Sample records for chemical process safety

  1. Chemical process safety at fuel cycle facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, D.A.

    1997-08-01

    This NUREG provides broad guidance on chemical safety issues relevant to fuel cycle facilities. It describes an approach acceptable to the NRC staff, with examples that are not exhaustive, for addressing chemical process safety in the safe storage, handling, and processing of licensed nuclear material. It expounds to license holders and applicants a general philosophy of the role of chemical process safety with respect to NRC-licensed materials; sets forth the basic information needed to properly evaluate chemical process safety; and describes plausible methods of identifying and evaluating chemical hazards and assessing the adequacy of the chemical safety of the proposed equipment and facilities. Examples of equipment and methods commonly used to prevent and/or mitigate the consequences of chemical incidents are discussed in this document.

  2. Application of TRIZ creativity intensification approach to chemical process safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junghwan Kim; Jinkyung Kim; Younghee Lee; Wonsub Lim; Il Moon

    2009-01-01

    This study develops a modified method of TRIZ to improve safety in chemical process design. This method is modified by the theory of TRIZ, which is inventive problem solving theory, for retrofit design of chemical process considering safety.The original TRIZ is difficult to access to chemical process safety due to inapplicability and ambiguity of terminology in classification of these parameters.

  3. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant safety document ICPP hazardous chemical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a hazardous chemical evaluation performed for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). ICPP tracks chemicals on a computerized database, Haz Track, that contains roughly 2000 individual chemicals. The database contains information about each chemical, such as its form (solid, liquid, or gas); quantity, either in weight or volume; and its location. The Haz Track database was used as the primary starting point for the chemical evaluation presented in this report. The chemical data and results presented here are not intended to provide limits, but to provide a starting point for nonradiological hazards analysis.

  4. Safety-oriented Resilience Evaluation in Chemical Processes 

    E-print Network

    Dinh, Linh Thi Thuy

    2012-02-14

    , and Controllability. The proposed framework to calculate the Inherent Safety index takes into account all the aspects of process safety design via many sub-indices. Indices of Flexibility and Controllability sub-factors were developed from implementations of well...

  5. Evaluating safety in the management of maintenance activities in the chemical process industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Hale; B. H. J. Heming; K. Smit; F. G. Th. Rodenburg; N. D. van Leeuwen

    1998-01-01

    A study was carried out of the management of safety in maintenance activities in the chemical process industry in the Netherlands. A theoretical model of an ideal maintenance management system incorporating safety was established and tested by peer review in five companies in different industries with high safety risks and requirements and good reputations for maintenance management. The model was

  6. Assessment of environment-, health- and safety aspects of fine chemical processes during early design phases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guntram Koller; Ulrich Fischer; Konrad Hungerbühler

    1999-01-01

    Most environmental-, health- and safety problems (EHS) of a chemical process are fixed during the early stages of the design process, when the chemical reaction pathway and the reaction parameters (e.g. solvents, temperature) are selected. Although a large variety of methods exist for assessing EHS problems of existing processes, none of them can be applied as a general method during

  7. 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...procedures or equipment. The process safety management standard...and process equipment is essential...process safety management program...process safety management standard...modifications to equipment,...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...procedures or equipment. The process safety management standard...and process equipment is essential...process safety management program...process safety management standard...modifications to equipment,...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...procedures or equipment. The process safety management standard...and process equipment is essential...process safety management program...process safety management standard...modifications to equipment,...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...procedures or equipment. The process safety management standard...and process equipment is essential...process safety management program...process safety management standard...modifications to equipment,...

  11. Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James A.; Davis, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "conservation of life" as a concept and unifying theme for increasing awareness, application, and integration of process safety in chemical engineering education. Students need to think of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of life as equally important in engineering design and analysis.…

  12. CHEMICAL SAFETY ALERTS-

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical Safety Alerts are short publications which explain specific hazards that have become evident through chemical accident investigation efforts. EPA has produced over a dozen Alerts to date. This year's Alert: Managing Chemical Reactivity Hazards...

  13. Normalization of Process Safety Metrics 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Mengtian

    2012-10-19

    This study is aimed at exploring new process safety metrics for measuring the process safety performance in processing industries. Following a series of catastrophic incidents such as the Bhopal chemical tragedy (1984) and Phillips 66 explosion...

  14. Development of a relational chemical process safety database and applications to safety improvements 

    E-print Network

    Al-Qurashi, Fahad

    2000-01-01

    of the chemical type, toxic or flammable, and the number of full time employees in the facilities are discussed. To increase the value of the lessons learned from this database, proposed links with failure rate databases and reactive chemical databases were...

  15. Measuring Process Safety Management

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.C. (ARCO Chemical Co., Newtown Square, PA (United States))

    1992-04-01

    Many companies are developing and implementing Process Safety Management (PSM) systems. Various PSM models, including those by the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS), the American Petroleum Institute (API), the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) and OSHA have emerged to guide the design, development and installation of these systems. These models represent distillations of the practices, methods and procedures successfully used by those who believed that a strong correlation exists between sound PSM practices and achieving reductions in the frequency and severity of process incidents. This paper describes the progress of CCPS research toward developing a PSM performance measurement model. It also provides a vision for future CCPS research to define effectiveness indices.

  16. Chemical process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  17. CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY AND METHODOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY AND METHODOLOGY MANUAL August 2013 #12;ii Emergency Numbers UNBC Prince-Emergency Numbers UNBC Prince George Campus Chemstores 6472 Chemical Safety 6472 Radiation Safety 6472 Biological the safe use, storage, handling, waste and emergency management of chemicals on the University of Northern

  18. SAFETY IN THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEERE, NORMAN V.

    MONTHLY ARTICLES ON LABORATORY SAFETY THAT APPEARED IN THE "JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION" BETWEEN JANUARY 1964, AND JANUARY 1967, ARE COMBINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE CHEMISTRY TEACHERS. A GENERAL SECTION DEALS WITH (1) RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACCIDENT PREVENTION, (2) SAFETY CONSIDERATION IN RESEARCH PROPOSALS, (3) A SAFETY

  19. CHEMICAL SAFETY Emergency Numbers

    E-print Network

    Bolch, Tobias

    ://www.tc.gc.ca/ · Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ · The Nuclear Safety and Control Risk and Safety Manager 5535 Security 7058 #12;- 3 - FOREWORD This reference manual outlines the safe and reiterates information provided in the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS

  20. Safety Issues Chemical Storage

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Robert E.

    of fume hoods. Minimize chemical storage in fume hoods. · Do not store flammable, volatile toxic in fume hood. Reactives stored with incompatible chemicals. Liquids stored with solids for separate groups. Note: Most fume hoods have a flammable cabinet and a vented corrosive cabinet under them

  1. 29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...exposure limits; (iii) Physical data; (iv) Reactivity... (B) Process chemistry; (C) Maximum intended...measures to be taken if physical contact or airborne...and design, process chemistry, instrumentation...inspection of the physical...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...exposure limits; (iii) Physical data; (iv) Reactivity... (B) Process chemistry; (C) Maximum intended...measures to be taken if physical contact or airborne...and design, process chemistry, instrumentation...inspection of the physical...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...exposure limits; (iii) Physical data; (iv) Reactivity... (B) Process chemistry; (C) Maximum intended...measures to be taken if physical contact or airborne...and design, process chemistry, instrumentation...inspection of the physical...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...exposure limits; (iii) Physical data; (iv) Reactivity... (B) Process chemistry; (C) Maximum intended...measures to be taken if physical contact or airborne...and design, process chemistry, instrumentation...inspection of the physical...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...exposure limits; (iii) Physical data; (iv) Reactivity... (B) Process chemistry; (C) Maximum intended...measures to be taken if physical contact or airborne...and design, process chemistry, instrumentation...inspection of the physical...

  6. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: A Chemical Laboratory Safety Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Arthur R.; Harris, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    Presented is an inspection form developed for use by college students to perform laboratory safety inspections. The form lists and classifies chemicals and is used to locate such physical facilities as: fume hoods, eye-wash fountains, deluge showers, and flammable storage cabinets. (BT)

  7. Safety in Handling Hazardous Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    This manual describes safety procedures which should be observed in the chemistry laboratory. Accidents which may occur when working with chemicals such as peroxides, phosphorus, heavy metals, acids, etc., need special treatment. Quite suitable descriptions of such treatment are listed for each kind of possible accident in the laboratory.…

  8. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the offering of a course in chemical and industrial hazards for junior and senior chemistry majors at City College of New York in 1972. Suggests inclusion of laboratory and industrial safety education as a formal part of chemistry or science curricula. (CC)

  9. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Berkner, K.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (CHSP) is to provide specific guidance to all LBL employees and contractors who use hazardous chemicals. This Plan, when implemented, fulfills the requirements of both the Federal OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) for laboratory workers, and the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for non-laboratory operations (e.g., shops). It sets forth safety procedures and describes how LBL employees are informed about the potential chemical hazards in their work areas so they can avoid harmful exposures and safeguard their health. Generally, communication of this Plan will occur through training and the Plan will serve as a the framework and reference guide for that training.

  10. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design of a chemical process involves many aspects: from profitability, flexibility and reliability to safety to the environment. While each of these is important, in this work, the focus will be on profitability and the environment. Key to the study of these aspects is the ...

  11. NIOSH comments to DOL on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's notice of proposed rule on process-safety management of highly hazardous chemicals by J. D. Millar, October 15, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-15

    The testimony offers support from NIOSH to OSHA in proposing regulations in the area of hazardous chemicals. NIOSH presents specific comments dealing with purpose, application, and definitions contained in the proposal. NIOSH suggests that the proposed rule is too narrow and would recommend that the practices and requirements of the proposed rule should be generally applicable to all chemical processing operations. In the section dealing with process safety information and process hazard analysis, NIOSH recommends that OSHA delete the mention of checklists as other hazard analysis techniques have been demonstrated to possess a greater degree of anticipation of hazards. NIOSH recommends the concept of intrinsically safe controls as the preferred approach for reducing hazards. Additional comments in the testimony refer to sections of the proposal dealing with training, contractors, prestartup safety review, mechanical integrity, hot work permit, management of change, and incident investigation.

  12. Chemical Lab Safety Draws Renewed Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, David

    1980-01-01

    The National Research Council has published a comprehensive report on procedures for handling hazardous chemicals and on other aspects of laboratory safety. By early 1981, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration intends to present preliminary proposals for safety in chemical research laboratories. (WB)

  13. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report marks the culmination of a 4-month review conducted to identify chemical safety vulnerabilities existing at DOE facilities. This review is an integral part of DOE's efforts to raise its commitment to chemical safety to the same level as that for nuclear safety.

  14. SOME CHEMICAL SAFETY ASPECTS AT LANL

    SciTech Connect

    J. LAUL

    2001-05-01

    Recently, the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors have begun activities to improve the quality and consistency of chemical safety programs throughout the DOE Complex. Several working groups have been formed to assemble a framework for systematically identifying and quantifying chemical hazards and managing chemical risks. At LANL, chemical safety program is implemented through Laboratory Implementation Requirements (LIRs), which are part of the Integrated Safety Management (ISM) plan that includes Safe Work Practices, emphasizing five core functions; define work, identify and analyze hazards, develop and implement controls, perform work safely, and ensure performance. Work is authorized in medium, low and minimal risk areas and not in high risk. Some chemical safety aspects are discussed in terms of chemical hazards and identification, screening, facility hazard categorization--Category A (high), Category B (moderate), and Category C (low), and their requirements in format and content in Authorization Safety Basis documents.

  15. Laboratory Safety Survey Chemical Hygiene Plan

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    protection available and worn in the laboratory? Laboratory Equipment: Y N N/A 20. Have chemical fume hoods the fume hood draw air (test with a tissue on hood edge) and is a flow indicator installed and working? 23Laboratory Safety Survey Chemical Hygiene Plan OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY UNIVERSITY

  16. CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical Processes in Soils” edited by Tabatabai and D.L. Sparks (2005) is a key review useful for soil scientists, agronomists, conservationists, environmental scientists and other related professionals who need to understand these processes of chemical reactions and how they may be related to the...

  17. Normalization of Process Safety Metrics

    E-print Network

    Wang, Mengtian

    2012-10-19

    equipment. On the contrary, process safety refers to the quality, status, actions or preventative controls to mitigate process hazards on personnel, property and environment. Groeneweg (Groeneweg, 2006) also checked the correlations between all personal... and environmental performance rather than process safety, which depicts the deficiencies existing in PSM systems, management, leadership and oversight (Allars, 2007). In the investigation report of BP’s five U.S. refineries conducted by an independent safety...

  18. Agile Safety Management System of Chemicals Transportation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Yang; Zhongding Huang

    2009-01-01

    The paper develops an architecture of Agile Safety Management System of Chemicals Transportation (ASMSCT) based on multi-agent based model and software reusability. The decision maker can be an alliance which deal with management activities involving proactive risk analysis, emergency response and regular safety information service. The top level information model and control model are studied in detail and the system

  19. Basic Chemical Safety and Laboratory Survival Skills

    E-print Network

    Gallivan, Martha A.

    and Hygiene PPE Safety Equipment Spills and Incidents Getting Out Commonly Seen Mistakes Fume Hoods Gas No lab coats in break rooms or offices #12;12 After Hygiene We Use: Engineering Controls Fume Hoods BSCs1 Basic Chemical Safety and Laboratory Survival Skills For anyone working in Georgia Tech

  20. Toolbox Safety Talk Chemical Labeling

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    , printed on, or attached to the immediate container of a hazardous chemical, or to the outside packaging effective means of communicating chemical hazards. DEFINITIONS · Pictogram: a symbol plus other graphic elements conveying information about the health, physical, and environmental hazards of a chemical

  1. Chemical Lab Safety Rules Learning Module

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This learning module - Chemical Lab Safety Rules - covers safety rules for one's personal safety when working with and around chemicals, handling and pouring chemicals properly, the specifics for working with solvents vs. corrosives, spill or leak response, and many other areas. An activity and assessment are including in this learning module along with an observation checklist that you could use to observe participants in a laboratory environment and ensure that the safety rules are being followed. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and login in order to access the full set of resources.

  2. Integrating Safety Issues in Optimizing Solvent Selection and Process Design 

    E-print Network

    Patel, Suhani Jitendra

    2011-10-21

    Incorporating consideration for safety issues while designing solvent processes has become crucial in light of the chemical process incidents involving solvents that have taken place in recent years. The implementation of ...

  3. Chemical processing monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    Chemical processing highlights for March 1983 are as follows: (1) Implementation of the Safeguards Program Phasing Plan was completed ahead of schedule. Programmatic responsibility for safeguards has been distributed to the KA K1, K4, and K6 end functions. (2) The Process Facility Modification (PFM) Program Management team, including PFM Project Manager - PFM Design, and PFM Project Manager - Systems, were selected. (3) The A, B, C, D shift operation at the PUREX Plant was initiated on March 14.

  4. DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY CHEMICAL HYGIENE

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Permit Process 27 8 Medical Consultation 34 9 Emergency Response 35 10 Chemical Waste Management Guidelines for Handling and Disposal of Chemical Waste 36 11 Chemical Spills 42 12 Injury, Products and Chemicals 65 App A Resources A1 App B Statement of Agreement of Medical Consultant B1

  5. Chemical and Hazardous Materials Department of Environmental Health and Safety

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Chemical and Hazardous Materials Safety Department of Environmental Health and Safety 800 West safety, fire safety, and hazardous waste disposal. Many chemicals have properties that make them hazardous: they can represent physical hazards (fire, explosion) and/or health hazards (toxicity, chemical

  6. Electrical safety program impact on process safety performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Aeiker; Daniel R. Doan; H. Landis Floyd; Catherine Irwin; Luiz Tomiyoshi; C. T. Wu

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a global science and technology company's experience in optimizing the synergy between a state of the art electrical safety program and process safety management. Process safety management tends to focus on equipment and systems that are directly associated with hazardous manufacturing processes. Electric power, control and data systems may not be directly associated with the process, however

  7. Potential of mass spectrometry metabolomics for chemical food safety.

    PubMed

    Gallart-Ayala, Hector; Chéreau, Sylvain; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    This review aims to describe the most significant applications of mass spectrometry-based metabolomics in the field of chemical food safety. A particular discussion of all the different analytical steps involved in the metabolomics workflow (sample preparation, mass spectrometry analytical platform and data processing) will be addressed. PMID:25558941

  8. Database management systems for process safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William F. Early

    2006-01-01

    Several elements of the process safety management regulation (PSM) require tracking and documentation of actions; process hazard analyses, management of change, process safety information, operating procedures, training, contractor safety programs, pre-startup safety reviews, incident investigations, emergency planning, and compliance audits. These elements can result in hundreds of actions annually that require actions. This tracking and documentation commonly is a failing

  9. Chemical Safety. Part I: Safety in the Handling of Hazardous Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the importance of considering the hazards, precautions, and emergency procedures pertinent to the safe handling of chemicals before introducing students to the laboratory. Discusses safety hazards depending on the chemical's properties including flammability, corrosivity, toxicity, and reactivity; eye protection; and physical hazards.…

  10. Enhancement of occupational health and safety requirements in chemical tanker operations: The case of cargo explosion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Metin Celik

    2010-01-01

    Operational precautions for chemical tankers are vitally important in reducing the potential threat to shipboard crew by products carried. This paper enhances the International Safety Management (ISM) code in compliance with Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSAS 18001:2007) requirements in respect to operational constraints related to chemical tankers. As research methodology, Fuzzy Axiomatic Design (FAD) and Analytic Hierarchy Process

  11. Chemical processing of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper highlights recent work on the general problem of processing lunar materials. The discussion covers lunar source materials, refined products, motivations for using lunar materials, and general considerations for a lunar or space processing plant. Attention is given to chemical processing through various techniques, including electrolysis of molten silicates, carbothermic/silicothermic reduction, carbo-chlorination process, NaOH basic-leach process, and HF acid-leach process. Several options for chemical processing of lunar materials are well within the state of the art of applied chemistry and chemical engineering to begin development based on the extensive knowledge of lunar materials.

  12. Food Process Engineering Food Safety and Technology

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    Food Process Engineering Food Safety and Technology Food Safety and Technology National Center for Food Safety and Technology IIT Moffett Campus 6502 S. Archer Road Summit-Argo, IL 60501 708 Ravishankar The National Center for Food Safety and Technology (NCFST), with IIT faculty, U.S. Food and Drug

  13. Study Questions Safety of Chemicals Used in Plastic Consumer Products

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_153507.html Study Questions Safety of Chemicals Used in Plastic Consumer Products Researchers say they ... July 9, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Two supposedly safer chemicals used to replace a known harmful one in ...

  14. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Fire Safety and Fire Control in the Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbraham, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses fire safety and fire control in the chemistry laboratory. The combustion process, extinguishing equipment, extinguisher maintenance and location, and fire safety and practices are included. (HM)

  15. Chemically treated kindling and process

    SciTech Connect

    Earlywine, R.T.

    1984-10-09

    A chemically treated kindling and process for the production thereof wherein the kindling is comprised of a pressed mixture of wood fibers, alum, and cornstarch, and is saturated with a prepared composition comprising a plurality of chemically distinct compositions, each of the compositions containing a different predetermined amount of refined petroleum wax and refined oil.

  16. SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Including the Chemical Hygiene Plan

    E-print Network

    Evans, Paul G.

    SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Including the Chemical Hygiene Plan Wisconsin Center for Applied #12;i Safety and Health Program For The Wisconsin Center for Applied Microelectronics March, 2014 Safety and Health Committee Jon McCarthy, Director jjmccarthy@wisc.edu 263-1073 Dan Christensen, Lab

  17. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

  18. Achieving Integrated Process and Product Safety Arguments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ibrahim Habli; Tim Kelly

    2007-01-01

    \\u000a Process-based certification standards such as IEC 61508 and DO-178B are often criticised for being highly prescriptive and\\u000a impeding the adoption of new and novel methods and techniques. Rather than arguing safety based on compliance with a prescribed\\u000a and fixed process, product-based certification standards require the submission of a well structured and reasoned safety case.\\u000a Ideally, the safety case presents an

  19. Chemical processing monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    PUREX operations concentrated on activities required to successfully conduct enhanced readiness testing and systems necessary for hot operations. A large number of startup upgrades were completed. PUREX head end decladding and dissolution tests were completed in B and C cells using unirradiated fuel. Major PFM milestones completed this report period were (1) Interim Fuel Dissolution Report issued; (2) Dissolver Solution Clarification Test completed; (3) General user requirements for Process Control System developed; (4) Conceptual Design for Fuel Transport System completed; and (5) Iodine Removal Engineering Report issued. Construction on Project B-246, Vault Support Facility, was completed on schedule. Roof upgrades at T-Plant and Plutonium Finishing Plant were completed on schedule.

  20. Chemical Process Modeling and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartusiak, R. Donald; Price, Randel M.

    1987-01-01

    Describes some of the features of Lehigh University's (Pennsylvania) process modeling and control program. Highlights the creation and operation of the Chemical Process Modeling and Control Center (PMC). Outlines the program's philosophy, faculty, technical program, current research projects, and facilities. (TW)

  1. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 3 consists of eleven appendices containing the following: Field verification reports for Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rocky Flats Plant, Brookhaven National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., and Sandia National Laboratories (NM); Mini-visits to small DOE sites; Working Group meeting, June 7--8, 1994; Commendable practices; Related chemical safety initiatives at DOE; Regulatory framework and industry initiatives related to chemical safety; and Chemical inventory data from field self-evaluation reports.

  2. 10 CFR 830.203 - Unreviewed safety question process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Unreviewed safety question process. 830.203 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements ...Unreviewed safety question process. (a) The contractor...establish, implement, and take actions...

  3. 40 CFR 1.43 - Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention. 1.43 Section 1...Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention. The Assistant Administrator...Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention (OCSPP),...

  4. TIER I CHEMICALS: 2.LABORATORY SAFETY PLAN

    E-print Network

    Sherrill, David

    Safety Plan is specific to lab __________________________________. Contact Information: Primary Contact materials are used and/or stored in this lab: Name CAS Hazard Material Safety Data Sheets: are attached to this document but can also be found on www.chematix.gatech.edu and www.hazard.com #12;o Safety glasses o Lab

  5. Beyond chemical safety— an integrated approach to laboratory safety management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Kapin

    1999-01-01

    Health and safety programs for laboratories are typically oriented around specific regulatory requirements, even though hazards in laboratories seldom respect these boundaries. Not only does this place an unnecessary burden on researchers because they have to keep track of several related health and safety activities, it also increases the chance that laboratory hazards might not be addressed because they are

  6. Safety and Health Policy and Procedure Manual CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN

    E-print Network

    Saidak, Filip

    Hygiene Officer C. Laboratory Workers VIII. SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS A. Working with Allergens and EmbryotoxinsSafety and Health Policy and Procedure Manual CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN Section 0030 Table of Contents Attention B. Cost C. Supervision VII. CHEMICAL HYGIENE RESPONSIBILITIES A. Department Head B. Chemical

  7. Chemical process control education and practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Wayne Bequette; Babatunde A. Ogunnaike

    2001-01-01

    Chemical process control textbooks and courses differ significantly from their electrical or mechanical control equivalents. The primary goals of this article are to i) emphasize the distinctly challenging characteristics of chemical processes, ii) present a typical process control curriculum and iii) discuss how chemical process control courses can be revised to better meet the needs of a typical BSc-level chemical

  8. Support from Afar: Using Chemical Safety Information on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Ralph

    One of the major challenges facing people committed to Teaching Safety in High Schools, Colleges, and Universities is keeping up with both the wide range of relevant technical information about potential hazards (ranging from fire protection to chemical hazards to biological issues) and the ever-changing world of safety regulations and standards.…

  9. Database for Safety-Oriented Tracking of Chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, Jacob; Carr, Sandra; Plumlee, Debrah; Slater, Andy; Samson, Thomas M.; Holowaty, Toby L.; Skeete, Darren; Haenz, Mary Alice; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa

    2010-01-01

    SafetyChem is a computer program that maintains a relational database for tracking chemicals and associated hazards at Johnson Space Center (JSC) by use of a Web-based graphical user interface. The SafetyChem database is accessible to authorized users via a JSC intranet. All new chemicals pass through a safety office, where information on hazards, required personal protective equipment (PPE), fire-protection warnings, and target organ effects (TOEs) is extracted from material safety data sheets (MSDSs) and recorded in the database. The database facilitates real-time management of inventory with attention to such issues as stability, shelf life, reduction of waste through transfer of unused chemicals to laboratories that need them, quantification of chemical wastes, and identification of chemicals for which disposal is required. Upon searching the database for a chemical, the user receives information on physical properties of the chemical, hazard warnings, required PPE, a link to the MSDS, and references to the applicable International Standards Organization (ISO) 9000 standard work instructions and the applicable job hazard analysis. Also, to reduce the labor hours needed to comply with reporting requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the data can be directly exported into the JSC hazardous- materials database.

  10. Raman chemical imaging system for food safety and quality inspection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raman chemical imaging technique combines Raman spectroscopy and digital imaging to visualize composition and structure of a target, and it offers great potential for food safety and quality research. In this study, a laboratory-based Raman chemical imaging platform was designed and developed. The i...

  11. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA); Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA); Birmingham, Joseph G. (Richland, WA); McDonald, Carolyn Evans (Richland, WA); Kurath, Dean E. (Benton County, WA); Friedrich, Michele (Prosser, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  12. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.; Birmingham, J.G.; McDonald, C.E.; Kurath, D.E.; Friedrich, M.

    1998-09-22

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 26 figs.

  13. Scope on Safety: Chemicals: What's In? What's Out?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ken Roy

    2004-11-01

    Chemistry should be fun and exciting, but much preparation and skill are needed by the teacher and students in working with chemicals. Unfortunately, accidents do happen and things can blow up, but you can help prevent these incidents by knowing and following proper safety procedures. Knowing which chemicals are appropriate for the middle level classroom is a good place to start. The following is a list of appropriate and inappropriate chemicals for the science lab as specified by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Laboratory Standards.

  14. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  15. Aviation Safety Reporting System: Process and Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda J.

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) was established in 1976 under an agreement between the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cooperative safety program invites pilots, air traffic controllers, flight attendants, maintenance personnel, and others to voluntarily report to NASA any aviation incident or safety hazard. The FAA provides most of the program funding. NASA administers the program, sets its policies in consultation with the FAA and aviation community, and receives the reports submitted to the program. The FAA offers those who use the ASRS program two important reporting guarantees: confidentiality and limited immunity. Reports sent to ASRS are held in strict confidence. More than 350,000 reports have been submitted since the program's beginning without a single reporter's identity being revealed. ASRS removes all personal names and other potentially identifying information before entering reports into its database. This system is a very successful, proof-of-concept for gathering safety data in order to provide timely information about safety issues. The ASRS information is crucial to aviation safety efforts both nationally and internationally. It can be utilized as the first step in safety by providing the direction and content to informed policies, procedures, and research, especially human factors. The ASRS process and procedures will be presented as one model of safety reporting feedback systems.

  16. CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Catherine; Millar, T. J. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, University Road, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Nomura, Hideko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2010-10-20

    We have developed a high-resolution combined physical and chemical model of a protoplanetary disk surrounding a typical T Tauri star. Our aims were to use our model to calculate the chemical structure of disks on small scales (submilliarcsecond in the inner disk for objects at the distance of Taurus, {approx}140 pc) to investigate the various chemical processes thought to be important in disks and to determine potential molecular tracers of each process. Our gas-phase network was extracted from the UMIST Database for Astrochemistry to which we added gas-grain interactions including freezeout and thermal and non-thermal desorption (cosmic-ray-induced desorption, photodesorption, and X-ray desorption), and a grain-surface network. We find that cosmic-ray-induced desorption has the least effect on our disk chemical structure while photodesorption has a significant effect, enhancing the abundances of most gas-phase molecules throughout the disk and affecting the abundances and distribution of HCN, CN, and CS, in particular. In the outer disk, we also see enhancements in the abundances of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}. X-ray desorption is a potentially powerful mechanism in disks, acting to homogenize the fractional abundances of gas-phase species across the depth and increasing the column densities of most molecules, although there remain significant uncertainties in the rates adopted for this process. The addition of grain-surface chemistry enhances the fractional abundances of several small complex organic molecules including CH{sub 3}OH, HCOOCH{sub 3}, and CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} to potentially observable values (i.e., a fractional abundance of {approx}>10{sup -11}).

