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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Chemical Process Safety at Fuel Cycle Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This NUREG provides broad guidance on chemical safety issues relevant to fuel cycle facilities. It describes an approach acceptable to the NRC staff, with examples that are not exhaustive, for addressing chemical process safety in the safe storage, handli...

D. A. Ayres

1997-01-01

2

Experiments To Demonstrate Chemical Process Safety Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points out the need to educate undergraduate chemical engineering students on chemical process safety and introduces the content of a chemical process safety course offered at the University of Iowa. Presents laboratory experiments demonstrating flammability limits, flash points, electrostatic, runaway reactions, explosions, and relief design.…

Dorathy, Brian D.; Mooers, Jamisue A.; Warren, Matthew M.; Mich, Jennifer L.; Murhammer, David W.

2001-01-01

3

Safety Considerations in the Chemical Process Industries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an increased emphasis on chemical process safety as a result of highly publicized accidents. Public awareness of these accidents has provided a driving force for industry to improve its safety record. There has been an increasing amount of government regulation.

Englund, Stanley M.

4

Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

NONE

1996-02-01

5

Application of TRIZ creativity intensification approach to chemical process safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops a modified method of TRIZ to improve safety in chemical process design. This method is modified by the theory of TRIZ, which is inventive problem solving theory, for retrofit design of chemical process considering safety.The original TRIZ is difficult to access to chemical process safety due to inapplicability and ambiguity of terminology in classification of these parameters.

Junghwan Kim; Jinkyung Kim; Younghee Lee; Wonsub Lim; Il Moon

2009-01-01

6

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant safety document ICPP hazardous chemical evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a hazardous chemical evaluation performed for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). ICPP tracks chemicals on a computerized database, Haz Track, that contains roughly 2000 individual chemicals. The database contai...

B. J. Harwood

1993-01-01

7

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant safety document ICPP hazardous chemical evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a hazardous chemical evaluation performed for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). ICPP tracks chemicals on a computerized database, Haz Track, that contains roughly 2000 individual chemicals. The database contains information about each chemical, such as its form (solid, liquid, or gas); quantity, either in weight or volume; and its location. The Haz Track

Harwood

1993-01-01

8

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant safety document ICPP hazardous chemical evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a hazardous chemical evaluation performed for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). ICPP tracks chemicals on a computerized database, Haz Track, that contains roughly 2000 individual chemicals. The database contains information about each chemical, such as its form (solid, liquid, or gas); quantity, either in weight or volume; and its location. The Haz Track database was used as the primary starting point for the chemical evaluation presented in this report. The chemical data and results presented here are not intended to provide limits, but to provide a starting point for nonradiological hazards analysis.

Harwood, B.J.

1993-01-01

9

The new risk paradigm for chemical process security and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world of safety and security in the chemical process industries has certainly changed since 11 September, but the biggest challenges may be yet to come. This paper will explain that there is a new risk management paradigm for chemical security, discuss the differences in interpreting this risk versus accidental risk, and identify the challenges we can anticipate will occur

David A. Moore

2004-01-01

10

The new risk paradigm for chemical process security and safety.  

PubMed

The world of safety and security in the chemical process industries has certainly changed since 11 September, but the biggest challenges may be yet to come. This paper will explain that there is a new risk management paradigm for chemical security, discuss the differences in interpreting this risk versus accidental risk, and identify the challenges we can anticipate will occur in the future on this issue. Companies need to be ready to manage the new chemical security responsibilities and to exceed the expectations of the public and regulators. This paper will outline the challenge and a suggested course of action. PMID:15518981

Moore, David A

2004-11-11

11

Nuclear criticality safety evaluation -- DWPF Late Wash Facility, Salt Process Cell and Chemical Process Cell  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Nuclear Waste will be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for long term storage and disposal. This is a nuclear criticality safety evaluation for the Late Wash Facility (LWF), the Salt Processing Cell (SPC) and the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). of the DWPF. Waste salt solution is processed in the Tank Farm In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process and is then further washed in the DWPF Late Wash Facility (LWF) before it is fed to the DWPF Salt Processing Cell. In the Salt Processing Cell the precipitate slurry is processed in the Precipitate Reactor (PR) and the resultant Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) produce is combined with the sludge feed and frit in the DWPF Chemical Process Cell to produce a melter feed. The waste is finally immobilized in the Melt Cell. Material in the Tank Farm and the ITP and Extended Sludge processes have been shown to be safe against a nuclear criticality by others. The precipitate slurry feed from ITP and the first six batches of sludge feed are safe against a nuclear criticality and this evaluation demonstrates that the processes in the LWF, the SPC and the CPC do not alter the characteristics of the materials to compromise safety.

Williamson, T.G.

1994-10-17

12

The Application of Safety Simulation Technology in the Fault Diagnosis of the Chemical Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of information and computational technology, the safety simulation technique is becoming more and more useful in the chemical process hazard assessment, hazard identification, and safety control system design and operating personnel training etc.The fault diagnosis of the gravity water tank is studied by using dynamic simulation of HYSYS (Hyprotech System for Engineers). The simulation results presents the

Haichao Ran; Lihua Sun; Yingjun Guo

2008-01-01

13

77 FR 66638 - The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OSHA-2012-0039] The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...requirements specified in the Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly...

2012-11-06

14

Practicing chemical process safety: a look at the layers of protection.  

PubMed

This presentation will review a few public perceptions of safety in chemical plants and refineries, and will compare these plant workplace risks to some of the more traditional occupations. The central theme of this paper is to provide a "within-the-fence" view of many of the process safety practices that world class plants perform to pro-actively protect people, property, profits as well as the environment. It behooves each chemical plant and refinery to have their story on an image-rich presentation to stress stewardship and process safety. Such a program can assure the company's employees and help convince the community that many layers of safety protection within our plants are effective, and protect all from harm. PMID:15518976

Sanders, Roy E

2004-11-11

15

Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in Chemical Engineering Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the use of "conservation of life" as a concept and unifying theme for increasing awareness, application, and integration of process safety in chemical engineering education. Students need to think of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of life as equally important in engineering design and analysis.…

Klein, James A.; Davis, Richard A.

2011-01-01

16

The EPA's process safety management program for preventing accidental chemical releases (40 CFR 68)  

SciTech Connect

Section 304, Chemical Process Safety Management,'' of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 required the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to develop a complete integrated process safety management program regulation. In February 1992, OSHA published rule 29 CFR 1910.119, Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals''. The 1990 CAA Amendment section 112(r), Prevention of Accidental Releases'', required the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish measures for owners and operators of facilities processing or handling hazardous materials to prevent accidental releases of regulated substances and other extremely hazardous substances to the air. Additionally, it required the consequence of releases to be minimized by focusing preventative measures on those chemicals that pose the greatest risk. Section 112(r) begins with a general duty clause requiring owners and operators to: identify hazards that may result from releases; design and maintain a safe facility; and minimize the consequences of releases when they occur. The major difference between the two regulations concerns the areas affected by the potential release of a regulated substance. The OSHA 29 CFR 1910.119 regulation limits the concern to incidents that could result in an exposure to employees within the boundaries of the facility. The proposed EPA 40 CFR regulation will address significant accidental releases that have a potential for off-site effects on humans and the environment. The provisions of the new EPA regulation would require additional resources and increase the formal documentation and record keeping requirements beyond those of the older OSHA regulation.

Brown, C.A.; Sharma, P. (Brown and Root Petroleum and Chemicals Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-04-01

17

Chemical Safety Audits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The course, which is presented in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Chemical Emergency Preparedness Planning, introduces safety auditing for highly hazardous chemicals. The course covers basic chemical systems and...

1994-01-01

18

Enhancing the Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Curriculum with an Industrial Process Safety Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper summarizes the industrial process risk analysis approach that was used to enhance a chemical engineering unit operations laboratory, training the students about process safety in an inherently low-risk environment. The approach is based on more than ten years of industrial process hazards analysis experience, which includes assessing for process-related hazards and reducing process-related risks. Before the students began the experimental phase of their laboratory project, they documented that they understood the potential hazardous events related to their project. The students completed a series of Project Risk Analysis (PRA) check sheets which listed both the hazards addressed in the OSHA Process Safety Management standard (i.e., fire, explosion, and toxic release) as well as other area and personnel safety-related hazards (e.g., noise, utilities, etc.). Then the students evaluated the risks of these worst case events using a consequence versus likelihood risk matrix, with the consequences, the likelihood, and the risk qualitatively ranked as low, medium, or high. Before running their experiments, the students documented that the risks had been addressed and were reduced as much as is practical. They noted the design and implementation of any engineering controls, any administrative controls, and, if needed, any required personal protective equipment (PPE). The students documented awareness of potential hazards in their surroundings by documenting an area tour, as well. Whether the students continue onto graduate school or begin their careers at a plant site, this approach provides them with awareness tools that will help them ensure their safety when working in their new and potentially hazardous environment.

Vaughen, Bruce

2011-06-23

19

Toxicology and Chemical Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Topics addressed in this discussion of toxicology and chemical safety include routes of exposure, dose/response relationships, action of toxic substances, and effects of exposure to chemicals. Specific examples are used to illustrate the principles discussed. Suggests prudence in handling any chemicals, whether or not toxicity is known. (JN)

Hall, Stephen K.

1983-01-01

20

Chemical process hazards analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

NONE

1996-02-01

21

67 FR 71210 - Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (PSM); Extension of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hazardous Chemicals (PSM) (i.e., ``the Standard '') containing...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Theda Kenney, Directorate of Safety Standards...requesting a copy from Theda Kenney at (202) 693-2222, or Todd...paperwork and respondent (i.e., employer) burden,...

2002-11-29

22

Lessons learned from process incident databases and the process safety incident database (PSID) approach sponsored by the Center for Chemical Process Safety.  

PubMed

Learning from the experiences of others has long been recognized as a valued and relatively painless process. In the world of process safety, this learning method is an essential tool since industry has neither the time and resources nor the willingness to experience an incident before taking corrective or preventative steps. This paper examines the need for and value of process safety incident databases that collect incidents of high learning value and structure them so that needed information can be easily and quickly extracted. It also explores how they might be used to prevent incidents by increasing awareness and by being a tool for conducting PHAs and incident investigations. The paper then discusses how the CCPS PSID meets those requirements, how PSID is structured and managed, and its attributes and features. PMID:16165269

Sepeda, Adrian L

2006-03-17

23

29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...updated and revalidated by a team meeting the requirements in paragraph...2487-90-3 1500 * Chemical Abstract Service Number ** Threshold...the normal operating mode for meeting the process parameters. ...well as to how it fits into meeting the standard's...

2012-07-01

24

29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...updated and revalidated by a team meeting the requirements in paragraph...2487-90-3 1500 *Chemical Abstract Service Number. **Threshold...the normal operating mode for meeting the process parameters. ...well as to how it fits into meeting the standard's...

2012-07-01

25

29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...updated and revalidated by a team meeting the requirements in paragraph...2487-90-3 1500 * Chemical Abstract Service Number ** Threshold...the normal operating mode for meeting the process parameters. ...well as to how it fits into meeting the standard's...

2011-07-01

26

Safety Research Project of a Large Chemical Plant,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The safety research project for the Kemira Oy fine chemicals plant being constructed near Kokkola, Finland, is described. The report details the selection and application of safety analysis methods, safety research of process systems, and safety design of...

J. Fieandt H. Heimbueger B. Wahlstroem R. Keraenen P. Luukka

1988-01-01

27

SAFETY IN THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

MONTHLY ARTICLES ON LABORATORY SAFETY THAT APPEARED IN THE "JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION" BETWEEN JANUARY 1964, AND JANUARY 1967, ARE COMBINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE CHEMISTRY TEACHERS. A GENERAL SECTION DEALS WITH (1) RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACCIDENT PREVENTION, (2) SAFETY CONSIDERATION IN RESEARCH PROPOSALS, (3) A SAFETY

STEERE, NORMAN V.

28

Chemical Health and Safety Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These Chemical Health and Safety Data are an excellent resource for reliable, no-frills information from the National Toxicology Program (NTP). Data from "over 2000 chemicals studied by the NTP" are made available here, and users have a couple of different options for retrieving information. They may simply view a list of chemicals or search the Health and Safety database. Information on each chemical includes physical chemical data (like solubilities, solvents, volatility, flammability, and reactivity), toxicity data, handling procedures, emergency procedures, and a bibliographic list of sources for the information collected. Archived data may be downloaded (.sea, .zip).

29

Safety of Chemical Smog Suppressor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes information needed to evaluate the safety of chemicals proposed as smog suppressors and means for obtaining this information. Los Angeles and other large cities have frequent and severe smog conditions that result from photochemical re...

D. L. Warf

1977-01-01

30

Policy Manual - Chemical Safety  

Cancer.gov

Keep chemicals properly labeled. Do not remove manufacturer’s label. Hazardous caution labels must be placed on all primary and secondary containers based on information from manufacturer label, MSDS, or chemical inventory evaluation. Always include the name of chemical, lot number, date opened (or date prepared or received), and expiration date and initials, as specified by CAP requirements for each specific area. Each section should follow the labeling requirements of the specific CAP checklist designated for their area.

31

Process Safety Management (Reprinted).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unexpected releases of toxic, reactive, or flammable liquids and gases in processes involving highly hazardous chemicals have been reported for many years. Incidents continue to occur in various industries that use highly hazardous chemicals which may be ...

2000-01-01

32

Process Safety Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unexpected releases of toxic, reactive, or flammable liquids and gases in processes involving highly hazardous chemical have been reported for many years. Incidents continue to occur in various industries that use highly hazardous chemicals which may be t...

1994-01-01

33

Process Safety Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unexpected releases of toxic, reactive, or flammable liquids and gases in processes involving highly hazardous chemicals have been reported for many years. Incidents continue to occur in various industries that use highly hazardous chemicals which may be ...

2000-01-01

34

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: A Chemical Laboratory Safety Audit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an inspection form developed for use by college students to perform laboratory safety inspections. The form lists and classifies chemicals and is used to locate such physical facilities as: fume hoods, eye-wash fountains, deluge showers, and flammable storage cabinets. (BT)

Reich, Arthur R.; Harris, L. E.

1979-01-01

35

Safety in Handling Hazardous Chemicals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual describes safety procedures which should be observed in the chemistry laboratory. Accidents which may occur when working with chemicals such as peroxides, phosphorus, heavy metals, acids, etc., need special treatment. Quite suitable descriptions of such treatment are listed for each kind of possible accident in the laboratory.…

1971

36

Chemical Lab Safety Draws Renewed Interest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Research Council has published a comprehensive report on procedures for handling hazardous chemicals and on other aspects of laboratory safety. By early 1981, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration intends to present preliminary proposals for safety in chemical research laboratories. (WB)

Hanson, David

1980-01-01

37

Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group Report  

SciTech Connect

This report marks the culmination of a 4-month review conducted to identify chemical safety vulnerabilities existing at DOE facilities. This review is an integral part of DOE's efforts to raise its commitment to chemical safety to the same level as that for nuclear safety.

Not Available

1994-09-01

38

Chemical Processing Manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical processes presented in this document include cleaning, pickling, surface finishes, chemical milling, plating, dry film lubricants, and polishing. All types of chemical processes applicable to aluminum, for example, are to be found in the aluminum alloy section. There is a separate section for each category of metallic alloy plus a section for non-metals, such as plastics. The refractories, super-alloys and titanium, are prime candidates for the space shuttle, therefore, the chemical processes applicable to these alloys are contained in individual sections of this manual.

Beyerle, F. J.

1972-01-01

39

Relationship of safety culture and process safety.  

PubMed

Throughout history, humans have gathered in groups for social, religious, and industrial purposes. As the conglomeration of people interact, a set of underlying values, beliefs, and principles begins to develop that serve to guide behavior within the group. These "guidelines" are commonly referred to as the group culture. Modern-day organizations, including corporations, have developed their own unique cultures derived from the diversity of the organizational interests and the background of the employees. Safety culture, a sub-set of organizational culture, has been a major focus in recent years. This is especially true in the chemical industry due to the series of preventable, safety-related disasters that occurred in the late seventies and eighties. Some of the most notable disasters, during this time period, occurred at Bhopal, Flixborough, and Seveso. However, current events, like the September 11th terrorist attacks and the disintegration of the Columbia shuttle, have caused an assessment of safety culture in a variety of other organizations. PMID:16314040

Olive, Claire; O'Connor, T Michael; Mannan, M Sam

2006-03-17

40

Nuclear explosive safety study process  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

NONE

1997-01-01

41

Database management systems for process safety.  

PubMed

Several elements of the process safety management regulation (PSM) require tracking and documentation of actions; process hazard analyses, management of change, process safety information, operating procedures, training, contractor safety programs, pre-startup safety reviews, incident investigations, emergency planning, and compliance audits. These elements can result in hundreds of actions annually that require actions. This tracking and documentation commonly is a failing identified in compliance audits, and is difficult to manage through action lists, spreadsheets, or other tools that are comfortably manipulated by plant personnel. This paper discusses the recent implementation of a database management system at a chemical plant and chronicles the improvements accomplished through the introduction of a customized system. The system as implemented modeled the normal plant workflows, and provided simple, recognizable user interfaces for ease of use. PMID:16360264

Early, William F

2006-03-17

42

US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board began operations in 1998 with the stated mission to promote the prevention of major chemical accidents at fixed facilities. The independent, scientific investigative agency's Web site contains historical and current data, reports, and other information on chemical accidents from around the nation. For example, on September 13, 2002, a chemical plant explosion occurred in Freeport, Texas, involving an explosion, fire, and release of chemicals to the environment. The entry contains which specific chemicals were involved and a brief report of the incident, as well as injury, containment, and other relevant information.

1998-01-01

43

Chemical Lab Safety Rules Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This learning module - Chemical Lab Safety Rules - covers safety rules for one's personal safety when working with and around chemicals, handling and pouring chemicals properly, the specifics for working with solvents vs. corrosives, spill or leak response, and many other areas. An activity and assessment are including in this learning module along with an observation checklist that you could use to observe participants in a laboratory environment and ensure that the safety rules are being followed. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and login in order to access the full set of resources.

2011-09-23

44

Epigenetics and chemical safety assessment.  

PubMed

Epigenetics, as it pertains to biology and toxicology, can be defined as heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve mutations and are propagated without continued stimulus. Although potentially reversible, these heritable changes may be classified as mitotic, meiotic, or transgenerational, implicating the wide-ranging impact of epigenetic control in cellular function. A number of biological responses have been classified as being caused by an "epigenetic alteration," sometimes based on sound scientific evidence and often in lieu of an identified genetic mutation. Complicating the understanding and interpretation of perceived epigenetic alterations is an incomplete understanding of the normal state and dynamic variation of the epigenome, which can differ widely between cell and tissue types and stage of development or age. This emerging field is likely to have a profound impact on the study and practice of toxicology in coming years. This document reviews the current state of the science in epigenetic modifications, techniques used to measure these changes, and evaluates the current toxicology testing battery with respect to strengths and potential weaknesses in the identification of epigenetics changes. In addition, case studies implicating transgenerational effects induced by diethylstilbestrol, vinclozolin, and bisphenol A were reviewed to illustrate the application of epigenetics in safety assessment and the strengths and limitations of the study designs. An assessment of toxicology tests currently used in safety evaluation revealed that these tests are expected to identify any potential adverse outcomes resulting from epigenetic changes. Furthermore, in order to increase our understanding of the science of epigenetics in toxicology, this review has revealed that a solid understanding of the biology and variation in the epigenome is essential to contextualize concerns about possible adverse health effects related to epigenetic changes. Finally, the fundamental principles guiding toxicology studies, including relevant doses, dose-rates, routes of exposure, and experimental models, need to be taken into consideration in the design and interpretation of studies within this emerging area of science. PMID:20399890

LeBaron, Matthew J; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Klapacz, Joanna; Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G; Hollnagel, Heli M; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar

2010-10-01

45

Chemical Safety Audits (165.19) (Training Manual).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This course, which is presented in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Chemical Emergency Preparedness Planning, introduces safety auditing for highly hazardous chemicals. It is based on EPA's Chemical Safety Audit ...

1995-01-01

46

Designing continuous safety improvement within chemical industrial areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides support in organizing and implementing novel concepts for enhancing safety on a cluster level of chemical plants. The paper elaborates the requirements for integrating Safety Management Systems of chemical plants situated within a so-called chemical cluster. Recommendations of existing Plant Safety Management System Codes of Good Practice are analyzed in relation to the needs of cluster chemical

G. L. L. Reniers; B. J. M. Ale; W. Dullaert

2009-01-01

47

The safety of process automation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of automation on process safety is examined. The methods of safety analysis can be applied during the designing stages of safe process automation. The hazard and operability study makes it possible to take into account the potential process disturbances and to develop countermeasures. Action error analysis studies the consequences of potential human errors in task execution. Fault tree analysis can be used to study the causes of potential accidents and to examine the control actions suitable for providing protection against them thereby reducing the probability of accidents. Event tree analysis is a method for considering the consequences of potential hazardous situations and for developing countermeasures to reduce such consequences. Failure mode and effect analysis is a method for checking that the potential failures of the control and automation system are not overlooked. Reliability assessment can be used with safety analysis methods to study the bottlenecks in the design and to prioritize the countermeasures whereby the risk can be reduced to attain an acceptable level.

Toola, A.

1993-03-01

48

Chemical Safety. Part I: Safety in the Handling of Hazardous Chemicals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the importance of considering the hazards, precautions, and emergency procedures pertinent to the safe handling of chemicals before introducing students to the laboratory. Discusses safety hazards depending on the chemical's properties including flammability, corrosivity, toxicity, and reactivity; eye protection; and physical hazards.…

Young, Jay A.

1997-01-01

49

Chemical processing of lunar materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper highlights recent work on the general problem of processing lunar materials. The discussion covers lunar source materials, refined products, motivations for using lunar materials, and general considerations for a lunar or space processing plant. Attention is given to chemical processing through various techniques, including electrolysis of molten silicates, carbothermic/silicothermic reduction, carbo-chlorination process, NaOH basic-leach process, and HF acid-leach process. Several options for chemical processing of lunar materials are well within the state of the art of applied chemistry and chemical engineering to begin development based on the extensive knowledge of lunar materials.

Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.

1979-01-01

50

Chemical safety of meat and meat products.  

PubMed

Since the Second World War the consumer behaviour in developed countries changed drastically. Primarily there existed the demand for sufficient food after a period of starvation, afterwards the desire for higher quality was arising, whereas today most people ask for safe and healthy food with high quality. Therefore a united approach comprising consistent standards, sound science and robust controls is required to ensure consumers' health and to maintain consumers' confidence and satisfaction. Chemical analysis along the whole food chain downstream (tracking) from primary production to the consumer and upstream (tracing) from the consumer to primary production is an important prerequisite to ensure food safety and quality. In this frame the focus of the following paper is the "chemical safety of meat and meat products" taking into account inorganic as well as organic residues and contaminants, the use of nitrite in meat products, the incidence of veterinary drugs, as well as a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) system assessing (prioritizing) vulnerable food chain steps to decrease or eliminate vulnerability. PMID:20510527

Andrée, Sabine; Jira, W; Schwind, K-H; Wagner, H; Schwägele, F

2010-09-01

51

Process Technology Student: Chemical & Refinery Process Technician  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from Pathways to Technology, learn about process technology and the career of a process technician, also known as a process operator. Process technology is what turns chemicals into products, from oil and gas to cosmetics and rubber soles for shoes. The process technician keeps the machines that process chemicals running smoothly. Jason Canales is studying to become a process technician. He explains what brought him to this field and why he wants to work at a refinery or a chemical plant after he graduates. Jason visits a factory to better understand how his classwork can be applied in the real world.The video runs 2:51 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

2012-06-04

52

Pantex: safety in nuclear weapons processing.  

PubMed

The Pantex Plant, located in the Texas panhandle near Amarillo, is a major Department of Energy (DOE) participant in maintaining the safety of the nation's nuclear weapons resources and protecting the employees, public, and environment. With more than 168,000 person-years of operations involving nuclear materials, explosives, and hazardous chemicals, Pantex has maintained a notable safety record. This article overviews the nuclear weapon activities at Pantex and describes their safety culture. PMID:11045518

Johannesen, R E; Farrell, L M

2000-11-01

53

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Fire Safety and Fire Control in the Chemistry Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses fire safety and fire control in the chemistry laboratory. The combustion process, extinguishing equipment, extinguisher maintenance and location, and fire safety and practices are included. (HM)

Wilbraham, A. C.

1979-01-01

54

Achieving Integrated Process and Product Safety Arguments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Process-based certification standards such as IEC 61508 and DO-178B are often criticised for being highly prescriptive and impeding the adoption of new and novel methods and techniques. Rather than arguing safety based on compliance with a prescribed and fixed process, product-based certification standards require the submission of a well structured and reasoned safety case. Ideally, the safety case presents an argument that justifies the acceptability of safety based on product-specific and targeted evidence. However, the role of process assurance should not be underestimated even in product arguments. Lack of process assurance can undermine even the seemingly strongest product safety evidence. However, unlike the SIL-based process arguments, the process argument of the type we suggest are targeted and assured against specific safety case claims. In this way, a close association between product and process safety arguments can be carefully maintained. This paper shows how integrated process and product safety arguments can be achieved using the modular features of the Goal Structuring Notation (GSN).

Habli, Ibrahim; Kelly, Tim

55

On the pyrophoricity, safety, and handling of metalorganic chemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high demand for optoelectronic and electronic devices is driving metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes towards higher throughput and shorter production cycles. This in turn has driven production facilities to use larger cylinders and bulk delivery systems for the metalorganics (MOs) that are used in these growth processes. The use of "bulk" quantities of pyrophoric MOs has raised several safety and handling questions. In this paper, we show the level of protection provided by various kinds of personal protective equipment when exposed to these chemicals. We also examine several scenarios for MO exposure from a conventional MO cylinder (bubbler) and discuss how to handle these incidents in a safe manner. Finally, we examine the toxicity of TMGa, by doing an inhalation study on rats and monitoring the resulting effects on their bodies and general health; to our knowledge this is the first study ever completed which measures the toxicity of a pyrophoric material.

Andre, C. L.; Bisinger, E.; El-Zein, N.; Luttmer, A.; Van Mierlo, M. J. A.; Wissink, H. G.

2007-01-01

56

Development of Chemical Exchange Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is concerned with the development of a process to achieve low enrichment of uranium (3-4% exp 235 U) by a chemical exchange method. In our experiment, we chose the ion exchange process among the solid-liquid contacting operations first. In 1981...

H. J. Lee W. Y. Kim J. W. Park Y. M. Park D. S. Kang

1982-01-01

57

Policy Manual - Safety Appendices - Chemical Notice  

Cancer.gov

 CCR Home   About CCR   CCR Intranet        Laboratory of Pathology LP Home Clinical Services Basic Sciences Training LP Staff Accessibility of Web Site Policy Manual Main Page LP Forms and Checklists Safety Appendices Contents Safety Committee Clinical

58

Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

Not Available

1994-09-01

59

Beyond chemical safety— an integrated approach to laboratory safety management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health and safety programs for laboratories are typically oriented around specific regulatory requirements, even though hazards in laboratories seldom respect these boundaries. Not only does this place an unnecessary burden on researchers because they have to keep track of several related health and safety activities, it also increases the chance that laboratory hazards might not be addressed because they are

James M. Kapin

1999-01-01

60

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Safety in the Analytical Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Safety issues specifically related to the analytical laboratory are discussed including hazardous reagents, transferring samples, cleaning apparatus, eye protection, and equipment damage. Special attention is given to techniques which not only endanger the technician but also endanger expensive equipment. (CW)

Ewing, Galen W.

1990-01-01

61

CHEMISTRY FOR THE SAFETY MAN. SAFETY IN INDUSTRY--ENVIRONMENTAL AND CHEMICAL HAZARDS SERVICES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS BULLETIN, ONE OF A SERIES ON SAFETY IN INDUSTRY, IS INTENDED TO PROVIDE THE BACKGROUND WHICH WILL ENABLE THE SAFETY MAN TO UNDERSTAND SOME OF THE PRINCIPLES APPLIED IN CONTROLLING CHEMICAL HAZARDS. IT WAS PREPARED IN THE OFFICE OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, DIVISION OF PROGRAMING AND RESEARCH, BUREAU OF LABOR STANDARDS. TOPICS INCLUDE (1) WHAT IS…

CESTRONE, PATRICK F.

62

A Chemical Plant Safety and Hazard Analysis Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course for teaching chemical engineering students about safety and hazards. Summarizes the course content including topics for term papers and disciplines related to this course. Lists 18 references. (YP)

Gupta, J. P.

1989-01-01

63

Integrating process safety with molecular modeling-based risk assessment of chemicals within the REACH regulatory framework: benefits and future challenges.  

PubMed

Registration, evaluation and authorization of chemicals (REACH) represents a recent regulatory initiative by the European union commission to protect human health and the environment from potentially hazardous chemicals. Under REACH, all stakeholders must submit (thermo)physical, thermochemical, and toxicological data for certain chemicals. The commission's impact assessment studies estimate that the costs of REACH will be approximately 3-5 billion Euros. The present study advocates the systematic incorporation of computational chemistry and computer-assisted chemical risk assessment methods into REACH to reduce regulatory compliance costs. Currently powerful computer-aided ab initio techniques can be used to generate predictions of key properties of broad classes of chemicals, without resorting to costly experimentation and potentially hazardous testing. These data could be integrated into a centralized IT decision and compliance support system, and stored in a retrievable, easily communicable manner should new regulatory and/or production requirements necessitate the introduction of different uses of chemicals under different conditions. For illustration purposes, ab initio calculations are performed on heterocyclic nitrogen-containing compounds which currently serve as high energy density materials in the chemical industry. Since investigations of these compounds are still in their infancy, stability studies are imperative regarding their safe handling and storage, as well as registration under REACH. PMID:16930827

Lewis, Amanda; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Fishtik, Ilie; Wilcox, Jennifer

2007-04-11

64

Chemical analysis quality assurance at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is a uranium reprocessing facility operated by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company for the Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The chemical analysis support required for the plant processes is provided by a chemical analysis staff of 67 chemists, analysts, and support personnel. The documentation and defense of the chemical analysis

R. L. Hand; R. W. Anselmo; D. B. Black; J. J. Jacobson; L. C. Lewis; P. C. Marushia; F. W. Spraktes; N. R. Zack

1985-01-01

65

Aviation Safety Reporting System: Process and Procedures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) was established in 1976 under an agreement between the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cooperative safety program invites pilots, air traffic controllers, flight attendants, maintenance personnel, and others to voluntarily report to NASA any aviation incident or safety hazard. The FAA provides most of the program funding. NASA administers the program, sets its policies in consultation with the FAA and aviation community, and receives the reports submitted to the program. The FAA offers those who use the ASRS program two important reporting guarantees: confidentiality and limited immunity. Reports sent to ASRS are held in strict confidence. More than 350,000 reports have been submitted since the program's beginning without a single reporter's identity being revealed. ASRS removes all personal names and other potentially identifying information before entering reports into its database. This system is a very successful, proof-of-concept for gathering safety data in order to provide timely information about safety issues. The ASRS information is crucial to aviation safety efforts both nationally and internationally. It can be utilized as the first step in safety by providing the direction and content to informed policies, procedures, and research, especially human factors. The ASRS process and procedures will be presented as one model of safety reporting feedback systems.

Connell, Linda J.

1997-01-01

66

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements  

SciTech Connect

In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

Griebenow, B.

1996-03-01

67

Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture  

DOEpatents

The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 26 figs.

Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.; Birmingham, J.G.; McDonald, C.E.; Kurath, D.E.; Friedrich, M.

1998-09-22

68

Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture  

DOEpatents

The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA); Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA); Birmingham, Joseph G. (Richland, WA); McDonald, Carolyn Evans (Richland, WA); Kurath, Dean E. (Benton County, WA); Friedrich, Michele (Prosser, WA)

1998-01-01

69

Database for Safety-Oriented Tracking of Chemicals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SafetyChem is a computer program that maintains a relational database for tracking chemicals and associated hazards at Johnson Space Center (JSC) by use of a Web-based graphical user interface. The SafetyChem database is accessible to authorized users via a JSC intranet. All new chemicals pass through a safety office, where information on hazards, required personal protective equipment (PPE), fire-protection warnings, and target organ effects (TOEs) is extracted from material safety data sheets (MSDSs) and recorded in the database. The database facilitates real-time management of inventory with attention to such issues as stability, shelf life, reduction of waste through transfer of unused chemicals to laboratories that need them, quantification of chemical wastes, and identification of chemicals for which disposal is required. Upon searching the database for a chemical, the user receives information on physical properties of the chemical, hazard warnings, required PPE, a link to the MSDS, and references to the applicable International Standards Organization (ISO) 9000 standard work instructions and the applicable job hazard analysis. Also, to reduce the labor hours needed to comply with reporting requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the data can be directly exported into the JSC hazardous- materials database.

Stump, Jacob; Carr, Sandra; Plumlee, Debrah; Slater, Andy; Samson, Thomas M.; Holowaty, Toby L.; Skeete, Darren; Haenz, Mary Alice; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa

2010-01-01

70

Safety evaluation of drugs and chemicals  

SciTech Connect

The contents of this book include: Introductory Toxicokinetics; Application of Toxicokinetic Methods; Species-specific Toxicoses with Some Underlying Mechanisms; Animal Studies: How Well Do They Predict Xenobiotic Metabolism in Humans.; Current Protocols in Teratology and Reproduction; Testing for Possible Carcinogenicity; Deposition, Retention and Responses to Inhaled Materials; and ''SOM'' and Food Safety Policy.

Lloyd, W.E.

1986-01-01

71

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Site Development Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) mission is to receive and store spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes for disposition for Department of Energy (DOE) in a cost-effective manner that protects the safety of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) employees, the public, and the environment by: Developing advanced technologies to process spent nuclear fuel for permanent offsite disposition and to achieve waste minimization. Receiving and storing Navy and other DOE assigned spent nuclear fuels. Managing all wastes in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Identifying and conducting site remediation consistent with facility transition activities. Seeking out and implementing private sector technology transfer and cooperative development agreements. Prior to April 1992, the ICPP mission included fuel reprocessing. With the recent phaseout of fuel reprocessing, some parts of the ICPP mission have changed. Others have remained the same or increased in scope.

Ferguson, F.G.

1994-02-01

72

Scope on Safety: Chemicals: What's In? What's Out?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemistry should be fun and exciting, but much preparation and skill are needed by the teacher and students in working with chemicals. Unfortunately, accidents do happen and things can blow up, but you can help prevent these incidents by knowing and following proper safety procedures. Knowing which chemicals are appropriate for the middle level classroom is a good place to start. The following is a list of appropriate and inappropriate chemicals for the science lab as specified by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Laboratory Standards.

Roy, Ken

2004-11-01

73

Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

2010-06-01

74

Policy Manual - General Safety - Biological Safety Cabinets, Chemical Fume Hoods, and other Primary Barrier Protections  

Cancer.gov

All Biological Safety Cabinets (BSC) and Chemical Fume Hoods (CFH) within the Laboratory of Pathology are maintained and monitored for effectiveness by the Technical Assistance Branch of the Division of Occupational Health and Safety (DOHS) provides various services regarding certification, maintenance, repair, and decontamination of specific primary barrier equipment.

75

Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 2 consists of seven appendices containing the following: Tasking memorandums; Project plan for the CSV Review; Field verification guide for the CSV Review; Field verification report, Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Field verification report, Oak Ridge Reservation; Field verification report, Savannah River Site; and the Field verification report, Hanford Site.

Not Available

1994-09-01

76

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOEpatents

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-06-23

77

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOEpatents

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77389)

1987-01-01

78

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOEpatents

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77379)

1987-01-01

79

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOEpatents

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-11-24

80

Improved search algorithm for the efficient verification of chemical processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety verification of chemical processing systems becomes more difficult due to their complexity. Current search methods suffer from the state explosion problem, mainly because the verification problem itself is inherently complex considering numerous units (reactor, distillation column, storage tank), instruments (valve, pump), control software and many other components, and more importantly considering time. This paper focuses on methods of

Jinkyung Kim; Mikyung Kim; Il Moon

1999-01-01

81

Safety Analysis in Conceptual Design of Process Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thesis focuses on the conceptual design of process control systems, and on the problem of safety requirements determination. Safety analysis methods of process design are applied to tackle the problem and the information gap between process designers ...

