, and high- lights the big challenges for researchers

Fredrik Gustafsson

221

The triplet “molecular processes–product–process” engineering: the future of chemical engineering ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today chemical engineering has to answer to the changing needs of the chemical and related process industries and to meet the market demands. Being a key to survival in globalization of trade and competition, the evolution of chemical engineering is thus necessary. Its ability to cope with the scientific and technological problems encountered will be appraised in this paper. To

Jean-Claude Charpentier

2002-01-01

222

Physical and chemical characterization of bioaerosols - Implications for nucleation processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of organic compounds in the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, and as cloud condensation and ice-forming nuclei, has been recognized for several decades. Organic compounds comprise a significant fraction of the suspended matter mass, leading to local (e.g. toxicity, health hazards) and global (e.g. climate change) impacts. The state of knowledge of the physical chemistry of organic aerosols has increased during the last few decades. However, due to their complex chemistry and the multifaceted processes in which they are involved, the importance of organic aerosols, particularly bioaerosols, in driving physical and chemical atmospheric processes is still very uncertain and poorly understood. Factors such as solubility, surface tension, chemical impurities, volatility, morphology, contact angle, deliquescence, wettability, and the oxidation process are pivotal in the understanding of the activation processes of cloud droplets, and their chemical structures, solubilities and even the molecular configuration of the microbial outer membrane, all impact ice and cloud nucleation processes in the atmosphere. The aim of this review paper is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols with a focus on those properties important in nucleation processes. We herein discuss the potential importance (or lack thereof) of physical and chemical properties of bioaerosols and illustrate how the knowledge of these properties can be employed to study nucleation processes using a modeling exercise. We also outline a list of major uncertainties due to a lack of understanding of the processes involved or lack of available data. We will also discuss key issues of atmospheric significance deserving future physical chemistry research in the fields of bioaerosol characterization and microphysics, as well as bioaerosol modeling. These fundamental questions are to be addressed prior to any definite conclusions on the potential significance of the role of bioaerosols on physico-chemical atmospheric processes and that of climate.

Ariya, P. A.; Sun, J.; Eltouny, N. A.; Hudson, E. D.; Hayes, C. T.; Kos, G.

223

Encyclopedic dictionary of named processes in chemical technology. Second edition  

SciTech Connect

This reference provides concise descriptions of those chemical processes that are known by special names which are not obvious or self-explanatory. Containing 2,600 entries, this second edition includes information on the many new processes developed and commercialized, as well as new information on old processes. The appendix lists each process according to its end products--assisting readers who do not know the actual name of the process but know its end product. The book covers new and improved processes, including: removal of gaseous effluents; destruction of organic residues in water; minimization of the quantities of waste products; manufacture of fuels from different raw materials, such as liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas; removal of lead additives from gasoline and the creation of new hydrocarbon formulations and additives; application of catalysts to make useful chemicals in one step from basic raw materials, such as propane; and design of new bleaching processes that replace traditional chlorine bleaching.

Comyns, A.E.

1999-01-01

224

Sealed-bladdered chemical processing method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus which enables a complete multi-stepped chemical treatment process to occur within a single, sealed-bladdered vessel 31. The entire chemical process occurs without interruption of the sealed-bladdered vessel 31 such as opening the sealed-bladdered vessel 31 between various steps of the process. The sealed-bladdered vessel 31 is loaded with a batch to be dissolved, treated, decanted, rinsed and/or dried. A pressure filtration step may also occur. The self-contained chemical processing apparatus 32 contains a sealed-bladder 32, a fluid pump 34, a reservoir 20, a compressed gas inlet, a vacuum pump 24, and a cold trap 23 as well as the associated piping 33, numerous valves 21,22,25,26,29,30,35,36 and other controls associated with such an apparatus. The claimed invention allows for dissolution and/or chemical treatment without the operator of the self-contained chemical processing apparatus 38 coming into contact with any of the process materials.

Harless, D. Phillip (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01

225

Chemical mass transfer in magmatic processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical examples of the approach described in Part I of this series (Ghiorso, 1985) are presented in this paper. These examples include the calculation of the compositions and proportions of liquid and solid phases produced during (1) the equilibrium crystallization of a basaltic andesite at 1 bar, (2) the fractional crystallization of an olivine tholeiite at 1 bar and elevated pressures, (3) the fractional and equilibrium crystallization of an olivine boninite at 1 bar, and (4) the (a) isothermal and (b) isenthalpic assimilation of olivine (Fo90) into a liquid/solid assemblage of quartz dioritic composition at ˜1,125° C and 3 kbars. The numerical results on the crystallization of the basaltic andesite are verified by comparison with experimental data while those calculations performed using olivine tholeiitic and olivine boninitic compositions are favorably compared against whole rock and mineral analytical data and petrographic and field observations. In each of the examples presented, the heat effects associated with the modelled process are calculated (e.g. heat of crystallization, heat of assimilation), and free energies of crystallization are examined as a function of the degree of mineral supersaturation. The former quantities are on the order of 173 cal/grm for the cooling and fractional crystallization of an olivine tholeiite to a rhyolitic residuum (corresponding to a 400° C temperature interval). The latter represents an important petrological parameter, in that it quantifies the driving force for the rate of crystal growth and rate of nucleation in magmatic systems. Calculated free energies of crystallization are small (on the order of hundreds of calories per mole per 25° C of undercooling) which indicates that the kinetics of crystallization in magmatic systems are affinity controlled. Melt oxygen fugacity and the degree of oxygen metasomatism play a major role in controlling the fractionation trends produced from crystallizing basaltic liquids. Calculations suggest that in order to generate a silica rich residuum and the characteristic iron enrichment trend during the fractional crystallization of a tholeiitic basalt, the magma must crystallize esentially along f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } buffer. This buffered state can be maintained by exchange of oxygen (via hydrogen diffusion) between the magma and the surrounding country rocks or by magmatic oxidation-reduction equilibria. Additional calculations indicate the possibility that oxygen exchange may be unnecessary if the magma contains sufficient sulfur to maintain the system along an S2/SO2 oxygen buffer during the initial stages of crystallization.

Ghiorso, Mark S.; Carmichael, Ian S. E.

1985-07-01

226

Topology-based diagnosis for chemical process plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main topic of this thesis is the design of tools for detecting and diagnosing disturbances and faults in complex chemical processing plants. There is described how the measurements can be combined with process models, and an modular architecture for p...

A. Mjaavatten

1994-01-01

227

Associative Data Mining for Alarm Groupings in Chemical Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex industrial processes such as nuclear power plants, chemical plants and petroleum refineries are usually equipped with alarm systems capable of monitoring thousands of process variables and generating tens of thousands of alarms which are used as mechanisms for alerting operators to take actions to alleviate or prevent an abnormal situation. Overalarming and a lack of configuration management practices have

Savo Kordic; Chiou Peng Lam; Jitian Xiao; Huaizhong Li

2007-01-01

228

Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)|

Hoseney, R. Carl

1984-01-01

229

Three-reactors chemical looping process for hydrogen production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes a novel process for producing hydrogen from natural gas, based on chemical looping (CL) techniques, allowing for intrinsic capture of carbon dioxide. The core of the process consists of a three-reactors CL system, where iron oxide particles are circulated to: (i) oxidize natural gas (thus providing, after cooling and water condensation, a CO2 stream ready for sequestration),

Paolo Chiesa; Giovanni Lozza; Alberto Malandrino; Matteo Romano; Vincenzo Piccolo

2008-01-01

230

Assessment of aircraft impact probabilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility of an aircraft crash into a facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The ICPP is part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Based on the data used in this study, an air crash into any single facility at the ICPP is incredible. An air crash into aggregate areas incorporating the following is extremely unlikely: (1) ICPP radiological materials storage facilities, (2) ICPP major processing facilities, and (3) the ICPP land surface area, which excludes buildings. According to Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company safety analysis procedures, if the probability of a radiological release event is determined to be incredible, no further review is required. Therefore, an aircraft crash scenario is not required in the safety analysis for a single facility but should be discussed relative to the ICPP aggregate areas.

Lee, L.G.; Mines, J.M.; Webb, B.B.

1994-06-01

231

Impact of food processing on the safety assessment for proteins introduced into biotechnology-derived soybean and corn crops.  

PubMed

The food safety assessment of new agricultural crop varieties developed through biotechnology includes evaluation of the proteins introduced to impart desired traits. Safety assessments can include dietary risk assessments similar to those performed for chemicals intentionally, or inadvertently added to foods. For chemicals, it is assumed they are not degraded during processing of the crop into food fractions. For introduced proteins, the situation can be different. Proteins are highly dependent on physical forces in their environment to maintain appropriate three-dimensional structure that supports functional activity. Food crops such as corn and soy are not consumed raw but are extensively processed into various food fractions. During processing, proteins in corn and soy are subjected to harsh environmental conditions that drastically change the physical forces leading to denaturation and loss of protein function. These conditions include thermal processing, changes in pH, reducing agents, mechanical shearing etc. Studies have shown that processing of introduced proteins such as enzymes that impart herbicide tolerance or proteins that control insect pests leads to a complete loss of functional activity. Thus, dietary exposure to functionally active proteins in processed food products can be negligible and below levels of any safety concerns. PMID:21167896

Hammond, B G; Jez, J M

2010-12-16

232

Plasma enhanced chemical vapor processing of semiconductive wafers  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Semiconductive wafers are processed, i.e., etched or layers deposited thereon, by means of a plasma enhanced chemical vapor processing system. The processing system includes an evacuable horizontal tubular envelope disposed within a surrounding heater or furnace for maintaining, the case of deposition, a region of uniform temperature within the central region of the elongated tubular envelope. Two sets of interleaved generally planar electrodes are disposed within the evacuable envelope for establishing an electrical plasma discharge in the process gaps defined between the interleaved electrodes. Wafers are loaded into the processing gaps vertically with the major face of each wafer facing into the process gap. The mutually opposed surfaces of the interleaved electrodes are preferably lined with a material of the same conductivity as that of the bulk material of the wafer to enhance the uniformity of the processing. The chemical vapor is caused to flow axially through the evacuable tube, and through the electrical plasma discharge established in the processing gaps at subatmospheric pressure, to produce chemically active vapor products of the plasma discharge which interact with the faces of the wafers facing into the processing gaps for processing of the wafers.

1980-09-16

233

Chapter 2 Quantum Linear Superposition Theory for Chemical Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete basis states (BSs), in abstract configuration space-projected quantum mechanics (QM), permit representations of any physical and chemical process elicited by quantum states changes. For a material 1-system, defined by n-electrons and m-nuclei, BSs including relevant fragments cover a representation of chemical species identifiable by spectral response toward electromagnetic (EM) radiations. Reactants, products, and intermediate species are expressed as specific

O. Tapia

2009-01-01

234

Chemical, microbiological and sensory changes associated with fish sauce processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of sardine fermented fish sauce was replicated in the laboratory in order to study the chemical, microbiological\\u000a and sensory changes associated with the process. Fish sauce were produced by incubating mixtures of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) at different concentrations of sodium chloride and glucose at 37 °C for 57 days. Changes in chemical composition (moisture,\\u000a protein, fat contents), pH, total

Berna Kilinc; Sukran Cakli; Sebnem Tolasa; Tolga Dincer

2006-01-01

235

Micro Hole Processing Using Electro-Chemical Discharge Machining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, micro holes processing on glass were focused on chemical and biological filed. Authors focused on Electro-Chemical Discharge Machining (ECDM) to machine micro holes on glass, and developed the ECDM device. This paper reports about feedback circuit for machining-stop system and two-step machining which were developed to reduce the smallest diameter of micro hole. Additionally, the tool electrode of which diameter was 20 µm was produced using Electro-Chemical Machining (ECM). As a result, the diameter of micro hole was reached to 12 µm.

Mochimaru, Yasuhiro; Ota, Minoru; Yamaguchi, Keishi

236

How Important is Vehicle Safety in the New Vehicle Purchase\\/Lease Process for Fleet Vehicles?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Despite the potential benefits that fleet vehicle purchase decisions could have on road safety, the role that vehicle safety plays in fleet managers' purchase decisions is poorly understood.Methods. In this study, fleet managers from Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire regarding the importance of vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase\\/lease process and the importance that is placed on

Sjaanie Koppel; Judith Charlton; Brian Fildes

2007-01-01

237

How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whilst there has been a significant increase in the amount of consumer interest in the safety performance of privately owned vehicles, the role that it plays in consumers’ purchase decisions is poorly understood. The aims of the current study were to determine: how important vehicle safety is in the new vehicle purchase process; what importance consumers place on safety options\\/features

Sjaanie Koppel; Judith Charlton; Brian Fildes; Michael Fitzharris

2008-01-01

238

Improving Safety, Quality and Efficiency through the Management of Emerging Processes: The TenarisDalmine Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this contribution is to describe a new complexity-science-based approach for improving safety, quality and efficiency and the way it was implemented by TenarisDalmine. Design/methodology/approach: This methodology is called "a safety-building community". It consists of a safety-behaviour social self-construction process…

Bonometti, Patrizia

2012-01-01

239

Improving Safety, Quality and Efficiency through the Management of Emerging Processes: The TenarisDalmine Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The aim of this contribution is to describe a new complexity-science-based approach for improving safety, quality and efficiency and the way it was implemented by TenarisDalmine. Design/methodology/approach: This methodology is called "a safety-building community". It consists of a safety-behaviour social self-construction process…

Bonometti, Patrizia

2012-01-01

240

Theragenomic knowledge management for individualised safety of drugs, chemicals, pollutants and dietary ingredients.  

PubMed

Severe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a major problem in drug development and clinical practice and the most common cause of market withdrawals of drugs. Individualised drug safety aims at the prospective identification of single patients who carry genetic predispositions for the development of serious or fatal ADRs under drug treatment. For a comprehensive individualised drug safety evaluation a clearly structured organisation, linkage and representation of diverse and heterogeneous, yet related, knowledge is imperative. To efficiently support experts in this process a platform, coined OKAPI, was specified that combines multiple concepts in knowledge management to perform ontological knowledge acquisition, processing and integration. SafeBase (TheraSTrat) is an ontology driven implementation of the OKAPI specification and an innovative, user-friendly and interactive platform for storage, management and visualisation of knowledge across multiple scientific disciplines pertinent to current and future theragenomics-based drug discovery and development and to strategies of individualised drug safety. PMID:16863460

Gut, Joseph; Bagatto, Dario

2005-10-01

241

Environmental, health, and safety data base for the KRW coal-gasification process development unit. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report, August 1982June 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

An environmental, health and safety data base was developed for the KRW coal gasification process development unit (PDU) in Madison, Pennsylvania. The study was performed to expand the existing information for most stream flows and compositions for the KRW gasifier. Results were obtained from multiple coal tests conducted in 1983. Process data, along with chemical analyses, were used to prepare

R. M. Mann; G. E. Harris; W. R. Menzies; A. V. Simonson; W. A. Williams

1985-01-01

242

Environmental, health, and safety data base for the KRW coal-gasification process development unit. Volume 1. Final report, August 1982June 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

An environmental, health and safety data base was developed for the KRW coal gasification process development unit (PDU) in Madison, Pennsylvania. The study was performed to expand the existing information for most stream flows and compositions for the KRW gasifier. Results were obtained from multiple coal tests conducted in 1983. Process data, along with chemical analyses, were used to prepare

R. M. Mann; G. E. Harris; W. R. Menzies; A. V. Simonson; W. A. Williams

1985-01-01

243

Computerized Aid Improves Safety Decision Process for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence  

PubMed Central

A computerized safety decision aid was developed and tested with Spanish or English-speaking abused women in shelters or domestic violence (DV) support groups (n = 90). The decision aid provides feedback about risk for lethal violence, options for safety, assistance with setting priorities for safety, and a safety plan personalized to the user. Women reported that the decision aid was useful and provided much-needed privacy for making safety decisions. The majority (69%) reported severe to extreme danger in their relationship as scored by Danger Assessment (DA); only 60% reported having made a safety plan. After using the safety decision aid, the women felt more supported in their decision (p = .012) and had less total decisional conflict (p = .014). The study demonstrated that a computerized safety decision aid improved the safety planning process, as demonstrated by reduced decisional conflict after only one use in a sample of abused women.

Glass, Nancy; Eden, Karen B.; Bloom, Tina; Perrin, Nancy

2011-01-01

244

Computerized aid improves safety decision process for survivors of intimate partner violence.  

PubMed

A computerized safety decision aid was developed and tested with Spanish or English-speaking abused women in shelters or domestic violence (DV) support groups (n = 90). The decision aid provides feedback about risk for lethal violence, options for safety, assistance with setting priorities for safety, and a safety plan personalized to the user. Women reported that the decision aid was useful and provided much-needed privacy for making safety decisions. The majority (69%) reported severe to extreme danger in their relationship as scored by Danger Assessment (DA); only 60% reported having made a safety plan. After using the safety decision aid, the women felt more supported in their decision (p = .012) and had less total decisional conflict (p = .014). The study demonstrated that a computerized safety decision aid improved the safety planning process, as demonstrated by reduced decisional conflict after only one use in a sample of abused women. PMID:20040709

Glass, Nancy; Eden, Karen B; Bloom, Tina; Perrin, Nancy

2009-12-29

245

Development of safety analysis and constraint detection techniques for process interaction errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the new failure modes introduced by computer into safety systems, the process interaction error is the most unpredictable and complicated failure mode, which may cause disastrous consequences. This paper presents safety analysis and constraint detection techniques for process interaction errors among hardware, software, and human processes. Among interaction errors, the most dreadful ones are those that involve run-time misinterpretation

Chin-Feng Fan; Shang-Lin Tsai; Wan-Hui Tseng

2011-01-01

246

[Changes in chemical composition of tomatoes during processing].  

PubMed

The influences of processing conditions and composition on chemical changes during thermal processing of tomatoes were investigated. During the Cold and Hot Break process pectin is degraded to different extents. Due to the thermal impact at first cyclization of glutamine to pyroglutamic acid takes place. At higher dry weight contents and during drying processes Amadori compounds and browning can be detected. The reaction products formed during thermal processing can be analysed by amino acid analysis and-after proper derivatization-by capillary gas chromatography. PMID:8711954

Schräder, I; Eichner, K

1996-06-01

247

THE ACQUISITION AND APPLICATION OF ABSORPTION, DISTRIBUTION, METABOLISM, AND EXCRETION (ADME) DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A multi-sector international group of government, academic, and industry scientists has developed a proposal for an improved testing scheme for assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. Incorporation of pharmacokinetic studies describing the absorption, distribution, me...

248

Field programmable chemistry: integrated chemical and electronic processing of informational molecules towards electronic chemical cells.  

PubMed

The topic addressed is that of combining self-constructing chemical systems with electronic computation to form unconventional embedded computation systems performing complex nano-scale chemical tasks autonomously. The hybrid route to complex programmable chemistry, and ultimately to artificial cells based on novel chemistry, requires a solution of the two-way massively parallel coupling problem between digital electronics and chemical systems. We present a chemical microprocessor technology and show how it can provide a generic programmable platform for complex molecular processing tasks in Field Programmable Chemistry, including steps towards the grand challenge of constructing the first electronic chemical cells. Field programmable chemistry employs a massively parallel field of electrodes, under the control of latched voltages, which are used to modulate chemical activity. We implement such a field programmable chemistry which links to chemistry in rather generic, two-phase microfluidic channel networks that are separated into weakly coupled domains. Electric fields, produced by the high-density array of electrodes embedded in the channel floors, are used to control the transport of chemicals across the hydrodynamic barriers separating domains. In the absence of electric fields, separate microfluidic domains are essentially independent with only slow diffusional interchange of chemicals. Electronic chemical cells, based on chemical microprocessors, exploit a spatially resolved sandwich structure in which the electronic and chemical systems are locally coupled through homogeneous fine-grained actuation and sensor networks and play symmetric and complementary roles. We describe how these systems are fabricated, experimentally test their basic functionality, simulate their potential (e.g. for feed forward digital electrophoretic (FFDE) separation) and outline the application to building electronic chemical cells. PMID:22309763

Wagler, Patrick F; Tangen, Uwe; Maeke, Thomas; McCaskill, John S

2012-01-30

249

Organic chemical aging mechanisms: An annotated bibliography. Waste Tank Safety Program  

SciTech Connect

An annotated bibliography has been compiled of the potential chemical and radiological aging mechanisms of the organic constituents (non-ferrocyanide) that would likely be found in the UST at Hanford. The majority of the work that has been conducted on the aging of organic chemicals used for extraction and processing of nuclear materials has been in conjunction with the acid or PUREX type processes. At Hanford the waste being stored in the UST has been stabilized with caustic. The aging factors that were used in this work were radiolysis, hydrolysis and nitrite/nitrate oxidation. The purpose of this work was two-fold: to determine whether or not research had been or is currently being conducted on the species associated with the Hanford UST waste, either as a mixture or as individual chemicals or chemical functionalities, and to determine what areas of chemical aging need to be addressed by further research.

Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M.; Nelson, D.A.

1993-09-01

250

Influence of chemical processing on the imaging properties of microlenses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microlenses are produced by irradiation of a layer of tot'hema and eosin sensitized gelatin (TESG) by using a laser beam (Nd:YAG 2nd harmonic; 532 nm). All the microlenses obtained are concave with a parabolic profile. After the production, the microlenses are chemically processed with various concentrations of alum. The following imaging properties of microlenses were calculated and analyzed: the root mean square (rms) wavefront aberration, the geometric encircled energy and the spot diagram. The microlenses with higher concentrations of alum in solution had a greater effective focal length and better image quality. The microlenses chemically processed with 10% alum solution had near-diffraction-limited performance.

Vasiljevi?, Darko; Muri?, Branka; Panteli?, Dejan; Pani?, Bratimir

2009-07-01

251

A process inherent ultimate safety boiling water reactor  

SciTech Connect

A new type of boiling water reactor (BWR) - the process inherent ultimate safety (PIUS) BWR - has been conceived. A PIUS BWR is an advanced BWR that differs from the typical BWR in that a prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) with special internals replaces the conventional pressure vessel, emergency core cooling system, containment shell, spent fuel storage ponds, and most other components on the nuclear island. The reactor core and balance of plant are similar to current BWR designs. This approach effectively eliminates the possibility of reactor core meltdown and simplifies plant design. The PIUS BWR does not require operation of any mechanical or electrical components in any emergency for reactor shutdown or afterheat cooling, nor does it depend on any equipment outside the PCRV. The PCRV contains a natural circulation BWR; cool, borated water for emergency core cooling; a mechanism ''X'' that allows the cool, borated water to enter the reactor core if there is insufficient water in the core; and a mechanism ''Y'' that limits core power levels to available cooling capabilities.