  17. Chemical safety, health care costs and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, Philip J; Goldman, Lynn R

    2014-01-01

    On May 22, 2013, the late Senator Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ), Senator David Vitter (R-LA) and 19 of their colleagues introduced bipartisan chemical safety legislation in the US Senate, "The Chemical Safety Improvement Act of 2013." The bill's purpose is to protect human health and the environment against the hazards of toxic chemicals, by requiring the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to examine the safety of all chemicals in consumer products. The bill is currently before the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, chaired by Senator Barbara Boxer (D-CA). This legislation is critically important for physicians and healthcare organizations because it creates significant new opportunities to prevent disease and cut healthcare costs. PMID:24136096

  18. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT: A MULTISECTOR APPROACH TO THE MODERNIZATION OF HUMAN SAFETY REQUIREMENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Better understanding of toxicological mechanisms, enhanced testing capabilities, and demands for more sophisticated data for safety and health risk assessment have generated international interest in improving the current testing paradigm for agricultural chemicals. To address th...

  19. Engineering Medical Processes to Improve Their Safety

    E-print Network

    Avrunin, George S.

    Engineering Medical Processes to Improve Their Safety An ExperienceReport Leon J. Osterweill, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, henneman@nursing.umass.edu 3 Baystate Medical.henneman@bhs.org Abstract. This paper describes experiences in using precise definitions of medical processes as the basis

  20. Occupational Hygiene & Chemical Safety Division Department of Environmental Health & Safety

    E-print Network

    Machel, Hans

    and water after removing gloves, even if gloves are not torn or punctured. 8. Use only designated EtBr gel, chemical splash goggles, and nitrile gloves. Added caution is required if using an ultraviolet lamp (see tasks inside the fume hood. In addition, workers should wear a lab coat, closed-toe shoes, gloves

  1. Chemical Safety Management Program for Lockheed Martin Energy Systems operations at the Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    C.W. McMahon

    2000-03-24

    Operated by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems), the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is a manufacturing facility that plays an integral role in the DOE nuclear weapons complex. Fulfilling the national security mission at the Y-12 Plant, continuing to be the cornerstone of uranium and lithium technologies for DOE, and providing customers with solutions for challenging manufacturing needs requires usage of a variety of chemicals and chemical processes. Performing this work safely while protecting workers, the public, and the environment is their commitment. The purpose of this document is to provide a description of the essential components of chemical safety, the integration of these components into the Y-12 Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), and the functional integration of chemical safety issues across Y-12 organizations and programs managed by Energy Systems.

  2. Chemical safety: asking the right questions

    SciTech Connect

    Whyte, Helena M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Quigley, David [Y-12/NSC; Simmons, Fred [SRS; Freshwater, David [DOE/NNSA; Robertson, Janeen [LLNL

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that, despite efforts to the contrary, chemical accidents continue to occur at an unacceptable rate and there is no evidence that this rate is decreasing. Based on this observation, one can conclude that previous analyses have not accurately identified and implemented appropriate fixes to eliminate identified root causes for chemical events. Based on this, it is time to reevaluate chemical accident data with a fresh eye and determine (a) what corrective actions have already been identified but have not been implemented, (b) what other root causes may be involved, and (c) what new corrective actions should be taken to eliminate these newly identified root causes.

  3. CHEMICAL SAFETY: ASKING THE RIGHT QUESTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, F

    2008-08-05

    Recent reports have shown that, despite efforts to the contrary, chemical accidents continue to occur at an unacceptable rate and there is no evidence that this rate is decreasing. Based on this observation, one can conclude that previous analyses have not accurately identified and implemented appropriate fixes to eliminate identified root causes for chemical events. Based on this, it is time to reevaluate chemical accident data with a fresh eye and determine (a) what corrective actions have already been identified but have not been implemented, (b) what other root causes may be involved, and (c) what new corrective actions should be taken to eliminate these newly identified root causes.

  4. Near-Miss Incident Management in the Chemical Process Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Phimister; Ulku Oktem; Paul R. Kleindorfer; Howard Kunreuther

    2003-01-01

    This article provides a systematic framework for the analysis and improvement of near-miss programs in the chemical process industries. Near-miss programs improve corporate environ- mental, health, and safety (EHS) performance through the identification and management of near misses. Based on more than 100 interviews at 20 chemical and pharmaceutical facil- ities, a seven-stage framework has been developed and is presented

  5. Assessment of chemical process hazards in early design stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shailesh Shah; Ulrich Fischer; Konrad Hungerbühler

    2005-01-01

    A new method called SREST-layer-assessment method with automated software tool is presented that in a hierarchical approach reveals the degree of non-ideality of chemical processes with regard to SHE (safety, health and environment) aspects at different layers: the properties of the chemical substances involved (substance assessment layer (SAL)), possible interactions between the substances (reactivity assessment layer (RAL)), possible hazard scenarios

  6. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 2 consists of seven appendices containing the following: Tasking memorandums; Project plan for the CSV Review; Field verification guide for the CSV Review; Field verification report, Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Field verification report, Oak Ridge Reservation; Field verification report, Savannah River Site; and the Field verification report, Hanford Site.

  7. September 2013 Laboratory Safety Manual Section 1 Chemical Hygiene Plan Responsibilities

    E-print Network

    Wilcock, William

    . Regulations Pertaining to the Chemical Hygiene Plan ....................1-3 a. Hazardous Chemicals........................................................................1-4 2. Chemical and Non-Chemical Hazards ............................................1-4 CSeptember 2013 Laboratory Safety Manual Section 1 ­ Chemical Hygiene Plan Responsibilities UW

  8. Making the business case for process safety using value-at-risk concepts 

    E-print Network

    Fang, Jayming Sha

    2006-10-30

    An increasing emphasis on chemical process safety over the last two decades has led to the development and application of powerful risk assessment tools. Hazard analysis and risk evaluation techniques have developed to the ...

  9. MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF THERMALLY PROCESSED FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need for better control of foodborne pathogens has been paramount in recent years. Heat inactivation of foodborne pathogens is one of the fundamentally important strategies to assure microbiological safety of processed foods. Basic research on cellular and molecular mechanisms of heat resistan...

  10. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOEpatents

    Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77389)

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  11. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOEpatents

    Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77379)

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  12. Fast Reactor Spent Fuel Processing: Experience and Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Chad Pope

    2007-05-01

    This paper discusses operational and criticality safety experience associated with the Idaho National Laboratory Fuel Conditioning Facility which uses a pyrometallurgical process to treat spent fast reactor metallic fuel. The process is conducted in an inert atmosphere hot cell. The process starts with chopping metallic fuel elements into a basket. The basket is lowered into molten salt (LiCl-KCl) along with a steel mandrel. Active metal fission products, transuranic metals and sodium metal in the spent fuel undergo chemical oxidation and form chlorides. Voltage is applied between the basket, which serves as an anode, and the mandrel, which serves as a cathode, causing metallic uranium in the spent fuel to undergo electro-chemical oxidation thereby forming uranium chloride. Simultaneously at the cathode, uranium chloride undergoes electro-chemical reduction and deposits uranium metal onto the mandrel. The uranium metal and accompanying entrained salt are placed in a distillation furnace where the uranium melts forming an ingot and the entrained salt boils and subsequently condenses in a separate crucible. The uranium ingots are placed in long term storage. During the ten year operating history, over one hundred criticality safety evaluations were prepared. All criticality safety related limits and controls for the entire process are contained in a single document which required over thirty revisions to accommodate the process changes. Operational implementation of the limits and controls includes use of a near real-time computerized tracking system. The tracking system uses an Oracle database coupled with numerous software applications. The computerized tracking system includes direct fuel handler interaction with every movement of material. Improvements to this system during the ten year history include introduction of web based operator interaction, tracking of moderator materials and the development of a plethora database queries to assist in day to day operations as well as obtaining historical information. Over 12,000 driver fuel elements have been processed resulting in the production of 2500 kg of 20% enriched uranium. Also, over one thousand blanket fuel elements have been processed resulting in the production of 2400 kg of depleted uranium. These operations required over 35,000 fissile material transfers between zones and over 6000 transfers between containers. Throughout all of these movements, no mass limit violations occurred. Numerous lessons were learned over the ten year operating history. From a criticality safety perspective, the most important lesson learned was the involvement of a criticality safety practitioner in daily operations. A criticality safety engineer was assigned directly to facility operations, and was responsible for implementation of limits and controls including upkeep of the associated computerized tracking files. The criticality safety engineer was also responsible for conducting fuel handler training activities including serving on fuel handler qualification oral boards, and continually assessing operations from a criticality control perspective. The criticality safety engineer also attended bimonthly project planning meetings to identify upcoming process changes that would require criticality safety evaluation. Finally, the excellent criticality safety record was due in no small part to the continual support, involvement, trust, and confidence of project and operations mana

  13. Nonthermal processing technologies as food safety intervention processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods should provide sensorial satisfaction and nutrition to people. Yet, foodborne pathogens cause significant illness and lose of life to human kind every year. A processing intervention step may be necessary prior to the consumption to ensure the safety of foods. Nonthermal processing technologi...

  14. Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hentges, Dawn L.

    1999-01-01

    Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

  15. Chemical Processing. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Reviews major organic and inorganic chemicals, their products, and the sociocultural impact of the chemical industry. Provides the following learning activity components: objectives, list of materials and equipment, procedures, student quiz with answers, and three references. (SK)

  16. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Organic Peroxides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanley, Edward S.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the thermodynamic instability of organic peroxides. The process of autoxidation which results in peroxide formation is described. Precautions necessary to prevent autoxidation hazards associated with these reagents are suggested. (CW)

  17. WORKSHOP ON ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    To encourage the consideration of environmental issues during chemical process design, the USEPA has developed techniques and software tools to evaluate the relative environmental impact of a chemical process. These techniques and tools aid in the risk management process by focus...

  18. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Learning How to Run Safer Undergraduate Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrig, Jerry R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses responsibilities for providing safe experiments and for teaching about safety. Provides lists of references on chemical safety and regulated/potential carcinogens. Also discusses general laboratory safety procedures including waste disposal and recycling of solvents. (JM)

  19. Integrating Chemical Hazard Assessment into the Design of Inherently Safer Processes 

    E-print Network

    Lu, Yuan

    2012-02-14

    Reactive hazard associated with chemicals is a major safety issue in process industries. This kind of hazard has caused the occurrence of many accidents, leading to fatalities, injuries, property damage and environment pollution. Reactive hazards...

  20. August 1999 Radiation Safety Manual Section 4 -Authorization Process

    E-print Network

    Wilcock, William

    August 1999 Radiation Safety Manual Section 4 - Authorization Process UW Environmental Health .....................................................................4-7 1. Authorization Criteria for Human Subjects Research ..................... 4-7 a. Health Care 1999 Radiation Safety Manual Section 4 ­ Authorization Process UW Environmental Health and Safety Page

  1. 49 CFR 1106.4 - The Safety Integration Plan process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD CONSIDERATION OF SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS IN CASES INVOLVING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL § 1106.4 The Safety Integration Plan process. (a) Each applicant in a...

  2. The material safety data sheet: a guide to chemical safety in the OR.

    PubMed

    Marousky, R T

    1991-06-01

    1. Workers can call OSHA to report violations of the "right to know" standard. If OSHA finds violations, it can issue warnings, levy a fine, or shut down a facility until corrections are made. 2. The Material Safety Data Sheet was developed for use by the chemical industry and is written more for users of large quantities of chemicals, not small users such as OR nurses. 3. Every MSDS contains nine sections. There is no standardization of MSDSs among suppliers and the sections may be in different sequences depending on the source. PMID:2048172

  3. Terror-Proofing Chemical Process Industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bajpai; J. P. Gupta

    2007-01-01

    The chemical process industries (CPI) handling hazardous chemicals can be rather attractive targets for deliberate adversarial actions by terrorists, criminals and disgruntled employees. The damage inflicted may include casualties, economic loss and political fallout. There is an urgent need for each facility to have a security management programme. Its essential components are security risk assessment, security countermeasures and emergency response.Security

  4. Quantum-Chemical Studies on TATB Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Patil; S. Radhakrishnan; P. M. Jadhav; V. D. Ghule; T. Soman

    2010-01-01

    Quantum chemical studies have gained paramount importance in screening of thermodynamically feasible chemical processes. The current investigation attempts to select an appropriate process for the synthesis of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitro benzene (TATB), a reasonably powerful insensitive high explosive (IHE) through density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Although, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene (THB) routes for synthesis of TATB have been well established, this article

  5. Chemical food safety issues in the United States: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lauren S

    2009-09-23

    Considerable advances have been made over the past century in the understanding of the chemical hazards in food and ways for assessing and managing these risks. At the turn of the 20th century, many Americans were exposed to foods adulterated with toxic compounds. In the 1920s the increasing use of insecticides led to concerns of chronic ingestion of heavy metals such as lead and arsenic from residues remaining on crops. By the 1930s, a variety of agrochemicals were commonly used, and food additives were becoming common in processed foods. During the 1940s and 1950s advances were made in toxicology, and more systematic approaches were adopted for evaluating the safety of chemical contaminants in food. Modern gas chromatography and liquid chromatography, both invented in the 1950s and 1960s, were responsible for progress in detecting, quantifying, and assessing the risk of food contaminants and adulterants. In recent decades, chemical food safety issues that have been the center of media attention include the presence of natural toxins, processing-produced toxins (e.g., acrylamide, heterocyclic aromatic amines, and furan), food allergens, heavy metals (e.g., lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium), industrial chemicals (e.g., benzene, perchlorate), contaminants from packaging materials, and unconventional contaminants (melamine) in food and feed. Due to the global nature of the food supply and advances in analytical capabilities, chemical contaminants will continue to be an area of concern for regulatory agencies, the food industry, and consumers in the future. PMID:19719131

  6. Safety climate factors and its relationship with accidents and personal attributes in the chemical industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Vinodkumar; M. Bhasi

    2009-01-01

    Safety in the chemical industry is a major issue in a thickly populated country like India. The study was carried out to determine the safety climate factors in the chemical industry in Kerala, India. A survey using a questionnaire was conducted among 2536 employees in eight major accident hazard chemical industrial units in Kerala. The study population included workers and

  7. Washington University in St. Louis Institutional Biological & Chemical Safety Committee (IBC)

    E-print Network

    Kroll, Kristen L.

    and certification of physical containment equipment (e.g., biological safety cabinets, chemical fume hoods) · EnsureWashington University in St. Louis Institutional Biological & Chemical Safety Committee (IBC molecules, potentially infectious materials, or hazardous chemicals. As part of this general responsibility

  8. Microwave-enhanced chemical processes

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Ravi (Hinsdale, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A process for disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Effecting intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400.degree. C. in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient to break the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds and provide detoxification values in excess of 80 and further detoxifying the bed followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes.

  9. Microwave-enhanced chemical processes

    DOEpatents

    Varma, R.

    1990-06-19

    A process is disclosed for the disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400 C in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient breaks the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds. Detoxification values in excess of 80 are provided and further detoxification of the bed is followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes. 1 figure.

  10. Degree Requirements for B.S. in Chemical Engineering at Wayne State University Product and Process Engineering Option

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    ­ Safety in the Chemical Process Industry 3 Foreign Culture Elective (FC) 3 Visual & Performing ArtsDegree Requirements for B.S. in Chemical Engineering at Wayne State University Product and Process@eng.wayne.edu Freshman Year First Semester Credits MAT 2010 ­ Calculus I 4 CHM 1225 ­ (PS) Chemical Structure, Bonding

  11. Process safety improvement--quality and target zero.

    PubMed

    Van Scyoc, Karl

    2008-11-15

    Process safety practitioners have adopted quality management principles in design of process safety management systems with positive effect, yet achieving safety objectives sometimes remain a distant target. Companies regularly apply tools and methods which have roots in quality and productivity improvement. The "plan, do, check, act" improvement loop, statistical analysis of incidents (non-conformities), and performance trending popularized by Dr. Deming are now commonly used in the context of process safety. Significant advancements in HSE performance are reported after applying methods viewed as fundamental for quality management. In pursuit of continual process safety improvement, the paper examines various quality improvement methods, and explores how methods intended for product quality can be additionally applied to continual improvement of process safety. Methods such as Kaizen, Poke yoke, and TRIZ, while long established for quality improvement, are quite unfamiliar in the process safety arena. These methods are discussed for application in improving both process safety leadership and field work team performance. Practical ways to advance process safety, based on the methods, are given. PMID:18374483

  12. Safety analysis of SISL process module

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    This report provides an assessment of various postulated accidental occurrences within an experimental process module which is part of a Special Isotope Separation Laboratory (SISL) currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The process module will contain large amounts of molten uranium and various water-cooled structures within a vacuum vessel. Special emphasis is therefore given to potential accidental interactions of molten uranium with water leading to explosive and/or rapid steam formation, as well as uranium oxidation and the potential for combustion. Considerations are also given to the potential for vessel melt-through. Evaluations include mechanical and thermal interactions and design implications both in terms of design basis as well as once-in-a-lifetime accident scenarios. These scenarios include both single- and multiple-failure modes leading to various contact modes and locations within the process module for possible thermal interactions. The evaluations show that a vacuum vessel design based upon nominal operating conditions would appear sufficient to meet safety requirements in connection with both design basis as well as once-in-a-lifetime accidents. Controlled venting requirements for removal of steam and hydrogen in order to avoid possible long-term pressurization events are recommended. Depending upon the resulting accident conditions, the vacuum system (i.e., the roughing system) could also serve this purpose. Finally, based upon accident evaluations of this study, immediate shut-off of all coolant water following an incident leak is not recommended, as such action may have adverse effects in terms of cool-down requirements for the melt crucibles etc. These requirements have not been assessed as part of this study.

  13. Novel approaches to improving the chemical safety of the meat chain towards toxicants.

    PubMed

    Engel, E; Ratel, J; Bouhlel, J; Planche, C; Meurillon, M

    2015-11-01

    In addition to microbiological issues, meat chemical safety is a growing concern for the public authorities, chain stakeholders and consumers. Meat may be contaminated by various chemical toxicants originating from the environment, treatments of agricultural production or food processing. Generally found at trace levels in meat, these toxicants may harm human health during chronic exposure. This paper overviews the key issues to be considered to ensure better control of their occurrence in meat and assessment of the related health risk. We first describe potential contaminants of meat products. Strategies to move towards a more efficient and systematic control of meat chemical safety are then presented in a second part, with a focus on emerging approaches based on toxicogenomics. The third part presents mitigation strategies to limit the impact of process-induced toxicants in meat. Finally, the last part introduces methodological advances to refine chemical risk assessment related to the occurrence of toxicants in meat by quantifying the influence of digestion on the fraction of food contaminants that may be assimilated by the human body. PMID:26043665

  14. Heat transfer in food processing: ensuring product quality and safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Fryer; Phillip T. Robbins

    2005-01-01

    Heat transfer to foods is commonplace but critical; heating develops flavour and texture and ensures product safety. The food industry must ensure that all parts of the product have all been processed sufficiently, without unacceptable loss of quality. Conventionally, food is significantly over-processed to ensure safety. This paper reviews some problems which heat-transfer engineers face in the food industry, and

  15. Utilization of chemical looping strategy in coal gasification processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liangshih Fan; Fanxing Li; Shwetha Ramkumar

    2008-01-01

    Three chemical looping gasification processes, i.e. Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process, Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) process, and Calcium Looping process (CLP), are being developed at the Ohio State University (OSU). These processes utilize simple reaction schemes to convert carbonaceous fuels into products such as hydrogen, electricity, and synthetic fuels through the transformation of a highly reactive, highly recyclable chemical

  16. Enhanced membrane bioreactor process without chemical cleaning.

    PubMed

    Krause, S; Zimmermann, B; Meyer-Blumenroth, U; Lamparter, W; Siembida, B; Cornel, P

    2010-01-01

    In membrane bioreactors (MBR) for wastewater treatment, the separation of activated sludge and treated water takes place by membrane filtration. Due to the small footprint and superior effluent quality, the number of membrane bioreactors used in wastewater treatment is rapidly increasing. A major challenge in this process is the fouling of the membranes which results in permeability decrease and the demand of chemical cleaning procedures. With the objective of a chemical-free process, the removal of the fouling layer by continuous physical abrasion was investigated. Therefore, particles (granules) were added to the activated sludge in order to realise a continuous abrasion of the fouling layer. During operation for more than 8 months, the membranes showed no decrease in permeability. Fluxes up to 40 L/(m(2) h) were achieved. An online turbidity measurement was installed for the effluent control and showed no change during this test period. For comparison, a reference (standard MBR process without granules) was operated which demonstrated permeability loss at lower fluxes and required chemical cleaning. Altogether with this process an operation at higher fluxes and no use of cleaning chemicals will increase the cost efficiency of the MBR-process. PMID:20453330

  17. A Novel Chemical Nitrate Destruction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.

    1999-03-01

    Nitrates represent one of the most significant pollutant discharged to the Baltic Sea by the Sliiamae hydrometallurgical plant. This article contains a brief overview of the existing nitrate destruction technologies followed by the description of a new process developed by the authors. The new chemical process for nitrate destruction is cost effective and simple to operate. It converts the nitrate to nitrogen gas which goes to the atmosphere.

  18. Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Cu: Nanoscale Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Arthur; Kelly Fishbeck; Kara Muessig; James McDonald; Christine Williams; Daniel White; Deborah Koeck; Scott Perry; Heather Galloway

    2002-01-01

    Interconnect lines in state of the art integrated circuits are made of copper in a process that requires the repeated planarization of the copper layer. During this process the material is subjected to an aqueous slurry containing active chemicals, corrosion inhibitors and abrasive particles. A model slurry buffered to pH2, pH4 and pH6, contained nitric acid, silica particles and benzotriazole

  19. Assessment of chemical processes for the post-accident decontamination of reactor-coolant systems. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. F. Munson; C. J. Card; J. R. Divine

    1983-01-01

    Previously used chemical decontamination processes and potentially useful new decontamination processes were examined for the usefulness following a reactor accident. Both generic fuel damage accidents and the accident at TMI-2 were considered. A total of fourteen processes were evaluated. Process evaluation included data in the following categories: technical description of the process, recorded past usage, effectiveness, process limitation, safety consideration,

  20. Chemical computing with reaction-diffusion processes.

    PubMed

    Gorecki, J; Gizynski, K; Guzowski, J; Gorecka, J N; Garstecki, P; Gruenert, G; Dittrich, P

    2015-07-28

    Chemical reactions are responsible for information processing in living organisms. It is believed that the basic features of biological computing activity are reflected by a reaction-diffusion medium. We illustrate the ideas of chemical information processing considering the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction and its photosensitive variant. The computational universality of information processing is demonstrated. For different methods of information coding constructions of the simplest signal processing devices are described. The function performed by a particular device is determined by the geometrical structure of oscillatory (or of excitable) and non-excitable regions of the medium. In a living organism, the brain is created as a self-grown structure of interacting nonlinear elements and reaches its functionality as the result of learning. We discuss whether such a strategy can be adopted for generation of chemical information processing devices. Recent studies have shown that lipid-covered droplets containing solution of reagents of BZ reaction can be transported by a flowing oil. Therefore, structures of droplets can be spontaneously formed at specific non-equilibrium conditions, for example forced by flows in a microfluidic reactor. We describe how to introduce information to a droplet structure, track the information flow inside it and optimize medium evolution to achieve the maximum reliability. Applications of droplet structures for classification tasks are discussed. PMID:26078345

  1. [Research on chemical reactions during ginseng processing].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao; Qin, Kun-Ming; Li, Wei-Dong; Yin, Fang-Zhou; Cai, Hao; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2014-10-01

    As a kind of commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, ginseng has a high reputation at home and abroad. The research of ginseng has been expanded to medicine, pharmacy, biology, food science and other fields, with great achievements in recent years. Ginseng contains ginsenosides, volatile oil, carbohydrates, amino acids, polypeptides, inorganic elements and othser chemical constituents. Each component has extensive physiological activity, and is the base of ginseng's effect. After processing, the complicated changes are taken place in the constituents of ginseng, and some new substances produced. This paper aims to review the studies on chemical constituents and their mechanisms during ginseng processing, and the ideas, methods and the direction of the development of traditional Chinese medicine processing in the future. PMID:25612424

  2. STATISTICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR AUTOMOTIVE SAFETY SYSTEMS Fredrik Gustafsson

    E-print Network

    Gustafsson, Fredrik

    STATISTICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR AUTOMOTIVE SAFETY SYSTEMS Fredrik Gustafsson Department The amount of software in general and safety systems in particular increases rapidly in the automotive- cessing area. 1. INTRODUCTION Henry Ford revolutionized the automotive industry more than 100 years ago

  3. Urban road network safety model at the transportation planning process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Ferreira; António Couto

    2012-01-01

    The transportation planning process is considered to be the initial step to incorporate the safety analyses of a transport system. Recently, tools have been created for this incorporation, although the vast majority has been applied at an area level. Despite the capacity of these tools to provide safety information, they are unable to identify hazardous locales in the network. The

  4. Application of Annotated Logic Program to Pipeline Process Safety Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi

    We have developed a paraconsistent annotated logic program called Extended Vector Annotated Logic Program with Strong Negation (abbr. EVALPSN), which can deal with defeasible deontic reasoning and contradiction, and we have already applied it to safety verification and control such as railway interlocking safety verification and traffic signal control. In this paper, we introduce process safety verification as an application of EVALPSN with a small example for brewery pipeline valve control. The safety verification control is based on EVALPSN defeasible deontic reasoning to avoid unexpected mix of different sorts of liquid in pipeline networks.

  5. Model for multi-strata safety performance measurements in the process industry 

    E-print Network

    Keren, Nir

    2004-09-30

    Measuring process safety performance is a challenge, and the wide variations in understanding, compliance, and implementation of process safety programs increase the challenge. Process safety can be measured in three strata: ...

  6. The process safety impact of distributed control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, W.L.; Zodeh, O.M. (E.I. Du Pont de Nemours and Co. Inc., Newark, DE (USA))

    1991-04-01

    Experience has shown that a Distributed Control System (DCS) can provide enhanced process monitoring and control capabilities, as well as system self-diagnostics, that permit increased safety of process operations. However, this enhanced safety does not come about automatically with the installation of a DCS. The complexity and versatility of the DCS can introduce new failure scenarios leading to process upset and potential realization of process hazards. This paper review some novel considerations that should be taken into account when conducting process hazards reviews on facilities controlled by a DCS.

  7. NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH | OFFICE OF RESEARCH SERVICES | DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY A companion to the NIH Chemical Hygiene Plan and Hazard Communication Program

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    AND SAFETY Chemical Safety Guide A companion to the NIH Chemical Hygiene Plan and Hazard Communication Program #12;· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Hazard Identification Globally an internationally standardized approach to the classification and labeling of chemicals. The Occupational Safety

  8. Solar chemical process for sludge treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Boyko, M.

    1980-03-04

    A solar chemical process for converting sewer sludge from a gelatinous mass into a manageable product suitable for fertilizer includes the manufacture of a carbonaceous product by treating cellulose waste such as newspaper with sulfuric acid and heating the mixture until the cellulose product becomes substantially black. The black product is mixed with sludge in a ratio to produce a grainy product that can be chlorinated for sterility and spread as fertilizer. In a modified version of the process, coal ash is added to the sludge with the carbonaceous product for its nutrient value, and sand may be added with the coal ash to aid in aeration of the soil.