A. Toola

1992-01-01

82

Fast Reactor Spent Fuel Processing: Experience and Criticality Safety  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses operational and criticality safety experience associated with the Idaho National Laboratory Fuel Conditioning Facility which uses a pyrometallurgical process to treat spent fast reactor metallic fuel. The process is conducted in an inert atmosphere hot cell. The process starts with chopping metallic fuel elements into a basket. The basket is lowered into molten salt (LiCl-KCl) along with a steel mandrel. Active metal fission products, transuranic metals and sodium metal in the spent fuel undergo chemical oxidation and form chlorides. Voltage is applied between the basket, which serves as an anode, and the mandrel, which serves as a cathode, causing metallic uranium in the spent fuel to undergo electro-chemical oxidation thereby forming uranium chloride. Simultaneously at the cathode, uranium chloride undergoes electro-chemical reduction and deposits uranium metal onto the mandrel. The uranium metal and accompanying entrained salt are placed in a distillation furnace where the uranium melts forming an ingot and the entrained salt boils and subsequently condenses in a separate crucible. The uranium ingots are placed in long term storage. During the ten year operating history, over one hundred criticality safety evaluations were prepared. All criticality safety related limits and controls for the entire process are contained in a single document which required over thirty revisions to accommodate the process changes. Operational implementation of the limits and controls includes use of a near real-time computerized tracking system. The tracking system uses an Oracle database coupled with numerous software applications. The computerized tracking system includes direct fuel handler interaction with every movement of material. Improvements to this system during the ten year history include introduction of web based operator interaction, tracking of moderator materials and the development of a plethora database queries to assist in day to day operations as well as obtaining historical information. Over 12,000 driver fuel elements have been processed resulting in the production of 2500 kg of 20% enriched uranium. Also, over one thousand blanket fuel elements have been processed resulting in the production of 2400 kg of depleted uranium. These operations required over 35,000 fissile material transfers between zones and over 6000 transfers between containers. Throughout all of these movements, no mass limit violations occurred. Numerous lessons were learned over the ten year operating history. From a criticality safety perspective, the most important lesson learned was the involvement of a criticality safety practitioner in daily operations. A criticality safety engineer was assigned directly to facility operations, and was responsible for implementation of limits and controls including upkeep of the associated computerized tracking files. The criticality safety engineer was also responsible for conducting fuel handler training activities including serving on fuel handler qualification oral boards, and continually assessing operations from a criticality control perspective. The criticality safety engineer also attended bimonthly project planning meetings to identify upcoming process changes that would require criticality safety evaluation. Finally, the excellent criticality safety record was due in no small part to the continual support, involvement, trust, and confidence of project and operations mana

Chad Pope

2007-05-01

83

Safety-Enclosure System For MOCVD Process Chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Safety-enclosure system filled with nitrogen surrounds reaction chamber in which metallo-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) performed. Designed to protect against explosions and/or escaping toxic gases and particulates. Gas-purification subsystem ensures during loading and unloading of process materials, interior of MOCVD chamber exposed to less than 1 ppm of oxygen and less than 5 ppm of water in nitrogen atmosphere. Toxic byproducts of MOCVD process collected within inert atmosphere. Enclosure strong enough to contain any fragments in unlikely event of explosion.

Singletery, James, Jr.; Velasquez, Hugo; Warner, Joseph

1995-01-01

84

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS Pastoor, Timothy1, Barton, Hugh2 1 Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC, USA. 2 EPA, Office of Research and Development-NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. A multi-stakeholder series of discussions d...

85

Scope on Safety : Chemicals from cradle to grave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

School districts are not immune to fines assessed by the Environmental Protection Agency or of becoming victims of unscrupulous business practices. With this in mind, schools need to consider adopting a protocol for the purchase, storage, use, and disposal of chemicals. This article will address these factors to ensure safety in your lab.

Roy, Ken

2005-01-01

86

Food safety. [chemical contaminants and human toxic diseases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Illness induced by unsafe food is a problem of great public health significance. This study relates exclusively to the occurrence of chemical agents which will result in food unsafe for human consumption since the matter of food safety is of paramount importance in the mission and operation of the manned spacecraft program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Pier, S. M.; Valentine, J. L.

1975-01-01

87

A process improvement strategy for patient safety.  

PubMed

Most change processes fail. Success requires a systematic approach based on the best practices performed within a setting of significant commitment by the organization and its leaders and staff. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) framework for improvement was used along with cascading organization-wide performance indicators with specific targets and the implementation of performance reporting. This approach successfully improved the two patient safety practices of acute myocardial infarction and medication reconciliation. PMID:21717947

Lees, Martin; Chapman, Patty; Dickson, Spencer

2011-01-01

88

Chemical vapor infiltration process modeling and optimization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical vapor infiltration is a unique method for preparing continuous fiber ceramic composites that spares the strong but relatively fragile fibers from damaging thermal, mechanical, and chemical degradation. The process is relatively complex and modeli...

T. M. Besmann D. P. Stinton W. M. Matlin

1995-01-01

89

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: An Undergraduate Chemical Laboratory Safety Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a two-quarter hour college chemistry course focusing on laboratory safety. Includes lists of topics/assignments, problem sets (toxicology, storage, and energy) and videotapes, films, and slide sets used in the course. (JN)

Nicholls, L. Jewel

1982-01-01

90

Keys to effective third-party process safety audits.  

PubMed

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Process Safety Management (PSM) regulation was promulgated in 1992. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) corresponding Risk Management Program (RMP) rule followed in 1996. Both programs include requirements for triennial compliance audits. Effective compliance audits are critical in identifying program weaknesses and ensuring the safety of facility personnel and the surrounding public. Large companies with corporate and facility health, safety, and environmental groups typically have the resources and experience to conduct audits internally, either through a corporate audit team or the sharing of personnel between multiple facilities. Small to medium sized businesses frequently do not have the expertise or the resources to perform compliance audits, and rely on third-party consultants to provide these services. This paper will discuss the observations of the authors in performing audits and working with PSM/RMP programs across a number of market sectors (e.g. chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, food and beverage, water treatment), including effective practices, hurdles to successful implementation and execution of programs, and typical program shortcomings. The paper will also discuss steps to improve the audit process and increase effectiveness whether performed by a third party or internally. PMID:16887267

Birkmire, John C; Lay, James R; McMahon, Mona C

2007-04-11

91

Safety verification in chemical plants: A new quantitative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel quantitative approach to identify the hazards associated with a process is presented. It is based on the analysis of a “region-transition model” of the process which, through the concepts of hybrid state transition systems and interval arithmetic, accounts for both nonlinearity and uncertainty. A safety verification algorithm which evolves the model over a given time horizon is able

C. S. Adjiman

1999-01-01

92

Wildlife Services' Safety Review: Chemical Immobilization and Euthanasia of Wildlife: Immobilization and Euthanasia Drugs Safety Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To assess the degree of safety for Wildlie Services in the arena of chemical immobilization and euthanasia of Wildlife (I&eE), It Identified the major risks associated with the WS I&E program, Reviewed agency policies, directives,and supporting documents,...

B. C. West M. R. Johnson S. W. Jack

2009-01-01

93

Behavior of Mercury during DWPF Chemical Process Cell Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mer...

D. Koopman J. Zamecnik

2012-01-01

94

Process safety and risk management: Is your facility under control?  

SciTech Connect

By 1990, the US Congress had passed two significant pieces of legislation dealing with the prevention of accidents involving hazardous chemical substances--Section 112(r) of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, and legislation that required the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to issue its Process Safety Management regulations. On June 20, 1996, the final Rule on Risk Management Plans (RMP) for Chemical Accident Prevention was published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The final RMP Rule requires facilities with covered processes to be in full compliance with EPA`s Risk Management and Certification requirements by June 21, 1999. Meanwhile, the OSHA regulations, issued in final form in February 1992 (29CFR1910.119), provided a five-year compliance phase-in. One principal difference between the EPA and OSHA Rules arises from EPA`s position on exemptions: there are none under EPA`s Rule. With the RMP Rule, only the presence of a process containing a regulated substance above its threshold quantity determines applicability; the nature of the business is not considered in determining specific compliance requirements. Compliance of these regulations is discussed.

Sulkowski, J. [Sulkowski (John), Charleston, SC (United States)

1997-08-01

95

Chemical Processing of Electrons and Holes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a synopsis of four lectures given in an elective senior-level electronic material processing course to introduce solid state electronics. Provides comparisons of a large scale chemical processing plant and an integrated circuit. (YP)

Anderson, Timothy J.

1990-01-01

96

The Bhopal tragedy: its influence on process and community safety as practiced in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical accident at 12:45 AM on December 3, 1984 in Bhopal India had a profound effect on the practice of chemical process safety in the United States. Fearing the possibility of similar events occurring in the United States, the United States Congress convened several hearings and investigations into the causes of the disaster. The inquiries focused both on the

Ronald J. Willey; Daniel A. Crowl; Wil Lepkowski

2005-01-01

97

Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Unreviewed Safety Question Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the unreviewed safety question procedures used by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. to evaluate proposed changes and discoveries of potential inadequacies in the safety analyses and to document and report those evaluation.

A. R. Larson

2001-01-01

98

Chemical vapor infiltration process modeling and optimization  

SciTech Connect

Chemical vapor infiltration is a unique method for preparing continuous fiber ceramic composites that spares the strong but relatively fragile fibers from damaging thermal, mechanical, and chemical degradation. The process is relatively complex and modeling requires detailed phenomenological knowledge of the chemical kinetics and mass and heat transport. An overview of some of the current understanding and modeling of CVI and examples of efforts to optimize the processes is given. Finally, recent efforts to scale-up the process to produce tubular forms are described.

Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matlin, W.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-12-31

99

Obtaining Valid Safety Data for Software Safety Measurement and Process Improvement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on a preliminary case study to examine software safety risk in the early design phase of the NASA Constellation spaceflight program. Our goal is to provide NASA quality assurance managers with information regarding the ongoing state of software safety across the program. We examined 154 hazard reports created during the preliminary design phase of three major flight hardware systems within the Constellation program. Our purpose was two-fold: 1) to quantify the relative importance of software with respect to system safety; and 2) to identify potential risks due to incorrect application of the safety process, deficiencies in the safety process, or the lack of a defined process. One early outcome of this work was to show that there are structural deficiencies in collecting valid safety data that make software safety different from hardware safety. In our conclusions we present some of these deficiencies.

Basili, Victor r.; Zelkowitz, Marvin V.; Layman, Lucas; Dangle, Kathleen; Diep, Madeline

2010-01-01

100

Electrochemical Reactions During Ru Chemical Mechanical Planarization and Safety Considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed electrochemical reactions during ruthenium (Ru) chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) using a potentiostat and a quartz crystal microbalance, and considered the potential safety issues. We evaluated the valence number derived from Faraday's law using the dissolution mass change of Ru and total coulomb consumption in the electrochemical reactions for Ru in acidic solution and slurry. The valence numbers of dissolved Ru ions were distributed in the range of 2 to 3.5. As toxic ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) has a valence number of 8, we were able to conclude that no toxic RuO4 was produced in the actual Ru CMP.

Shima, Shohei; Wada, Yutaka; Tokushige, Katsuhiko; Fukunaga, Akira; Tsujimura, Manabu

2011-05-01

101

Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Safety and Emission Control Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical sensor technology is being developed for leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire safety applications. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS)-based) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Using these technologies, sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed. A description is given of each sensor type and its present stage of development. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.-Y.; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.

1998-01-01

102

Microwave-enhanced chemical processes  

DOEpatents

A process is disclosed for the disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400 C in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient breaks the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds. Detoxification values in excess of 80 are provided and further detoxification of the bed is followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes. 1 figure.

Varma, R.

1990-06-19

103

Proposed OSHA safety regs target process plant procedures  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses how proposed OSHA safety regs target process plant procedures. OSHA's proposed standard on process-plant safety targets many of the procedures that already exist in U.S. hydrocarbon-processing facilities. But the proposed standard will require operators to maintain more-detailed and structured information on plant operations.

Corbett, R.A.

1990-08-20

104

Introducing Proper Chemical Hygiene and Safety in the General Chemistry Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical safety is an important component of science education for everyone, not just for chemistry majors. Developing a responsible and knowledgeable attitude towards chemical safety best starts at the early stages of a student's career. In many colleges and universities, safety education in undergraduate chemistry has been relegated primarily to a few regulatory documents at the beginning of a laboratory

Gordon J. Miller; Stephen A. Heideman; Thomas J. Greenbowe

2000-01-01

105

Experiment on distributed dynamic simulation for safety design of chemical plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet the market challenges, chemical plants need to provide safer plant operation. Safety design approach is used to ensure the safety during the design stage, which satisfies the safety during the plant operation. In such approach, simulation practices are widely used to provide quantitative measures to assess the fault propagation and abnormal situations. As most of the chemical plants

Hossam A. Gabbar; Shintaro Shinohara; Yukiyasu Shimada; Kazuhiko Suzuki

2003-01-01

106

Safety analysis of SISL process module  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an assessment of various postulated accidental occurrences within an experimental process module which is part of a Special Isotope Separation Laboratory (SISL) currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The process module will contain large amounts of molten uranium and various water-cooled structures within a vacuum vessel. Special emphasis is therefore given to potential accidental interactions of molten uranium with water leading to explosive and/or rapid steam formation, as well as uranium oxidation and the potential for combustion. Considerations are also given to the potential for vessel melt-through. Evaluations include mechanical and thermal interactions and design implications both in terms of design basis as well as once-in-a-lifetime accident scenarios. These scenarios include both single- and multiple-failure modes leading to various contact modes and locations within the process module for possible thermal interactions. The evaluations show that a vacuum vessel design based upon nominal operating conditions would appear sufficient to meet safety requirements in connection with both design basis as well as once-in-a-lifetime accidents. Controlled venting requirements for removal of steam and hydrogen in order to avoid possible long-term pressurization events are recommended. Depending upon the resulting accident conditions, the vacuum system (i.e., the roughing system) could also serve this purpose. Finally, based upon accident evaluations of this study, immediate shut-off of all coolant water following an incident leak is not recommended, as such action may have adverse effects in terms of cool-down requirements for the melt crucibles etc. These requirements have not been assessed as part of this study.

Not Available

1983-05-01

107

Process safety improvement--quality and target zero.  

PubMed

Process safety practitioners have adopted quality management principles in design of process safety management systems with positive effect, yet achieving safety objectives sometimes remain a distant target. Companies regularly apply tools and methods which have roots in quality and productivity improvement. The "plan, do, check, act" improvement loop, statistical analysis of incidents (non-conformities), and performance trending popularized by Dr. Deming are now commonly used in the context of process safety. Significant advancements in HSE performance are reported after applying methods viewed as fundamental for quality management. In pursuit of continual process safety improvement, the paper examines various quality improvement methods, and explores how methods intended for product quality can be additionally applied to continual improvement of process safety. Methods such as Kaizen, Poke yoke, and TRIZ, while long established for quality improvement, are quite unfamiliar in the process safety arena. These methods are discussed for application in improving both process safety leadership and field work team performance. Practical ways to advance process safety, based on the methods, are given. PMID:18374483

Van Scyoc, Karl

2008-11-15

108

Process/Equipment Co-Simulation on Syngas Chemical Looping Process  

SciTech Connect

The chemical looping strategy for fossil energy applications promises to achieve an efficient energy conversion system for electricity, liquid fuels, hydrogen and/or chemicals generation, while economically separate CO{sub 2} by looping reaction design in the process. Chemical looping particle performance, looping reactor engineering, and process design and applications are the key drivers to the success of chemical looping process development. In order to better understand and further scale up the chemical looping process, issues such as cost, time, measurement, safety, and other uncertainties need to be examined. To address these uncertainties, advanced reaction/reactor modeling and process simulation are highly desired and the modeling efforts can accelerate the chemical looping technology development, reduce the pilot-scale facility design time and operating campaigns, as well as reduce the cost and technical risks. The purpose of this work is thus to conduct multiscale modeling and simulations on the key aspects of chemical looping technology, including particle reaction kinetics, reactor design and operation, and process synthesis and optimization.

Zeng, Liang; Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih

2012-09-30

109

Reactive chemical screening for pilot-plant safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strong reactive chemicals program is important in running pilot plants safely. The owner must be responsible for the materials he handles, and periodic reviews of new and existing processes should be conducted by a knowledgeable committee. The ARC and DSC have some limitations but have been demonstrated to be very powerful tools when coupled with a knowledge of the

Kohlbrand

1985-01-01

110

Creating Safety in the Testing Process in Primary Care Offices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The testing process in primary care is complex, and it varies from one office to another. We sought to understand how family medicine offices create safety in this process. Methods: Using observations, interviews, and surveys, we collected data at four family medicine offices. We searched the interview and observation notes for stories of safety, error prevention, and recovery and

Nancy C. Elder; Timothy R. McEwen; John M. Flach; Jennie J. Gallimore

111

Integrating system safety into the basic systems engineering process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic elements of a systems engineering process are given along with a detailed description of what the safety system requires from the systems engineering process. Also discussed is the safety that the system provides to other subfunctions of systems engineering.

Griswold, J. W.

1971-01-01

112

Enzymes toughen up for chemical processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

While enzymes have been making tremendous inroads into detergent formulation and food processing, the penetration of these protein-based catalysts into other chemical-process manufacture and hazardous waste treatment--where they are slated to replace heavy metal catalysts and other processing aids--has been relatively slow. Recently, however, enhancements in the enzyme`s properties are opening the door wider for such broadened usage. Some of

1995-01-01

113

Enzymes toughen up for chemical processing  

SciTech Connect

While enzymes have been making tremendous inroads into detergent formulation and food processing, the penetration of these protein-based catalysts into other chemical-process manufacture and hazardous waste treatment--where they are slated to replace heavy metal catalysts and other processing aids--has been relatively slow. Recently, however, enhancements in the enzyme`s properties are opening the door wider for such broadened usage. Some of these non-traditional uses of enzymes are described.

Hairston, D.

1995-05-01

114

Interface management: effective communication to improve process safety.  

PubMed

Failure to successfully communicate maintenance activities, abnormal conditions, emergency response procedures, process hazards, and hundreds of other items of critical information can lead to disaster, regardless of the thoroughness of the process safety management system. Therefore, a well-functioning process safety program depends on maintaining successful communication interfaces between each involved employee or stakeholder and the many other employees or stakeholders that person must interact with. The authors discuss a process to identify the critical "Interfaces" between the many participants in a process safety management system, and then to establish a protocol for each critical interface. PMID:16129556

Kelly, Brian; Berger, Scott

2006-03-31

115

Are classical process safety concepts relevant to nanotechnology applications?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The answer to the question posed by the title of this paper is yes - with adaptation to the specific hazards and challenges found in the field of nanotechnology. The validity of this affirmative response is demonstrated by relating key process safety concepts to various aspects of the nanotechnology industry in which these concepts are either already practised or could be further applied. This is accomplished by drawing on the current author's experience in process safety practice and education as well as a review of the relevant literature on the safety of nanomaterials and their production. The process safety concepts selected for analysis include: (i) risk management, (ii) inherently safer design, (iii) human error and human factors, (iv) safety management systems, and (v) safety culture.

Amyotte, Paul R.

2011-07-01

116

An intelligent data collection tool for chemical safety/risk assessment.  

PubMed

REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) is the new European chemical legislation which aims to assess risk or safety of tens of thousands of chemicals to improve the protection of human health and the environment. The chemical safety assessment process is of an iterative nature. First, an initial, worst-case assessment is conducted after which refinements are made until no risk has been estimated or the risk is adequately controlled. Wasting time and resources on additional testing and implementing risk management measures with low effect on risk conclusions should be avoided as much as possible. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of an intelligent data collection strategy based on a sensitivity (and uncertainty) analysis on the risk assessment model EUSES to identify and order the most important "within-EU-TGD-reducible" input parameters influencing the local and regional risk characterisation ratios. The ordering can be adjusted for the costs involved in additional testing (e.g. ecotoxicity, physico-chemical properties, emission estimates, etc.). The risk refinement tool therefore reduces the resources needed to obtain a realistic risk estimate (both less conservative and less uncertain) as efficient as possible. PMID:17959222

Verdonck, Frederik A M; Van Sprang, Patrick A; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

2008-02-01

117

Safety analysis in conceptual design of process control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conceptual design of process control systems, and the problem of safety requirements determination are investigated. Safety analysis methods of process design are applied. A two phase method Safe Control Requirements Analysis Method (SCRAM) was applied for analyzing the safety aspects of large processes within reasonable time. The first phase studies potential accidents on the basis of materials handled in the process circumstances. The second phase studies ways in which the process is led to unsafe states and how accidents may subsequently develop. The basic idea is to find the hazardous states of the process, the critical process parameters, and the accident chains. The desired operating conditions and parameters to be controlled are determined. The results show that the method identifies safety critical parameters and control actions and can be used for control system designers' purposes.

Toola, Arja

1992-10-01

118

Chemically amplified photoresist: Materials and processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in microfabrication technology to construct smaller and faster integrated circuits depend on improving resolution capabilities of patterning thin films of photoresist materials by photolithographic imaging. Positive-tone, chemically amplified photoresists represent one of the most important classes of photoresist materials. These materials function by the generation of a photoacid catalyst from the decomposition of a photoacid generator with exposure that catalyzes chemical reactions that alter the development rate of the exposed resist. Chemical amplification is derived from the fact that a single molecule of photogenerated catalyst may participate in numerous reactions. Photoacid catalyzes the cleavage of acid-labile protecting groups from the backbone of the resin polymer, increasing the dissolution rate of the resist in aqueous base. A pattern is formed in the photoresist film from the difference between dissolution rates of the exposed and unexposed material. The continual improvement of the resolution of chemically amplified resists depends on understanding, controlling, and optimizing the chemical processes that govern pattern formation, namely photoacid generation, resin deprotection, and resist dissolution. To elucidate how the formulation of the resist affects these processes, a systematic methodology was designed, validated and implemented to analyze the materials and processing of chemically amplified photoresist systems. The efficiency of photoacid generation and the concentration of photoacid produced upon exposure were determined for a wide range of resist formulations, processing conditions, and exposure technologies. The chemical structure of photoacid generators and base quenchers were found to affect the processes of acid-base neutralization, resin deprotection, and resist development. The reaction-diffusion process of photoacid to deprotect the resin was identified to depend on the concentration of the photoacid generator. A much greater concentration of photoacid was required to render development for ultra-thin films of chemically amplified photoresist less than 150nm thick than for thicker resist films. These investigations identified that the action of photoacid within the resist film is more complex than previously thought, and provided insight for the design and optimization of photoresist materials and processes.

Pawloski, Adam Richard

2002-01-01

119

Applying mechanisms of chemical toxicity to predict drug safety.  

PubMed

Toxicology can no longer be used only as a science that reacts to problems but must be more proactive in predicting potential human safety issues with new drug candidates. Success in this area must be based on an understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity. This review summarizes and extends some of the concepts of an American Chemical Society ProSpectives meeting on the title subject held in June 2006. One important area is the discernment of the exact nature of the most common problems in drug toxicity. Knowledge of chemical structure alerts and relevant biological pathways are important. Biological activation to reactive products and off-target pharmacology are considered to be major contexts of drug toxicity, although defining exactly what the contributions are is not trivial. Some newer approaches to screening for both have been developed. A goal in predictive toxicology is the use of in vitro methods and database development to make predictions concerning potential modes of toxicity and to stratify drug candidates for further development. Such predictions are desirable for several economic and other reasons but are certainly not routine yet. However, progress has been made using several approaches. Some examples of the application of studies of wide-scale biological responses are now available, with incorporation into development paradigms. PMID:17302443

Guengerich, F Peter; MacDonald, James S

2007-03-01

120

Proposed plans for the use of soluble nuclear absorbers at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soluble neutron absorbers are proposed for criticality safety control in future processes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Solutions of neutron poisons have been used in the past for criticality control in processing various reactor fuels. No problems were encountered in the safe use of the neutron poisons although dissolution of different types of fuel occasionally required reevaluation of the

1978-01-01

121

PROCESS SECURITY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threats of terrorism have greatly alerted the chemical process industries to assure plant security at all levels: infrastructure-improvement-focused physical security, information- protection-focused cyber security, and design-and-operation-improvement-focused process security. While developing effective plant security methods and technologies is urgent for the industries, identifying and integrating plant security elements into undergraduate curriculum is vital for a new generation of engineers. This

Cristina Piluso; Korkut Uygun; Yinlun Huang; Helen H. Lou

2004-01-01

122

A Novel Chemical Nitrate Destruction Process  

SciTech Connect

Nitrates represent one of the most significant pollutant discharged to the Baltic Sea by the Sliiamae hydrometallurgical plant. This article contains a brief overview of the existing nitrate destruction technologies followed by the description of a new process developed by the authors. The new chemical process for nitrate destruction is cost effective and simple to operate. It converts the nitrate to nitrogen gas which goes to the atmosphere.

Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.

1999-03-01

123

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant failure rate database  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report represents the first major upgrade to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Failure Rate Database. This upgrade incorporates additional site-specific and generic data while improving on the previous data reduction techniques. In addition, due to a change in mission at the ICPP, the status of certain equipment items has changed from operating to standby or off-line. A discussion

T. G. Alber; C. R. Hunt; S. P. Fogarty; J. R. Wilson

1995-01-01

124

Data processing program for calculating laser safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer program which calculates both maximum safe power and safety range when using a laser is presented. The health limits are based on the American National Standard for the safe use of lasers (1976; American National Standards Institute). A complete listing of the program is provided. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find

P. Strandberg; O. Steinvall

1980-01-01

125

Use of natural aroma compounds to improve shelf-life and safety of minimally processed fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimally processed fruits are an important area of potential growth in rapidly expanding fresh cut produce. However, the degree of safety obtained with the currently applied preservation methods seems to be not sufficient. The interest in the possible use of natural compounds to prevent microbial growth has notably increased in response to the consumer pressure to reduce or eliminate chemically

R Lanciotti; A Gianotti; F Patrignani; N Belletti; M. E Guerzoni; F Gardini

2004-01-01

126

Chemical Pollutants Threatening Food Safety and Security: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Food passing several stages in the long and sophisticated food chain processing (from farm to fork) before being consumed and in each stage can cause morbidity and mortality, and also destruction to food industry. This is\\u000a because food is a vulnerable media for contamination by thousands of biological, chemical and physical agents, and radio nuclear\\u000a materials. Such contamination may occur

Sameeh A. Mansour

127

Utilization of chemical looping strategy in coal gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three chemical looping gasification processes, i.e. Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process, Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) process, and Calcium Looping process (CLP), are being developed at the Ohio State University (OSU). These processes utilize simple reaction schemes to convert carbonaceous fuels into products such as hydrogen, electricity, and synthetic fuels through the transformation of a highly reactive, highly recyclable chemical

Liangshih Fan; Fanxing Li; Shwetha Ramkumar

2008-01-01

128

NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) Payload Safety Review Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Issues addressed by this program: (1) Complicated roles and responsibilities associated with multi-partner projects (2) Working relationships and communications between all organizations involved in the payload safety process (3) Consistent interpretation and implementation of safety requirements from one project to the rest (4) Consistent implementation of the Tailoring Process (5) Clearly defined NASA decision-making-authority (6) Bring Agency-wide perspective to each ElV payload project. Current process requires a Payload Safety Working Group (PSWG) for eac payload with representatives from all involved organizations.

Starbus, Calvert S.; Donovan, Shawn; Dook, Mike; Palo, Tom

2007-01-01

129

Proving safety and liveness of communicating processes with examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is proposed for reasoning about safety and liveness properties of message passing networks. The method is hierarchical and is based upon combining the specifications of component processes to obtain the specification of a network. The inference rules for safety properties use induction on the number of messages transmitted; liveness proofs use techniques similar to termination proofs in sequential

Jayadev Misra; K. Mani Chandy; Todd Smith

1982-01-01

130

Supporting qualification: Safety standard compliant process planning and monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional safety of embedded systems has become an integral part in automotive engineering activities due to the forthcoming safety standard ISO 26262. One main challenge is to perform development activities compliant to the standard and provide the respective documentation. Traceability between requirements from a standard, as well as project-specific process and product artifacts throughout the entire development cycle allows compliance

Henning Jost; Axel Hahn; Stefan Häusler; Silke Köhler; J. Gac?nik; F. Ko?ster; K. Lemmer

2010-01-01

131

Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for Waste Receiving & Processing (WRAP) facility  

SciTech Connect

These Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) define the Administrative Controls required to ensure safe operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP). As will be shown in the report, Safety Limits, Limiting Control Settings, Limiting Conditions for Operation, and Surveillance Requirements are not required for safe operation of WRAP.

TOMASZEWSKI, T.A.

2001-07-10

132

Application of Annotated Logic Program to Pipeline Process Safety Verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a paraconsistent annotated logic program called Extended Vector Annotated Logic Program with Strong Negation (abbr. EVALPSN), which can deal with defeasible deontic reasoning and contradiction, and we have already applied it to safety verification and control such as railway interlocking safety verification and traffic signal control. In this paper, we introduce process safety verification as an application of EVALPSN with a small example for brewery pipeline valve control. The safety verification control is based on EVALPSN defeasible deontic reasoning to avoid unexpected mix of different sorts of liquid in pipeline networks.

Nakamatsu, Kazumi

133

A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

134

Configuration of Computer-Based Process Safety Systems,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Possible configurations for computer-based process safety systems are presented. A literature review has been carried out, giving the configurations most commonly used in onshore and offshore applications as well as more advanced configurations used in sp...

H. Berstad T. Onshus

1987-01-01

135

Improve industrial process plant safety & availability via reliability engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

International Petrochemical, Chemical, Refining and Petroleum Industries are trying to implement reliability programs to improve plant safety while trying to maintain plant availability. These programs can vary significantly in size and complexity. Any kind of reliability program, like a preventive maintenance (PM) program, consists always of one or more reliability models and reliability data to execute these models. It is

Michel Houtermans; Mufeed Al-ghumgham; Tino Vande Capelle

2008-01-01

136

The process safety impact of distributed control systems  

SciTech Connect

Experience has shown that a Distributed Control System (DCS) can provide enhanced process monitoring and control capabilities, as well as system self-diagnostics, that permit increased safety of process operations. However, this enhanced safety does not come about automatically with the installation of a DCS. The complexity and versatility of the DCS can introduce new failure scenarios leading to process upset and potential realization of process hazards. This paper review some novel considerations that should be taken into account when conducting process hazards reviews on facilities controlled by a DCS.

Franke, W.L.; Zodeh, O.M. (E.I. Du Pont de Nemours and Co. Inc., Newark, DE (USA))

1991-04-01

137

The process: New methods of purification and viral safety.  

PubMed

From the transmission of hepatitis C virus by gammaglobulins in 1994 to the emergence of new viruses and concern over prions, intravenous immunoglobulin (IGIV) manufacturers have continued to address safety issues and respond to changing needs. New IGIV products not only provide superior antiviral safety, but also show advances in product purity and manufacturing processes. Several manufacturers have also addressed the concern over prion transmission. The sum of the processes used have collectively ensured continuous product safety. Newer products will be further differentiated by their tolerability and efficacy profiles. PMID:16229677

Schleis, Thomas G

2005-11-01

138

STS safety approval process for small self-contained payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The safety approval process established by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for Get Away Special (GAS) payloads is described. Although the designing organization is ultimately responsible for the safe operation of its payload, the Get Away Special team at the Goddard Space Flight Center will act as advisors while iterative safety analyses are performed and the Safety Data Package inputs are submitted. This four phase communications process will ultimately give NASA confidence that the GAS payload is safe, and successful completion of the Phase 3 package and review will clear the way for flight aboard the Space Transportation System orbiter.

Gum, Mary A.

1988-01-01

139

SAFETY EVALUATION OF RENOVATED WASTEWATER FROM A POULTRY PROCESSING PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

A three-phase evaluation of reclaimed process wastewater for reuse was undertaken at the Sterling Processing Corporation plant in Oakland, Maryland. The main objective was to evaluate the safety for human consumption of poultry exposed during processing to an average 50 percent m...

140

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Safety in the Laboratory: Are We Making Any Progress?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews trends in laboratory safety found in both industrial and academic situations. Reports that large industrial labs generally have excellent safety programs but that, although there have been improvements, academia still lags behind industry in safety. Includes recommendations for improving lab safety. (ML)

McKusick, Blaine C.

1987-01-01

141

Agglomeration of pharmaceutical, detergent, chemical and food powders — Similarities and differences of materials and processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product developers tend to make a distinction between different types of agglomerated powders depending on whether they are produced by the pharmaceutical, detergent, chemical or food industry. This is perfectly valid for the hygiene, quality, safety or economical aspects of processes and products. However, from a process engineering point of view a different classification is needed in order to identify

St. Palzer

2011-01-01

142

Role of Process Models in Safety Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Management is a type of human activity that establishes and ensures the system functions. The process models and project models are currently used for management support. Main aim of the process model is to describe the possible development tendencies as a consequence of certain phenomenon and to define functions and role of functions. The process models enable to compile procedures and scenarios for the situations that have similar features. They are suitable for planning, response and renovation. In this paper, we present the risk management model used at present in professional practice, two simple models from daily practice and the evaluation of process models for crisis management.

Rusko, Miroslav; Procházková, Dana

2010-01-01

143

Great Safety Performance: an improvement process using leading indicators.  

PubMed

The Great Safety Performance model uses leading indicators to drive injury prevention and provides a process to improve a company's safety outcomes by maximizing the conditions for safety within the workplace. The model asserts that leaders and workers need to jointly create conditions whereby everyone will know what to do, be able to do it, be equipped to do it, want to do it, and experience interactions that support safe performance in their job duties. These factors are referred to as the conditions for great performance. The Great Safety Performance model can serve as a vehicle to quantify, document, and demonstrate the efforts a company invests to create a safe workplace with safe work practices. By using the Great Safety Performance model, organizations can design and implement a variety of high leverage improvement initiatives specific to their business situations. PMID:15635932

Dyck, Dianne; Roithmayr, Tony

2004-12-01

144

Use of process hazard analysis to control chemical process hazards  

SciTech Connect

One objective of this project was to demonstrate how the PrHA could satisfy OSHA`s requirements. OSHA requires that the PrHA address: the hazards of the process; the identification of any previous incident which had a likely potential for catastrophic consequences in the workplace; engineering and administrative controls applicable to the hazards and their interrelationships; consequences of failure of engineering and administrative controls; facility siting; human factors; and a qualitative evaluation of a range of the possible safety and health effects of failure of controls on employees in the workplace. In addition, OSHA requires that the PrHA must be conducted by a team with at least one member having expertise in engineering and process operations, one having experience and knowledge specific to the process being evaluated, and a team leader knowledgeable in the specific PrHA methodology being used.

Piatt, J.A.

1994-07-01

145

Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process Application in Safety Risk Management of Aviation Maintenance Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aviation accidents caused by maintenance errors have increased year after year. It is necessary to carry out the safety risk management during the aviation maintenance process. There are a lot of uncertainty factors in the process of safety risk management. The research in this paper focuses on formulating a fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (Fuzzy AHP) to solve it. The priority

Wang Yanqing; Liu Xueyan

2010-01-01

146

Scope on Safety: Chemical tracking systems--not your usual global positioning system!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The haphazard storing and tracking of chemicals in the laboratory is a serious safety issue facing science teachers. To get control of your chemicals, try implementing a chemical tracking system. A chemical tracking system (CTS) is a database of chemicals used in the laboratory. If implemented correctly, a CTS will reduce purchasing costs, eliminate overstocking, and reduce disposal costs. It will also allow you to respond more effectively to accidents, fires, and other hazardous situations.

Roy, Ken

2007-04-01

147

Concepts of the International Programme on Chemical Safety in the Assessment of Risks to Human Health from Exposure to Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) is a cooperative program of the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, and the United Nations Environment Programme. The main objectives of its risk assessment work are to provide, on a global basis, consensus assessments of priority chemicals (including pesticides) and to promote the development, validation, use, and harmonization of sound methodologies

Maged Younes; Cynthia Sonich-Mullin

1997-01-01

148

Cultural safety as an ethic of care: a praxiological process.  

PubMed

New writings broadening the construct of cultural safety, a construct initiated in Aotearoa New Zealand, are beginning to appear in the literature. Therefore, it is considered timely to integrate these writings and advance the construct into a new theoretical model. The new model reconfigures the constructs of cultural safety and cultural competence as an ethic of care informed by a postmodern perspective. Central to the new model are three interwoven, co-occurring components: an ethic of care, which unfolds within a praxiological process shaped by the context. Context is expanded through identifying the three concepts of relationality, generic competence, and collectivity, which are integral to each client-nurse encounter. The competence associated with cultural safety as an ethic of care is always in the process of development. Clients and nurses engage in a dialogue to establish the level of cultural safety achieved at given points in a care trajectory. PMID:21844246

McEldowney, Rose; Connor, Margaret J

2011-10-01

149

Assessing Chemical Retention Process Controls in Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small ponds are a ubiquitous component of the landscape and have earned a reputation as effective chemical retention devices. The most common characterization of pond chemical retention is the retention coefficient, Ri= ([Ci]inflow-[Ci] outflow)/[Ci]inflow. However, this parameter varies widely in one pond with time and among ponds. We have re-evaluated literature reported (Borden et al., 1998) monthly average retention coefficients for two ponds in North Carolina. Employing a simple first order model that includes water residence time, the first order process responsible for species removal have been separated from the water residence time over which it acts. Assuming the rate constant for species removal is constant within the pond (arguable at least), the annual average rate constant for species removal is generated. Using the annual mean rate constant for species removal and monthly water residence times results in a significantly enhanced predictive capability for Davis Pond during most months of the year. Predictive ability remains poor in Davis Pond during winter/unstratified periods when internal loading of P and N results in low to negative chemical retention. Predictive ability for Piedmont Pond (which has numerous negative chemical retention periods) is improved but not to the same extent as Davis Pond. In Davis Pond, the rate constant for sediment removal (each month) is faster than the rate constant for water and explains the good predictability for sediment retention. However, the removal rate constant for P and N is slower than the removal rate constant for sediment (longer water column residence time for P,N than for sediment). Thus sedimentation is not an overall control on nutrient retention. Additionally, the removal rate constant for P is slower than for TOC (TOC is not the dominate removal process for P) and N is removed slower than P (different in pond controls). For Piedmont Pond, sediment removal rate constants are slower than the removal rate constant for water indicating significant sediment resuspension episodes. It appears that these sediment resuspension events are aperiodic and control the loading and the chemical retention capability of Piedmont Pond for N,P,TOC. These calculated rate constants reflect the differing internal loading processes for each component and suggest means and mechanisms for the use of ponds in water quality management.