Forsberg, C.W.

1986-02-01

252

Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor evaluation study: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an independent study by United Engineers and Constructors (UNITED) of the SECURE-P Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) Reactor Concept which is presently under development by the Swedish light water reactor vendor ASEA-ATOM of Vasteras, Sweden. This study was performed to investigate whether there is any realistic basis for believing that the PIUS reactor could be a viable competitor in the US energy market in the future. Assessments were limited to the technical, economic and licensing aspects of PIUS. Socio-political issues, while certainly important in answering this question, are so broad and elusive that it was considered that addressing them with the limited perspective of one small group from one company would be of questionable value and likely be misleading. Socio-political issues aside, the key issue is economics. For this reason, the specific objectives of this study were to determine if the estimated PIUS plant cost will be competitive in the US market and to identify and evaluate the technical and licensing risks that might make PIUS uneconomical or otherwise unacceptable.

Not Available

1987-02-01

253

Regeneration of waste chemicals from liquid redox processes  

SciTech Connect

To avoid the increasingly costly disposal of the waste stream (blowdown) from liquid redox processes used to clean hydrogen sulfide form gases, a reductive burning recovery (RBR) process has been developed. The RBR system concentrates spent chemicals which are primarily sodium thiosulfate and sodium sulfate. The spent chemicals are then thermally destroyed in a reactor. The regenerated salts flow from the bottom of the reactor as a molten smelt containing sodium carbonate, sodium sulfide and sodium vanadate. The molten salt stream is dissolved in water to form a regenerated solution which is fed back into the Stretford process. For the special case of coke oven gas cleaning, elemental sulfur is added to a portion of the regenerated solution in order to clean hydrogen cyanide from the coke gas before the gas is scrubbed with Stretford solution to remove hydrogen sulfide. The sodium thiocyanate product of hydrogen cyanide scrubbing is also thermally destroyed and regenerated by RBR process.

Ciriacks, J.A.; LaFond, J.F. (Engineered Systems International, Appleton, WI (United States))

1991-08-01

254

Identifying and Implementing Corridor Safety Improvements: A Highway Safety Improvement Process and Safety Analysis Tools for Arizona.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) recognizes that evaluation of highway safety from a corridor perspective provides different benefits than the spot analysis used up until now. The project programming procedure at ADOT accepts a quantitative ran...

J. P. Breyer S. C. Joshua

1999-01-01

255

Optical instrumentation for on-line analysis of chemical processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical diagnostics provide the capability for nonintrusive, on-line, real time analysis of chemical process streams. Several laser-based methods for monitoring fossil energy processes have been evaluated. Among the instrumentation techniques which appear quite promising are coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence (SDLIF). A CARS diagnostic was implemented on a coal gasifier

A. Jr. Hartford; D. A. Cremers; T. R. Loree; G. P. Quigley

1983-01-01

256

Using XML in Version Management of Chemical Process Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Process modeling develops models of chemical engineering systems to promote better understanding and allow simulated investigation.\\u000a Currently, there are no standards for process models, and no tool that addresses all phases of development. Model knowledge\\u000a is frequently lost in this conversion, due to improper documentation of models, and the lack of systematic management mechanisms\\u000a to manage all the models concerned.

Heidi Rose; Chiou Peng Lam; Huaizhong Li

2005-01-01

257

Selexol, Allied Chemical Corp. 's physical absorption process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selexol (Allied Chemical Corp's Physical Absorption Process) basically has a 9:1 selectivity for hydrogen sulfide over carbon dioxide, which can be enhanced by well-known process engineering techniques such as recycling, limiting solvent rates, etc. A Selexol plant has been operating since 1970 for Mobil A.G. in which feed gas composition is 9Vertical Bar3< hydrogen sulfide and 9Vertical Bar3< carbon dioxide

Valentine

1978-01-01

258

MTR AND ETR COMPLEXES. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY TOWARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR AND ETR COMPLEXES. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY TOWARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING PLANT. MTR AND ITS ATTACHMENTS IN FOREGROUND. ETR BEYOND TO RIGHT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4100. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

259

Hazardous Waste Processing in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a sequence of two courses included in the chemical engineering program at the University of Minnesota, Duluth that deal with the processing of hazardous wastes. Covers course content and structure, and discusses developments in pollution prevention and waste management that led to the addition of these courses to the curriculum.…

Dorland, Dianne; Baria, Dorab N.

1995-01-01

260

ORGANIC CHEMICAL FATE PREDICTION IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes results from a broadly-based effort to determine the feasibility of predicting the fates of organic chemicals in diffused air, activated sludge wastewater treatment processes. The three conversion/removal mechanisms emphasized in the work were stripping, sorp...

261

In-line monitoring of chemical-mechanical polishing processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of in-line monitoring of chemical- mechanical polishing (CMP) processes. We discuss the technical challenges and review many of the approaches that have been published. Several methods are currently under investigation including optical, thermal (pad temperature), friction (torque motor current), electrochemical, and acoustic (vibration).

Hetherington, Dale L.; Stein, David J.

1999-08-01

262

ASSESSING TOXICITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS TO ANAEROBIC TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A screening protocol has been developed to provide a rapid but dependable and repeatable assessment of the effect of toxic organic chemicals on anaerobic treatment processes. his protocol provides information on the rate limiting biological reactions and the concentration of toxi...

263

Signal processing algorithms for hyperspectral remote sensing of chemical plumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral imaging sensors are widely used for the detection and identification of released chemical agents in many civilian and military applications. Current hyperspectral system capabilities are limited by variation in the background clutter as opposed to the physics of photon detection. Hence, the development of statistical models for background clutter and optimum signal processing algorithms that exploit

Dimitris Manolakis

2008-01-01

264

Chemical process optimization using Newton-like methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various interrelated issues that effect the reliability and efficiency of Newton-like methods for chemical process optimization are studied. An algorithm for solving large, sparse quadratic programming (QP) problems that is based on an active set strategy and a symmetric, indefinite factorization is presented. The QP algorithm is fast and reliable. A simple asymmetric trust region method is proposed for improving

A. Lucia; J. Xv

1990-01-01

265

Secondary cleanup of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant solvent  

SciTech Connect

Solvent from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) (operated by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc.) has been tested to determine the ability of activated alumina to remove secondary degradation products - those degradation products which are not removed by scrubbing with sodium carbonate.

Mailen, J.C.

1985-01-01

266

Physical Properties of Spent Liquor from Chemical Pulping Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this work has been to collect information from the literature about the physical properties of spent liquor from chemical pulping processes and to prepare a summary, based on this information, with the aid of which the calculation of a given ph...

J. G. Salin

1984-01-01

267

Fish processing wastewater treatment by combined biological and chemical processes aiming at water reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to evaluate the potentiality of the reuse of fish processing wastewater by association between biological and chemical treatment. Heterotrophic microalgae systems were used in the biological treatment and coagulation–flocculation–sedimentation in the chemical step. Ammonia, chemical oxygen demand, total solids, suspended solids, turbidity, phosphorous, alkalinity, hardness, silica, sulfate, aluminium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, ferric and pH

Adriana Gonēalves da Silva Manetti; Marcio Oliveira Hornes; Marina Leite Mitterer; Maria Isabel Queiroz

2011-01-01

268

Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Data requirements for the ferrocyanide safety issue developed through the data quality objectives (DQO) process  

SciTech Connect

This document records the data quality objectives (DQO) process applied to the Ferrocyanide Waste Tank Safety Issue at the Hanford Site by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company. Specifically, the major recommendations and findings from this Ferrocyanide DQO process are presented so that decision makers can determine the type, quantity, and quality of data required for addressing tank safety issues. The decision logic diagrams and error tolerance equations also are provided. Finally, the document includes the DQO sample-size formulas for determining specific tank sampling requirements.

Buck, J.W.; Anderson, C.M.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Toth, J.J.; Turner, P.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Meacham, J.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-12-01

269

Optimisation of Shape Parameters and Process Manufacturing for an Automotive Safety Part  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the weight and the cost of automotive vehicles have considerably increased due to the importance devoted to safety systems. It is therefore necessary to reduce the weight and the production cost of components by improving their shape and manufacturing process. This work deals with a numerical approach for optimizing the manufacturing process parameters of a safety belt

Eric Gildemyn; Philippe Dal Santo; Alain Potiron; Delphine Saļdane

2007-01-01

270

Safety analysis of IFR fuel processing in the Argonne National Laboratory Fuel Cycle Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) includes on-site processing and recycling of discharged core and blanket fuel materials. The process is being demonstrated in the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) at ANL`s Idaho site. This paper describes the safety analyses that were performed in support of the FCF program; the resulting safety analysis report was

I Charak; D. R. Pedersen; R. J. Forrester; R. D. Phipps

1993-01-01

271

Chemical Safety for Sustainability (CSS): Human in vivobiomonitoring data for complementing results from in vitro toxicology -A Commentary  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has instituted the Chemical Safety for Sustainability (CSS) research program for assessing the health and environmental impact of manufactured chemicals. This is a broad program wherein one of the tasks is to develop high throughput...

272

Health Information in Material Safety Data Sheets for a Chemical Which Causes Asthma  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To assess the quality of health information on material safety data sheets (MSDS) for a workplace chemical that is well known to cause or exacerbate asthma (toluene diisocyanate, TDI). DESIGN We reviewed a random sample of 61 MSDSs for TDI products produced by 30 manufacturers. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Two physicians independently abstracted data from each MSDS onto a standardized audit form. One manufacturer provided no language about any respiratory effects of TDI exposure. Asthma was listed as a potential health effect by only 15 of the 30 manufacturers (50%). Listing asthma in the MSDS was associated with higher toluene diisocyanate concentrations in the product (P < .042). Allergic or sensitizing respiratory reactions were listed by 21 manufacturers (70%). CONCLUSIONS Many MSDSs for toluene diisocyanate do not communicate clearly that exposure can cause or exacerbate asthma. This suggests that physicians should not rely on the MSDS for information about health effects of this chemical.

Frazier, Linda M; Beasley, Brent W; Sharma, Gyanendra K; Mohyuddin, Aliasghar A

2001-01-01

273

A ''Toolbox''21 Equivalent Process for Safety Analysis Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1 (Quality Assurance for Safety-Related Software) identified a number of quality assurance issues on the use of software in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for analyzing hazards, and designing and operating controls that prevent or mitigate potential accidents. The development and maintenance of a collection, or ''toolbox,'' of multiple-site use, standard solution, Software

2004-01-01

274

A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

2005-07-01

275

A Framework to Design and Optimize Chemical Flooding Processes  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope Kamy Sepehrnoori

2006-08-31

276

A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

2004-11-01

277

Safety evaluation report related to the renewal of the facility license for the research reactor at the Dow Chemical Company  

SciTech Connect

This safety evaluation report for the application filed by the Dow Chemical Company for renewal of facility Operating License R-108 to continue to operate its research reactor at an increased operating power level has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located on the grounds of the Michigan Division of the Dow Chemical Company in Midland, Michigan. The staff concludes that the Dow Chemical Company can continue to operate its reactor without endangering the health and safety of the public.

Not Available

1989-04-01

278

40 CFR 372.20 - Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities. 372.20 Section...COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW...20 Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities. (a) Request...

2013-07-01

279

Soluble Phosphorus in the Activated Sludge Process. Part I. Chemical-Biological Process Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective was to develop and evaluate, at full plant scale, the combined chemical-biological process of phosphorus removal. Alum proved to be a more effective precipitant than sodium aluminate in the moderately alkaline wastewater used. Total phosphor...

1971-01-01

280

Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations.  

PubMed

Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well. PMID:18241983

Mengolini, A; Debarberis, L

2007-11-28

281

Mars: Sorption water driven chemical and biological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical interpretation of the water related results of Mars Odyssey indicate the existence of sorption water (physisorbed and chemisorbed) in the upper meters of Martian soil also at mid- and low-latitudes. The physisorbed component, i.e. adsorption water, is ,,liquid-like`` in the sense of a 2D-fluid. It can act as a solvent, and it can support microscopic transport processes. Thus, ,,adsorption water triggered`` chemical processes are to be expected to become effective at and in the Martian surface. These can be ,,fast`` in case of photon-driven processes, and they will be slow in case of thermal subsurface processes, which can well become ,,effective`` over geologic time scales. Biological processes are expected to be ,,not far away``, when chemical processes become possible. Based on experimental results, Mars-relevant chemical processes are discussed, as the adsorption water triggered photon driven ,,Photo-Fenton-Reaction`` (reducing ferric iron to ferrous iron), the possibly related oxidation of organics, and the sulfatization of carbonate surfaces. The adsorption water triggered ,,Photo-Fenton-Reaction`` generates highly oxidizing hydroxyl radicals. These can in an also temporary presence of adsorption water well be responsible for the high degree of oxidation of the Martian surface. A subgroup of terrestrial permafrost bacteria oxidizes in presence of (adsorption) water, CO2 and VIS-light ferrous iron in ferric iron and organic carbon compounds. As discussed, this biological process can, together with the ,,Photo-Fenton-Reaction`` be a biochemical photon-driven carbon-iron cycle, which might be of relevance on Mars.

Möhlmann, D. T. F.

282

Chemical Process Research and Development Program annual report, FY 1984  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Process Research and Development Program has five main projects applying chemistry and chemical engineering to problems in the production of new fuels, their environmental impact, and energy storage. These projects are: organometallic geochemistry; processing of effluent gases and liquids resulting from synthetic-fuel production, to provide acceptable waste or recycle streams; production of liquid fuels from biomass; electrochemical energy storage; and thermal energy storage. Progress reports are presented for the following studies: production of sugars from cellulose - kinetics of Endoglucanase in cellulose hydrolysis; production of sugars from cellulose - cellulase production by T. Reesei in continuous culture in lactose medium; molecular characterization of vanadium and nickel non-porphyrin compounds isolated from heavy crude petroleums; polymer pendant ligand chemistry - reactions of organoarsonic acids and arsenic acid with catechol ligands bonded to polystyrene-divinylbenzene and regeneration of the ligand site by a simple hydrolysis procedure; homogeneous catalytic hydrogenation - regioselective reduction of polynuclear heteroaromatic compounds catalyzed by (PPh/sub 3/)/sub 3/RuHCl; reactions of polynuclear nitrogen heteroaromatic model coal compounds with triruthenium dodecacarbonyl; processing of condensate waters from coal gasification; separations of polar organics from aqueous solutions by processes based upon reversible chemical complexation; dynamics of liquid filament breakup; removal of H/sub 2/S from coal-derived synthesis gas; technology base research project for electrochemical energy storage; battery electrode studies; and advanced thermal energy storage technologies project.

Not Available

1985-07-01

283

Development of a polysilicon process based on chemical vapor deposition (phase 1)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dichlorosilane-based reductive chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process demonstrated is capable of producing, at low cost, high quality polycrystalline silicon. Testing of decomposition reactor heat shields to insure that the shield provides adequate personnel protection assuming a worst case explosion was completed. Minor modifications to a production reactor heat shield provided adequate heat shield integrity. Construction of the redesigned PDU (Process Development Unit) to accommodate all safety related information proceeded on schedule. Structural steel work was completed as is the piping and instrumentation design work. Major pieces of process equipment were received and positioned in the support structure and all transfer piping and conduits to the PDU were installed. Construction was completed on a feed system for supplying DCS to an intermediate sized reactor. The feed system was successfully interfaced with a reactor equipped with a modified heat shield. Reactor checkout was completed.

McCormick, J.; Arvidson, A.; Sawyer, D.; Plahutnik, F.

1981-06-01

284

Chemical treatment of plutonium with hydrogen peroxide before nitrate anion exchange processing. [Reduction to (IV)  

SciTech Connect

The major aqueous process used to recover and purify plutonium at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility is anion exchange in nitric acid. This process is highly selective for plutonium; however, all plutonium must be as Pu(IV) to form the strongly sorbed anionic nitrato complex. The previous ''full-reduction treatment'' used at Los Alamos to obtain Pu(IV) results in a three- to fourfold increase in the feed solution volume and the introduction of kilogram quantities of extraneous salts immediately before a process whose function is to remove such impurities. That treatment has been successfully replaced by a single reagent, hydrogen peroxide, which converts all plutonium to Pu(IV), minimally increases the feed volume, and introduces no residual impurities. Safety aspects of this revised chemical treatment are addressed.

Marsh, S.F.; Gallegos, T.D.

1987-05-01

285

Loss prevention in the petrochemical and chemical-process high-tech industries in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial safety has noticeably improved in recent years in Taiwan. Despite these improvements, however, serious accidents including explosions, chemical releases, and fires have still occurred in companies such as the Fu Guo Chemical Company (2001), Sin Hun Chemical Company (2005), Motech Industries, Inc. (2005) and Nanpao Resin Co. (2010). These accidents resulted in great loss of life and property, and

Chien-Chung Chen; Tzu-Chi Wang; Lu-Yen Chen; Jie-Huei Dai; Chi-Min Shu

2010-01-01

286

Environmental, safety, and health engineering  

SciTech Connect

A complete guide to environmental, safety, and health engineering, including an overview of EPA and OSHA regulations; principles of environmental engineering, including pollution prevention, waste and wastewater treatment and disposal, environmental statistics, air emissions and abatement engineering, and hazardous waste storage and containment; principles of safety engineering, including safety management, equipment safety, fire and life safety, process and system safety, confined space safety, and construction safety; and principles of industrial hygiene/occupational health engineering including chemical hazard assessment, personal protective equipment, industrial ventilation, ionizing and nonionizing radiation, noise, and ergonomics.

Woodside, G.; Kocurek, D.

1997-12-31

287

Microfabricated Instrumentation for Chemical Sensing in Industrial Process Control  

SciTech Connect

The monitoring of chemical constituents in manufacturing processes is of economic importance to most industries. The monitoring and control of chemical constituents may be of importance for product quality control or, in the case of process effluents, of environmental concern. The most common approach now employed for chemical process control is to collect samples which are returned to a conventional chemical analysis laboratory. This project attempts to demonstrate the use of microfabricated structures, referred to as 'lab-on-a-chip' devices, that accomplish chemical measurement tasks that emulate those performed in the conventional laboratory. The devices envisioned could be used as hand portable chemical analysis instruments where samples are analyzed in the field or as emplaced sensors for continuous 'real-time' monitoring. This project focuses on the development of filtration elements and solid phase extraction elements that can be monolithically integrated onto electrophoresis and chromatographic structures pioneered in the laboratory. Successful demonstration of these additional functional elements on integrated microfabricated devices allows lab-on-a-chip technologies to address real world samples that would be encountered in process control environments. The resultant technology has a broad application to industrial environmental monitoring problems. such as monitoring municipal water supplies, waste water effluent from industrial facilities, or monitoring of run-off from agricultural activities. The technology will also be adaptable to manufacturing process control scenarios. Microfabricated devices integrating sample filtration, solid phase extraction, and chromatographic separation with solvent programming were demonstrated. Filtering of the sample was accomplished at the same inlet with an array of seven channels each 1 {micro}m deep and 18 {micro}m wide. Sample concentration and separation were performed on channels 5 {micro}m deep and 25 {micro}m wide coated with a C18 phase, and elution was achieved under isocratic, step, or linear gradient conditions. For the solid phase extraction signal enhancement factors of 400 over a standard injection of 1.0 s were observed for a 320 s injection. Four polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) were resolved by open channel electrochromatography in under 50 s. Chip operation was unaffected by the presence of the 5 {micro}m silica particles at the filter entrance.

Ramsey, J. M.

2000-06-01

288

A pollution reduction methodology for chemical process simulators  

SciTech Connect

A pollution minimization methodology was developed for chemical process design using computer simulation. It is based on a pollution balance that at steady state is used to define a pollution index with units of mass of pollution per mass of products. The pollution balance has been modified by weighing the mass flowrate of each pollutant by its potential environmental impact score. This converts the mass balance into an environmental impact balance. This balance defines an impact index with units of environmental impact per mass of products. The impact index measures the potential environmental effects of process wastes. Three different schemes for chemical ranking were considered: (1) no ranking, (2) simple ranking from 0 to 3, and (3) ranking by a scientifically derived measure of human health and environmental effects. Use of the methodology is illustrated with two examples from the production of (1) methyl ethyl ketone and (2) synthetic ammonia.

Mallick, S.K.; Cabezas, H.; Bare, J.C.; Sikdar, S.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States). National Risk Management Research Lab.

1996-11-01

289

Plasma-assisted chemical process for NOx control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma-assisted chemical processes have been investigated for the control of NOx flue gas emissions. Previous results have shown that nonthermal plasma is able to oxidize NO to NO2, but cannot convert NO2 to N2 effectively. Rather, part of the NO2 is converted to form N2O and HNO 3 (or NO3-). Several hydrocarbon additives, catalysts, and water film combined with the

Toshiaki Yamamoto; Chen-Lu Yang; Michael R. Beltran; Zhorzh Kravets

2000-01-01

290

Parametric design methodology for chemical processes using a simulator  

SciTech Connect

Parameter design is a method popularized by the Japanese quality expert G. Taguchi, for designing products and manufacturing processes that are robust in the face of uncontrollable variations. At the design stage, the goal of parameter design is to identify design settings that make the product performance less sensitive to the effects of manufacturing and environmental variations and deterioration. Because parameter design reduces performance variation by reducing the influence of the sources of variation rather than by controlling them, it is a cost-effective technique for improving quality. A recent study on the application of parameter design methodology for chemical processes reported that the use of Taguchi's method was not justified and a method based on Monte Carlo simulation combined with optimization was shown to be more effective. However, this method is computationally intensive as a large number of samples are necessary to achieve the given accuracy. Additionally, determination of the number of sample runs required is based on experimentation due to a lack of systematic sampling methods. In an attempt to overcome these problems, the use of a stochastic modeling capability combined with an optimizer is presented in this paper. The objective is that of providing an effective means for application of parameter design methodologies to chemical processes using the ASPEN simulator. This implementation not only presents a generalized tool for use by chemical engineers at large but also provides systematic estimates of the number of sample runs required to attain the specified accuracy. The stochastic model employs the technique of Latin hypercube sampling instead of the traditional Monte Carlo technique and hence has a great potential to reduce the required number of samples. The methodology is illustrated via an example problem of designing a chemical process.