  9. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Safety in the Laboratory: Are We Making Any Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKusick, Blaine C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews trends in laboratory safety found in both industrial and academic situations. Reports that large industrial labs generally have excellent safety programs but that, although there have been improvements, academia still lags behind industry in safety. Includes recommendations for improving lab safety. (ML)

  10. Computational Fluid Dynamics For The Chemical Process Industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Pordal; C. J. Matice; T. J. Fry

    The chemical process industries face new challenges as they enter the 21st century. To meet these challenges the chemical process industries are expected to integrate key technologies into their design and development processes. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been identified as one of the key technologies for chemical process industries. This article provides an overview of computational fluid dynamics methods

  11. SIMULTANEOUS BATCHING AND SCHEDULING FOR CHEMICAL PROCESSING WITH EARLINESS AND

    E-print Network

    Dessouky, Maged

    processes to batch processes in the chemical industry (Ku, Rajagopalan, and Karimi 1987; Rippin 1991). Batch mix and responding to varying product quantities. This trend in the chemical process industry.e., meeting the due dates of customers) is an important concern in the chemical process industry. Ku

  12. Chemical safety and health conditions among Hungarian hospital nurses.

    PubMed

    Tompa, Anna; Jakab, Mátyás; Biró, Anna; Magyar, Balázs; Fodor, Zoltán; Klupp, Tibor; Major, Jenö

    2006-09-01

    In the present study genotoxicological and immunotoxicological follow-up investigations were made on 811 donors including 94 unexposed controls and 717 nurses with various working conditions from different hospitals (The Hungarian Nurse Study). The nurses were exposed to different chemicals: cytostatic drugs, anesthetic, and sterilizing gases, such as ethylene oxide (ETO) and formaldehyde. The measured biomarkers were: clinical laboratory routine tests, completed with genotoxicological (chromosome aberrations [CA], sister chromatid exchange [SCE]), and immune-toxicological monitoring (ratio of lymphocyte subpopulations, lymphocyte activation markers, and leukocyte oxidative burst). The highest rate of genotoxicologically affected donors (25.4%) was found in the group of cytostatic drug-exposed nurses. Comparing geno- and immunotoxicological effect markers, we found that among genotoxicologically affected donors the frequency of helper T cell (Th) lymphocytes, the ratio of activated T and B cells increased, whereas the oxidative burst of leukocytes decreased. In hospitals with lack of protective measures increased CA yields were observed compared to those with ISO 9001 quality control or equivalent measures. Anemia, serum glucose level, thyroid dysfunctions, benign, and malignant tumors were more frequent in the exposed groups than in controls. The hygienic standard of the working environment is the basic risk factor for the vulnerability of nurses. On the basis of these results, it is suggested, that the used cytogenetic and immunological biomarkers are appropriate to detect early susceptibility to diseases. The Hungarian Nurse Study proved that the use of safety measures could protect against occupational exposure at work sites handling cytostatic drugs, anesthetic, and sterilizing gases. PMID:17119241

  13. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY EFFICIENT CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. Process emissio...

  14. Materials Safety Data Sheets: the basis for control of toxic chemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. E. Ketchen; W. E. Porter

    1979-01-01

    The Material Safety Data Sheets contained in this volume are the basis for the Toxic Chemical Control Program developed by the Industrial Hygiene Department, Health Division, ORNL. The three volumes are the update and expansion of ORNL\\/TM-5721 and ORNL\\/TM-5722 Material Safety Data Sheets: The Basis for Control of Toxic Chemicals, Volume I and Volume II. As such, they are a

  15. HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDES FOR CHEMICAL HANDLING: THE RARE EARTH METALS AS AN EXAMPLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1963-01-01

    Information about health and safety considerations in handling the rare ; earth rnetals is used to exemplify the application of Chemical Safety Guides in a ; research-oriented industrial environment. Data on toxic effects of rare earth ; citrates on guinea pigs are included. (P.C.H.);

  16. Scope on Safety: Yes, you need a Chemical Hygiene Officer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ken Roy

    2009-04-01

    The Chemical Hygiene Officer's (CHO) role is absolutely critical in fostering and ensuring both chemical hygiene practices and the chemical hygiene plan. OSHA defines the Chemical Hygiene Officer as an “employee who is designated by the employer, and who is qualified by training or experience, to provide technical guidance in the development and implementation of the provisions of the Chemical Hygiene Plan.” The CHO position is also essential in helping to facilitate the safeguards put in place as part of the chemical hygiene plan to protect both the teacher and students.

  17. Stochastic Optimization for Operating Chemical Processes under Uncertainty

    E-print Network

    Henrion, René

    industry plays an essential role in the daily life of our society. The purpose of a chemical process in chemical industry. Figure 1 shows an industrial distil- lation process to separate a mixture of methanol in chemi- cal industry. However, since most chemical processes behave nonlinear, time-depen- dent

  18. Safety-driven system engineering process

    E-print Network

    Stringfellow, Margaret Virgina

    2008-01-01

    As the demand for high-performing complex systems has increased, the ability of engineers to meet that demand has not kept pace. The creators of the traditional system engineering processes did not anticipate modern complex ...

  19. 78 FR 48029 - Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ...Labor shall review the chemical hazards covered by the Risk...substances and types of hazards. In addition, the...substances and types of hazards. (d) Within 90 days...shall identify a list of chemicals, including...

  20. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains a discussion of the chemical safety improvements planned or already underway at DOE sites to correct facility or site-specific vulnerabilities. The main part of the report is a discussion of each of the programmatic deficiencies; a description of the tasks to be accomplished; the specific actions to be taken; and the organizational responsibilities for implementation.

  1. Foundations for Excellence in the Chemical Process Industries. Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstader, Robert; Chapman, Kenneth

    This document discusses the Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers Project and issues of relevance to the education and employment of chemical laboratory technicians (CLTs) and process technicians (PTs). Section 1 consists of the following background information: overview of the chemical process industries,…

  2. High pressure processing for food safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fonberg-Broczek; B. Windyga; Jacek Szczawi?ski; M. Szczawi?ska; D. Pietrzak; G. Prestamo

    Food preservation using high pressure is a promising technique in food industry as it offers nu- merous opportunities for developing new foods with extended shelf-life, high nutritional value and excellent organoleptic characteristics. High pressure is an alternative to thermal processing. The resistance of microorganisms to pressure varies considerably depending on the pressure range applied, temperature and treatment duration, and type

  3. Chapter IV - Safety During Payload Ground Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Paul; Dollberg, John; Trinchero, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the typical hazards that can be expected to be encountered when processing payloads on the ground. Also described are some of the more common controls for these hazards. Many of these controls are based on hard requirements but they are also based on specific lessons learned. This chapter uses the term Flight Hardware (F/H) for all payloads regardless of size.

  4. Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions.

  5. The Efficacy of a Condensed Seeking Safety Intervention for Women in Residential Chemical Dependence Treatment at 30 Days Posttreatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Cash Ghee; Lanny C. Bolling; Candace S. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a condensed version of the Seeking Safety intervention in the reduction of trauma-related symptoms and improved drug abstinence rates among women in residential chemical dependence treatment. One hundred and four women were randomly assigned to treatment including a condensed (six session) Seeking Safety intervention or the standard chemical dependence intervention. The Seeking Safety participants

  6. Chemical processes in defective LWR fuel rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, D. R.; Wang, Wei-E.; Kim, Yeon Soo; Li, C. Y.; Lim, S.; Yagnik, Suresh K.

    1997-09-01

    The results of several experimental studies aimed at improving understanding of the chemical processes that cause severe degradation of defective light-water reactor fuel cladding are reported. The competition between oxidation and hydriding of zirconium and zircaloy exposed to steam-hydrogen mixtures at 70 bar and 350-400°C was studied by thermogravimetry. A critical H 2/H 2O ratio of the gas separates regimes of these two types of reaction. For sponge-Zr, the critical ratios at 350 and 400°C are ? 5000 and ? 200, respectively. Radiolysis of steam by alpha particles was studied mass spectrometrically. The yield of the hydrogen radiolysis product in saturated steam at 290°C was found to be ? 8 molecules per 100 eV of deposited energy. An in-reactor experiment demonstrated that fission-fragment-irradiated steam can oxidize UO 2 to UO 2+ x.

  7. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant failure rate database

    SciTech Connect

    Alber, T.G.; Hunt, C.R.; Fogarty, S.P.; Wilson, J.R.

    1995-08-01

    This report represents the first major upgrade to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Failure Rate Database. This upgrade incorporates additional site-specific and generic data while improving on the previous data reduction techniques. In addition, due to a change in mission at the ICPP, the status of certain equipment items has changed from operating to standby or off-line. A discussion of how this mission change influenced the relevance of failure data also has been included. This report contains two data sources: the ICPP Failure Rate Database and a generic failure rate database. A discussion is presented on the approaches and assumptions used to develop the data in the ICPP Failure Rate Database. The generic database is included along with a short discussion of its application. A brief discussion of future projects recommended to strengthen and lend credibility to the ICPP Failure Rate Database also is included.

  8. Effect of combination processing on the microbial, chemical and sensory quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable pulav

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Kumar; Johnsy George; R. Rajamanickam; S. Nataraju; S. N. Sabhapathy; A. S. Bawa

    2011-01-01

    Effect of irradiation in combination with retort processing on the shelf life and safety aspects of an ethnic Indian food product like vegetable pulav was investigated. Gamma irradiation of RTE vegetable pulav was carried out at different dosage rates with 60Co followed by retort processing. The combination processed samples were analysed for microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics. Microbiological analysis indicated

  9. Physical-chemical processes in a protoplanetary cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavrukhina, Avgusta K.

    1991-01-01

    Physical-chemical processes in a protoplanetary cloud are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) characteristics of the chemical composition of molecular interstellar clouds; (2) properties and physico-chemical process in the genesis of interstellar dust grains; and (3) the isotope composition of volatiles in bodies of the Solar System.

  10. Developing and Integrating Sustainable Chemical Processes into Existing Petro-Chemical Plant Complexes

    E-print Network

    Pike, Ralph W.

    a biomass based chemical industry in the chemical production complex in the Gulf Coast Region and the LowerDeveloping and Integrating Sustainable Chemical Processes into Existing Petro-Chemical Plant an integration of these aspects by world organizations, countries and industries. #12;Corporate Sustainability

  11. Process hazards analysis (PrHA) program, bridging accident analyses and operational safety

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J. A. (Jeanne A.); McKernan, S. A. (Stuart A.); Vigil, M. J. (Michael J.)

    2003-01-01

    Recently the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 55 (TA-55) was revised and submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE). As a part of this effort, over seventy Process Hazards Analyses (PrHAs) were written and/or revised over the six years prior to the FSAR revision. TA-55 is a research, development, and production nuclear facility that primarily supports US. defense and space programs. Nuclear fuels and material research; material recovery, refining and analyses; and the casting, machining and fabrication of plutonium components are some of the activities conducted at TA-35. These operations involve a wide variety of industrial, chemical and nuclear hazards. Operational personnel along with safety analysts work as a team to prepare the PrHA. PrHAs describe the process; identi fy the hazards; and analyze hazards including determining hazard scenarios, their likelihood, and consequences. In addition, the interaction of the process to facility systems, structures and operational specific protective features are part of the PrHA. This information is rolled-up to determine bounding accidents and mitigating systems and structures. Further detailed accident analysis is performed for the bounding accidents and included in the FSAR. The FSAR is part of the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) that defines the safety envelope for all facility operations in order to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. The DSA is in compliance with the US. Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management and is approved by DOE. The DSA sets forth the bounding conditions necessary for the safe operation for the facility and is essentially a 'license to operate.' Safely of day-to-day operations is based on Hazard Control Plans (HCPs). Hazards are initially identified in the PrI-IA for the specific operation and act as input to the HCP. Specific protective features important to worker safety are incorporated so the worker can readily identify the safety parameters of the their work. System safety tools such as Preliminary Hazard Analysis, What-If Analysis, Hazard and Operability Analysis as well as other techniques as necessary provide the groundwork for both determining bounding conditions for facility safety, operational safety, and day-to-clay worker safety.

  12. Film processing investigation. [improved chemical mixing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The present operational chemical mixing system for the Photographic Technology Division is evaluated, and the limitations are defined in terms of meeting the present and programmed chemical supply and delivery requirements. A major redesign of the entire chemical mixing, storage, analysis, and supply system is recommended. Other requirements for immediate and future implementations are presented.

  13. High pressure processing for food safety.

    PubMed

    Fonberg-Broczek, Monika; Windyga, B; Szczawi?ski, J; Szczawi?ska, M; Pietrzak, D; Prestamo, G

    2005-01-01

    Food preservation using high pressure is a promising technique in food industry as it offers numerous opportunities for developing new foods with extended shelf-life, high nutritional value and excellent organoleptic characteristics. High pressure is an alternative to thermal processing. The resistance of microorganisms to pressure varies considerably depending on the pressure range applied, temperature and treatment duration, and type of microorganism. Generally, Gram-positive bacteria are more resistant to pressure than Gram-negative bacteria, moulds and yeasts; the most resistant are bacterial spores. The nature of the food is also important, as it may contain substances which protect the microorganism from high pressure. This article presents results of our studies involving the effect of high pressure on survival of some pathogenic bacteria -- Listeria monocytogenes, Aeromonas hydrophila and Enterococcus hirae -- in artificially contaminated cooked ham, ripening hard cheese and fruit juices. The results indicate that in samples of investigated foods the number of these microorganisms decreased proportionally to the pressure used and the duration of treatment, and the effect of these two factors was statistically significant (level of probability, P

  14. Chemical food safety, public awareness and risk communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leon Brimer

    2004-01-01

    The choice of subject for a credit paper to pass a university course in food toxicology was analysed as a measure of the curiosity towards different topics. The investigation covers 575 students over 28 years. The choices were analysed against investigations on food safety concerns, the development in the period, the official risk communication campaigns and media detailed scandals. Food

  15. Image processing for safety assessment in civil engineering.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Belen; Pomares, Juan C; Irles, Ramon; Espinosa, Julian; Mas, David

    2013-06-20

    Behavior analysis of construction safety systems is of fundamental importance to avoid accidental injuries. Traditionally, measurements of dynamic actions in civil engineering have been done through accelerometers, but high-speed cameras and image processing techniques can play an important role in this area. Here, we propose using morphological image filtering and Hough transform on high-speed video sequence as tools for dynamic measurements on that field. The presented method is applied to obtain the trajectory and acceleration of a cylindrical ballast falling from a building and trapped by a thread net. Results show that safety recommendations given in construction codes can be potentially dangerous for workers. PMID:23842183

  16. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Cyclohexane as a Cryoscopic Solvent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffel, Margaret J.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that cyclohexane be used as a solvent in experiments usually using benzene, which has been placed on the list of chemicals that are confirmed carcinogens. Reasons for selection of cyclohexane and experimental procedures using this solvent are described. (CS)

  17. Safety measures in chemical laboratories (3rd ed) 

    E-print Network

    Anonymous

    1964-01-01

    Operations in a chemical laboratory with noxious, inflammable or explosive materials are always attended with risks of personal injury or material destruction. The importance of a due regard for safe methods of work and ...

  18. Safety monitoring and management system for fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laihua Fang; Zongzhi Wu; Lijun Wei; Rongxue Kang; Lei Guan

    2009-01-01

    Procedures of Hazard identification, risk evaluation and information collection of the FCC process are presented for the design and development of a safety monitoring and management system. A novel structure of the safety monitoring system is proposed. Design and realization of comprehensive functions that the safety system should perform, which cover real-time parameters monitoring, safety analysis, safety information fusion, video

  19. Applying the Extended Parallel Process Model to workplace safety messages.

    PubMed

    Basil, Michael; Basil, Debra; Deshpande, Sameer; Lavack, Anne M

    2013-01-01

    The extended parallel process model (EPPM) proposes fear appeals are most effective when they combine threat and efficacy. Three studies conducted in the workplace safety context examine the use of various EPPM factors and their effects, especially multiplicative effects. Study 1 was a content analysis examining the use of EPPM factors in actual workplace safety messages. Study 2 experimentally tested these messages with 212 construction trainees. Study 3 replicated this experiment with 1,802 men across four English-speaking countries-Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The results of these three studies (1) demonstrate the inconsistent use of EPPM components in real-world work safety communications, (2) support the necessity of self-efficacy for the effective use of threat, (3) show a multiplicative effect where communication effectiveness is maximized when all model components are present (severity, susceptibility, and efficacy), and (4) validate these findings with gory appeals across four English-speaking countries. PMID:23330856

  20. Criticality safety for deactivation of the Rover dry headend process

    SciTech Connect

    Henrikson, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Rover dry headend process combusted Rover graphite fuels in preparation for dissolution and solvent extraction for the recovery of {sup 235}U. At the end of the Rover processing campaign, significant quantities of {sup 235}U were left in the dry system. The Rover Dry Headend Process Deactivation Project goal is to remove the remaining uranium bearing material (UBM) from the dry system and then decontaminate the cells. Criticality safety issues associated with the Rover Deactivation Project have been influenced by project design refinement and schedule acceleration initiatives. The uranium ash composition used for calculations must envelope a wide range of material compositions, and yet result in cost effective final packaging and storage. Innovative thinking must be used to provide a timely safety authorization basis while the project design continues to be refined.

  1. Commercialization of Turbulent Combustion Code CREBCOM for Chemical Industry Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, Upendra

    2007-06-30

    This program developed the Kurchatov Institute’s CREBCOM (CRiteria and Experimentally Based COMbustion) code to the point where it could be commercialized and marketed for the special applications described above, as well as for general purpose combustion calculations. The CREBCOM code uses a different approach to model the explosion phenomenon. The code models, with full 3D gas dynamics, the development of an explosion in three characteristics regimes: a) slow flames, b) fast flames, and c) detonation. The transition from one regime to another is governed by a set of empirical criteria and correlations. As part of the commercialization, the code was validated with the use of experimental data. The experimental data covered a range of thermodynamic initial conditions and apparatus scale. Proprietary experimental data were provided to the Kurchatov Institute by the DuPont for this purpose. The flame acceleration and detonation data was obtained from experiments in methane and oxygen enriched air mixtures carried out in two vessels with diameters of 20 and 27 cm. The experimental data covers a wide spectrum of initial temperature (20-525C) and pressure (1-3 atm). As part of this program, the Kurchatov Institute performed experiments in a 52 cm vessel in mixtures of methane-air at room temperature and pressure to be used in the validation of the code. The objective of these tests was to obtain frame acceleration data at a scale close to that found in actual industrial processes. BNL was responsible for managing the DOE/IPP portion of the program, and for satisfying DOE reporting requirements. BNL also participated in an independent assessment of the CREBOM code. DuPont provided proprietary experimental data to the Kurchatov Institute on flame acceleration and detonation in high temperature methane and oxygen enriched air mixtures in addition to the matching fund. In addition, DuPont also supplied to KI instrumentation for pressure and temperature measurement. Kurchatov (KI) performed experiments at close to full-scale in mixtures of room temperature methane and air to develop the CREBCOM code which was used for explosion simulation in confined geometrics, such as chemical reactors and converters. The code was validated by comparison of the code simulations with experimental data obtained under prototypic reactor mixture conditions.

  2. Chemical kinetics models for semiconductor processing

    SciTech Connect

    Coltrin, M.E.; Creighton, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meeks, E.; Grcar, J.F.; Houf, W.G. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Kee, R.J. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Chemical reactions in the gas-phase and on surfaces are important in the deposition and etching of materials for microelectronic applications. A general software framework for describing homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction kinetics utilizing the Chemkin suite of codes is presented. Experimental, theoretical and modeling approaches to developing chemical reaction mechanisms are discussed. A number of TCAD application modules for simulating the chemically reacting flow in deposition and etching reactors have been developed and are also described.

  3. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Product Denitrator Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1982-05-01

    The upgrade and redesign of a fluidized-bed denitrator for production of uranium trioxide from uranyl nitrate solution is discussed. The success of the project in improving process efficiency and personnel safety is also addressed based on subsequent operation.

  4. SAFETY STUDIES TO MEASURE EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS OF SPENT PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATION CHEMICALS USING WET AND DRY DECONTAMINATION METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Andrea M.; Jackson, George W.; Minette, Michael J.; Ewalt, John R.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Scott, Paul A.; Jones, Susan A.; Scheele, Randall D.; Charboneau, Stacy L.

    2005-10-12

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford site in Eastern Washington is currently being decommissioned by Fluor Hanford. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes in PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions that include acids and sequestering agents. Aggressive chemicals are commonly used to remove transuranic contaminants from process equipment to allow disposal of the equipment as low level waste. Fluor's decontamination procedure involves application of chemical solutions as a spray on the contaminated surfaces, followed by a wipe-down with rags. Alternatively, a process of applying oxidizing Ce IV ions contained in a gel matrix and vacuuming a dry gel material is being evaluated. These processes effectively transfer the transuranic materials to rags or a gel matrix which is then packaged as TRU waste and disposed. Fluor is investigating plutonium decontamination chemicals as a result of concerns regarding the safety of chemical procedures following a fire at Rocky Flats in 2003. The fire at Rocky Flats occurred in a glovebox that had been treated with cerium nitrate, which is one of the decontamination chemicals that Fluor Hanford has proposed to use. Although the investigation of the fire was not conclusive as to cause, the reviewers noted that rags were found in the glovebox, suggesting that the combination of rags and chemicals may have contributed to the fire. Because of this underlying uncertainty, Fluor began an investigation into the potential for fire when using the chemicals and materials using wet disposition and dry disposition of the waste generated in the decontamination process and the storage conditions to which the waste drum would be exposed. The focus of this work has been to develop a disposal strategy that will provide a chemically stable waste form at expected Hanford waste storage temperatures. Hanford waste storage conditions are such that there is added heat to the containers from ambient conditions during storage especially during the summer months. Treatability tests under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) were used to assess the use of certain chemicals and wipes (wet method) and chemical-gel matrices (dry method) during the decontamination process. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes at PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial decontamination agents such as RadPro? , Glygel? and ASPIGEL 100?. As part of the treatability study, Fluor and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) personnel have evaluated the potential for self-heating and exothermic reactions in the residual decontamination materials. From these wet and dry method treatability studies, certain limiting conditions have been defined that will aid in assuring safe operations and waste packaging during the decommissioning and waste disposition process.

  5. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROCESS AND MECHANISM MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this task is to develop and test chemical and physical mechanisms for use in the chemical transport models of EPA's Models-3. The target model for this research is the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. These mechanisms include gas and aqueous phase ph...

  6. EVALUATING AND DESIGNING CHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals and chemical processes are at the heart of most environmental problems. This isn't surprising since chemicals make up all of the products we use in our lives. The common use of cjhemicals makes them of high interest for systems analysis, particularly because of environ...

  7. Achieving Integrated Process and Product Safety Ibrahim Habli and Tim Kelly

    E-print Network

    Kelly, Tim

    Achieving Integrated Process and Product Safety Arguments Ibrahim Habli and Tim Kelly Department of safety based on product-specific and targeted evidence. However, the role of process assurance should product safety evidence. However, unlike the SIL-based process arguments, the process argument of the type

  8. Task Group report to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health on oversight of chemical safety at the Department of Energy. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary review of chemical safety within the Department of Energy (DOE). The review was conducted by Chemical Safety Oversight Review (CSOR) Teams composed of Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) staff members and contractors. The primary objective of the CSOR was to assess, the safety status of DOE chemical operations and identify any significant deficiencies associated with such operations. Significant was defined as any situation posing unacceptable risk, that is, imminent danger or threat to workers, co-located workers, the general public, or the environment, that requires prompt action by EH or the line organizations. A secondary objective of the CSOR was to gather and analyze technical and programmatic information related to chemical safety to be used in conjunction with the longer-range EH Workplace Chemical Accident Risk Review (WCARR) Program. The WCARR Program is part of the ongoing EH oversight of nonnuclear safety at all DOE facilities. `` The program objective is to analyze DOE and industry chemical safety programs and performance and determine the need for additional or improved safety guidance for DOE. During the period June 6, 1992, through July 31, 1992, EH conducted CSORs at five DOE sites. The sites visited were Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Savannah River Site (SRS), the Y-12 Plant (Y-12), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  9. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Evaluation of Chemical Atmospheres in Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.; Bayer, Richard E.

    1980-01-01

    Recommends that science teachers make evaluations of chemical atmospheres in science laboratories so that serious health problems can be avoided. Uses data from methylene chloride to provide guidelines for understanding the effects of chemicals on the human body. (CS)

  10. Integrated Design of Chemical Processes and Utility Systems 

    E-print Network

    Linnhoff, B.

    1985-01-01

    The pinch concept for integrated heat recovery networks has recently become established in chemical process design. This paper presents an overview of the concept and shows how it has now been extended to total process design (reactors, separators...

  11. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES WITH FUGITIVE AND OPEN EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Designing a chemical process normally includes aspects of economic and environmental disciplines. In this work we describe methods to quickly and easily evaluate the economics and potential environmental impacts of a process, with the hydrodealkylation of toluene as an example. ...

  12. CHEMICAL PROCESSES AND MODELING IN ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trends in regulatory strategies require EPA to understand better chemical behavior in natural and impacted ecosystems and in biological systems to carry out the increasingly complex array of exposure and risk assessments needed to develop scientifically defensible regulations (GP...

  13. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Tested Disposal Methods for Chemical Wastes from Academic Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, M. A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes procedures for disposing of dichromate cleaning solution, picric acid, organic azides, oxalic acid, chemical spills, and hydroperoxides in ethers and alkenes. These methods have been tested under laboratory conditions and are specific for individual chemicals rather than for groups of chemicals. (JN)

  14. Program Prepares Students for Chemical-Processing Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Haley

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a chemical-processing program at Saginaw Career Complex in Saginaw, Michigan. The program is preparing 42 11th- and 12th-graders to work as chemical-processing operators or technicians by the time they graduate from high school. It was developed in partnership with the Saginaw Career Complex--one of 51 centers in the state…

  15. Regeneration of waste chemicals from liquid redox processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Ciriacks; James F. Lafond

    1991-01-01

    To avoid the increasingly costly disposal of the waste stream (blowdown) from liquid redox processes used to clean hydrogen sulfide form gases, a reductive burning recovery (RBR) process has been developed. The RBR system concentrates spent chemicals which are primarily sodium thiosulfate and sodium sulfate. The spent chemicals are then thermally destroyed in a reactor. The regenerated salts flow from

  16. Safety. [requirements for software to monitor and control critical processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1991-01-01

    Software requirements, design, implementation, verification and validation, and especially management are affected by the need to produce safe software. This paper discusses the changes in the software life cycle that are necessary to ensure that software will execute without resulting in unacceptable risk. Software is being used increasingly to monitor and control safety-critical processes in which a run-time failure or error could result in unacceptable losses such as death, injury, loss of property, or environmental harm. Examples of such processes maybe found in transportation, energy, aerospace, basic industry, medicine, and defense systems.

  17. Reaction Kinetics at High Pressure and Temperature: Effects on Milk Flavor Volatiles and on Chemical Compounds with Nutritional and Safety Importance in Several Foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurora Valdez-Fragoso; Hugo Mújica-Paz; Jorge Welti-Chanes; J. Antonio Torres

    2011-01-01

    Consumers demand, in addition to excellent eating quality, high standards of safety and nutrition in ready-to-eat food. This\\u000a requires a continuous improvement in conventional processing technologies and the development of new alternatives. Prevailing\\u000a technologies such as thermal processing can cause extensive and undesirable chemical changes in food composition while minimal\\u000a processing strategies cannot eliminate all microbial pathogens. This review focuses

  18. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant phaseout/deactivation study

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, M.W. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, R.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The decision to cease all US Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels was made on April 28, 1992. This study provides insight into and a comparison of the management, technical, compliance, and safety strategies for deactivating the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this study is to ensure that lessons-learned and future plans are coordinated between the two facilities.