Torgersen, T.; Branco, B.; John, B.

2002-05-01

150

Addressing environment, health, and safety in semiconductor process development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motorola has traditionally focused on cost, yield, performance, and logistics as primary drivers for decision-making. In the semiconductor industry, environment, health, and safety (EHS) issues have resulted in major modifications of tools and process steps, as well as the addition of environmental controls to the facility, because they are not routinely considered when making process design and manufacturing choices, nor

L. Mendicino; L. Beu

1998-01-01

151

Addressing environment, health and safety in semiconductor process development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motorola has traditionally focused on cost, yield, performance, and logistics as primary drivers for decision-making. In the semiconductor industry, environment, health and safety (EHS) issues have resulted in major modifications of tools and process steps, as well as the addition of environmental controls to the facility, because they are not routinely considered when making process design and manufacturing choices, nor

L. Mendicino; L. Beu

1997-01-01

152

Introducing Proper Chemical Hygiene and Safety in the General Chemistry Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical safety is an important component of science education for everyone, not just for chemistry majors. Developing a responsible and knowledgeable attitude towards chemical safety best starts at the early stages of a student's career. In many colleges and universities, safety education in undergraduate chemistry has been relegated primarily to a few regulatory documents at the beginning of a laboratory course, or an occasional warning in the description of a specific experiment in a prelaboratory lecture. Safety issues are seldom raised in general chemistry or organic chemistry lecture-based chemistry courses. At Iowa State University we have begun to implement a program, Chemical Hygiene and Safety in the Laboratory, into the undergraduate chemistry curriculum. This program is designed to increase the awareness and knowledge of proper chemical hygiene and laboratory safety issues among all students taking general chemistry and organic chemistry courses. Laboratory protocol, use of safety equipment, familiarity with MSD sheets, basics of first aid, some specific terminology surrounding chemical hygiene, EPA and OSHA requirements, and the use of the World Wide Web to search and locate chemical safety information are topics that are applied throughout the chemistry curriculum. The novelty of this approach is to incorporate MSD sheets and safety information that can be located on the World Wide Web in a series of safety problems and assignments, all related to the chemistry experiments students are about to perform. The fundamental idea of our approach is not only to teach students what is required for appropriate safety measures, but also to involve them in the enforcement of basic prudent practices.

Miller, Gordon J.; Heideman, Stephen A.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

2000-09-01

153

Safety of High Explosives Comminution Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The explosives which are of interest include HMX, RDX, TATB, NQ, TNT, PETN and HNS and mixtures of these materials. These explosives are subjected to a variety of milling processes on the experimental and pilot plant scale. The quantities involved range f...

R. Applin

1982-01-01

154

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Impressions of Safety in Universities in the United States of America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a report on a study done in 1976 of safety arrangements and procedures in teaching, research, and medical establishments in the United States. The results show that the Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA) has not yet had much impact as far as safety in teaching and research is concerned. (BB)

Bush, Dick; Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.

1979-01-01

155

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Lab Safety as a Collateral Duty in Small Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines reasons why individuals in academic institutions do not feel the same safety-related pressures as individuals in nonacademic institutions. Also lists elements that should be included in any basic safety/health program and describes the steps taken at one college to improve laboratory safety. (JN)

Bayer, Richard

1984-01-01

156

Copper sulfides by chemical spray pyrolysis process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemistry of formation of copper sulfide and copper indium disulfide films by the chemical spray pyrolysis process has been investigated. It was established that the formation of copper sulfide films by the spray process of water solutions of CuCl2 and SC(NH2)2 passes through the stage of formation of intermediate complex compound Cu(SCN2H4)Cl·H2O in the initial solution. Thermal behaviour studies in air exhibit rearrangement of the complex at temperatures higher than 210 °C with formation of copper sulfide. Copper oxide is the decomposition product at temperatures higher than 700 °C in air. CuInS2 is formed by the reaction between copper and indium sulfides.

Krunks, M.; Mellikov, E.; Bijakina, O.

1997-01-01

157

Chapter IV - Safety During Payload Ground Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This chapter describes the typical hazards that can be expected to be encountered when processing payloads on the ground. Also described are some of the more common controls for these hazards. Many of these controls are based on hard requirements but they are also based on specific lessons learned. This chapter uses the term Flight Hardware (F/H) for all payloads regardless of size.

Kirkpatrick, Paul; Dollberg, John; Trinchero, Jean-Pierre

2012-01-01

158

Scope on Safety: Yes, you need a Chemical Hygiene Officer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chemical Hygiene Officer's (CHO) role is absolutely critical in fostering and ensuring both chemical hygiene practices and the chemical hygiene plan. OSHA defines the Chemical Hygiene Officer as an âemployee who is designated by the employer, and who is qualified by training or experience, to provide technical guidance in the development and implementation of the provisions of the Chemical Hygiene Plan.â The CHO position is also essential in helping to facilitate the safeguards put in place as part of the chemical hygiene plan to protect both the teacher and students.

Roy, Ken

2009-04-01

159

Life Cycle Cost Prediction Handbook Computer-Based Process Safety Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The handbook provides procedures and formulas for prediction of life cycle cost (LCC) of computer-based process safety systems. It may be used together with 'Reliability Prediction Handbook; Computer-Based Process Safety Systems' to quantify both safety p...

S. Lydersen R. Aaroe

1989-01-01

160

Approaches to the Control of the Effects of Human Error on Chemical Plant Safety,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Major chemical accidents generally have multiple causes traceable to mistakes made during design, maintenance, and operation. Several safety control approaches are possible, depending upon human error type and task/work conditions. The paper discusses the...

J. Rasmussen

1987-01-01

161

Minimising Fire Risks at Chemical Storage Facilities: Basis for the Guidelines for Safety Engineers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction; Construction Design and Fire Hazard Assessment; Storage and Packaging; Preventive and Protective Systems; Location and Safety Distances; Experimental Data on Hazards Associated with Chemical Fires; Example of Analytical Fire Simula...

J. Hietaniemi E. Mikkola

1997-01-01

162

78 FR 69433 - Executive Order 13650 Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security Listening Sessions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ACTION: Notice of public listening sessions...Department of Homeland Security (DHS), in coordination...Facility Safety and Security (Executive Order...DATES: The public listening sessions...topic/chemical-security. II. Scope of Public Listening...

2013-11-19

163

Safety risk assessment technology of Chemical Industrial Park based on grid partition and information diffusion theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the analysis to the research actuality and its problems to regional safety risk assessment at home and abroad, a method of regional safety risk assessment for Urban Chemical Industrial Park with multi-danger source is put forward. Firstly, the assessed region is carved up into series of two dimensional square grids in equal Stride length mesh based on grid partition

Hongde Wang; Yundong Ma

2009-01-01

164

Assessing Food Safety Concepts on the Dairy Farm: The Case of Chemical Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive conjoint analysis was used to elicit farmers' and experts' preferences for attributes of improving food safety with respect to chemical hazards on the dairy farm. Groups of respondents were determined by cluster analysis based on similar farmers' and experts' perceptions of food safety improvement. Results show differences in priority of the more important attributes. However, respondents in all groups

Natalia I. Valeeva; Miranda P. M. Meuwissen; Ron H. M. Bergevoet; Ruud B. M. Huirne

2004-01-01

165

Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning process  

SciTech Connect

Liberation studies on the Elkhorn No. 3 coal were completed in this quarter. The results obtained from the 65 {times} 150 mesh samples showed that the amount of mineral matter and pyrite liberated by the Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process increases with time. The free mineral matter undergoes some reduction in size during the CECC treatment and the majority of the liberated mineral particles in this sample are finer than 150 mesh. This is opposite that found for the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, which may explain the better response of the Elkhorn No. 3 coal to CECC treatment. The continuous bench-scale unit was modified during the quarter to satisfy the health and safety requirements of the university. The unit was modified to ensure that any spill or leakage can be contained. Due to these modifications, continuous testing work was delayed.

Basilio, C.I.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan.

1991-01-01

166

Chemical processes in the chemical mechanical polishing of copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which removal and planarization occur during the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of copper, used for pattern delineation in a multilevel metallization scheme, are investigated in this paper. We propose that removal occurs as mechanical abrasion of the surface followed by chemical dissolution of the abraded species. Planarization is achieved by the use of a rigid polishing pad

J. M. Steigerwald; S. P. Murarka; R. J. Gutmann; D. J. Duquette

1995-01-01

167

[Water quality safety of ozonation and biologically activated carbon process in application].  

PubMed

Ozonation and biologically activated carbon process, one of advanced treatment technologies, has been applied in many places at home and abroad. However, some emerging water quality problems appeared in operation. Drinking water treatment plant (6 x 10(5) m3/d) with ozonation and biologically activated carbon process (O3-BAC process) was investigated systematically, including microbial safety, the excessive growth of aquatic microorganism and chemical stability of water quality. And some experiments were done in the pilot plant (10 m3/h) at the same time. O3-BAC process is reliable in microbial safety, but operation management should be enhanced. A good number of aquatic microorganisms grow immoderately during operation of O3-BAC process, which is more serious especially in place with high temperature and humidity. With prolong of runtime, the growth of aquatic microorganisms varies regularly. That is hazardous to water quality safety. When raw water is low with alkalinity, decrease of pH in O3-BAC process is obvious. That will seriously affect on chemical stability. PMID:20063746

Qiao, Tie-Jun; Zhang, Xi-Hui

2009-11-01

168

Potential use of advanced process control for safety purposes during attack of a process plant.  

PubMed

Many refineries and commodity chemical plants employ advanced process control (APC) systems to improve throughputs and yields. These APC systems utilize empirical process models for control purposes and enable operation closer to constraints than can be achieved with traditional PID regulatory feedback control. Substantial economic benefits are typically realized from the addition of APC systems. This paper considers leveraging the control capabilities of existing APC systems to minimize the potential impact of a terrorist attack on a process plant (e.g., petroleum refinery). Two potential uses of APC are described. The first is a conventional application of APC and involves automatically moving the process to a reduced operating rate when an attack first begins. The second is a non-conventional application and involves reconfiguring the APC system to optimize safety rather than economics. The underlying intent in both cases is to reduce the demands on the operator to allow focus on situation assessment and optimal response planning. An overview of APC is provided along with a brief description of the modifications required for the proposed new applications of the technology. PMID:16298048

Whiteley, James R

2006-03-17

169

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant phaseout\\/deactivation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decision to cease all US Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels was made on April 28, 1992. This study provides insight into and a comparison of the management, technical, compliance, and safety strategies for deactivating the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant.

M. W. Patterson; R. J. Thompson

1994-01-01

170

Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains a discussion of the chemical safety improvements planned or already underway at DOE sites to correct facility or site-specific vulnerabilities. The main part of the report is a discussion of each of the programmatic deficiencies; a description of the tasks to be accomplished; the specific actions to be taken; and the organizational responsibilities for implementation.

Not Available

1994-09-01

171

‘Geo’chemical research: A key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland…), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case supporting how radionuclide transfer is represented in the performance assessment model. The objective here is to illustrate how geochemical research contributes to this process and, above all, to identify a certain number of subjects which should be treated in priority.

Altmann, Scott

2008-12-01

172

'Geo'chemical research: a key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases.  

PubMed

Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland...), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case supporting how radionuclide transfer is represented in the performance assessment model. The objective here is to illustrate how geochemical research contributes to this process and, above all, to identify a certain number of subjects which should be treated in priority. PMID:19008019

Altmann, Scott

2008-12-12

173

Foundations for Excellence in the Chemical Process Industries. Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses the Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers Project and issues of relevance to the education and employment of chemical laboratory technicians (CLTs) and process technicians (PTs). Section 1 consists of the following background information: overview of the chemical process industries,…

Hofstader, Robert; Chapman, Kenneth

174

Assuring the Safety of Chemicals through Improved Exposure Science  

EPA Science Inventory

Thousands of chemicals are currently in commercial use and hundreds more are introduced each year. Of these, only a small fraction has been assessed adequately for potential risks. Existing chemical testing and exposure measurement protocols are expensive and time consuming. Fu...

175

Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions.

Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

1994-09-01

176

Demystifying the Occupational Safety and Health Administration inspection process.  

PubMed

Being prepared for an Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspection can save a facility money, as well as potentially protect employees from serious illness or injury. This article explains the OSHA inspection process, types of violations that may be cited and the appeals process for employers and employees. Actual citations given in four recent OSHA health care facility inspections are discussed and general recommendations to prepare for an OSHA site visit are given. PMID:16674028

Price, Lowell L; Goodman, Terri

2006-04-01

177

Chemical food safety, public awareness and risk communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice of subject for a credit paper to pass a university course in food toxicology was analysed as a measure of the curiosity towards different topics. The investigation covers 575 students over 28 years. The choices were analysed against investigations on food safety concerns, the development in the period, the official risk communication campaigns and media detailed scandals. Food

Leon Brimer

2004-01-01

178

The Implementation and Maintenance of a Behavioral Safety Process in a Petroleum Refinery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A values-centered and team-based behavioral safety process was implemented in a petroleum oil refinery. Employee teams defined the refinery's safety values and related practices, which were used to guide the process design and implementation. The process included (a) a safety assessment; (b) the clarification of safety-related values and related…

Myers, Wanda V.; McSween, Terry E.; Medina, Rixio E.; Rost, Kristen; Alvero, Alicia M.

2010-01-01

179

A system safety approach to the FAA surveillance process  

SciTech Connect

As commercial air travel grows in terms of the number of passenger miles flown, there is expected to be a corresponding dramatic increase in the absolute number of accidents. This despite an enviable safety record and a very low accident rate. The political environment is such that an increase in the absolute number of accidents is not acceptable, with a stated goal of a factor of five reduction in the aviation fatal accident rate within ten years. The objective of this project is to develop an improved surveillance process that will provide measurements of the current state-of-health and predictions of future state of health of aircraft, operators, facilities, and personnel. Methodologies developed for nuclear weapon safety, in addition to more well known system safety and high-consequence engineering techniques, will be used in this approach.

Werner, P.W.; Olson, D.R.

1997-08-08

180

Applying the Extended Parallel Process Model to workplace safety messages.  

PubMed

The extended parallel process model (EPPM) proposes fear appeals are most effective when they combine threat and efficacy. Three studies conducted in the workplace safety context examine the use of various EPPM factors and their effects, especially multiplicative effects. Study 1 was a content analysis examining the use of EPPM factors in actual workplace safety messages. Study 2 experimentally tested these messages with 212 construction trainees. Study 3 replicated this experiment with 1,802 men across four English-speaking countries-Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The results of these three studies (1) demonstrate the inconsistent use of EPPM components in real-world work safety communications, (2) support the necessity of self-efficacy for the effective use of threat, (3) show a multiplicative effect where communication effectiveness is maximized when all model components are present (severity, susceptibility, and efficacy), and (4) validate these findings with gory appeals across four English-speaking countries. PMID:23330856

Basil, Michael; Basil, Debra; Deshpande, Sameer; Lavack, Anne M

2013-01-01

181

Safety Sufficiency for NextGen: Assessment of Selected Existing Safety Methods, Tools, Processes, and Regulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NextGen is a complex socio-technical system and, in many ways, it is expected to be more complex than the current system. It is vital to assess the safety impact of the NextGen elements (technologies, systems, and procedures) in a rigorous and systematic way and to ensure that they do not compromise safety. In this study, the NextGen elements in the form of Operational Improvements (OIs), Enablers, Research Activities, Development Activities, and Policy Issues were identified. The overall hazard situation in NextGen was outlined; a high-level hazard analysis was conducted with respect to multiple elements in a representative NextGen OI known as OI-0349 (Automation Support for Separation Management); and the hazards resulting from the highly dynamic complexity involved in an OI-0349 scenario were illustrated. A selected but representative set of the existing safety methods, tools, processes, and regulations was then reviewed and analyzed regarding whether they are sufficient to assess safety in the elements of that OI and ensure that safety will not be compromised and whether they might incur intolerably high costs.

Xu, Xidong; Ulrey, Mike L.; Brown, John A.; Mast, James; Lapis, Mary B.

2013-01-01

182

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Hazards in a Photography Lab.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are case studies illustrating chemical hazards in a photography lab due to compounds containing cyanide. Suggestions for preventing problems including proper procedures, housekeeping, facilities, and ventilation are considered. (RH)

Houk, Cliff; Hart, Charles

1987-01-01

183

Assessment of Software Safety as Applied to the Department of Defense Software Development Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research analyzed the relationships between the DOD software development process, system safety requirements, and current structured software safety analysis techniques. The current state of software safety was assessed within the aerospace industry ...

P. W. Colan R. W. Prouhet

1992-01-01

184

Understanding Processes of Care and Patient Safety Outcomes in Nursing Homes: An Examination of Patient Safety Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the report is to understand the relationship of patient safety culture (PSC), processes of care, and patient safety outcomes in nursing homes (NHs). The safety of residents and resident care are integral to the quality of care provided in N...

K. S. Thomas

2013-01-01

185

Commercialization of Turbulent Combustion Code CREBCOM for Chemical Industry Safety  

SciTech Connect

This program developed the Kurchatov Institute’s CREBCOM (CRiteria and Experimentally Based COMbustion) code to the point where it could be commercialized and marketed for the special applications described above, as well as for general purpose combustion calculations. The CREBCOM code uses a different approach to model the explosion phenomenon. The code models, with full 3D gas dynamics, the development of an explosion in three characteristics regimes: a) slow flames, b) fast flames, and c) detonation. The transition from one regime to another is governed by a set of empirical criteria and correlations. As part of the commercialization, the code was validated with the use of experimental data. The experimental data covered a range of thermodynamic initial conditions and apparatus scale. Proprietary experimental data were provided to the Kurchatov Institute by the DuPont for this purpose. The flame acceleration and detonation data was obtained from experiments in methane and oxygen enriched air mixtures carried out in two vessels with diameters of 20 and 27 cm. The experimental data covers a wide spectrum of initial temperature (20-525C) and pressure (1-3 atm). As part of this program, the Kurchatov Institute performed experiments in a 52 cm vessel in mixtures of methane-air at room temperature and pressure to be used in the validation of the code. The objective of these tests was to obtain frame acceleration data at a scale close to that found in actual industrial processes. BNL was responsible for managing the DOE/IPP portion of the program, and for satisfying DOE reporting requirements. BNL also participated in an independent assessment of the CREBOM code. DuPont provided proprietary experimental data to the Kurchatov Institute on flame acceleration and detonation in high temperature methane and oxygen enriched air mixtures in addition to the matching fund. In addition, DuPont also supplied to KI instrumentation for pressure and temperature measurement. Kurchatov (KI) performed experiments at close to full-scale in mixtures of room temperature methane and air to develop the CREBCOM code which was used for explosion simulation in confined geometrics, such as chemical reactors and converters. The code was validated by comparison of the code simulations with experimental data obtained under prototypic reactor mixture conditions.

Rohatgi, Upendra

2007-06-30

186

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROCESS AND MECHANISM MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this task is to develop and test chemical and physical mechanisms for use in the chemical transport models of EPA's Models-3. The target model for this research is the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. These mechanisms include gas and aqueous phase ph...

187

Novel Chemical Processes: Ozone, Supercritical CO2, Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water, and Chlorine Dioxide Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current need for minimally-processed foods with fresh-like, natural, and unadulterated qualities has increased the technological search for processes that ensure food safety while maintaining the food in a very wholesome taste-unaltered state. To that end, ozone, supercritical CO2, electrolyzed oxidizing water, and chlorine dioxide were chosen as emerging chemical technologies that hold much potential for ensuring food quality and

J. Novak; A. Demirci; Y. Han

2008-01-01

188

Physical and Chemical Changes in the Digestion Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson demonstrates how students can determine the cause and effect relationship in the digestion process. Students will be able to determine where chemical and physical changes occur in the digestion process and support their findings from an informational text. This lesson provides students with an opportunity to apply their knowledge of physical and chemical changes in matter to the process of digestion.

Clark, Monica

2012-09-16

189

Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. To address the facility-specific and site-specific vulnerabilities, responsible DOE and site-contractor line organizations have developed initial site response plans. These plans, presented as Volume 2 of this Management Response Plan, describe the actions needed to mitigate or eliminate the facility- and site-specific vulnerabilities identified by the CSV Working Group field verification teams. Initial site response plans are described for: Brookhaven National Lab., Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Lab., Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., Oak Ridge Reservation, Rocky Flats Plant, Sandia National Laboratories, and Savannah River Site.

Not Available

1994-09-01

190

Use of failure rate databases and process safety performance measurements to improve process safety.  

PubMed

Employing equipment reliability databases can generate a process of continual improvement. This paper suggests a methodology that uses equipment reliability databases, and a process of benchmarking to establish a continual improvement procedure by learning "how others are doing it". A simple decision-making procedure is suggested too, to assist in prioritizing the processes/equipment that are considered to be improved as well as a methodology to measure the improvement. PMID:14602401

Keren, N; West, H H; Rogers, W J; Gupta, J P; Mannan, M S

2003-11-14

191

Safety Evaluation for Hull Waste Treatment Process in JNC  

SciTech Connect

Hull wastes and some scrapped equipment are typical radioactive wastes generated from reprocessing process in Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). Because hulls are the wastes remained in the fuel shearing and dissolution, they contain high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started the project of Hull Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF) to treat these solid wastes using compaction and incineration methods since 1993. It is said that Zircaloy fines generated from compaction process might burn and explode intensely. Therefore explosive conditions of the fines generated in compaction process were measured. As these results, it was concluded that the fines generated from the compaction process were not hazardous material. This paper describes the outline of the treatment process of hulls and results of safety evaluation.

Kojima, H.; Kurakata, K.

2002-02-26

192

CHEMICAL PROCESSES AND MODELING IN ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Trends in regulatory strategies require EPA to understand better chemical behavior in natural and impacted ecosystems and in biological systems to carry out the increasingly complex array of exposure and risk assessments needed to develop scientifically defensible regulations (GP...

193

Safety. [requirements for software to monitor and control critical processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software requirements, design, implementation, verification and validation, and especially management are affected by the need to produce safe software. This paper discusses the changes in the software life cycle that are necessary to ensure that software will execute without resulting in unacceptable risk. Software is being used increasingly to monitor and control safety-critical processes in which a run-time failure or error could result in unacceptable losses such as death, injury, loss of property, or environmental harm. Examples of such processes maybe found in transportation, energy, aerospace, basic industry, medicine, and defense systems.

Leveson, Nancy G.

1991-01-01

194

EVALUATING AND DESIGNING CHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemicals and chemical processes are at the heart of most environmental problems. This isn't surprising since chemicals make up all of the products we use in our lives. The common use of cjhemicals makes them of high interest for systems analysis, particularly because of environ...

195

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Tested Disposal Methods for Chemical Wastes from Academic Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes procedures for disposing of dichromate cleaning solution, picric acid, organic azides, oxalic acid, chemical spills, and hydroperoxides in ethers and alkenes. These methods have been tested under laboratory conditions and are specific for individual chemicals rather than for groups of chemicals. (JN)

Armour, M. A.; And Others

1985-01-01

196

Macroergonomics as an organizing process for systems safety.  

PubMed

Hendrick is attributed with the formalization of organizational design and management (ODAM) in ergonomics [Hendrick, H.W., Kleiner, B.M., 2001. Macroergonomics: An Introduction to Work System Design. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Santa Monica, CA.]. Specifically, the method called "Macroergonomic Analysis of Structure" or MAS provides a framework and analysis of these factors and provides the context for an analysis of organizational design and management process through the MacroErgonomic Analysis and Design method (MEAD). Together, MAS and MEAD represent the formalization of staple methods in macroergonomics and can be used to organize existing tools and methods such as those that exist in systems safety and help to differentiate macroergonomics from other approaches. This article illustrates such an integrative role for macroergonomics with respect to systems safety using the example of the construction sector, a domain in which accidents, injuries and fatalities are all too common. PMID:18407244

Haro, Elizabet; Kleiner, Brian M

2008-07-01

197

Merging safety and reliability analysis for process safety and reliability improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equipment failures or faults in process occur as a result of complex interaction of the individual components and may lead to events that result in incipient faults, near misses, incidents and accidents in chemical plant (1). Protection systems are often in place as prevention barriers e.g. alarms, shutdown systems etc. These protective systems may not be available when needed or

NAVEED RAMZAN; WERNER WITT

198

Task Group report to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health on oversight of chemical safety at the Department of Energy. Volume 2, Appendices  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a preliminary review of chemical safety within the Department of Energy (DOE). The review was conducted by Chemical Safety Oversight Review (CSOR) Teams composed of Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) staff members and contractors. The primary objective of the CSOR was to assess, the safety status of DOE chemical operations and identify any significant deficiencies associated with such operations. Significant was defined as any situation posing unacceptable risk, that is, imminent danger or threat to workers, co-located workers, the general public, or the environment, that requires prompt action by EH or the line organizations. A secondary objective of the CSOR was to gather and analyze technical and programmatic information related to chemical safety to be used in conjunction with the longer-range EH Workplace Chemical Accident Risk Review (WCARR) Program. The WCARR Program is part of the ongoing EH oversight of nonnuclear safety at all DOE facilities. `` The program objective is to analyze DOE and industry chemical safety programs and performance and determine the need for additional or improved safety guidance for DOE. During the period June 6, 1992, through July 31, 1992, EH conducted CSORs at five DOE sites. The sites visited were Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Savannah River Site (SRS), the Y-12 Plant (Y-12), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

Not Available

1992-11-01

199

Safety of thoracic transverse process fixation: an anatomical study.  

PubMed

An anatomical study of the passage of the implant placed around thoracic transverse process was undertaken in human cadavers to investigate the safety of thoracic transverse process fixation. A simulated surgical procedure for implant placement around the transverse processes of T1-T10 was carried out in eight fresh human cadavers using a mock plastic implant, 7.0 mm wide and 1.5 mm thick. A total of 80 implanted thoracic vertebrae were dissected systematically. One implanted spinal column was sectioned sagittally through the costotransverse space. The parietal pleura, the intercostal vessels, and intercostal nerves were not injured by the implants in any of the specimens. All the implants were located posterior to the intercostal nerves and vessels, lateral to the pedicles, and outside the spinal canal. The transverse processes of T1-T10 are safe structures for implant anchorage in posterior spinal instrumentation. PMID:8877955

Thanapipatsiri, S; Chan, D P

1996-08-01

200

Modeling, Simulation and Assessment of the Maryland State Police Automotive Safety Enforcement Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Transportation Center (NTC) conducted this study to assist the Maryland State Police Automotive Safety Enforcement Division (MSP-ASED) to redesign its Safety Equipment Repair Order (SERO) Process. The SERO process represents one of the core p...

C. Peebles

2001-01-01

201

Evaluation of Criteria for the Application of Systems-Analytical Methods for Safety Analyses of Chemical Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A proposal for classifying chemical plants according to their hazard potential is made with the object of finding those branches of production in which it makes sense to use quantitative methods habitually used for investigating chemical plant safety are ...

U. Hauptmanns P. Hoemke J. Huber G. Reichart H. G. Riotte

1985-01-01

202

SAFETY STUDIES TO MEASURE EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS OF SPENT PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATION CHEMICALS USING WET AND DRY DECONTAMINATION METHODS  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford site in Eastern Washington is currently being decommissioned by Fluor Hanford. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes in PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions that include acids and sequestering agents. Aggressive chemicals are commonly used to remove transuranic contaminants from process equipment to allow disposal of the equipment as low level waste. Fluor's decontamination procedure involves application of chemical solutions as a spray on the contaminated surfaces, followed by a wipe-down with rags. Alternatively, a process of applying oxidizing Ce IV ions contained in a gel matrix and vacuuming a dry gel material is being evaluated. These processes effectively transfer the transuranic materials to rags or a gel matrix which is then packaged as TRU waste and disposed. Fluor is investigating plutonium decontamination chemicals as a result of concerns regarding the safety of chemical procedures following a fire at Rocky Flats in 2003. The fire at Rocky Flats occurred in a glovebox that had been treated with cerium nitrate, which is one of the decontamination chemicals that Fluor Hanford has proposed to use. Although the investigation of the fire was not conclusive as to cause, the reviewers noted that rags were found in the glovebox, suggesting that the combination of rags and chemicals may have contributed to the fire. Because of this underlying uncertainty, Fluor began an investigation into the potential for fire when using the chemicals and materials using wet disposition and dry disposition of the waste generated in the decontamination process and the storage conditions to which the waste drum would be exposed. The focus of this work has been to develop a disposal strategy that will provide a chemically stable waste form at expected Hanford waste storage temperatures. Hanford waste storage conditions are such that there is added heat to the containers from ambient conditions during storage especially during the summer months. Treatability tests under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) were used to assess the use of certain chemicals and wipes (wet method) and chemical-gel matrices (dry method) during the decontamination process. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes at PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial decontamination agents such as RadPro? , Glygel? and ASPIGEL 100?. As part of the treatability study, Fluor and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) personnel have evaluated the potential for self-heating and exothermic reactions in the residual decontamination materials. From these wet and dry method treatability studies, certain limiting conditions have been defined that will aid in assuring safe operations and waste packaging during the decommissioning and waste disposition process.

Hopkins, Andrea M.; Jackson, George W.; Minette, Michael J.; Ewalt, John R.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Scott, Paul A.; Jones, Susan A.; Scheele, Randall D.; Charboneau, Stacy L.

2005-10-12

203

Recent Developments in the Chemical Processing of Electrical Ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A variety of chemical methods of ceramic processing have been developed, which include solution liquid-mix methods, co-precipitation, and sol-gel processing. This paper reports on, the (i) precipitation of colloidal particles by controlled nucleation and ...

D. A. Payne

1988-01-01

204

Laser spectroscopy for studying chemical processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, various methods have been developed to observe and to influence the course of chemical reactions using laser radiation. By selectively increasing the translational, rotational, and vibrational energies and by controlling the relative orientation of the reaction partners with tunable infrared and UV lasers, direct insight can be gained into the molecular course of the breaking and re-forming

J. Wolfrum

1988-01-01

205

Generating operating procedures for chemical process plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operating procedure synthesis (OPS) has been used to generate plant operating procedures for chemical plants. However, the application of AI planning to this domain has been rarely considered, and when it has the scope of the system used has limited it to solving “toy” problems. This paper describes the application of state-of-the-art AI planning techniques to the generation of operating

Ruth Aylett; Gary Petley; Paul Chung; James Soutter; Andrew Rushton

1999-01-01

206

Chemical kinetics and modeling of combustion processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical kinetic modeling is an important tool in the analysis of many combustion systems. The use of detailed kinetic models in the interpretation of fundamental kinetics experiments in shock tubes and plug flow reactors is widespread. Recently these models, coupled with fluid mechanical models, have become valuable in helping to understand complex phenomena in practical combustion devices. This study reviews

C. K. Westbrook; F. L. Dryer

1981-01-01

207

A framework for chemical plant safety assessment under uncertainty.  

SciTech Connect

We construct a framework for assessing the risk that the uncertainty in the plant feed and physical parameters may mask the loss of a reaction product. To model the plant, we use a nonlinear, quasi-steady-state model with stochastic input and parameters. We compute the probability that more than a certain product amount is diverted, given the statistics of the uncertainty in the plant feed, in the values of the chemical parameters, and in the output measurement. The uncertainty in the physical parameters is based on the one provided by the recently developed concept of thermochemical tables. We use Monte Carlo methods to compute the probabilities, based on a Cauchy-theorem-like approach to avoid making anything but the safest asymptotic assumptions, as well as to avoid the excessive noise in the region of low-probability events.

Zeng, X.; Anitescu, M.; Pereira, C.; Regalbuto, M.

2009-03-01

208

Program Prepares Students for Chemical-Processing Careers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a chemical-processing program at Saginaw Career Complex in Saginaw, Michigan. The program is preparing 42 11th- and 12th-graders to work as chemical-processing operators or technicians by the time they graduate from high school. It was developed in partnership with the Saginaw Career Complex--one of 51 centers in the state…

Jorgensen, Haley

2005-01-01

209

Validating a safety climate model in metal processing industries: a replication study.  

PubMed

This paper attempts to replicate a safety climate model originally tested in Australia to assess its applicability in a different context: namely, across production workers in 22 medium-sized metal processing organizations in Austria. The model postulates that safety knowledge and safety motivation mediate the relation between safety climate on the one hand and safety compliance and participation on the other. Self-report data from 1075 employees were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results of the replication study largely confirmed the original safety climate model. However, in addition to indirect effects, direct links between safety climate and actual safety behavior were found. PMID:23498708

Braunger, Paul; Frank, Hermann; Korunka, Christian; Lueger, Manfred; Kubicek, Bettina

2013-01-01

210

Learning from the application of nuclear probabilistic safety assessment to the chemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the new approach of risk analysis established by the French Ministry of the Environment and develops the benefits of applying nuclear probabilistic safety assessment approaches to the chemical industry.In the aftermath of the AZF disaster in Toulouse on 21 September 2001, a new law was proposed by the French government asking for the investigation of all representative

Cyril Charvet; Jean-Luc Chambon; François Corenwinder; Jérôme Taveau

2011-01-01

211

A new database for food safety: EDID (Endocrine disrupting chemicals - Diet Interaction Database)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Diet is a significant source of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC); health risks cannot be excluded, in particular long-term effects in vulnerable groups such as children. However, food safety assessment must also consider the effects of natural food components modu- lating the endocrine system. The scientific evidence on the complex interactions between EDC and food components is still

Francesca Baldi; Alberto Mantovani

2008-01-01

212

Modeling chemical process systems via neural computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of neural nets for modeling nonlinear chemical systems is discussed. Three cases are considered: a steady-state reactor, a dynamic pH stirred tank system, and interpretation of biosensor data. In all cases, a back-propagation net is used successfully to model the system. One advantage of neural nets is that they are inherently parallel and, as a result, can solve

Naveen V. Bhat; Peter A. Minderman; Thomas McAvoy; Nom Sun Wang

1990-01-01

213

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SPILL MONITORING: SAFETY HANDBOOK AND CHEMICAL HAZARD GUIDE. PART B - CHEMICAL DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

This two-part document is intended to serve as a guide to the hazards associated with a broad range of chemical compounds which may be encountered in hazardous materials spills. The document addresses 655 chemicals identified on the basis of known toxicity or spill history and de...

214

Persuasive technologies in the interface of a high-risk chemical plant production processes management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how persuasive technologies have been introduced in the interface (HCI) of a production processes management\\u000a system (PPMS) adopted into a high-risk chemical plant, making the operators’ tasks safer and less afflicted by human errors.\\u000a The hypothesis that persuasive technologies can contribute to improve safety was empirically confirmed in a study carried\\u000a out on a real PPMS. It

Fabiana Vernero; Roberto Montanari

2010-01-01

215

Work and safety, 1-98: Chemical abstracts, health and safety science abstracts  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to introduce safety-at-work experts to the main sources, harmful effects on health and biological monitoring of occupational exposure to the toxic metals lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, chromium and nickel. There are various sources of exposure to these metals in the metallurgical, machine and metal industry, electrical engineering industry, construction, motor and aviation industry, as well as in other industries, and to a small extent also in the organic industry. Special emphasis is given to the basic principles of biological monitoring and its advantages in relation to the monitoring of the working environment from the standpoint of health protection of workers. Characteristic biological indicators of exposure are critically evaluated for each metal. Biological exposure indices of the chosen biological indicators of exposure are determined, the implementation of which, according to the present knowledge and experience, should not cause health impairment to the workers exposed.

NONE

1998-04-01

216

Chemical Process Design: An Integrated Teaching Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews a one-semester senior plant design/laboratory course, focusing on course structure, student projects, laboratory assignments, and course evaluation. Includes discussion of laboratory exercises related to process waste water and sludge. (SK)

Debelak, Kenneth A.; Roth, John A.

1982-01-01

217

Laser/plasma chemical processing of substrates  

DOEpatents

A process for the modification of substrate surfaces is described, wherein etching or deposition at a surface occurs only in the presence of both reactive species and a directed beam of coherent light.

Gee, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Hargis, Jr., Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01

218

Chemical Processing monthly report, April 1985  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the PUREX/UO3 operations, 151 tones of N reactor fuel were charged to the PUREX dissolvers in April 1985, bringing the Fiscal Year-to-Date (FYTD) total to 667, which is now only 61 tones behind the 1200 tone recovery plan. One hundred thirty-nine tonnes of UO3 were shipped to the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), bringing the FYTD total to 644 tones. Twenty-two percent of the PUO2 shipments were achieved, bringing the cumulative shipments to 52%. In the plutonium finishing (PF) plant/nuclear materials management program, 10% of plutonium nitrate was loaded out. Total Operating Efficiency for Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) was 53% for the month, compared to a goal of 70%. Remote Mechanical C (RMC) metal line reactivation activities are 95% complete. Terminal clean out operations are about one month behind schedule, due to diversion of personnel to the RMC reactivation effort. Within the area of decontamination and decommissioning activities, removal of the Sorter/Chopper hood in 232-Z Building was completed. Design on B-339, vault safety and inventory system was completed on schedule.