Diwekar, U.M.; Rubin, E.S. (Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1994-02-01

291

Intelligent process control of fiber chemical vapor deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) is a widely used process for the application of thin films. In this case, CVD is being used to apply a thin film interface coating to single crystal monofilament sapphire (Alsb2Osb3) fibers for use in Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC's). The hot-wall reactor operates at near atmospheric pressure which is maintained using a venturi pump system. Inert

John Gregory Jones

1997-01-01

292

Margins of safety provided by COSHH Essentials and the ILO Chemical Control Toolkit.  

PubMed

COSHH Essentials, developed by the UK Health and Safety Executive, and the Chemical Control Toolkit (Toolkit) proposed by the International Labor Organization, are 'control banding' approaches to workplace risk management intended for use by proprietors of small and medium-sized businesses. Both systems group chemical substances into hazard bands based on toxicological endpoint and potency. COSSH Essentials uses the European Union's Risk-phrases (R-phrases), whereas the Toolkit uses R-phrases and the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals. Each hazard band is associated with a range of airborne concentrations, termed exposure bands, which are to be attained by the implementation of recommended control technologies. Here we analyze the margin of safety afforded by the systems and, for each hazard band, define the minimal margin as the ratio of the minimum airborne concentration that produced the toxicological endpoint of interest in experimental animals to the maximum concentration in workplace air permitted by the exposure band. We found that the minimal margins were always <100, with some ranging to <1, and inversely related to molecular weight. The Toolkit-GHS system generally produced margins equal to or larger than COSHH Essentials, suggesting that the Toolkit-GHS system is more protective of worker health. Although, these systems predict exposures comparable with current occupational exposure limits, we argue that the minimal margins are better indicators of health protection. Further, given the small margins observed, we feel it is important that revisions of these systems provide the exposure bands to users, so as to permit evaluation of control technology capture efficiency. PMID:16172140

Jones, Rachael M; Nicas, Mark

2005-09-19

293

Supercritical Water Process for the Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of chemical recycling of waste plastics by decomposition reactions in sub- and supercritical water is reviewed. Decomposition reactions proceed rapidly and selectively using supercritical fluids compared to conventional processes. Condensation polymerization plastics such as PET, nylon, and polyurethane, are relatively easily depolymerized to their monomers in supercritical water. The monomer components are recovered in high yield. Addition polymerization plastics such as phenol resin, epoxy resin, and polyethylene, are also decomposed to monomer components with or without catalysts. Recycling process of fiber reinforced plastics has been studied. Pilot scale or commercial scale plants have been developed and are operating with sub- and supercritical fluids.

Goto, Motonobu

2010-11-01

294

The role of chemical interactions in ion-solid processes  

SciTech Connect

Computer simulation of low-energy ion-solid processes has greatly broadened in scope in recent years. In particular, realistic descriptions of the ion-solid and solid-solid interactions can now be utilized. The molecular dynamics technique, in which the equations of motion of the interacting atoms are numerically integrated, can now be used to characterize ion-solid interactions in a range of model material systems. Despite practical limitations of this procedure, a number of substantial results have appeared. The available results are examined to investigate the qualitative influence that chemical interactions have on low-energy ion-solid processes. 26 refs., 4 figs.

Dodson, B.W.

1990-01-01

295

Galactic Chemical Evolution of the s Process from AGB Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We follow the chemical evolution of the Galaxy for the s elements using a Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) model, as already discussed by Travaglio et al. (1999, 2001, 2004), with a full updated network and refined asymptotic giant branch (AGB) models. Calculations of the s contribution to each isotope at the epoch of the formation of the solar system is determined by following the GCE contribution by AGB stars only. Then, using the r-process residual method we determine for each isotope their solar system r-process fraction, and recalculate the GCE contribution of heavy elements accounting for both the s and r process. We compare our results with spectroscopic abundances at various metallicities of [Sr,Y,Zr/Fe], of [Ba,La/Fe], of [Pb/Fe], typical of the three s-process peaks, as well as of [Eu/Fe], which in turn is a typical r-process element. Analysis of the various uncertainties involved in these calculations are discussed.

Serminato, Alessandra; Gallino, Roberto; Travaglio, Claudia; Bisterzo, Sara; Straniero, Oscar

2009-09-01

296

Food Safety; FDA's Food Advisory and Recall Process Needs Strengthening.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numerous outbreaks of foodborne illnesses in past years continue to draw public attention to the safety of the nations food supply. Prompt responses from government entities and the food industry can play a vital role in stopping the spread of illnesses a...

L. Shames

2012-01-01

297

Is risk analysis a useful tool for improving process safety?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve safety one has to know where risks are. For determining risks, hazards have to be identified and representative accident scenarios defined. This needs effort and technique. Man is quite limited in foresight without having experience and lessons from the past. For knowing the risk of an incidental, undesired event both its severity and probability has to be estimated.

H. J. Pasman; S. Jung; K. Prem; W. J. Rogers; X. Yang

2009-01-01

298

Effect of combination processing on the microbial, chemical and sensory quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable pulav  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of irradiation in combination with retort processing on the shelf life and safety aspects of an ethnic Indian food product like vegetable pulav was investigated. Gamma irradiation of RTE vegetable pulav was carried out at different dosage rates with 60Co followed by retort processing. The combination processed samples were analysed for microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics. Microbiological analysis indicated that irradiation in combination with retort processing has significantly reduced the microbial loads whereas the chemical and sensory analysis proved that this combination processing is effective in retaining the properties even after storage for one year at ambient conditions. The results also indicated that a minimum irradiation dosage at 4.0 kGy along with retort processing at an F0 value of 2.0 is needed to achieve the desired shelf life with improved organoleptic qualities.

Kumar, R.; George, Johnsy; Rajamanickam, R.; Nataraju, S.; Sabhapathy, S. N.; Bawa, A. S.

2011-12-01

299

Biomass chemicals production by thermochemical conversion. [Wacker synthesis, Eastman acetic anhydride process, Organosolv process kraft pulping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews novel concepts for the production of chemicals by the thermochemical conversion of biomass. An engineering and economic analysis builds upon recent laboratory developments to provide a perspective of new process potentials and identifies areas requiring further investigation. Candidate processes fall into two categories: production of acetate esters, vinyl acetate and acetic anhydride by biomass gasification; and production

Klausmeier

1983-01-01

300

Safety-Guided Design through System-Theoretic Process Analysis, Benefits and Difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development environments for embedded systems are moving towards increased automation between Commercial Of The Shelf (COTS) engineering tools. While automation provides new opportunities for e.g. verification, it also to some extent decreases the possibility of identifying and acting on safety issues that arise during development. To investigate the relationship between tool integration and safety we performed a System-Theoretic Process Analysis

M. S. Fredrik Asplund; D. Jad El-khoury; Martin Törngren

301

NUCLEAR SAFETY IN THE UNIRRADIATED PROCESSING PHASES OF ENRICHED URANIUM FUEL CYCLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strict limitations must be imposed on the design and operation of ; industrial facilities processing fissionable material in order to prevent ; accidental nuclear chain reactions. Freedom from such criticality hazards can be ; attained by a program of nuclear safety incorporating geometric, administrative, ; and operational controls. This paper discusses briefly the fundamental nuclear ; safety methods common to

J. D. McLendon; J. W. Wachter; H. F. Henry

1958-01-01

302

A UMLS-based spell checker for natural language processing in vaccine safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Institute of Medicine has identified patient safety as a key goal for health care in the United States. Detecting vaccine adverse events is an important public health activity that contributes to patient safety. Reports about adverse events following immunization (AEFI) from surveillance systems contain free-text components that can be analyzed using natural language processing. To extract Unified Medical

Herman D Tolentino; Michael D Matters; Wikke Walop; Barbara Law; Wesley Tong; Fang Liu; Paul Fontelo; Katrin Kohl; Daniel C Payne

2007-01-01

303

Commercial Processing and its effect on the Microbiological Safety of Shell Eggs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Though egg shell microbiology has been studied over the years, little of it describes how modern US processing conditions impact microbial populations. When safety based regulations are implemented, this information can be used to determine critical steps critical to product safety. Shell egg surf...

304

Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process.  

PubMed

Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD(5) removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:22768233

Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

2012-06-29

305

Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process  

PubMed Central

Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

2012-01-01

306

40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...information before conducting any process hazard analysis required by the rule. The...to identify and understand the hazards posed by those processes involving...in conjunction with the process hazard analysis in sufficient detail to...

2013-07-01

307

Mechanistic, kinetic, and processing aspects of tungsten chemical mechanical polishing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation presents an investigation into tungsten chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). CMP is the industrially predominant unit operation that removes excess tungsten after non-selective chemical vapor deposition (CVD) during sub-micron integrated circuit (IC) manufacture. This work explores the CMP process from process engineering and fundamental mechanistic perspectives. The process engineering study optimized an existing CMP process to address issues of polish pad and wafer carrier life. Polish rates, post-CMP metrology of patterned wafers, electrical test data, and synergy with a thermal endpoint technique were used to determine the optimal process. The oxidation rate of tungsten during CMP is significantly lower than the removal rate under identical conditions. Tungsten polished without inhibition during cathodic potentiostatic control. Hertzian indenter model calculations preclude colloids of the size used in tungsten CMP slurries from indenting the tungsten surface. AFM surface topography maps and TEM images of post-CMP tungsten do not show evidence of plow marks or intergranular fracture. Polish rate is dependent on potassium iodate concentration; process temperature is not. The colloid species significantly affects the polish rate and process temperature. Process temperature is not a predictor of polish rate. A process energy balance indicates that the process temperature is predominantly due to shaft work, and that any heat of reaction evolved during the CMP process is negligible. Friction and adhesion between alumina and tungsten were studied using modified AFM techniques. Friction was constant with potassium iodate concentration, but varied with applied pressure. This corroborates the results from the energy balance. Adhesion between the alumina and the tungsten was proportional to the potassium iodate concentration. A heuristic mechanism, which captures the relationship between polish rate, pressure, velocity, and slurry chemistry, is presented. In this mechanism, the colloid reacts with the chemistry of the slurry to produce active sites. These active sites become inactive by removing tungsten from the film. The process repeats when then inactive sites are reconverted to active sites. It is shown that the empirical form of the heuristic mechanism fits all of the data obtained. The mechanism also agrees with the limiting cases that were investigated.

Stein, David

308

Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

1992-05-01

309

Development of a polysilicon process based on chemical vapor deposition, phase 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a dichlorosilane-based reductive chemical vapor deposition process for the production of polycrystalline silicon is discussed. Experimental data indicate that the ease of ignition and explosion severity of dichlorosilane (DCS)/air mixtures is substantially attenuated if the DCS is diluted with hydrogen. Redesign of the process development unit to accommodate safety related information is described. Several different sources of trichlorosilane were used to generate a mixture of redistributed chlorosilanes via Dowex ion exchange resin. The unseparated mixtures were then fed to an experimental reactor in which silicon was deposited and the deposited silicon analyzed for electrically active impurities. At least one trichlorosilane source provided material of requisite purity. Silicon grown in the experimental reactor was converted to single crystal material and solar cells fabricated and tested.

McCormick, J.; Sharp, K.; Arvidson, A.; Sawyer, D.

1981-03-01

310

High-lift chemical heat pump technologies for industrial processes  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally industrial heat pumps (IHPs) have found applications on a process specific basis with reject heat from a process being upgraded and returned to the process. The IHP must be carefully integrated into a process since improper placement may result in an uneconomic application. Industry has emphasized a process integration approach to the design and operation of their plants. Heat pump applications have adopted this approach and the area of applicability was extended by utilizing a process integrated approach where reject heat from one process is upgraded and then used as input for another process. The DOE IHP Program has extended the process integration approach of heat pump application with a plant utility emphasis. In this design philosophy, reject heat from a process is upgraded to plant utility conditions and fed into the plant distribution system. This approach has the advantage that reject heat from any pr@s can be used as input and the output can be used at any location within the plant. Thus the approach can be easily integrated into existing industrial applications and all reject heat streams are potential targets of opportunity. The plant utility approach can not be implemented without having heat pumps with high-lift capabilities (on the order of 65{degree}C). Current heat pumps have only about half the lift capability required. Thus the current emphasis for the DOE IHP Program is the development of high lift chemical heat pumps that can deliver heat more economically to higher heat delivery temperatures. This is achieved with innovative cooling (refrigeration) and heating technologies which are based on advanced cycles and advanced working fluids or a combination of both. This paper details the plan to develop economically competitive, environmentally acceptable heat pump technologies that are capable of providing the delivery temperature and lift required to supply industrial plant utility-grade process heating and/or cooling.

Olszewski, M.; Zaltash, A.

1995-03-01

311

Application of advnced process control on mixed-product chemical mechanical polishing process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research developed a run-to-run (RtR) process control technique on the mix-product chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process. The model of the mix-product CMP process was constructed by using analysis of variance and time series analysis, Then, it was transferred to the state space form and the extended Kalman filter was employed to estimate the disturbances and update the tool parameter

Chien-Feng Wu; Chcng-Hsicn Chen; Mui-Home Chen; Cheng-Wenc Chen

2011-01-01

312

Guidance on health effects of toxic chemicals. Safety Analysis Report Update Program  

SciTech Connect

Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES), and Martin Marietta Utility Services, Inc. (MMUS), are engaged in phased programs to update the safety documentation for the existing US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facilities. The safety analysis of potential toxic hazards requires a methodology for evaluating human health effects of predicted toxic exposures. This report provides a consistent set of health effects and documents toxicity estimates corresponding to these health effects for some of the more important chemicals found within MMES and MMUS. The estimates are based on published toxicity information and apply to acute exposures for an ``average`` individual. The health effects (toxicological endpoints) used in this report are (1) the detection threshold; (2) the no-observed adverse effect level; (3) the onset of irritation/reversible effects; (4) the onset of irreversible effects; and (5) a lethal exposure, defined to be the 50% lethal level. An irreversible effect is defined as a significant effect on a person`s quality of life, e.g., serious injury. Predicted consequences are evaluated on the basis of concentration and exposure time.

Foust, C.B.; Griffin, G.D.; Munro, N.B.; Socolof, M.L.

1994-02-01

313

How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process?  

PubMed

Whilst there has been a significant increase in the amount of consumer interest in the safety performance of privately owned vehicles, the role that it plays in consumers' purchase decisions is poorly understood. The aims of the current study were to determine: how important vehicle safety is in the new vehicle purchase process; what importance consumers place on safety options/features relative to other convenience and comfort features, and how consumers conceptualise vehicle safety. In addition, the study aimed to investigate the key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase. Participants recruited in Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire about their new vehicle purchase. The findings from the questionnaire indicated that participants ranked safety-related factors (e.g., EuroNCAP (or other) safety ratings) as more important in the new vehicle purchase process than other vehicle factors (e.g., price, reliability etc.). Similarly, participants ranked safety-related features (e.g., advanced braking systems, front passenger airbags etc.) as more important than non-safety-related features (e.g., route navigation systems, air-conditioning etc.). Consistent with previous research, most participants equated vehicle safety with the presence of specific vehicle safety features or technologies rather than vehicle crash safety/test results or crashworthiness. The key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase were: use of EuroNCAP, gender and education level, age, drivers' concern about crash involvement, first vehicle purchase, annual driving distance, person for whom the vehicle was purchased, and traffic infringement history. The findings from this study are important for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion and publicity of vehicle safety features for particular consumer groups (such as younger consumers) in order to increase their knowledge regarding vehicle safety and to encourage them to place highest priority on safety in the new vehicle purchase process. PMID:18460367

Koppel, Sjaanie; Charlton, Judith; Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael

2007-12-18

314

Fluid Assisted Fault Weakening: Mechanical vs. Chemical Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influx of fluids into fault zones can trigger two main types of weakening process that operate over different timescales, facilitate fault movement and influence fault slip behaviour. During the seismic cycle fluids can be trapped by low permeability fault zones or stratigraphic barriers favoring fluid overpressure (mechanical weakening) and earthquake nucleation. In the entire fault history fluids can react with fault rocks to produce weak mineral phases (chemical weakening) that alter the mechanical properties of the fault zones. Here I will present two examples of mechanical and chemical fault-weakening from the Apennines of Italy. Seismic profiles and deep borehole data show that the strongest earthquakes of the Apennines nucleate within overpressured Evaporites consisting of dolostones and anhydrites. Field and experimental studies on exhumed faults within the same lithology depict a cataclastic inner fault that can generate frictional instabilities with localization and increasing sliding velocity. The outer fault core presents barrier-like portions associated with foliated anhydrites, 10-21 ? permeability ?10-19 m2. The combination of field observations and rock deformation measurements suggests a fault zone structure capable of developing fluid overpressures during the seismic cycle: fluid overpressures can potentially promote earthquake nucleation and aftershock triggering. Field studies from an exhumed regional low-angle normal fault show that in the long term fluids reacted (diffusion-mass transfer processes) with fine-grained cataclasites in the fault core to produce a phyllosilicates-rich and foliated fault rock. Within the foliated microstructure, that is rich in talc, smectite and chlorite, deformation occurs by frictional sliding along 50-200-nm-thick lamellae. Rock deformation experiments show that the foliated fault rock is weak, 0.2 < friction< 0.35, it is characterized by a stable sliding slip-behaviour with no strength recovery with time. Chemical weakening associated with phyllosilicate development along fault zones represents a valuable explanation for long term weak and creeping faults. The activation of mechanical or chemical weakening processes is primarily controlled by pressure, temperature, strain-rate, protolith composition and type of fluids. The interplay between mechanical and chemical weakening favors the development of heterogeneous crustal scale faults that can contribute to explain the complex fault slip behaviour recently documented by high-resolution GPS and seismological data.

Collettini, C.

2011-12-01

315

A contemporary view of organizational safety: variability and interactions of organizational processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of qualitative assessment of organizational processes (e.g., safety audits and performance indicators) and their incorporation\\u000a into risk models have been based on a ‘normative view’ that decomposes organizations into separate processes that are likely\\u000a to fail and lead to accidents. This paper discusses a control theoretic framework of organizational safety that views accidents\\u000a as a result of performance variability

Tom Kontogiannis

2010-01-01

316

An Assessment of Patient Safety in Acupuncture Process Under EMR Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the facilitating roles of IT, this study is to investigate the safety issues of the acupuncture process in the current\\u000a practices under EMR support. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in 80 Chinese medicine practice hospitals\\u000a and clinics in Taiwan. Concerns over patient safety during the acupuncture process were raised, such as an inconsistency between\\u000a the practice and prescription

Yi-Chang Li; Ming-Chien Hung; Shih-Jung Hsiao; Kuen-Daw Tsai; Mei-Man Chang

317

Fundamental studies of chemical vapor deposition diamond growth processes  

SciTech Connect

We are developing laser spectroscopic techniques to foster a fundamental understanding of diamond film growth by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Several spectroscopic techniques are under investigation to identify intermediate species present in the bulk reactor volume, the thin active volume immediately above the growing film, and the actual growing surface. Such a comprehensive examination of the overall deposition process is necessary because a combination of gas phase and surface chemistry is probably operating. Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) techniques have been emphasized. A growth rector that permits through-the-substrate gas sampling for REMPI/time-of-flight mass spectroscopy has been developed. 7 refs., 2 figs.

Shaw, R.W.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.; Heatherly, L.

1991-01-01

318

No Respect: Research in Quality, Safety, and Process Improvement  

PubMed Central

The need for good quality and safety research has never been more imperative, but even as we encourage and promote such work, we seem to suppress it through institutional bias and inertia. Indeed the culture of health care seems to have a love-hate relationship with quality-improvement work as a whole. In this commentary we explore some of the implications of the application of pure science standards at the sharp end of clinical practice, where the down-and-dirty street-level improvement work happens.

Rubinfeld, Ilan S; Horst, H Mathilda

2009-01-01

319

Multiphase problems related to safety studies in the process industries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safety risk and analysis, particularly in the petrochemical industry, are discussed. Multiphase flow problems resulting from loss of confinement are described: rupture of long pipes used for transporting liquefied gas; rupture of short pipes and branch connections in an installation; rupture of a container holding liquefied gas or another liquid at a temperature higher than its normal boiling temperature; and rupture of a container holding gas in the supercritical state. Operation of valves and rupture disks during reaction runaway; and artificial dispersion of gas layers are considered.

Baron, R. Grollier

320

Physical and Chemical Properties of Sol-Gel Processing.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sol-gel processing is known as a novel technique to synthesize glasses using liquid chemicals. Hydrolysis reaction can basically determine a polymeric structure resulting in glasses of different properties. The hydrolysis reaction of tetramethyl orthosilicate, TMOS, is investigated at pHs of 4.9, 6.0, 7.5 of water, and with the chemical additives: formamide, acetone, methanol acetonitrile, and dioxane. The chemical additives are used for a solvation effect, and the water of different pHs is used as a catalyst. The experiment has been completed as a function of time, and at pressures from 1 to 2 kilobars. The rate constant is determined using Raman spectroscopy. The roles of viscosity, pressure induced mobility, concentration of hydronium and hydroxyl ions, volumes of activations, dipole moment, dielectric constant, and hydrogen bonds are discussed. After hydrolysis and polymerization, gelation occurs. The Positronium Decay Technique is also used to measure pore sizes of the silica gels. The results are compared with the BET method. The gels of pores larger than 50 A are used to synthesize titanium and boron doped gels and to characterize their physical properties. Infrared spectroscopy is used to identify Si-O-Ti and Si-O-B bonds.

Hoang, Geun Chang

321

Rainwater as a chemical agent of geologic processes; a review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical analyses of the rainwater collected at several localities are given to show the variations of the principal constitutents. In rock weathering and soil-forming processes, the chemical composition of rainwater has an important effect which has been evaluated for only a few arid areas. In humid regions the important amounts of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium added yearly by rain may be expected to influence the composition of the soil water and thereby the cations in the exchange positions of soil clay minerals. The acquisition of cations by clay minerals may slow down chemical weathering. The stability of soil clay minerals is influenced by the constant accession of cations from rainwater. Conversely, the clay minerals modify the amounts and kinds of cations that are leached out by drainage waters. The stability of micaceous minerals in soils may be partly due to accessions of K +1 ions from rainwater. The pH of rainwater in any area varies considerably and seems to form a seasonal and regional pattern. The recorded pH values range from 3.0 to 9.8.

Carroll, Dorothy

1962-01-01

322

40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...shall include at least the following: (i) A block flow diagram or simplified process flow diagram; (ii) Process chemistry; (iii) Maximum intended inventory; (iv) Safe upper and lower limits for such items as temperatures,...