  19. A new database for food safety: EDID (Endocrine disrupting chemicals - Diet Interaction Database)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesca Baldi; Alberto Mantovani

    2008-01-01

    Summary. Diet is a significant source of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC); health risks cannot be excluded, in particular long-term effects in vulnerable groups such as children. However, food safety assessment must also consider the effects of natural food components modu- lating the endocrine system. The scientific evidence on the complex interactions between EDC and food components is still

  20. Learning from the application of nuclear probabilistic safety assessment to the chemical industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cyril Charvet; Jean-Luc Chambon; François Corenwinder; Jérôme Taveau

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the new approach of risk analysis established by the French Ministry of the Environment and develops the benefits of applying nuclear probabilistic safety assessment approaches to the chemical industry.In the aftermath of the AZF disaster in Toulouse on 21 September 2001, a new law was proposed by the French government asking for the investigation of all representative

  1. A system dynamics model for behavioral analysis of safety conditions in a chemical storage unit

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Mode Effect Analysis; Nicolet-Monnier, 1996), FTA (Fault Tree Analysis; Khan & Abbasi, 1998), FMECAA system dynamics model for behavioral analysis of safety conditions in a chemical storage unit.guarnieri@mines-paristech.fr Abstract This paper aims to develop a system dynamics model in order to formalize causal interdependencies

  2. Material Safety Data Sheet Ashland Chemical Co. Date Prepared: 01/06/98

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Material Safety Data Sheet Ashland Chemical Co. Date Prepared: 01/06/98 Date Printed: 06/23/99 MSDS and into fresh air. Seek immediate medical attention; keep person warm and quiet. If person is not breathing 4.0 Upper 19.9 % Autoignition Temperature No data Hazardous Products of Combustion May form: acid

  3. Controlled versus Automatic Processes: Which Is Dominant to Safety? The Moderating Effect of Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Ding, Weidong; Lu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the precursors of employees' safety behaviors based on a dual-process model, which suggests that human behaviors are determined by both controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Employees' responses to a self-reported survey on safety attitudes capture their controlled cognitive process, while the automatic association concerning safety measured by an Implicit Association Test (IAT) reflects employees' automatic cognitive processes about safety. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effects of inhibition on the relationship between self-reported safety attitude and safety behavior, and that between automatic associations towards safety and safety behavior. The results suggest significant main effects of self-reported safety attitude and automatic association on safety behaviors. Further, the interaction between self-reported safety attitude and inhibition and that between automatic association and inhibition each predict unique variances in safety behavior. Specifically, the safety behaviors of employees with lower level of inhibitory control are influenced more by automatic association, whereas those of employees with higher level of inhibitory control are guided more by self-reported safety attitudes. These results suggest that safety behavior is the joint outcome of both controlled and automatic cognitive processes, and the relative importance of these cognitive processes depends on employees' individual differences in inhibitory control. The implications of these findings for theoretical and practical issues are discussed at the end. PMID:24520338

  4. Macroergonomics as an organizing process for systems safety.

    PubMed

    Haro, Elizabet; Kleiner, Brian M

    2008-07-01

    Hendrick is attributed with the formalization of organizational design and management (ODAM) in ergonomics [Hendrick, H.W., Kleiner, B.M., 2001. Macroergonomics: An Introduction to Work System Design. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Santa Monica, CA.]. Specifically, the method called "Macroergonomic Analysis of Structure" or MAS provides a framework and analysis of these factors and provides the context for an analysis of organizational design and management process through the MacroErgonomic Analysis and Design method (MEAD). Together, MAS and MEAD represent the formalization of staple methods in macroergonomics and can be used to organize existing tools and methods such as those that exist in systems safety and help to differentiate macroergonomics from other approaches. This article illustrates such an integrative role for macroergonomics with respect to systems safety using the example of the construction sector, a domain in which accidents, injuries and fatalities are all too common. PMID:18407244

  5. Chemical Sensing for Buried Landmines - Fundamental Processes Influencing Trace Chemical Detection

    SciTech Connect

    PHELAN, JAMES M.

    2002-05-01

    Mine detection dogs have a demonstrated capability to locate hidden objects by trace chemical detection. Because of this capability, demining activities frequently employ mine detection dogs to locate individual buried landmines or for area reduction. The conditions appropriate for use of mine detection dogs are only beginning to emerge through diligent research that combines dog selection/training, the environmental conditions that impact landmine signature chemical vapors, and vapor sensing performance capability and reliability. This report seeks to address the fundamental soil-chemical interactions, driven by local weather history, that influence the availability of chemical for trace chemical detection. The processes evaluated include: landmine chemical emissions to the soil, chemical distribution in soils, chemical degradation in soils, and weather and chemical transport in soils. Simulation modeling is presented as a method to evaluate the complex interdependencies among these various processes and to establish conditions appropriate for trace chemical detection. Results from chemical analyses on soil samples obtained adjacent to landmines are presented and demonstrate the ultra-trace nature of these residues. Lastly, initial measurements of the vapor sensing performance of mine detection dogs demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of dogs in sensing landmine signature chemicals; however, reliability at these ultra-trace vapor concentrations still needs to be determined. Through this compilation, additional work is suggested that will fill in data gaps to improve the utility of trace chemical detection.

  6. A framework for chemical plant safety assessment under uncertainty.

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, X.; Anitescu, M.; Pereira, C.; Regalbuto, M.

    2009-03-01

    We construct a framework for assessing the risk that the uncertainty in the plant feed and physical parameters may mask the loss of a reaction product. To model the plant, we use a nonlinear, quasi-steady-state model with stochastic input and parameters. We compute the probability that more than a certain product amount is diverted, given the statistics of the uncertainty in the plant feed, in the values of the chemical parameters, and in the output measurement. The uncertainty in the physical parameters is based on the one provided by the recently developed concept of thermochemical tables. We use Monte Carlo methods to compute the probabilities, based on a Cauchy-theorem-like approach to avoid making anything but the safest asymptotic assumptions, as well as to avoid the excessive noise in the region of low-probability events.

  7. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SPILL MONITORING: SAFETY HANDBOOK AND CHEMICAL HAZARD GUIDE. PART B - CHEMICAL DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This two-part document is intended to serve as a guide to the hazards associated with a broad range of chemical compounds which may be encountered in hazardous materials spills. The document addresses 655 chemicals identified on the basis of known toxicity or spill history and de...

  8. Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure: A Safety Program Manual. Participatory Education with Farmworkers in Pesticide Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC. Dept. of Family and Community Medicine.

    Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure among North Carolina Farmworkers (PACE) is a project designed to describe farmworker pesticide exposure and to develop an educational intervention to reduce farmworker pesticide exposure. The PACE project used a community participation framework to ensure that the community played a significant role in…

  9. Chemical and physical processes in Tank 241-SY-101: A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    Since 1942, chemical and radioactive waste have been stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. In March 1981 one of the double shell tanks, 241-SY-101 (called 101-SY), began venting large quantities of gas, primarily hydrogen and nitrous oxide. Because of the potential for explosion Westinghouse Hanford Company and the US Department of Energy realized the need for knowledge about the processes occurring in this tank that lead to generation of the gases. In June 1990, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory began assembling a Tank Waste Science Panel to develop a better understanding of the processes occurring the Tank 101-SY. This knowledge is necessary to provide a technically defensible basis for the safety analyses, which will allow the tank contents to be sampled, as well as for the future remediation of the tank and its contents. The Panel concluded that the data available on Tank 101-SY are insufficient to allow the critical chemical and physical processes giving rise to gas formation and release to be unambiguously identified. To provide the needed information the Panel recommends that Tank 101-SY by physically and chemically characterized as fully as possible and as expeditiously as safety considerations allow, and laboratory studies and modeling efforts be undertaken the chemical and physical processes involved in gas generation and release. Finally, the Panel recommends that no remediation steps be taken until there is a better understanding of the chemical and physical phenomena occurring in Tank 101-SY. Premature remediation steps may only serve to compound the problem. Furthermore, such steps may change the chemical and physical characteristics of the tank and prevent a true understanding of the phenomena involved. As a consequence, similar problems in other tanks on the site may not be adequately addressed. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Chemical vapor deposition and infiltration processes of carbon materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Delhaes

    2002-01-01

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) processes of carbon materials are reviewed starting from the historical aspects and including the latest developments in the preparation of C\\/C composites. Our presentation is based on an analysis of the different types of reactors, of the composite materials with different types of pyrocarbon as matrices and a comparison

  11. Industrial water treatment chemicals and processes. Developments since 1978

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Collie

    1983-01-01

    The more than 250 processes on which this book is based relate to various aspects of industrial water treatment. The tightening of standards in recent years for industrial effluents and, subsequently, water quality makes these processes particularly attractive. Waters treated range from boiler water to cooling towers to process effluents and wastewaters; and the chemical agents used and methods of

  12. Robust model-based fault diagnosis for chemical process systems 

    E-print Network

    Rajaraman, Srinivasan

    2006-08-16

    Fault detection and diagnosis have gained central importance in the chemical process industries over the past decade. This is due to several reasons, one of them being that copious amount of data is available from a large number of sensors...

  13. 64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR FUGITIVE VOC EMISSIONS FROM CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook contains information concerning volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the synthetic organic chemicals manufacturing industry (SOCMI), petroleum refineries, on-shore natural gas processing plants, polymer manufacturing plants, benzene from particular equipme...

  15. Laser/plasma chemical processing of substrates

    DOEpatents

    Gee, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Hargis, Jr., Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A process for the modification of substrate surfaces is described, wherein etching or deposition at a surface occurs only in the presence of both reactive species and a directed beam of coherent light.

  16. Chemical Process Design: An Integrated Teaching Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debelak, Kenneth A.; Roth, John A.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews a one-semester senior plant design/laboratory course, focusing on course structure, student projects, laboratory assignments, and course evaluation. Includes discussion of laboratory exercises related to process waste water and sludge. (SK)

  17. Information Processing with Structured Chemical Excitable Medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gorecki; J. N. Gorecka; Y. Igarashi; K. Yoshikawa

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a It is well known that an excitable medium can be used for information processing with pulses of excitation. In such medium\\u000a messages can be coded or in the number of pulses or in the sequences of times separating subsequent excitations. Information\\u000a is processed as the result of two major effects: interactions between pulses and interactions between a pulse and the

  18. Control of Noise in Chemical and Biochemical Information Processing

    E-print Network

    Vladimir Privman

    2010-10-09

    We review models and approaches for error-control in order to prevent the buildup of noise when gates for digital chemical and biomolecular computing based on (bio)chemical reaction processes are utilized to realize stable, scalable networks for information processing. Solvable rate-equation models illustrate several recently developed methodologies for gate-function optimization. We also survey future challenges and possible new research avenues.

  19. European Aviation Safety Agency announces acceptance of NCAMP material certification process

    E-print Network

    European Aviation Safety Agency announces acceptance of NCAMP material certification process Wichita, KS, January 30, 2014 ­ The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) recently released Certification University's National Institute for Aviation Research (NIAR). The EASA memo states that EASA accepts data

  20. Analysis of chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Six chemical coal cleaning processes were examined. Conceptual designs and costs were prepared for these processes and coal preparation facilities, including physical cleaning and size reduction. Transportation of fine coal in agglomerated and unagglomerated forms was also discussed. Chemical cleaning processes were: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Ledgemont, Ames Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (two versions), and Guth Process (KVB). Three of the chemical cleaning processes are similar in concept: PETC, Ledgemont, and Ames. Each of these is based on the reaction of sulfur with pressurized oxygen, with the controlling factor being the partial pressure of oxygen in the reactor. All of the processes appear technically feasible. Economic feasibility is less certain. The recovery of process chemicals is vital to the JPL and Guth processes. All of the processes consume significant amounts of energy in the form of electric power and coal. Energy recovery and increased efficiency are potential areas for study in future more detailed designs. The Guth process (formally designed KVB) appears to be the simplest of the systems evaluated. All of the processes require future engineering to better determine methods for scaling laboratory designs/results to commercial-scale operations. A major area for future engineering is to resolve problems related to handling, feeding, and flow control of the fine and often hot coal.

  1. Water in Biological and Chemical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Biman

    2013-11-01

    Part I. Bulk Water: 1. Uniqueness of water; 2. Anomalies of water; 3. Dynamics of water: molecular motions and hydrogen bond breaking kinetics; 4. Inherent structures of liquid water; 5. pH of water; Part II. Water in Biology: Dynamical View and Function: 6. Biological water; 7. Explicit role of water in biological functions; 8. Hydration of proteins; 9. Can we understand protein hydration layer: lessons from computer simulations; 10. Water in and around DNA and RNA; 11. Role of water in protein-DNA interaction; 12. Water surrounding lipid bilayers; 13. Water in Darwin's world; Part III. Water in Complex Chemical Systems: 14. Hydrophilic effects; 15. Hydrophobic effects; 16. Aqueous binary mixtures: amphiphilic effect; 17. Water in and around micelles, reverse micelles and microemulsions; 18. Water in carbon nanotubes; Part IV. Bulk Water: Advanced Topics: 19. Entropy of water; 20. Freezing of water into ice; 21. Supercritical water; 22. Microscopic approaches to understand water anomalies.

  2. Chirality and chemical processes: a few afterthoughts.

    PubMed

    Cintas, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Chirality and chiral have become terms that pervade a wide range of disciplines in physical and life sciences. Although such terms are precisely defined, their use often engenders confusion and ambiguity. Perhaps, the most improper use of chirality, yet widely accepted, is related to its association with stereodynamics and physico-chemical transformations, such as chiral discrimination, chiral resolution, chiral recognition, chiral synthesis, and so on. Even though this conceptual perversion has been highlighted by renowned stereochemists, it has become a recurring keyword and a hot message in modern literature. It is timely to renew the correct use and context in forums such as the present journal, adding further reflections that may help both beginners and practitioners. This short article is not intended to criticize or highlight errors, but rather to encourage a level of rigor and the use of statements, which should be universally correct. PMID:17910003

  3. Testing Chemical Safety: What Is Needed to Ensure the Widespread Application of Non-animal Approaches?

    PubMed Central

    Burden, Natalie; Sewell, Fiona; Chapman, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe. Numerous ethical, scientific, business, and legislative incentives will help to drive this shift. However, a number of hurdles must be overcome in the coming years before non-animal methods are adopted into widespread practice, particularly from regulatory, scientific, and global perspectives. Several initiatives are nevertheless underway that promise to increase the confidence in newer alternative methods, which will support the move towards a future in which less data from animal tests is required in the assessment of chemical safety. PMID:26018957

  4. Some aspects of mathematical and chemical modeling of complex chemical processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemes, I.; Botar, L.; Danoczy, E.; Vidoczy, T.; Gal, D.

    1983-01-01

    Some theoretical questions involved in the mathematical modeling of the kinetics of complex chemical process are discussed. The analysis is carried out for the homogeneous oxidation of ethylbenzene in the liquid phase. Particular attention is given to the determination of the general characteristics of chemical systems from an analysis of mathematical models developed on the basis of linear algebra.

  5. Safety Issues of HG and PB as IFE Target Materials: Radiological Versus Chemical Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Cadwallader, L C; Moir, R W; Rio, G. D; Sanz, J

    2002-11-11

    We have performed a safety assessment of mercury and lead as possible hohlraum materials for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) targets, including for the first time a comparative analysis of the radiological and toxicological consequences of an accidental release. In order to calculate accident doses to the public, we have distinguished between accidents at the target fabrication facility and accidents at other areas of the power plant. Regarding the chemical toxicity assessment, we have used the USDOE regulations to determine the maximum allowable release in order to protect the public from adverse health effects. Opposite to common belief, it has been found that the chemical safety requirements for these materials appear to be more stringent than the concentrations that would result in an acceptable radiological dose.

  6. Safety Issues of Hg and Pb as IFE Target Materials: Radiological Versus Chemical Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Latkowski, J.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Cadwallader, L.C. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States); Moir, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Gomez del Rio, J.; Sanz, J

    2003-09-15

    We have performed a safety assessment of mercury and lead as possible hohlraum materials for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) targets, including for the first time a comparative analysis of the radiological and toxicological consequences of an accidental release. In order to calculate accident doses to the public, we have distinguished between accidents at the target fabrication facility and accidents at other areas of the power plant. Regarding the chemical toxicity assessment, we have used the U.S. DOE regulations to determine the maximum allowable release in order to protect the public from adverse health effects. Opposite to common belief, it has been found that the chemical safety requirements for these materials appear to be more stringent than the concentrations that would result in an acceptable radiological dose.

  7. Microlenses with focal length controlled by chemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muric, B. D.; Panic, B. M.

    2012-05-01

    The influence of chemical processing on the optical properties of microlenses formed on a gelatin-sensitized layer was investigated. The gelatin is sensitized with tot'hema and eosin, irradiated with a Gaussian profile laser beam and subsequently chemically processed. Microlenses with a focal length of 400??m were obtained after alcohol processing. Additionally, focal lengths could be controlled by varying the alum concentration, and lenses with focal length up to 1.2?mm were obtained. The microlenses become stable after alum processing. Their optical properties remain unchanged.

  8. Process integration technology review: background and applications in the chemical process industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell F Dunn; Mahmoud M El-Halwagi

    2003-01-01

    Process integration is a holistic approach to process design and operation which emphasizes the unity of the process. Process integration design tools have been developed over the past two decades to achieve process improvement, productivity enhancement, conservation in mass and energy resources, and reductions in the operating and capital costs of chemical processes. The primary applications of these integrated tools

  9. The EPRI DFDX Chemical Decontamination Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bushart; C. J. Wood; D. Bradbury; G. Elder

    2003-01-01

    Decommissioning of retired nuclear plants and components demands the proper management of the process, both for economic reasons and for retaining public confidence in the continued use of nuclear power for electricity generation. The cost and ease of management of radioactively contaminated components can be greatly assisted by the application of decontamination technology. EPRI initiated a program of research and

  10. Modeling operators' emergency response time for chemical processing operations.

    PubMed

    Murray, Susan L; Harputlu, Emrah; Mentzer, Ray A; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-01-01

    Operators have a crucial role during emergencies at a variety of facilities such as chemical processing plants. When an abnormality occurs in the production process, the operator often has limited time to either take corrective actions or evacuate before the situation becomes deadly. It is crucial that system designers and safety professionals can estimate the time required for a response before procedures and facilities are designed and operations are initiated. There are existing industrial engineering techniques to establish time standards for tasks performed at a normal working pace. However, it is reasonable to expect the time required to take action in emergency situations will be different than working at a normal production pace. It is possible that in an emergency, operators will act faster compared to a normal pace. It would be useful for system designers to be able to establish a time range for operators' response times for emergency situations. This article develops a modeling approach to estimate the time standard range for operators taking corrective actions or following evacuation procedures in emergency situations. This will aid engineers and managers in establishing time requirements for operators in emergency situations. The methodology used for this study combines a well-established industrial engineering technique for determining time requirements (predetermined time standard system) and adjustment coefficients for emergency situations developed by the authors. Numerous videos of workers performing well-established tasks at a maximum pace were studied. As an example, one of the tasks analyzed was pit crew workers changing tires as quickly as they could during a race. The operations in these videos were decomposed into basic, fundamental motions (such as walking, reaching for a tool, and bending over) by studying the videos frame by frame. A comparison analysis was then performed between the emergency pace and the normal working pace operations to determine performance coefficients. These coefficients represent the decrease in time required for various basic motions in emergency situations and were used to model an emergency response. This approach will make hazardous operations requiring operator response, alarm management, and evacuation processes easier to design and predict. An application of this methodology is included in the article. The time required for an emergency response was roughly a one-third faster than for a normal response time. PMID:25530564

  11. Sealed-bladdered chemical processing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Harless, D. Phillip (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus which enables a complete multi-stepped chemical treatment process to occur within a single, sealed-bladdered vessel 31. The entire chemical process occurs without interruption of the sealed-bladdered vessel 31 such as opening the sealed-bladdered vessel 31 between various steps of the process. The sealed-bladdered vessel 31 is loaded with a batch to be dissolved, treated, decanted, rinsed and/or dried. A pressure filtration step may also occur. The self-contained chemical processing apparatus 32 contains a sealed-bladder 32, a fluid pump 34, a reservoir 20, a compressed gas inlet, a vacuum pump 24, and a cold trap 23 as well as the associated piping 33, numerous valves 21,22,25,26,29,30,35,36 and other controls associated with such an apparatus. The claimed invention allows for dissolution and/or chemical treatment without the operator of the self-contained chemical processing apparatus 38 coming into contact with any of the process materials.

  12. Encyclopedic dictionary of named processes in chemical technology. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Comyns, A.E.

    1999-01-01

    This reference provides concise descriptions of those chemical processes that are known by special names which are not obvious or self-explanatory. Containing 2,600 entries, this second edition includes information on the many new processes developed and commercialized, as well as new information on old processes. The appendix lists each process according to its end products--assisting readers who do not know the actual name of the process but know its end product. The book covers new and improved processes, including: removal of gaseous effluents; destruction of organic residues in water; minimization of the quantities of waste products; manufacture of fuels from different raw materials, such as liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas; removal of lead additives from gasoline and the creation of new hydrocarbon formulations and additives; application of catalysts to make useful chemicals in one step from basic raw materials, such as propane; and design of new bleaching processes that replace traditional chlorine bleaching.

  13. Landmine detection and localization using chemical sensor array processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandar Jeremic; Arye Nehorai

    2000-01-01

    We develop methods for automatic detection and localization of landmines using chemical sensor arrays and statistical signal processing techniques. The transport of explosive vapors emanating from buried landmines is modeled as a diffusion process in a two-layered system consisting of ground and air. Measurement and statistical models are then obtained from the associated concentration distribution. We derive two detectors (the

  14. DESIGNING CHEMICAL PROCESSES WITH OPEN AND FUGITIVE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Designing a chemical process normally includes aspects of economic and environmental disciplines. In this work we describe methods to quickly and easily evaluate the conomics and potential environmental impacts of a process, with the hydrodealkylation of toluene as an example. Th...

  15. Aquatic environmental safety assessment and inhibition mechanism of chemicals for targeting Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Bo; Hao, Kai; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-11-01

    Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria that produce an array of secondary compounds with selective bioactivity against vertebrates, invertebrates, fungi, bacteria and cell lines. Recently the main methods of controlling cyanobacteria are using chemicals, medicinal plants and microorganism but fewer involved the safety research in hydrophytic ecosystems. In search of an environmentally safe compound, 53 chemicals were screened against the developed heavy cyanobacteria bloom Microcystis aeruginosa using coexistence culture system assay. The results of the coexistence assay showed that 9 chemicals inhibited M. aeruginosa effectively at 20 mg L(-1) after 7 days of exposure. Among them dimethomorph, propineb, and paraquat were identified that they are safe for Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, Carassius auratus (Goldfish) and Bacillus subtilis within half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values 5.2, 4.2 and 0.06 mg L(-1) after 7 days, respectively. Paraquat as the positive control observed to be more efficient than the other compounds with the inhibitory rate (IR) of 92% at 0.5 mg L(-1). For the potential inhibition mechanism, the chemicals could destroy the cell ultrastructure in different speed. The safety assay proved dimethomorph, propineb and paraquat as harmless formulations or products having potential value in M. aeruginosa controlling, with the advantage of its cell morphology degrading ability. PMID:25139029

  16. A model for the permitting of reactive chemical emergency projects: Closing the gap between regulation, safety and common sense

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, M.F. [Advanced Environmental Technology Corp., Flanders, NJ (United States); Hartnett, R. [Boston Fire Department, MA (United States). Planning Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The City of Boston is host to many industrial facilities, private research institutions and universities. Many of these facilities are in close proximity to densely populated residential neighborhoods, large office buildings, sports arenas and hospitals. These facilities all utilize and store many different potentially reactive chemicals either as ``raw materials``, finished products or hazardous waste in industrial process or research activities. In the vast majority of cases, these chemicals are used safely and without incident. In Boston, however, a series of minor incidents involving reactive chemicals several years ago, prompted the Boston Fire Department (BFD) to develop a departmental procedure and city regulation for the safe management of unstable/reactive or explosive materials discovered in Boston. BFD`s purpose in developing the regulation was to act decisively to protect the Health and Safety of the Boston Public from the hazards of Reactive Chemicals. The procedure provides for a standardized BFD response, evacuation of the public at risk and requires the facility involved to immediately arrange for a licensed hazardous waste contractor to inspect, stabilize and remove the designated material. The paper briefly summarizes the evolution of the program and it`s effective implementation within Boston, citing two recent case studies as examples. Pollutants of concern are hydrogen cyanide and ammonia.

  17. Chemical accident databases: what they tell us and how they can be improved to establish national safety goals

    E-print Network

    McCray, Eboni Trevette

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to examine and critique eight chemical accident databases, document any trends in accident occurrences, develop a strategy for improving current databases, and to establish national safety goals on the basis...

  18. THE ACQUISITION AND APPLICATION OF ABSORPTION, DISTRIBUTION, METABOLISM, AND EXCRETION (ADME) DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multi-sector international group of government, academic, and industry scientists has developed a proposal for an improved testing scheme for assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. Incorporation of pharmacokinetic studies describing the absorption, distribution, me...

  19. Interactive System Safety and Usability Enforced with the Development Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis Jambon; Patrick Girard; Yamine Aït-ameur

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces a new technique for the verification of both safety and usability requirements for safety-critical interactive systems. This technique uses the model-oriented formal method B and makes use of an hybrid version of the MVC and PAC software architecture models. Our claim is that this technique -that uses proofs obligations- can ensure both usability and safety requirements, from

  20. Process of converting polluting particles, emitted in chemical or physical processes, into harmless substances

    SciTech Connect

    Hooykaas, C.W.

    1982-03-02

    Harmful metals containing particles being emitted in chemical or physical processes, such as in iron production or in combustion processes, are caught and intimately divided in a molten metallurgic slag in order to avoid pollution problems.

  1. Chemical oxygen demand reduction in coffee wastewater through chemical flocculation and advanced oxidation processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa ZAYAS Péerez; Gunther GEISSLER; Fernando HERNANDEZ

    2007-01-01

    The removal of the natural organic matter present in coffee processing wastewater through chemical coagulation-flocculation and advanced oxidation processes (AOP) had been studied. The effectiveness of the removal of natural organic matter using commercial flocculants and UV\\/H2O2,UV\\/O3 and UV\\/H2O2\\/O3 processes was determined under acidic conditions. For each of these processes, different operational conditions were explored to optimize the treatment efficiency

  2. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sjaanie Koppel; Judith Charlton; Brian Fildes; Michael Fitzharris

    2008-01-01

    Whilst there has been a significant increase in the amount of consumer interest in the safety performance of privately owned vehicles, the role that it plays in consumers’ purchase decisions is poorly understood. The aims of the current study were to determine: how important vehicle safety is in the new vehicle purchase process; what importance consumers place on safety options\\/features

  3. How Important is Vehicle Safety in the New Vehicle Purchase\\/Lease Process for Fleet Vehicles?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sjaanie Koppel; Judith Charlton; Brian Fildes

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Despite the potential benefits that fleet vehicle purchase decisions could have on road safety, the role that vehicle safety plays in fleet managers' purchase decisions is poorly understood.Methods. In this study, fleet managers from Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire regarding the importance of vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase\\/lease process and the importance that is placed on

  4. No Chemical, Zero Bleed Cooling Tower Water Treatment Process

    E-print Network

    Coke, A. L.

    and enhances the magnetic descaling process. The final stage filter separates solids from the water to prevent corrosion from impingement. These solids are automatically purged to the sanitary drain. Clarified water is returned to the sump where..., heat exchangers, etc. in a shorter than normal life span than the equipment is engineered for. CHEMICAL TREATMENT As you know, the conventional chemical treatment includes biocides, corrosion inhibitors, scale inhibitors, and anti-foaming agents...