1985-04-01

219

Chemical Processing monthly report, April 1985  

SciTech Connect

In the PUREX/UO/sub 3/ operations, 151 tonnes of N reactor fuel were charged to the PUREX dissolvers in April 1985, bringing the Fiscal Year-to-Date (FYTD) total to 667, which is now only 61 tonnes behind the 1200 tonne recovery plan. 139 tonnes of UO/sub 3/ were shipped to the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), bringing the FYTD total to 644 tonnes. 22% of the PUO/sub 2/ shipments were achieved, bringing the cumulative shipments to 52%. In the plutonium finishing (PF) plant/nuclear materials management program, 10% of plutonium nitrate was loaded out. Total Operating Efficiency for Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) was 53% for the month, compared to a goal of 70%. Remote Mechanical C (RMC) metal line reactivation activities are 95% complete. Terminal clean out operations are about one month behind schedule, due to diversion of personnel to the RMC reactivation effort. Within the area of decontamination and decommissioning activities, removal of the Sorter/Chopper hood in 232-Z Building was completed. Design on B-339, vault safety and inventory system was completed on schedule.

Not Available

1985-04-01

220

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory--Chemical Management: A Method for Waste Reduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses methods for reducing or eliminating waste disposal problems in the chemistry laboratory, considering both economic and environmental aspects of the problems. Proposes inventory control, shared use, solvent recycling, zero effluent, and various means of disposing of chemicals. (JM)

Pine, Stanley H.

1984-01-01

221

Chemical Engineering: Process Dynamics and Controls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the OpenCourseWare (OCW) initiative, the University of Michigan is offering this course as part of their generous contributions to the OCW archive. The course uses an open textbook, and all of the materials here were written by senior chemical engineering students, and subsequently reviewed by graduate students and faculty associated with the course. Visitors can click on one of four sections here: "Overview", "Highlights", "Materials", and "Sessions". The "Overview" provides a bit of introduction to how the course is structured, and "Highlights" talks a bit about the open textbook used in the course. The site has some great bells-and-whistles, including a "Live Study Group" area. In the "Sessions" area visitors can listen and watch all of the lectures from the course, and they can also download them for future reference.

222

The EPRI DFDX Chemical Decontamination Process  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning of retired nuclear plants and components demands the proper management of the process, both for economic reasons and for retaining public confidence in the continued use of nuclear power for electricity generation. The cost and ease of management of radioactively contaminated components can be greatly assisted by the application of decontamination technology. EPRI initiated a program of research and development work in collaboration with Bradtec, which has led to the ''EPRI DFD'' (Decontamination for Decommissioning) Process. The Process has been patented and licensed to six companies worldwide. The purpose of this process is to achieve efficient removal of radioactivity with minimum waste from retired nuclear components and plant systems. The process uses dilute fluoroboric acid with controlled oxidation potential. By removing all the outer scale and a thin layer of base metal from the surfaces, contamination can in many cases be reduced below the levels required to allow clearance (free-release) or recycle to form new components for the nuclear industry. This reduces the need for on-site storage or burial of large amounts of contaminated material at low level radioactive disposal facilities. An additional benefit is that residual radiation fields can be reduced by a large factor, which reduces the worker radiation exposure associated with decommissioning. Furthermore, this dose rate reduction improves the viability of early dismantlement following plant closure, as opposed to waiting for a prolonged period for radioactive decay to occur. The results obtained in early applications of the EPRI DFD process demonstrated the benefits of taking this approach (reference 1).

Bushart, S.; Wood, C. J.; Bradbury, D.; Elder, G.

2003-02-25

223

Chemical interaction matrix between reagents in a Purex based process  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is the responsible entity for the disposal of the United States excess weapons grade plutonium. DOE selected a PUREX-based process to convert plutonium to low-enriched mixed oxide fuel for use in commercial nuclear power plants. To initiate this process in the United States, a Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) is under construction and will be operated by Shaw AREVA MOX Services at the Savannah River Site. This facility will be licensed and regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A PUREX process, similar to the one used at La Hague, France, will purify plutonium feedstock through solvent extraction. MFFF employs two major process operations to manufacture MOX fuel assemblies: (1) the Aqueous Polishing (AP) process to remove gallium and other impurities from plutonium feedstock and (2) the MOX fuel fabrication process (MP), which processes the oxides into pellets and manufactures the MOX fuel assemblies. The AP process consists of three major steps, dissolution, purification, and conversion, and is the center of the primary chemical processing. A study of process hazards controls has been initiated that will provide knowledge and protection against the chemical risks associated from mixing of reagents over the life time of the process. This paper presents a comprehensive chemical interaction matrix evaluation for the reagents used in the PUREX-based process. Chemical interaction matrix supplements the process conditions by providing a checklist of any potential inadvertent chemical reactions that may take place. It also identifies the chemical compatibility/incompatibility of the reagents if mixed by failure of operations or equipment within the process itself or mixed inadvertently by a technician in the laboratories. (aut0010ho.

Brahman, R.K.; Hennessy, W.P. [Shaw AREVA MOX Services, LLC (United States); Paviet-Hartmann, P. [Idaho State University/Idaho National Laboratory (United States)

2008-07-01

224

Modeling chemical and physical processes of wood and biomass pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review reports the state of the art in modeling chemical and physical processes of wood and biomass pyrolysis. Chemical kinetics are critically discussed in relation to primary reactions, described by one- and multi-component (or one- and multi-stage) mechanisms, and secondary reactions of tar cracking and polymerization. A mention is also made of distributed activation energy models and detailed mechanisms

Colomba Di Blasi

2008-01-01

225

Chemical vapor deposition and infiltration processes of carbon materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) processes of carbon materials are reviewed starting from the historical aspects and including the latest developments in the preparation of C\\/C composites. Our presentation is based on an analysis of the different types of reactors, of the composite materials with different types of pyrocarbon as matrices and a comparison

P Delhaes

2002-01-01

226

An analysis of cost improvement in chemical process technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost improvement -- sometimes called the learning curve or progress curve -- plays a crucial role in the competitiveness of the US chemical industry. More rapid cost improvement for a product results in expanding market share and larger profits. Expectations of rapid cost improvement motivate companies to invest heavily in the development and introduction of new chemical products and processes,

Merrow

1989-01-01

227

Safety Analyses for Reprocessing and Waste Processing. Summarizing Interim Report. Pt. 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presentation of an incident analysis of process steps of the RP, simplified considerations concerning safety, and safety analyses of the storage and solidification facilities of the RP. A release tree method is developed and tested. An incident analysis o...

1983-01-01

228

Microstructuring and wafering of silicon with laser chemical processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser processing is an important application for fabrication of silicon solar cells, e.g. buried contacts, laser fired contacts or edge isolation. At Fraunhofer ISE a liquid-jet guided laser is used for Laser Chemical Processing (LCP). Both the fundamentals of laser material ablation with this system and the application of various processes for solar cell fabrication are investigated. The applications are

Sybille Hopman; Andreas Fell; Kuno Mayer; Andreas Rodofili; Filip Granek

2010-01-01

229

Chemical Processing Department monthly report, April 1961  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pu nitrate production was above revised forecast. 141 kCi Sr-90 was isolated in Purex and stored for decay; to date, 1190 kCi has been recovered from Purex wastes. Casks of Cs-137 and Sr-90 were turned over to AEC for ORNL. Production of UOâ, Pu metal buttons, and weapon component fabrication exceeded forecasts. Purex processing continued until April 14. The Purex

Reinker

1961-01-01

230

Chemical Process Controller Design Using Genetic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we show that genetic programming (GP) can be used to design discrete-time dynamic controllers that offer similar performance to standard Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controllers for a specific class of control objectives. Two processes are used as examples: an Auto-Regressive eXogeneous (ARX) system and a simulated non-linear Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR). Additionally, some of the generalisation

Dominic Searson; Mark Willis; Gary Montague

1998-01-01

231

Risk-based process safety assessment and control measures design for offshore process facilities.  

PubMed

Process operation is the most hazardous activity next to the transportation and drilling operation on an offshore oil and gas (OOG) platform. Past experiences of onshore and offshore oil and gas activities have revealed that a small mis-happening in the process operation might escalate to a catastrophe. This is of especial concern in the OOG platform due to the limited space and compact geometry of the process area, less ventilation, and difficult escape routes. On an OOG platform, each extra control measure, which is implemented, not only occupies space on the platform and increases congestion but also adds extra load to the platform. Eventualities in the OOG platform process operation can be avoided through incorporating the appropriate control measures at the early design stage. In this paper, the authors describe a methodology for risk-based process safety decision making for OOG activities. The methodology is applied to various offshore process units, that is, the compressor, separators, flash drum and driers of an OOG platform. Based on the risk potential, appropriate safety measures are designed for each unit. This paper also illustrates that implementation of the designed safety measures reduces the high Fatal accident rate (FAR) values to an acceptable level. PMID:12141993

Khan, Faisal I; Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir

2002-09-01

232

CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR FUGITIVE VOC EMISSIONS FROM CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

This handbook contains information concerning volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the synthetic organic chemicals manufacturing industry (SOCMI), petroleum refineries, on-shore natural gas processing plants, polymer manufacturing plants, benzene from particular equipme...

233

Chemical etching for automatic processing of integrated circuits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical etching for automatic processing of integrated circuits is discussed. The wafer carrier and loading from a receiving air track into automatic furnaces and unloading onto a sending air track are included.

Kennedy, B. W.

1981-01-01

234

Interdisciplinary process improvement for enhancing blood transfusion safety.  

PubMed

We describe a multipronged, multidisciplinary effort to improve the safety of blood transfusion in our hospital. System-wide practices related to the ordering, delivery, and transfusion of blood products were addressed including: (1) appropriate selection of patients and utilization of blood, (2) accurate blood product labeling and tracking, (3) reliable transportation of blood products between the transfusion service laboratory and the bedside, (4) electronic verification of patients and products at the point of transfusion, and (5) documentation of transfusion events in the patient's medical record. By implementing new technologies and focusing LEAN process improvement techniques on the preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical phases of the transfusion cycle, we have been able to significantly reduce the risk of transfusion error in our patient population. PMID:20364648

LaRocco, Mark; Brient, Kathy

2010-01-01

235

STATISTICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR AUTOMOTIVE SAFETY SYSTE MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of software in general and safety systems in particular increases rapidly in the automotive industry. T he trend is that functionality is decentralized, so new safety functions are distributed to common shared computer hard- ware, sensors and actuators using central data buses. This paper overviews recent and future safety systems, and high- lights the big challenges for researchers

Fredrik Gustafsson

236

Solubilization of coal by chemical process  

DOEpatents

The invention involves exposing coal to an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, or ozone. It is preferable to maximize the surface area of the coal to accelerate oxidation; therefore, coal is broken and crushed into small pieces. The coal is then placed in an oxidizing solution for a sufficient period of time to render it susceptible to solubilization. Exposure to oxidizing agent at 30/sup 0/C for about two days gives good results, although these parameters are not critical. After oxidation, the treated coal is placed in a base solution. Since the original studies were aimed at determining if certain microorganisms could solubilize coal after oxidation pretreatment, the base solutions used for study were organic buffer solutions ordinarily used in biological studies. Although most tests were done with such bases, it was found that a simple sodium hydroxide solution was also very effective, and therefore, it is believed that the critical factor is pH and not the identity of the base; thus, any base would be suitable for use in this solubilization process. The coal can be washed prior to exposure to the base to remove oxidizing agent that might tend to lower the pH of the solubilizing solution. Shaking the coal and base solution can enhance the solubilization process, although it isn't necessary. After two days exposure under ambient conditions, coal is significantly solubilized and can be separated from the solute by centrifugation and filtration.

Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

1986-10-31

237

Evaluation of Chemical Coating Processes for AXAF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need existed at MSFC for the development and fabrication of radioisotope calibration sources of cadmium 109 and iron 55 isotopes. This was in urgent response to the AXA-F program. Several issues persisted in creating manufacturing difficulties for the supplier. In order to meet the MSFC requirements very stringent control needed to be maintained for the coating quality, specific activity and thickness. Due to the difficulties in providing the precisely controlled devices for testing, the delivery of the sources was seriously delayed. It became imperative that these fabrication issues be resolved to avoid further delays in this AXA-F observatory key component. The objectives are: 1) Research and provide expert advice on coating materials and procedures. 2) Research and recommend solutions to problems that have been experienced with the coating process. 3) Provide recommendations on the selection and preparation of substrates. 4) Provide consultation on the actual coating process including the results of the qualification and acceptance test programs. 5) Perform independent tests at UAH or MSFC as necessary.

Engelhaupt, Darell; Ramsey, Brian; Mendrek, Mitchell

1998-01-01

238

Safety Issues of HG and PB as IFE Target Materials: Radiological Versus Chemical Toxicity  

SciTech Connect

We have performed a safety assessment of mercury and lead as possible hohlraum materials for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) targets, including for the first time a comparative analysis of the radiological and toxicological consequences of an accidental release. In order to calculate accident doses to the public, we have distinguished between accidents at the target fabrication facility and accidents at other areas of the power plant. Regarding the chemical toxicity assessment, we have used the USDOE regulations to determine the maximum allowable release in order to protect the public from adverse health effects. Opposite to common belief, it has been found that the chemical safety requirements for these materials appear to be more stringent than the concentrations that would result in an acceptable radiological dose.

Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Cadwallader, L C; Moir, R W; Rio, G. D; Sanz, J

2002-11-11

239

Safety Issues of Hg and Pb as IFE Target Materials: Radiological Versus Chemical Toxicity  

SciTech Connect

We have performed a safety assessment of mercury and lead as possible hohlraum materials for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) targets, including for the first time a comparative analysis of the radiological and toxicological consequences of an accidental release. In order to calculate accident doses to the public, we have distinguished between accidents at the target fabrication facility and accidents at other areas of the power plant. Regarding the chemical toxicity assessment, we have used the U.S. DOE regulations to determine the maximum allowable release in order to protect the public from adverse health effects. Opposite to common belief, it has been found that the chemical safety requirements for these materials appear to be more stringent than the concentrations that would result in an acceptable radiological dose.

Reyes, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Latkowski, J.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Cadwallader, L.C. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States); Moir, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Gomez del Rio, J.; Sanz, J

2003-09-15

240

Chemical and physical processes in Tank 241-SY-101: A preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

Since 1942, chemical and radioactive waste have been stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. In March 1981 one of the double shell tanks, 241-SY-101 (called 101-SY), began venting large quantities of gas, primarily hydrogen and nitrous oxide. Because of the potential for explosion Westinghouse Hanford Company and the US Department of Energy realized the need for knowledge about the processes occurring in this tank that lead to generation of the gases. In June 1990, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory began assembling a Tank Waste Science Panel to develop a better understanding of the processes occurring the Tank 101-SY. This knowledge is necessary to provide a technically defensible basis for the safety analyses, which will allow the tank contents to be sampled, as well as for the future remediation of the tank and its contents. The Panel concluded that the data available on Tank 101-SY are insufficient to allow the critical chemical and physical processes giving rise to gas formation and release to be unambiguously identified. To provide the needed information the Panel recommends that Tank 101-SY by physically and chemically characterized as fully as possible and as expeditiously as safety considerations allow, and laboratory studies and modeling efforts be undertaken the chemical and physical processes involved in gas generation and release. Finally, the Panel recommends that no remediation steps be taken until there is a better understanding of the chemical and physical phenomena occurring in Tank 101-SY. Premature remediation steps may only serve to compound the problem. Furthermore, such steps may change the chemical and physical characteristics of the tank and prevent a true understanding of the phenomena involved. As a consequence, similar problems in other tanks on the site may not be adequately addressed. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1991-02-01

241

Microlenses with focal length controlled by chemical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of chemical processing on the optical properties of microlenses formed on a gelatin-sensitized layer was investigated. The gelatin is sensitized with tot'hema and eosin, irradiated with a Gaussian profile laser beam and subsequently chemically processed. Microlenses with a focal length of 400??m were obtained after alcohol processing. Additionally, focal lengths could be controlled by varying the alum concentration, and lenses with focal length up to 1.2?mm were obtained. The microlenses become stable after alum processing. Their optical properties remain unchanged.

Muric, B. D.; Panic, B. M.

2012-05-01

242

Establishing the level of safety concern for chemicals in food without the need for toxicity testing.  

PubMed

There is demand for methodologies to establish levels of safety concern associated with dietary exposures to chemicals for which no toxicological data are available. In such situations, the application of in silico methods appears promising. To make safety statement requires quantitative predictions of toxicological reference points such as no observed adverse effect level and carcinogenic potency for DNA-reacting chemicals. A decision tree (DT) has been developed to aid integrating exposure information and predicted toxicological reference points obtained with quantitative structure activity relationship ((Q)SAR) software and read across techniques. The predicted toxicological values are compared with exposure to obtain margins of exposure (MoE). The size of the MoE defines the level of safety concern and should account for a number of uncertainties such as the classical interspecies and inter-individual variability as well as others determined on a case by case basis. An analysis of the uncertainties of in silico approaches together with results from case studies suggest that establishing safety concern based on application of the DT is unlikely to be significantly more uncertain than based on experimental data. The DT makes a full use of all data available, ensuring an adequate degree of conservatism. It can be used when fast decision making is required. PMID:24012706

Schilter, Benoît; Benigni, Romualdo; Boobis, Alan; Chiodini, Alessandro; Cockburn, Andrew; Cronin, Mark T D; Lo Piparo, Elena; Modi, Sandeep; Thiel, Anette; Worth, Andrew

2014-03-01

243

Food safety management systems performance in African food processing companies: a review of deficiencies and possible improvement strategies.  

PubMed

This study seeks to provide insight into current deficiencies in food safety management systems (FSMS) in African food-processing companies and to identify possible strategies for improvement so as to contribute to African countries' efforts to provide safe food to both local and international markets. This study found that most African food products had high microbiological and chemical contamination levels exceeding the set (legal) limits. Relative to industrialized countries, the study identified various deficiencies at government, sector/branch, retail and company levels which affect performance of FSMS in Africa. For instance, very few companies (except exporting and large companies) have implemented HACCP and ISO 22000:2005. Various measures were proposed to be taken at government (e.g. construction of risk-based legislative frameworks, strengthening of food safety authorities, recommend use of ISO 22000:2005, and consumers' food safety training), branch/sector (e.g. sector-specific guidelines and third-party certification), retail (develop stringent certification standards and impose product specifications) and company levels (improving hygiene, strict raw material control, production process efficacy, and enhancing monitoring systems, assurance activities and supportive administrative structures). By working on those four levels, FSMS of African food-processing companies could be better designed and tailored towards their production processes and specific needs to ensure food safety. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24425418

Kussaga, Jamal B; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Tiisekwa, Bendantunguka Pm; Luning, Pieternel A

2014-08-01

244

Processes of technology assessment: The National Transportation Safety Board  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The functions and operations of the Safety Board as related to technology assessment are described, and a brief history of the Safety Board is given. Recommendations made for safety in all areas of transportation and the actions taken are listed. Although accident investigation is an important aspect of NTSB's activity, it is felt that the greatest contribution is in pressing for development of better accident prevention programs. Efforts of the Safety Board in changing transportation technology to improve safety and prevent accidents are illustrated.

Weiss, E.

1972-01-01

245

Chemically reduced excess sludge production in the activated sludge process.  

PubMed

Excess sludge production from wastewater biological treatment process is highly, and the disposal of excess sludge will be forbidden in a near future, thus increased attention has been turned to look into potential technology for sludge reduction. Recently, some novel sludge reduction techniques have been developed based on chemical oxidation and metabolic uncoupling. This paper attempts to review those chemical-assisted sludge reduction processes, including sludge alkaline-thermal treatment, activated sludge-ozonation process, chlorination-combined activated sludge process, sludge reduction by metabolic uncouplers and high dissolved oxygen activated sludge process. In these combined activated sludge processes, excess sludge production can be reduced up to 100% without significant effect on process efficiency and stability. This paper would be useful when one is looking for appropriate environmentally and economically acceptable solutions for reducing or minimizing excess sludge production from wastewater biological treatment process. PMID:12656222

Liu, Yu

2003-01-01

246

Laser cutting: industrial relevance, process optimization, and laser safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to other technological relevant laser machining processes, up to now laser cutting is the application most frequently used. With respect to the large amount of possible fields of application and the variety of different materials that can be machined, this technology has reached a stable position within the world market of material processing. Reachable machining quality for laser beam cutting is influenced by various laser and process parameters. Process integrated quality techniques have to be applied to ensure high-quality products and a cost effective use of the laser manufacturing plant. Therefore, rugged and versatile online process monitoring techniques at an affordable price would be desirable. Methods for the characterization of single plant components (e.g. laser source and optical path) have to be substituted by an omnivalent control system, capable of process data acquisition and analysis as well as the automatic adaptation of machining and laser parameters to changes in process and ambient conditions. At the Laser Zentrum Hannover eV, locally highly resolved thermographic measurements of the temperature distribution within the processing zone using cost effective measuring devices are performed. Characteristic values for cutting quality and plunge control as well as for the optimization of the surface roughness at the cutting edges can be deducted from the spatial distribution of the temperature field and the measured temperature gradients. Main influencing parameters on the temperature characteristic within the cutting zone are the laser beam intensity and pulse duration in pulse operation mode. For continuous operation mode, the temperature distribution is mainly determined by the laser output power related to the cutting velocity. With higher cutting velocities temperatures at the cutting front increase, reaching their maximum at the optimum cutting velocity. Here absorption of the incident laser radiation is drastically increased due to the angle between the normal of the cutting front and the laser beam axis. Beneath process optimization and control further work is focused on the characterization of particulate and gaseous laser generated air contaminants and adequate safety precautions like exhaust and filter systems.

Haferkamp, Heinz; Goede, Martin; von Busse, Alexander; Thuerk, Oliver

1998-09-01

247

Chemical Processes and Thresholds in Hawaiin Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hawaiian Islands are a useful natural laboratory for studying soil development particularly those that can be understood using a matrix of chonosequences and climosequences. The islands are formed over a stationary mantle plume and then are carried to the northwest on the Pacific Plate. Thus the islands get older with distance from the hotspot; Kauai has remnant shield surfaces whose lavas date to about 4,000 ky. It is possible to sample soils that are developing on different age flows ranging from a few hundred years to a few million years. Additionally, individual volcanoes are impacted by differing amounts of rainfall depending on location with respect to the northeasterly trade winds. Whereas rainfall over the open ocean near Hawaii is about 700 mm, rainfall over the Islands ranges from 150 to 11,000 mm. Hawaii is minimally impacted by mineral aerosol additions compared to continental areas and this has a significant impact on soil development. More than 100 soil profiles have been sampled along the Hawaii time-climate matrix with some surprising results. For example, in arid soils might be expected to develop smectite clays, but they are rich in halloysite and allophane. Importantly, these same soils show a trend from high-Mg calcite to dolomite as carbonates accumulate within the profiles - this is one of the first documented occurrences of pedogenic dolomite that is not associated with high levels of salts. It appears that lack of smectite formation lowers the incorporation of Mg into silicate clays and increases its incorporation into carbonates. This is an unusual pedogenic process that seems to be enhanced by the lack of substantial amounts of mica in the basalt derived soils. The only mica is in surface horizons that receive dust derived from distant continents. Without mica there is no template to allow smectite clay formation under the rapid wetting and drying regimes encountered in the arid soils. At the same time that halloysite is forming, iron and aluminum oxides tend to move rapidly from poorly crystalline to crystalline forms, which in turn leads to formation of Oxisols under an arid climate regimes - Torrox formation without substantial climate change. By contrast, soils forming in humid environments along the same time trajectory take much longer to go through the same transformations (allophane to halloysite; poorly crystalline goethite to well crystallized goethite; poorly crystalline gibbsite to well crystallized gibbsite). The longer time required for transformation is related to wet rather than wet- dry cycles and interference by organic carbon in the transformation process. Thus whereas it takes about 400,000 years to form a Torrox, it takes more than three times that long to form a humid-zone Oxisol. In Hawaii we have identified several important thresholds in soil properties that have universal applicability: 1. the shift from udic to perudic soil moisture regime is accompanied by reduction related changes in soil properties particularly accumulation of organic matter and loss of iron-bound phosphorus; 2. shift from ustic to udic moisture leads to rapid loss of nutrients with far reaching implications for soil exchange properties and prehistoric land use, 3. the shift from from ustic to aridic soil conditions leads to greater losses of plant nutrients (bases, P, Si) due to greater wind erosion. Based on archeological evidence, it is clear that Polynesians made land-use decisions that incorporated observations of the soil properties associated with these thresholds.

Chadwick, O.

2007-12-01

248

Chemical mass transfer in magmatic processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical examples of the approach described in Part I of this series (Ghiorso, 1985) are presented in this paper. These examples include the calculation of the compositions and proportions of liquid and solid phases produced during (1) the equilibrium crystallization of a basaltic andesite at 1 bar, (2) the fractional crystallization of an olivine tholeiite at 1 bar and elevated pressures, (3) the fractional and equilibrium crystallization of an olivine boninite at 1 bar, and (4) the (a) isothermal and (b) isenthalpic assimilation of olivine (Fo90) into a liquid/solid assemblage of quartz dioritic composition at ˜1,125° C and 3 kbars. The numerical results on the crystallization of the basaltic andesite are verified by comparison with experimental data while those calculations performed using olivine tholeiitic and olivine boninitic compositions are favorably compared against whole rock and mineral analytical data and petrographic and field observations. In each of the examples presented, the heat effects associated with the modelled process are calculated (e.g. heat of crystallization, heat of assimilation), and free energies of crystallization are examined as a function of the degree of mineral supersaturation. The former quantities are on the order of 173 cal/grm for the cooling and fractional crystallization of an olivine tholeiite to a rhyolitic residuum (corresponding to a 400° C temperature interval). The latter represents an important petrological parameter, in that it quantifies the driving force for the rate of crystal growth and rate of nucleation in magmatic systems. Calculated free energies of crystallization are small (on the order of hundreds of calories per mole per 25° C of undercooling) which indicates that the kinetics of crystallization in magmatic systems are affinity controlled. Melt oxygen fugacity and the degree of oxygen metasomatism play a major role in controlling the fractionation trends produced from crystallizing basaltic liquids. Calculations suggest that in order to generate a silica rich residuum and the characteristic iron enrichment trend during the fractional crystallization of a tholeiitic basalt, the magma must crystallize esentially along f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } buffer. This buffered state can be maintained by exchange of oxygen (via hydrogen diffusion) between the magma and the surrounding country rocks or by magmatic oxidation-reduction equilibria. Additional calculations indicate the possibility that oxygen exchange may be unnecessary if the magma contains sufficient sulfur to maintain the system along an S2/SO2 oxygen buffer during the initial stages of crystallization.

Ghiorso, Mark S.; Carmichael, Ian S. E.

1985-07-01

249

Sealed-bladdered chemical processing method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus which enables a complete multi-stepped chemical treatment process to occur within a single, sealed-bladdered vessel 31. The entire chemical process occurs without interruption of the sealed-bladdered vessel 31 such as opening the sealed-bladdered vessel 31 between various steps of the process. The sealed-bladdered vessel 31 is loaded with a batch to be dissolved, treated, decanted, rinsed and/or dried. A pressure filtration step may also occur. The self-contained chemical processing apparatus 32 contains a sealed-bladder 32, a fluid pump 34, a reservoir 20, a compressed gas inlet, a vacuum pump 24, and a cold trap 23 as well as the associated piping 33, numerous valves 21,22,25,26,29,30,35,36 and other controls associated with such an apparatus. The claimed invention allows for dissolution and/or chemical treatment without the operator of the self-contained chemical processing apparatus 38 coming into contact with any of the process materials.

Harless, D. Phillip (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01

250

Making the business case for process safety using value-at-risk concepts.  

PubMed

An increasing emphasis on chemical process safety over the last two decades has led to the development and application of powerful risk assessment tools. Hazard analysis and risk evaluation techniques have developed to the point where quantitatively meaningful risks can be calculated for processes and plants. However, the results are typically presented in semi-quantitative "ranked list" or "categorical matrix" formats, which are certainly useful but not optimal for making business decisions. A relatively new technique for performing valuation under uncertainty, value at risk (VaR), has been developed in the financial world. VaR is a method of evaluating the probability of a gain or loss by a complex venture, by examining the stochastic behavior of its components. We believe that combining quantitative risk assessment techniques with VaR concepts will bridge the gap between engineers and scientists who determine process risk and business leaders and policy makers who evaluate, manage, or regulate risk. We present a few basic examples of the application of VaR to hazard analysis in the chemical process industry. PMID:15518960

Fang, Jayming S; Ford, David M; Mannan, M Sam

2004-11-11

251

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Chemical Process Technical Operators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is intended for workforce preparation program providers, details the Illinois Occupational Skill Standards for programs preparing students for employment as chemical process technical operators. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and credentialing, the process

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

252

Identification of a chemical process reactor using soft computing techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the area of identification and control of nonlinear dynamical systems. Since chemical processes are getting more complex and complicated, the need of schemes that can improve process operations is highly demanded. ANNs are capable of learning from examples, perform non-linear mappings, and have a special capacity to approximate the

Heba Al-Hiary; Malik Braik; Alaa Sheta; Aladdin Ayesh

2008-01-01

253

An algorithm for scheduling a chemical processing tank line  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model and an algorithm for scheduling a system in which parts are processed through a chemical processing tank line. The tank line is equipped with one piece of material-handling equipment. The tank line is modelled with a mixed integer linear programming formulation. The formulation is then used to develop a heuristic algorithm. The algorithm generates the

WENWEI SONG; ZELDA B. ZABINSKY; RICHARD L. STORCH

1993-01-01

254

Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

Hoseney, R. Carl

1984-01-01

255

Landmine detection and localization using chemical sensor array processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop methods for automatic detection and localization of landmines using chemical sensor arrays and statistical signal processing techniques. The transport of explosive vapors emanating from buried landmines is modeled as a diffusion process in a two-layered system consisting of ground and air. Measurement and statistical models are then obtained from the associated concentration distribution. We derive two detectors (the

Aleksandar Jeremic; Arye Nehorai

2000-01-01

256

Sparse matrix methods for chemical process separation calculations on supercomputers  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many complex chemical processes, multistage, multicornponent separation calculations dominate the computation time in a plantwide simulation. This paper focuses on using the frontal method on supercomputers to solve the large, sparse linear equation systems arising in process separation calculations. The motivation is that the frontal method takes advantage of vector computers by treating parts of the sparse matrix asfdl

Stephen E. Zitney

1992-01-01

257

Computerized Aid Improves Safety Decision Process for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence  

PubMed Central

A computerized safety decision aid was developed and tested with Spanish or English-speaking abused women in shelters or domestic violence (DV) support groups (n = 90). The decision aid provides feedback about risk for lethal violence, options for safety, assistance with setting priorities for safety, and a safety plan personalized to the user. Women reported that the decision aid was useful and provided much-needed privacy for making safety decisions. The majority (69%) reported severe to extreme danger in their relationship as scored by Danger Assessment (DA); only 60% reported having made a safety plan. After using the safety decision aid, the women felt more supported in their decision (p = .012) and had less total decisional conflict (p = .014). The study demonstrated that a computerized safety decision aid improved the safety planning process, as demonstrated by reduced decisional conflict after only one use in a sample of abused women.

Glass, Nancy; Eden, Karen B.; Bloom, Tina; Perrin, Nancy

2011-01-01

258

Computerized aid improves safety decision process for survivors of intimate partner violence.  

PubMed

A computerized safety decision aid was developed and tested with Spanish or English-speaking abused women in shelters or domestic violence (DV) support groups (n = 90). The decision aid provides feedback about risk for lethal violence, options for safety, assistance with setting priorities for safety, and a safety plan personalized to the user. Women reported that the decision aid was useful and provided much-needed privacy for making safety decisions. The majority (69%) reported severe to extreme danger in their relationship as scored by Danger Assessment (DA); only 60% reported having made a safety plan. After using the safety decision aid, the women felt more supported in their decision (p = .012) and had less total decisional conflict (p = .014). The study demonstrated that a computerized safety decision aid improved the safety planning process, as demonstrated by reduced decisional conflict after only one use in a sample of abused women. PMID:20040709

Glass, Nancy; Eden, Karen B; Bloom, Tina; Perrin, Nancy

2010-11-01

259

Assessment of aircraft impact probabilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility of an aircraft crash into a facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The ICPP is part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Based on the data used in this study, an air crash into any single facility at the ICPP is incredible. An air crash into aggregate areas incorporating the following is extremely unlikely: (1) ICPP radiological materials storage facilities, (2) ICPP major processing facilities, and (3) the ICPP land surface area, which excludes buildings. According to Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company safety analysis procedures, if the probability of a radiological release event is determined to be incredible, no further review is required. Therefore, an aircraft crash scenario is not required in the safety analysis for a single facility but should be discussed relative to the ICPP aggregate areas.

Lee, L.G.; Mines, J.M.; Webb, B.B.

1994-06-01

260

Use of process hazard analysis to control chemical process hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

One objective of this project was to demonstrate how the PrHA could satisfy OSHA`s requirements. OSHA requires that the PrHA address: the hazards of the process; the identification of any previous incident which had a likely potential for catastrophic consequences in the workplace; engineering and administrative controls applicable to the hazards and their interrelationships; consequences of failure of engineering and

Piatt

1994-01-01

261

78 FR 32010 - Pipeline Safety: Public Workshop on Integrity Verification Process  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...concept of ``Integrity Verification Process.'' The Integrity Verification Process shares similar characteristics with fitness for service processes. At this workshop, the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, the National...

2013-05-28

262

Chemical industrial wastewater treated by combined biological and chemical oxidation process.  

PubMed

Wastewaters from phenol and rubber synthesis were treated by the activated sludge process in a large-scale chemical factory in Shanghai, but the final effluent quality cannot conform with the local discharge limit without using river water for dilution. Therefore, this chemical factory had to upgrade its wastewater treatment plant. To fully use the present buildings and equipment during upgrading of the chemical factory's wastewater treatment plant and to save operation costs, a sequential biological pre-treatement, chemical oxidation, and biological post-treatment (or BCB for short) process had been proposed and investigated in a pilot trial. The pilot trial results showed that about 80% COD in the chemical wastewater could be removed through anoxic and aerobic degradation in the biological pre-treatement section, and the residual COD in the effluent of the biological pre-treatment section belongs to refractory chemicals which cannot be removed by the normal biological process. The refractory chemicals were partial oxidized using Fenton's reagent in the chemical oxidation section to improve their biodegradability; subsequently the wastewater was treated by the SBR process in the biological post-treatment section. The final effluent COD reached the first grade discharge limit (<100 mg l(-1)) of Chinese Notational Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996) even if without using any dilution water. Compared with the original dilution and biological process, the operation cost of the BCB process increased by about 0.5 yuan (RMB) per cubic metre wastewater, but about 1,240,000 m(3) a(-1) dilution water could be saved and the COD emission could be cut down by 112 tonne each year. PMID:19273902

Guomin, Cao; Guoping, Yang; Mei, Sheng; Yongjian, Wang

2009-01-01

263

THE ACQUISITION AND APPLICATION OF ABSORPTION, DISTRIBUTION, METABOLISM, AND EXCRETION (ADME) DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A multi-sector international group of government, academic, and industry scientists has developed a proposal for an improved testing scheme for assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. Incorporation of pharmacokinetic studies describing the absorption, distribution, me...

264

Chemical oxidation kinetics of pyrite in bioleaching processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bio-oxidation experiments with Leptospirillum bacteria were used to determine the chemical oxidation kinetics of pyrite in acidic ferric sulphate solutions (0.1–0.2 M) at 30°C and pH 1.6. The proposed method is applicable because the oxidation of pyrite with Leptospirillum bacteria consists of two sub-processes: (i) Pyrite is chemically oxidized with ferric iron to sulphate and ferrous iron, (ii) Ferric iron

M Boon; J. J Heijnen

1998-01-01

265

Chemical and Crystallographic Events in the Caries Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical and crystallographic events associated with the caries process can be described based on the results from the following studies: (a) effects of carbonate, magnesium, fluoride, and strontium on the physico-chemical properties—lattice parameters, crystallinity (crystal size and strain); dissolution properties of synthetic apatites; (b) factors influencing the in vitro formation and transformation of DCPD, OCP, AP (Ca-deficient apatites), FAP,

R. Z. LeGeros

1990-01-01

266

Chemical, microbiological and sensory changes associated with fish sauce processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of sardine fermented fish sauce was replicated in the laboratory in order to study the chemical, microbiological\\u000a and sensory changes associated with the process. Fish sauce were produced by incubating mixtures of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) at different concentrations of sodium chloride and glucose at 37 °C for 57 days. Changes in chemical composition (moisture,\\u000a protein, fat contents), pH, total

Berna Kilinc; Sukran Cakli; Sebnem Tolasa; Tolga Dincer

2006-01-01

267

Individual differences in drivers' cognitive processing of road safety messages.  