2011-07-01

323

An Approach to Help Departments Meet the New ABET Process Safety Requirements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The proposed program criteria changes by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc. (ABET), for chemical, biochemical, biomolecular, and similarly named programs includes a fundamental awareness expectation of the hazards involved in chemical processing for a graduating chemical engineer. As of July 2010, these four new words…

Vaughen, Bruce K.

2012-01-01

324

An Approach to Help Departments Meet the New ABET Process Safety Requirements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proposed program criteria changes by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc. (ABET), for chemical, biochemical, biomolecular, and similarly named programs includes a fundamental awareness expectation of the hazards involved in chemical processing for a graduating chemical engineer. As of July 2010, these four new words…

Vaughen, Bruce K.

2012-01-01

325

Chemical Solution Processing of Strontium Bismuth Tantalate Films  

SciTech Connect

We describe Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) processes by which Strontium Bismuth Tantalate (SBT) thin films can be prepared at temperatures as low as 550 C. In this paper, we will present strategies used to optimize the properties of the films including solution chemistry, film composition, the nature of the substrate (or bottom electrode) used, and the thermal processing cycle. Under suitable conditions, {approximately} 1700 {angstrom} films can be prepared which have a large switchable polarization (2P{sub r} > 10{micro}C/cm{sup 2}), and an operating voltage, defined as the voltage at which 0.80 x 2P{sub r} max is switched, 2.0V. We also describe an all-alkoxide route to SBT films from which SBT can be crystallized at 550 C.

Boyle, T.J.; Lakeman, C.D.E.

1998-12-21

326

Alternative methods to safety studies in experimental animals: role in the risk assessment of chemicals under the new European Chemicals Legislation (REACH).  

PubMed

During the last two decades, substantial efforts have been made towards the development and international acceptance of alternative methods to safety studies using laboratory animals. In the EU, challenging timelines for phasing out of many standard tests using laboratory animals were established in the seventh Amending Directive 2003/15/EC to Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC. In continuation of this policy, the new European Chemicals Legislation (REACH) favours alternative methods to conventional in vivo testing, if validated and appropriate. Even alternative methods in the status of prevalidation or validation, but without scientific or regulatory acceptance may be used under certain conditions. Considerable progress in the establishment of alternative methods has been made in some fields, in particular with respect to methods predicting local toxic effects and genotoxicity. In more complex important fields of safety and risk assessment such as systemic single and repeated dose toxicity, toxicokinetics, sensitisation, reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity, it is expected that the development and validation of in silico methods, testing batteries (in vitro and in silico) and tiered testing systems will have to overcome many scientific and regulatory obstacles which makes it extremely difficult to predict the outcome and the time needed. The main reasons are the complexity and limited knowledge of the biological processes involved on one hand and the long time frame until validation and regulatory acceptance of an alternative method on the other. New approaches in safety testing and evaluation using "Integrated Testing Strategies" (ITS) (including combinations of existing data, the use of chemical categories/grouping, in vitro tests and QSAR) that have not been validated or not gained wide acceptance in the scientific community and by regulatory authorities will need a thorough justification of their appropriateness for a given purpose. This requires the availability of knowledge and experience of experts in toxicology. The challenging deadlines for phasing out of in vivo tests in the Cosmetics Amending Directive 2003/15/EC appear unrealistic. Likewise, we expect that the application of validated alternative methods will only have a small or moderate impact on the reduction of in vivo tests under the regimen of REACH, provided that at least the same level of protection of human health as in the past is envisaged. As a consequence, under safety aspects, it appears wise to consider established in vivo tests to be indispensable as basic tools for hazard and risk assessment with respect to systemic single and repeated dose toxicity, sensitisation, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity, especially regarding quantitative aspects of risk assessment such as NOAELs, LOAELs and health-related limit values derived from them. Based on the overall evaluation in this review, the authors are of the opinion that in the short- and mid-term, the strategy of the development of alternative methods should be more directed towards the refinement or reduction of in vivo tests. The lessons learnt during these efforts will provide a substantial contribution towards the replacement initiatives in the long-term. PMID:18322675

Lilienblum, W; Dekant, W; Foth, H; Gebel, T; Hengstler, J G; Kahl, R; Kramer, P-J; Schweinfurth, H; Wollin, K-M

2008-03-06

327

WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL NUCLEAR SAFETY RELATED R AND D REPORT FOR CY2008  

SciTech Connect

The Engineering and Technology Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks associated with key waste processing project decisions. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment (TDD). The Office of Waste Processing TDD program prioritizes and approves research and development scopes of work that address nuclear safety related to processing of highly radioactive nuclear wastes. Thirteen of the thirty-five R&D approved work scopes in FY2009 relate directly to nuclear safety, and are presented in this report.

Fellinger, A.

2009-10-15

328

Sealing OS processes to improve dependability and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most modern operating systems, a process is a hardware-protected abstraction for isolating code and data. This protection, however, is selective. Many common mechanisms—dynamic code loading, run-time code generation, shared memory, and intrusive system APIs— make the barrier between processes very permeable. This paper argues that this traditional open process architecture exacerbates the dependability and security weaknesses of modern systems.

Galen C. Hunt; Mark Aiken; Manuel Fähndrich; Chris Hawblitzel; Orion Hodson; James R. Larus; Steven Levi; Bjarne Steensgaard; David Tarditi; Ted Wobber

2007-01-01

329

Sealing OS processes to improve dependability and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most modern operating systems, a process is a hardware-protected abstraction for isolating code and data. This protection, however, is selective. Many common mechanisms---dynamic code loading, run-time code generation, shared memory, and intrusive system APIs---make the barrier between processes very permeable. This paper argues that this traditional open process architecture exacerbates the dependability and security weaknesses of modern systems. As

Galen Hunt; Mark Aiken; Manuel Fähndrich; Chris Hawblitzel; Orion Hodson; James Larus; Steven Levi; Bjarne Steensgaard; David Tarditi; Ted Wobber

2007-01-01

330

Economic evaluation for the retrofit of chemical processes through waste minimization and process integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research involves the development of an economic-based methodology for waste minimization and reduction of energy consumption in the chemical industry by modifying existing processes. The methodology consists of identifying waste minimization options through a sensitivity analysis and flowsheet configurations through a hierarchical procedure. The alternatives identified together with the heat-exchanger network were used to construct a superstructure that was

Mauricio M. Dantus; Karen A. High

1996-01-01

331

THE IMPACT OF SHELL EGG PROCESSING ON FOOD SAFETY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The microbial quality of shell eggs is affected by many factors such as: hen health, production environment, nutrition, storage conditions, processing conditions, processing facilities, etc. In the United States, the washing of shell eggs for retail sale is a requirement for all product marketed u...

332

PROCESS CONTROL PERSPECTIVE FOR PROCESS ANALYTICAL TECHNOLOGY: INTEGRATION OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PRACTICE INTO SEMICONDUCTOR AND PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

FDA's Process Analytical Technology (PAT) initiative provides an unprecedented opportunity for chemical engineers to play significant roles in the pharmaceutical industry. In this article, the authors provide their perspectives on (1) the need for chemical engineering principles in pharmaceutical development for a thorough process understanding; (2) applications of chemical engineering principles to meet the challenges from the semiconductor and pharmaceutical

Huiquan Wu; Mansoor A. Khan; Ajaz S. Hussain

2007-01-01

333

Experience of Hot Cell Renovation Work in CPF (Chemical Processing Facility)  

SciTech Connect

Renovation work for operation room A of the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF) was carried out. Cell renovation work involved disassembly, removal and installation of new equipment for the CA-3 cell of operation room A and the crane renovation work involved the repair of the in-cell crane for the CA-5 cell of operation room A. There were not many examples of renovation work performed on cells under high radiation environment and alpha contamination in Japan. Lessons learnt: With respect to the cell renovation work and crane repair work, a method that gave full consideration to safety was employed and the work was performed without accidents or disaster. Moreover, through improvement of the method, reduction of radioactive exposure of the workers was achieved and a melt reduction device was designed to deal with the radioactive waste material that was generated in the renovation work to achieve significant melt reduction of waste material.

Toyonobu Nabemoto; Fujio Katahira; Tadatsugu Sakaya [IHI Corporation: Isogo-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa pref, 235-8501 (Japan); Shinichi Aose; Takafumi Kitajima; Kouji Ogasawara; Kazunori Nomura; Shigehiko Miyachi; Yoshiaki Ichige; Tadahiro Shinozaki; Shinichi Ohuchi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency: Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki pref, 319-1194 (Japan)

2008-01-15

334

Simulation analysis and study on car-following safety distance model based on braking process of leading vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve traditional safety distance models based on braking process of the leading vehicle, a new safety distance model of one-lane following condition is established based on traditional safety distance models. The new model considers the relative speed between vehicles and the change process of deceleration value. A simulation using Matlab software verifies that the new model overcomes

Qiang Luo; Lunhui Xun; Zhihui Cao; Yanguo Huang

2011-01-01

335

Food allergy and intolerance: an international chemical safety perspective 1 The views expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the decision or stated policy of the World Health Organization. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical safety is concerned with the assessment of human health (and environmental) risks and their management. The safety of chemicals in food, present as normal constituents, intentional additives, contaminants or residues is part of chemical safety. Morbidity and mortality due to allergenic chemicals and allergic hypersensitization are being addressed on a global basis. As part of this, international efforts are

Edward Smith

1997-01-01

336

An assessment of patient safety in acupuncture process under EMR support.  

PubMed

With the facilitating roles of IT, this study is to investigate the safety issues of the acupuncture process in the current practices under EMR support. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in 80 Chinese medicine practice hospitals and clinics in Taiwan. Concerns over patient safety during the acupuncture process were raised, such as an inconsistency between the practice and prescription and a lack of monitoring patient's condition during the treatment. Confirming the physicians' prescription and documenting patients' reaction for patient record management are needed to add to the EMR system for patient safety while performing acupuncture. The results of this study can be used by the government or medical institutes to assess the work flow and set up standards of EMRs design for their acupuncture treatment to ensure patient safety and to enhance healthcare quality. PMID:20703773

Li, Yi-Chang; Hung, Ming-Chien; Hsiao, Shih-Jung; Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Chang, Mei-Man

2010-02-04

337

Proceedings of the first international conference on pervaporation processes in the chemical industry  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings collect papers given at conference on chemical pervaporation processes. Topics include: evaporation and evaporators; fermentation and distillation; biomass conversion and waste processing.

Bakish, R.

1986-01-01

338

Leaching characteristics of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant calcines  

SciTech Connect

This report documents leaching studies conducted on two non-radioactive, pilot-plant calcines produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The two pilot-plant calcines simulate radioactive calcine which may be produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility by blending high-level liquid waste and sodium-bearing liquid waste. The calcines were subjected to the Environmental Protection Agency's Extraction Procedure Toxicity Test and to a test based on the Materials Characterization Center's MCC-1 Static Leach Test. Following the protocol of these tests, leachates were obtained and analyzed for chemical composition to develop information about component mass loss and total mass loss. Surface analysis techniques were employed in an attempt to identify species that were leached from the calcines, but later precipitated during the MCC-1 tests. This report also documents leaching studies conducted on a radioactive fluorinel-sodium blend calcine produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility. This calcine was also subjected to a static leach test based on the MCC-1 test. The leachate was analyzed to develop information about total mass loss and leaching characteristics of radioactive species. 12 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

Chipman, N.A.

1990-02-01

339

Corrosion study in the chemical air separation (MOLTOX trademark ) process  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of studies aimed at solving the corrosion problems encountered during operation of the MOLTOX{trademark} pilot plant. These studies concentrated on the screening of commercial and developmental alloys under conditions simulating operation conditions in this high temperature molten salt process. Process economic studies were preformed in parallel with the laboratory testing to ensure that an economically feasible solution would be achieved. In addition to the above DOE co-funded studies, Air Products and Chemicals pursued proprietary studies aimed at developing a less corrosive salt mixture which would potentially allow the use of chemurgically available alloys such as stainless steels throughout the system. These studies will not be reported here; however, the results of corrosion tests in the new less corrosive salt mixtures are reported. Because our own studies on salt chemistry impacts heavily on the overall process and thereby has an influence on the experimental work conducted under this contract, some of the studies discussed here were impacted by our own proprietary data. Therefore, the reasons behind some of the experiments presented herein will not be explained because that information is proprietary to Air Products. 14 refs., 42 figs., 21 tabs.

Kang, Doohee; Wong, Kai P.; Archer, R.A.; Cassano, A.A.

1988-12-01

340

Process for the chemical cleaning of metal components  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A process for chemical cleaning of metal components having an iron oxide deposit upon a layer of compounds having a high silica content. The process includes the step of preparing an aqueous mixture including an agent for complexing Si(OH).sub.4 and at least one compound for dissolving the high silica content layer. The dissolving compound is selected from the group consisting of insertion compounds for inserting OH or F ions in the Si(OH).sub.4 and OH-containing organic compounds. The insertion compounds including electrophilic groups and are selected from the group consisting of conjugated unsaturated systems and unsaturated N-oxide compounds. The OH-containing organic compounds are selected from the group consisting of organic compounds having at least one alcohol function, aromatic amines, soluble salts of tertiary amines, and aromatic amines causing condensation of OH radicals onto silica. The process also includes the step of contacting the metal component with the aqueous medium until the high silica content layer has been dissolved.

1996-11-19

341

Processing research on chemically vapor deposited silicon nitride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of preparing free standing plate and hemispherical domes of crystalline silicon nitride by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique has been established as a result of processing research conducted on this program. Physical property characterizations of a wide range of deposits have established the CVD form of silicon nitride as a candidate electromagnetic (EM) window material for advanced, high-performance tactical missile systems. The EM absorption coefficients of CVD silicon nitride in the UV-IR and radar transmittance passbands are far superior to the more conventional silicon nitride modifications (i.e. HPSN and RSSN). At the current stage of process development, the flexure strength is comparable to RSSN exhibiting similar strength retention properties at elevated temperatures. Average room temperature flexure strength levels of 317 MN/sq m (46,000 psi) were achieved by codeposition with minor amounts of aluminum chloride during this program (Phase 3); this level represents a 150 percent increase in strength compared to levels achieved during the initial Phase 1 program. With a better understood deposition model now in hand, as a result of the Phase 3 program, a high probability exists in future process optimization studies for achieving additional improvements in the mechanical and optical properties of CVD alpha-silicon nitride.

Tanzilli, R. A.; Gebhardt, J. J.; Dandrea, J.

1981-12-01

342

A system approach to reliability and life-cycle cost of process safety-systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytic method, PDS, allows the designer to assess the cost effectiveness of computer-based process safety-systems based on a quantification of reliability and life-cycle cost. Using PDS in early system design, configurations and operating philosophies can be identified in which the reliability of field devices and logic control units is balanced from a safety and an economic point of view.

Lars Bodsberg; Per Hokstad

1995-01-01

343

Characterization of a positive chemically amplified photoresist for process control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemically Amplified Resists (CARs) are much less observable than their i-line counterparts due to the absence of photoresist actinic absorbency. CARs however, exhibit resist thinning during the Post-Exposure Bake process (PEB). A Design of Experiments (DOE) technique was employed around the exposure and the PEB temperature for a commercial DUV photoresist. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) technique was used to measure the deprotection of the CARs after the PEB step while standard interferometry techniques were used for exposed area thickness loss measurements after the PEB step. Our analysis indicates that exposed area thickness loss is strongly correlated to the deprotection of the photoresist, so that thickness loss can serve as a reliable deprotection indicator and can hence be possibly used as an observable for control of the photolithography sequence.

Jakatdar, Nickhil H.; Niu, Xinhui; Spanos, Costas J.; Romano, Andrew R.; Bendik, Joe J.; Kovacs, Ronald P.; Hill, Stephen L.

1998-06-01

344

Hydrogeochemical processes and chemical characteristics around Sahand Mountain, NW Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical analysis of 21 water wells in Sahand area, NW of Iran has been evaluated to determine the hydrogeochemical processes and ion, heavy and trace metal concentration background in the region. The dominated hydrochemical types are Ca-Mg-HCO3, Ca-SO4 and Na-Cl that vary in different group sample. The pH and Eh of the groundwater in the study area indicating an acidic to alkaline nature of the samples in group II, acidic nature in group I and neutral in group III. Also in Group III than Group I and II, the oxidizing condition is dominant, while in the other groups relative reducing conditions prevail. Due to Cu and other metal mineralization in I and II site, Cu, As, Au and other metal concentration in this water groups is higher than group III.

Pazand, Kaveh; Hezarkhani, Ardeshir

2013-06-01

345

Deposition of zinc sulfide thin films by chemical bath process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deposition of high quality zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin film over a large area is required if it is to be effectively used in electroluminescent devices, solar cells, and other optoelectronic devices. Of all deposition techniques, chemical bath deposition (CBD) is the least costly technique that meets the above requirements. Recently it is found that the growth of ZnS film, of thickness less than 100 nm in a single dip, by CBD is facilitated by the use of ammonia and hydrazine as complexing agents. Here we report that the thickness of the deposited ZnS film can be increased if ammonium salt is used as a buffer. We also present an analytical study to explain our results and to further understand the ZnS growth process in CBD.

Oladeji, Isaiah O.; Chow, Lee

1996-11-01

346

Accelerating chemical database searching using graphics processing units.  

PubMed

The utility of chemoinformatics systems depends on the accurate computer representation and efficient manipulation of chemical compounds. In such systems, a small molecule is often digitized as a large fingerprint vector, where each element indicates the presence/absence or the number of occurrences of a particular structural feature. Since in theory the number of unique features can be exceedingly large, these fingerprint vectors are usually folded into much shorter ones using hashing and modulo operations, allowing fast "in-memory" manipulation and comparison of molecules. There is increasing evidence that lossless fingerprints can substantially improve retrieval performance in chemical database searching (substructure or similarity), which have led to the development of several lossless fingerprint compression algorithms. However, any gains in storage and retrieval afforded by compression need to be weighed against the extra computational burden required for decompression before these fingerprints can be compared. Here we demonstrate that graphics processing units (GPU) can greatly alleviate this problem, enabling the practical application of lossless fingerprints on large databases. More specifically, we show that, with the help of a ~$500 ordinary video card, the entire PubChem database of ~32 million compounds can be searched in ~0.2-2 s on average, which is 2 orders of magnitude faster than a conventional CPU. If multiple query patterns are processed in batch, the speedup is even more dramatic (less than 0.02-0.2 s/query for 1000 queries). In the present study, we use the Elias gamma compression algorithm, which results in a compression ratio as high as 0.097. PMID:21696144

Liu, Pu; Agrafiotis, Dimitris K; Rassokhin, Dmitrii N; Yang, Eric

2011-07-13

347

Processing of Whole Femoral Head Allografts: A Method for Improving Clinical Efficacy and Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Femoral heads removed during primary hip replacement surgery are widely utilised as a source of allograft bone. Despite evidence that processing these grafts to remove blood and marrow elements improves both the clinical performance and safety of these allografts, many are transplanted without any processing being applied at all. The goal of this study was to investigate the efficiency of

R. Lomas; O. Drummond; J. N. Kearney

2000-01-01

348

Hewlett-Packard's approach to customer requests for product and process environmental, health and safety information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of how the Hewlett-Packard (HP) Company is pursuing a customer-centered approach to more effectively and consistently respond to the growing number and variety of customer requests it receives for product and process environmental, health and safety (EHS) information. First, it examines the challenges of defining the effectiveness of the company's existing customer EHS information processes

D. Elsie

1997-01-01

349

75 FR 29754 - Claims of Confidentiality of Certain Chemical Identities Contained in Health and Safety Studies...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Safety Studies Submitted Under the Toxic Substances Control Act AGENCY: Environmental...and safety studies, submitted under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) in accordance...Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT), Environmental Protection...

2010-05-27

350

Primary Polymer Aging Processes Identified from Weapon Headspace Chemicals  

SciTech Connect

A current focus of our weapon headspace sampling work is the interpretation of the volatile chemical signatures that we are collecting. To help validate our interpretation we have been developing a laboratory-based material aging capability to simulate material decomposition chemistries identified. Key to establishing this capability has been the development of an automated approach to process, analyze, and quantify arrays of material combinations as a function of time and temperature. Our initial approach involves monitoring the formation and migration of volatile compounds produced when a material decomposes. This approach is advantageous in that it is nondestructive and provides a direct comparison with our weapon headspace surveillance initiative. Nevertheless, this approach requires us to identify volatile material residue and decomposition byproducts that are not typically monitored and reported in material aging studies. Similar to our weapon monitoring method, our principle laboratory-based method involves static headspace collection by solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). SPME is a sorbent collection technique that is ideally suited for preconcentration and delivery of trace gas-phase compounds for analysis by GC. When combined with MS, detection limits are routinely in the low- and sub-ppb ranges, even for semivolatile and polar compounds. To automate this process we incorporated a robotic sample processor configured for SPME collection. The completed system will thermally process, sample, and analyze a material sample. Quantification of the instrument response is another process that has been integrated into the system. The current system screens low-milligram quantities of material for the formation or outgas of small compounds as initial indicators of chemical decomposition. This emerging capability offers us a new approach to identify and non-intrusively monitor decomposition mechanisms that are accelerated by stockpile-relevant aging parameters such as heat, irradiation, material incompatibility and physical force. The primary organic material groups that make up many of the weapon systems are chlorofluoropolymers, polysiloxanes, and polyurethanes (PUR). In the weapon headspace we see the greatest residue from polysiloxanes and PUR and, therefore, are interested in identifying and quantifying the origin responsible for their presence. Although we have produced a number of significant findings concerning the chlorofluoropolymer and polysiloxane materials, this work focuses on the decomposition of PUR.

Chambers, D M; Bazan, J M; Ithaca, J G

2002-03-25

351

Mastering safety and reliability in a model based process  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This article follows a line of papers focused on defining a method to improve the realization of reliability analysis during the System Engineering process. As MBSE becomes a fundamental concept for specifying and designing systems, our method takes full advantages of this approach and try to provide tools to ease the specification stage and the integration of RAMS early

Robin Cressent; Vincent Idasiak; Frederic Kratz; Pierre David

2011-01-01

352

HYDRODYNAMIC PRESSURE PROCESSING TO IMPROVE MEAT QUALITY AND SAFETY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The hydrodynamic pressure process (HDP) has been shown to be very effective at improving meat tenderness in a variety of meat cuts. When compared to conventional aging for tenderization, HDP was more effective. Tenderization occurs in fractions of a millisecond. When energy, space, and labor costs a...