  5. Organic chemical aging mechanisms: An annotated bibliography. Waste Tank Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M.; Nelson, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    An annotated bibliography has been compiled of the potential chemical and radiological aging mechanisms of the organic constituents (non-ferrocyanide) that would likely be found in the UST at Hanford. The majority of the work that has been conducted on the aging of organic chemicals used for extraction and processing of nuclear materials has been in conjunction with the acid or PUREX type processes. At Hanford the waste being stored in the UST has been stabilized with caustic. The aging factors that were used in this work were radiolysis, hydrolysis and nitrite/nitrate oxidation. The purpose of this work was two-fold: to determine whether or not research had been or is currently being conducted on the species associated with the Hanford UST waste, either as a mixture or as individual chemicals or chemical functionalities, and to determine what areas of chemical aging need to be addressed by further research.

  6. An Introduction to Signal Processing in Chemical Analysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Professor Tom O'Haver

    This 26-page illustrated introduction to digital signal processing in chemical analysis covers signal arithmetic, signals and noise, smoothing, differentiation, resolution enhancement, harmonic analysis, convolution, deconvolution, Fourier filter, integration and peak area measurement, and curve fitting. It is accompanied by signal processing software for Macintosh with reference manual and tutorial (available for free download), video demonstrations, and Matlab signal processing modules for Mac, PC, and Unix.

  7. Chemical Processes and Thresholds in Hawaiin Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, O.

    2007-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are a useful natural laboratory for studying soil development particularly those that can be understood using a matrix of chonosequences and climosequences. The islands are formed over a stationary mantle plume and then are carried to the northwest on the Pacific Plate. Thus the islands get older with distance from the hotspot; Kauai has remnant shield surfaces whose lavas date to about 4,000 ky. It is possible to sample soils that are developing on different age flows ranging from a few hundred years to a few million years. Additionally, individual volcanoes are impacted by differing amounts of rainfall depending on location with respect to the northeasterly trade winds. Whereas rainfall over the open ocean near Hawaii is about 700 mm, rainfall over the Islands ranges from 150 to 11,000 mm. Hawaii is minimally impacted by mineral aerosol additions compared to continental areas and this has a significant impact on soil development. More than 100 soil profiles have been sampled along the Hawaii time-climate matrix with some surprising results. For example, in arid soils might be expected to develop smectite clays, but they are rich in halloysite and allophane. Importantly, these same soils show a trend from high-Mg calcite to dolomite as carbonates accumulate within the profiles - this is one of the first documented occurrences of pedogenic dolomite that is not associated with high levels of salts. It appears that lack of smectite formation lowers the incorporation of Mg into silicate clays and increases its incorporation into carbonates. This is an unusual pedogenic process that seems to be enhanced by the lack of substantial amounts of mica in the basalt derived soils. The only mica is in surface horizons that receive dust derived from distant continents. Without mica there is no template to allow smectite clay formation under the rapid wetting and drying regimes encountered in the arid soils. At the same time that halloysite is forming, iron and aluminum oxides tend to move rapidly from poorly crystalline to crystalline forms, which in turn leads to formation of Oxisols under an arid climate regimes - Torrox formation without substantial climate change. By contrast, soils forming in humid environments along the same time trajectory take much longer to go through the same transformations (allophane to halloysite; poorly crystalline goethite to well crystallized goethite; poorly crystalline gibbsite to well crystallized gibbsite). The longer time required for transformation is related to wet rather than wet- dry cycles and interference by organic carbon in the transformation process. Thus whereas it takes about 400,000 years to form a Torrox, it takes more than three times that long to form a humid-zone Oxisol. In Hawaii we have identified several important thresholds in soil properties that have universal applicability: 1. the shift from udic to perudic soil moisture regime is accompanied by reduction related changes in soil properties particularly accumulation of organic matter and loss of iron-bound phosphorus; 2. shift from ustic to udic moisture leads to rapid loss of nutrients with far reaching implications for soil exchange properties and prehistoric land use, 3. the shift from from ustic to aridic soil conditions leads to greater losses of plant nutrients (bases, P, Si) due to greater wind erosion. Based on archeological evidence, it is clear that Polynesians made land-use decisions that incorporated observations of the soil properties associated with these thresholds.

  8. Product Safety, Risk Assessment, and Responsible Care in the Biocide Chemical Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. D. Weiler; M. A. Jayjock; H. C. Levy

    1996-01-01

    Manufacturers of biocides recognize a need to control the risk from their products. This paper discusses some of the history and critical aspects of these activities and outlines the needs under the current initiatives of Responsible Care. Biocide product safety risk assessment is operationally defined in this context and presented as the fundamental tool of the process. The need for

  9. Reduced product yield in chemical processes by second law effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.; Funk, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of second law effects in chemical processes, where product yield is explicitly related to the individual irreversibilities within the process to indicate a maximum theoretical yield, is presented. Examples are given that indicate differences between first and second law approaches toward process efficiency and process yield. This analysis also expresses production capacity in terms of the heating value of a product. As a result, it is particularly convenient in analyzing fuel conversion plants and their potential for improvement. Relationships are also given for the effects of irreversibilities on requirements for process heat and for feedstocks.

  10. Signal Processing For Chemical Sensing: Statistics or Biological Inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, Santiago

    2011-09-01

    Current analytical instrumentation and continuous sensing can provide huge amounts of data. Automatic signal processing and information evaluation is needed to overcome drowning in data. Today, statistical techniques are typically used to analyse and extract information from continuous signals. However, it is very interesting to note that biology (insects and vertebrates) has found alternative solutions for chemical sensing and information processing. This is a brief introduction to the developments in the European Project: Bio-ICT NEUROCHEM: Biologically Inspired Computation for Chemical Sensing (grant no. 216916) Fp7 project devoted to biomimetic olfactory systems.

  11. The Safety Data Sheet, or SDS, is written or printed material used to convey the hazards of a hazardous chemical product. It contains 16 sections of important chemical information, including

    E-print Network

    of a hazardous chemical product. It contains 16 sections of important chemical information, including: Chemical" standard is to ensure that the hazards of all chemicals produced or imported are classified are training, chemical labels, Safety Data Sheets, and a list of all hazardous chemicals in the work area

  12. Environmental, safety, and health engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Woodside, G.; Kocurek, D.

    1997-12-31

    A complete guide to environmental, safety, and health engineering, including an overview of EPA and OSHA regulations; principles of environmental engineering, including pollution prevention, waste and wastewater treatment and disposal, environmental statistics, air emissions and abatement engineering, and hazardous waste storage and containment; principles of safety engineering, including safety management, equipment safety, fire and life safety, process and system safety, confined space safety, and construction safety; and principles of industrial hygiene/occupational health engineering including chemical hazard assessment, personal protective equipment, industrial ventilation, ionizing and nonionizing radiation, noise, and ergonomics.

  13. Food safety management systems performance in African food processing companies: a review of deficiencies and possible improvement strategies.

    PubMed

    Kussaga, Jamal B; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Tiisekwa, Bendantunguka Pm; Luning, Pieternel A

    2014-08-01

    This study seeks to provide insight into current deficiencies in food safety management systems (FSMS) in African food-processing companies and to identify possible strategies for improvement so as to contribute to African countries' efforts to provide safe food to both local and international markets. This study found that most African food products had high microbiological and chemical contamination levels exceeding the set (legal) limits. Relative to industrialized countries, the study identified various deficiencies at government, sector/branch, retail and company levels which affect performance of FSMS in Africa. For instance, very few companies (except exporting and large companies) have implemented HACCP and ISO 22000:2005. Various measures were proposed to be taken at government (e.g. construction of risk-based legislative frameworks, strengthening of food safety authorities, recommend use of ISO 22000:2005, and consumers' food safety training), branch/sector (e.g. sector-specific guidelines and third-party certification), retail (develop stringent certification standards and impose product specifications) and company levels (improving hygiene, strict raw material control, production process efficacy, and enhancing monitoring systems, assurance activities and supportive administrative structures). By working on those four levels, FSMS of African food-processing companies could be better designed and tailored towards their production processes and specific needs to ensure food safety. PMID:24425418

  14. [Analysis on mechanism of the chemical-biological flocculation process].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-bin; Zhao, Jian-fu; Xia, Si-qing; Liu, Chang-qing; Wang, Xue-jiang

    2007-05-01

    Zeta potential, particle size distribution and molecular weight distribution of dissolved TOC were studied to elementarily disclose the mechanism of the chemical-biological flocculation (CBF) process to treat municipal wastewater. Chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) process and primary sedimentation tank process were taken as the parallel-compared wastewater treatment processes. The experimental results show that under the same dosage, Zeta potential of the CBF process effluent is equal to that of the CEPT process, which indicates that flocculant in return sludge does not change the stabilization of particles in CBF reactor, and the biological flocculation is the key reason for CBF is superior to CEPT. In CBF process, good removal results are achieved for particles >10 microm and dissolved TOC with molecular weight >6 ku by chemical dosage, and biological flocculation can not only promote the removal of particles >10 microm and dissolved TOC with molecular weight >6 ku, but also have high capacity to remove small particles and dissolved TOC with small molecular weight, with the results that particles >3 tpm are removed completely and TOC with molecular weight of 2-6 ku are removed by 42.5% . PMID:17633167

  15. Health information in material safety data sheets for a chemical that causes asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda M. Frazier; Brent W. Beasley; Gyanendra K. Sharma; Aliasghar A. Mohyuddin

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of health information on material safety data sheets (MSDS) for a workplace chemical that is well known\\u000a to cause or exacerbate asthma (toluene diisocyanate, TDI).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: We reviewed a random sample of 61 MSDSs for TDI products produced by 30 manufacturers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Two physicians independently abstracted data from each MSDS onto a

  16. Industrial water treatment chemicals and processes. Developments since 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Collie, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The more than 250 processes on which this book is based relate to various aspects of industrial water treatment. The tightening of standards in recent years for industrial effluents and, subsequently, water quality makes these processes particularly attractive. Waters treated range from boiler water to cooling towers to process effluents and wastewaters; and the chemical agents used and methods of treatment include scale and corrosion inhibitors, flocculants, coagulants, adsorbents, biocides, flotation aids, metals removal, metals recovery, and dewatering. The large section on wastewater treatments covers the removal of organic and inorganic substances. Many of these processes have industry-specific applications - in paper, textile, food, or chemical manufacture; others are intended for general use.

  17. Regeneration of waste chemicals from liquid redox processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ciriacks, J.A.; LaFond, J.F. (Engineered Systems International, Appleton, WI (United States))

    1991-08-01

    To avoid the increasingly costly disposal of the waste stream (blowdown) from liquid redox processes used to clean hydrogen sulfide form gases, a reductive burning recovery (RBR) process has been developed. The RBR system concentrates spent chemicals which are primarily sodium thiosulfate and sodium sulfate. The spent chemicals are then thermally destroyed in a reactor. The regenerated salts flow from the bottom of the reactor as a molten smelt containing sodium carbonate, sodium sulfide and sodium vanadate. The molten salt stream is dissolved in water to form a regenerated solution which is fed back into the Stretford process. For the special case of coke oven gas cleaning, elemental sulfur is added to a portion of the regenerated solution in order to clean hydrogen cyanide from the coke gas before the gas is scrubbed with Stretford solution to remove hydrogen sulfide. The sodium thiocyanate product of hydrogen cyanide scrubbing is also thermally destroyed and regenerated by RBR process.

  18. Safety evaluation report related to the renewal of the facility license for the research reactor at the Dow Chemical Company

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This safety evaluation report for the application filed by the Dow Chemical Company for renewal of facility Operating License R-108 to continue to operate its research reactor at an increased operating power level has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located on the grounds of the Michigan Division of the Dow Chemical Company in Midland, Michigan. The staff concludes that the Dow Chemical Company can continue to operate its reactor without endangering the health and safety of the public.

  19. 40 CFR 372.20 - Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities. 372.20 Section...COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW...20 Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities. (a) Request...

  20. 40 CFR 372.20 - Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities. 372.20 Section...COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW...20 Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities. (a) Request...

  1. 40 CFR 372.20 - Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities. 372.20 Section...COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW...20 Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities. (a) Request...

  2. New Optimization Strategy for Chemical Mechanical Polishing Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gou-Jen Wang; Jau-Liang Chen; Ju-Yi Hwang

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a systematic approach to achieve a globally optimal Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) process is carried out. In this new approach, the orthogonal array technique adopted from the Taguchi method is used to realize an efficiently experimental design. The RBFNF neural-fuzzy network is then applied to model the complex CMP process. The signal-to-noise ratio (S\\/N) analysis (ANOVA) technique

  3. MTR AND ETR COMPLEXES. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY TOWARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR AND ETR COMPLEXES. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY TOWARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING PLANT. MTR AND ITS ATTACHMENTS IN FOREGROUND. ETR BEYOND TO RIGHT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4100. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. A pollution reduction methodology for chemical process simulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subir K. Mallick; Heriberto Cabezas; Jane C. Bare; Subhas K. Sikdar

    1996-01-01

    A pollution minimization methodology was developed for chemical process design using computer simulation. It is based on a pollution balance that at steady state is used to define a pollution index with units of mass of pollution per mass of products. The pollution balance has been modified by weighing the mass flowrate of each pollutant by its potential environmental impact

  5. STRIPPING OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An approach was developed in order to measure, then predict the fates of organic chemicals in biological processes. This approach is called stripping predictive fate method (PFM). The method offers a simpler approach for estimating stripping rates from pure water and wastewater....

  6. 26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT NORTH EDGE FROM DECEMBER 7TH AVENUE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  7. Supercritical Water Process for the Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motonobu Goto

    2010-01-01

    The development of chemical recycling of waste plastics by decomposition reactions in sub- and supercritical water is reviewed. Decomposition reactions proceed rapidly and selectively using supercritical fluids compared to conventional processes. Condensation polymerization plastics such as PET, nylon, and polyurethane, are relatively easily depolymerized to their monomers in supercritical water. The monomer components are recovered in high yield. Addition polymerization

  8. Techniques and methodologies for risk analysis in chemical process industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faisal I. Khan; S. A. Abbasi

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-art-review of the available techniques and methodologies for carrying out risk analysis in chemical process industries. It also presents a set of methodologies developed by the authors to conduct risk analysis effectively and optimally.

  9. GREENSCOPE: A Method for Modeling Chemical Process Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current work within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s National Risk Management Research Laboratory is focused on the development of a method for modeling chemical process sustainability. The GREENSCOPE methodology, defined for the four bases of Environment, Economics, Ef...

  10. ASSESSING TOXICITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS TO ANAEROBIC TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A screening protocol has been developed to provide a rapid but dependable and repeatable assessment of the effect of toxic organic chemicals on anaerobic treatment processes. his protocol provides information on the rate limiting biological reactions and the concentration of toxi...

  11. Hazardous Waste Processing in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorland, Dianne; Baria, Dorab N.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a sequence of two courses included in the chemical engineering program at the University of Minnesota, Duluth that deal with the processing of hazardous wastes. Covers course content and structure, and discusses developments in pollution prevention and waste management that led to the addition of these courses to the curriculum.…

  12. ORGANIC CHEMICAL FATE PREDICTION IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes results from a broadly-based effort to determine the feasibility of predicting the fates of organic chemicals in diffused air, activated sludge wastewater treatment processes. The three conversion/removal mechanisms emphasized in the work were stripping, sorp...

  13. Chemical vapor deposition for automatic processing of integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition for automatic processing of integrated circuits including the wafer carrier and loading from a receiving air track into automatic furnaces and unloading on to a sending air track is discussed. Passivation using electron beam deposited quartz is also considered.

  14. INCORPORATING INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY INTO HIERARCHICAL CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incorporating Industrial Ecology into Hierarchical Chemical Process Design: Determining Targets for the Exchange of Waste The exchange of waste to be used as a recycled feed has long been encouraged by practitioners of industrial ecology. Industrial ecology is a field t...

  15. Processing, food applications and safety of aloe vera products: a review.

    PubMed

    Ahlawat, Kulveer Singh; Khatkar, Bhupender Singh

    2011-10-01

    Aloe vera is used for vigor, wellness and medicinal purposes since rigvedic times. Health benefits of aloe vera include its application in wound healing, treating burns, minimizing frost bite damage, protection against skin damage from x-rays, lung cancer, intestinal problems, increasing high density lipoprotein (HDL), reducing low density lipoprotein (LDL), reducing blood sugar in diabetics, fighting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), allergies and improving immune system. Phytochemistry of aloe vera gel has revealed the presence of more than 200 bioactive chemicals. Aloe vera gel is extracted from its leaves and appropriate processing techniques are needed for stabilization as well as preparation of the end products. The industries involved in processing of aloe vera need Government surveillance to ensure that the aloe vera products have beneficial bio-active chemicals as per claims of the manufacturers. Regulatory bodies also need to look into the safety and toxicological aspects of aloe vera products for food applications. The claims made for medicinal value of aloe products should be supported by authentic and approved clinical trial data. It is presumptive to mention that nutraceutical claims of aloe products made by the manufacturers are numerous. However, approved clinical evidences are available only for lowering LDL, increasing HDL, decreasing blood glucose level, treating genital herpes and psoriases. PMID:23572784

  16. Health Information in Material Safety Data Sheets for a Chemical Which Causes Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Linda M; Beasley, Brent W; Sharma, Gyanendra K; Mohyuddin, Aliasghar A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the quality of health information on material safety data sheets (MSDS) for a workplace chemical that is well known to cause or exacerbate asthma (toluene diisocyanate, TDI). DESIGN We reviewed a random sample of 61 MSDSs for TDI products produced by 30 manufacturers. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Two physicians independently abstracted data from each MSDS onto a standardized audit form. One manufacturer provided no language about any respiratory effects of TDI exposure. Asthma was listed as a potential health effect by only 15 of the 30 manufacturers (50%). Listing asthma in the MSDS was associated with higher toluene diisocyanate concentrations in the product (P < .042). Allergic or sensitizing respiratory reactions were listed by 21 manufacturers (70%). CONCLUSIONS Many MSDSs for toluene diisocyanate do not communicate clearly that exposure can cause or exacerbate asthma. This suggests that physicians should not rely on the MSDS for information about health effects of this chemical. PMID:11251759

  17. US flight safety review\\/approval process for nuclear-powered space missions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Jr. Sholtis; J. P. Joyce; R. C. Nelson

    1989-01-01

    Since 1961, the US has launched more than 20 civilian and military spacecraft utilizing nuclear power sources. This paper is devoted to the flight safety review and launch approval process, which has been developed and successfully employed in the US for nuclear-powered space missions. The US flight safety review and launch approval process for nuclear-powered space missions is illustrated. Except

  18. Critical processes and performance measures for patient safety systems in healthcare institutions: a Delphi study

    E-print Network

    Akins, Ralitsa B.

    2004-11-15

    ???????????????. 39 Medication Safety ??????????????????... 39 Patient Safety Research and Root Causes for Medical Errors ??????????. 47 Process and Outcome Performance Measures ????????????????. 51 Clinical Performance Measures... continuous improvement processes based on organizational self-assessment (BHC Accreditation News, 2002). Statement of the Problem In 2002, a report on physician clinical performance assessment concluded, ?In quality improvement, measurement...

  19. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Data requirements for the ferrocyanide safety issue developed through the data quality objectives (DQO) process

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, J.W.; Anderson, C.M.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Toth, J.J.; Turner, P.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Meacham, J.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This document records the data quality objectives (DQO) process applied to the Ferrocyanide Waste Tank Safety Issue at the Hanford Site by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company. Specifically, the major recommendations and findings from this Ferrocyanide DQO process are presented so that decision makers can determine the type, quantity, and quality of data required for addressing tank safety issues. The decision logic diagrams and error tolerance equations also are provided. Finally, the document includes the DQO sample-size formulas for determining specific tank sampling requirements.

  20. Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, E.D.

    1982-08-10

    A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content which includes: (A) a chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; (B) the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; (C) the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; (D) the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products.

  1. Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content

    DOEpatents

    Michaels, Edward D. (Spring Valley, OH)

    1982-01-01

    A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content which includes: (a) A chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; (b) the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; (c) the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; (d) the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products.

  2. Influence of surface coverage on the chemical desorption process

    SciTech Connect

    Minissale, M.; Dulieu, F., E-mail: francois.dulieu@obspm.fr [LERMA, Université de Cergy Pontoise et Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8112 du CNRS. 5, mail Gay Lussac, 95031 Cergy Pontoise (France)

    2014-07-07

    In cold astrophysical environments, some molecules are observed in the gas phase whereas they should have been depleted, frozen on dust grains. In order to solve this problem, astrochemists have proposed that a fraction of molecules synthesized on the surface of dust grains could desorb just after their formation. Recently the chemical desorption process has been demonstrated experimentally, but the key parameters at play have not yet been fully understood. In this article, we propose a new procedure to analyze the ratio of di-oxygen and ozone synthesized after O atoms adsorption on oxidized graphite. We demonstrate that the chemical desorption efficiency of the two reaction paths (O+O and O+O{sub 2}) is different by one order of magnitude. We show the importance of the surface coverage: for the O+O reaction, the chemical desorption efficiency is close to 80% at zero coverage and tends to zero at one monolayer coverage. The coverage dependence of O+O chemical desorption is proved by varying the amount of pre-adsorbed N{sub 2} on the substrate from 0 to 1.5 ML. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the different physical parameters that could play a role in the chemical desorption process: binding energy, enthalpy of formation, and energy transfer from the new molecule to the surface or to other adsorbates.

  3. Laboratory Safety Manual September 2013

    E-print Network

    Wilcock, William

    Hazards Added new subsection 10, Process Safety for Highly Hazardous Chemicals. July 1, 2010 Section 3.B.7 to web pages now Sept 27, 2013 Section 2, Chemical Management Revised wording about chemical storage Worksheet method of access fixed; Chemical Treatment Log link fixed; HF TIP Sheet changed to HF Focus Sheet

  4. A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

    2005-07-01

    The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

  5. A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

    2004-11-01

    The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

  6. A Framework to Design and Optimize Chemical Flooding Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

    2006-08-31

    The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

  7. Laboratory Studies of Heterogeneous Chemical Processes of Atmospheric Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, Mario J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct measurements of chemical kinetics parameters for heterogeneous reactions of importance in the stratosphere and the troposphere. It involves the elucidation of the mechanism of the interaction of HCl vapor with ice surfaces, which is the first step in the heterogeneous chlorine activation processes, as well as the investigation of the atmospheric oxidation mechanism of soot particles emitted by biomass and fossil fuels. The techniques being employed include turbulent flow-chemical ionization mass spectrometry and optical ellipsometry, among others.

  8. Mixtures of chemical pollutants at European legislation safety concentrations: how safe are they?

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Raquel N; Arukwe, Augustine; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Bado-Nilles, Anne; Balzamo, Stefania; Baun, Anders; Belkin, Shimshon; Blaha, Ludek; Brion, François; Conti, Daniela; Creusot, Nicolas; Essig, Yona; Ferrero, Valentina E V; Flander-Putrle, Vesna; Fürhacker, Maria; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina; Hogstrand, Christer; Jonáš, Adam; Kharlyngdoh, Joubert B; Loos, Robert; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Modig, Carina; Olsson, Per-Erik; Pillai, Smitha; Polak, Natasa; Potalivo, Monica; Sanchez, Wilfried; Schifferli, Andrea; Schirmer, Kristin; Sforzini, Susanna; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R; Søfteland, Liv; Turk, Valentina; Viarengo, Aldo; Werner, Inge; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Zounková, Radka; Lettieri, Teresa

    2014-09-01

    The risk posed by complex chemical mixtures in the environment to wildlife and humans is increasingly debated, but has been rarely tested under environmentally relevant scenarios. To address this issue, two mixtures of 14 or 19 substances of concern (pesticides, pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, a surfactant, and a plasticizer), each present at its safety limit concentration imposed by the European legislation, were prepared and tested for their toxic effects. The effects of the mixtures were assessed in 35 bioassays, based on 11 organisms representing different trophic levels. A consortium of 16 laboratories was involved in performing the bioassays. The mixtures elicited quantifiable toxic effects on some of the test systems employed, including i) changes in marine microbial composition, ii) microalgae toxicity, iii) immobilization in the crustacean Daphnia magna, iv) fish embryo toxicity, v) impaired frog embryo development, and vi) increased expression on oxidative stress-linked reporter genes. Estrogenic activity close to regulatory safety limit concentrations was uncovered by receptor-binding assays. The results highlight the need of precautionary actions on the assessment of chemical mixtures even in cases where individual toxicants are present at seemingly harmless concentrations. PMID:24958932

  9. CHEM 5510 Introduction to Laboratory Safety 1 credit course on chemical safety (1 hour course, Friday afternoons, Fall Semester)

    E-print Network

    Simons, Jack

    include laboratory emergencies, chemical hazards, lab inspections and compliance, managing and working. Risks in a Research Laboratory Health Effects Due to "Hazardous" Chemical Exposure (How Does One Determine the Hazards Associated with Specific Chemicals?, Exposure Routes, Toxicity Risk Assessment) III

  10. Effect of combination processing on the microbial, chemical and sensory quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable pulav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; George, Johnsy; Rajamanickam, R.; Nataraju, S.; Sabhapathy, S. N.; Bawa, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Effect of irradiation in combination with retort processing on the shelf life and safety aspects of an ethnic Indian food product like vegetable pulav was investigated. Gamma irradiation of RTE vegetable pulav was carried out at different dosage rates with 60Co followed by retort processing. The combination processed samples were analysed for microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics. Microbiological analysis indicated that irradiation in combination with retort processing has significantly reduced the microbial loads whereas the chemical and sensory analysis proved that this combination processing is effective in retaining the properties even after storage for one year at ambient conditions. The results also indicated that a minimum irradiation dosage at 4.0 kGy along with retort processing at an F0 value of 2.0 is needed to achieve the desired shelf life with improved organoleptic qualities.

  11. Certification Processes for Safety-Critical and Mission-Critical Aerospace Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Stacy

    2003-01-01

    This document is a quick reference guide with an overview of the processes required to certify safety-critical and mission-critical flight software at selected NASA centers and the FAA. Researchers and software developers can use this guide to jumpstart their understanding of how to get new or enhanced software onboard an aircraft or spacecraft. The introduction contains aerospace industry definitions of safety and safety-critical software, as well as, the current rationale for certification of safety-critical software. The Standards for Safety-Critical Aerospace Software section lists and describes current standards including NASA standards and RTCA DO-178B. The Mission-Critical versus Safety-Critical software section explains the difference between two important classes of software: safety-critical software involving the potential for loss of life due to software failure and mission-critical software involving the potential for aborting a mission due to software failure. The DO-178B Safety-critical Certification Requirements section describes special processes and methods required to obtain a safety-critical certification for aerospace software flying on vehicles under auspices of the FAA. The final two sections give an overview of the certification process used at Dryden Flight Research Center and the approval process at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL).