PubMed

Using Gray and McNaughton's (2000) revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (r-RST), we examined the influence of personality on processing of words presented in gain-framed and loss-framed anti-speeding messages and how the processing biases associated with personality influenced message acceptance. The r-RST predicts that the nervous system regulates personality and that behaviour is dependent upon the activation of the behavioural activation system (BAS), activated by reward cues and the fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS), activated by punishment cues. According to r-RST, individuals differ in the sensitivities of their BAS and FFFS (i.e., weak to strong), which in turn leads to stable patterns of behaviour in the presence of rewards and punishments, respectively. It was hypothesised that individual differences in personality (i.e., strength of the BAS and the FFFS) would influence the degree of both message processing (as measured by reaction time to previously viewed message words) and message acceptance (measured three ways by perceived message effectiveness, behavioural intentions, and attitudes). Specifically, it was anticipated that, individuals with a stronger BAS would process the words presented in the gain-frame messages faster than those with a weaker BAS and individuals with a stronger FFFS would process the words presented in the loss-frame messages faster than those with a weaker FFFS. Further, it was expected that greater processing (faster reaction times) would be associated with greater acceptance for that message. Driver licence holding students (N=108) were recruited to view one of four anti-speeding messages (i.e., social gain-frame, social loss-frame, physical gain-frame, and physical loss-frame). A computerised lexical decision task assessed participants' subsequent reaction times to message words, as an indicator of the extent of processing of the previously viewed message. Self-report measures assessed personality and the three message acceptance measures. As predicted, the degree of initial processing of the content of the social gain-framed message mediated the relationship between the reward sensitive trait and message effectiveness. Initial processing of the physical loss-framed message partially mediated the relationship between the punishment sensitive trait and both message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. These results show that reward sensitivity and punishment sensitivity traits influence cognitive processing of gain-framed and loss-framed message content, respectively, and subsequently, message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. Specifically, a range of road safety messages (i.e., gain-frame and loss-frame messages) could be designed which align with the processing biases associated with personality and which would target those individuals who are sensitive to rewards and those who are sensitive to punishments. PMID:22608267

Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; White, Melanie J; Lewis, Ioni M

2013-01-01

268

Micro Hole Processing Using Electro-Chemical Discharge Machining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, micro holes processing on glass were focused on chemical and biological filed. Authors focused on Electro-Chemical Discharge Machining (ECDM) to machine micro holes on glass, and developed the ECDM device. This paper reports about feedback circuit for machining-stop system and two-step machining which were developed to reduce the smallest diameter of micro hole. Additionally, the tool electrode of which diameter was 20 µm was produced using Electro-Chemical Machining (ECM). As a result, the diameter of micro hole was reached to 12 µm.

Mochimaru, Yasuhiro; Ota, Minoru; Yamaguchi, Keishi

269

New developments in the process control of the hybrid electro chemical discharge machining (ECDM) process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electro chemical discharge machining (ECDM) is a hybrid non-conventional manufacturing process which combines the features of electro chemical machining (ECM) and electro discharge machining (EDM). One of the major advantages of ECDM, over ECM or EDM, is that the combined metal removal mechanisms in ECDM, yields a much higher machining rate. This paper presents new developments in process control for

T. K. K. R. Mediliyegedara; A. K. M. De Silva; D. K. Harrison; J. A. McGeough

2005-01-01

270

An Introduction to Signal Processing in Chemical Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 26-page illustrated introduction to digital signal processing in chemical analysis covers signal arithmetic, signals and noise, smoothing, differentiation, resolution enhancement, harmonic analysis, convolution, deconvolution, Fourier filter, integration and peak area measurement, and curve fitting. It is accompanied by signal processing software for Macintosh with reference manual and tutorial (available for free download), video demonstrations, and Matlab signal processing modules for Mac, PC, and Unix.

O'Haver, Professor T.

271

The Efficacy of a Condensed "Seeking Safety" Intervention for Women in Residential Chemical Dependence Treatment at 30 Days Posttreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the efficacy of a condensed version of the "Seeking Safety" intervention in the reduction of trauma-related symptoms and improved drug abstinence rates among women in residential chemical dependence treatment. One hundred and four women were randomly assigned to treatment including a condensed (six session) "Seeking Safety"…

Cash Ghee, Anna; Bolling, Lanny C.; Johnson, Candace S.

2009-01-01

272

Influence of chemical processing on the imaging properties of microlenses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microlenses are produced by irradiation of a layer of tot'hema and eosin sensitized gelatin (TESG) by using a laser beam (Nd:YAG 2nd harmonic; 532 nm). All the microlenses obtained are concave with a parabolic profile. After the production, the microlenses are chemically processed with various concentrations of alum. The following imaging properties of microlenses were calculated and analyzed: the root mean square (rms) wavefront aberration, the geometric encircled energy and the spot diagram. The microlenses with higher concentrations of alum in solution had a greater effective focal length and better image quality. The microlenses chemically processed with 10% alum solution had near-diffraction-limited performance.

Vasiljevi?, Darko; Muri?, Branka; Panteli?, Dejan; Pani?, Bratimir

2009-07-01

273

Chemical Process Research Department substitute-natural-gas supply R and D status report. December 1987  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses the status of ongoing and planned substitute natural gas supply-related research activities in GRI's Chemical Process Research Program as described in the 1988 GRI plan. The program is part of a broad research program to develop the technologies for providing new gas supplies from natural and synthetic sources while also addressing economic, environmental, and safety issues. An exploratory RandD activity is also in progress to examine new chemistry and catalysts for converting natural gas to higher-valued products. Areas covered are coal gasification, in-situ coal gasification, methane from wastes, coal sciences, and gas separation and chemical processes. Presented are objectives and goals, accomplishments, strategy and basis for each project area, and 1987 status review sheets for projects within the project area.

Not Available

1987-12-01

274

Combined system of monothermal chemical exchange process with electrolysis and thermal diffusion process for enriching tritium  

SciTech Connect

Monothermal chemical exchange process with electrolysis (wellknown as the CECE process) is an effective method for enriching and removing tritium from tritiated water of low to middle level activity. The thermal diffusion process (ThD) is a low inventory gas phase method for enriching tritium from hydrogen. ThD and CECE process can be combined with each other by hydrogen gas line.

Kitamoto, A.; Hasegawa, K.; Masui, T.

1988-09-01

275

Role of safety evaluations in the design change process  

SciTech Connect

The technical specifications for most nuclear power plants, including Pacific Gas and Electric Company's (PG and E's) Diablo Canyon Power Plant, require that all proposed changes to the plant be reviewed by a designated standing committee (called the plant safety review committee at Diablo Canyon) to determine, in accordance with 10CFR50.59, if they constitute an unreviewed safety question. This paper discusses the unique aspects of PG and E's extensive program to assure that the related safety aspects of the design change are thoroughly investigated and documented prior to submitting the proposed modification to the standing committee for approval.

Connell, E.C. III

1987-01-01

276

[Analysis on mechanism of the chemical-biological flocculation process].  

PubMed

Zeta potential, particle size distribution and molecular weight distribution of dissolved TOC were studied to elementarily disclose the mechanism of the chemical-biological flocculation (CBF) process to treat municipal wastewater. Chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) process and primary sedimentation tank process were taken as the parallel-compared wastewater treatment processes. The experimental results show that under the same dosage, Zeta potential of the CBF process effluent is equal to that of the CEPT process, which indicates that flocculant in return sludge does not change the stabilization of particles in CBF reactor, and the biological flocculation is the key reason for CBF is superior to CEPT. In CBF process, good removal results are achieved for particles >10 microm and dissolved TOC with molecular weight >6 ku by chemical dosage, and biological flocculation can not only promote the removal of particles >10 microm and dissolved TOC with molecular weight >6 ku, but also have high capacity to remove small particles and dissolved TOC with small molecular weight, with the results that particles >3 tpm are removed completely and TOC with molecular weight of 2-6 ku are removed by 42.5% . PMID:17633167

Zhang, Zhi-bin; Zhao, Jian-fu; Xia, Si-qing; Liu, Chang-qing; Wang, Xue-jiang

2007-05-01

277

Chemical vapor deposition for automatic processing of integrated circuits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical vapor deposition for automatic processing of integrated circuits including the wafer carrier and loading from a receiving air track into automatic furnaces and unloading on to a sending air track is discussed. Passivation using electron beam deposited quartz is also considered.

Kennedy, B. W.

1980-01-01

278

MEYERS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT FOR CHEMICAL DESULFURIZATION OF COAL. VOLUME I  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of bench-scale development of the Meyers Process (for chemical removal of sulfur from coal) for desulfurization of both fine and coarse coal. More than 90% of the pyrite was removed from run-of-mine (ROM) fine coal and clean coarse coal, and more than 80%...

279

Mixing processes of plasmas in electrothermal-chemical guns  

Microsoft Academic Search

QinetiQ is conducting research into electrothermal-chemical (ETC) guns under contract from the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence. Part of this work has investigated the enhanced gas generation rates (EGGR) that arise from interactions between plasma and solid propellant. As the plasma expansion is important towards exploiting EGGR, a research programme was instigated to investigate mixing processes of plasma under various

C. R. Woodley

2004-01-01

280

A POLLUTION REDUCTION METHODOLOGY FOR CHEMICAL PROCESS SIMULATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

A pollution minimization methodology was developed for chemical process design using computer simulation. It is based on a pollution balance that at steady state is used to define a pollution index with units of mass of pollution per mass of products. The pollution balance has be...

281

ORGANIC CHEMICAL FATE PREDICTION IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes results from a broadly-based effort to determine the feasibility of predicting the fates of organic chemicals in diffused air, activated sludge wastewater treatment processes. The three conversion/removal mechanisms emphasized in the work were stripping, sorp...

282

Corrosion resistance of zirconium in chemical processing equipment  

SciTech Connect

The author describes some corrosion properties that make unalloyed zirconium a candidate material for the chemical process industry. Zirconium is compared with competitive materials of construction; corrosion problems and testing are described; aspects of fabrication are discussed. The paper concludes with a description of applications in the Du Pont Company.

Moniz, B.J.

1982-09-01

283

WORKSHOP ON GREEN SYNTHESES AND PROCESSING IN CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING  

EPA Science Inventory

The Workshop on Green Syntheses and Processing in Chemical Manufacturing was held in Cincinnati, Ohio on July 12 and 13, 1994. he purpose of the workshop was to solicit information from industry, academia, and government regarding research related to the advancement of environmen...

284

Characterization of a Positive Chemically Amplified Photoresist for Process Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically Amplified Resists (CARs) are much less observable than their i-line counterparts due to the absence of photoresist actinic absorbency. CARs however, exhibit resist thinning during the Post-Exposure Bake process (PEB). A Design of Exper- iments (DOE) technique was employed around the exposure and the PEB temperature for a commercial DUV photoresist. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) technique was used

Nickhil Jakatdar; Xinhui Niu; Costas J. Spanos

1998-01-01

285

Portfolio Assessment on Chemical Reactor Analysis and Process Design Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment determines what students regard as important: if a teacher wants to change students' learning, he/she should change the methods of assessment. This article describes the use of portfolio assessment on five courses dealing with chemical reactor and process design during the years 1999-2001. Although the use of portfolio was a new…

Alha, Katariina

2004-01-01

286

GREENSCOPE: A Method for Modeling Chemical Process Sustainability  

EPA Science Inventory

Current work within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s National Risk Management Research Laboratory is focused on the development of a method for modeling chemical process sustainability. The GREENSCOPE methodology, defined for the four bases of Environment, Economics, Ef...

287

Chemical/Physical and Biological Treatment of Wool Processing Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Elevated temperature acid-cracking combined with pilot activated sludge and solids. The chemical/physical system consisted of a hot acid-cracking process to reduce the grease content in the influent to the biological system. The biological system consiste...

L. T. Hatch R. E. Sharpin W. T. Wirtanen

1974-01-01

288

Hazardous Waste Processing in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a sequence of two courses included in the chemical engineering program at the University of Minnesota, Duluth that deal with the processing of hazardous wastes. Covers course content and structure, and discusses developments in pollution prevention and waste management that led to the addition of these courses to the curriculum.…

Dorland, Dianne; Baria, Dorab N.

1995-01-01

289

ASSESSING TOXICITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS TO ANAEROBIC TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A screening protocol has been developed to provide a rapid but dependable and repeatable assessment of the effect of toxic organic chemicals on anaerobic treatment processes. his protocol provides information on the rate limiting biological reactions and the concentration of toxi...

290

Chemical Safety for Sustainability (CSS): Human in vivobiomonitoring data for complementing results from in vitro toxicology -A Commentary  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has instituted the Chemical Safety for Sustainability (CSS) research program for assessing the health and environmental impact of manufactured chemicals. This is a broad program wherein one of the tasks is to develop high throughput...

291

Enhancing the NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle Payload Safety Review Process Through Program Activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The safety review process for NASA spacecraft flown on Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs) has been guided by NASA-STD 8719.8, Expendable Launch Vehicle Payload Safety Review Process Standard. The standard focused primarily on the safety approval required to begin pre-launch processing at the launch site. Subsequent changes in the contractual, technical, and operational aspects of payload processing, combined with lessons-learned supported a need for the reassessment of the standard. This has resulted in the formation of a NASA ELV Payload Safety Program. This program has been working to address the programmatic issues that will enhance and supplement the existing process, while continuing to ensure the safety of ELV payload activities.

Palo, Thomas E.

2007-01-01

292

Processing, food applications and safety of aloe vera products: a review.  

PubMed

Aloe vera is used for vigor, wellness and medicinal purposes since rigvedic times. Health benefits of aloe vera include its application in wound healing, treating burns, minimizing frost bite damage, protection against skin damage from x-rays, lung cancer, intestinal problems, increasing high density lipoprotein (HDL), reducing low density lipoprotein (LDL), reducing blood sugar in diabetics, fighting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), allergies and improving immune system. Phytochemistry of aloe vera gel has revealed the presence of more than 200 bioactive chemicals. Aloe vera gel is extracted from its leaves and appropriate processing techniques are needed for stabilization as well as preparation of the end products. The industries involved in processing of aloe vera need Government surveillance to ensure that the aloe vera products have beneficial bio-active chemicals as per claims of the manufacturers. Regulatory bodies also need to look into the safety and toxicological aspects of aloe vera products for food applications. The claims made for medicinal value of aloe products should be supported by authentic and approved clinical trial data. It is presumptive to mention that nutraceutical claims of aloe products made by the manufacturers are numerous. However, approved clinical evidences are available only for lowering LDL, increasing HDL, decreasing blood glucose level, treating genital herpes and psoriases. PMID:23572784

Ahlawat, Kulveer Singh; Khatkar, Bhupender Singh

2011-10-01

293

Quantum Chemical Molecular Dynamics Studies on the Chemical Mechanical Polishing Process of Cu Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic behavior of the oxidation reaction of the Cu surface during the Cu chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) process was investigated by a novel tight-binding quantum chemical molecular dynamics method. We confirmed that our tight-binding quantum chemical molecular dynamics method with first-principles parameterization can calculate the structures, and electronic states of various molecules and solids related to the Cu-CMP process as accurately as the density functional calculations, while the CPU time of the new method is around 5,000 times faster than that of the first-principles molecular dynamics calculations. We employed hydrogen peroxide solution as a slurry and the Cu surface as a substrate to simulate the Cu-CMP process by using our accelerated quantum chemical molecular dynamics method. Three types of models were constructed to analyze the effect of the pH of the slurry and Miller plane of the Cu surface on the dynamic behaviors of the oxidation process of the Cu surface. We indicate that the pH of the slurry strongly affects the oxidation process of Cu surface. Moreover, we clarified that the oxidation mechanism depends on the Miller plane of the Cu surfaces.

Yokosuka, Toshiyuki; Sasata, Katsumi; Kurokawa, Hitoshi; Takami, Seiichi; Kubo, Momoji; Imamura, Akira; Miyamoto, Akira

2003-04-01

294

Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content  

DOEpatents

A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content which includes: (a) A chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; (b) the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; (c) the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; (d) the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products.

Michaels, Edward D. (Spring Valley, OH)

1982-01-01

295

An investigation of the role of politics in the safety recommendation process of the National Transportation Safety Board  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation analyzed the safety recommendations made to the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) by the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) to determine whether there was evidence to support the notion that this safety recommendation process was affected by political motivations. The recommendations associated with the investigations of major aviation accidents occurring from 1 January 1993 to 31 December 1997 were scrutinized in order to find patterns of disagreement between the FAA and NTSB over the intent and relevance of those safety recommendations. A number of current and former influential civil aviation safety officials, both within and outside the U.S. government, were interviewed in order to gauge what consensus existed as to the aviation industry's definition of detrimental political influence and how that influence may have been applied in those accidents explored in this study. The analysis used the interview data, as well as data from NTSB accident reports, NTSB safety recommendations associated with these accidents, and the correspondence between the FAA and NTSB related to those recommendations. While the outcome shows a relationship between higher media visibility accidents and disagreements between the NTSB and FAA, a mechanism that relates higher media visibility to NTSB political influence has not been identified in this study.

Curtis, Aaron Todd

296

[Failure mechanisms in the transfusion process. Importance of anticipatory operational safety analysis].  

PubMed

The methods used for the safety previsional analysis of operations represent an interesting set of tools to follow the so-called transfusion process, defined as all the steps from donors sensitization to recipients follow-up. FMECA (Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis) can be used as a prevention tool, independently of any dysfunction in the process. Of course, it can also be used following a failure, in order to analyse its causes and to apply specific corrections. Operation safety, quality insurance, epidemiologic surveillance and safety monitoring act in synergy. These three aspects of transfusion safety constitute a dynamic system. PMID:7812465

Hergon, E; Crespeau, H; Rouger, P

1994-01-01

297

Chemical measurements with optical fibers for process control.  

PubMed

Several aspects of remote in situ spectrophotometric measurement by means of optical fibers are considered in the context of chemical process control. The technique makes it possible to measure a species in a particular oxidation state, such as plutonium(VI), sequentially, under the stringent conditions of automated analysis. For the control of several species in solution, measurements at discrete wavelengths on the sides of the absorption peaks serve to increase the dynamic range. Examples are given concerning the isotopic separation of uranium in the Chemex process. The chemical control of complex solutions containing numerous mutually interfering species requires a more elaborate spectral scan and real-time processing to determine the chemical kinetics. Photodiode array spectrophotometers are therefore ideal for analysing the uranium and plutonium solutions of the Purex process. Remote on-line control by ultraviolet monitoring exhibits limitations chiefly due to Rayleigh scattering in the optical fibers. The measurement of pH in acidic (0.8-3.2) and basic media (10-13) has also been attempted. Prior calibration, signal processing and optical spectra modeling are also discussed. PMID:18964472

Boisde, G; Blanc, F; Perez, J J

1988-02-01

298

A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

2005-07-01

299

Laboratory Studies of Heterogeneous Chemical Processes of Atmospheric Importance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study is to conduct measurements of chemical kinetics parameters for heterogeneous reactions of importance in the stratosphere and the troposphere. It involves the elucidation of the mechanism of the interaction of HCl vapor with ice surfaces, which is the first step in the heterogeneous chlorine activation processes, as well as the investigation of the atmospheric oxidation mechanism of soot particles emitted by biomass and fossil fuels. The techniques being employed include turbulent flow-chemical ionization mass spectrometry and optical ellipsometry, among others.

Molina, Mario J.

2004-01-01

300

Safety of snake antivenom immunoglobulins: Efficacy of viral inactivation in a complete downstream process.  

PubMed

Viral safety remains a challenge when processing a plasma-derived product. A variety of pathogens might be present in the starting material, which requires a downstream process capable of broad viral reduction. In this work, we used a wide panel of viruses to assess viral removal/inactivation of our downstream process for Snake Antivenom Immunoglobulin (SAI). First, we screened and excluded equine plasma that cross-reacted with any model virus, a procedure not published before for antivenoms. In addition, we evaluated for the first time the virucidal capacity of phenol applied to SAI products. Among the steps analyzed in the process, phenol addition was the most effective one, followed by heat, caprylic acid and pepsin. All viruses were fully inactivated only by phenol treatment; heat, the second most effective step, did not inactivate the rotavirus and the adenovirus used. We therefore present a SAI downstream method that is cost-effective and eliminates viruses to the extent required by WHO for a safe product. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2013. PMID:23737386

Caricati, Cp; Oliveira-Nascimento, L; Yoshida, Jt; Caricati, Atp; Raw, I; Stephano, Ma

2013-06-01

301

Certification Processes for Safety-Critical and Mission-Critical Aerospace Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is a quick reference guide with an overview of the processes required to certify safety-critical and mission-critical flight software at selected NASA centers and the FAA. Researchers and software developers can use this guide to jumpstart their understanding of how to get new or enhanced software onboard an aircraft or spacecraft. The introduction contains aerospace industry definitions of safety and safety-critical software, as well as, the current rationale for certification of safety-critical software. The Standards for Safety-Critical Aerospace Software section lists and describes current standards including NASA standards and RTCA DO-178B. The Mission-Critical versus Safety-Critical software section explains the difference between two important classes of software: safety-critical software involving the potential for loss of life due to software failure and mission-critical software involving the potential for aborting a mission due to software failure. The DO-178B Safety-critical Certification Requirements section describes special processes and methods required to obtain a safety-critical certification for aerospace software flying on vehicles under auspices of the FAA. The final two sections give an overview of the certification process used at Dryden Flight Research Center and the approval process at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL).

Nelson, Stacy

2003-01-01

302

Soluble Phosphorus in the Activated Sludge Process. Part I. Chemical-Biological Process Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective was to develop and evaluate, at full plant scale, the combined chemical-biological process of phosphorus removal. Alum proved to be a more effective precipitant than sodium aluminate in the moderately alkaline wastewater used. Total phosphor...

1971-01-01

303

Environmental, safety, and health engineering  

SciTech Connect

A complete guide to environmental, safety, and health engineering, including an overview of EPA and OSHA regulations; principles of environmental engineering, including pollution prevention, waste and wastewater treatment and disposal, environmental statistics, air emissions and abatement engineering, and hazardous waste storage and containment; principles of safety engineering, including safety management, equipment safety, fire and life safety, process and system safety, confined space safety, and construction safety; and principles of industrial hygiene/occupational health engineering including chemical hazard assessment, personal protective equipment, industrial ventilation, ionizing and nonionizing radiation, noise, and ergonomics.

Woodside, G.; Kocurek, D.

1997-12-31

304

A behavior- and observation-based monitoring process for safety management.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a combination of a behavior-based monitoring process--using an at-risk behavior and unsafe condition observation system--and an observation-based safety adherence monitoring process that can indicate the compliance level with well-defined and agreed safety critical aspects and operational practices and procedures will be an effective safety management tool. This tool herein described represents a particular case, developed by a Praxair Inc. subsidiary in Brazil. Other safety surveillance systems usually adopted in industrial environments can rarely be used on construction sites. They also do not share information, knowledge and skills among the safety staff and other professionals invited to observe, usually covering specific tasks or specific professionals only, not a complete working area, which causes functional observing and monitoring limitations in terms of capturing behaviors and environmental safety issues. This tool also offers a wide range of learning opportunities and continuous improvement. PMID:21144260

Nascimento, Cesar F; Frutuoso E Melo, Paulo Fernando F

2010-01-01

305

Microstructuring and wafering of silicon with laser chemical processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser processing is an important application for fabrication of silicon solar cells, e.g. buried contacts, laser fired contacts or edge isolation. At Fraunhofer ISE a liquid-jet guided laser is used for Laser Chemical Processing (LCP). Both the fundamentals of laser material ablation with this system and the application of various processes for solar cell fabrication are investigated. The applications are divided into two main areas: Microstructuring and deep laser cutting (wafering) of silicon substrates. Microstructuring contains the investigation and characterization of laser induced damage and selective emitter formation for n- and p-type emitters depending on laser parameters and liquid properties. One of the most important and industrially relevant topics at the moment is the formation of a selective highly doped emitter under the metal fingers of solar cells. Wafering deals with the evaluation of suitable laser parameters, adequate chemicals or chemical additives and the understanding of ablation processes by simulation and experimental work. In this presentation newest results concerning n-type doping for varying laser and liquid parameters will be presented with regard to cell efficiency and contact resistance. Furthermore a short overview of promising LCP applications will be given, e.g. p-type doping and wafering.

Hopman, Sybille; Fell, Andreas; Mayer, Kuno; Rodofili, Andreas; Granek, Filip

2010-02-01

306

Development of a polysilicon process based on chemical vapor deposition (phase 1)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dichlorosilane-based reductive chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process demonstrated is capable of producing, at low cost, high quality polycrystalline silicon. Testing of decomposition reactor heat shields to insure that the shield provides adequate personnel protection assuming a worst case explosion was completed. Minor modifications to a production reactor heat shield provided adequate heat shield integrity. Construction of the redesigned PDU (Process Development Unit) to accommodate all safety related information proceeded on schedule. Structural steel work was completed as is the piping and instrumentation design work. Major pieces of process equipment were received and positioned in the support structure and all transfer piping and conduits to the PDU were installed. Construction was completed on a feed system for supplying DCS to an intermediate sized reactor. The feed system was successfully interfaced with a reactor equipped with a modified heat shield. Reactor checkout was completed.

McCormick, J.; Arvidson, A.; Sawyer, D.; Plahutnik, F.

1981-06-01

307

Chemical treatment of plutonium with hydrogen peroxide before nitrate anion exchange processing. [Reduction to (IV)  

SciTech Connect

The major aqueous process used to recover and purify plutonium at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility is anion exchange in nitric acid. This process is highly selective for plutonium; however, all plutonium must be as Pu(IV) to form the strongly sorbed anionic nitrato complex. The previous ''full-reduction treatment'' used at Los Alamos to obtain Pu(IV) results in a three- to fourfold increase in the feed solution volume and the introduction of kilogram quantities of extraneous salts immediately before a process whose function is to remove such impurities. That treatment has been successfully replaced by a single reagent, hydrogen peroxide, which converts all plutonium to Pu(IV), minimally increases the feed volume, and introduces no residual impurities. Safety aspects of this revised chemical treatment are addressed.

Marsh, S.F.; Gallegos, T.D.

1987-05-01

308

Microfabricated Instrumentation for Chemical Sensing in Industrial Process Control  

SciTech Connect

The monitoring of chemical constituents in manufacturing processes is of economic importance to most industries. The monitoring and control of chemical constituents may be of importance for product quality control or, in the case of process effluents, of environmental concern. The most common approach now employed for chemical process control is to collect samples which are returned to a conventional chemical analysis laboratory. This project attempts to demonstrate the use of microfabricated structures, referred to as 'lab-on-a-chip' devices, that accomplish chemical measurement tasks that emulate those performed in the conventional laboratory. The devices envisioned could be used as hand portable chemical analysis instruments where samples are analyzed in the field or as emplaced sensors for continuous 'real-time' monitoring. This project focuses on the development of filtration elements and solid phase extraction elements that can be monolithically integrated onto electrophoresis and chromatographic structures pioneered in the laboratory. Successful demonstration of these additional functional elements on integrated microfabricated devices allows lab-on-a-chip technologies to address real world samples that would be encountered in process control environments. The resultant technology has a broad application to industrial environmental monitoring problems. such as monitoring municipal water supplies, waste water effluent from industrial facilities, or monitoring of run-off from agricultural activities. The technology will also be adaptable to manufacturing process control scenarios. Microfabricated devices integrating sample filtration, solid phase extraction, and chromatographic separation with solvent programming were demonstrated. Filtering of the sample was accomplished at the same inlet with an array of seven channels each 1 {micro}m deep and 18 {micro}m wide. Sample concentration and separation were performed on channels 5 {micro}m deep and 25 {micro}m wide coated with a C18 phase, and elution was achieved under isocratic, step, or linear gradient conditions. For the solid phase extraction signal enhancement factors of 400 over a standard injection of 1.0 s were observed for a 320 s injection. Four polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) were resolved by open channel electrochromatography in under 50 s. Chip operation was unaffected by the presence of the 5 {micro}m silica particles at the filter entrance.

Ramsey, J. M.

2000-06-01

309

Chemical decontamination of process equipment using recyclable chelating agents  

SciTech Connect

The Babcock and Wilcox Company is performing research and development in the application of chelating chemicals to dissolve uranium compounds and other actinide species from the surfaces of DOE process equipment. A chelating system specific for the removal of uranium and other actinides will be applied to the component selected for full-scale demonstration of the process. After application of the chelating solvent for an appropriate time period, the spent solvent will be removed to a waste processing facility, and the dissolved radioactive contaminants will be precipitated out of the solution. The regenerated chelating solvent will then be available for reuse in the cleaning system, thereby minimizing the amount of secondary waste generated by the process. Phase 1 activity has begun with bench-scale tests in the laboratory, to screen and optimize candidate solvent systems, and will proceed to development of a chemical cleaning process that will be tested in a pilot facility on an actual piece of contaminated equipment. The potential for application of the chelating agent as a foam rather than a liquid will also be investigated. The advantage of foaming application is a reduction of solvent volume requiring eventual treatment. The second phase of this program will be a full-scale demonstration of the developed technology on contaminated process equipment at a DOE site.

Palmer, P.A.

1994-10-01

310

ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: A NEW PROCESS FOR CHEMICALLY CLEANING SAVANNAH RIVER WASTE TANKS  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 high level waste (HLW) tanks that must be emptied, cleaned, and closed as required by the Federal Facilities Agreement. The current method of chemical cleaning uses several hundred thousand gallons per tank of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to partially dissolve and suspend residual waste and corrosion products such that the waste can be pumped out of the tank. This adds a significant quantity of sodium oxalate to the tanks and, if multiple tanks are cleaned, renders the waste incompatible with the downstream processing. Tank space is also insufficient to store this stream given the large number of tanks to be cleaned. Therefore, a search for a new cleaning process was initiated utilizing the TRIZ literature search approach, and Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination--Ultraviolet (CORD-UV), a mature technology currently used for decontamination and cleaning of commercial nuclear reactor primary cooling water loops, was identified. CORD-UV utilizes oxalic acid for sludge dissolution, but then decomposes the oxalic acid to carbon dioxide and water by UV treatment outside the system being treated. This allows reprecipitation and subsequent deposition of the sludge into a selected container without adding significant volume to that container, and without adding any new chemicals that would impact downstream treatment processes. Bench top and demonstration loop measurements on SRS tank sludge stimulant demonstrated the feasibility of applying CORD-UV for enhanced chemical cleaning of SRS HLW tanks.

Ketusky, E; Neil Davis, N; Renee Spires, R

2008-01-17

311

Incorporating Safety into the Regional Planning Process in Virginia: Volume II: A Resource Guide. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Motor vehicle crashes have an annual societal cost of $230 billion, and one way to reduce this cost is to incorporate safety directly into the long-range transportation planning process. This resource guide presents some ways through which safety and plan...

J. N. Kamatu J. S. Miller N. J. Garber

2010-01-01

312

Supercritical Water Process for the Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of chemical recycling of waste plastics by decomposition reactions in sub- and supercritical water is reviewed. Decomposition reactions proceed rapidly and selectively using supercritical fluids compared to conventional processes. Condensation polymerization plastics such as PET, nylon, and polyurethane, are relatively easily depolymerized to their monomers in supercritical water. The monomer components are recovered in high yield. Addition polymerization plastics such as phenol resin, epoxy resin, and polyethylene, are also decomposed to monomer components with or without catalysts. Recycling process of fiber reinforced plastics has been studied. Pilot scale or commercial scale plants have been developed and are operating with sub- and supercritical fluids.

Goto, Motonobu

2010-11-01

313

40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...concerning the technology of the process shall include at least the following: (i) A block flow diagram or simplified process flow diagram; (ii) Process chemistry; (iii) Maximum intended inventory; (iv) Safe upper and lower limits...

2009-07-01

314

40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...concerning the technology of the process shall include at least the following: (i) A block flow diagram or simplified process flow diagram; (ii) Process chemistry; (iii) Maximum intended inventory; (iv) Safe upper and lower limits...

2010-07-01

315

Effect of combination processing on the microbial, chemical and sensory quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable pulav  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of irradiation in combination with retort processing on the shelf life and safety aspects of an ethnic Indian food product like vegetable pulav was investigated. Gamma irradiation of RTE vegetable pulav was carried out at different dosage rates with 60Co followed by retort processing. The combination processed samples were analysed for microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics. Microbiological analysis indicated that irradiation in combination with retort processing has significantly reduced the microbial loads whereas the chemical and sensory analysis proved that this combination processing is effective in retaining the properties even after storage for one year at ambient conditions. The results also indicated that a minimum irradiation dosage at 4.0 kGy along with retort processing at an F0 value of 2.0 is needed to achieve the desired shelf life with improved organoleptic qualities.

Kumar, R.; George, Johnsy; Rajamanickam, R.; Nataraju, S.; Sabhapathy, S. N.; Bawa, A. S.

2011-12-01

316

Assessment of impacts at the advanced test reactor as a result of chemical releases at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an assessment of potential impacts at the Advanced Test Reactor Facility (ATR) resulting from accidental chemical spill at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Spills postulated to occur at the Lincoln Blvd turnoff to ICPP were...

A. S. Rood

1991-01-01

317

The influence of dispositional mindfulness on safety behaviors: A dual process perspective.  

PubMed

Based on the dual process model of human cognition, this study investigated the influence of dispositional mindfulness on operators' safety behaviors and its boundary conditions. In a sample of 212 nuclear power plant control room operators, it was found that both safety compliance and safety participation behaviors were positively influenced by dispositional mindfulness as measured by the 14-item Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory. This effect was still positive after controlling for age, intelligence, work experience and conscientiousness. Moreover, two boundary conditions were identified: the impact of dispositional mindfulness of safety behaviors was stronger among operators who were either more experienced or more intelligent. Theoretically, the framework we used to understand the benefit of mindfulness on safety behaviors has been proved to be useful. Practically, it provides a new and valid criterion that could be used in operators' selection and training program to improve organizational safety. PMID:24686163

Zhang, Jingyu; Wu, Changxu

2014-09-01

318

Cleaning process in high density plasma chemical vapor deposition reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the major emitters of perfluorocompounds (PFCs) in semiconductor manufacturing is the in situ plasma cleaning procedure performed after the chemical vapor deposition of dielectric thin films. The release of these man-made gases can contribute to the greenhouse effect. To reduce emissions of PFCs, it has developed a new plasma cleaning technology that uses a remote plasma source (RPS) to completely break down fluorine-containing gases into an effective cleaning chemical. The downstream plasma reactor consists of a plasma source, where the inductive discharge occurs; a transport region, which connects the source to the chamber; and the actual chemical vapor deposition chamber, where the fluorine radicals react with the deposition residues to form non-global-warming volatile byproducts that are pumped through the exhaust. From environmental point of view the overall method has clear benefits, however, with the new technology several new optimization problems arise. In recent years, semiconductor equipment manufacturers have put in a great effort to improve the production worthiness and the overall effectiveness of the tools. Equipment qualification procedures can be quite expensive and lengthy. The film deposition process stability is of great importance since it can be correlated to the final integrated circuit quality and yield. The chamber cleaning process can affect the stability of the film properties. The objective of this work is to concern the main aspects of the problems that prevent the remote clean process for achieving both superior chamber cleaning performance and improved environmental friendliness. In order to meet these significant technical challenges we have developed detailed numerical models of the systems involved in the downstream cleaning process. For the remote plasma source, the detailed plasma-kinetic model has been developed to describe the atomic fluorine production from NF3, CF4, and C2F6 and provided comparison of the effectiveness in decomposition of these parent molecules. In the transport tube the homogeneous and heterogeneous kinetic model was developed to analyze the recombination mechanism of atomic fluorine. To study the optimization process of gas and power consumption in the processing chamber, the numerical 2D modeling of complex plasma-chemical processes was performed.

Iskenderova, Kamilla

319

The World Library of Toxicology, Chemical Safety, and Environmental Health (WLT).  

PubMed

The World Library of Toxicology, Chemical Safety, and Environmental Health, commonly referred to as the World Library of Toxicology (WLT), is a multilingual online portal of links to key global resources, representing a host of individual countries and multilateral organizations. The Site is designed as a network of, and gateway to, toxicological information and activities from around the world. It is built on a Wiki platform by a roster of Country Correspondents, with the aim of efficiently exchanging information and stimulating collaboration among colleagues, and building capacity, with the ultimate objective of serving as a tool to help improve global public health. The WLT was publicly launched on September 7, 2009, at the Seventh Congress of Toxicology in Developing Countries (CTDC-VII) in Sun City, South Africa. PMID:21071551

Wexler, Philip; Gilbert, Steven G; Thorp, Nick; Faustman, Elaine; Breskin, Donna D

2012-03-01

320

How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process?  