353

Chapter 2 Quantum Linear Superposition Theory for Chemical Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complete basis states (BSs), in abstract configuration space-projected quantum mechanics (QM), permit representations of any physical and chemical process elicited by quantum states changes. For a material 1-system, defined by n-electrons and m-nuclei, BSs including relevant fragments cover a representation of chemical species identifiable by spectral response toward electromagnetic (EM) radiations. Reactants, products, and intermediate species are expressed as specific linear superpositions where the amplitude in square modulus at a given BS controls the relative intensity to the spectrum rooted at the corresponding energy eigenstate. Moreover, there is no trace that quantum numbers characterizing BSs would be changed as a function of particular regions of nuclear or electronic configuration space. The exact Coulomb Hamiltonian generates BSs. However, in this basis set, this operator does not generate evolution measured by changes of amplitudes in time, only time phases change. This operator in semiclassical models cannot drive effective time evolution via changes of amplitudes for the electronic quantum states either. The presence of a driving external field, for example, EM fields, is a sufficient condition to produce evolution standing for the physical process. It is a matter of logics that if the exact operator and the semiclassical one do not generate time evolution, then approximate models - such as computational Born-Oppenheimer (BO) - should not do it as well. However, standard (s-)BO scheme does change basis quantum numbers as a function of nuclear configuration space leading to chemical reaction representation. This apparent contradiction and possible solutions are examined here. By introducing the concept of abstract generalized electronic diabatic (a-GED) and a-BO models, electronuclear separability models are examined. Sets of noninteracting many-I-frame fragments leading to asymptotic states descriptions are included together with sets of quantum states for the one-I-frame system providing BSs to describe dissociation/association processes in chemistry. The theory takes on a clear semiclassical flavor. This approach permits introducing nuclear fixed configuration concept and relate theoretical states to laboratory ones in a natural manner. The approach leads to a generalization of the many-state reactivity models. General semiclassic schemes are introduced in Section 6, which permit integration of one-I-frame to many-I-frames states. Planting one-electron functions at nuclear positions is the origin of the parametric dependence of s-BO wave functions, and it explains why the method displays chemical behavior. This atomic-orbital algorithm permits connecting one-I-frame semiclassic electronic states to asymptotic ones in a continuous way. A ghost atomic-orbital model is introduced to facilitate diabatic studies and reinstate the linear superposition model. As indicated in the "Contents," some other subjects are examined from the present perspective. This includes the Jahn-Teller effect defined in this new diabatic framework and the nature of the BO scheme.

Tapia, O.

354

Irradiation treatment of minimally processed carrots for ensuring microbiological safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are very common in developed countries and are gaining popularity in developing countries due to their convenience and freshness. However, minimally processing may result in undesirable changes in colour, taste and appearance due to the transfer of microbes from skin to the flesh. Irradiation is a well-known technology for elimination of microbial contamination. Food irradiation has been approved by 50 countries and is being applied commercially in USA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the quality of minimally processed carrots. Fresh carrots were peeled, sliced and PE packaged. The samples were irradiated (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0kGy) and stored at 5°C for 2 weeks. The samples were analyzed for hardness, organoleptic acceptance and microbial load at 0, 7th and 15th day. The mean firmness of the control and all irradiated samples remained between 4.31 and 4.42kg of force, showing no adverse effect of radiation dose. The effect of storage (2 weeks) was significant (P< 0.05) with values ranging between 4.28 and 4.39kg of force. The total bacterial counts at 5°C for non-irradiated and 0.5kGy irradiated samples were 6.3×105cfu/g, 3.0×102 and few colonies(>10) in all other irradiated samples(1.0, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0kGy) after 2 weeks storage. No coliform or E. coli were detected in any of the samples (radiated or control) immediately after irradiation and during the entire storage period in minimally processed carrots. A dose of 2.0kGy completely controlled the fungal and bacterial counts. The irradiated samples (2.0kGy) were also acceptable sensorially.

Ashraf Chaudry, Muhammad; Bibi, Nizakat; Khan, Misal; Khan, Maazullah; Badshah, Amal; Jamil Qureshi, Muhammad

2004-09-01

355

Mechanochemistry of Coupled Contractile and Chemical Rate Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work is based on the realization that efficient conversion of chemical into mechanical energy can be based on macromolecular systems of the type encountered in living mechano-chemical systems, such as muscles, flagella or contractile membranes. First...

A. Katchalsky

1964-01-01

356

THE ''CLEAN-UP'' PROCESS: A CHEMICAL CHOP PROCESS. (I. Application to Zirconium-Clad Fuel)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here a new head-end process for zirconium-clad fuel. Essentially, this consists of an electrochemical pre-treatment of the oxide-protected zirconium-canning, followed by chemical attack, based on the 'Zirflex' decanning concept. Such a pre-treatment may be carried out either on the whole can surface or on local peripheral bands. The first leads to a faster 'Zirflex' decanning operation; the second

R. Kroebel; E. Lopez-Menchero; J. M. Pivato

1968-01-01

357

Chemical modification of isoflavones in soyfoods during cooking and processing.  

PubMed

The principal chemical forms of isoflavones in soybean are their 6''-O-malonyl-beta-glucoside (6OMalGlc) conjugates. Experiments were carried out to determine the best conditions for extraction of isoflavones from soyfoods and the effects of commercial processing procedures and of cooking on isoflavone concentrations and composition. Hot alcohol extraction of ground soybeans deesterified 6OMalGlc conjugates. Although room temperature extraction slowed the conversion, extraction at 4 degrees C for 2-4 h led to the highest yield of 6OMalGlc conjugates and the lowest proportion of beta-glucoside conjugates. Analysis of soyfood products by reversed-phase HPLC-mass spectrometry revealed that defatted soy flour that had not been heat treated consisted mostly of 6OMalGlc conjugates; in contrast, toasted soy flour contained large amounts of 6''-O-acetyl-beta-glucoside conjugates, formed by heat-induced decarboxylation of the malonate group to acetate. Soymilk and tofu consisted almost entirely of beta-glucoside conjugates; low-fat versions of these products were markedly depleted in isoflavones. Alcohol-washed soy-protein concentrates contained few isoflavones. Isolated soy protein and textured vegetable protein consisted of a mixture of all 3 types of isoflavone conjugates. Baking or frying of textured vegetable protein at 190 degrees C and baking of soy flour in cookies did not alter total isoflavone content, but there was a steady increase in beta-glucoside conjugates at the expense of 6OMalGlc conjugates. The chemical form of isoflavones in foods should be taken into consideration when evaluating their availability for absorption from the diet. PMID:9848521

Coward, L; Smith, M; Kirk, M; Barnes, S

1998-12-01

358

Chemical and Electrochemical Processing of Aluminum Dross Using Molten Salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel molten salt process was investigated, where Al, as metal or contained in Al2O3 and AlN, was recovered from Al dross by chemical or direct electrochemical reduction in electrolytic cells. Electrolysis experiments were carried out under argon at temperatures from 1123 to 1243 K. In order to better understand the reduction behavior, the as-received Al dross was simulated using simplified systems, including pure Al2O3, pure AlN, an Al2O3/AlN binary mixture, and an Al2O3/AlN/Al ternary mixture. The reduction of the as-received dross was also studied experimentally. The studies showed that solid Al2O3 was chemically reduced by the Ca in a Ca-saturated Ca-CaCl2 melt to form Al2Ca or electrochemically reduced to Al-rich Al-Ca alloys and that the Al value in the Al2O3 was easily recovered from the Al drosses. It was found experimentally that solid AlN in the drosses could not be calciothermically reduced to any extent, consistent with thermodynamic evaluations. It was also found that the direct electrochemical reduction of the AlN in the drosses was confined to three phase boundaries (3PBs) between the AlN, the electrolyte, and the current collector and could not be enhanced by using the LiCl-containing chloride melt or the chloride-fluoride melts studied. The presence of Al powder in the Al2O3/AlN mixture facilitated the direct electrochemical reduction of both Al2O3 and AlN. The reduction mechanisms are discussed based upon the present experimental observations. Flow sheets for recovering the metallic Al and the Al in the Al2O3 and AlN from Al dross are finally proposed.

Yan, Xiao Y.

2008-04-01

359

Physical-chemical treatment of tar-sand processing wastewater  

SciTech Connect

This final report for Phase I summarizes work done to determine the ability of several coagulants to contribute significantly in the treatment of selected tar sand wastewaters. The coagulation process must be considered as one possible step in a treatment scheme to reduce pollutants in these wastewaters and lead to a water quality acceptable for reuse or disposal. Two wastewaters were provided by the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC). The primary emphasis in this study was focused on a representative steam flooding wastewater designated in the report as TARSAND 1S. The coagulation study in which treatment of this wastewater was the prime goal is described in full detail in the thesis entitled Chemical Coagulation of Steam Flooding Tar Sand Wastewaters. This thesis, written by Mr. Omar Akad, is included as Appendix A in this report. A representative combustion wastewater, designated as TARSAND 2C, was also provided by LETC. This wastewater was characteristically low in suspended solids and after initial screening experiments were conducted, it was concluded that coagulation was relatively ineffective in the treatment of TARSAND 2C. Hence, efforts were concentrated on the parametric evaluation of coagulation of TARSAND 1S. The objectives for the research conducted under Phase I were: (1) to compare the effectiveness of lime, alum, ferric chloride and representative synthetic organic polymers in reducing suspended solids and total organic carbon (TOC) from TARSAND 1S wastewater; (2) to determine the effects of pH, coagulant aids, and mixing conditions on the coagulation process; (3) to determine the relative volume of sludge produced from each selected coagulation process.

King, P.H.

1982-07-01

360

Worker health and safety in solar thermal power systems. VII. The toxicological and health implications of solar thermal process fluids  

SciTech Connect

The toxicological and health implications of high-temperature solar thermal process fluids were examined. Fluids likely to be used were first identified and characterized according to their physical and chemical characteristics. The identified fluids were then screened to select those solar thermal process fluids with potentially significant toxicological/health implications for further study. The screening procedure delineated each compound's basic chemical, physical, and operating characteristics (as would occur in high temperature solar thermal applications), selected toxicological information and the criteria used to classify each compound according to a broad toxicological rating scheme. Thirty compounds determined from the initial screening procedure to be moderately to highly toxic were selected for further study. The detailed toxicological assessment consisted primarily of a comprehensive literature survey. Effects resulting from acute and/or chronic exposure were evaluated and applicable federal exposure standards were identified and discussed. Particular emphasis was placed upon determining both the toxicity of the selected compounds as they relate to the solar thermal industry and the following factors: type(s) of organism exposed, means of entry into the body, level and period of exposure, fate in the body, and observed effects. To provide perspective to the toxicological evaluation, the health and safety experience of the solar thermal industry and other industries with processes or fluids similar to those proposed for the solar thermal industry was evaluated. Three related industries with processes similar to the solar thermal industry - electric utility, petroleum refining and chemical process industries - were identified and evaluated in detail. Two specific processes within those industries, the transport of fluids and the transport of heat, both at high temperatures and pressures, were examined.

Kahane, S.W. (ed.)

1980-10-01

361

Chemical inhibition of PCDD/F formation in incineration processes.  

PubMed

This review summarises results of our pilot-scale experiments to find suitable inhibitors for preventing the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) during waste incineration and to specify the role of the main factors affecting the inhibition process, and is based on doctoral dissertation of Ruokojaärvi (2002). Results of previous experiments reported by other researchers are also presented and compared with ours. The detailed aims of our experiments were (1) to compare the effects of different inhibitors on PCDD/F formation during incineration in a pilot plant, (2) to investigate the role of the particle size distribution of the flue gas on the inhibition of PCDD/Fs, and (3) to find the main parameters affecting PCDD/F inhibition in waste incineration. Prevention of the formation of PCDD/Fs with chemical inhibitors and the effects of different supply points, feed temperatures and process parameters were studied in a pilot scale incinerator (50 kW) using light heating oil and refuse-derived fuel as test fuels. Various concentrations of the gaseous inhibitors (sulfur dioxide, ammonia, dimethylamine and methyl mercaptan) were sprayed into the flue gases after the furnace, in addition to which urea was dissolved in water and injected in at different concentrations. The residence time of the flue gas between the furnace and the PCDD/F sampling point was varied in the tests. In another set of urea tests, urea-water solutions at three concentrations were mixed with the RDF prior to incineration. PCDD/F and chlorophenol concentrations, together with other flue gas parameters (e.g. temperature, O2, CO, CO2 and NO), were analysed in the cooling flue gases. The gaseous and liquid inhibitors both notably reduced PCDD/F concentrations in the flue gas, the reductions achieved with the gaseous inhibitors varying from 50 to 78%, with dimethyl amine the most effective, while that produced with urea was up to 90%. The PCDD/F reductions were greater at increased inhibitor concentrations and with increased residence time of the flue gas between the furnace and the sampling point. PCDD/F concentrations in the particle phase decreased much more markedly than those in the gas phase. The urea inhibitor did not alter the particle size distribution of the PCDD/Fs when the amount of inhibitor was adequate. Chemical inhibitors seem to offer a very promising technique for preventing the formation of PCDD/Fs in waste incineration. The addition of urea to the fuel before combustion proved to be very effective approach and could be a useful technique even in the full-scale incinerators. PMID:15144780

Ruokojärvi, Päivi H; Asikainen, Arja H; Tuppurainen, Kari A; Ruuskanen, Juhani

2004-06-01

362

Safety and reliability analysis in a polyvinyl chloride batch process using dynamic simulator-case study: Loss of containment incident  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel methodology in batch plant safety and reliability analysis is proposed using a dynamic simulator. A batch process involving several safety objects (e.g. sensors, controller, valves, etc.) is activated during the operational stage. The performance of the safety objects is evaluated by the dynamic simulation and a fault propagation model is generated. By using the fault

Datu Rizal; Shinichi Tani; Kimitoshi Nishiyama; Kazuhiko Suzuki

2006-01-01

363

Chemical and microbiological characterization of alheira: A typical Portuguese fermented sausage with particular reference to factors relating to food safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alheiras are traditional smoked naturally fermented meat sausages produced in the north of Portugal. They have not previously been characterized as to their chemical and microbiological status. pH and salt levels are insufficient to assure microbiological safety, there is ample opportunity for post-cooking contamination; the products require chill storage and cooking before consumption.Heavy metals and biogenic amines were, in general,

Vānia Ferreira; Joana Barbosa; Sandra Vendeiro; Ana Mota; Fįtima Silva; Maria Joćo Monteiro; Tim Hogg; Paul Gibbs; Paula Teixeira

2006-01-01

364

Leaching Properties and Chemical Compositions of Calcines Produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

No significant chemical differences were determined between retrieved and fresh calcine based on chemical and spectrochemical analyses. Little can be derived from the amounts of the radioisotopes present in the retrieved calcine samples other than the rat...

B. A. Staples B. E. Paige D. W. Rhodes M. W. Wilding

1980-01-01

365

Chemical and process integration: Synergies in co-production of power and chemicals from natural gas with CO 2 capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO2 legislation in power production decreases the overall efficiency of the plant by 9–13% points. The decrease in efficiency results in increased fuel consumption and the need for CO2 capture increases the size of the process trains. In this paper, process and chemical integration is proposed as one option to increase the overall efficiency as co-production of power and chemicals

Kristin Herder Kaggerud; Olav Bolland; Truls Gundersen

2006-01-01

366

GENERAL SAFETY FACTORS FOR A NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANT. PART 1. NUCLEAR SAFETY. PART 2. RADIATION SHIELDING. PART 3. CHEMICAL SAFETY PROBLEMS. Technical Report No. 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear safety in a fuel reprocessing plant is discussed. Means of ; avoiding criticality such as mass limitation, safe geometry, and safe ; concentrations are examined along with a note of caution on reflection. In ; addition, shielding is discussed, and it is pointed out that major pieces of ; equipment must be heavily shielded especially at the head-end of

Larsson

1957-01-01

367

Characterization of biomass burning particles: chemical composition and processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) mission in April and May of 2002, a forest fire plume was intercepted over Utah on May 19. Gas phase species acetonitrile (CH3CN) (a biomass burning tracer) and carbon monoxide (CO) measured greater than five fold enhancements over background concentrations during this plume crossing. In the 100 sec plume crossing, the Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument acquired 202 positive mass spectra of biomass burning particles. Many of these particles contained potassium in addition to organics, carbon, and NO+ (which is a signature for any nitrogen containing compound such as ammonium or nitrate). From characterization of the particle mass spectra obtained during the plume crossing, a qualitative signature has been determined for identifying biomass burning particles. By applying this analysis to the entire ITCT mission, several transport events of smoke plumes have been identified and were confirmed by gas phase measurements. Additional species, such as sulfate, found in the mass spectra of the transported particles indicated processing or aging of the biomass burning particles that had taken place. The analysis has been extended to other field missions (Crystal-Face, ACCENT, and WAM) to identify biomass burning particles without the added benefit of gas phase measurements.

Hudson, P. K.; Murphy, D. M.; Cziczo, D. J.; Thomson, D. S.; Degouw, J.; Warneke, C.

2003-12-01

368

Operation experience on safety system of tritium process laboratory in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute  

SciTech Connect

The Tritium Process Laboratory (TPL) at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been operated with tritium for the R&D activity of the fusion fuel cycle since March 1988. The maximum amount of tritium which was permitted in TPL is 6 x 10{sup 5} Ci. The concept of triple confinement is applied to the safety system of TPL and their detritiation systems based on the catalytic oxidation-molecular sieve adsorption process. The average tritium release to the environment is 15 mCi/month since TPL has been under operation with tritium, which is 1/200 smaller than the regulation value. The safe operation of TPL has been giving useful information on the operation and improvement for fusion safety systems. This paper presents the operation and improvement experience on the safety system at TPL with accumulated failure data. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Yamada, Masayuki; Enoeda, Mikio; Honma, Takashi; Hayashi, Takumi; Matsuda, Yuji; Okuno, Kenji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)

1995-10-01

369

Overview of tritium safety technology at the Tritium Process Laboratory of JAERI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tritium Process Laboratory of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is the only laboratory in Japan where grams of tritium can be handled to carry out R&D on tritium processing and tritium safety handling technologies for fusion reactors. The tritium inventory is approximately 13 grams. Since 1988, basic research has been performed using gram-level tritium quantities. During the past 5 years, approximately 1 kilogram of tritium has been handled in experimental apparatus. The total amount of tritium released through the stack of TPL was controlled to less than 1 Ci without any accidents. In order to establish more complete tritium safety for DT fusion reactors, main R&D areas on tritium safety technology at TPL were focused on a new compact tritium confinement system, reliable tritium accounting and inventory control, new tritium waste treatments, and tritium release behavior into a room.

Hayashi, Takumi; Okuno, Kenji

1993-06-01

370

Overview of tritium safety technology at the tritium process laboratory of JAERI  

SciTech Connect

The Tritium Process Laboratory of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is the only laboratory in Japan where grams of tritium can be handled to carry out R D on tritium processing and tritium safety handling technologies for fusion reactors. The tritium inventory is approximately 13 grams. Since 1988, basic research has been performed using gram-level tritium quantities. During the past 5 years, approximately 1 kilogram of tritium has been handled in experimental apparatus. The total amount of tritium released through the stack of TPL was controlled to less than 1 Ci without any accidents. In order to establish more complete tritium safety for DT fusion reactors, main R D areas on tritium safety technology at TPL were focused on a new compact tritium confinement system, reliable tritium accounting and inventory control, new tritium waste treatments, and tritium release behavior into a room.

Hayashi, Takumi; Okuno, Kenji (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan))

1993-06-01

371

New trajectory-driven aerosol and chemical process model Chemical and Aerosol Lagrangian Model (CALM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Chemical and Aerosol Lagrangian Model (CALM) has been developed and tested. The model incorporates all central aerosol dynamical processes, from nucleation, condensation, coagulation and deposition to cloud formation and in-cloud processing. The model is tested and evaluated against observations performed at the SMEAR II station located at Hyytiälä (61° 51' N, 24° 17' E) over a time period of two years, 2000-2001. The model shows good agreement with measurements throughout most of the year, but fails in reproducing the aerosol properties during the winter season, resulting in poor agreement between model and measurements especially during December-January. Nevertheless, through the rest of the year both trends and magnitude of modal concentrations show good agreement with observation, as do the monthly average size distribution properties. The model is also shown to capture individual nucleation events to a certain degree. This indicates that nucleation largely is controlled by the availability of nucleating material (as prescribed by the [H2SO4]), availability of condensing material (in this model 15% of primary reactions of monoterpenes (MT) are assumed to produce low volatile species) and the properties of the size distribution (more specifically, the condensation sink). This is further demonstrated by the fact that the model captures the annual trend in nuclei mode concentration. The model is also used, alongside sensitivity tests, to examine which processes dominate the aerosol size distribution physical properties. It is shown, in agreement with previous studies, that nucleation governs the number concentration during transport from clean areas. It is also shown that primary number emissions almost exclusively govern the CN concentration when air from Central Europe is advected north over Scandinavia. We also show that biogenic emissions have a large influence on the amount of potential CCN observed over the boreal region, as shown by the agreement between observations and modeled results for the receptor SMEAR II, Hyytiälä, during the studied period.

Tunved, P.; Partridge, D. G.; Korhonen, H.

2010-11-01

372

New trajectory driven aerosol and chemical process model: chemical and aerosol Lagrangian model (CALM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Chemical and Aerosol Lagrangian Model (CALM) have been developed and tested. The model incorporates all central aerosol dynamical processes, from nucleation, condensation, coagulation and deposition to cloud formation and in-cloud processing. The model is tested and evaluated against observations performed at the SMEAR II station located at Hyytiälä (61°51' N, 24°17' E) over a time period of two years, 2000-2001. The model shows good agreement with measurements throughout most of the year, but fails in reproducing the aerosol properties during the winter season, resulting in poor agreement between model and measurements especially during December-January. Nevertheless, through the rest of the year both trends and magnitude of modal concentrations show good agreement with observation, as do the monthly average size distribution properties. The model is also shown to capture individual nucleation events to a certain degree. This indicates that nucleation largely is controlled by the availability of nucleating material (as prescribed by the [H2SO4]), availability of condensing material (in this model 15% of primary reactions of monoterpenes (MT) are assumed to produce low volatile species) and the properties of the size distribution (more specifically, the condensation sink). This is further demonstrated by the fact that the model captures the annual trend in nuclei mode concentration. The model is also used, alongside sensitivity tests, to examine which processes dominate the aerosol size distribution physical properties. It is shown, in agreement with previous studies, that nucleation governs the number concentration while transport from clean areas takes place. It is also shown that primary number emissions almost exclusively govern the CN concentration when air from Central Europe is advected north over Scandinavia. We also show that biogenic emissions have a large influence on the amount of potential CCN observed over the boreal region, as shown by the agreement between observations and modeled results for the receptor SMEAR II, Hyytiälä, during the studied period.