  12. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: A NEW PROCESS FOR CHEMICALLY CLEANING SAVANNAH RIVER WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E; Neil Davis, N; Renee Spires, R

    2008-01-17

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 high level waste (HLW) tanks that must be emptied, cleaned, and closed as required by the Federal Facilities Agreement. The current method of chemical cleaning uses several hundred thousand gallons per tank of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to partially dissolve and suspend residual waste and corrosion products such that the waste can be pumped out of the tank. This adds a significant quantity of sodium oxalate to the tanks and, if multiple tanks are cleaned, renders the waste incompatible with the downstream processing. Tank space is also insufficient to store this stream given the large number of tanks to be cleaned. Therefore, a search for a new cleaning process was initiated utilizing the TRIZ literature search approach, and Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination--Ultraviolet (CORD-UV), a mature technology currently used for decontamination and cleaning of commercial nuclear reactor primary cooling water loops, was identified. CORD-UV utilizes oxalic acid for sludge dissolution, but then decomposes the oxalic acid to carbon dioxide and water by UV treatment outside the system being treated. This allows reprecipitation and subsequent deposition of the sludge into a selected container without adding significant volume to that container, and without adding any new chemicals that would impact downstream treatment processes. Bench top and demonstration loop measurements on SRS tank sludge stimulant demonstrated the feasibility of applying CORD-UV for enhanced chemical cleaning of SRS HLW tanks.

  13. Contamination and changes of food factors during processing with modeling applications-safety related issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical and microbiological contamination of food during processing and preservation can result in foodborne illness outbreaks and food poisoning. Chemical contaminations can occur through exposure of foods to illegal additives, pesticides and fertilizer residues, toxic compounds formed by microbes...

  14. Supercritical Water Process for the Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Motonobu

    2010-11-01

    The development of chemical recycling of waste plastics by decomposition reactions in sub- and supercritical water is reviewed. Decomposition reactions proceed rapidly and selectively using supercritical fluids compared to conventional processes. Condensation polymerization plastics such as PET, nylon, and polyurethane, are relatively easily depolymerized to their monomers in supercritical water. The monomer components are recovered in high yield. Addition polymerization plastics such as phenol resin, epoxy resin, and polyethylene, are also decomposed to monomer components with or without catalysts. Recycling process of fiber reinforced plastics has been studied. Pilot scale or commercial scale plants have been developed and are operating with sub- and supercritical fluids.

  15. Solar Processes for the Destruction of Hazardous Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, D. M.

    1993-06-01

    Solar technologies are being developed to address a wide range of environmental problems. Sunlight plays a role in the passive destruction of hazardous substances in soil, water, and air. Development of processes that use solar energy to remediate environmental problems or to treat process wastes is underway in laboratories around the world. This paper reviews progress in understanding the role of solar photochemistry in removing man-made chemicals from the environment, and developing technology that uses solar photochemistry for this purpose in an efficient manner.

  16. Health and safety consequences of shift work in the food processing industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL J. SMITH; MICHAEL J. COLLIGAN; DONALD L. TASTO

    1982-01-01

    Both a questionnaire survey and an evaluation of health and safety records were used to characterize the health and safety consequences of day versus afternoon, night and rotating shifts for approximately 1000 food processing workers. Relative to the day workers, the results indicated that those on shift work, particularly rotating and night shifts, showed greater adverse effects. These included poorer

  17. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept.

  18. Chemical engineering challenges in driving thermochemical hydrogen processes with the tandem mirror reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, T.R.; Werner, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Reactor is described and compared with Tokamaks, both from a basic physics viewpoint and from the suitability of the respective reactor for synfuel production. Differences and similarities between the TMR as an electricity producer or a synfuel producer are also cited. The Thermochemical cycle chosen to link with the fusion energy source is the General Atomic Sulfur-Iodine Cycle, which is a purely thermal-driven process with no electrochemical steps. There are real chemical engineering challenges of getting this high quality heat into the large thermochemical plant in an efficient manner. We illustrate with some of our approaches to providing process heat via liquid sodium to drive a 1050 K, highly-endothermic, catalytic and fluidized-bed SO/sub 3/ Decomposition Reactor. The technical, economic, and safety tradeoffs that arise are discussed.

  19. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  20. Chemical Reactions and Atomic Removal Dynamics during Gallium Nitride Chemical Mechanical Polishing Process: Quantum Chemical Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Kentaro; Higuchi, Yuji; Ozawa, Nobuki; Kubo, Momoji

    2015-03-01

    The chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is promising for efficient polishing of the GaN substrate, and it is essential for manufacturing of GaN devices. However, the detailed CMP mechanisms are unclear, and then the design of efficient and precise CMP process is difficult. We performed polishing simulations of a GaN substrate by a SiO2 abrasive grain in a solution including OH radicals in order to reveal effects of OH radicals on the polishing process. The OH radicals in the solution are adsorbed on the GaN surface and occupy the hollow sites on the surface. Then, a surface-adsorbed O atom is generated by the chemical reaction between the surface-adsorbed OH species and a OH radical in the solution. In the friction interface between the GaN substrate and the abrasive grain, the surface-adsorbed O atom is mechanically pushed into the GaN substrate by the abrasive grain. This O atom intrusion induces the dissociation of Ga-N bonds of the GaN substrate. Moreover, volatile N2 molecules and soluble Ga(OH)3 molecules are generated due to the dissociation of Ga-N bonds. Then, we suggested that the GaN CMP process efficiently proceeds by the mechanically induced chemical reactions: a surface-adsorbed O atom is generated and pushed into the GaN bulk by the abrasive grain.

  1. The World Library of Toxicology, Chemical Safety, and Environmental Health (WLT).

    PubMed

    Wexler, Philip; Gilbert, Steven G; Thorp, Nick; Faustman, Elaine; Breskin, Donna D

    2012-03-01

    The World Library of Toxicology, Chemical Safety, and Environmental Health, commonly referred to as the World Library of Toxicology (WLT), is a multilingual online portal of links to key global resources, representing a host of individual countries and multilateral organizations. The Site is designed as a network of, and gateway to, toxicological information and activities from around the world. It is built on a Wiki platform by a roster of Country Correspondents, with the aim of efficiently exchanging information and stimulating collaboration among colleagues, and building capacity, with the ultimate objective of serving as a tool to help improve global public health. The WLT was publicly launched on September 7, 2009, at the Seventh Congress of Toxicology in Developing Countries (CTDC-VII) in Sun City, South Africa. PMID:21071551

  2. Information Scanning and Processing at the Nuclear Safety Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Celia; Julian, Carol

    This report is a detailed manual of the information specialist's duties at the Nuclear Safety Information Center. Information specialists scan the literature for documents to be reviewed, procure the documents (books, journal articles, reports, etc.), keep the document location records, and return the documents to the plant library or other…

  3. Application of repetitive pulsed power technology to chemical processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, R.J.; Hamil, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The numerous sites of soil and water contaminated with organic chemicals present an urgent environmental concern that continues to grow. Electron and x-ray irradiation have been shown to be effective methods to destroy a wide spectrum of organic chemicals, nitrates, nitrites, and cyanide in water by breaking molecules to non-toxic products or entirely mineralizing the by-products to gas, water, and salts. Sandia National Laboratories is developing Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power (RHEPP) technology capable of producing high average power, broad area electron or x-ray beams. The 300 kW RHEPP-II facility accelerates electrons to 2.5 MeV at 25 kA over 1,000 cm{sup 2} in 60 ns pulses at repetition rates of over 100 Hz. Linking this modular treatment capability with the rapid optical-sensing diagnostics and neutral network characterization software algorithms will provide a Smart Waste Treatment (SWaT) system. Such a system would also be applicable for chemical manufacture and processing of industrial waste for reuse or disposal. This talk describes both the HREPP treatment capability and sensing technologies. Measurements of the propagated RHEPP-II beam and dose profiles are presented. Sensors and rapid detection software are discussed with application toward chemical treatment.

  4. Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process

    PubMed Central

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:22768233

  5. [Chemical constituents from processed rhizomes of Panax notoginseng].

    PubMed

    Yu, He-Shui; Zhang, Li-Juan; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Yi-Xun; Zhang, Jie; Cao, Man; Kang, Li-Ping; Kang, Ting-Guo; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of the processed rhizomes of Panax notoginseng, their 70% ethanol extract was chromatographed on macroporous resin (SP825), silica gel, RP-C18 and semi-preparative HPLC to afford compounds 1-23. On the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data analysis, their structures were identified to be 6'-O-Acetylginsenoside Rh1 (1), ginsenoside RK3 (2), ginsenoside Rh4 (3), 20S-ginsenoside Rg3 (4), ginsenoside Rk1 (5), 20R-ginsenoside Rg3 (6), ginsenoside Rg5 (7), ginsenoside F2 (8), 20S-ginsenoside Rh1 (9), 20R-ginsenoside Rh1 (10), gypenoside X VII (11), notoginsenoside Fa, (12), ginsenoside Ra3 (13), ginsenoside Rg1 (14), ginsenoside Re (15), notoginsenoside R2 (16), ginsenoside Rg2 (17), notoginsenoside R1 (18), ginsenoside Rd (19), ginsenoside Rb1 (20), notoginsenoside D (21), notoginsenoside R4 (22) and ginsenoside Rb2 (23), respectively. Among them, compound 1 was isolated from P. notoginseng for the first time, and compounds 4, 6, 8 and 11 were isolated from the processed P. notoginseng for the first time. According to the fingerprint profiles of raw and processed P. notoginseng, the putative chemical conversion pathways of panoxatriol and panoxadiol compounds in the processing procedure was deduced, and the results revealed the main reactions to be dehydration and glycosyl hydrolysis. PMID:24558875

  6. Mechanistic, kinetic, and processing aspects of tungsten chemical mechanical polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, David

    This dissertation presents an investigation into tungsten chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). CMP is the industrially predominant unit operation that removes excess tungsten after non-selective chemical vapor deposition (CVD) during sub-micron integrated circuit (IC) manufacture. This work explores the CMP process from process engineering and fundamental mechanistic perspectives. The process engineering study optimized an existing CMP process to address issues of polish pad and wafer carrier life. Polish rates, post-CMP metrology of patterned wafers, electrical test data, and synergy with a thermal endpoint technique were used to determine the optimal process. The oxidation rate of tungsten during CMP is significantly lower than the removal rate under identical conditions. Tungsten polished without inhibition during cathodic potentiostatic control. Hertzian indenter model calculations preclude colloids of the size used in tungsten CMP slurries from indenting the tungsten surface. AFM surface topography maps and TEM images of post-CMP tungsten do not show evidence of plow marks or intergranular fracture. Polish rate is dependent on potassium iodate concentration; process temperature is not. The colloid species significantly affects the polish rate and process temperature. Process temperature is not a predictor of polish rate. A process energy balance indicates that the process temperature is predominantly due to shaft work, and that any heat of reaction evolved during the CMP process is negligible. Friction and adhesion between alumina and tungsten were studied using modified AFM techniques. Friction was constant with potassium iodate concentration, but varied with applied pressure. This corroborates the results from the energy balance. Adhesion between the alumina and the tungsten was proportional to the potassium iodate concentration. A heuristic mechanism, which captures the relationship between polish rate, pressure, velocity, and slurry chemistry, is presented. In this mechanism, the colloid reacts with the chemistry of the slurry to produce active sites. These active sites become inactive by removing tungsten from the film. The process repeats when then inactive sites are reconverted to active sites. It is shown that the empirical form of the heuristic mechanism fits all of the data obtained. The mechanism also agrees with the limiting cases that were investigated.

  7. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process?

    PubMed

    Koppel, Sjaanie; Charlton, Judith; Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Whilst there has been a significant increase in the amount of consumer interest in the safety performance of privately owned vehicles, the role that it plays in consumers' purchase decisions is poorly understood. The aims of the current study were to determine: how important vehicle safety is in the new vehicle purchase process; what importance consumers place on safety options/features relative to other convenience and comfort features, and how consumers conceptualise vehicle safety. In addition, the study aimed to investigate the key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase. Participants recruited in Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire about their new vehicle purchase. The findings from the questionnaire indicated that participants ranked safety-related factors (e.g., EuroNCAP (or other) safety ratings) as more important in the new vehicle purchase process than other vehicle factors (e.g., price, reliability etc.). Similarly, participants ranked safety-related features (e.g., advanced braking systems, front passenger airbags etc.) as more important than non-safety-related features (e.g., route navigation systems, air-conditioning etc.). Consistent with previous research, most participants equated vehicle safety with the presence of specific vehicle safety features or technologies rather than vehicle crash safety/test results or crashworthiness. The key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase were: use of EuroNCAP, gender and education level, age, drivers' concern about crash involvement, first vehicle purchase, annual driving distance, person for whom the vehicle was purchased, and traffic infringement history. The findings from this study are important for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion and publicity of vehicle safety features for particular consumer groups (such as younger consumers) in order to increase their knowledge regarding vehicle safety and to encourage them to place highest priority on safety in the new vehicle purchase process. PMID:18460367

  8. Critical processes and performance measures for patient safety systems in healthcare institutions: a Delphi study 

    E-print Network

    Akins, Ralitsa B.

    2004-11-15

    This dissertation study presents a conceptual framework for implementing and assessing patient safety systems in healthcare institutions. The conceptual framework consists of critical processes and performance measures identified in the context...

  9. Chemical evolution of the Earth: Equilibrium or disequilibrium process?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, M.

    1985-01-01

    To explain the apparent chemical incompatibility of the Earth's core and mantle or the disequilibrium process, various core forming mechanisms have been proposed, i.e., rapid disequilibrium sinking of molten iron, an oxidized core or protocore materials, and meteorite contamination of the upper mantle after separation from the core. Adopting concepts used in steady state thermodynamics, a method is devised for evaluating how elements should distribute stable in the Earth's interior for the present gradients of temperature, pressure, and gravitational acceleration. Thermochemical modeling gives useful insights into the nature of chemical evolution of the Earth without overly speculative assumptions. Further work must be done to reconcile siderophile elements, rare gases, and possible light elements in the outer core.

  10. Human-based systems in drug and chemical safety testing--toward replacement, the 'single R'.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Robert A

    2014-12-01

    The Three Rs was a concept originally conceived as a means of reducing the suffering of laboratory animals that are used largely in identifying any potential safety issues with chemicals to which humans may be exposed. However, with growing evidence of the shortcomings of laboratory animal testing to reliably predict human responsiveness to such chemicals, questions are now being asked as to whether it is appropriate to use animals as human surrogates at all. This raises the question of whether, of the original Three Rs, two--Reduction and Refinement--are potentially redundant, and whether, instead, we should concentrate on the third R: Replacement. And if this is the best way forward, it is inevitable that this R should be based firmly on human biology. The present review outlines the current state-of-the-art regarding our access to human biology through in vitro, in silico and in vivo technologies, identifying strengths, weaknesses and opportunities, and goes on to address the prospect of achieving a single R, with some suggestions as to how to progress toward this goal. PMID:25635644

  11. An Approach to Help Departments Meet the New ABET Process Safety Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughen, Bruce K.

    2012-01-01

    The proposed program criteria changes by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc. (ABET), for chemical, biochemical, biomolecular, and similarly named programs includes a fundamental awareness expectation of the hazards involved in chemical processing for a graduating chemical engineer. As of July 2010, these four new words…

  12. Contamination or changes of food factors during processing and modleing-safety related issue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cross-contamination and food property changes, including chemical and physical, are common during food processing and preservation. The contamination may involve microbial and chemical aspects resulted in food-borne pathogen outbreaks and/or poisons. Chemical contaminations are most likely from th...

  13. Chemical SafetyChemical Safety What you donWhat you don''t know can hurt yout know can hurt you

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    are potentially exposed toMore than 30 million workers are potentially exposed to one or more chemical hazards.one or more chemical hazards. There are an estimated 650,000 existing hazardousThere are an estimated 650,000 existing hazardous chemical products, and hundreds of new ones are beingchemical products, and hundreds

  14. Innovation is not enough: climates for initiative and psychological safety, process innovations, and firm performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Baer; Michael Frese

    2003-01-01

    Summary This paper contributes to the discussion on contingencies of process innovations by focusing on and introducing organizational-level constructs of climate for initiative and psychological safety. We argue that process innovations, defined as deliberate and new organizational attempts to change production and service processes, need to be accompanied by climates that complement the adoption and implementation of such innovations. Our

  15. Process Programming to Support Medical Safety: A Case Study on Blood Transfusion

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Process Programming to Support Medical Safety: A Case Study on Blood Transfusion Lori A. Clarke1 transfusion process. In-patient blood transfusion plays a vital process in modern health systems. Although in-patient blood transfusion errors are rare, when they do oc- cur, they can result in death and are among the most

  16. Electron transfer and physical and chemical processes at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Strongin, M.; Xia, B.; Jacobsen, F.M.

    1995-10-01

    We summarize some phenomena that occur at temperatures of the order of 15K, and are dominated by quantum mechanical tunneling. Although electron tunneling dominates many conduction processes at low temperatures, we discuss evidence that phenomena like oxidation, as well as the solution of alkali metals in ammonia, can also be dominated by electron tunneling. Both phenomena demonstrate that the chemical potential of a metastable system can equilibrate at low temperatures by electron tunneling. The case of alkali metal clusters covered with ammonia is contrasted to covering the clusters with Xe. In this case changes in the activated conduction are observed which are consistent with the dielectric constant of the rare gas.

  17. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  18. Rainwater as a chemical agent of geologic processes; a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, Dorothy

    1962-01-01

    Chemical analyses of the rainwater collected at several localities are given to show the variations of the principal constitutents. In rock weathering and soil-forming processes, the chemical composition of rainwater has an important effect which has been evaluated for only a few arid areas. In humid regions the important amounts of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium added yearly by rain may be expected to influence the composition of the soil water and thereby the cations in the exchange positions of soil clay minerals. The acquisition of cations by clay minerals may slow down chemical weathering. The stability of soil clay minerals is influenced by the constant accession of cations from rainwater. Conversely, the clay minerals modify the amounts and kinds of cations that are leached out by drainage waters. The stability of micaceous minerals in soils may be partly due to accessions of K +1 ions from rainwater. The pH of rainwater in any area varies considerably and seems to form a seasonal and regional pattern. The recorded pH values range from 3.0 to 9.8.

  19. Encoding and processing of alphanumeric information by chemical mixtures.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Tamar; Reany, Ofer; Keinan, Ehud

    2009-12-21

    A novel infochemical device that is based on (1)H NMR readout of chemical information is presented. This chemical encoding system utilizes two measurable parameters of homogeneous mixtures, chemical shift and peak integration, for three different applications: 1) a text-encoding device that is based on spectral representation of a sequence of symbols, 2) encoding of 21-digit binary numbers, each represented by an NMR spectrum, and their algebraic manipulations, such as addition and subtraction, and 3) encoding of 21-digit decimal numbers. The first application enables molecular information storage and encryption. The relative concentration of each component, as measured by the relevant peak integration, can represent a symbol. The second application of this system, in addition to its obvious memory capability, enables mathematical operations. The NMR spectrum of a given mixture represents a 21-digit binary number where each of the peaks encodes for a specific digit. In any of the input mixtures (numbers) each compound is either present or absent, representing either 1 or 0, respectively. We used the various binary numbers to carry out addition operations by combining two or more solutions (numbers). Subtraction operations were also preformed by digital processing of the information. The third application is the representation of decimal numbers. As before, each of the peaks encodes for a specific digit. In any of the input mixtures each compound is present in one of 10 different relative concentrations, representing the 10 digits of a decimal number. PMID:19937664

  20. WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL NUCLEAR SAFETY RELATED R AND D REPORT FOR CY2008

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-10-15

    The Engineering and Technology Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks associated with key waste processing project decisions. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment (TDD). The Office of Waste Processing TDD program prioritizes and approves research and development scopes of work that address nuclear safety related to processing of highly radioactive nuclear wastes. Thirteen of the thirty-five R&D approved work scopes in FY2009 relate directly to nuclear safety, and are presented in this report.

  1. Prodrugs design based on inter- and intramolecular chemical processes.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Rafik

    2013-12-01

    This review provides the reader a concise overview of the majority of prodrug approaches with the emphasis on the modern approaches to prodrug design. The chemical approach catalyzed by metabolic enzymes which is considered as widely used among all other approaches to minimize the undesirable drug physicochemical properties is discussed. Part of this review will shed light on the use of molecular orbital methods such as DFT, semiempirical and ab initio for the design of novel prodrugs. This novel prodrug approach implies prodrug design based on enzyme models that were utilized for mimicking enzyme catalysis. The computational approach exploited for the prodrug design involves molecular orbital and molecular mechanics (DFT, ab initio, and MM2) calculations and correlations between experimental and calculated values of intramolecular processes that were experimentally studied to assign the factors determining the reaction rates in certain processes for better understanding on how enzymes might exert their extraordinary catalysis. PMID:23998799

  2. Simulation analysis and study on car-following safety distance model based on braking process of leading vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Luo; Lunhui Xun; Zhihui Cao; Yanguo Huang

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve traditional safety distance models based on braking process of the leading vehicle, a new safety distance model of one-lane following condition is established based on traditional safety distance models. The new model considers the relative speed between vehicles and the change process of deceleration value. A simulation using Matlab software verifies that the new model overcomes

  3. 40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...information; (2) Permissible exposure limits; (3) Physical data; (4) Reactivity data: (5) Corrosivity data...diagram or simplified process flow diagram; (ii) Process chemistry; (iii) Maximum intended inventory; (iv) Safe...

  4. 40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...information; (2) Permissible exposure limits; (3) Physical data; (4) Reactivity data: (5) Corrosivity data...diagram or simplified process flow diagram; (ii) Process chemistry; (iii) Maximum intended inventory; (iv) Safe...

  5. 40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...information; (2) Permissible exposure limits; (3) Physical data; (4) Reactivity data: (5) Corrosivity data...diagram or simplified process flow diagram; (ii) Process chemistry; (iii) Maximum intended inventory; (iv) Safe...

  6. Experience of Hot Cell Renovation Work in CPF (Chemical Processing Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Toyonobu Nabemoto; Fujio Katahira; Tadatsugu Sakaya [IHI Corporation: Isogo-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa pref, 235-8501 (Japan); Shinichi Aose; Takafumi Kitajima; Kouji Ogasawara; Kazunori Nomura; Shigehiko Miyachi; Yoshiaki Ichige; Tadahiro Shinozaki; Shinichi Ohuchi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency: Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki pref, 319-1194 (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    Renovation work for operation room A of the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF) was carried out. Cell renovation work involved disassembly, removal and installation of new equipment for the CA-3 cell of operation room A and the crane renovation work involved the repair of the in-cell crane for the CA-5 cell of operation room A. There were not many examples of renovation work performed on cells under high radiation environment and alpha contamination in Japan. Lessons learnt: With respect to the cell renovation work and crane repair work, a method that gave full consideration to safety was employed and the work was performed without accidents or disaster. Moreover, through improvement of the method, reduction of radioactive exposure of the workers was achieved and a melt reduction device was designed to deal with the radioactive waste material that was generated in the renovation work to achieve significant melt reduction of waste material.

  7. Energy 32 (2007) 335343 Minimizing the entropy production in a chemical process

    E-print Network

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    2007-01-01

    of high quality energy are spent in the chemical process industry to convert raw materials into desiredEnergy 32 (2007) 335­343 Minimizing the entropy production in a chemical process function in chemical engineering process optimization studies. r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  8. Role of pyro-chemical processes in advanced fuel cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawada, Hosadu Parameswara; Fukuda, Kosaku

    2005-02-01

    Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) of Minor Actinides (MAs) and Long-Lived Fission Products (LLFP) arising out of the back-end of the fuel cycle would be one of the key-steps in any future sustainable nuclear fuel cycle. Pyro-chemical separation methods would form a critical stage of P&T by recovering long-lived elements and thus reducing the environmental impact by the back-end of the fuel-cycle. This paper attempts to overview global developments of pyro-chemical process that are envisaged in advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Research and development needs for molten-salt electro-refining as well as molten salt extraction process that are foreseen as partitioning methods for spent nuclear fuels such as oxide, metal and nitride fuels from thermal or fast reactors; high level liquid waste from back-end fuel cycle as well as targets from sub-critical Accelerator Driven Sub-critical reactors would be addressed. The role of high temperature thermodynamic data of minor actinides in defining efficiency of recovery or separation of minor actinides from other fission products such as lanthanides will also be illustrated. In addition, the necessity for determination of accurate high temperature thermodynamic data of minor actinides would be discussed.

  9. Optimization of chemical etching process in niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, T. (Tsuyoshi); Trabia, M.; Culbreth, W.; Subramanian, S.

    2004-01-01

    Superconducting niobium cavities are important components of linear accelerators. Buffered chemical polishing (BCP) on the inner surface of the cavity is a standard procedure to improve its performance. The quality of BCP, however, has not been optimized well in terms of the uniformity of surface smoothness. A finite element computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the chemical etching process inside the cavity. The analysis confirmed the observation of other researchers that the iris section of the cavity received more etching than the equator regions due to higher flow rate. The baffle, which directs flow towards the walls of the cavity, was redesigned using optimization techniques. The redesigned baffle significantly improves the performance of the etching process. To verify these results an experimental setup for flow visualization was created. The setup consists of a high speed, high resolution CCD camera. The camera is positioned by a computer-controlled traversing mechanism. A dye injecting arrangement is used for tracking the fluid path. Experimental results are in general agreement with CFD and optimization results.

  10. New chemical process waste treatment technologies for a sustainable printed circuit board manufacturing process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narinder Bains; Martin Goosey; Rod Kellner

    2008-01-01

    The Printed Circuit Board (PCB) manufacturing process uses large quantities of water and a wide range of chemicals. If not handled responsibly, many of these materials may ultimately have an impact on the environment or at best generate effluent that needs increasingly costly treatment. There is an opportunity to move towards a more sustainable methodology where waste is minimised, water

  11. Adaptive and repeated cumulative meta-analyses of safety data during a new drug development process.

    PubMed

    Quan, Hui; Ma, Yingqiu; Zheng, Yan; Cho, Meehyung; Lorenzato, Christelle; Hecquet, Carole

    2015-05-01

    During a new drug development process, it is desirable to timely detect potential safety signals. For this purpose, repeated meta-analyses may be performed sequentially on accumulating safety data. Moreover, if the amount of safety data from the originally planned program is not enough to ensure adequate power to test a specific hypothesis (e.g., the noninferiority hypothesis of an event of interest), the total sample size may be increased by adding new studies to the program. Without appropriate adjustment, it is well known that the type I error rate will be inflated because of repeated analyses and sample size adjustment. In this paper, we discuss potential issues associated with adaptive and repeated cumulative meta-analyses of safety data conducted during a drug development process. We consider both frequentist and Bayesian approaches. A new drug development example is used to demonstrate the application of the methods. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25612310

  12. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning: A New Process for Chemically Cleaning Savannah River Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, Edward; Spires, Renee; Davis, Neil

    2009-02-11

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) there are 49 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks that eventually must be emptied, cleaned, and closed. The current method of chemically cleaning SRS HLW tanks, commonly referred to as Bulk Oxalic Acid Cleaning (BOAC), requires about a half million liters (130,000 gallons) of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to clean a single tank. During the cleaning, the oxalic acid acts as the solvent to digest sludge solids and insoluble salt solids, such that they can be suspended and pumped out of the tank. Because of the volume and concentration of acid used, a significant quantity of oxalate is added to the HLW process. This added oxalate significantly impacts downstream processing. In addition to the oxalate, the volume of liquid added competes for the limited available tank space. A search, therefore, was initiated for a new cleaning process. Using TRIZ (Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadatch or roughly translated as the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving), Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination with Ultraviolet Light (CORD-UV{reg_sign}), a mature technology used in the commercial nuclear power industry was identified as an alternate technology. Similar to BOAC, CORD-UV{reg_sign} also uses oxalic acid as the solvent to dissolve the metal (hydr)oxide solids. CORD-UV{reg_sign} is different, however, since it uses photo-oxidation (via peroxide/UV or ozone/UV to form hydroxyl radicals) to decompose the spent oxalate into carbon dioxide and water. Since the oxalate is decomposed and off-gassed, CORD-UV{reg_sign} would not have the negative downstream oxalate process impacts of BOAC. With the oxalate destruction occurring physically outside the HLW tank, re-precipitation and transfer of the solids, as well as regeneration of the cleaning solution can be performed without adding additional solids, or a significant volume of liquid to the process. With a draft of the pre-conceptual Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) flowsheet, taking full advantage of the many CORD-UV{reg_sign} benefits, performance demonstration testing was initiated using available SRS sludge simulant. The demonstration testing confirmed that ECC is a viable technology, as it can dissolve greater than 90% of the sludge simulant and destroy greater than 90% of the oxalates. Additional simulant and real waste testing are planned.