PubMed

Whilst there has been a significant increase in the amount of consumer interest in the safety performance of privately owned vehicles, the role that it plays in consumers' purchase decisions is poorly understood. The aims of the current study were to determine: how important vehicle safety is in the new vehicle purchase process; what importance consumers place on safety options/features relative to other convenience and comfort features, and how consumers conceptualise vehicle safety. In addition, the study aimed to investigate the key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase. Participants recruited in Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire about their new vehicle purchase. The findings from the questionnaire indicated that participants ranked safety-related factors (e.g., EuroNCAP (or other) safety ratings) as more important in the new vehicle purchase process than other vehicle factors (e.g., price, reliability etc.). Similarly, participants ranked safety-related features (e.g., advanced braking systems, front passenger airbags etc.) as more important than non-safety-related features (e.g., route navigation systems, air-conditioning etc.). Consistent with previous research, most participants equated vehicle safety with the presence of specific vehicle safety features or technologies rather than vehicle crash safety/test results or crashworthiness. The key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase were: use of EuroNCAP, gender and education level, age, drivers' concern about crash involvement, first vehicle purchase, annual driving distance, person for whom the vehicle was purchased, and traffic infringement history. The findings from this study are important for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion and publicity of vehicle safety features for particular consumer groups (such as younger consumers) in order to increase their knowledge regarding vehicle safety and to encourage them to place highest priority on safety in the new vehicle purchase process. PMID:18460367

Koppel, Sjaanie; Charlton, Judith; Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael

2008-05-01

321

Laminated solar-control safety glass incorporating chemically deposited metal chalcogenide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of producing safety glass made from 3 mm sheet glass coated with chemically deposited CuS, ZnS-CuS, Sb2S3-CuS, and PbS-CuS thin films are presented. The coatings are produced on the sheet glass from dilute solutions containing metal complexes and a source of sulfide ions such as thiourea, thioacetamide, or thiosulfate. Films of thickness ranging from 0.05 micrometer to 0.3 micrometer are deposited at different temperatures, 10 degrees Celsius - 50 degrees Celsius, with durations of depositions of 1 h to 6 h. These coatings are laminated using commercially available poly(vinyl butyral) based laminating polymer sheets and clear sheet glass at temperatures of 120 degrees Celsius to 140 degrees Celsius under 10 - 12 kg cm-2 pressure in an autoclave. The optical transmittance and reflectance spectra of the safety glasses show that a wide choice of solar control parameters are possible with these glazings: TVIS, 2.5 - 45%; RVIS, 10 - 25%; and shading coefficient (SC), 0.25 - 0.45.

Nair, Padmanabhan K.; Nair, M. T.; Gomez-Daza, O.; Garcia, V. M.; Castillo, A.; Arenas, O. L.; Pena, Y.; Guerrero, L.

1997-10-01

322

Regulation and safety implementation of nanotechnology for chemical enterprises in the Central Europe Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As result of the gradually increasing nanotechnology sector there is the necessity of a contemporary analysis of the present regulations used for nanomaterials, to outline the current situation of the nanotechnology sector, to promote international cooperation and research's coordination to overcome disciplinary boundaries, to fill the gap between more and less experienced regions and to turn investments in R&D in industrial innovations. The general objective of the Central Europe project NANOFORCE, which is developed by national and regional chemistry associations and R&D Centres of the Central Europe area, is to foster the innovative nanotechnology-sector networks across Central Europe regions by bringing together public and private organizations to carry out collaborative and interdisciplinary researches on nanomaterials (in the frame of REACH Regulation) and to turn the most promising laboratory results into innovative industrial applications. To build up a legal advisory board for chemical enterprises starting in nanotechnology, a state of the art report on existing safety procedures and nanotech related regulations was produced to give an overview on currently available regulations used by chemical industries and manufacturing companies within the European region to secure their products. The main emphasis was placed on REACH regulation to search for relevant sections concentrating on nanomaterials which are applicable for nanotechnology. In addition, all relevant directives and amendments of REACH were screened with regard to identify gaps where action is still needed and give possible recommendations for the European Commission. Beyond literature research a questionnaire for producers, users, researchers and financiers was developed with the goal to collect information about the nanotechnology sector in the CE region concerning development, financial status, and international cooperation within joint ventures, safety and nanotoxicology.

Falk, A.; Hartl, S.; Sinner, F.

2013-04-01

323

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 236 - Safety Assurance Criteria and Processes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS...application to processor-based signal and train control systems...Communications, Signaling, and Processing Systems-Safety Related Electronic...AREMA 2009 Communications and Signal Manual of Recommended...

2011-10-01

324

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 236 - Safety Assurance Criteria and Processes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS...application to processor-based signal and train control systems...Communications, Signaling, and Processing Systems-Safety Related Electronic...AREMA 2009 Communications and Signal Manual of Recommended...

2012-10-01

325

Developing process-support tools for patient safety: finding the balance between validity and feasibility.  

PubMed

The Johns Hopkins Quality and Safety Research Group, which has developed many process-support tools--three of which are reported in this issue--describes its approach to tool development. PMID:18947120

Marsteller, Jill A; Holzmueller, Christine G; Makary, Martin; Sexton, J Bryan; Thompson, David A; Lubomski, Lisa H; Pronovost, Peter J

2008-10-01

326

[Chemical constituents from processed rhizomes of Panax notoginseng].  

PubMed

To investigate the chemical constituents of the processed rhizomes of Panax notoginseng, their 70% ethanol extract was chromatographed on macroporous resin (SP825), silica gel, RP-C18 and semi-preparative HPLC to afford compounds 1-23. On the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data analysis, their structures were identified to be 6'-O-Acetylginsenoside Rh1 (1), ginsenoside RK3 (2), ginsenoside Rh4 (3), 20S-ginsenoside Rg3 (4), ginsenoside Rk1 (5), 20R-ginsenoside Rg3 (6), ginsenoside Rg5 (7), ginsenoside F2 (8), 20S-ginsenoside Rh1 (9), 20R-ginsenoside Rh1 (10), gypenoside X VII (11), notoginsenoside Fa, (12), ginsenoside Ra3 (13), ginsenoside Rg1 (14), ginsenoside Re (15), notoginsenoside R2 (16), ginsenoside Rg2 (17), notoginsenoside R1 (18), ginsenoside Rd (19), ginsenoside Rb1 (20), notoginsenoside D (21), notoginsenoside R4 (22) and ginsenoside Rb2 (23), respectively. Among them, compound 1 was isolated from P. notoginseng for the first time, and compounds 4, 6, 8 and 11 were isolated from the processed P. notoginseng for the first time. According to the fingerprint profiles of raw and processed P. notoginseng, the putative chemical conversion pathways of panoxatriol and panoxadiol compounds in the processing procedure was deduced, and the results revealed the main reactions to be dehydration and glycosyl hydrolysis. PMID:24558875

Yu, He-Shui; Zhang, Li-Juan; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Yi-Xun; Zhang, Jie; Cao, Man; Kang, Li-Ping; Kang, Ting-Guo; Ma, Bai-Ping

2013-11-01

327

Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process  

PubMed Central

Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

2012-01-01

328

40 CFR 799.5115 - Chemical testing requirements for certain chemicals of interest to the Occupational Safety and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...chemical substances identified by Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number (CAS No...CAS No.: 110-12-3, Chemical Abstracts (CA) Index Name: 2-Hexanone...TSCA Interagency Testing Committee in Meeting the U.S. Government Data Needs:...

2012-07-01

329

40 CFR 799.5115 - Chemical testing requirements for certain chemicals of interest to the Occupational Safety and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...chemical substances identified by Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number (CAS No...CAS No.: 110-12-3, Chemical Abstracts (CA) Index Name: 2-Hexanone...TSCA Interagency Testing Committee in Meeting the U.S. Government Data Needs:...

2011-07-01

330

Mechanistic, kinetic, and processing aspects of tungsten chemical mechanical polishing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation presents an investigation into tungsten chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). CMP is the industrially predominant unit operation that removes excess tungsten after non-selective chemical vapor deposition (CVD) during sub-micron integrated circuit (IC) manufacture. This work explores the CMP process from process engineering and fundamental mechanistic perspectives. The process engineering study optimized an existing CMP process to address issues of polish pad and wafer carrier life. Polish rates, post-CMP metrology of patterned wafers, electrical test data, and synergy with a thermal endpoint technique were used to determine the optimal process. The oxidation rate of tungsten during CMP is significantly lower than the removal rate under identical conditions. Tungsten polished without inhibition during cathodic potentiostatic control. Hertzian indenter model calculations preclude colloids of the size used in tungsten CMP slurries from indenting the tungsten surface. AFM surface topography maps and TEM images of post-CMP tungsten do not show evidence of plow marks or intergranular fracture. Polish rate is dependent on potassium iodate concentration; process temperature is not. The colloid species significantly affects the polish rate and process temperature. Process temperature is not a predictor of polish rate. A process energy balance indicates that the process temperature is predominantly due to shaft work, and that any heat of reaction evolved during the CMP process is negligible. Friction and adhesion between alumina and tungsten were studied using modified AFM techniques. Friction was constant with potassium iodate concentration, but varied with applied pressure. This corroborates the results from the energy balance. Adhesion between the alumina and the tungsten was proportional to the potassium iodate concentration. A heuristic mechanism, which captures the relationship between polish rate, pressure, velocity, and slurry chemistry, is presented. In this mechanism, the colloid reacts with the chemistry of the slurry to produce active sites. These active sites become inactive by removing tungsten from the film. The process repeats when then inactive sites are reconverted to active sites. It is shown that the empirical form of the heuristic mechanism fits all of the data obtained. The mechanism also agrees with the limiting cases that were investigated.

Stein, David

331

Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

1992-05-01

332

Processing, reliability and integration issues in chemical mechanical planarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global planarization is one of the major demands of the semiconductor industry. Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is the planarization method of choice use to achieve the required stringent tolerances essential for successful fabrication of next generation Integrated Circuits (IC). The predominant reason for CMP defects is the shear and normal stresses during polishing to which the material is subjected. Understanding the process of CMP and factor that contribute to overall stress addition during polishing requires an approach that encompasses all the four major categories of variables, namely: (a) machine parameters, (b) material properties, (c) polishing pad characteristics, and (d) polishing slurry performance. In this research, we studied the utilized in-situ technique involving acoustic emission (AE) signal monitoring and coefficient of friction (COF) monitoring using a CETR(TM) Bench Top CMP Tester to evaluate the impact of variation in machine parameters on the CMP process. The mechanical and tribological properties of different candidate materials have been evaluated bring potential challenges in their integration to the fore. The study also involves destructive and non destructive testing of polishing pads performed for characterization and optimization of polishing pad architecture. Finally, the investigation concludes proposing novel nanoparticle CMP slurry which has a predominant chemical component in its polishing mechanism. It was found that the decrease in the mechanical shear and normal loading by: (a) operating the process in the low stress regime, (b) using potential materials that are mechanically stronger, (c) using polishing pads with lesser variation in specific gravity and with a surface that is has its mechanical properties fine tuned to those of the wafer, and (d) deploying polishing slurry with a significant chemical component mechanical removal, are some of the approaches that can be employed to meet the future challenges of the CMP process and reduce the defect associated with it.

Zantye, Parshuram B.

333

Thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical processes in fractured-porous media: Benchmarks and examples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The book comprises an assembly of benchmarks and examples for porous media mechanics collected over the last twenty years. Analysis of thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes is essential to many applications in environmental engineering, such as geological waste deposition, geothermal energy utilisation, carbon capture and storage, water resources management, hydrology, even climate change. In order to assess the feasibility as well as the safety of geotechnical applications, process-based modelling is the only tool to put numbers, i.e. to quantify future scenarios. This charges a huge responsibility concerning the reliability of computational tools. Benchmarking is an appropriate methodology to verify the quality of modelling tools based on best practices. Moreover, benchmarking and code comparison foster community efforts. The benchmark book is part of the OpenGeoSys initiative - an open source project to share knowledge and experience in environmental analysis and scientific computation.

Kolditz, O.; Shao, H.; Görke, U.; Kalbacher, T.; Bauer, S.; McDermott, C. I.; Wang, W.

2012-12-01

334

Chemical engineering challenges in driving thermochemical hydrogen processes with the tandem mirror reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Tandem Mirror Reactor is described and compared with Tokamaks, both from a basic physics viewpoint and from the suitability of the respective reactor for synfuel production. Differences and similarities between the TMR as an electricity producer or a synfuel producer are also cited. The Thermochemical cycle chosen to link with the fusion energy source is the General Atomic Sulfur-Iodine Cycle, which is a purely thermal-driven process with no electrochemical steps. There are real chemical engineering challenges of getting this high quality heat into the large thermochemical plant in an efficient manner. We illustrate with some of our approaches to providing process heat via liquid sodium to drive a 1050 K, highly-endothermic, catalytic and fluidized-bed SO/sub 3/ Decomposition Reactor. The technical, economic, and safety tradeoffs that arise are discussed.

Galloway, T.R.; Werner, R.W.

1980-01-01

335

No respect: research in quality, safety, and process improvement.  

PubMed

The need for good quality and safety research has never been more imperative, but even as we encourage and promote such work, we seem to suppress it through institutional bias and inertia. Indeed the culture of health care seems to have a love-hate relationship with quality-improvement work as a whole. In this commentary we explore some of the implications of the application of pure science standards at the sharp end of clinical practice, where the down-and-dirty street-level improvement work happens. PMID:20740106

Rubinfeld, Ilan S; Horst, H Mathilda

2009-01-01

336

No Respect: Research in Quality, Safety, and Process Improvement  

PubMed Central

The need for good quality and safety research has never been more imperative, but even as we encourage and promote such work, we seem to suppress it through institutional bias and inertia. Indeed the culture of health care seems to have a love-hate relationship with quality-improvement work as a whole. In this commentary we explore some of the implications of the application of pure science standards at the sharp end of clinical practice, where the down-and-dirty street-level improvement work happens.

Rubinfeld, Ilan S; Horst, H Mathilda

2009-01-01

337

Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

Education in Science, 1996

1996-01-01

338

High-lift chemical heat pump technologies for industrial processes  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally industrial heat pumps (IHPs) have found applications on a process specific basis with reject heat from a process being upgraded and returned to the process. The IHP must be carefully integrated into a process since improper placement may result in an uneconomic application. Industry has emphasized a process integration approach to the design and operation of their plants. Heat pump applications have adopted this approach and the area of applicability was extended by utilizing a process integrated approach where reject heat from one process is upgraded and then used as input for another process. The DOE IHP Program has extended the process integration approach of heat pump application with a plant utility emphasis. In this design philosophy, reject heat from a process is upgraded to plant utility conditions and fed into the plant distribution system. This approach has the advantage that reject heat from any pr@s can be used as input and the output can be used at any location within the plant. Thus the approach can be easily integrated into existing industrial applications and all reject heat streams are potential targets of opportunity. The plant utility approach can not be implemented without having heat pumps with high-lift capabilities (on the order of 65{degree}C). Current heat pumps have only about half the lift capability required. Thus the current emphasis for the DOE IHP Program is the development of high lift chemical heat pumps that can deliver heat more economically to higher heat delivery temperatures. This is achieved with innovative cooling (refrigeration) and heating technologies which are based on advanced cycles and advanced working fluids or a combination of both. This paper details the plan to develop economically competitive, environmentally acceptable heat pump technologies that are capable of providing the delivery temperature and lift required to supply industrial plant utility-grade process heating and/or cooling.

Olszewski, M.; Zaltash, A.

1995-03-01

339

Chemical evolution of the Earth: Equilibrium or disequilibrium process?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To explain the apparent chemical incompatibility of the Earth's core and mantle or the disequilibrium process, various core forming mechanisms have been proposed, i.e., rapid disequilibrium sinking of molten iron, an oxidized core or protocore materials, and meteorite contamination of the upper mantle after separation from the core. Adopting concepts used in steady state thermodynamics, a method is devised for evaluating how elements should distribute stable in the Earth's interior for the present gradients of temperature, pressure, and gravitational acceleration. Thermochemical modeling gives useful insights into the nature of chemical evolution of the Earth without overly speculative assumptions. Further work must be done to reconcile siderophile elements, rare gases, and possible light elements in the outer core.

Sato, M.

1985-01-01

340

Laboratory Studies of Heterogeneous Chemical Processes of Atmospheric Importance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study is to conduct measurements of chemical kinetics parameters for heterogeneous reactions of importance in the stratosphere and the troposphere. It involves the elucidation of the mechanism of the interaction of HC1 vapor with ice surfaces, which is the first step in the heterogeneous chlorine activation processes, as well as the investigation of the atmospheric oxidation mechanism of soot particles emitted by biomass and fossil fuels. The techniques being employed include turbulent flow- chemical ionization mass spectrometry and optical ellipsometry, among others. The next section summarizes our research activities during the first year of the project, and the section that follows consists of the statement of work for the second year.

Molina, Mario J.

2003-01-01

341

77 FR 50724 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants'' is temporarily...Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants'' dated September...Developing a Software Project Life Cycle Process...safety systems of nuclear power plants. In particular...Software and Complex Electronics used in Safety...

2012-08-22

342

Optical instrumentation for on-line analysis of chemical processes  

SciTech Connect

Optical diagnostics provide the capability for nonintrusive, on-line, real time analysis of chemical process streams. Several laser-based methods for monitoring fossil energy processes have been evaluated. Among the instrumentation techniques which appear quite promising are coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence (SDLIF). A CARS diagnostic was implemented on a coal gasifier and was successfully employed to measure species concentrations and temperatures within the process stream. The LIBS approach has been used to identify total trace impurities (e.g., Na, K, and S) within a gasifier. Recently, individual components in mixtures of aromatics hydrocarbons have been resolved via the synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence. 9 figures.

Hartford, A. Jr.; Cremers, D.A.; Loree, T.R.; Quigley, G.P.

1983-01-01

343

Modernizing Bridge Safety Inspection with Process Improvement and Digital Assistance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research effort was developed to record and analyze the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) bridge/structure inspection processes as an aid to modernizing and automating these inspection processes through the use of mobile personal computer ...

T. H. Mills R. R. Wakefield

2004-01-01

344

Shift report: improving a complex process to enhance patient safety.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the shift change process, which is a time for communication of critical patient information. It identifies the multitude of variables that can interfere with that communication process and introduce the potential for error to occur. Human factors include the variability of staff, variability of processes, fatigue, environmental factors and the complexity of systems. The article also discusses methods to improve current processes with the intent to prevent error and improve patient outcomes. PMID:19606761

Burrell, Maripat

2006-01-01

345

Electron transfer and physical and chemical processes at low temperatures  

SciTech Connect

We summarize some phenomena that occur at temperatures of the order of 15K, and are dominated by quantum mechanical tunneling. Although electron tunneling dominates many conduction processes at low temperatures, we discuss evidence that phenomena like oxidation, as well as the solution of alkali metals in ammonia, can also be dominated by electron tunneling. Both phenomena demonstrate that the chemical potential of a metastable system can equilibrate at low temperatures by electron tunneling. The case of alkali metal clusters covered with ammonia is contrasted to covering the clusters with Xe. In this case changes in the activated conduction are observed which are consistent with the dielectric constant of the rare gas.

Strongin, M.; Xia, B.; Jacobsen, F.M.

1995-10-01

346

Fundamental studies of chemical vapor deposition diamond growth processes  

SciTech Connect

We are developing laser spectroscopic techniques to foster a fundamental understanding of diamond film growth by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Several spectroscopic techniques are under investigation to identify intermediate species present in the bulk reactor volume, the thin active volume immediately above the growing film, and the actual growing surface. Such a comprehensive examination of the overall deposition process is necessary because a combination of gas phase and surface chemistry is probably operating. Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) techniques have been emphasized. A growth rector that permits through-the-substrate gas sampling for REMPI/time-of-flight mass spectroscopy has been developed. 7 refs., 2 figs.

Shaw, R.W.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.; Heatherly, L.

1991-01-01

347

An Approach to Help Departments Meet the New ABET Process Safety Requirements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proposed program criteria changes by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc. (ABET), for chemical, biochemical, biomolecular, and similarly named programs includes a fundamental awareness expectation of the hazards involved in chemical processing for a graduating chemical engineer. As of July 2010, these four new words…

Vaughen, Bruce K.

2012-01-01

348

Process and technique factors associated with patient ratings of session safety during psychodynamic psychotherapy.  

PubMed

This study investigates the relationships between patient ratings of in-session safety with psychotherapeutic techniques and process. Ninety-four participants received Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (STDP) at a university-based clinic. Patient experiences of therapeutic process were self-assessed early in treatment using the Session Evaluation Questionnaire (SEQ Stiles, 1980). Techniques implemented in session were identified using the Comparative Psychotherapy Process Scale (CPPS: Hilsenroth et al., 2005). Alliance was evaluated with the Combined Alliance Short Form-Patient Version (CASF-P; Hatcher and Barends, 1996). Safety significantly correlated with session depth, smoothness, and positivity. Safety was significantly related to the interaction of psychodynamic-interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral techniques, but to neither individual subscale Safety significantly correlated with CASF-P Total, Confident Collaboration, and Bond. Patient experiences of safety are consistent with exploration and depth of session content. Integration of some CB techniques within a psychodynamic model may facilitate a sense of safety. Safety is notably intertwined with the therapeutic relationship. PMID:24236355

Siegel, Deborah F; Hilsenroth, Mark J

2013-01-01

349

WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL NUCLEAR SAFETY RELATED R AND D REPORT FOR CY2008  

SciTech Connect

The Engineering and Technology Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks associated with key waste processing project decisions. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment (TDD). The Office of Waste Processing TDD program prioritizes and approves research and development scopes of work that address nuclear safety related to processing of highly radioactive nuclear wastes. Thirteen of the thirty-five R&D approved work scopes in FY2009 relate directly to nuclear safety, and are presented in this report.

Fellinger, A.

2009-10-15

350

The Safety and Reliability of Complex Energy Processing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common characteristic of large-scale, complex energy conversion, generation, and processing systems, such as fossil fuel\\/thermoelectric power plants, gas processing facilities, off-shore rigs, and high-capacity compressor and pumping stations, is that large amounts of potentially flammable, combustible, or pressurized materials are concentrated and processed in single sites under the centralized control of a few operators (working in a control-room environment).

N. Meshakti

2007-01-01

351

A CONCEPT FOR SAFETY ANALYSES OF CHEMICAL PLANTS BA SED ON DISCRETE MODELS WITH AN ADAPTED DEGREE OF ABSTRACTI ON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since most of the design of chemical plants today is still carried out manually and is based on time consuming experts' discussions, there is a considerable incentive to develop model-based techniques. This contribution focuses on supporting the investigation of safety-related issues by discrete event models. We describe how the plant's physical behaviour can be modelled by state transition systems, where

Olaf Stursberg; Holger Graf; Sebastian Engell; Henner Schmidt-Traub

1998-01-01

352

A Case Study of Measuring Process Risk for Early Insights into Software Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this case study, we examine software safety risk in three flight hardware systems in NASA's Constellation spaceflight program. We applied our Technical and Process Risk Measurement (TPRM) methodology to the Constellation hazard analysis process to quantify the technical and process risks involving software safety in the early design phase of these projects. We analyzed 154 hazard reports and collected metrics to measure the prevalence of software in hazards and the specificity of descriptions of software causes of hazardous conditions. We found that 49-70% of 154 hazardous conditions could be caused by software or software was involved in the prevention of the hazardous condition. We also found that 12-17% of the 2013 hazard causes involved software, and that 23-29% of all causes had a software control. The application of the TPRM methodology identified process risks in the application of the hazard analysis process itself that may lead to software safety risk.

Layman, Lucas; Basili, Victor; Zelkowitz, Marvin V.; Fisher, Karen L.

2011-01-01

353

Prodrugs design based on inter- and intramolecular chemical processes.  

PubMed

This review provides the reader a concise overview of the majority of prodrug approaches with the emphasis on the modern approaches to prodrug design. The chemical approach catalyzed by metabolic enzymes which is considered as widely used among all other approaches to minimize the undesirable drug physicochemical properties is discussed. Part of this review will shed light on the use of molecular orbital methods such as DFT, semiempirical and ab initio for the design of novel prodrugs. This novel prodrug approach implies prodrug design based on enzyme models that were utilized for mimicking enzyme catalysis. The computational approach exploited for the prodrug design involves molecular orbital and molecular mechanics (DFT, ab initio, and MM2) calculations and correlations between experimental and calculated values of intramolecular processes that were experimentally studied to assign the factors determining the reaction rates in certain processes for better understanding on how enzymes might exert their extraordinary catalysis. PMID:23998799

Karaman, Rafik

2013-12-01

354

Chemical Solution Processing of Strontium Bismuth Tantalate Films  

SciTech Connect

We describe Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) processes by which Strontium Bismuth Tantalate (SBT) thin films can be prepared at temperatures as low as 550 C. In this paper, we will present strategies used to optimize the properties of the films including solution chemistry, film composition, the nature of the substrate (or bottom electrode) used, and the thermal processing cycle. Under suitable conditions, {approximately} 1700 {angstrom} films can be prepared which have a large switchable polarization (2P{sub r} > 10{micro}C/cm{sup 2}), and an operating voltage, defined as the voltage at which 0.80 x 2P{sub r} max is switched, 2.0V. We also describe an all-alkoxide route to SBT films from which SBT can be crystallized at 550 C.

Boyle, T.J.; Lakeman, C.D.E.

1998-12-21

355

Study on chemical mechanical polishing process of lithium niobate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical mechanical polishing of lithium niobate wafer in alkaline slurries has been investigated. In the lithium niobate CMP, the slurry was made by adding colloidal silica abrasive to de-ionized water. The effects of polishing plate speed, slurry flow rate, polishing pressure on removal rate in actual CMP process has been discussed in order to determine the optimum conditions for those parameters. The optimal slurry component is colloid SiO2, concentration SiO2:DW=1:1; KOH concentration 0.5~1.5% and surfactant 5~15ml/L. The process conditions are polishing plate speed 60rpm, polishing pressure 140KPa and slurry flow rate 120ml/min. The removal rate can reach 300nm/min and surface roughness is 0.21nm.

Wang, Shengli; Liu, Yuling; Li, Zhenxia

2007-12-01

356

Aerobic treatment of a nitrogen-limited chemical process wastewater.  

PubMed

Nitrogen transformations and their effect on aerobic suspended growth treatment of an industrial wastewater were studied in three parallel bench-scale reactors operated at 5 degrees C at mean cell residence times (MCRT) of 15, 30, and 60 days. In normal process wastewater, the bulk of influent nitrogen was in organic form, and the fraction transformed was almost totally incorporated into synthesized biomass. Assimilative control by heterotrophs maintained ammonia-nitrogen levels below permitted effluent levels, and nitrification was not significant. Although volatile suspended solids had a nitrogen content of only 5% to 8%, effective organics removal was maintained, and total organic carbon and filtered daily average five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) were below permitted effluent levels. A marked improvement in settleability and lower effluent total suspended solids was achieved by adding ammonia-nitrogen to the wastewater in excess of stoichiometric growth requirements. During a batch production cycle of a cationic chemical, the ratio of nitrogen to chemical oxygen demand and the fraction of the total influent nitrogen in soluble form increased in the wastewater. Reactor effluent ammonia levels increased to above permit levels at all three MCRTs during treatment of wastewater containing cationic production effluents. The magnitude of ammonia increase was greater for longer MCRTs, suggesting that synthesis of cell mass was not capable of assimilating the increased ammonia supply under these non-steady conditions. The experimental results suggest several potential strategies for operating the aerobic process at the treatment facility, including adding nitrogen to improve settleability and discontinuing these additions when wastewater contains a high ratio of nitrogen to chemical oxygen demand and an elevated soluble nitrogen fraction. PMID:9028176

Smith, D P

1996-06-01

357

Hot filament chemical vapour deposition processing of titanate nanotube coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, we report on the processing of titanate nanotubes using the hot filament chemical vapour deposition (HF-CVD) method to synthesize titania-carbon nanotube-wire composites. The titanate nanotubes are prepared using a chemical route, and then deposited on \\langle 100\\rangle silicon using an electrodeposition method. The HF-CVD is used to process these coatings at different temperatures in vacuum as well as in different concentrations of hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) gas mixtures. The evolutions of the surface and precipitation for various phases have been monitored using different characterization techniques. It is observed that titanate nanotubes start disintegrating above Ts~500 °C, and exhibit different types of phase precipitation depending upon the temperature and gas ambient. Under appropriate conditions, the presence of activated hydrogen and carbon radicals leads to the formation of novel architectures of mixtures of nanophases such as carbide, nonstoichiometric titania, carbon nanotubes, and titania decorated carbon nanowires. The results are discussed in terms of reduction in the thermal reaction barrier due to the presence of atomic hydrogen, and the formation of energetic sites during disintegration of titania nanotubes to facilitate nucleation of nanotube and nanowire structures.

Godbole, V. P.; Kim, G. S.; Dar, M. A.; Kim, Y. S.; Seo, H. K.; Khang, G.; Shin, H. S.

2005-08-01

358

An assessment of patient safety in acupuncture process under EMR support.  

PubMed

With the facilitating roles of IT, this study is to investigate the safety issues of the acupuncture process in the current practices under EMR support. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in 80 Chinese medicine practice hospitals and clinics in Taiwan. Concerns over patient safety during the acupuncture process were raised, such as an inconsistency between the practice and prescription and a lack of monitoring patient's condition during the treatment. Confirming the physicians' prescription and documenting patients' reaction for patient record management are needed to add to the EMR system for patient safety while performing acupuncture. The results of this study can be used by the government or medical institutes to assess the work flow and set up standards of EMRs design for their acupuncture treatment to ensure patient safety and to enhance healthcare quality. PMID:20703773

Li, Yi-Chang; Hung, Ming-Chien; Hsiao, Shih-Jung; Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Chang, Mei-Man

2011-12-01

359

CRITICALITY SAFETY OF PROCESSING SALT SOLUTION AT SRS  

SciTech Connect

High level radioactive liquid waste generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site has been stored as 36 million gallons in underground tanks. About ten percent of the waste volume is sludge, composed of insoluble metal hydroxides primarily hydroxides of Mn, Fe, Al, Hg, and most radionuclides including fission products. The remaining ninety percent of the waste volume is saltcake, composed of primarily sodium (nitrites, nitrates, and aluminates) and hydroxides. Saltcakes account for 30% of the radioactivity while the sludge accounts for 70% of the radioactivity. A pilot plant salt disposition processing system has been designed at the Savannah River Site for interim processing of salt solution and is composed of two facilities: the Actinide Removal Process Facility (ARPF) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Data from the pilot plant salt processing system will be used for future processing salt at a much higher rate in a new salt processing facility. Saltcake contains significant amounts of actinides, and other long-lived radioactive nuclides such as strontium and cesium that must be extracted prior to disposal as low level waste. The extracted radioactive nuclides will be mixed with the sludge from waste tanks and vitrified in another facility. Because of the presence of highly enriched uranium in the saltcake, there is a criticality concern associated with concentration and/or accumulation of fissionable material in the ARP and MCU.

Stephens, K; Davoud Eghbali, D; Michelle Abney, M

2008-01-15

360

[Demonstration of quality, safety and efficacy of biological products subject to changes in their manufacturing process].  

PubMed

Ensuring quality, safety and efficacy of the medicinal products placed on the market of the Russian Federation constitutes the area that requires strict regulation. When changes are made to the manufacturing process, the manufacturer generally needs to evaluate the relevant quality attributes of the product to demonstrate that modifications did not occur that would adversely impact the safety and efficacy of the drug. Where there is the lack of a sound legal basis, there is a need in harmonization of current Russian legislation with international and European rules governing medicinal product for human use to ensure quality, safety and efficacy thereof. PMID:24738243

Vasil'ev, A N; Gavrishina, E V; Niiazov, R R; Snegireva, A A; Adonin, V K

2013-01-01

361

Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic-nozzle sprays.

Lyons, Shawn M.; Harrison, Mark A.; Law, S. Edward

2011-06-01

362

Determination of Degraded Dyes and Auxiliary Chemicals in Effluents from Textile Dyeing Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Selected dyes and auxiliary chemicals used in dyeing processes were tested in a laboratory environment simulating that to which dyehouse effluents would be subjected in a conventional activated sludge waste treatment process. Dyes and auxiliary chemicals ...

R. K. Flege

1970-01-01

363

Experience of Hot Cell Renovation Work in CPF (Chemical Processing Facility)  

SciTech Connect

Renovation work for operation room A of the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF) was carried out. Cell renovation work involved disassembly, removal and installation of new equipment for the CA-3 cell of operation room A and the crane renovation work involved the repair of the in-cell crane for the CA-5 cell of operation room A. There were not many examples of renovation work performed on cells under high radiation environment and alpha contamination in Japan. Lessons learnt: With respect to the cell renovation work and crane repair work, a method that gave full consideration to safety was employed and the work was performed without accidents or disaster. Moreover, through improvement of the method, reduction of radioactive exposure of the workers was achieved and a melt reduction device was designed to deal with the radioactive waste material that was generated in the renovation work to achieve significant melt reduction of waste material.

Toyonobu Nabemoto; Fujio Katahira; Tadatsugu Sakaya [IHI Corporation: Isogo-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa pref, 235-8501 (Japan); Shinichi Aose; Takafumi Kitajima; Kouji Ogasawara; Kazunori Nomura; Shigehiko Miyachi; Yoshiaki Ichige; Tadahiro Shinozaki; Shinichi Ohuchi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency: Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki pref, 319-1194 (Japan)

2008-01-15

364

Data Refining for Text Mining Process in Aviation Safety Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful data mining is an iterative process during which data will be refined and adjusted to achieve more accurate mining results. Most important tools in the text mining context are list of stop words and list of synonyms. The size and richness of the lists mentioned depend on the structure of the language used in the text to be mined. English, for example, is an “easy” language for search technologies, because with a couple of exceptions, the stem of the word is not conjugated and terms are formed using several words instead of creating compounds. This requires special attention to definitions when processing morphologically rich languages like Finnish. This chapter introduces the need and realisation of refining the source data for a successful data mining process based onto the results achieved from first mining round.

Sjöblom, Olli

365

Enhanced Chemical Cleaning: A New Process for Chemically Cleaning Savannah River Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

At the Savannah River Site (SRS) there are 49 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks that eventually must be emptied, cleaned, and closed. The current method of chemically cleaning SRS HLW tanks, commonly referred to as Bulk Oxalic Acid Cleaning (BOAC), requires about a half million liters (130,000 gallons) of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to clean a single tank. During the cleaning, the oxalic acid acts as the solvent to digest sludge solids and insoluble salt solids, such that they can be suspended and pumped out of the tank. Because of the volume and concentration of acid used, a significant quantity of oxalate is added to the HLW process. This added oxalate significantly impacts downstream processing. In addition to the oxalate, the volume of liquid added competes for the limited available tank space. A search, therefore, was initiated for a new cleaning process. Using TRIZ (Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadatch or roughly translated as the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving), Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination with Ultraviolet Light (CORD-UV{reg_sign}), a mature technology used in the commercial nuclear power industry was identified as an alternate technology. Similar to BOAC, CORD-UV{reg_sign} also uses oxalic acid as the solvent to dissolve the metal (hydr)oxide solids. CORD-UV{reg_sign} is different, however, since it uses photo-oxidation (via peroxide/UV or ozone/UV to form hydroxyl radicals) to decompose the spent oxalate into carbon dioxide and water. Since the oxalate is decomposed and off-gassed, CORD-UV{reg_sign} would not have the negative downstream oxalate process impacts of BOAC. With the oxalate destruction occurring physically outside the HLW tank, re-precipitation and transfer of the solids, as well as regeneration of the cleaning solution can be performed without adding additional solids, or a significant volume of liquid to the process. With a draft of the pre-conceptual Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) flowsheet, taking full advantage of the many CORD-UV{reg_sign} benefits, performance demonstration testing was initiated using available SRS sludge simulant. The demonstration testing confirmed that ECC is a viable technology, as it can dissolve greater than 90% of the sludge simulant and destroy greater than 90% of the oxalates. Additional simulant and real waste testing are planned.

Ketusky, Edward; Spires, Renee; Davis, Neil

2009-02-11

366

Safety Assurance for Nuclear Chemical Plants - Regulatory Practice in the UK.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the legislation and licensing requirements for nuclear installations as well as the related safety assurance procedures in the UK. Developments in safety assurance practice are identified and discussed in relation to the role of the r...

J. Driscoll F. Charlesworth

1983-01-01

367

Safety Analysis of Process Industry System Based on Complex Networks Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a new method for safety analysis of process industry systems based on recent advances in complex networks. We model the process industry system as a large, complex network and study its topological properties, and then we investigate the cascading failures by constructing a simple model incorporating the loads on nodes and the efficiency of network.

Hongquan Jiang; Jianmin Gao; Zhiyong Gao; Guo Li

2007-01-01

368

Processing of Whole Femoral Head Allografts: A Method for Improving Clinical Efficacy and Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Femoral heads removed during primary hip replacement surgery are widely utilised as a source of allograft bone. Despite evidence that processing these grafts to remove blood and marrow elements improves both the clinical performance and safety of these allografts, many are transplanted without any processing being applied at all. The goal of this study was to investigate the efficiency of

R. Lomas; O. Drummond; J. N. Kearney

2000-01-01

369

Chemical Reactions in the Processing of Mosi2 + Carbon Compacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hot-pressing of MoSi2 powders with carbon at high temperatures reduces the siliceous grain boundary phase in the resultant compact. The chemical reactions in this process were examined using the Knudsen cell technique. A 2.3 wt pct oxygen MoSi2 powder and a 0.59 wt pct oxygen MoSi2 powder, both with additions of 2 wt pct carbon, were examined. The reduction of the siliceous grain boundary phase was examined at 1350 K and the resultant P(SiO)/P(CO) ratios interpreted in terms of the SiO(g) and CO(g) isobars on the Si-C-O predominance diagram. The MoSi2 + carbon mixtures were then heated at the hot-pressing temperature of 2100 K. Large weight losses were observed and could be correlated with the formation of a low-melting eutectic and the formation and vaporization of SiC.