Tunved, P.; Partridge, D. G.; Korhonen, H.

2010-06-01

373

Safety Information Profile: Aircraft Ground Support - Equipment Operation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A safety information profile is presented for the servicing at the terminal gate of passenger and freight aircraft (Standard Industrial Classification 45). Ground support work processes and safety and health (chemical, physical, and biological) hazards ar...

G. J. Butler

1979-01-01

374

Atmospheric pollution in the Arctic: Sources, transport, and chemical processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation applies a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) together with ground-based, aircraft, and satellite observations to quantify the sources, transport pathways, and chemical processing of tropospheric pollution in the Arctic. Asian anthropogenic emissions are shown to be the dominant source of carbon monoxide (CO) pollution throughout the Arctic troposphere, except near the surface where European anthropogenic emissions are similarly important. Despite anomalously large fires in spring 2008, biomass burning is found to contribute little to mean CO during that period. AIRS satellite data are used to demonstrate a link between El Nino and Asian pollution transport to the Arctic, with transport hindered in 2008 due to a weakened Aleutian Low associated with La Nina conditions. Sulfate-ammonium aerosol in the Arctic is found to derive from a more complicated mix of sources. European and East Asian emissions are important but not dominant sources of sulfate. Anthropogenic emissions from West Asia (Russia and Kazakhstan) are shown to provide the largest source of sulfate to the Arctic lower troposphere in winter. Ammonium is mostly from European and East Asian sources. In spring 2008, a large contribution from boreal fires resulted in a more neutralized aerosol in the free troposphere than at the surface. Aerosol transported to the Arctic from East Asia and Europe is found to be mostly neutralized, while West Asian and North American aerosol is highly acidic. Recent growth of sulfur emissions in West Asia may explain observations of increasing aerosol acidity in Alaska over the past decade. Mercury in the Arctic shows a different seasonality from other pollutants, with a spring minimum driven by bromine chemistry over sea ice followed by a summer maximum. GEOS-Chem simulations of surface observations are used to argue that the summer peak cannot be explained by atmospheric transport, re-emission from snowpacks, or ocean kinetics. Instead, Russian rivers are proposed to provide a large flux of mercury to the Arctic Ocean in spring-summer, with subsequent evasion to the atmosphere driving the observed summer peak. The Arctic Ocean then provides a net source to the atmosphere, with rivers the dominant mercury source to the Arctic environment.

Fisher, Jenny A.

375

The Safety Assessment Process—Setting the Scene: An FDA Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process by which the US Food and Drug Administra- tion (FDA) evaluates the safety\\/hazard potential of the prod- ucts under its purview has evolved from a constellation of scientific research achievements in toxicology and related areas and a succession of historical events, some tragic, which encouraged dramatic changes in the oversight and regulation of foods, drugs, and cosmetics. The

Leonard M. Schechtman

2002-01-01

376

Marked point process framework for living probabilistic safety assessment and risk follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct a model for living probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) by applying the general framework of marked point processes. The framework provides a theoretically rigorous approach for considering risk follow-up of posterior hazards. In risk follow-up, the hazard of core damage is evaluated synthetically at time points in the past, by using some observed events as logged history and combining

Jan Holmberg

1995-01-01

377

The Process of Developing a Mobile Device for Communication in a Safety-Critical Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the process of developing an interactive mobile system for use in a safety-critical domain. The system was developed to inquire into the extent of which coordination between people carrying out a collaborative work task can be improved by means of computer mediated communication on a mobile device. The application area for the device was controlling and monitoring

Jesper Kjeldskov; Jan Stage

2003-01-01

378

Safety and environmental process for the design and construction of the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laser fusion experimental facility currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This paper describes the safety and environmental processes followed by NIF during the design and construction activities.

Brereton, S.J., LLNL

1998-05-27

379

Education Department Begins Process to Implement HEA Reauthorization with New Campus Safety Provisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The U.S. Department of Education has announced the beginning of the process to develop rules for new requirements in the recently passed Higher Education Act (HEA). Highlights of the HEA that affect campus public safety departments include measures that: (1) Require a fire log be maintained at an institution of higher education for events that…

Phillips, Lisa

2008-01-01

380

Environmental, health and safety cost benefit analysis in the United States chemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research project is to determine whether there is a cost\\/benefit to allocating financial and other company-related resources to improve environmental, health and safety performance beyond that which is required by law. The issue of whether a company benefits from spending dollars to achieve environmental, health and safety performance beyond legal compliance is an important issue to

John H Statzer

2005-01-01

381

Models of Processes Underlying the Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of transport phenomena and chemical reactions underlying the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of binary and ternary semiconductors in horizontal reactors have been developed. The main focus has been to investigate the growth characteristics of the ternary semiconductor rm Al_{x}Ga_{1 -x}As (0 <= x <= 1) and optimize the thickness and compositional uniformity of the films grown in horizontal

Nitin K. Ingle

1995-01-01

382

Effects of chemical additives on microbial enhanced oil recovery processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive laboratory study has been conducted to determine (1) the role of the microbial cells and products in oil displacement, (2) the relative rates of transport of microbial cells and chemical products from the metabolism of nutrient in porous media, and (3) the effects of chemical additives on the oil recovery efficiency of microbial formulations. This report describes experiments

R. S. Bryant; K. L. Chase; K. M. Bertus; A. K. Stepp

1989-01-01

383

Recognizing Chemical Hazards Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for the Advancement of Process Technology presents this free sample module on recognizing chemical hazards. It focuses on chemical hazards specific to process industries, and their impact on safety, health and the environment. The material also introduces the purpose and components of an MSDS.

2013-01-09

384

Design of separation process of azeotropic mixtures based on the green chemical principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated methodology for synthesis of separation process of azeotropic mixture based on the green chemical principles, which inherently incorporates environmental factors into the separation process synthesis. Characterization of the environmental impact of a chemical process is carried out on the basis of our established environmental impact database (containing nine indices). The superstructure is optimized more effectively

Chunshan Li; Xiangping Zhang; Xuezhong He; Suojiang Zhang

2007-01-01

385

ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING TECHNOLOGY: AN EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL COAL CLEANING PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report assembles and assesses technical and economic information on chemical coal cleaning processes. Sufficient data was located to evaluate 11 processes in detail. It was found that chemical coal cleaning processes can remove up to 99% of the pyritic sulfur and 40% of the o...

386

Feasibility of toxic chemical waste processing in large scale solar installations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new strategy for processing toxic chemical wastes in large scale solar concentration installations is discussed in which photon energy and process heat, as well as solar-generated hydrogen are essential elements. It includes the following steps: Instead of burning chemicals at high temperature, which produces many additional toxic products, they are subject to pyrolysis and hydrogenation using solar process heat

H TRIBUTSCH

1989-01-01

387

Process-inherent, ultimate-safety (PIUS) boiling-water reactor  

SciTech Connect

A new type of boiling-water reactor (BWR) has been conceived - the Process-Inherent, Ultimate-Safety, Boiling-Water Reactor (PIUS BWR). The proposed design described in this report extends the PIUS design philosophy from pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) to BWRs. In a PIUS BWR, safety systems are passive, with no active components. The reactor core and nonnuclear portion of the plant are similar to current BWR designs, but a special, prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) with a unique internal design replaces the conventional pressure vessel, emergency core cooling systems, containment shell, spent-fuel storage ponds, diesel generators, and most other components of the nuclear island.

Forsberg, C.W.

1985-01-01

388

Health Aspects of Chemical Safety. Interim Document 14. Pesticide Residue Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Europe, the general population probably has greater contact with pesticides than with any other group of toxic chemicals, including industrial chemicals. The most single important use of pesticides is in agriculture. Public exposure from this source co...

A. Ambrus R. Greenhalgh P. G. Baker P. A. Greve E. Hargitai

1983-01-01

389

Chemical and biological safety: Biosensors and nanotechnological methods for the detection and monitoring of chemical and biological agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elaboration of highly sensitive and express methods for quantitative and qual- itative detection and monitoring of chemical warfare agents (CWA), organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, compounds with delayed neurotoxicity, and pathogenic microorgan- isms and viruses is discussed. The application of potentiometric and amperometric biosen- sors, automatic biosensors discriminating the neurotoxins of different classes, is performed. The information about biosensors detecting

S. Varfolomeyev; I. Kurochkin; A. Eremenko; E. Efremenko

2002-01-01

390

Cost-Efficient Methods and Processes for Safety Relevant Embedded Systems (CESAR) - An Objective Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For developing embedded safety critical systems, industrial companies have to face increasing complexity and variety coupled with increasing regulatory constraints, while costs, performances and time to market are constantly challenged. This has led to a profusion of enablers (new processes, methods and tools), which are neither integrated nor interoperable because they have been developed more or less independently (addressing only a part of the complexity: e.g. Safety) in the absence of internationally recognized open standards. CESAR has been established under ARTEMIS, the European Union's Joint Technology Initiative for research in embedded systems, with the aim to improve this situation and this pa-per will explain what CESAR's objectives are, how they are expected to be achieved and, in particular, how current best practice can ensure that safety engineering requirements can be met.

Jolliffe, Graham

391

Analysis of cost improvement in chemical process technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cost improvement -- sometimes called the learning curve or progress curve -- plays a crucial role in the competitiveness of the US chemical industry. More rapid cost improvement for a product results in expanding market share and larger profits. Expectati...

E. W. Merrow

1989-01-01

392

Properties and processing of chemical vapor deposited zinc sulfide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and properties of chemical vapor deposited zinc sulfide (CVD ZnS) were assessed before and after heat treatments, involving different annealing and hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) profiles. Samples were characterized using optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, electron diffraction, polycrystalline and powder x-ray diffraction, x-ray chemical microanalysis, photoluminescence, ultraviolet through longwave infrared transmission, and mechanical testing. Before heat treatment, CVD ZnS

John S. McCloy

2008-01-01

393

The Eastman chemical process for acetic anhydride from coal  

SciTech Connect

In 1983 Tennessee Eastman Company became the first manufacturer to produce a modern generation of industrial chemicals by using coal as the feedstock. This production was made possible by the successful completion of facilities located in Kingsport, Tennessee. The start-up of this chemical plant highlights more than a decade of work by Eastman men and women to identify, develop, and assemble the numerous technologies necessary for a viable commercial venture.

Mayfield, G.G.

1986-01-01

394

Recognising safety critical events: Can automatic video processing improve naturalistic data analyses?  

PubMed

New trends in research on traffic accidents include Naturalistic Driving Studies (NDS). NDS are based on large scale data collection of driver, vehicle, and environment information in real world. NDS data sets have proven to be extremely valuable for the analysis of safety critical events such as crashes and near crashes. However, finding safety critical events in NDS data is often difficult and time consuming. Safety critical events are currently identified using kinematic triggers, for instance searching for deceleration below a certain threshold signifying harsh braking. Due to the low sensitivity and specificity of this filtering procedure, manual review of video data is currently necessary to decide whether the events identified by the triggers are actually safety critical. Such reviewing procedure is based on subjective decisions, is expensive and time consuming, and often tedious for the analysts. Furthermore, since NDS data is exponentially growing over time, this reviewing procedure may not be viable anymore in the very near future. This study tested the hypothesis that automatic processing of driver video information could increase the correct classification of safety critical events from kinematic triggers in naturalistic driving data. Review of about 400 video sequences recorded from the events, collected by 100 Volvo cars in the euroFOT project, suggested that drivers' individual reaction may be the key to recognize safety critical events. In fact, whether an event is safety critical or not often depends on the individual driver. A few algorithms, able to automatically classify driver reaction from video data, have been compared. The results presented in this paper show that the state of the art subjective review procedures to identify safety critical events from NDS can benefit from automated objective video processing. In addition, this paper discusses the major challenges in making such video analysis viable for future NDS and new potential applications for NDS video processing. As new NDS such as SHRP2 are now providing the equivalent of five years of one vehicle data each day, the development of new methods, such as the one proposed in this paper, seems necessary to guarantee that these data can actually be analysed. PMID:23489911

Dozza, Marco; Gonzįlez, Nieves Pańeda

2013-02-24

395

Extracting Chemical CYP proteins interactions from Literature Using Natural Language Processing Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This poster describes the development of an information extraction system which maps interactions between chemicals and CYP proteins from existing literature, using machine learning and natural language processing methods. The interaction between CYP proteins and chemicals is important in drug discovery and development. In this system, abstracts from articles related to CYP and chemical interactions are preprocessed using named entity

D Jiao; D Wild

2007-01-01

396

Corrosion Resistance of Various High Chromium Alloys in Simulated Chemical Processing Nuclear Plant Waste Solutions  

SciTech Connect

High chromium nickel alloys were tested at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) to determine their corrosion performance in the high temperature aggressive chemical environments of liquid waste evaporators used in the chemical reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels. The results of these tests, which included a variety of base metal alloys I weld filler material combinations, are presented and discussed.

Anderson, P.A. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Agarwal, D.C. [Krupp VDM, Houston, TX (United States)

1997-12-31

397

Dynamic Processes of Conceptual Change: Analysis of Constructing Mental Models of Chemical Equilibrium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates students' mental models of chemical equilibrium using dynamic science assessments. Reports that students at various levels have misconceptions about chemical equilibrium. Involves 10th grade students (n=30) in the study doing a series of hands-on chemical experiments. Focuses on the process of constructing mental models, dynamic…

Chiu, Mei-Hung; Chou, Chin-Cheng; Liu, Chia-Ju

2002-01-01

398

The safety climate and its relationship to safety practices, safety of the work environment and occupational accidents in eight wood-processing companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employees continuously observe their work environment and the actions of their fellow workers and superiors, and they use such observations as a basis for the creation of cognitive models associated with safety. These models regulate their actions in the workplace and thus have an influence on safety. This study attempts to define the structure of the safety climate as perceived

Unto Varonen; Markku Mattila

2000-01-01

399

Going beyond exposure to local news media: an information-processing examination of public perceptions of food safety.  

PubMed

The relationship between local news media and public perceptions of food safety was examined in a statewide telephone survey (n = 524). The theoretical framework of the study was based on a review of the social and psychological factors that affect public concerns about food safety, the relationship between mass communication and risk perception, and the thesis of information-processing strategies and its impact on learning from the news. The results show that information-processing strategies substantially mediated the relationship between local news media and public perceptions of food safety, with elaborative processing being more influential than active reflection in people's learning from the news media. Attention to local television had an independent effect, after demographics, awareness of food safety problems, and perceived safety of local food supply were statistically controlled. Other important predictors included gender, education, ethnicity, and perceived safety of local food supply. PMID:17190783

Fleming, Kenneth; Thorson, Esther; Zhang, Yuyan

2006-12-01

400

Chemical effects head-loss research in support of generic safety issue 191.  

SciTech Connect

This summary report describes studies conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on the potential for chemical effects on head loss across sump screens. Three different buffering solutions were used for these tests: trisodium phosphate (TSP), sodium hydroxide, and sodium tetraborate. These pH control agents used following a LOCA at a nuclear power plant show various degrees of interaction with the insulating materials Cal-Sil and NUKON. Results for Cal-Sil dissolution tests in TSP solutions, settling rate tests of calcium phosphate precipitates, and benchmark tests in chemically inactive environments are also presented. The dissolution tests were intended to identify important environmental variables governing both calcium dissolution and subsequent calcium phosphate formation over a range of simulated sump pool conditions. The results from the dissolution testing were used to inform both the head loss and settling test series. The objective of the head loss tests was to assess the head loss produced by debris beds created by Cal-Sil, fibrous debris, and calcium phosphate precipitates. The effects of both the relative arrival time of the precipitates and insulation debris and the calcium phosphate formation process were specifically evaluated. The debris loadings, test loop flow rates, and test temperature were chosen to be reasonably representative of those expected in plants with updated sump screen configurations, although the approach velocity of 0.1 ft/s used for most of the tests is 3-10 times that expected in plants with large screens . Other variables were selected with the intent to reasonably bound the head loss variability due to arrival time and calcium phosphate formation uncertainty. Settling tests were conducted to measure the settling rates of calcium phosphate precipitates (formed by adding dissolved Ca to boric acid and TSP solutions) in water columns having no bulk directional flow. For PWRs where NaOH and sodium tetraborate are used to control sump pH and fiberglass insulation is prevalent, relatively high concentrations of soluble aluminum can be expected. Tests in which the dissolved aluminum (Al) resulted from aluminum nitrate additions were used to investigate potential chemical effects that may lead to high head loss. Dissolved Al concentrations of 100 ppm were shown to lead to large pressure drops for the screen area to sump volume ratio and fiber debris bed studied. No chemical effects on head loss were observed in sodium tetraborate buffered solutions even for environments with high ratios of submerged Al area to sump volume. However, in tests with much higher concentrations of dissolved Al than expected in plants, large pressure drops did occur. Interaction with NUKON/Cal-Sil debris mixtures produced much lower head losses than observed in corresponding tests with TSP, although tests were not performed over the full range of Cal-Sil that might be of interest.

Park, J. H.; Kasza, K.; Fisher, B.; Oras, J.; Natesan, K.; Shack, W. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2006-10-31

401

Applications of Neutron Scattering in the Chemical Industry: Proton Dynamics of Highly Dispersed Materials, Characterization of Fuel Cell Catalysts, and Catalysts from Large-Scale Chemical Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attractiveness of neutron scattering techniques for the detailed characterization of materials of high degrees of dispersity and structural complexity as encountered in the chemical industry is discussed. Neutron scattering picks up where other analytical methods leave off because of the physico-chemical properties of finely divided products and materials whose absorption behavior toward electromagnetic radiation and electrical conductivity causes serious problems. This is demonstrated by presenting typical applications from large-scale production technology and industrial catalysis. These include the determination of the proton-related surface chemistry of advanced materials that are used as reinforcing fillers in the manufacture of tires, where interrelations between surface chemistry, rheological properties, improved safety, and significant reduction of fuel consumption are the focus of recent developments. Neutron scattering allows surface science studies of the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on nanodispersed, supported precious metal particles of fuel cell catalysts under in situ loading at realistic gas pressures of about 1 bar. Insight into the occupation of catalytically relevant surface sites provides valuable information about the catalyst in the working state and supplies essential scientific input for tailoring better catalysts by technologists. The impact of deactivation phenomena on industrial catalysts by coke deposition, chemical transformation of carbonaceous deposits, and other processes in catalytic hydrogenation processes that result in significant shortening of the time of useful operation in large-scale plants can often be traced back in detail to surface or bulk properties of catalysts or materials of catalytic relevance. A better understanding of avoidable or unavoidable aspects of catalyst deactivation phenomena under certain in-process conditions and the development of effective means for reducing deactivation leads to more energy-efficient and, therefore, environmentally friendly processes and helps to save valuable resources. Even small or gradual improvements in all these fields are of considerable economic impact.

Albers, Peter W.; Parker, Stewart F.

402

Chemical and Physical Properties, Safety and Application of Partially Hydrolized Guar Gum as Dietary Fiber  

PubMed Central

The ideal water-soluble dietary fiber for the fiber-enrichment of foods must be very low in viscosity, tasteless, odorless, and should produce clear solutions in beverages. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) produced from guar gum by enzymatic process has the same chemical structure with intact guar gum but less than one-tenth the original molecular length of guar gum, which make available to be used as film former, foam stabilizer and swelling agent. The viscosity of PHGG is about 10 mPa·s in 5% aqueous solution, whereas 1% solution of guar gum shows range from 2,000 to 3,000 mPa·s. In addition, PHGG is greatly stable against low pH, heat, acid and digestive enzyme. For these reasons, PHGG seems to be one of the most beneficial dietary fiber materials. It also showed that interesting physiological functions still fully exert the nutritional function of a dietary fiber. PHGG has, therefore, been used primarily for a nutritional purpose and became fully integrated food material without altering the rheology, taste, texture and color of final products. PHGG named as Benefiber® in USA has self-affirmation on GRAS status of standard grade PHGG. PHGG named as Sunfiber® is now being used in various beverages, food products and medicinal foods as a safe, natural and functional dietary fiber in all over the world.

Yoon, Seon-Joo; Chu, Djong-Chi; Raj Juneja, Lekh

2008-01-01

403

Improved methodology for determination of submicron particle concentrations in semiconductor process chemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved counting methodology has been developed for measurement of submicron particle concentrations to semiconductor process chemicals. The methodology reduces counting of air bubbles and makes corrections for counter inefficiency, medium refractive index, and particle coincidence. The methodology has been used to measure bottled chemical particle concentrations and to determine filter particle removal efficiencies. Use of the methodology allows comparison of particle counts obtained in process liquid chemicals.

Grant, Donald C.; Schmidt, William R.

1987-06-01

404

State and parameter estimation via minimum distortion filtering with application to Chemical Process Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

State and parameter estimation are cornerstone problems in Chemical Process Control. When the problem is linear and gaussian, the celebrated Kalman Filter provides a simple and elegant solution to the recursive filtering problem. However, many practical systems (including most Chemical Processes) are nonlinear. In this case, the Kalman Filter cannot be directly applied and other methods are necessary. In this

Graham C. Goodwin; Mauricio G. Cea

2011-01-01

405

Verification of a Chemical Process Leak Test Procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A leak test procedure for a combustion system which is used in the chemical industry was verified. This procedure is important since it reduces the probability of explosions. Both government and internal company standards where employed in creating the initial leak test procedure. Several major faults were discovered by the verification of a logic model of the procedure and equipment

Adam L. Turk; Scott T. Probst; Gary J. Powers

1997-01-01

406

Chemical processes in active volume of photodissociative iodine laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective rate constants for chemical reactions in a gaseous active mixture have been calculated using kinetic models for a photodissociation iodine laser. The analysis was based on a detailed reaction scheme and Lindemann's collisional mechanism. Rate constants for all reactions occurring in the laser active volume are presented for the most important perfluorocarbon radials.