  13. Engineering Medical Processes to Improve Their Safety: An Experience Report

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    , such as blood transfusion, chemotherapy, and emergency department patient flow. In all of these domains process definitions. The paper describes the details of using these technologies, employing a blood transfusion process as an example. Although this work is still ongoing, early experiences suggest that our

  14. Safety Lifecycle Development Process Modeling for Embedded Systems - Example of Railway Domain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brahim Hamid; Jacob Geisel; Adel Ziani; David Gonzalez

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, many practitioners express their worries about current software engineering practices. New recommendations should be considered to ground software engineering on solid theory and on proven principles. We took such an approach towards software engineering process modeling for embedded system applications with security and dependability requirements, focusing on the problem of integrating safety during the process design to clarify assessment

  15. Safety Ring: Fault-tolerant Distributed Process Execution Nenad Stojnic Heiko Schuldt

    E-print Network

    Vetter, Thomas

    for manag- ing process instance data in a robust way. We present the architecture of OSIRIS' Safety Ring characteristics of the system. Keywords: Composite services; distributed process management; reliable distributed Databases and Information Systems Bernoullistrasse 16 CH ­ 4056 Basel, Switzerland. Phone: +41 61 267 05 55

  16. Chemical Compositional, Biological, and Safety Studies of a Novel Maple Syrup Derived Extract for Nutraceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789

  17. Chemical compositional, biological, and safety studies of a novel maple syrup derived extract for nutraceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Li, Liya; Nahar, Pragati; Slitt, Angela; Seeram, Navindra P

    2014-07-16

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789

  18. Recognizing Chemical Hazards Module

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Center for the Advancement of Process Technology presents this free sample module on recognizing chemical hazards. It focuses on chemical hazards specific to process industries, and their impact on safety, health and the environment. The material also introduces the purpose and components of an MSDS.

  19. Chemical Reactions in the Processing of Mosi2 + Carbon Compacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Lee, Kang N.; Maloy, Stuart A.; Heuer, Arthur H.

    1993-01-01

    Hot-pressing of MoSi2 powders with carbon at high temperatures reduces the siliceous grain boundary phase in the resultant compact. The chemical reactions in this process were examined using the Knudsen cell technique. A 2.3 wt pct oxygen MoSi2 powder and a 0.59 wt pct oxygen MoSi2 powder, both with additions of 2 wt pct carbon, were examined. The reduction of the siliceous grain boundary phase was examined at 1350 K and the resultant P(SiO)/P(CO) ratios interpreted in terms of the SiO(g) and CO(g) isobars on the Si-C-O predominance diagram. The MoSi2 + carbon mixtures were then heated at the hot-pressing temperature of 2100 K. Large weight losses were observed and could be correlated with the formation of a low-melting eutectic and the formation and vaporization of SiC.

  20. Principles of risk assessment for determining the safety of chemicals: recent assessment of residual solvents in drugs and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Ryuichi; Koizumi, Mutsuko; Hirose, Akihiko

    2004-06-01

    Risk assessment of chemicals is essential for the estimation of chemical safety, and animal toxicity data are typically used in the evaluation process, which consists of hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Hazard identification entails the collection of all available toxicity data and assessment of toxicity endpoints based on findings for repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity or genotoxicity and species-specificity. Once a review is compiled, the allowable lifetime exposure level of a chemical is estimated from a dose-response assessment based on several measures. For non-carcinogens and non-genotoxic carcinogens, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) is divided by uncertainty factors (e.g. with environmental pollutants) or safety factors (e.g. with food additives) to derive a tolerable daily intake (TDI) or acceptable daily intake (ADI), respectively. These factors include interspecies and individual differences, duration of exposure, quality of data, and nature of toxicity such as carcinogenicity or neurotoxicity. For genotoxic carcinogens, low dose extrapolation is accomplished with mathematical modeling (e.g. linearized multistage model) from the point of departure to obtain exposure levels that will be associated with an excess lifetime cancer risk of a certain level. Data for levels of chemicals in food, water and air, are routinely used for exposure assessment. Finally, risk characterization is performed to ensure that the established 'safe' level of exposure exceeds the estimated level of actual exposure. These principles have led to the evaluation of several existing chemicals. To establish a guideline for residual solvents in medicine, the permitted daily exposure (PDE), equivalent to TDI, of N,N-dimethylformamide was derived on the basis of developmental toxicity (malformation) and of N-methylpyrrolidone on the basis of the developmental neurotoxicity. A TDI for di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was derived from assessment of testicular toxicity. PMID:15198717

  1. 40 CFR 63.132 - Process wastewater provisions-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry...accordance with good engineering and safety practices...accordance with good engineering and safety practices...stream composition, engineering calculations, or process...this subpart) from a chemical manufacturing...

  2. Worker health and safety in solar thermal power systems. VII. The toxicological and health implications of solar thermal process fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Kahane, S.W. (ed.)

    1980-10-01

    The toxicological and health implications of high-temperature solar thermal process fluids were examined. Fluids likely to be used were first identified and characterized according to their physical and chemical characteristics. The identified fluids were then screened to select those solar thermal process fluids with potentially significant toxicological/health implications for further study. The screening procedure delineated each compound's basic chemical, physical, and operating characteristics (as would occur in high temperature solar thermal applications), selected toxicological information and the criteria used to classify each compound according to a broad toxicological rating scheme. Thirty compounds determined from the initial screening procedure to be moderately to highly toxic were selected for further study. The detailed toxicological assessment consisted primarily of a comprehensive literature survey. Effects resulting from acute and/or chronic exposure were evaluated and applicable federal exposure standards were identified and discussed. Particular emphasis was placed upon determining both the toxicity of the selected compounds as they relate to the solar thermal industry and the following factors: type(s) of organism exposed, means of entry into the body, level and period of exposure, fate in the body, and observed effects. To provide perspective to the toxicological evaluation, the health and safety experience of the solar thermal industry and other industries with processes or fluids similar to those proposed for the solar thermal industry was evaluated. Three related industries with processes similar to the solar thermal industry - electric utility, petroleum refining and chemical process industries - were identified and evaluated in detail. Two specific processes within those industries, the transport of fluids and the transport of heat, both at high temperatures and pressures, were examined.

  3. Developing System-Based Leading Indicators for Proactive Risk Management in the Chemical Processing Industry

    E-print Network

    Leveson, Nancy

    Industry by Ibrahim A. Khawaji B.S., Chemical Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 2001 SUBMITTED Management in the Chemical Processing Industry by Ibrahim A. Khawaji Submitted to the Engineering Systems in Engineering Systems ABSTRACT The chemical processing industry has faced challenges with achieving improvements

  4. Responses to the Environmental Health and Safety (EH and S) questionnaire on liquid redox sulfur-recovery processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rueter, C.O.

    1990-06-01

    Liquid redox sulfur recovery processes represent an important category of methods currently in use for removing H2S and recovering elemental sulfur from gaseous streams. The Gas Research Institute has been funding research on the complex chemistry of these processes in order to improve their performance and reliability and to evaluate the environmental effects of discharge streams. Since little information is publicly available about the environmental, health, and safety (EH S) practices in operating plants, a questionnaire was developed to gather such information. The questionnaire addressed many of the data gaps in the literature and included five sections; general information, gaseous wastes and odors, liquid waste handling, sulfur and solid waste handling, and chemical handling/housekeeping/maintenance. The EH S questionnaire was distributed to every liquid redox plant that could be identified from literature references and lists supplied by process vendors and from contacts made at GRI-sponsored liquid redox conferences. A total of 59 questionnaires were mailed to plants, and 20 completed questionnaires were returned. Based on the survey responses, the following areas have been recommended for further research: solution blowdown and disposal, sulfur purification, health and safety practices, and regulatory issues.

  5. Chemical processes in a young biomass-burning plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trentmann, JöRg; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Graf, Hans-F.

    2003-11-01

    The photochemistry in young biomass-burning plumes depends on the emissions from the fire and their mixing with the background atmosphere as well as on the actinic flux. In the present study a three-dimensional plume model is used to investigate the photochemical evolution of a biomass-burning plume during the first tens of minutes after the fire emissions have been released into the atmosphere. The model results represent the evolution of the plume from the Quinault prescribed fire conducted during the Smoke, Cloud, and Radiation-C (SCAR-C) experiment. The modeled ozone concentrations of about 70 ppb are close to observations. The main nitrogen reservoir species downwind of the fire are HNO3 and peroxyacetyl nitrate, accounting for about ˜60% and ˜30% of the total nitrogen reservoir species, respectively. Photolysis of formaldehyde, which is emitted from the fire, is the primary source of radicals in the plume. Omitting the emissions of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the modeled fire plume leads to unrealistically low ozone concentrations in the simulations. A nonabsorbing aerosol as well as the lower emission of NOx in the simulations enhance the radical concentration, the photochemical ozone formation, and the oxidation efficiency, at least at the timescales considered here. Further investigations of the atmospheric processes in young biomass-burning plumes will increase our understanding of the interaction of transport and chemical processes not only in biomass-burning plumes but also in other convective systems.

  6. Data requirements for the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue developed through the data quality objectives process

    SciTech Connect

    Meacham, J.E.; Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Babad, H. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States); Buck, J.W.; Anderson, C.M.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Toth, J.J.; Turner, P.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This document records the data quality objectives (DQO) process applied to the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue at the Hanford Site. Specifically, the major recommendations and findings from this Ferrocyanide DQO process are presented. The decision logic diagrams and decision error tolerances also are provided. The document includes the DQO sample-size formulas for determining specific tank sampling requirements, and many of the justifications for decision thresholds and decision error tolerances are briefly described. More detailed descriptions are presented in other Ferrocyanide Safety Program companion documents referenced in this report. This is a living document, and the assumptions contained within will be refined as more data from sampling and characterization become available.

  7. Radiogenic isotopes: systematics and applications to earth surface processes and chemical stratigraphy

    E-print Network

    Banner, Jay L.

    Radiogenic isotopes: systematics and applications to earth surface processes and chemical Accepted 23 June 2003 Abstract Radiogenic isotopes have wide application to chemical stratigraphy briefly reviews the principles of radiogenic isotope geochemistry and the distribution of a number

  8. In vitro Perturbations of Targets in Cancer Hallmark Processes Predict Rodent Chemical Carcinogenesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thousands of untested chemicals in the environment require efficient characterization of carcinogenic potential in humans. A proposed solution is rapid testing of chemicals using in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) assays for targets in pathways linked to disease processes ...

  9. Laboratory Safety Certificate Course Completion Form

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    is available electronically at: http://sp.ehs.cornell.edu/lab-research-safety/chemical-safety/lab-safety-certificate-program/Documents/Lab electronically at: http://sp.ehs.cornell.edu/lab-research-safety/chemical-safety/lab-safety-certificate-program/Documents/Lab of this document is available electronically at: http://sp.ehs.cornell.edu/lab-research-safety/chemical-safety/lab-safety-certificate-program/Documents/Lab

  10. A Human Performance Modeling System for Process Safety Operations 

    E-print Network

    Harputlu, Emrah 1986-

    2013-01-02

    . MODAPTS is an easy-to-use PTS because it explains the task with body parts instead of mechanical terms 14. MODAPTS is used for standard time estimation, plant capacity determination, work balance, productivity improvement and ergonomic improvement... sectors, such as transportation, manufacturing, and health care because it is easy to use. Design engineers, process personnel, line supervisors, industrial engineers, and ergonomic analysts can evaluate various work tasks and identify potential risks...

  11. US flight safety review/approval process for nuclear-powered space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Sholtis, J.A. Jr.; Joyce, J.P.; Nelson, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1961, the US has launched more than 20 civilian and military spacecraft utilizing nuclear power sources. This paper is devoted to the flight safety review and launch approval process, which has been developed and successfully employed in the US for nuclear-powered space missions. The US flight safety review and launch approval process for nuclear-powered space missions is illustrated. Except for a few minor enhancements, the process has remained the same as when established in the early 1960s. Three mission safety analysis reports (SARs) are produced over time. These documents are developed by the project office responsible for the nuclear power system within the US Department of Energy (DOE). They, therefore, represent a project assessment of the risks. The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) conducts its independent review in three stages, i.e., after each of the SARs. The results of the INSRP evaluation are documented in a safety evaluation report (SER). The SER, which contains an independent characterization of the mission risks, is formally sent to two pivotal government agencies: (a) the agency sponsoring the mission, i.e., the Department of Defense (DOD) or the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and (b) The National Security Council or the Office of Science and Technology Policy, depending on whether a military or civilian mission is involved. Ultimately, a launch decision is made, based on risk/benefit considerations, within the office of the President.

  12. Physical-chemical treatment of tar-sand processing wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    King, P.H.

    1982-07-01

    This final report for Phase I summarizes work done to determine the ability of several coagulants to contribute significantly in the treatment of selected tar sand wastewaters. The coagulation process must be considered as one possible step in a treatment scheme to reduce pollutants in these wastewaters and lead to a water quality acceptable for reuse or disposal. Two wastewaters were provided by the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC). The primary emphasis in this study was focused on a representative steam flooding wastewater designated in the report as TARSAND 1S. The coagulation study in which treatment of this wastewater was the prime goal is described in full detail in the thesis entitled Chemical Coagulation of Steam Flooding Tar Sand Wastewaters. This thesis, written by Mr. Omar Akad, is included as Appendix A in this report. A representative combustion wastewater, designated as TARSAND 2C, was also provided by LETC. This wastewater was characteristically low in suspended solids and after initial screening experiments were conducted, it was concluded that coagulation was relatively ineffective in the treatment of TARSAND 2C. Hence, efforts were concentrated on the parametric evaluation of coagulation of TARSAND 1S. The objectives for the research conducted under Phase I were: (1) to compare the effectiveness of lime, alum, ferric chloride and representative synthetic organic polymers in reducing suspended solids and total organic carbon (TOC) from TARSAND 1S wastewater; (2) to determine the effects of pH, coagulant aids, and mixing conditions on the coagulation process; (3) to determine the relative volume of sludge produced from each selected coagulation process.

  13. Integrating Safety into an Engineering Contractor's System Engineering process using the guidelines of STAMP (Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes)

    E-print Network

    Leveson, Nancy

    of STAMP (Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes) or Evaluating Project Safety (System Engineering.............................................................................. 16 1.4.2 Analysis of STAMP Steps

  14. An external domino effects investment approach to improve cross-plant safety within chemical clusters.

    PubMed

    Reniers, Genserik

    2010-05-15

    Every company situated within a chemical cluster faces the risk of being struck by an escalating accident at one of its neighbouring plants (the so-called external domino effect risks). These cross-plant risks can be reduced or eliminated if neighbouring companies are willing to invest in systems and measures to prevent them. However, since reducing such multi-plant risks does not lead to direct economic benefits, enterprises tend to be reluctant to invest more than needed for meeting minimal legal requirements and they tend to invest without collaborating. The suggested approach in this article indicates what information is required to evaluate the available investment options in external domino effects prevention. To this end, game theory is used as a promising scientific technique to investigate the decision-making process on investments in prevention measures simultaneously involving several plants. The game between two neighbouring chemical plants and their strategic investment behaviour regarding the prevention of external domino effects is described and an illustrative example is provided. Recommendations are formulated to advance cross-plant prevention investments in a two-company cluster. PMID:20044206

  15. An Analysis of Trainers' Perspectives within an Ecological Framework: Factors that Influence Mine Safety Training Processes

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Emily J.; Hoebbel, Cassandra L.; Rost, Kristen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Satisfactory completion of mine safety training is a prerequisite for being hired and for continued employment in the coal industry. Although training includes content to develop skills in a variety of mineworker competencies, research and recommendations continue to specify that specific limitations in the self-escape portion of training still exist and that mineworkers need to be better prepared to respond to emergencies that could occur in their mine. Ecological models are often used to inform the development of health promotion programs but have not been widely applied to occupational health and safety training programs. Methods Nine mine safety trainers participated in in-depth semi-structured interviews. A theoretical analysis of the interviews was completed via an ecological lens. Each level of the social ecological model was used to examine factors that could be addressed both during and after mine safety training. Results The analysis suggests that problems surrounding communication and collaboration, leadership development, and responsibility and accountability at different levels within the mining industry contribute to deficiencies in mineworkers' mastery and maintenance of skills. Conclusion This study offers a new technique to identify limitations in safety training systems and processes. The analysis suggests that training should be developed and disseminated with consideration of various levels—individual, interpersonal, organizational, and community—to promote skills. If factors identified within and between levels are addressed, it may be easier to sustain mineworker competencies that are established during safety training. PMID:25379324

  16. The role of chemical oxidation in combined chemical-physical and biological processes: experiences of industrial wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Bertanza, G; Collivignarelli, C; Pedrazzani, R

    2001-01-01

    In this work, some experiences are described concerning the application of chemical oxidation in the treatment of industrial wastewaters in combination with other chemical-physical and/or biological processes. In the first case, two different wastewaters from saturated and unsaturated polyester resin production were considered. In a second case, optimal process conditions were assessed for the treatment of a wastewater deriving from polystyrene production. A third experience dealt with a comparison among different processes (flocculation, Fenton process, ozonisation, oxidation by means of ozone and hydrogen peroxide, oxidation by means of hydrogen peroxide and UV radiation), for the pretreatment of two industrial wastewaters (the first one being produced in a textile factory, the second one coming from detergent manufacturing). The evaluation of different processes was carried out by means of laboratory scale tests, considering treatment efficiency (organic substance removal, changes in wastewater biodegradability) and parameters (chemicals and energy consumption, sludge production) which play an important role in cost determination. PMID:11695447

  17. A chemical substitution study for a wet processing textile mill in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ertan Ozturk; Ulku Yetis; Filiz B. Dilek; Goksel N. Demirer

    2009-01-01

    Wet processing textile industry has many different processing stages (dyeing, sizing, de-sizing, scouring, softening, etc.). Many chemicals currently used in the wet processing textile industry affect the amount and the type of waste produced and their influence on the aquatic life of the receiving stream. One of the critical steps in pollution prevention studies is auditing the use of chemicals

  18. On the synthesis of inorganic chemical and metallurgical processes, review and extension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Cisternas

    1999-01-01

    A review and extension of process synthesis principles to inorganic chemicals and extractive metallurgical operations is presented. It is shown that conceptualization of extractive metallurgy and inorganic chemical processes can be improved upon by the development of specific methodologies. The major issues analyzed are: 1) reaction path, 2) mineral processing circuit synthesis, 3) separation path using fractional crystallisation, 4) waste

  19. Feasibility of toxic chemical waste processing in large scale solar installations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H TRIBUTSCH

    1989-01-01

    A new strategy for processing toxic chemical wastes in large scale solar concentration installations is discussed in which photon energy and process heat, as well as solar-generated hydrogen are essential elements. It includes the following steps: Instead of burning chemicals at high temperature, which produces many additional toxic products, they are subject to pyrolysis and hydrogenation using solar process heat

  20. Dilute chemical decontamination process for pressurized and boiling water reactor applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Murray; D. A. Eckhardt; S. L. Weisberg

    1985-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation (WEC) has developed five chemical processes for nuclear decontamination, based on extensive experimental testing using radioactive pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) samples. The dilute chemical decontamination process offers the best combination of effectiveness, low corrosion, low waste volume, and fast field implementation time. This is an alternating multistep process. For PWRs, an oxidation

  1. Risk Assessment for Food Safety: Application and Evaluation of HACCP in Hog Slaughter and Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen H. Jensen; Laurian J. Unnevehr

    1998-01-01

    Under new regulations issued in July 1996, the federal government requires meat processors to put hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems in place, to conduct periodic tests for microbial pathogens, and to reduce the incidence of pathogens. The new regulations shift greater responsibility for deciding how to improve food safety in the processing sector to processors themselves. The

  2. A Meta-model for Integrating Safety Concerns into Systems Engineering Processes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    is instantiated in section IV on a small, but with several mission phases example: a part of water level control of the steam generator of a nuclear plant. Finally, conclusions and outlooks are presented. Fig. 1A Meta-model for Integrating Safety Concerns into Systems Engineering Processes Pierre-Yves Piriou

  3. Performance evaluation of process safety management systems of paint manufacturing facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James I. Chang; Chiu-Lan Liang

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a model to evaluate the performance of process safety management systems of paint manufacturing facilities. The model was constructed based on a three-level multi-attribute value model (MAVT) approach. The first level consisted of Deming's PDCA cycle, labeled as Plan, Do, Control, and Act Factors. The 20 attributes of the second level and

  4. SOUS-VIDE PROCESSED FOODS: SAFETY HAZARDS AND CONTROL OF MICROBIAL RISKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns have been expressed about the public-health risks associated with sous-vide processed foods because the mild heat treatment applied to such foods to retain the organoleptic attributes may not be adequate to ensure proper destruction of pathogenic and spoilage organisms. The safety of sous-v...

  5. Infrared Heating for Improved Safety and Processing Efficiency of Dry-Roasted Almonds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of infrared (IR) heating technology was investigated for improving safety and processing efficiency of dry-roasted almonds. Almonds were roasted at 130, 140 and 150°C with three different methods: IR heating, sequential infrared and hot air (SIRHA) heating, and traditional hot air (HA) heat...

  6. Fundamental Chemical Kinetic And Thermodynamic Data For Purex Process Models

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.J.; Fox, O.D.; Sarsfield, M.J.; Carrott, M.J.; Mason, C.; Woodhead, D.A.; Maher, C.J. [British Technology Centre, Nexia Solutions, Sellafield, Seascale, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Steele, H. [Nexia Solutions, inton House, Risley, Warrington, WA3 6AS (United Kingdom); Koltunov, V.S. [A.A. Bochvar All-Russia Institute of Inorganic Materials, VNIINM, PO Box 369, Moscow 123060 (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    To support either the continued operations of current reprocessing plants or the development of future fuel processing using hydrometallurgical processes, such as Advanced Purex or UREX type flowsheets, the accurate simulation of Purex solvent extraction is required. In recent years we have developed advanced process modeling capabilities that utilize modern software platforms such as Aspen Custom Modeler and can be run in steady state and dynamic simulations. However, such advanced models of the Purex process require a wide range of fundamental data including all relevant basic chemical kinetic and thermodynamic data for the major species present in the process. This paper will summarize some of these recent process chemistry studies that underpin our simulation, design and testing of Purex solvent extraction flowsheets. Whilst much kinetic data for actinide redox reactions in nitric acid exists in the literature, the data on reactions in the diluted TBP solvent phase is much rarer. This inhibits the accurate modelization of the Purex process particularly when species show a significant extractability in to the solvent phase or when cycling between solvent and aqueous phases occurs, for example in the reductive stripping of Pu(IV) by ferrous sulfamate in the Magnox reprocessing plant. To support current oxide reprocessing, we have investigated a range of solvent phase reactions: - U(IV)+HNO{sub 3}; - U(IV)+HNO{sub 2}; - U(IV)+HNO{sub 3} (Pu catalysis); - U(IV)+HNO{sub 3} (Tc catalysis); - U(IV)+ Np(VI); - U(IV)+Np(V); - Np(IV)+HNO{sub 3}; - Np(V)+Np(V); Rate equations have been determined for all these reactions and kinetic rate constants and activation energies are now available. Specific features of these reactions in the TBP phase include the roles of water and hydrolyzed intermediates in the reaction mechanisms. In reactions involving Np(V), cation-cation complex formation, which is much more favourable in TBP than in HNO{sub 3}, also occurs and complicates the redox chemistry. Whilst some features of the redox chemistry in TBP appear similar to the corresponding reactions in aqueous HNO{sub 3}, there are notable differences in rates, the forms of the rate equations and mechanisms. Secondly, to underpin the development of advanced single cycle flowsheets using the complexant aceto-hydroxamic acid, we have also characterised in some detail its redox chemistry and solvent extraction behaviour with both Np and Pu ions. We find that simple hydroxamic acids are remarkably rapid reducing agents for Np(VI). They also reduce Pu(VI) and cause a much slower reduction of Pu(IV) through a complex mechanism involving acid hydrolysis of the ligand. AHA is a strong hydrophilic and selective complexant for the tetravalent actinide ions as evidenced by stability constant and solvent extraction data for An(IV), M(III) and U(VI) ions. This has allowed the successful design of U/Pu+Np separation flowsheets suitable for advanced fuel cycles. (authors)

  7. The effects of physical environments in medical wards on medication communication processes affecting patient safety.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie

    2014-03-01

    Physical environments of clinical settings play an important role in health communication processes. Effective medication management requires seamless communication among health professionals of different disciplines. This paper explores how physical environments affect communication processes for managing medications and patient safety in acute care hospital settings. Findings highlighted the impact of environmental interruptions on communication processes about medications. In response to frequent interruptions and limited space within working environments, nurses, doctors and pharmacists developed adaptive practices in the local clinical context. Communication difficulties were associated with the ward physical layout, the controlled drug key and the medication retrieving device. Health professionals should be provided with opportunities to discuss the effects of ward environments on medication communication processes and how this impacts medication safety. Hospital administrators and architects need to consider health professionals' views and experiences when designing hospital spaces. PMID:24486620

  8. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NIOSH Website Workplace Safety and Health Topics Industries & Occupations Hazards & Exposures Diseases & Injuries Safety & Prevention Chemicals Emergency Preparedness & Response Publications and Products NIOSH Programs ...

  9. Drinking water biotic safety of particles and bacteria attached to fines in activated carbon process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Chen; Tao Lin; Leilei Wang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the drinking water biotic safety of particles and bacteria attached to fines in activated carbon process was\\u000a investigated by actual treatment process and advanced treatment pilot trial with granular activated carbon. In the experiment,\\u000a the particles were detected by IBR particle calculating instrument, the activated carbon fines were counted on the basis of\\u000a the most probable number

  10. Data requirements for the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue developed through the data quality objectives process. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Meacham, J.E.; Cash, R.J.

    1995-04-28

    This document provides the requirements for obtaining tank characterization information to support resolution of the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue at the Hanford Site by applying the data quality objectives (DQO) process. A strategy describing the overall approach to safe storage and disposal of the waste in the ferrocyanide tanks identifies the problems and decisions that require characterization data. The DQO process is applied to each decision or group of related decisions to specify data requirements.

  11. Atmospheric pollution in the Arctic: Sources, transport, and chemical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Jenny A.

    This dissertation applies a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) together with ground-based, aircraft, and satellite observations to quantify the sources, transport pathways, and chemical processing of tropospheric pollution in the Arctic. Asian anthropogenic emissions are shown to be the dominant source of carbon monoxide (CO) pollution throughout the Arctic troposphere, except near the surface where European anthropogenic emissions are similarly important. Despite anomalously large fires in spring 2008, biomass burning is found to contribute little to mean CO during that period. AIRS satellite data are used to demonstrate a link between El Nino and Asian pollution transport to the Arctic, with transport hindered in 2008 due to a weakened Aleutian Low associated with La Nina conditions. Sulfate-ammonium aerosol in the Arctic is found to derive from a more complicated mix of sources. European and East Asian emissions are important but not dominant sources of sulfate. Anthropogenic emissions from West Asia (Russia and Kazakhstan) are shown to provide the largest source of sulfate to the Arctic lower troposphere in winter. Ammonium is mostly from European and East Asian sources. In spring 2008, a large contribution from boreal fires resulted in a more neutralized aerosol in the free troposphere than at the surface. Aerosol transported to the Arctic from East Asia and Europe is found to be mostly neutralized, while West Asian and North American aerosol is highly acidic. Recent growth of sulfur emissions in West Asia may explain observations of increasing aerosol acidity in Alaska over the past decade. Mercury in the Arctic shows a different seasonality from other pollutants, with a spring minimum driven by bromine chemistry over sea ice followed by a summer maximum. GEOS-Chem simulations of surface observations are used to argue that the summer peak cannot be explained by atmospheric transport, re-emission from snowpacks, or ocean kinetics. Instead, Russian rivers are proposed to provide a large flux of mercury to the Arctic Ocean in spring-summer, with subsequent evasion to the atmosphere driving the observed summer peak. The Arctic Ocean then provides a net source to the atmosphere, with rivers the dominant mercury source to the Arctic environment.