Jacobson, Nathan S.; Lee, Kang N.; Maloy, Stuart A.; Heuer, Arthur H.

1993-01-01

370

Hydrogeochemical processes and chemical characteristics around Sahand Mountain, NW Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical analysis of 21 water wells in Sahand area, NW of Iran has been evaluated to determine the hydrogeochemical processes and ion, heavy and trace metal concentration background in the region. The dominated hydrochemical types are Ca-Mg-HCO3, Ca-SO4 and Na-Cl that vary in different group sample. The pH and Eh of the groundwater in the study area indicating an acidic to alkaline nature of the samples in group II, acidic nature in group I and neutral in group III. Also in Group III than Group I and II, the oxidizing condition is dominant, while in the other groups relative reducing conditions prevail. Due to Cu and other metal mineralization in I and II site, Cu, As, Au and other metal concentration in this water groups is higher than group III.

Pazand, Kaveh; Hezarkhani, Ardeshir

2013-06-01

371

Chemical degradation of polyacrylamide by advanced oxidation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results obtained from the oxidation of polyacrylamide (PAM) by the UV\\/H2O2, Fenton, UV\\/Fenton, visible light\\/Fenton, visible light\\/Fenton\\/C2O, UV\\/Fenton\\/C2O, visible light\\/Fenton\\/C4H4O and UV\\/Fenton\\/C4H4O processes. Degradation efficiency for PAM had the following order: UV\\/Fenton\\/C4H4OFenton\\/C2O visible light\\/Fenton\\/C4H4O visible light\\/Fenton\\/C2O UV\\/Fenton>visible light\\/Fenton>UV\\/H2O2>Fenton. The addition of tartrate had a positive effect on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal. Increasing the concentrations of

Mang Lu; Xuejiao Wu; Xiaofang Wei

2012-01-01

372

Chemical degradation of polyacrylamide by advanced oxidation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results obtained from the oxidation of polyacrylamide (PAM) by the UV\\/H2O2, Fenton, UV\\/Fenton, visible light\\/Fenton, visible light\\/Fenton\\/C2O, UV\\/Fenton\\/C2O, visible light\\/Fenton\\/C4H4O and UV\\/Fenton\\/C4H4O processes. Degradation efficiency for PAM had the following order: UV\\/Fenton\\/C4H4OFenton\\/C2O visible light\\/Fenton\\/C4H4O visible light\\/Fenton\\/C2O UV\\/Fenton>visible light\\/Fenton>UV\\/H2O2>Fenton. The addition of tartrate had a positive effect on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal. Increasing the concentrations of

Mang Lu; Xuejiao Wu; Xiaofang Wei

2011-01-01

373

Irradiation treatment of minimally processed carrots for ensuring microbiological safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are very common in developed countries and are gaining popularity in developing countries due to their convenience and freshness. However, minimally processing may result in undesirable changes in colour, taste and appearance due to the transfer of microbes from skin to the flesh. Irradiation is a well-known technology for elimination of microbial contamination. Food irradiation has been approved by 50 countries and is being applied commercially in USA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the quality of minimally processed carrots. Fresh carrots were peeled, sliced and PE packaged. The samples were irradiated (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 kGy) and stored at 5°C for 2 weeks. The samples were analyzed for hardness, organoleptic acceptance and microbial load at 0, 7th and 15th day. The mean firmness of the control and all irradiated samples remained between 4.31 and 4.42 kg of force, showing no adverse effect of radiation dose. The effect of storage (2 weeks) was significant ( P< 0.05) with values ranging between 4.28 and 4.39 kg of force. The total bacterial counts at 5°C for non-irradiated and 0.5 kGy irradiated samples were 6.3×10 5 cfu/g, 3.0×10 2 and few colonies(>10) in all other irradiated samples(1.0, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy) after 2 weeks storage. No coliform or E. coli were detected in any of the samples (radiated or control) immediately after irradiation and during the entire storage period in minimally processed carrots. A dose of 2.0 kGy completely controlled the fungal and bacterial counts. The irradiated samples (2.0 kGy) were also acceptable sensorially.

Ashraf Chaudry, Muhammad; Bibi, Nizakat; Khan, Misal; Khan, Maazullah; Badshah, Amal; Jamil Qureshi, Muhammad

2004-09-01

374

Artificial intelligence applications at the ICPP. [Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP)  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) initiated an aggressive program for artificial intelligence (AI) expert system implementations in 1985. The first expert system, Safety Analysis Methods Advisor (SAMA) was completed in 1986 to help operational safety analysts select analysis methodologies for safety analysis reports. The SAMA expert system was implemented as a rule-based system using a commercial expert system shell. The major benefit of the system is for training new safety analysts. The first successful implementation launched three other expert system projects: a process alarm filtering system, a process control advisor, and a mass spectrometer trouble-shooting advisor. This paper describes the current status of these projects. (GHH)

Johnson, C.E.

1989-08-02

375

Data requirements for the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue developed through the data quality objectives process  

SciTech Connect

This document records the data quality objectives (DQO) process applied to the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue at the Hanford Site. Specifically, the major recommendations and findings from this Ferrocyanide DQO process are presented. The decision logic diagrams and decision error tolerances also are provided. The document includes the DQO sample-size formulas for determining specific tank sampling requirements, and many of the justifications for decision thresholds and decision error tolerances are briefly described. More detailed descriptions are presented in other Ferrocyanide Safety Program companion documents referenced in this report. This is a living document, and the assumptions contained within will be refined as more data from sampling and characterization become available.

Meacham, J.E.; Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Babad, H. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States); Buck, J.W.; Anderson, C.M.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Toth, J.J.; Turner, P.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-08-01

376

Characterization of graphene oxide reduced through chemical and biological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of new materials for transparent electrodes or new heterojunctions made of 2D materials combinations is a very active research topic. Challenges to overcome are the modulation of the optoelectronic properties of such materials to achieve competitive photovoltaic devices. In this work, graphene oxide was reduced into graphene through different chemical (hydrazine, ultraviolet photocatalysis) and biological (microorganisms) processes. W e benchmarked the reduction efficiency by probing materials characteristics using various physical characterization techniques. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses were carried out to observe the effectiveness of the reduction processes through the sp2/sp3 content. In addition, the homogeneity of the reduction is investigated on micrometer scale sample with micro Raman mapping and extraction of the ID/IG ratio. Conductive-probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM) was employed to investigate the longitudinal conductivity of the different samples. The results show that hydrazine based reduction remains the most efficient. However, the bacterial procedure demonstrated partial reconstruction of the carbon network and reduced the amount of oxygenated functional groups.

Boutchich, M.; Jaffré, A.; Alamarguy, D.; Alvarez, J.; Barras, A.; Tanizawa, Y.; Tero, R.; Okada, H.; Thu, T. V.; Kleider, J. P.; Sandhu, A.

2013-04-01

377

Removal of Endocrine Disruptor Chemicals Using Drinking Water Treatment Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A group of chemicals, known as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), has been identified as having the potential to cause adverse health effects in humans and wildlife. Among this group, DDT, PCBs endosulfan, methoxychlor, diethylphthalate, diethylhexylph...

2001-01-01

378

Health Aspects of Chemical Safety. Legislative and Administrative Procedures for the Control of Chemicals. Interim Document 5. Legislation and Administration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each year from 200 to 1000 new chemicals enter the market. Their control is vital, but possible adverse effects of chemicals on human health and the environment must be weighed against the many benefits derived from their use. Many countries have control ...

A. I. Bainova M. Idman-Philp W. Huster S. Westberg A. Gilad

1982-01-01

379

Review of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report was prepared to fulfill the Phase I deliverable for HLW\\/DWPF\\/TTR-98-0018, Rev. 2, ''Hydrogen Generation in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell'', 6\\/4\\/2001. The primary objective for the preliminary phase of the hydrogen generation study was to complete a review of past data on hydrogen generation and to prepare a summary of the findings. The understanding was that the focus

Koopman

2004-01-01

380

A graded approach to safety analysis for Rover Processing Facility deactivation  

SciTech Connect

The Rover Fuels Processing Facility operated in the early 1980`s, recovering uranium from graphite fuels. In 1996 clean-out began of uranium bearing material remaining in the Rover cells where combustion processes had occurred. Success of the Rover Deactivation Project depends on the safe, timely, and cost-effective repackaging and removal of the uranium bearing material. Due to a number of issues which could not be resolved prior to clean-out, and consideration of cost and schedule objectives, a graded approach was taken to projected design and criticality safety analysis. The safety authorization basis was upgraded primarily by a specific Deactivation addendum, instead of being completely rewritten to current format and content standards. In place of having all design activities completed prior to the start of the Deactivation, the project design and accompanying safety documentation evolved as the project progressed. The Unreviewed Safety Question determination process was used to ensure that new project activities were within the safety envelope. This graded approach allowed operational flexibility while maintaining a critically safe work environment.

Henrikson, D.J.

1997-08-01

381

Augmented evaluation of the false criticality alarm at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Self-Assessment (DP-9), Defense Programs (DP) began to monitor a Criticality Alarm system (CAS) failure occurrence at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) shortly after January 11, 1992, when a false trip of the CAS in building CPP-601/602 caused a plant evacuation. Building CPP-601/602 contains the uranium fuel reprocessing denitration system, which was not operating at the time of the CAS failure occurrence. At that time DP-9 and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO), the Department of Energy (DOE) operating contractor, believed that this event may represent a potential generic safety concern for other DOE facilities. This false criticality alarm activation did not pose a significant danger to the health and safety of the public or to ICPP employees. Once the CAS was activated, the ICPP was evacuated per procedures. However, false CAS actuations are undesirable. The CAS system should be extremely reliable because of the dangers associated with criticality events and the potential for accidents and injuries resulting from prompt process termination and building evacuation. The Office of Self-Assessment then formed an Augmented Evaluation Team (AET) for an on-site diagnostic assessment of the CAS at ICPP. The AET's on-site evaluation process included briefings by ICPP management, discussions with pertinent technical supervisors and managers, an examination of relevant CAS documentation, physical examination of failed equipment, and a walk-through of the ICPP CAS. The AET judged that the most probable direct causes of the CAS failure were the heat induced failure of a low voltage power supply combined with the concurrent and/or prior failure of its back-up nickel cadium (NiCad) battery located in the CAS. The battery was not adequately maintained. These judgments are consistent with WINCO's analyses.

Not Available

1992-05-01

382

Augmented evaluation of the false criticality alarm at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Self-Assessment (DP-9), Defense Programs (DP) began to monitor a Criticality Alarm system (CAS) failure occurrence at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) shortly after January 11, 1992, when a false trip of the CAS in building CPP-601/602 caused a plant evacuation. Building CPP-601/602 contains the uranium fuel reprocessing denitration system, which was not operating at the time of the CAS failure occurrence. At that time DP-9 and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO), the Department of Energy (DOE) operating contractor, believed that this event may represent a potential generic safety concern for other DOE facilities. This false criticality alarm activation did not pose a significant danger to the health and safety of the public or to ICPP employees. Once the CAS was activated, the ICPP was evacuated per procedures. However, false CAS actuations are undesirable. The CAS system should be extremely reliable because of the dangers associated with criticality events and the potential for accidents and injuries resulting from prompt process termination and building evacuation. The Office of Self-Assessment then formed an Augmented Evaluation Team (AET) for an on-site diagnostic assessment of the CAS at ICPP. The AET`s on-site evaluation process included briefings by ICPP management, discussions with pertinent technical supervisors and managers, an examination of relevant CAS documentation, physical examination of failed equipment, and a walk-through of the ICPP CAS. The AET judged that the most probable direct causes of the CAS failure were the heat induced failure of a low voltage power supply combined with the concurrent and/or prior failure of its back-up nickel cadium (NiCad) battery located in the CAS. The battery was not adequately maintained. These judgments are consistent with WINCO`s analyses.

Not Available

1992-05-01

383

Overview of tritium safety technology at the tritium process laboratory of JAERI  

SciTech Connect

The Tritium Process Laboratory of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is the only laboratory in Japan where grams of tritium can be handled to carry out R D on tritium processing and tritium safety handling technologies for fusion reactors. The tritium inventory is approximately 13 grams. Since 1988, basic research has been performed using gram-level tritium quantities. During the past 5 years, approximately 1 kilogram of tritium has been handled in experimental apparatus. The total amount of tritium released through the stack of TPL was controlled to less than 1 Ci without any accidents. In order to establish more complete tritium safety for DT fusion reactors, main R D areas on tritium safety technology at TPL were focused on a new compact tritium confinement system, reliable tritium accounting and inventory control, new tritium waste treatments, and tritium release behavior into a room.

Hayashi, Takumi; Okuno, Kenji (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan))

1993-06-01

384

Overview of tritium safety technology at the Tritium Process Laboratory of JAERI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tritium Process Laboratory of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is the only laboratory in Japan where grams of tritium can be handled to carry out R&D on tritium processing and tritium safety handling technologies for fusion reactors. The tritium inventory is approximately 13 grams. Since 1988, basic research has been performed using gram-level tritium quantities. During the past 5 years, approximately 1 kilogram of tritium has been handled in experimental apparatus. The total amount of tritium released through the stack of TPL was controlled to less than 1 Ci without any accidents. In order to establish more complete tritium safety for DT fusion reactors, main R&D areas on tritium safety technology at TPL were focused on a new compact tritium confinement system, reliable tritium accounting and inventory control, new tritium waste treatments, and tritium release behavior into a room.

Hayashi, Takumi; Okuno, Kenji

1993-06-01

385

Principles of risk assessment for determining the safety of chemicals: recent assessment of residual solvents in drugs and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.  

PubMed

Risk assessment of chemicals is essential for the estimation of chemical safety, and animal toxicity data are typically used in the evaluation process, which consists of hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Hazard identification entails the collection of all available toxicity data and assessment of toxicity endpoints based on findings for repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity or genotoxicity and species-specificity. Once a review is compiled, the allowable lifetime exposure level of a chemical is estimated from a dose-response assessment based on several measures. For non-carcinogens and non-genotoxic carcinogens, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) is divided by uncertainty factors (e.g. with environmental pollutants) or safety factors (e.g. with food additives) to derive a tolerable daily intake (TDI) or acceptable daily intake (ADI), respectively. These factors include interspecies and individual differences, duration of exposure, quality of data, and nature of toxicity such as carcinogenicity or neurotoxicity. For genotoxic carcinogens, low dose extrapolation is accomplished with mathematical modeling (e.g. linearized multistage model) from the point of departure to obtain exposure levels that will be associated with an excess lifetime cancer risk of a certain level. Data for levels of chemicals in food, water and air, are routinely used for exposure assessment. Finally, risk characterization is performed to ensure that the established 'safe' level of exposure exceeds the estimated level of actual exposure. These principles have led to the evaluation of several existing chemicals. To establish a guideline for residual solvents in medicine, the permitted daily exposure (PDE), equivalent to TDI, of N,N-dimethylformamide was derived on the basis of developmental toxicity (malformation) and of N-methylpyrrolidone on the basis of the developmental neurotoxicity. A TDI for di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was derived from assessment of testicular toxicity. PMID:15198717

Hasegawa, Ryuichi; Koizumi, Mutsuko; Hirose, Akihiko

2004-06-01

386

Safety Assessment and Biological Effects of a New Cold Processed SilEmulsion for Dermatological Purpose  

PubMed Central

It is of crucial importance to evaluate the safety profile of the ingredients used in dermatological emulsions. A suitable equilibrium between safety and efficacy is a pivotal concern before the marketing of a dermatological product. The aim was to assess the safety and biological effects of a new cold processed silicone-based emulsion (SilEmulsion). The hazard, exposure, and dose-response assessment were used to characterize the risk for each ingredient. EpiSkin assay and human repeat insult patch tests were performed to compare the theoretical safety assessment to in vitro and in vivo data. The efficacy of the SilEmulsion was studied using biophysical measurements in human volunteers during 21 days. According to the safety assessment of the ingredients, 1,5-pentanediol was an ingredient of special concern since its margin of safety was below the threshold of 100 (36.53). EpiSkin assay showed that the tissue viability after the application of the SilEmulsion was 92 ± 6% and, thus considered nonirritant to the skin. The human studies confirmed that the SilEmulsion was not a skin irritant and did not induce any sensitization on the volunteers, being safe for human use. Moreover, biological effects demonstrated that the SilEmulsion increased both the skin hydration and skin surface lipids.

Salgado, Ana; Goncalves, Lidia; Pinto, Pedro C.; Urbano, Manuela; Ribeiro, Helena M.

2013-01-01

387

Using a Readily Available Commercial Spreadsheet to Teach a Graduate Course on Chemical Process Simulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chemical process simulation is one of the most fundamental skills that is expected from chemical engineers, yet relatively few graduates have the opportunity to learn, in depth, how a process simulator works, from programming the unit operations to the sequencing. The University of Calgary offers a "hands-on" postgraduate course in Chemical

Clarke, Matthew A.; Giraldo, Carlos

2009-01-01

388

Scientific and Professional Journal: Work and Safety 2-2004 (Rad i Sigurnost 2-2004). Chemical Abstracts, Enviroline, Health and Safety Science Abstracts, Pollution Abstracts and Ergonomics Abstracts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Psychosocial Protection of Law Enforcement Officers in Croatia; Workplace and Contact Allergenic Dermatitis; Nuclear, Biological, Chemical Weapons in the 21st Century; A new society of safety engineers; Building trade and occupational Medicine; ...

2004-01-01

389

Safety and environmental process for the design and construction of the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laser fusion experimental facility currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This paper describes the safety and environmental processes followed by NIF during the design and construction activities.

Brereton, S.J., LLNL

1998-05-27

390

Increasing Patient Safety and Efficiency in Transfusion Therapy Using Formal Process Definitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The administration of blood products is a common, resource-intensive, and potentially problem-prone area that may place patients at elevated risk in the clinical setting. Much of the emphasis in transfusion safety has been targeted toward quality control measures in laboratory settings where blood prod- ucts are prepared for administration as well as in automation of certain laboratory processes. In con-

Elizabeth A. Henneman; George S. Avrunin; Lori A. Clarke; Leon J. Osterweil; Chester Andrzejewski Jr; Karen Merrigan; Rachel Cobleigh; Kimberly Frederick; Ethan Katz-Bassett; Philip L. Henneman

391

Education Department Begins Process to Implement HEA Reauthorization with New Campus Safety Provisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Department of Education has announced the beginning of the process to develop rules for new requirements in the recently passed Higher Education Act (HEA). Highlights of the HEA that affect campus public safety departments include measures that: (1) Require a fire log be maintained at an institution of higher education for events that…

Phillips, Lisa

2008-01-01

392

Quantitative business decision-making for the investment of preventing safety accidents in chemical plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new quantitative method of supporting business decision-making while investing safety related facility and service. This method suggests the priority of investment relevant to safety within limited budget, so most possible hazards can be removed or the company may not invest money for the acceptable hazards depending on the bud. The typical theory that risk is equivalent

Hyungjoon Yoon; Hanyong Lee; Il Moon

2000-01-01

393

The effects of physical environments in medical wards on medication communication processes affecting patient safety.  

PubMed

Physical environments of clinical settings play an important role in health communication processes. Effective medication management requires seamless communication among health professionals of different disciplines. This paper explores how physical environments affect communication processes for managing medications and patient safety in acute care hospital settings. Findings highlighted the impact of environmental interruptions on communication processes about medications. In response to frequent interruptions and limited space within working environments, nurses, doctors and pharmacists developed adaptive practices in the local clinical context. Communication difficulties were associated with the ward physical layout, the controlled drug key and the medication retrieving device. Health professionals should be provided with opportunities to discuss the effects of ward environments on medication communication processes and how this impacts medication safety. Hospital administrators and architects need to consider health professionals' views and experiences when designing hospital spaces. PMID:24486620

Liu, Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie

2014-03-01

394

A concurrent diagnosis of microbiological food safety output and food safety management system performance: Cases from meat processing industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stakeholder requirements force companies to analyse their food safety management system (FSMS) performance to improve food safety. Performance is commonly analysed by checking compliance against preset requirements via audits\\/inspections, or actual food safety (FS) output is analysed by microbiological testing. This paper discusses the usefulness of a concurrent diagnosis of FSMS performance and FS output using new tools; illustrated for

P. A. Luning; L. Jacxsens; J. Rovira; S. M. Osés; M. Uyttendaele; W. J. Marcelis

2011-01-01

395

Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa, L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D10-values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on

L. Goularte; C. G Martins; I. C Morales-Aizpurúa; M. T Destro; B. D. G. M Franco; D. M Vizeu; B. W Hutzler; M. Landgraf

2004-01-01

396

Drinking water biotic safety of particles and bacteria attached to fines in activated carbon process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the drinking water biotic safety of particles and bacteria attached to fines in activated carbon process was\\u000a investigated by actual treatment process and advanced treatment pilot trial with granular activated carbon. In the experiment,\\u000a the particles were detected by IBR particle calculating instrument, the activated carbon fines were counted on the basis of\\u000a the most probable number

Wei Chen; Tao Lin; Leilei Wang

2007-01-01

397

Enhancing patient safety: improving the patient handoff process through appreciative inquiry.  

PubMed

Patient transfers from one care giver to another are an area of high safety consequence, as is evident by many studies and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization's Patient Safety Goals. The authors describe how one hospital made measurable improvements in a patient handoff process by using an unconventional approach to change called appreciative inquiry. Rather than identifying the root causes of ineffective handoffs, appreciative inquiry was used to engage staff in identifying and building on their most effective handoff experiences. PMID:17273030

Shendell-Falik, Nancy; Feinson, Michael; Mohr, Bernard J

2007-02-01

398

A method to assess safety and resilience in radiopharmaceuticals production process.  

PubMed

Radiopharmaceuticals are radiation-emitting substances used in medicine for radiotherapy and imaging diagnosis. A Research Institute, located in Rio de Janeiro, produces three radiopharmaceuticals: the sodium iodate is used in the diagnosis of thyroid dysfunctions, the meta-iodo-benzylguanidine is used in the diagnosis of cardiac diseases, and the fluordesoxyglucose is used in diagnosis in cardiology, oncology, neurology and neuropsychiatry. This paper presents a method to access safety and resilience in radiopharmaceuticals production processes. The method uses resilience indicators in order to proactively evaluate and manage the safety. PMID:22317705

Grecco, Cláudio H S; Vidal, Mario C R; Santos, Isaac J A L; Carvalho, Paulo V R

2012-01-01

399

Effects of chemical additives on microbial enhanced oil recovery processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive laboratory study has been conducted to determine (1) the role of the microbial cells and products in oil displacement, (2) the relative rates of transport of microbial cells and chemical products from the metabolism of nutrient in porous media, and (3) the effects of chemical additives on the oil recovery efficiency of microbial formulations. This report describes experiments

R. S. Bryant; K. L. Chase; K. M. Bertus; A. K. Stepp

1989-01-01

400

Sustainability Indicators for Chemical Processes : II. Data Needs  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to begin repair of the environmental quality of the planet, there is a need to embrace sustainable development at many levels of the chemical industry and society. One way that the chemical industry is responding to this need is through sustainability evaluations, retrof...

401

Optimization of chemical etching process in niobium cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superconducting niobium cavities are important components of linear accelerators. Buffered chemical polishing (BCP) on the inner surface of the cavity is a standard procedure to improve its performance. The quality of BCP, however, has not been optimized well in terms of the uniformity of surface smoothness. A finite element computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the chemical

T. Tajima; M. Trabia; W. Culbreth; S. Subramanian

2004-01-01

402

Cost-Efficient Methods and Processes for Safety Relevant Embedded Systems (CESAR) - An Objective Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For developing embedded safety critical systems, industrial companies have to face increasing complexity and variety coupled with increasing regulatory constraints, while costs, performances and time to market are constantly challenged. This has led to a profusion of enablers (new processes, methods and tools), which are neither integrated nor interoperable because they have been developed more or less independently (addressing only a part of the complexity: e.g. Safety) in the absence of internationally recognized open standards. CESAR has been established under ARTEMIS, the European Union's Joint Technology Initiative for research in embedded systems, with the aim to improve this situation and this pa-per will explain what CESAR's objectives are, how they are expected to be achieved and, in particular, how current best practice can ensure that safety engineering requirements can be met.

Jolliffe, Graham

403

Recognizing Chemical Hazards Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for the Advancement of Process Technology presents this free sample module on recognizing chemical hazards. It focuses on chemical hazards specific to process industries, and their impact on safety, health and the environment. The material also introduces the purpose and components of an MSDS.

2013-01-09

404

[Pharmacovigilance idea should be introduced sufficiently into the safety monitoring and evaluation process of Chinese drugs].  

PubMed

Along with the general improving of public consciousness on drugs' safety and the increasing of new Chinese drugs' manufacture and application, the safety of Chinese drugs has become a more prominent concern and a focus of attention. The scientific identification, analysis and evaluation of this affairs greatly impacts the scientific decision-making for ensuring the public use of drugs in security, also influences the healthy development of Chinese medicine industry. In this paper, the different meanings of "adverse reaction" and "adverse events" of Chinese drugs were introduced from pharmacovigilance idealistic view, and the influencing factors on safety of Chinese drugs were analyzed from the perspective of pharmacovigilance. The authors proposed that "Chinese medicine safety monitoring and evaluation" is a much more practical concept in consistency with the current situation. They pointed out that introducing sufficiently the concept of pharmaco vigilance idea into the safety monitoring and evaluation process is the basis for overall evaluation and effective risk controlling of Chinese drugs. PMID:19960988

Zhang, Li; Yang, Xiao-Hui

2009-09-01

405

Artisanal alcohol production in Mayan Guatemala: chemical safety evaluation with special regard to acetaldehyde contamination.  

PubMed

There is a lack of knowledge regarding the composition, production, distribution, and consumption of artisanal alcohol, particularly in the developing world. In Nahualá, an indigenous Mayan municipality located in highland Guatemala, heavy alcohol consumption appears to have had a significant negative impact on health, a major role in cases of violence and domestic abuse, and a link to street habitation. Cuxa, an artisanally, as well as commercially produced sugarcane alcohol, is widely consumed by heavy drinkers in this community. Cuxa samples from all distribution points in the community were obtained and chemically analyzed for health-relevant constituents and contaminants including methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, and metals. From those, only acetaldehyde was confirmed to be present in unusually high levels (up to 126 g/hl of pure alcohol), particularly in samples that were produced clandestinely. Acetaldehyde has been evaluated as "possibly carcinogenic" and has also been identified as having significant human exposure in a recent risk assessment. This study explores the reasons for the elevated levels of acetaldehyde, through both sampling and analyses of raw and intermediary products of cuxa production, as well as interviews from producers of the clandestine alcohol. For further insight, we experimentally produced this alcohol in our laboratory, based on the directions provided by the producers, as well as materials from the town itself. Based on these data, the origin of the acetaldehyde contamination appears to be due to chemical changes induced during processing, with the major causative factors consisting of poor hygiene, aerobic working conditions, and inadequate yeast strains, compounded by flawed distillation methodology that neglects separation of the first fractions of the distillate. These results indicate a preventable public health concern for consumers, which can be overcome through education about good manufacturing practices, as well as financial incentives to separate the acetaldehyde-rich fractions during distillation. PMID:19729189

Kanteres, Fotis; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

2009-11-01

406

Process optimization and consumable development for Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) is one of the most critical processing steps that enables fabrication of multilevel interconnects. The success of CMP process is limited by the implementation of an optimized process and reduction of process generated defects along with post CMP surface characteristics such as dishing and erosion. This thesis investigates to identify various sources of defects and studies the effect of factors that can be used to optimize the process. The major contributions of this work are: Understanding the effect of temperature rise on surface tribology, electrochemistry and post CMP pattern effects during the CMP process; investigating the effect of pad conditioning temperature and slurry flow rate on tribology and post CMP characteristics; development of novel slurries using polymer hybrid particles and improvement in slurry metrology to reduce surface damage during CMP. From the current research, it was shown that the effect of temperature on CMP tribology is predominantly affected by the polishing parameters and the polishing pad characteristics more than the chemical nature of the slurry. The effect of temperature is minimal on the resulting surface roughness but the with-in die non-uniformity is significantly affected by the temperature at the interface. Secondly, in this research it was shown that the effectiveness and aggressiveness of the pad conditioning process is highly influenced by the conditioning temperature. This aspect can be utilized to optimize the parameters for the pad conditioning process. Further, post CMP characteristics such as dishing, erosion and metal loss on patterned samples were shown to decrease with increase in slurry flow rate. This research then concentrates on the development of novel low defect slurry using polymer hybrid abrasive particles. Several varieties of surface functionalized polymer particles were employed to make oxide CMP slurries. These novel slurries proved to be potential candidates to reduce surface damage during CMP as they resulted in low coefficient of friction and much less surface scratches as compared to conventional abrasives. Thus, this research helps to reduce defects and non-planarity issues during CMP process thereby improving yield and reducing the cost of ownership.

Mudhivarthi, Subrahmanya R.

407

Feasibility of toxic chemical waste processing in large scale solar installations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new strategy for processing toxic chemical wastes in large scale solar concentration installations is discussed in which photon energy and process heat, as well as solar-generated hydrogen are essential elements. It includes the following steps: Instead of burning chemicals at high temperature, which produces many additional toxic products, they are subject to pyrolysis and hydrogenation using solar process heat

H TRIBUTSCH

1989-01-01

408

Designing property specifications to improve the safety of the blood transfusion process.  

PubMed

Computer scientists use a number of well-established techniques that have the potential to improve the safety of patient care processes. One is the formal definition of a process; the other is the formal definition of the properties of a process. Even highly regulated processes, such as laboratory specimen acquisition and transfusion therapy, use guidelines that may be vague, misunderstood, and hence erratically implemented. Examining processes in a systematic way has led us to appreciate the potential variability in routine health care practice and the impact of this variability on patient safety in the clinical setting. The purpose of this article is to discuss the use of innovative computer science techniques as a means of formally defining and specifying certain desirable goals of common, high-risk, patient care processes. Our focus is on describing the specification of process properties, that is, the high-level goals of a process that ultimately dictate why a process should be performed in a given manner. PMID:18848156

Henneman, Elizabeth A; Cobleigh, Rachel; Avrunin, George S; Clarke, Lori A; Osterweil, Leon J; Henneman, Philip L

2008-10-01

409

Anion exchange chromatography provides a robust, predictable process to ensure viral safety of biotechnology products.  

PubMed

The mammalian cell-lines used to produce biopharmaceutical products are known to produce endogenous retrovirus-like particles and have the potential to foster adventitious viruses as well. To ensure product safety and regulatory compliance, recovery processes must be capable of removing or inactivating any viral impurities or contaminants which may be present. Anion exchange chromatography (AEX) is a common process in the recovery of monoclonal antibody products and has been shown to be effective for viral removal. To further characterize the robustness of viral clearance by AEX with respect to process variations, we have investigated the ability of an AEX process to remove three model viruses using various combinations of mAb products, feedstock conductivities and compositions, equilibration buffers, and pooling criteria. Our data indicate that AEX provides complete or near-complete removal of all three model viruses over a wide range of process conditions, including those typically used in manufacturing processes. Furthermore, this process provides effective viral clearance for different mAb products, using a variety of feedstocks, equilibration buffers, and different pooling criteria. Viral clearance is observed to decrease when feedstocks with sufficiently high conductivities are used, and the limit at which the decrease occurs is dependent on the salt composition of the feedstock. These data illustrate the robust nature of the AEX recovery process for removal of viruses, and they indicate that proper design of AEX processes can ensure viral safety of mAb products. PMID:18683259

Strauss, Daniel M; Gorrell, Jeffrey; Plancarte, Magdalena; Blank, Gregory S; Chen, Qi; Yang, Bin

2009-01-01

410

Chemical-Cleaning Solvent and Process Testing. Final Report (PWR).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory and pilot plant investigations were conducted to develop and qualify chemical cleaning solvents, procedures, analysis methods and monitoring techniques to safely remove magnetite, copper and copper oxide sludges from the secondary side of nucle...

J. M. Jevec W. S. Leedy

1983-01-01

411

FDA'S food ingredient approval process: Safety assurance based on scientific assessment.  

PubMed

Fifty years ago, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began implementing new provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act aimed at assuring the safety of new food additives before they enter the marketplace. Today, the agency's procedures for premarket evaluation of food additive safety have evolved into a scientifically rigorous, sound and dependable system whose objective and independent evaluations by FDA scientists assure that new food additives are safe for their intended uses before they arrive on the consumer's plate. Although controversy often surrounds food additives in the popular media and culture, and science-based challenges to FDA's decisions do arise, the agency's original safety judgments successfully withstand these challenges time and again. This article reviews the basic components of the FDA's decision-making process for evaluating the safety of new food additives, and identifies characteristics of this process that are central to assuring that FDA's decisions are marked by scientific rigor and high integrity, and can continue to be relied on by consumers. PMID:18983884

Rulis, Alan M; Levitt, Joseph A

2009-02-01

412

Increasing patient safety and efficiency in transfusion therapy using formal process definitions.  

PubMed

The administration of blood products is a common, resource-intensive, and potentially problem-prone area that may place patients at elevated risk in the clinical setting. Much of the emphasis in transfusion safety has been targeted toward quality control measures in laboratory settings where blood products are prepared for administration as well as in automation of certain laboratory processes. In contrast, the process of transfusing blood in the clinical setting (ie, at the point of care) has essentially remained unchanged over the past several decades. Many of the currently available methods for improving the quality and safety of blood transfusions in the clinical setting rely on informal process descriptions, such as flow charts and medical algorithms, to describe medical processes. These informal descriptions, although useful in presenting an overview of standard processes, can be ambiguous or incomplete. For example, they often describe only the standard process and leave out how to handle possible failures or exceptions. One alternative to these informal descriptions is to use formal process definitions, which can serve as the basis for a variety of analyses because these formal definitions offer precision in the representation of all possible ways that a process can be carried out in both standard and exceptional situations. Formal process definitions have not previously been used to describe and improve medical processes. The use of such formal definitions to prospectively identify potential error and improve the transfusion process has not previously been reported. The purpose of this article is to introduce the concept of formally defining processes and to describe how formal definitions of blood transfusion processes can be used to detect and correct transfusion process errors in ways not currently possible using existing quality improvement methods. PMID:17174220

Henneman, Elizabeth A; Avrunin, George S; Clarke, Lori A; Osterweil, Leon J; Andrzejewski, Chester; Merrigan, Karen; Cobleigh, Rachel; Frederick, Kimberly; Katz-Bassett, Ethan; Henneman, Philip L

2007-01-01

413

Chemical effects head-loss research in support of generic safety issue 191.  

SciTech Connect

This summary report describes studies conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on the potential for chemical effects on head loss across sump screens. Three different buffering solutions were used for these tests: trisodium phosphate (TSP), sodium hydroxide, and sodium tetraborate. These pH control agents used following a LOCA at a nuclear power plant show various degrees of interaction with the insulating materials Cal-Sil and NUKON. Results for Cal-Sil dissolution tests in TSP solutions, settling rate tests of calcium phosphate precipitates, and benchmark tests in chemically inactive environments are also presented. The dissolution tests were intended to identify important environmental variables governing both calcium dissolution and subsequent calcium phosphate formation over a range of simulated sump pool conditions. The results from the dissolution testing were used to inform both the head loss and settling test series. The objective of the head loss tests was to assess the head loss produced by debris beds created by Cal-Sil, fibrous debris, and calcium phosphate precipitates. The effects of both the relative arrival time of the precipitates and insulation debris and the calcium phosphate formation process were specifically evaluated. The debris loadings, test loop flow rates, and test temperature were chosen to be reasonably representative of those expected in plants with updated sump screen configurations, although the approach velocity of 0.1 ft/s used for most of the tests is 3-10 times that expected in plants with large screens . Other variables were selected with the intent to reasonably bound the head loss variability due to arrival time and calcium phosphate formation uncertainty. Settling tests were conducted to measure the settling rates of calcium phosphate precipitates (formed by adding dissolved Ca to boric acid and TSP solutions) in water columns having no bulk directional flow. For PWRs where NaOH and sodium tetraborate are used to control sump pH and fiberglass insulation is prevalent, relatively high concentrations of soluble aluminum can be expected. Tests in which the dissolved aluminum (Al) resulted from aluminum nitrate additions were used to investigate potential chemical effects that may lead to high head loss. Dissolved Al concentrations of 100 ppm were shown to lead to large pressure drops for the screen area to sump volume ratio and fiber debris bed studied. No chemical effects on head loss were observed in sodium tetraborate buffered solutions even for environments with high ratios of submerged Al area to sump volume. However, in tests with much higher concentrations of dissolved Al than expected in plants, large pressure drops did occur. Interaction with NUKON/Cal-Sil debris mixtures produced much lower head losses than observed in corresponding tests with TSP, although tests were not performed over the full range of Cal-Sil that might be of interest.