Skorobogatov, G. A.

1991-12-01

407

Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse

Edris Bazrafshan; Ferdos Kord Mostafapour; Mehdi Farzadkia; Kamal Aldin Ownagh; Amir Hossein Mahvi

2012-01-01

408

Chemical Changes in Lipids Produced by Thermal Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes heat effects on lipids, indicating that the chemical and physical changes that occur depend on the lipid's composition and conditions of treatment. Thermolytic and oxidation reactions, thermal/oxidative interaction of lipids with other food components and the chemistry of frying are considered. (JN)|

Nawar, Wassef W.

1984-01-01

409

The Chemistry of Lightsticks: Demonstrations to Illustrate Chemical Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lightsticks, or glowsticks as they are sometimes called, are perhaps the chemist's quintessential toy. Because they are easy to activate and appealing to observe, experimenting with lightsticks provides a great way to get young people interested in science. Thus, we have used lightsticks to teach chemical concepts in a variety of outreach…

Kuntzleman, Thomas Scott; Rohrer, Kristen; Schultz, Emeric

2012-01-01

410

Safety\\/licensing assessment of the 1170MW(t) HTGR process heat plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses safety and licensing considerations for a process heat (PH) application of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The design is based on an 1170-MW(t) nuclear heat source (NHS) that produces a nominal 516 kg\\/s (4.1 x 10ā¶ lb\\/h) of helium at 793Ā°C (1460Ā°F) and 4.9 MPa (709 psia). This report describes inherent and engineered features that contribute to

J. H. Lewis; R. K. Wise

1981-01-01

411

VALUE-AT-RISK AND FOOD SAFETY LOSSES IN TURKEY PROCESSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food safety risks and microbial outbreaks have significant health impacts on society as a whole, as well as economic loss to food processing firms. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), an estimated 76 million foodborne illnesses occur each year in the United States. Of these cases, 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths occur each year (Mead et al.,

Mounir Siaplay; William E. Nganje; Simeon Kaitibie

2005-01-01

412

Monitoring the Long-Term Effectiveness of Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Implementation Through Use of a Performance Dashboard Process  

SciTech Connect

This session will examine a method developed by Federal and Contractor personnel at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) to examine long-term maintenance of DOE Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) criteria, including safety culture attributes, as well as identification of process improvement opportunities. This process was initially developed in the summer of 2000 and has since been expanded to recognize the importance of safety culture attributes, and associated safety culture elements, as defined in DOE M 450.4-1, “Integrated Safety Management System Manual.” This process has proven to significantly enhance collective awareness of the importance of long-term ISMS implementation as well as support commitments by NNSA/NSO personnel to examine the continued effectiveness of ISMS processes.

Michael D. Kinney and William D. Barrick

2008-09-01

413

Chemical Pulping Process Employing Separate Alkali and Peroxymonosulfate Treatments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is directed to a process for pulping of lignocellulosic materials. In the process, the ligoncellulose material is impregnated with an alkaline liquor. The lignocellulose material is maintained in the alkaline liquor for a period of time suff...

J. L. Minor E. L. Springer

1992-01-01

414

Chemical Dehalogenation Treatment: Base-Catalyzed Decomposition Process (BCDP).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Base-Catalyzed Decomposition Process (BCDP) is an efficient, relatively inexpensive treatment process for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). It is also effective on other halogenated contaminants such as insecticides, herbicides, pentachlorophenol (PCP...

1992-01-01

415

New insights into chemical processes within martian high latitude soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our analysis of near-infrared spectra of low albedo soils in the northern lowlands of Mars has revealed that they can be classified into three compositional groups: (1) relatively unaltered and high-calcium pyroxene-rich, (2) pervasively leached and glass-rich, and (3) gypsum-rich. Here we present results from spectral and morphologic studies, which together show that the diversity of soils observed from orbit and those observed in situ by the Phoenix lander can largely be explained by aqueous processes acting on high-calcium pyroxene-rich soils. Soils in Acidalia Planitia, parts of the north polar sand sea, and certain units within the north polar plateau exhibit spectral signatures consistent with an enrichment in iron-bearing glass, as well as signatures consistent with leached glass rinds, which form during acidic alteration of glass surfaces. As glass enrichment can be produced during acidic leaching of basaltic sand, we have proposed that these soils are the endproducts of widespread and pervasive acidic leaching. If these altered sands originally had a composition similar to the relatively unaltered high-calcium pyroxene-rich soils observed elsewhere in the northern lowlands, then we should also expect them to contain calcium-bearing secondary precipitates, primarily gypsum. While spectral analysis of Acidalia-type soils places an approximate upper limit on their gypsum concentration of 15-20 wt.%, our results suggest that the gypsum-rich (up to 40 wt.%) sands in the Olympia Undae region of the north polar sand sea could also be sourced from Acidalia-type materials within the north polar plateau. Although Olympia Undae gypsum concentrations appear too high to justify this hypothesis, our morphologic studies of the region suggest that the high concentrations are most likely surficial and do not represent the volumetric concentrations. By mapping the distribution of tensional surface cracks on sand dunes in HiRISE images, we have shown that the strength of gypsum absorptions correlates with the density of cracks on the dunes, which we interpret as evidence that the dune surfaces are cemented by gypsum. As chemical cementation requires dissolution and transport of salts by liquid water, we hypothesize that the gypsum precipitated out of brines, perhaps similar to the putative brines observed at the Phoenix landing site. If these brines originated from ice melt within or beneath the dunes and were transported to the surface via capillary wicking, they would have produced a surface layer enriched in gypsum, consistent with the observed distribution of gypsum on the dunes. This hypothesis explains why Olympia Undae is the only unit in the region with strong gypsum signatures, even at high resolution. These results shed new light on soils at the Phoenix landing site, as particles sourced from all of the above soil types may have been observed in Optical Microscope studies of Phoenix soils. Furthermore, the high-calcium pyroxene-rich soils that we have identified could serve as a source of calcium for the calcium carbonates identified at the landing site, which differ from the magnesium and iron carbonates that have been identified elsewhere on the planet.

Horgan, B.; Bell, J. F.

2010-12-01

416

DOE underground storage tank waste remediation chemical processing hazards. Part I: Technology dictionary  

SciTech Connect

This document has been prepared to aid in the development of Regulating guidelines for the Privatization of Hanford underground storage tank waste remediation. The document has been prepared it two parts to facilitate their preparation. Part II is the primary focus of this effort in that it describes the technical basis for established and potential chemical processing hazards associated with Underground Storage Tank (UST) nuclear waste remediation across the DOE complex. The established hazards involve those at Sites for which Safety Analysis Reviews (SARs) have already been prepared. Potential hazards are those involving technologies currently being developed for future applications. Part I of this document outlines the scope of Part II by briefly describing the established and potential technologies. In addition to providing the scope, Part I can be used as a technical introduction and bibliography for Regulatory personnel new to the UST waste remediation, and in particular Privatization effort. Part II of this document is not intended to provide examples of a SAR Hazards Analysis, but rather provide an intelligence gathering source for Regulatory personnel who must eventually evaluate the Privatization SAR Hazards Analysis.

DeMuth, S.F.

1996-10-01

417

Assessment of aircraft impact possibilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant on the INEL Site  

SciTech Connect

The concern of this study was the possibility of an aircraft collision with facilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Two sets of data were combined in calculating the probability of this event. The first was from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission data is used to check the adequacy of nuclear power plant location relative to aircraft crashes. For neighboring airport scenarios, the accepted rate unit is fatal crashes per square mile. For in-flight crash scenarios, a total loss of control crash rate (where the pilot was completely out of control) is used for evaluating nuclear reactors. Numbers were given per linear mile of flight. The other set of data was obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board`s annual review. These data points show higher crash frequencies because crashes in which the pilot maintained some control have not been excluded. By including this data set, the evaluation gained two advantages. First, the data are separated by type of aircraft, which makes frequencies for specific flight paths more meaningful. Second, the data are given year by year over a ten-year time span. Therefore, it is possible to gain a sense of the variability in crash frequencies from one year to another.

Lee, L.G.; Mines, J.M.; Webb, B.B.

1993-08-01

418

Information models for planning and scheduling of chemical processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Process Data Exchange Institute (pdXi) has developed an information model for process engineering data. The pdXi information model is designed to facilitate the storage and exchange of stead-state process engineering data. Batch and real-time operating data can be stored and exchanged using the pdXi model as snapshots (data that characterizes the process at a specific point in time). Snapshots

Vivek Bhatnagar

2000-01-01

419

Comparison of thermal flow and chemical shrink processes for 193 nm contact hole patterning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper compares thermal shrink properties of contact holes and chemical shrink performance for 193 nm lithography. Pitch dependence, shrink properties, contact hole circularity, sidewall roughness, and process window are also discussed. Thermal flow process exhibited more pitch dependence than chemical shrink process. Thermal shrink rate increased substantially at higher bake temperatures. Contact holes in defocused area shrunk non-evenly and DOF deteriorated upon heating. In chemical shrink process, shrink rate was hardly influenced by mixing bake temperature, contact holes from center focus to defocus area shrunk evenly preserving effective DOF and MEF became smaller at smaller CD. Chemical shrink has clear advantages over thermal flow process and sub-70 nm contact holes were obtained with iso-dense overlap DOF 0.25 ?m by optimizing resist formulations and process conditions. Application of shrink processes will pave the way for the next generation LSI production.

Kudo, Takanori; Antonio, Charito; Sagan, John; Chakrapani, Srinivasan; Parthasarathy, Deepa; Hong, Sungeun; Thiyagarajan, Muthiah; Cao, Yi; Padmanaban, Munirathna

2009-03-01

420

Safety evaluation of food contact paper and board using chemical tests and in vitro bioassays: role of known and unknown substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro toxicological tests have been proposed as an approach to complement the chemical safety assessment of food contact materials, particularly those with a complex or unknown chemical composition such as paper and board. Among the concerns raised regarding the applicability of in vitro tests are the effects of interference of the extractables on the outcome of the cytotoxicity and

U. Honkalampi-Hämäläinen; E. L. Bradley; L. Castle; I. Severin; L. Dahbi; O. Dahlman; J.-C. Lhuguenot; M. A. Andersson; P. Hakulinen; D. Hoornstra; J. Mäki-Paakkanen; M. Salkinoja-Salonen; L. Turco; A. Stammati; F. Zucco; A. Weber; A. von Wright

2010-01-01

421

Coupling physical processes in simulations of chemically reactive flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exact way the processes are coupled depends on the individual properties of the different algorithms used and the regimes in which the competing physical processes interact. In particular, we have found that the best form of the coupling to use varies according to whether the convection is treated by an implicit or explicit approach. Other processes may be done

E. S. Oran; J. P. Boris; K. Kailasanath; G. Patnaik

1989-01-01

422

Coupling physical processes in simulations of chemically reactive flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exact way the processes are coupled depends on the individual properties of the different algorithms used and the regimes in which the competing physical processes interact. In particular, we have found that the best form of the coupling to use varies according to whether the convection is treated by an implicit or explicit approach. Other processes may be done

E. Oran; J. Boris; K. Kailasanath; G. Patnaik

423

Evaluating the safety of microbial enzyme preparations used in food processing: update for a new century.  

PubMed

Microbial enzymes used in food processing are typically sold as enzyme preparations that contain not only a desired enzyme activity but also other metabolites of the production strain, as well as added materials such as preservatives and stabilizers. The added materials must be food grade and meet applicable regulatory standards. The purpose of this report is to present guidelines that can be used to evaluate the safety of the metabolites of the production strain that are also present in the enzyme preparation, including of course, but not limited to, the desired enzyme activity itself. This discussion builds on previously published decision tree mechanisms and includes consideration of new genetic modification technologies, for example, modifying the primary structure of enzymes to enhance specific properties that are commercially useful. The safety of the production strain remains the primary consideration in evaluating enzyme safety, in particular, the toxigenic potential of the production strain. Thoroughly characterized nonpathogenic, nontoxigenic microbial strains, particularly those with a history of safe use in food enzyme manufacture, are logical candidates for generating a safe strain lineage, through which improved strains may be derived via genetic modification by using either traditional/classical or rDNA strain improvement strategies. The elements needed to establish a safe strain lineage include thoroughly characterizing the host organism, determining the safety of all new DNA that has been introduced into the host organism, and ensuring that the procedure(s) that have been used to modify the host organism are appropriate for food use. Enzyme function may be changed by intentionally altering the amino acid sequence (e.g., protein engineering). It may be asked if such modifications might also affect the safety of an otherwise safe enzyme. We consider this question in light of what is known about the natural variation in enzyme structure and function and conclude that it is unlikely that changes which improve upon desired enzyme function will result in the creation of a toxic protein. It is prudent to assess such very small theoretical risks by conducting limited toxicological tests on engineered enzymes. The centerpiece of this report is a decision tree mechanism that updates previous enzyme safety evaluation mechanisms to accommodate advances in enzymology. We have concluded that separate mutagenicity testing is not needed if this decision tree is used to evaluate enzyme safety. Under the criteria of the decision tree, no new food enzyme can enter the market without critical evaluation of its safety. PMID:11350200

Pariza, M W; Johnson, E A

2001-04-01

424

Pilot scale treatment of textile wastewater by combined process (fluidized biofilm process–chemical coagulation–electrochemical oxidation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of pilot scale combined process of fluidized biofilm process, chemical coagulation and electrochemical oxidation for textile wastewater treatment was studied. In order to enhance biological treatment efficiency, two species of microbes, which can degrade textile wastewater pollutants efficiently, were isolated and applied to the system with supporting media. FeCl3·6H2O, pH 6 and 3.25×10?3mol\\/l were determined as optimal chemical

Tak-Hyun Kim; Jinwon Lee; Eung-Bai Shin; Sangyong Kim

2002-01-01

425

Using Drawing Technology to Assess Students' Visualizations of Chemical Reaction Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigated how students used a drawing tool to visualize their ideas of chemical reaction processes. We interviewed 30 students using thinking-aloud and retrospective methods and provided them with a drawing tool. We identified four types of connections the students made as they used the tool: drawing on existing knowledge, incorporating dynamic aspects of chemical processes, linking a visualization to the associated chemical phenomenon, and connecting between the visualization and chemistry concepts. We also compared students who were able to create dynamic visualizations with those who only created static visualizations. The results indicated a relationship between students constructing a dynamic view of chemical reaction processes and their understanding of chemical reactions. This study provides insights into the use of visualizations to support instruction and assessment to facilitate students' integrated understanding of chemical reactions.

Chang, Hsin-Yi; Quintana, Chris; Krajcik, Joseph

2013-09-01

426

Free-standing silicon microstructures fabricated by laser chemical processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser-assisted chemical-vapor deposition (LCVD) is used for growth in ‘‘free space’’ of microscale fibers and helical structures of silicon. The LCVD technique is also used for fabrication of a tungsten coil on a cylindrical silicon substrate, i.e., a microsolenoid is realized. The microstructure of the silicon deposits is investigated by transmission electron microscopy, and their mechanical strength is evaluated by

Helena Westberg; Mats Boman; Stefan Johansson; Jan-Åke Schweitz

1993-01-01

427

Polishing Characteristics of Hydrophilic Pad in Chemical Mechanical Polishing Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a hydrophilic chemical–mechanical polishing pad that uses a submicron graphite-particle impregnated polyurethane matrix to enhance slurry absorption. We investigated pads containing four different graphite contents of 0, 5, 15, and 25 wt%. Two diamond disks, one brazed, and one polycrystalline, were used to dress the polishing pads to create slurry supply and removal channels. The hydrophilic pad's contact

Ming-Yi Tsai; Chiou-Yuan Chen; Ying-Rong He

2011-01-01

428

Polishing Characteristics of Hydrophilic Pad in Chemical Mechanical Polishing Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a hydrophilic chemical-mechanical polishing pad that uses a submicron graphite-particle impregnated polyurethane matrix to enhance slurry absorption. We investigated pads containing four different graphite contents of 0, 5, 15, and 25 wt%. Two diamond disks, one brazed, and one polycrystalline, were used to dress the polishing pads to create slurry supply and removal channels. The hydrophilic pad's contact

Ming-Yi Tsai; Chiou-Yuan Chen; Ying-Rong He

2012-01-01

429

Safety Training for the Developmentally Disabled in Icon Recognition for the Safe Use of Hazardous Chemicals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unique document is a training manual for individuals such as job coaches and janitorial crew supervisors who train and work with Developmentally Disabled (DD) workers in vocational classrooms and on job sites. These workers need to be taught the importance of safety in the workplace using methods appropriate to their developmental needs. The…

Sandoz, Jeff

2005-01-01

430

SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR TANK 241-AZ-101 MIXER PUMP PROCESS TEST  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the completed safety analysis which establishes the safety envelope for performing the mixer pump process test in Tank 241-AZ-101. This process test is described in TF-210-OTP-001. All equipment necessary for the mixer pump test has been installed by Project W-151. The purpose of this document is to describe and analyze the mixer pump test for Aging Waste Facility (AWF) Tank 241-AZ-101 and to address the 'yes/maybe' responses marked for evaluation questions identified in Unreviewed Safety Question Evaluation (USQE) TF-94-0266. The scope of this document is limited to the performance of the mixer pump test for Tank 241-AZ-101. Unreviewed Safety Question Determination (USQD) TF-96-0018 verified that the installation of two mixer pumps into Tank 241-AZ-101 was within the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Authorization Basis. USQDs TF-96-0461, TF-96-0448, and TF-96-0805 verified that the installation of the in-tank video camera, thermocouples, and Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzer (URSILLA), respectively, were within the current TWRS Authorization Basis. USQD TF-96-1041 verified that the checkout testing of the installed equipment was within the current TWRS Authorization Basis. Installation of the pumps and equipment has been completed. An evaluation of safety considerations associated with operation of the mixer pumps for the mixer pump test is provided in this document. This document augments the existing AWF authorization basis as defined in the Interim Safety Basis (Stahl 1997), and as such, will use the existing Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSRs) of Heubach 1996 to adequately control the mixer pump test. The hazard and accident analysis is limited to the scope and impact of the mixer pump test, and therefore does not address hazards already addressed by the current AWF authorization basis. This document does not evaluate removal of the mixer pumps. Safety considerations for removal of the pumps will be addressed by separate safety documentation once that portion of the mission is defined. The mixer pump test has been evaluated to cover the use of either the existing ventilation system (241-A-702) or the ventilation system upgrade provided by Project W-030. Analysis of Project W-030 is outside of the scope of this document and is addressed in HNF-SD-WM-SARR-039 (Draft) which, should the W-030 system be in service at the time of the mixer pump test, will have been approved and made a part of the TWRS authorization basis. The test will use two high-capacity mixer pumps in various configurations and modes to demonstrate solids mobilization of waste in Tank 241-AZ-101. The information and experience gained during the test will provide data for comparison with sludge mobilization prediction models; provide data to estimate the number, location, and cycle times of the mixer pumps; and provide indication of the effects of mixer pump operation on the AWF tank systems and components. The slurry produced will be evaluated for future pretreatment processing. This process test does not transfer waste from the tank; the waste is mixed and confined within the existing system. At the completion of the mixer pump test, the mixer pumps will be stopped and normal tank operations, maintenance, and surveillance will continue. Periodic rotation of the mixer pumps and motor shafts, along with bearing greasing, is required to maintain the pumps following the mixer pump test.

HAMMOND DM; HARRIS JP; MOUETTE P

1997-06-09

431

Process waste assessment plan: Environmental safety and health programs. Revision C  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to establish a procedure and schedule for conducting process waste assessments (PWAS) at the Pinellas Plant. The plan specifies those activities and methods that will be employed to characterize all waste streams and to identify opportunities to reduce or eliminate waste generation. The plan also includes a methodology for evaluating proposed modifications to site processes and other options to minimize waste. The plan is intended to satisfy the requirement of the Pinellas Plant Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan to conduct PWAS. The plan will also include an assessment of safety, hazards and ergonomics associated with each waste stream.

Poole, R.L.; Hall, R.L.

1992-06-18

432

Switch control between FCS and Ethernet for chemical processes with large time lag  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is not an easy task to effectively control complex chemical processes with large time lag. This job proposes a switch control strategy between a fieldbus control system (FCS) and an Ethernet control system (ECS) for these processes. When a process output is near to its setpoint, a fieldbus control loop is put into action to control the process through

Gang Xiao; Shiming Yu; Li Yu

2004-01-01

433

EVALUATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS, ECONOMICS, AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES: HEAT INTEGRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. In this work diff...

434

Enhanced Chemical Cleaning: A New Process for Chemically Cleaning Savannah River Waste Tanks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the Savannah River Site (SRS) there are 49 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks that eventually must be emptied, cleaned, and closed. The current method of chemically cleaning SRS HLW tanks, commonly referred to as Bulk Oxalic Acid Cleaning (BOAC), requires ab...

E. Ketusky N. Davis R. Spires

2009-01-01

435

Optimisation of Shape Parameters and Process Manufacturing for an Automotive Safety Part  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the weight and the cost of automotive vehicles have considerably increased due to the importance devoted to safety systems. It is therefore necessary to reduce the weight and the production cost of components by improving their shape and manufacturing process. This work deals with a numerical approach for optimizing the manufacturing process parameters of a safety belt anchor using a genetic algorithm (NSGA II). This type of component is typically manufactured in three stages: blanking, rounding of the edges by punching and finally, bending with a 90° angle. In this study, only the rounding and the bending will be treated. The numerical model is linked to the genetic algorithm in order to optimize the process parameters. This is implemented by using ABAQUS© script files developed in the Python programming language. The algorithm modifies the script files and restarts the FEM analysis automatically. Lemaitre's damage model is introduced in the material behaviour laws and implemented in the FEM analysis by using a FORTRAN subroutine. The influence of two process parameters (die radius and the rounding punch radius) and five shape parameters were investigated. The objective functions are (i) the material damage state at the end of the forming process, (ii) the stress field and (iii) the maximum Von Mises stress in the folded zone.

Gildemyn, Eric; Dal Santo, Philippe; Potiron, Alain; Saļdane, Delphine

2007-05-01

436

Health Aspects of Chemical Safety. Interim Document 9. Toxicology of Pesticides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pesticides are the hazardous chemicals which most people come in to contact with most often. This volume serves as a training manual for institutes planning courses in pesticide toxicology, and as a guide for those responsible for making decisions concern...

F. Kaloyanova S. Tarkowski W. N. Aldridge F. Moriarty J. A. R. Bates

1982-01-01

437

Chemical Effects Head-Loss Research in Support of Generic Safety Issue 191.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes studies conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on the potential for chemical effects on head loss across sump screens. Three different buffering solutions were used for these tests: trisodium phosphate, sodium hydroxide, and sodium...

B. Fisher J. Oras J. H. Park K. Kasza K. Natesan

2006-01-01

438

Health Aspects of Chemical Safety. Interim Document 3. Progress Report July 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Progress report of the World Health Organization covers the following topics: Program Planning and Priorities; Manpower Development and Training; Contingency Planning for Accidents and Emergencies Involving the Release of Toxic Chemicals; Monitoring ...

A. Gilad S. Tarkowski

1981-01-01

439

CHEMICAL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT, JULY-SEPTEMBER 1962  

Microsoft Academic Search

8 9 : > = 8 9 8 9 < 5 : 7 ) adapting the ; hydrofluoric acid process to continuous dissolution-complexing in order to ; increase the capacity of the ICPP process, resulted in two successful approaches ; to the complexing-feed adjustment step. Continuous in-line adjustment ; (conversion of uranium(IV) to uranium(VI) necessary for extraction) was ; accomplished

J. R. ed

1962-01-01

440

Chemical Changes in Proteins Produced by Thermal Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses effects of thermal processing on proteins, focusing on (1) the Maillard reaction; (2) heat denaturation of proteins; (3) aggregation, precipitation, gelation, and degradation; and (4) other thermally induced protein reactions. Also discusses effects of thermal processing on muscle foods, egg proteins, fruits and vegetables, and cereal…

Dutson, T. R.; Orcutt, M. W.

1984-01-01

441

Chemical Changes in Proteins Produced by Thermal Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses effects of thermal processing on proteins, focusing on (1) the Maillard reaction; (2) heat denaturation of proteins; (3) aggregation, precipitation, gelation, and degradation; and (4) other thermally induced protein reactions. Also discusses effects of thermal processing on muscle foods, egg proteins, fruits and vegetables, and cereal…

Dutson, T. R.; Orcutt, M. W.

1984-01-01

442

EXPOSURE TO CHEMICAL ADDITIVES FROM POLYVINYL CHLORIDE POLYMER EXTRUSION PROCESSING  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents a model to predict worker inhalation exposure due to off-gassing of additives during polyvinyl chloride (PVC) extrusion processing. ata on off-gassing of additives were reviewed in the literature, the off-gassing at normal PVC processing temperatures was stud...

443

Cogeneration handbook for the chemical process industries. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

The desision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the chemical industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

Fassbender, A.G.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

1984-03-01

444

Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for

R. M. Neupauer; S. M. Thurmond

1992-01-01

445

Going Beyond Exposure to Local News Media: An Information-Processing Examination of Public Perceptions of Food Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between local news media and public perceptions of food safety was examined in a statewide telephone survey (n = 524). The theoretical framework of the study was based on a review of the social and psychological factors that affect public concerns about food safety, the relationship between mass communication and risk perception, and the thesis of information-processing strategies and its

Kenneth Fleming; Esther Thorson; Yuyan Zhang

2006-01-01

446

Nuclear fuel reprocessing deactivation plan for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The decision was announced on April 28, 1992 to cease all United States Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels. This decision leads to the deactivation of all fuels dissolution, solvent extraction, krypton gas recovery operations, and product denitration at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The reprocessing facilities will be converted to a safe and stable shutdown condition awaiting future alternate uses or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). This ICPP Deactivation Plan includes the scope of work, schedule, costs, and associated staffing levels necessary to achieve a safe and orderly deactivation of reprocessing activities and the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF). Deactivation activities primarily involve shutdown of operating systems and buildings, fissile and hazardous material removal, and related activities. A minimum required level of continued surveillance and maintenance is planned for each facility/process system to ensure necessary environmental, health, and safety margins are maintained and to support ongoing operations for ICPP facilities that are not being deactivated. Management of the ICPP was transferred from Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) to Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) on October 1, 1994 as part of the INEL consolidated contract. This revision of the deactivation plan (formerly the Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Phaseout Plan for the ICPP) is being published during the consolidation of the INEL site-wide contract and the information presented here is current as of October 31, 1994. LITCO has adopted the existing plans for the deactivation of ICPP reprocessing facilities and the plans developed under WINCO are still being actively pursued, although the change in management may result in changes which have not yet been identified. Accordingly, the contents of this plan are subject to revision.

Patterson, M.W.

1994-10-01

447

Effects of chemical additives on microbial enhanced oil recovery processes  

SciTech Connect

An extensive laboratory study has been conducted to determine (1) the role of the microbial cells and products in oil displacement, (2) the relative rates of transport of microbial cells and chemical products from the metabolism of nutrient in porous media, and (3) the effects of chemical additives on the oil recovery efficiency of microbial formulations. This report describes experiments relating to the effects of additives on oil recovery efficiency of microbial formulations. The effects of additives on the oil recovery efficiency of microbial formulations were determined by conducting oil displacement experiments in 1-foot-long Berea sandstone cores. Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), a low-molecular-weight polyacrylamide polymer, a lignosulfonate surfactant, and sodium bicarbonate were added to a microbial formulation at a concentration of 1%. The effects of using these additives in a preflush prior to injection of the microbial formulation were also evaluated. Oil-displacement experiments with and without a sodium bicarbonate preflush were conducted in 4-foot-long Berea sandstone cores, and samples of in situ fluids were collected at various times at four intermediate points along the core. The concentrations of metabolic products and microbes in the fluid samples were determined. 9 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

Bryant, R.S.; Chase, K.L.; Bertus, K.M.; Stepp, A.K.

1989-12-01

448

Chemical Process Research and Development Program. FY 1983 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress reports are made on the following research topics: high-productivity vacuum fermentation processes for ethanol production; bioconversion of cellulose into cellulase; synthesis of encapsulated arsenic anion; vanadyl and nickel porphyrins and nonpo...

1984-01-01

449

Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D10-values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce as well as the sensory evaluation of the irradiated product were evaluated. The immersion in chlorine (200ppm) reduced coliform and aerobic mesophilic microorganisms by 0.9 and 2.7log, respectively. D-values varied from 0.16 to 0.23kGy for Salmonella spp. and from 0.11 to 0.12kGy for E. coli O157:H7. Minimally processed iceberg lettuce exposed to 0.9kGy does not show any change in sensory attributes. However, the texture of the vegetable was affected during the exposition to 1.1kGy. The exposition of MP iceberg lettuce to 0.7kGy reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by 4.0log and E. coli by 6.8log without impairing the sensory attributes. The combination of minimal process and gamma radiation to improve the safety of iceberg lettuce is feasible if good hygiene practices begins at farm stage.

Goularte, L.; Martins, C. G.; Morales-Aizpurśa, I. C.; Destro, M. T.; Franco, B. D. G. M.; Vizeu, D. M.; Hutzler, B. W.; Landgraf, M.

2004-09-01

450

Standardization of process parameters for a chemical reaction using neutron activation analysis technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical process to convert polyepichlorohydrin (PECH) into a glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) has been standardized by measuring the relative concentrations of nitrogen, chlorine and oxygen with the fast neutron activation analysis technique. For comparison PECH and GAP samples were also analysed by IR spectroscopy. The results indicate that, for standardization of the present chemical process, the fast neutron activation analysis technique is superior to IR spectroscopy. In this paper the techniques used to analyse the samples are described in detail but the information on the actual chemical process adopted is provided in brief.

Dokhale, P. A.; Bhoraskar, V. N.

1996-08-01

451

Quality and safety of fish curry processed by sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology process during refrigerated storage.  

PubMed

Fish curry, a traditional Indian dish was prepared from farmed fish Cobia (Rachycentron canadum), packaged by two different cook-chill processes namely, sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology and held at 2?°C. Biochemical composition revealed that fish curry contained 5% protein and 6% fat. Omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) retained 55.44% while docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) retained 29% during cook-chilling process. The major fatty acids in fish curry were C18:2, C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1. Shelf-life of sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed fish curry were 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacterial counts were detected after 4 weeks and 12 weeks in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processes, respectively. Total staphylococci were detected in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed cobia fish curry after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacilli, anaerobic sulfite reducing clostridia, Salmonella, and lactic acid bacteria were absent. Hot filled technology process was more efficient and could be applied for chilled fish curry preservation for 12 weeks without any safety problems. PMID:22701059

Shakila, R Jeya; Raj, B Edwin; Felix, N

2012-06-01

452

Definition and means of maintaining the process vacuum liquid detection interlock systems portion of the PFP safety envelope  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to record the technical evaluation of the Technical Safety Requirements described in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Safety Technical Requirements, HNF-SD-CP-OSR-010, Rev. 1, Section 3.1.1, ''Criticality Prevention System.'' This document also defines the Safety Envelope (SE) for the liquid detection interlock system in the Process Vacuum System. The SE is derived from information in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Final Safety Analysis Report (PFP FSAR), HNF-SD-CP-SAR-021, Rev 4, and the Criticality Safety Analysis Report (CSAR) for the 26-inch Hg Vacuum System, WHC-SD-SQA-CSA-20159, Rev 0-A. This document, with its appendices, provides the following: (1) The system functional requirements for determining system operability (Section 3). (2) Evaluations of equipment to determine the safety envelope boundary for the system (Section 4 list of SE boundary drawings). (3) A list of the safety envelope equipment (Appendix B). (4) Functional requirements for the individual safety envelope equipment, including appropriate set points and process parameters (Section 4). (5) A list of the operational and surveillance procedures necessary to operate and maintain the system equipment within the safety envelope (Sections 5 and 6 and Appendix A).

LINTHO, J.E.

2003-01-29

453

Definition & means of maintaining the process vacuum liquid detection interlock systems portion of the PFP safety envelope  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to record the technical evaluation of the Technical Safety Requirements described in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Safety Technical Requirements, HNF-SD-CP-OSR-010, Rev. 1, Section 3.1.1, ''Criticality Prevention System.'' This document also defines the Safety Envelope (SE) for the liquid detection interlock system in the Process Vacuum System. The SE is derived from information in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Final Safety Analysis Report (PFP FSAR), HNF-SD-CP-SAR-021, Rev 4, and the Criticality Safety Analysis Report (CSAR) for the 26-inch Hg Vacuum System, WHC-SD-SQA-CSA-20159, Rev 0-A. This document, with its appendices, provides the following: (1) The system functional requirements for determining system operability. (2) Evaluations of equipment to determine the safety envelope boundary for the system. (3) A list of the safety envelope equipment. (4) Functional requirements for the individual safety envelope equipment, including appropriate set points and process parameters. (5) A list of the operational and surveillance procedures necessary to operate and maintain the system equipment within the safety envelope.

LINTHO, J.E.

2003-04-22

454

Urban street canyons: Coupling dynamics, chemistry and within-canyon chemical processing of emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Street canyons, formed by rows of buildings in urban environments, are associated with high levels of atmospheric pollutants emitted primarily from vehicles, and substantial human exposure. The street canyon forms a semi-enclosed environment, within which emissions may be entrained in a re-circulatory system; chemical processing of emitted compounds alters the composition of the air vented to the overlying boundary layer, compared with the primary emissions. As the prevailing atmospheric chemistry is highly non-linear, and the canyon mixing and predominant chemical reaction timescales are comparable, the combined impacts of dynamics and chemistry must be considered to quantify these effects. Here we report a model study of the coupled impacts of dynamical and chemical processing upon the atmospheric composition in a street canyon environment, to assess the impacts upon air pollutant levels within the canyon, and to quantify the extent to which within-canyon chemical processing alters the composition of canyon outflow, in comparison to the primary emissions within the canyon. A new model for the simulation of street canyon atmospheric chemical processing has been developed, by integrating an existing Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) dynamical model of canyon atmospheric motion with a detailed chemical reaction mechanism, a Reduced Chemical Scheme (RCS) comprising 51 chemical species and 136 reactions, based upon a subset of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). The combined LES-RCS model is used to investigate the combined effects of mixing and chemical processing upon air quality within an idealised street canyon. The effect of the combination of dynamical (segregation) and chemical effects is determined by comparing the outputs of the full LES-RCS canyon model with those obtained when representing the canyon as a zero-dimensional box model (i.e. assuming mixing is complete and instantaneous). The LES-RCS approach predicts lower (canyon-averaged) levels of NOx, OH and HO2, but higher levels of O3, compared with the box model run under identical chemical and emissions conditions. When considering the level of chemical detail implemented, segregation effects were found to reduce the error introduced by simplifying the reaction mechanism. Chemical processing of emissions within the canyon leads to a significant increase in the Ox flux from the canyon into the overlying boundary layer, relative to primary emissions, for the idealised case considered here. These results demonstrate that within-canyon atmospheric chemical processing can substantially alter the concentrations of pollutants injected into the urban canopy layer, compared with the raw emission rates within the street canyon. The extent to which these effects occur is likely to be dependent upon the nature of the domain (canyon aspect ratio), prevailing meteorology and emission/pollution scenario considered.

Bright, Vivien Bianca; Bloss, William James; Cai, Xiaoming

2013-04-01

455

Improving the operation of chemical process systems at thermal power stations using computerized education facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The list and characteristics of computerized systems used for carrying out basic training of the operating personnel of chemical departments are presented. The results from contests of professional skills carried out among comprehensive teams of thermal power stations with participation of the operating personnel of chemical departments are analyzed. The result obtained from using software facilities for improving the operation of chemical process systems at thermal power stations is discussed.

Kopylov, A. S.; Orlov, K. A.; Kondakova, G. Yu.

2011-07-01

456

Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning process  

SciTech Connect

Research continued on the cleaning of coal. The parametric tests on the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal samples were completed in this quarter. In these batch tests, liberation was found to be more responsible for the removal of both mineral matter and sulfur in the CECC treatment of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. The optimum conditions for processing this coal were determined using response surface analysis. The interaction of the effects of acid concentration and ferric ion were indicated by the statistical analysis to be significant. Precleaning the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal by conventional froth flotation did not seem to be beneficial to the CECC processing of this coal. The batch tests involving the bacterial regeneration of ferric ions for both coal samples were also completed. The effects of all five parameters were found to be significant. The optimum conditions for cleaning these coals by the CECC process using the bacterial regeneration scheme were also determined. 5 figs., 11 tabs.

Yoon, Roe-Hoan.

1991-01-01

457

Influence of process parameters on the surface and chemical properties of activated carbon obtained from biochar by chemical activation.  

PubMed

Activated carbons were produced from biochar obtained through pyrolysis of safflower seed press cake by chemical activation with zinc chloride. The influences of process variables such as the activation temperature and the impregnation ratio on textural and chemical-surface properties of the activated carbons were investigated. Also, the adsorptive properties of activated carbons were tested using methylene blue dye as the targeted adsorbate. The experimental data indicated that the adsorption isotherms are well described by the Langmuir equilibrium isotherm equation. The optimum conditions resulted in activated carbon with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 128.21mgg(-1) and carbon content 76.29%, while the BET surface area and total pore volume corresponded to 801.5m(2)g(-1) and 0.393cm(3)g(-1), respectively. This study demonstrated that high surface area activated carbons can be prepared from the chemical activation of biochar with zinc chloride as activating agents. PMID:24080293

Ang?n, Dilek; Altintig, Esra; Köse, Tijen Ennil

2013-09-08

458

Apparatus for combustion, pollution and chemical process control  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a system for controlling operating parameters of a combustion process yielding products including flowing gases having particles entrained therein. It comprises photodetectors for detecting preselected wavelengths of light emitted from particles entrained in the combustion product gas stream, wherein the intensities of the light at the preselected wavelengths are indicative of inefficiencies in the combustion process, and wherein each photodetector detects a band of wavelengths of light different from the others; and means for generating indicative of the intensities of light at the wavelengths detected by the photodetectors, for indicating the presence of inefficiency.

Frish, M.B.; Morency, J.; Johnson, S.A.; Boni, A.A.

1992-05-12

459

Vesicle-based method for collecting, manipulating, and chemically processing trace macromolecular species  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is an apparatus and method for inserting one or several chemical or biological species into phospholipid containers that are controlled within a microfluidic network, wherein individual containers are tracked and manipulated by electric fields and wherein the contained species may be chemically processed.

Davalos, Rafael V. (Oakland, CA); Ellis, Christopher R. B. (Oakland, CA)

2010-08-17

460

Vesicle-based method and apparatus for collecting, manipulating, and chemically processing trace macromolecular species  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is an apparatus and method for inserting one or several chemical or biological species into phospholipid containers that are controlled within a microfluidic network, wherein individual containers are tracked and manipulated by electric fields and wherein the contained species may be chemically processed.

Davalos, Rafael V. (Oakland, CA); Ellis, Christopher R. B. (Oakland, CA)

2008-03-04

461

Oxidation of cyanide in aqueous solution by chemical and photochemical process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide waste is found predominantly in industrial effluents generated from metallurgical operations. The toxicity of cyanide creates serious environmental problems. In this paper, oxidation of cyanide in aqueous solution was investigated using chemical and photochemical process. Chemical oxidation was studied at room temperature using H2O2 as oxidant and Cu2+ as catalyst. Photochemical oxidation was studied in an annular type batch

M. Sarla; M. Pandit; D. K. Tyagi; J. C. Kapoor

2004-01-01

462

Radiogenic isotopes: systematics and applications to earth surface processes and chemical stratigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiogenic isotopes have wide application to chemical stratigraphy, geochronology, provenance studies, and studies of temporal changes in Earth surface processes. This paper briefly reviews the principles of radiogenic isotope geochemistry and the distribution of a number of elements of interest in the environment, and then uses this information to explore the range of applications to chemical stratigraphy and other fundamental

Jay L. Banner

2004-01-01

463

The role of aerosol composition in the chemical processes in the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of airborne particles and their composition in chemical processes in the atmosphere is discussed briefly in the first part of the paper. In the second part, the results of the study of chemical composition and reactivity of aerosols in heterogeneous aqueous systems (laboratory and field) obtained by our research group are presented. The kinetics of oxidation of S(IV)

Mirko Bizjak; Irena Grgi?; Vida Hudnik

1999-01-01

464

Using a Laboratory Simulator in the Teaching and Study of Chemical Processes in Estuarine Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching of Chemical Oceanography in the Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences of the University of Cadiz (Spain) has been improved since 1994 by the employment of a device for the laboratory simulation of estuarine mixing processes and the characterisation of the chemical behaviour of many substances that pass through an estuary. The…

Garcia-Luque, E.; Ortega, T.; Forja, J. M.; Gomez-Parra, A.

2004-01-01

465

Disaster management plan for chemical process industries. Case study: investigation of release of chlorine to atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first step in preparing a disaster management plan for any chemical process industry (CPI) is to identify and mitigate the conditions that might cause them. In practice, such a plan should start early in the design phase of the chemical facility, and continue throughout its life. The objective is to prevent emergencies by eliminating hazards wherever possible. In-spite of

Boppana V. Ramabrahmam; G. Swaminathan

2000-01-01

466

Using a Laboratory Simulator in the Teaching and Study of Chemical Processes in Estuarine Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The teaching of Chemical Oceanography in the Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences of the University of Cadiz (Spain) has been improved since 1994 by the employment of a device for the laboratory simulation of estuarine mixing processes and the characterisation of the chemical behaviour of many substances that pass through an estuary. The…

Garcia-Luque, E.; Ortega, T.; Forja, J. M.; Gomez-Parra, A.

2004-01-01

467

Global strategy for energy and waste analysis in scheduling and planning of multiproduct batch chemical processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy integration and waste minimization have received increasing attention in the chemical industry. Recent studies have addressed the specific problems that arise in batch chemical processes.However, a production plan built up using schedules developed beforehand may become inefficient or even fail to attain its production targets. Furthermore, production plans satisfying demand objectives may reduce or even eliminate energy integration or

R. Grau; M. Graells; J. Corominas; A. Espuńa; L. Puigjaner

1996-01-01

468

SIMULATION OF ECOLOGICALLY CONSCIOUS CHEMICAL PROCESSES: FUGITIVE EMISSIONS VERSUS OPERATING CONDITIONS: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-CIN-1531A Mata, T.M., Smith*, R.L., Young*, D., and Costa, C.A.V. "Simulation of Ecologically Conscious Chemical Processes: Fugitive Emissions versus Operating Conditions." Paper published in: CHEMPOR' 2001, 8th International Chemical Engineering Conference, Aveiro, Portu...

469

Nuclear Technology Series. Course 23: Nuclear Chemical Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

470

METHODS FOR INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS INTO CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN DECISIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this cooperative agreement was to postulate a means by which an engineer could routinely include environmental considerations in day-to-day conceptual design problems; a means that could easily integrate with existing design processes, and thus avoid massive retr...

471

Electrical, chemical and mechanical processes in water treeing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water treeing is a complex phenomenon involving several processes with many synergistic effects. Although a huge number of papers on the subject have been published over the last 25 years, there is no comprehensive theory able to describe the often contradictory experimental results. However, there are some tendencies that are always observed, whatever the experimental conditions. A critical review of

Jean-Pierre Crine

1998-01-01

472

Evaluation of Oxidation Processes for Treating Aqueous Chemical Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pathways of radical generation and consumption in several advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) involving ozone, peroxide, titanium dioxide, and UV light have been evaluated. HO is the principal oxidant in the AOPs at pH 7 and 2 as shown by measuring th...

T. Mill C. C. Yao H. K. Song S. Smedley

1994-01-01

473

Process and continuous apparatus for chemical conversion of materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process and apparatus are disclosed for the acid hydrolysis of waste cellulose to glucose of the type wherein waste cellulose is continuously fed into an inlet port of a twin screw extruder, water is continuously fed into reaction zone in the extruder, downstream of the inlet port, the cellulose is continuously reacted with water in the presence of an

B. Rugg; R. Stanton

1983-01-01

474

Process and continuous apparatus for chemical conversion of materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process and apparatus for the acid hydrolysis of waste cellulose to glucose of the type wherein waste cellulose is continuously fed into an inlet port of a twin screw extruder, water is continuously fed into reaction zone in the extruder, downstream of the inlet port, the cellulose is continuously reacted with water in the presence of an acid catalyst

Barry Rugg; Robert Stanton

1983-01-01

475

Biomass Energy and Biochemical Conversion Processing for Fuels and Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass, mainly in the form of wood, is the oldest form of energy used by humans. Biomass is used to meet a variety of energy needs, including generating electricity, heating homes, fueling vehicles, and providing process heat for industrial facilities.