Park, J. H.; Kasza, K.; Fisher, B.; Oras, J.; Natesan, K.; Shack, W. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2006-10-31

414

Real-time failure prediction for chemical processes: Plantwide framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for plant-specific, real-time risk assessment are presented for an ethyl-benzene plant using Bayesian theory and copula to predict: (i) the frequencies of occurrence of abnormal events, (ii) failure probabilities of safety systems involving equipment and human actions, (iii) probabilities of consequences, and (iv) fuzzy memberships to various critical zones to indicate the proximity of a current plant state to

Anjana Meel; Warren D. Seider

2006-01-01

415

Modeling and optimization of the chemical etching process in niobium cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Niobium cavity is an important component of the integrated NC\\/SC high-power linacs. Over the years researchers in several countries have tested various cavity shapes. They concluded that elliptically shaped cells and buffered chemical polishing produce good results. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of chemical etching on the surface quality and to optimize this process. Chemical

S. Subramanian; Q. Xue; M. Trabia; Y. Chen; R. Jr. Schill

2002-01-01

416

Chemical and Physical Properties, Safety and Application of Partially Hydrolized Guar Gum as Dietary Fiber  

PubMed Central

The ideal water-soluble dietary fiber for the fiber-enrichment of foods must be very low in viscosity, tasteless, odorless, and should produce clear solutions in beverages. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) produced from guar gum by enzymatic process has the same chemical structure with intact guar gum but less than one-tenth the original molecular length of guar gum, which make available to be used as film former, foam stabilizer and swelling agent. The viscosity of PHGG is about 10 mPa·s in 5% aqueous solution, whereas 1% solution of guar gum shows range from 2,000 to 3,000 mPa·s. In addition, PHGG is greatly stable against low pH, heat, acid and digestive enzyme. For these reasons, PHGG seems to be one of the most beneficial dietary fiber materials. It also showed that interesting physiological functions still fully exert the nutritional function of a dietary fiber. PHGG has, therefore, been used primarily for a nutritional purpose and became fully integrated food material without altering the rheology, taste, texture and color of final products. PHGG named as Benefiber® in USA has self-affirmation on GRAS status of standard grade PHGG. PHGG named as Sunfiber® is now being used in various beverages, food products and medicinal foods as a safe, natural and functional dietary fiber in all over the world.

Yoon, Seon-Joo; Chu, Djong-Chi; Raj Juneja, Lekh

2008-01-01

417

Enhancing Credibility of Chemical Safety Studies: Emerging Consensus on Key Assessment Criteria  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examined the extent to which consensus exists on the criteria that should be used for assessing the credibility of a scientific work, regardless of its funding source, and explored how these criteria might be implemented. Data sources Three publications, all presented at a session of the 2009 annual meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, have proposed a range of criteria for evaluating the credibility of scientific studies. At least two other similar sets of criteria have recently been proposed elsewhere. Data extraction/synthesis In this article we review these criteria, highlight the commonalities among them, and integrate them into a list of 10 criteria. We also discuss issues inherent in any attempt to implement the criteria systematically. Conclusions Recommendations by many scientists and policy experts converge on a finite list of criteria for assessing the credibility of a scientific study without regard to funding source. These criteria should be formalized through a consensus process or a governmental initiative that includes discussion and pilot application of a system for reproducibly implementing them. Formal establishment of such a system should enable the debate regarding chemical studies to move beyond funding issues and focus on scientific merit.

Conrad, James W.; Becker, Richard A.

2011-01-01

418

Prediction of the safety level to an installation of the tritium process through predictive maintenance  

SciTech Connect

The safety level for personnel and environment to a nuclear installation is given in generally by the technological process quality of operation and maintenance and in particular by a lot of technical, technological, economic and human factors. The maintenance role is fundamental because it has to quantify all the technical, economic and human elements as an integrated system for it creates an important feedback for activities concerning the life cycle of the nuclear installation. In maintenance activities as in any dynamic area, new elements appear continuously which, sometimes require new approaches. The theory of fuzzy logic and the software LabVIEW supplied to the Nuclear Detritiation Plant (NDP) is part of National Research and Development Inst. for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies-ICIT, Rm.Valcea, used for predictive maintenance to assure safety operation. The final aim is to achieve the best practices for maintenance of the Plant that processes tritium. (authors)

Anghel, V. [National Research and Development Inst. for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICIT, Rm. Valcea Uzinei Street no.4, 240050 (Romania)

2008-07-15

419

Blood transfusions in critical care: improving safety through technology & process analysis.  

PubMed

A multidisciplinary safety initiative transformed blood transfusion practices at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital in Houston, Texas. An intense analysis of a mistransfusion using the principles of a Just Culture and the process of Cause Mapping identified system and human performance factors that led to the transfusion error. Multiple initiatives were implemented including technology, education and human behaviour change. The wireless technology of Pyxis Transfusion Verification by CareFusion is effective with the rapid infusion module efficient for use in critical care. Improvements in blood transfusion safety were accomplished by thoroughly evaluating the process of transfusions and by implementing wireless electronic transfusion verification technology. During the 27 months following implementation of the CareFusion Transfusion Verification there have been zero cases of transfusing mismatched blood. PMID:20541066

Aulbach, Rebecca K; Brient, Kathy; Clark, Marie; Custard, Kristi; Davis, Carolyn; Gecomo, Jonathan; Ho, Judy Ong

2010-06-01

420

CHEMICAL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT, JANUARY-MARCH 1962  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processing of Al fuel, principally of the MTR-ETR type, is reported. ; Processing rate averaged 90% of flow sheet values for the entire operating ; period, and a U recovery of 99.85% was achieved. Aqueous Zr fuel processing ; studles continued with the objective of adapting the HF process to continuous ; dissolution-complexing in order to increase the capacity

J. R. ed

1962-01-01

421

Applications of Neutron Scattering in the Chemical Industry: Proton Dynamics of Highly Dispersed Materials, Characterization of Fuel Cell Catalysts, and Catalysts from Large-Scale Chemical Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attractiveness of neutron scattering techniques for the detailed characterization of materials of high degrees of dispersity and structural complexity as encountered in the chemical industry is discussed. Neutron scattering picks up where other analytical methods leave off because of the physico-chemical properties of finely divided products and materials whose absorption behavior toward electromagnetic radiation and electrical conductivity causes serious problems. This is demonstrated by presenting typical applications from large-scale production technology and industrial catalysis. These include the determination of the proton-related surface chemistry of advanced materials that are used as reinforcing fillers in the manufacture of tires, where interrelations between surface chemistry, rheological properties, improved safety, and significant reduction of fuel consumption are the focus of recent developments. Neutron scattering allows surface science studies of the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on nanodispersed, supported precious metal particles of fuel cell catalysts under in situ loading at realistic gas pressures of about 1 bar. Insight into the occupation of catalytically relevant surface sites provides valuable information about the catalyst in the working state and supplies essential scientific input for tailoring better catalysts by technologists. The impact of deactivation phenomena on industrial catalysts by coke deposition, chemical transformation of carbonaceous deposits, and other processes in catalytic hydrogenation processes that result in significant shortening of the time of useful operation in large-scale plants can often be traced back in detail to surface or bulk properties of catalysts or materials of catalytic relevance. A better understanding of avoidable or unavoidable aspects of catalyst deactivation phenomena under certain in-process conditions and the development of effective means for reducing deactivation leads to more energy-efficient and, therefore, environmentally friendly processes and helps to save valuable resources. Even small or gradual improvements in all these fields are of considerable economic impact.

Albers, Peter W.; Parker, Stewart F.

422

Improvement of virus safety of an antihemophilc factor IX by virus filtration process.  

PubMed

Viral safety is an important prerequisite for clinical preparations of plasma-derived pharmaceuticals. One potential way to increase the safety of therapeutic biological products is the use of a virus-retentive filter. In order to increase the viral safety of human antihemophilic factor IX, particularly in regard to non-enveloped viruses, virus removal process using a polyvinylidene fluoride membrane filter (Viresolve NFP) has been optimized. The most critical factor affecting the filtration efficiency was operating pH and the optimum pH was 6 or 7. Flow rate increased with increasing operating pressure and temperature. Recovery yield in the optimized production-scale process was 96%. No substantial changes were observed in the physical and biochemical characteristics of the filtered factor IX in comparison with those before filtration. A 47-mm disk membrane filter was used to simulate the process performance of the production-scale cartridges and to test if it could remove several experimental model viruses for human pathogenic viruses, including human hepatitis A virus (HAV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), murine encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and bovine herpes virus (BHV). Nonenveloped viruses (HAV, PPV, and EMCV) as well as enveloped viruses (HIV, BVDV, and BHV) were completely removed during filtration. The log reduction factors achieved were >or=6.12 for HAV, >or=4.28 for PPV, >or=5.33 for EMCV, >or=5.51 for HIV, >or=5.17 for BVDV, and >or=5.75 for BHV. These results indicate that the virus filtration process successfully improved the viral safety of factor IX. PMID:18667862

Kim, In Seop; Choi, Yong Woon; Kang, Yong; Sung, Hark Mo; Sohn, Ki Whan; Kim, Yong-Sung

2008-07-01

423

Merging Safety and Assurance: The Process of Dual Certification for Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a process of dual certification for software that meets both FAA safety requirements and NIST\\/NSA security requirements. The commercial avionics industry depends on RTCA DO-178B, for software assurance while security products are evaluated according to the Common Criteria. The two sets of requirements from DO-178B and the Common Criteria are assessed for similarity of function with non-corresponding

Carol Taylor; Jim Alves-Foss; Bob Rinker

424

Chemical and Biological Characterization of High-Btu Coal Gasification: (The HYGAS Process) I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have examined the relationships between mutagenic activity and chemical composition for fractions prepared from process stream materials obtained from a high-Btu coal-gasification pilot plant in which the HYGAS process is employed. Fractionation proced...

V. C. Stamoudis S. Bourne D. A. Haugen M. J. Peak C. A. Reilly

1980-01-01

425

EFFECTIVE RISK MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS USING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The conventional drinking water treamtent processes of coagulation, flocculation, and filtration as well as specialized treatment processes have been examined for their capacity to remove endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). A groupf od EDCs including 4-nonylphenol, diethylphth...

426

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SPILL MONITORING: SAFETY HANDBOOK AND CHEMICAL HAZARD GUIDE. PART A  

EPA Science Inventory

This two-part document is intended to serve as a guide to the hazards associated with a broad range of chemical compounds which may be encountered in hazardous materials spills. The document addresses 655 chemicals identified on the basis of known toxicity or spill history and de...

427

Chemical Thinning Process for Fabricating UV-Imaging CCDs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thinning stage of the postfabrication process reported in the immediately preceding article is notable in its own right. Although the thinning process was described in the preceding article as part of an overall process of fabrication of a supported charge-coupled device (CCD), it is more generally applicable to both free-standing and supported devices that have been fabricated in die and wafer formats. Like the thermocompression bonding process described in the preceding article, the thinning process is compatible with CCD-fabrication processes, as well as postfabrication processes that enhance the response of CCDs to ultraviolet (UV) light, including the delta-doping process. CCDs that are thinned by this process and then delta-doped exhibit high quantum efficiencies that are stable with time and with exposure to the environment.

Jones, TOdd; Grunthaner, Paula; Nikzad, Shouleh; Wilson, Rick

2004-01-01

428

Monitoring and assessing processes of organic chemicals removal in constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Physical, chemical and biological processes interact and work in concert during attenuation of organic chemicals in wetland systems. This review summarizes the recent progress made towards understanding how the various mechanisms attributed to organic chemicals removal interact to form a functioning wetland. We also discuss the main degradation pathways for different groups of contaminants and examine some of the key characteristics of constructed wetlands that control the removal of organic chemicals. Furthermore, we address possible comprehensive approaches and recent techniques to follow up in situ processes within the system, especially those involved in the biodegradation processes. PMID:18996559

Imfeld, Gwenaël; Braeckevelt, Mareike; Kuschk, Peter; Richnow, Hans H

2009-01-01

429

Using the WTO\\/TBT enquiry point to monitor tendencies in the regulation of environment, health, and safety issues affecting the chemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing importance of technical regulation affecting the use and sale of chemical products is a topic of interest not only for the chemical industry, but also for governments, nongovernmental organizations, consumers, and interested communities.The results of such regulation on behalf of the environment, health and safety of individuals, as well as its economic effects on industrial activity, are well

Rodrigo Pio Borges Menezes; Adelaide Maria de Souza Antunes

2005-01-01

430

The Chemistry of Lightsticks: Demonstrations to Illustrate Chemical Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lightsticks, or glowsticks as they are sometimes called, are perhaps the chemist's quintessential toy. Because they are easy to activate and appealing to observe, experimenting with lightsticks provides a great way to get young people interested in science. Thus, we have used lightsticks to teach chemical concepts in a variety of outreach settings…

Kuntzleman, Thomas Scott; Rohrer, Kristen; Schultz, Emeric

2012-01-01

431

Chemical Changes in Lipids Produced by Thermal Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes heat effects on lipids, indicating that the chemical and physical changes that occur depend on the lipid's composition and conditions of treatment. Thermolytic and oxidation reactions, thermal/oxidative interaction of lipids with other food components and the chemistry of frying are considered. (JN)

Nawar, Wassef W.

1984-01-01

432

Cleaning process in high density plasma chemical vapor deposition reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major emitters of perfluorocompounds (PFCs) in semiconductor manufacturing is the in situ plasma cleaning procedure performed after the chemical vapor deposition of dielectric thin films. The release of these man-made gases can contribute to the greenhouse effect. To reduce emissions of PFCs, it has developed a new plasma cleaning technology that uses a remote plasma source (RPS)

Kamilla Iskenderova

2003-01-01

433

Development of a security vulnerability assessment process for the RAMCAP chemical sector.  

PubMed

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Directorate of Information Analysis & Infrastructure Protection (IAIP), Protective Services Division (PSD), contracted the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Innovative Technologies Institute, LLC (ASME ITI, LLC) to develop guidance on Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection (RAMCAP). AcuTech Consulting Group (AcuTech) has been contracted by ASME ITI, LLC, to provide assistance by facilitating the development of sector-specific guidance on vulnerability analysis and management for critical asset protection for the chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) sectors. This activity involves two key tasks for these three sectors: Development of a screening to supplement DHS understanding of the assets that are important to protect against terrorist attack and to prioritize the activities. Development of a standard security vulnerability analysis (SVA) framework for the analysis of consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats. This project involves the cooperative effort of numerous leading industrial companies, industry trade associations, professional societies, and security and safety consultants representative of those sectors. Since RAMCAP is a voluntary program for ongoing risk management for homeland security, sector coordinating councils are being asked to assist in communicating the goals of the program and in encouraging participation. The RAMCAP project will have a profound and positive impact on all sectors as it is fully developed, rolled-out and implemented. It will help define the facilities and operations of national and regional interest for the threat of terrorism, define standardized methods for analyzing consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats, and describe best security practices of the industry. This paper will describe the results of the security vulnerability analysis process that was developed and field tested for the chemical manufacturing sector. This method was developed through the cooperation of the many organizations and the individuals involved from the chemical sector RAMCAP development activities. The RAMCAP SVA method is intended to provide a common basis for making vulnerability assessments and risk-based decisions for homeland security. Mr. Moore serves as the coordinator for the chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and LNG sectors for the RAMCAP project and Dr. Jones is the chief technology officer for ASME-ITI, LLC for RAMCAP. PMID:16920260

Moore, David A; Fuller, Brad; Hazzan, Michael; Jones, J William

2007-04-11

434

SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR TANK 241-AZ-101 MIXER PUMP PROCESS TEST  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the completed safety analysis which establishes the safety envelope for performing the mixer pump process test in Tank 241-AZ-101. This process test is described in TF-210-OTP-001. All equipment necessary for the mixer pump test has been installed by Project W-151. The purpose of this document is to describe and analyze the mixer pump test for Aging Waste Facility (AWF) Tank 241-AZ-101 and to address the 'yes/maybe' responses marked for evaluation questions identified in Unreviewed Safety Question Evaluation (USQE) TF-94-0266. The scope of this document is limited to the performance of the mixer pump test for Tank 241-AZ-101. Unreviewed Safety Question Determination (USQD) TF-96-0018 verified that the installation of two mixer pumps into Tank 241-AZ-101 was within the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Authorization Basis. USQDs TF-96-0461, TF-96-0448, and TF-96-0805 verified that the installation of the in-tank video camera, thermocouples, and Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzer (URSILLA), respectively, were within the current TWRS Authorization Basis. USQD TF-96-1041 verified that the checkout testing of the installed equipment was within the current TWRS Authorization Basis. Installation of the pumps and equipment has been completed. An evaluation of safety considerations associated with operation of the mixer pumps for the mixer pump test is provided in this document. This document augments the existing AWF authorization basis as defined in the Interim Safety Basis (Stahl 1997), and as such, will use the existing Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSRs) of Heubach 1996 to adequately control the mixer pump test. The hazard and accident analysis is limited to the scope and impact of the mixer pump test, and therefore does not address hazards already addressed by the current AWF authorization basis. This document does not evaluate removal of the mixer pumps. Safety considerations for removal of the pumps will be addressed by separate safety documentation once that portion of the mission is defined. The mixer pump test has been evaluated to cover the use of either the existing ventilation system (241-A-702) or the ventilation system upgrade provided by Project W-030. Analysis of Project W-030 is outside of the scope of this document and is addressed in HNF-SD-WM-SARR-039 (Draft) which, should the W-030 system be in service at the time of the mixer pump test, will have been approved and made a part of the TWRS authorization basis. The test will use two high-capacity mixer pumps in various configurations and modes to demonstrate solids mobilization of waste in Tank 241-AZ-101. The information and experience gained during the test will provide data for comparison with sludge mobilization prediction models; provide data to estimate the number, location, and cycle times of the mixer pumps; and provide indication of the effects of mixer pump operation on the AWF tank systems and components. The slurry produced will be evaluated for future pretreatment processing. This process test does not transfer waste from the tank; the waste is mixed and confined within the existing system. At the completion of the mixer pump test, the mixer pumps will be stopped and normal tank operations, maintenance, and surveillance will continue. Periodic rotation of the mixer pumps and motor shafts, along with bearing greasing, is required to maintain the pumps following the mixer pump test.

HAMMOND DM; HARRIS JP; MOUETTE P

1997-06-09

435

TREATMENT TANK CORROSION STUDIES FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than in the PUREX/oxalic acid environment. (3) The corrosion rates for PUREX/8 wt.% oxalic acid were greater than or equal to those observed for the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid. No localized corrosion was observed in the tests with the 8 wt.% oxalic acid. Testing with HM/8 wt.% oxalic acid simulant was not performed. Thus, a comparison with the results with 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid, where the corrosion rate was 88 mpy and localized corrosion was observed at 75 C, cannot be made. (4) The corrosion rates in 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid solutions were temperature dependent: (a) At 50 C, the corrosion rates ranged between 90 to 140 mpy over the 30 day test period. The corrosion rates were higher under stagnant conditions. (b) At 75 C, the initial corrosion rates were as high as 300 mpy during the first day of exposure. The corrosion rates increased with agitation. However, once the passive ferrous oxalate film formed, the corrosion rate decreased dramatically to less than 20 mpy over the 30 day test period. This rate was independent of agitation. (5) Electrochemical testing indicated that for oxalic acid/sludge simulant mixtures the cathodic reaction has transport controlled reaction kinetics. The literature suggests that the dissolution of the sludge produces a di-oxalatoferrate ion that is reduced at the cathodic sites. The cathodic reaction does not appear to involve hydrogen evolution. On the other hand, electrochemical tests demonstrated that the cathodic reaction for corrosion of carbon steel in pure oxalic acid involves hydrogen evolution. (6) Agitation of the oxalic acid/sludge simulant mixtures typically resulted in a higher corrosion rates for both acid concentrations. The transport of the ferrous ion away from the metal surface results in a less protective ferrous oxalate film. (7) A mercury containing species along with aluminum, silicon and iron oxides was observed on the interior of the pits formed in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant at 75 C. The pitting rates in the agitated and non-agitated solution were 2 mils/day and 1 mil/day, respectively. A mechanism

Wiersma, B.

2011-08-24

436

Developing assays to address identity, potency, purity and safety: cell characterization in cell therapy process development.  

PubMed

A major challenge to commercializing cell-based therapies is developing scalable manufacturing processes while maintaining the critical quality parameters (identity, potency, purity, safety) of the final live cell product. Process development activities such as extended passaging and serum reduction/elimination can facilitate the streamlining of cell manufacturing process as long as the biological functions of the product remain intact. Best practices in process development will be dependent on cell characterization; a thorough understanding of the cell-based product. Unique biological properties associated with different types of cell-based products are discussed. Cell characterization may be used as a tool for successful process development activities, which can promote a candidate cell therapy product through clinical development and ultimately to a commercialized product. PMID:22168500

Carmen, Jessica; Burger, Scott R; McCaman, Michael; Rowley, Jon A

2012-01-01

437

An evaluation of a hierarchical multi agent based process monitoring system for chemical plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi agent systems have gained increasing interest in research, particularly in areas where distributed intelligence is required, in situations where single centralized methods are not suited. Fault detection and identification in chemical process industries is one such domain where multi agent systems would be ideally suited. A chemical process industry experiences various faults at different levels of granularity in the

Sathish Natarajan; Kaushik Ghosh; Rajagopalan Srinivasan

2011-01-01

438

Online inspection of thermo-chemical heat treatment processes with CCD camera system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma nitriding belongs to the group of the thermo chemical surface heat treatments. During this process nitrogen is dissociated into the surface of the material increasing hardness, wear resistance, endurance strength and\\/or corrosion resistance. This paper presents a new inspection system based on a CCD camera system for monitoring such heat treatment processes (PACVD, plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition). Treatment

Gerald Zauner; Gerald Darilion; Ronald Pree; Daniel Heim; G. Hendorfer

2005-01-01

439

Process intensification in the future production of base chemicals from biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is an attractive resource for the production of bulk chemicals. Process intensification (PI) is a valuable approach in developing economical processes with a minimal global footprint which will require new infrastructure to be designed and built. An attempt is presented to describe the future architecture of the bio-based chemical industry. The field is in its infancy and it is

J. P. M. Sanders; J. H. Clark; G. J. Harmsen; H. J. Heeres; J. J. Heijnen; S. R. A. Kersten; W. P. M. van Swaaij; J. A. Moulijn

2012-01-01

440

Safety Training for the Developmentally Disabled in Icon Recognition for the Safe Use of Hazardous Chemicals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unique document is a training manual for individuals such as job coaches and janitorial crew supervisors who train and work with Developmentally Disabled (DD) workers in vocational classrooms and on job sites. These workers need to be taught the importance of safety in the workplace using methods appropriate to their developmental needs. The…

Sandoz, Jeff

2005-01-01

441

New insights into chemical processes within martian high latitude soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our analysis of near-infrared spectra of low albedo soils in the northern lowlands of Mars has revealed that they can be classified into three compositional groups: (1) relatively unaltered and high-calcium pyroxene-rich, (2) pervasively leached and glass-rich, and (3) gypsum-rich. Here we present results from spectral and morphologic studies, which together show that the diversity of soils observed from orbit and those observed in situ by the Phoenix lander can largely be explained by aqueous processes acting on high-calcium pyroxene-rich soils. Soils in Acidalia Planitia, parts of the north polar sand sea, and certain units within the north polar plateau exhibit spectral signatures consistent with an enrichment in iron-bearing glass, as well as signatures consistent with leached glass rinds, which form during acidic alteration of glass surfaces. As glass enrichment can be produced during acidic leaching of basaltic sand, we have proposed that these soils are the endproducts of widespread and pervasive acidic leaching. If these altered sands originally had a composition similar to the relatively unaltered high-calcium pyroxene-rich soils observed elsewhere in the northern lowlands, then we should also expect them to contain calcium-bearing secondary precipitates, primarily gypsum. While spectral analysis of Acidalia-type soils places an approximate upper limit on their gypsum concentration of 15-20 wt.%, our results suggest that the gypsum-rich (up to 40 wt.%) sands in the Olympia Undae region of the north polar sand sea could also be sourced from Acidalia-type materials within the north polar plateau. Although Olympia Undae gypsum concentrations appear too high to justify this hypothesis, our morphologic studies of the region suggest that the high concentrations are most likely surficial and do not represent the volumetric concentrations. By mapping the distribution of tensional surface cracks on sand dunes in HiRISE images, we have shown that the strength of gypsum absorptions correlates with the density of cracks on the dunes, which we interpret as evidence that the dune surfaces are cemented by gypsum. As chemical cementation requires dissolution and transport of salts by liquid water, we hypothesize that the gypsum precipitated out of brines, perhaps similar to the putative brines observed at the Phoenix landing site. If these brines originated from ice melt within or beneath the dunes and were transported to the surface via capillary wicking, they would have produced a surface layer enriched in gypsum, consistent with the observed distribution of gypsum on the dunes. This hypothesis explains why Olympia Undae is the only unit in the region with strong gypsum signatures, even at high resolution. These results shed new light on soils at the Phoenix landing site, as particles sourced from all of the above soil types may have been observed in Optical Microscope studies of Phoenix soils. Furthermore, the high-calcium pyroxene-rich soils that we have identified could serve as a source of calcium for the calcium carbonates identified at the landing site, which differ from the magnesium and iron carbonates that have been identified elsewhere on the planet.

Horgan, B.; Bell, J. F.

2010-12-01

442

Indicators and Metrics for Evaluating the Sustainability of Chemical Processes  

EPA Science Inventory

A metric-based method, called GREENSCOPE, has been developed for evaluating process sustainability. Using lab-scale information and engineering assumptions the method evaluates full-scale epresentations of processes in environmental, efficiency, energy and economic areas. The m...

443

Assessment of aircraft impact possibilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant on the INEL Site  

SciTech Connect

The concern of this study was the possibility of an aircraft collision with facilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Two sets of data were combined in calculating the probability of this event. The first was from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission data is used to check the adequacy of nuclear power plant location relative to aircraft crashes. For neighboring airport scenarios, the accepted rate unit is fatal crashes per square mile. For in-flight crash scenarios, a total loss of control crash rate (where the pilot was completely out of control) is used for evaluating nuclear reactors. Numbers were given per linear mile of flight. The other set of data was obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board`s annual review. These data points show higher crash frequencies because crashes in which the pilot maintained some control have not been excluded. By including this data set, the evaluation gained two advantages. First, the data are separated by type of aircraft, which makes frequencies for specific flight paths more meaningful. Second, the data are given year by year over a ten-year time span. Therefore, it is possible to gain a sense of the variability in crash frequencies from one year to another.

Lee, L.G.; Mines, J.M.; Webb, B.B.

1993-08-01

444

CHEMICAL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT, OCTOBER-DECEMBER 1961  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ICPP processed Al fuel, prtncipally of the MTR-ETR type, durtng this ; quarter. Newly designed and installed processing equipment exhibited excellent ; operating performance. This included direct-air-pulsed extraction, stripping and ; scrub columns, and a cascade-controlled continuous evaporator in first cycle ; product concentration service. Aqueous zirconium fuel processing studies ; continued with the objective of adapting the hydrofluoric

J. R. ed

1962-01-01

445

CHEMICAL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT, APRIL-JUNE 1962  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous zirconium fuel processing studies, directed at adapting the ; hydrofluoric acid process to continuous dissolution-complexing in order to ; increase the capacity of the ICPP process, resulted in determination of ; dissolution rates over a wide range of conditions. The addition of oxidants to ; 4.8M hydrofluoric acid used for the continuous dissolution of 3% uranium-Zircaloy-; 2 fuel decreased

J. R. ed

1962-01-01

446

Process safety management in the pipeline industry: parallels and differences between the pipeline integrity management (IMP) rule of the Office of Pipeline Safety and the PSM/RMP approach for process facilities.  

PubMed

In 2001, the Federal Office of Pipeline Safety promulgated its pipeline integrity management rule for hazardous liquid pipelines. A notice of proposed rule making for a similar rule for gas pipelines was issued in January 2003. A final rule must be in place by the end of 2003. These rules derive from formal risk management initiatives of both the pipeline industry and the regulators beginning in the early to mid-1990s. The initiatives and resulting rules built on many of the process safety and risk management concepts and frameworks of the process industries, as modified for pipelines. Looking closely at the parallels and the differences is an interesting study of how the technical, public and industry-specific requirements affect the types of regulations, supporting management system frameworks and the technical activities for improving hazardous materials process safety. This paper is based on the experience of the author in project work with federal and state regulators and with industry groups and companies, in both the process and pipeline industries over the last 17 years. It provides insights into various alternative pathways for communicating process safety concepts and improving process safety as the concepts are translated into specific company and even individual employee actions. It specifically highlights how the commonalities and differences in the types and configurations of physical assets and operating practices of the pipeline companies and process facilities affect respective cultures, language and actions for process safety management. PMID:14602408

DeWolf, Glenn B

2003-11-14

447

Comparison of thermal flow and chemical shrink processes for 193 nm contact hole patterning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper compares thermal shrink properties of contact holes and chemical shrink performance for 193 nm lithography. Pitch dependence, shrink properties, contact hole circularity, sidewall roughness, and process window are also discussed. Thermal flow process exhibited more pitch dependence than chemical shrink process. Thermal shrink rate increased substantially at higher bake temperatures. Contact holes in defocused area shrunk non-evenly and DOF deteriorated upon heating. In chemical shrink process, shrink rate was hardly influenced by mixing bake temperature, contact holes from center focus to defocus area shrunk evenly preserving effective DOF and MEF became smaller at smaller CD. Chemical shrink has clear advantages over thermal flow process and sub-70 nm contact holes were obtained with iso-dense overlap DOF 0.25 ?m by optimizing resist formulations and process conditions. Application of shrink processes will pave the way for the next generation LSI production.

Kudo, Takanori; Antonio, Charito; Sagan, John; Chakrapani, Srinivasan; Parthasarathy, Deepa; Hong, Sungeun; Thiyagarajan, Muthiah; Cao, Yi; Padmanaban, Munirathna

2009-03-01

448

Optimisation of Shape Parameters and Process Manufacturing for an Automotive Safety Part  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the weight and the cost of automotive vehicles have considerably increased due to the importance devoted to safety systems. It is therefore necessary to reduce the weight and the production cost of components by improving their shape and manufacturing process. This work deals with a numerical approach for optimizing the manufacturing process parameters of a safety belt anchor using a genetic algorithm (NSGA II). This type of component is typically manufactured in three stages: blanking, rounding of the edges by punching and finally, bending with a 90° angle. In this study, only the rounding and the bending will be treated. The numerical model is linked to the genetic algorithm in order to optimize the process parameters. This is implemented by using ABAQUS© script files developed in the Python programming language. The algorithm modifies the script files and restarts the FEM analysis automatically. Lemaitre's damage model is introduced in the material behaviour laws and implemented in the FEM analysis by using a FORTRAN subroutine. The influence of two process parameters (die radius and the rounding punch radius) and five shape parameters were investigated. The objective functions are (i) the material damage state at the end of the forming process, (ii) the stress field and (iii) the maximum Von Mises stress in the folded zone.

Gildemyn, Eric; Dal Santo, Philippe; Potiron, Alain; Saïdane, Delphine

2007-05-01

449

Research on chemical vapor deposition processes for advanced ceramic coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our interdisciplinary background and fundamentally-oriented studies of the laws governing multi-component chemical vapor deposition (VD), particle deposition (PD), and their interactions, put the Yale University HTCRE Laboratory in a unique position to significantly advance the 'state-of-the-art' of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) R&D. With NASA-Lewis RC financial support, we initiated a program in March of 1988 that has led to the advances described in this report (Section 2) in predicting chemical vapor transport in high temperature systems relevant to the fabrication of refractory ceramic coatings for turbine engine components. This Final Report covers our principal results and activities for the total NASA grant of $190,000. over the 4.67 year period: 1 March 1988-1 November 1992. Since our methods and the technical details are contained in the publications listed (9 Abstracts are given as Appendices) our emphasis here is on broad conclusions/implications and administrative data, including personnel, talks, interactions with industry, and some known applications of our work.

Rosner, Daniel E.

1993-01-01

450

Health Aspects of Chemical Safety. Interim Document 9. Toxicology of Pesticides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pesticides are the hazardous chemicals which most people come in to contact with most often. This volume serves as a training manual for institutes planning courses in pesticide toxicology, and as a guide for those responsible for making decisions concern...

F. Kaloyanova S. Tarkowski W. N. Aldridge F. Moriarty J. A. R. Bates

1982-01-01

451

Alternative processes for water reclamation and solid waste processing in a physical/chemical bioregenerative life support system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on alternative processes for water reclamation and solid waste processing in a physical/chemical-bioregenerative life support system are presented. The main objective is to focus attention on emerging influences of secondary factors (i.e., waste composition, type and level of chemical contaminants, and effects of microorganisms, primarily bacteria) and to constructively address these issues by discussing approaches which attack them in a direct manner.

Rogers, Tom D.

1990-01-01

452

Safety management of complex research operators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complex research and technology operations present varied potential hazards which are addressed in a disciplined, independent safety review and approval process. Potential hazards vary from high energy fuels to hydrocarbon fuels, high pressure systems to high voltage systems, toxic chemicals to radioactive materials and high speed rotating machinery to high powered lasers. A Safety Permit System presently covers about 600 potentially hazardous operations. The Safety Management Program described is believed to be a major factor in maintaining an excellent safety record.

Brown, W. J.

1981-01-01

453

Using Drawing Technology to Assess Students' Visualizations of Chemical Reaction Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigated how students used a drawing tool to visualize their ideas of chemical reaction processes. We interviewed 30 students using thinking-aloud and retrospective methods and provided them with a drawing tool. We identified four types of connections the students made as they used the tool: drawing on existing knowledge, incorporating dynamic aspects of chemical processes, linking a visualization to the associated chemical phenomenon, and connecting between the visualization and chemistry concepts. We also compared students who were able to create dynamic visualizations with those who only created static visualizations. The results indicated a relationship between students constructing a dynamic view of chemical reaction processes and their understanding of chemical reactions. This study provides insights into the use of visualizations to support instruction and assessment to facilitate students' integrated understanding of chemical reactions.

Chang, Hsin-Yi; Quintana, Chris; Krajcik, Joseph

2014-06-01

454

Integrated Quality and Food Safety Management model for small food processing industries: The Lower-Northern region of Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, quality and safety food are vital for Thais as qualified food provides healthiness and quality of life. Moreover, Food Processing Industries have been the major industrial sector in Thailand. However, from the pilot survey, it illustrated that Quality and Food Safety Management were considered as inferior issues than the profit and marketing strategies. Therefore, this paper intends to present

P. Buranajarukorn; Chakthong Thongchattu

2010-01-01

455

An intervention method for occupational safety in farming -- evaluation of the effect and process.  

PubMed

In order to increase safety in Swedish farming an intervention methodology to influence attitudes and behaviour was tested. Eighty eight farmers and farm workers in nine groups gathered on seven occasions during 1 year. The basic concept was to create socially supportive networks and encourage discussions and reflection, focusing on risk manageability. Six of the groups made structured incident/accident analyses. Three of the latter groups also received information on risks and accident consequences. Effects were evaluated in a pre-post questionnaire using six-graded scales. A significant increase in safety activity and significant reduction in stress and risk acceptance was observed in the total sample. Risk perception and perceived risk manageability did not change. Analysing incidents/accidents, but not receiving information, showed a more positive outcome. Qualitative data indicated good feasibility and that the long duration of the intervention was perceived as necessary. The socially supportive network was reported as beneficial for the change process. PMID:16765313

Stave, Christina; Törner, Marianne; Eklöf, Mats

2007-05-01

456

Coarse grain model for coupled thermo-mechano-chemical processes and its application to pressure-induced endothermic chemical reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend a thermally accurate model for coarse grain dynamics (Strachan and Holian 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 014301) to enable the description of stress-induced chemical reactions in the degrees of freedom internal to the mesoparticles. Similar to the breathing sphere model, we introduce an additional variable that describes the internal state of the particles and whose dynamics is governed both by an internal potential energy function and by interparticle forces. The equations of motion of these new variables are derived from a Hamiltonian and the model exhibits two desired features: total energy conservation and Galilean invariance. We use a simple model material with pairwise interactions between particles and study pressure-induced chemical reactions induced by hydrostatic and uniaxial compression. These examples demonstrate the ability of the model to capture non-trivial processes including the interplay between mechanical, thermal and chemical processes of interest in many applications.

Antillon, Edwin; Banlusan, Kiettipong; Strachan, Alejandro

2014-03-01

457

Occupational-hazard control options for chemical process unit operations, preliminary survey report for the site visit of October 19, 1981 to Borg-Warner Chemicals Woodmar Plant, Washington, West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

A survey was conducted to investigate techniques used to control worker exposures to acrylonitrile at the Woodmar Facility of the Borg-Warner Chemicals Company in Washington, West Virginia. At this facility, many products were made including acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) resins, methyl-methacrylate butadiene styrene resins, and other modifier and reinforcing resins used to process other polymers. Personal protective equipment was used when doing certain jobs to prevent possible skin or eye contact with the chemicals. Operators and maintenance personnel were trained in each operation and task they might encounter so as to minimize possible exposures. Safety standards were in existence which address health hazards of chemicals, mode of emission of chemicals, and control techniques to be used. Management follow-up and monitoring programs were designed to ensure consistent application of work practices throughout the facility.

Telesca, D.R.

1982-05-25