  12. Enhancing patient safety: improving the patient handoff process through appreciative inquiry.

    PubMed

    Shendell-Falik, Nancy; Feinson, Michael; Mohr, Bernard J

    2007-02-01

    Patient transfers from one care giver to another are an area of high safety consequence, as is evident by many studies and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization's Patient Safety Goals. The authors describe how one hospital made measurable improvements in a patient handoff process by using an unconventional approach to change called appreciative inquiry. Rather than identifying the root causes of ineffective handoffs, appreciative inquiry was used to engage staff in identifying and building on their most effective handoff experiences. PMID:17273030

  13. Nuclear criticality safety analysis summary report: The S-area defense waste processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, B.C.

    1994-10-21

    The S-Area Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) can process all of the high level radioactive wastes currently stored at the Savannah River Site with negligible risk of nuclear criticality. The characteristics which make the DWPF critically safe are: (1) abundance of neutron absorbers in the waste feeds; (2) and low concentration of fissionable material. This report documents the criticality safety arguments for the S-Area DWPF process as required by DOE orders to characterize and to justify the low potential for criticality. It documents that the nature of the waste feeds and the nature of the DWPF process chemistry preclude criticality.

  14. An Alternative Treatment of Trace Chemical Constituents in Calculated Chemical Source Terms for Hanford Tank Farms Safety Analsyes

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, James L.

    2006-09-26

    Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tank accident analyses require chemical waste toxicity source terms to assess potential accident consequences. Recent reviews of the current methodology used to generate source terms and the need to periodically update the sources terms has brought scrutiny to the manner in which trace waste constituents are included in the source terms. This report examines the importance of trace constituents to the chemical waste source terms, which are calculated as sums of fractions (SOFs), and recommends three changes to the manner in which trace constituents are included in the calculation SOFs.

  15. Sustainability Indicators for Chemical Processes : II. Data Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to begin repair of the environmental quality of the planet, there is a need to embrace sustainable development at many levels of the chemical industry and society. One way that the chemical industry is responding to this need is through sustainability evaluations, retrof...

  16. The use of ferric chloride and anionic polymer in the chemically assisted primary sedimentation process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Poon; C. W. Chu

    1999-01-01

    Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment (CEPT) or Chemically Assisted Primary Sedimentation Process (CAPS) involves the use of chemical coagulants to enhance the coagulation or flocculation of wastewater particles. The effect of a metal salt, ferric chloride (FeCl3) and an anionic polymer on the removal of suspended solids (SS) of wastewater collected from two sewage treatment plants was studied by jar test

  17. Dynamic Processes of Conceptual Change: Analysis of Constructing Mental Models of Chemical Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Mei-Hung; Chou, Chin-Cheng; Liu, Chia-Ju

    2002-01-01

    Investigates students' mental models of chemical equilibrium using dynamic science assessments. Reports that students at various levels have misconceptions about chemical equilibrium. Involves 10th grade students (n=30) in the study doing a series of hands-on chemical experiments. Focuses on the process of constructing mental models, dynamic…

  18. CSER 96-014: criticality safety of project W-151, 241-AZ-101 retrieval system process test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vail; Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-01-01

    This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) documents a review of the criticality safety implications of a process test to be performed in tank 241-AZ-101 (101-AZ). The process test will determine the effectiveness of the retrieval system for mobilization of solids and the practicality of the system for future use in the underground storage tanks at Hanford. The scope of the

  19. Chemical and biological safety: Biosensors and nanotechnological methods for the detection and monitoring of chemical and biological agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Varfolomeyev; I. Kurochkin; A. Eremenko; E. Efremenko

    2002-01-01

    The elaboration of highly sensitive and express methods for quantitative and qual- itative detection and monitoring of chemical warfare agents (CWA), organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, compounds with delayed neurotoxicity, and pathogenic microorgan- isms and viruses is discussed. The application of potentiometric and amperometric biosen- sors, automatic biosensors discriminating the neurotoxins of different classes, is performed. The information about biosensors detecting

  20. Applications of Neutron Scattering in the Chemical Industry: Proton Dynamics of Highly Dispersed Materials, Characterization of Fuel Cell Catalysts, and Catalysts from Large-Scale Chemical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Peter W.; Parker, Stewart F.

    The attractiveness of neutron scattering techniques for the detailed characterization of materials of high degrees of dispersity and structural complexity as encountered in the chemical industry is discussed. Neutron scattering picks up where other analytical methods leave off because of the physico-chemical properties of finely divided products and materials whose absorption behavior toward electromagnetic radiation and electrical conductivity causes serious problems. This is demonstrated by presenting typical applications from large-scale production technology and industrial catalysis. These include the determination of the proton-related surface chemistry of advanced materials that are used as reinforcing fillers in the manufacture of tires, where interrelations between surface chemistry, rheological properties, improved safety, and significant reduction of fuel consumption are the focus of recent developments. Neutron scattering allows surface science studies of the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on nanodispersed, supported precious metal particles of fuel cell catalysts under in situ loading at realistic gas pressures of about 1 bar. Insight into the occupation of catalytically relevant surface sites provides valuable information about the catalyst in the working state and supplies essential scientific input for tailoring better catalysts by technologists. The impact of deactivation phenomena on industrial catalysts by coke deposition, chemical transformation of carbonaceous deposits, and other processes in catalytic hydrogenation processes that result in significant shortening of the time of useful operation in large-scale plants can often be traced back in detail to surface or bulk properties of catalysts or materials of catalytic relevance. A better understanding of avoidable or unavoidable aspects of catalyst deactivation phenomena under certain in-process conditions and the development of effective means for reducing deactivation leads to more energy-efficient and, therefore, environmentally friendly processes and helps to save valuable resources. Even small or gradual improvements in all these fields are of considerable economic impact.

  1. Experimental investigation of Mars meandering rivers: Chemical precipitation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Lim, Y.; Cleveland, J.; Reid, E.; Jew, C.

    2014-12-01

    On Earth, meandering streams occur where the banks are resistant to erosion, which enhances narrow and deep channels. Often this is because the stream banks are held firm by vegetation. The ancient, highly sinuous channels with cutoffs found on Mars are enigmatic because vegetation played no role in providing bank cohesion and enhancing fine sediment deposition. Possible causes of the meandering therefore include ice under permafrost conditions and chemical processes. We conducted carbonate flume experiments to investigate possible mechanisms creating meandering channels other than vegetation. The experiment includes a tank that dissolves limestone by adding CO2 gas and produces artificial spring water, peristaltic pumps to drive water through the system, a heater to control the temperature of the spring water, and a flume where carbonate sediment deposits. Spring water containing dissolved calcium and carbonate ions moves through a heater to increase temperature, and then into the flume. The flume surface is open to the air to allow CO2 degassing, decrease temperature, and increase pH, which promotes carbonate precipitation. A preliminary experiment was done and successfully created a meander pattern that evolved over a 3-day experiment. The experiment showed lateral migration of the bend and avulsion of the stream, similar to a natural meander. The lateral variation in flow speed increased the local residence time of water, thus increasing the degassing of CO2 on the two sides of the flow and promoting more precipitation. This enhanced precipitation on the sides provided a mechanism to build levees along the channel and created a stream confined in a narrow path. This mechanism also potentially applies to Earthly single thread and/or meandering rivers developed and recorded before vegetation appeared on Earth's surface.

  2. Quality and safety attributes of afghan raisins before and after processing.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Stacy; Chang, Jun Won; McNamara, Kevin T; Oliver, Haley F; Deering, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Raisins are an important export commodity for Afghanistan; however, Afghan packers are unable to export to markets seeking high-quality products due to limited knowledge regarding their quality and safety. To evaluate this, Afghan raisin samples from pre-, semi-, and postprocessed raisins were obtained from a raisin packer in Kabul, Afghanistan. The raisins were analyzed and compared to U.S. standards for processed raisins. The samples tested did not meet U.S. industry standards for embedded sand and pieces of stem, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity. The Afghan raisins did meet or exceed U.S. Grade A standard for the number of cap-stems, percent damaged, crystallization levels, moisture content, and color. Following processing, the number of total aerobic bacteria, yeasts, molds, and total coliforms were within the acceptable limits. Although quality issues are present in the Afghan raisins, the process used to clean the raisins is suitable to maintain food safety standards. PMID:25650241

  3. Quality and safety attributes of afghan raisins before and after processing

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Stacy; Chang, Jun Won; McNamara, Kevin T; Oliver, Haley F; Deering, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Raisins are an important export commodity for Afghanistan; however, Afghan packers are unable to export to markets seeking high-quality products due to limited knowledge regarding their quality and safety. To evaluate this, Afghan raisin samples from pre-, semi-, and postprocessed raisins were obtained from a raisin packer in Kabul, Afghanistan. The raisins were analyzed and compared to U.S. standards for processed raisins. The samples tested did not meet U.S. industry standards for embedded sand and pieces of stem, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity. The Afghan raisins did meet or exceed U.S. Grade A standard for the number of cap-stems, percent damaged, crystallization levels, moisture content, and color. Following processing, the number of total aerobic bacteria, yeasts, molds, and total coliforms were within the acceptable limits. Although quality issues are present in the Afghan raisins, the process used to clean the raisins is suitable to maintain food safety standards. PMID:25650241

  4. Safety management of complex research operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Complex research and technology operations present varied potential hazards which are addressed in a disciplined, independent safety review and approval process. Potential hazards vary from high energy fuels to hydrocarbon fuels, high pressure systems to high voltage systems, toxic chemicals to radioactive materials and high speed rotating machinery to high powered lasers. A Safety Permit System presently covers about 600 potentially hazardous operations. The Safety Management Program described is believed to be a major factor in maintaining an excellent safety record.

  5. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Advanced Firemanship: How to Teach Your Audience a Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, Martin J.

    1984-01-01

    Provides tips to assist in preparing a training program designed to show that: (1) fire is dangerous; (2) ordinary individuals can neither understand fire nor extinguish it; and (3) a fire safety officer can do both. (JN)

  6. National toxicology program chemical nomination and selection process

    SciTech Connect

    Selkirk, J.K. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) was organized to support national public health programs by initiating research designed to understand the physiological, metabolic, and genetic basis for chemical toxicity. The primary mandated responsibilities of NTP were in vivo and vitro toxicity testing of potentially hazardous chemicals; broadening the spectrum of toxicological information on known hazardous chemicals; validating current toxicological assay systems as well as developing new and innovative toxicity testing technology; and rapidly communicating test results to government agencies with regulatory responsibilities and to the medical and scientific communities. 2 figs.

  7. Mechanics,Mechanisms and Modeling of the Chemical Mechanical Polishing Process

    E-print Network

    Noh, Kyungyoon

    The Chemical Mechanical polishing (CMP) process is now widely employed in the Integrated Circuit Fabrication. However, due to the complexity of process parameters on the material removal rate (MRR), mechanism of material ...

  8. CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID BED FOR SOX CONTROL. VOLUME I. PROCESS EVALUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes selected process evaluation studies supporting the development of an atmospheric-pressure, fluidized-bed, chemically active gasification process, using a regenerative limestone sulfur sorbent to produce low- to intermediate-Btu fuel gas. Limestone sorbent sel...

  9. Voltage Sag-Related Upsets of Industrial Process Controls in Petroleum and Chemical Industries 

    E-print Network

    Mansoor, A.; Key, T.; Woinsky, S.

    1998-01-01

    with PLC controls. The sensitivity of these process controls can stop an essential service motor required for a continuous process such as in a refinery or chemical plant. Typically the controls are sensitive to the common momentary voltage sag caused...

  10. Review of Chemical Processes for the Synthesis of Sodium Borohydride Millennium Cell Inc.

    E-print Network

    Review of Chemical Processes for the Synthesis of Sodium Borohydride Millennium Cell Inc. Prepared..................................................................................................................................... 1 Section 1: Commercially Practiced Sodium Borohydride Synthesis Process........................................................................................... 6 Methane (or Natural Gas) as Reducing Agent

  11. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM TO ENHANCE AND ENCOURAGE SUSTAINABLE CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an opportunity to minimize the potential environmental impacts (PEIs) of industrial chemical processes by providing process designers with timely data nad models elucidating environmentally favorable design options. The second generation of the Waste Reduction (WAR) algo...

  12. EFFECTIVE RISK MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS USING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The conventional drinking water treamtent processes of coagulation, flocculation, and filtration as well as specialized treatment processes have been examined for their capacity to remove endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). A groupf od EDCs including 4-nonylphenol, diethylphth...

  13. Properties and processing of chemical vapor deposited zinc sulfide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. McCloy

    2008-01-01

    The structure and properties of chemical vapor deposited zinc sulfide (CVD ZnS) were assessed before and after heat treatments, involving different annealing and hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) profiles. Samples were characterized using optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, electron diffraction, polycrystalline and powder x-ray diffraction, x-ray chemical microanalysis, photoluminescence, ultraviolet through longwave infrared transmission, and mechanical testing. Before heat treatment, CVD ZnS

  14. FDA'S food ingredient approval process: Safety assurance based on scientific assessment.

    PubMed

    Rulis, Alan M; Levitt, Joseph A

    2009-02-01

    Fifty years ago, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began implementing new provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act aimed at assuring the safety of new food additives before they enter the marketplace. Today, the agency's procedures for premarket evaluation of food additive safety have evolved into a scientifically rigorous, sound and dependable system whose objective and independent evaluations by FDA scientists assure that new food additives are safe for their intended uses before they arrive on the consumer's plate. Although controversy often surrounds food additives in the popular media and culture, and science-based challenges to FDA's decisions do arise, the agency's original safety judgments successfully withstand these challenges time and again. This article reviews the basic components of the FDA's decision-making process for evaluating the safety of new food additives, and identifies characteristics of this process that are central to assuring that FDA's decisions are marked by scientific rigor and high integrity, and can continue to be relied on by consumers. PMID:18983884

  15. The Quantitative Assessment of Risk Caused By Fire and Explosion in Chemical Process Industry

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    The Quantitative Assessment of Risk Caused By Fire and Explosion in Chemical Process Industry Farid By Fire and Explosion in Chemical Process Industry: A Domino Effect-Based Study Corresponding Author by the domino effect are the most destructive accidents related to industrial plants. Fire and explosion

  16. The safety climate and its relationship to safety practices, safety of the work environment and occupational accidents in eight wood-processing companies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Unto Varonen; Markku Mattila

    2000-01-01

    Employees continuously observe their work environment and the actions of their fellow workers and superiors, and they use such observations as a basis for the creation of cognitive models associated with safety. These models regulate their actions in the workplace and thus have an influence on safety. This study attempts to define the structure of the safety climate as perceived

  17. High-lift chemical heat pump technologies for industrial processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Olszewski; A. Zaltash

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally industrial heat pumps (IHPs) have found applications on a process specific basis with reject heat from a process being upgraded and returned to the process. The IHP must be carefully integrated into a process since improper placement may result in an uneconomic application. Industry has emphasized a process integration approach to the design and operation of their plants. Heat

  18. Enhancing Credibility of Chemical Safety Studies: Emerging Consensus on Key Assessment Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, James W.; Becker, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We examined the extent to which consensus exists on the criteria that should be used for assessing the credibility of a scientific work, regardless of its funding source, and explored how these criteria might be implemented. Data sources Three publications, all presented at a session of the 2009 annual meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, have proposed a range of criteria for evaluating the credibility of scientific studies. At least two other similar sets of criteria have recently been proposed elsewhere. Data extraction/synthesis In this article we review these criteria, highlight the commonalities among them, and integrate them into a list of 10 criteria. We also discuss issues inherent in any attempt to implement the criteria systematically. Conclusions Recommendations by many scientists and policy experts converge on a finite list of criteria for assessing the credibility of a scientific study without regard to funding source. These criteria should be formalized through a consensus process or a governmental initiative that includes discussion and pilot application of a system for reproducibly implementing them. Formal establishment of such a system should enable the debate regarding chemical studies to move beyond funding issues and focus on scientific merit. PMID:21163723

  19. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) pocket guide to chemical hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The NIOSH Pocket Guide to chemical hazards is presented. The guide contains information taken in part from NIOSH or OSHA occupational health guidelines for chemical hazards. Data were also obtained from recognized text books in the fields of industrial hygiene, medicine, toxicology, and analytical chemistry, and articles from a variety of technical journals. The guide was developed as a means for making information contained in the NIOSH or OSHA guidelines more conveniently available to workers, employers, and occupational health professionals. It presents key information and data in an abbreviated tabular format for 397 individual chemicals or chemical types found in the work environment and for which there are specific Federal regulations. Information contained in the guide includes: chemical names and synonyms, exposure limits and recommendations, chemical and physical properties, analytical methods, respirator and personal protective equipment recommendations, signs and symptoms of exposure, and procedures for emergency treatment.

  20. Development of a security vulnerability assessment process for the RAMCAP chemical sector.

    PubMed

    Moore, David A; Fuller, Brad; Hazzan, Michael; Jones, J William

    2007-04-11

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Directorate of Information Analysis & Infrastructure Protection (IAIP), Protective Services Division (PSD), contracted the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Innovative Technologies Institute, LLC (ASME ITI, LLC) to develop guidance on Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection (RAMCAP). AcuTech Consulting Group (AcuTech) has been contracted by ASME ITI, LLC, to provide assistance by facilitating the development of sector-specific guidance on vulnerability analysis and management for critical asset protection for the chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) sectors. This activity involves two key tasks for these three sectors: Development of a screening to supplement DHS understanding of the assets that are important to protect against terrorist attack and to prioritize the activities. Development of a standard security vulnerability analysis (SVA) framework for the analysis of consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats. This project involves the cooperative effort of numerous leading industrial companies, industry trade associations, professional societies, and security and safety consultants representative of those sectors. Since RAMCAP is a voluntary program for ongoing risk management for homeland security, sector coordinating councils are being asked to assist in communicating the goals of the program and in encouraging participation. The RAMCAP project will have a profound and positive impact on all sectors as it is fully developed, rolled-out and implemented. It will help define the facilities and operations of national and regional interest for the threat of terrorism, define standardized methods for analyzing consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats, and describe best security practices of the industry. This paper will describe the results of the security vulnerability analysis process that was developed and field tested for the chemical manufacturing sector. This method was developed through the cooperation of the many organizations and the individuals involved from the chemical sector RAMCAP development activities. The RAMCAP SVA method is intended to provide a common basis for making vulnerability assessments and risk-based decisions for homeland security. Mr. Moore serves as the coordinator for the chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and LNG sectors for the RAMCAP project and Dr. Jones is the chief technology officer for ASME-ITI, LLC for RAMCAP. PMID:16920260

  1. An evaluation of the effectiveness of the US Department of Energy Integrated Safety Process (SS21) for Nuclear Explosive Operations using quantitative hazard analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Fischer; H. Konkel; T. Bott; S. Eisenhawer; J. Auflick; K. Houghton; K. Maloney; L. DeYoung; M. Wilson

    1996-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the US Department of Energy Integrated Safety Process or ``Seamless Safety (SS-21)`` program for reducing risk associated with nuclear explosive operations. A key element in the Integrated Safety Process is the use of hazard assessment techniques to evaluate process design changes in parallel or concurrently with process design and development. This concurrent hazard assessment

  2. Prediction of the safety level to an installation of the tritium process through predictive maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Anghel, V. [National Research and Development Inst. for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICIT, Rm. Valcea Uzinei Street no.4, 240050 (Romania)

    2008-07-15

    The safety level for personnel and environment to a nuclear installation is given in generally by the technological process quality of operation and maintenance and in particular by a lot of technical, technological, economic and human factors. The maintenance role is fundamental because it has to quantify all the technical, economic and human elements as an integrated system for it creates an important feedback for activities concerning the life cycle of the nuclear installation. In maintenance activities as in any dynamic area, new elements appear continuously which, sometimes require new approaches. The theory of fuzzy logic and the software LabVIEW supplied to the Nuclear Detritiation Plant (NDP) is part of National Research and Development Inst. for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies-ICIT, Rm.Valcea, used for predictive maintenance to assure safety operation. The final aim is to achieve the best practices for maintenance of the Plant that processes tritium. (authors)

  3. Using Drawing Technology to Assess Students' Visualizations of Chemical Reaction Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsin-Yi; Quintana, Chris; Krajcik, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we investigated how students used a drawing tool to visualize their ideas of chemical reaction processes. We interviewed 30 students using thinking-aloud and retrospective methods and provided them with a drawing tool. We identified four types of connections the students made as they used the tool: drawing on existing knowledge, incorporating dynamic aspects of chemical processes, linking a visualization to the associated chemical phenomenon, and connecting between the visualization and chemistry concepts. We also compared students who were able to create dynamic visualizations with those who only created static visualizations. The results indicated a relationship between students constructing a dynamic view of chemical reaction processes and their understanding of chemical reactions. This study provides insights into the use of visualizations to support instruction and assessment to facilitate students' integrated understanding of chemical reactions.

  4. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SPILL MONITORING: SAFETY HANDBOOK AND CHEMICAL HAZARD GUIDE. PART A

    EPA Science Inventory

    This two-part document is intended to serve as a guide to the hazards associated with a broad range of chemical compounds which may be encountered in hazardous materials spills. The document addresses 655 chemicals identified on the basis of known toxicity or spill history and de...

  5. Improved understanding of weed biological control safety and impact with chemical ecology: a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We review chemical ecology literature as it relates to weed biological control and discuss how this means of controlling invasive plants could be enhanced by the consideration of several well established research developments. The interface between chemical ecology and weed biological control presen...

  6. Merging Safety and Assurance: The Process of Dual Certification for Software

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Taylor; Jim Alves-Foss; Bob Rinker

    This paper describes a process of dual certification for software that meets both FAA safety requirements and NIST\\/NSA security requirements. The commercial avionics industry depends on RTCA DO-178B, for software assurance while security products are evaluated according to the Common Criteria. The two sets of requirements from DO-178B and the Common Criteria are assessed for similarity of function with non-corresponding

  7. Benchmarking safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. B. McClung

    2003-01-01

    All of general industry in the United States, represented by the participants in the IEEE\\/IAS Petroleum and Chemical Industry Committee Technical Conference (PCIC), is regulated by the federal government to have an electrical safety program. The Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) documents that drive the electrical safety of employees in the workplace is written in performance

  8. Chemical process research and development in the 21st century: challenges, strategies, and solutions from a pharmaceutical industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Federsel, Hans-Jürgen

    2009-05-19

    In process research and development (PR&D), the generation and manipulation of small-molecule drugs ranges from bench-scale (laboratory) chemistry to pilot plant manufacture to commercial production. A broad range of disciplines, including process chemistry (organic synthesis), analytical chemistry, process engineering (mass and heat transfer, unit operations), process safety (chemical risk assessment), regulatory compliance, and plant operation, must be effectively applied. In the critical handover between medicinal chemistry and PR&D, compound production is typically scaled up from a few hundred grams to several kilograms. Can the methodologies applied to the former also satisfy the technical, safety, and scalability aspects that come into play in the latter? Occasionally, the transition might occur smoothly, but more often the situation is the opposite: much work and resources must be invested to design a process that is feasible for manufacturing on pilot scale and, eventually, for commercial production. Authentic examples provide enlightening illustrations of dos and don'ts for developing syntheses designed for round-flask operation into production-scale processes. Factors that are easily underestimated or even neglected in the laboratory, such as method robustness, chemical hazards, safety concerns, environmental impact, availability of starting materials and building blocks in bulk quantities, intellectual property (IP) issues, and the final cost of the product, will come into play and need to be addressed appropriately. The decision on which route will be the best for further development is a crucial event and should come into focus early on the R&D timeline. In addition to scientific and technical concerns, the parameter of speed has come to the forefront in the pharmaceutical arena. Although historically the drug industry has tolerated a total time investment of far more than 10 years from idea to market, the current worldwide paradigm requires a reduction to under 10 years for the specific segment covering preclinical development through launch. This change puts enormous pressure on the entire organization, and the implication for PR&D is that the time allowed for conducting route design and scale-up has shrunk accordingly. Furthermore, molecular complexity has become extremely challenging in many instances, and demand steadily grows for process understanding and knowledge generation about low-level byproduct, which often must be controlled even at trace concentrations to meet regulatory specifications (especially in the case of potentially genotoxic impurities). In this Account, we paint a broad picture of the technical challenges the PR&D community is grappling with today, focusing on what measures have been taken over the years to create more efficiency and effectiveness. PMID:19338294

  9. Farm Health and Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  10. Chemical Changes in Lipids Produced by Thermal Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nawar, Wassef W.

    1984-01-01

    Describes heat effects on lipids, indicating that the chemical and physical changes that occur depend on the lipid's composition and conditions of treatment. Thermolytic and oxidation reactions, thermal/oxidative interaction of lipids with other food components and the chemistry of frying are considered. (JN)

  11. The Learning Curve and Pricing in the Chemical Processing Industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marvin B. Lieberman

    1984-01-01

    Data on 37 chemical products are used to test a number of hypotheses about the learning curve and industrial price behavior. The results document a strong and consistent learning effect. Learning is found to be a function of cumulated industry output and cumulated investment rather than calendar time. Standard economies of scale appear significant but small in magnitude relative to

  12. Postentry Investment and Market Structure in the Chemical Processing Industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marvin B. Lieberman

    1987-01-01

    This article analyzes the investment response of incumbents to new entry in 39 chemical product industries. The behavior of incumbents in highly concentrated industries differed from that of incumbents in low-concentration industries. In concentrated industries incumbents increased their rate of investment following entry, but reduced investment to accommodate capacity expansions made by other incumbents. This asymmetric response did not arise

  13. Active Chemical Sensing With Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes

    E-print Network

    Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    temperature pulse to be applied to the sensor based on information extracted from the sensor response of the chemical sensor to a sequence of temperature pulses as an Input-Output Hidden Markov Model (IOHMM) [7-oxide sensors in real time, as the sensor reacts with its environment. We model the problem as a partially

  14. Chemical degradation of an ion exchange resin processing salt solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart T. Arm; David L. Blanchard; Sandra K. Fiskum

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the results from an investigation into the chemical degradation of an organic ion exchange resin, SuperLig® 644, over 25 repeated cycles separating cesium from an alkaline solution of sodium salts with subsequent elution. Battelle Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD) tested the resin with a salt solution simulating the radioactive wastes currently stored at Hanford, Washington, USA generated from

  15. The Chemistry of Lightsticks: Demonstrations to Illustrate Chemical Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntzleman, Thomas Scott; Rohrer, Kristen; Schultz, Emeric

    2012-01-01

    Lightsticks, or glowsticks as they are sometimes called, are perhaps the chemist's quintessential toy. Because they are easy to activate and appealing to observe, experimenting with lightsticks provides a great way to get young people interested in science. Thus, we have used lightsticks to teach chemical concepts in a variety of outreach settings…

  16. Chemical Engineering Design and Safety at the University of Kansas C. S. Howat

    E-print Network

    Howat, Colin S. "Chip"

    /presented fifteen papers on teaching design, developing objectives, integrating software and evaluating learning. IChemical Engineering Design and Safety at the University of Kansas C. S. Howat Kurata a remarkable transformation during the last fifteen years. This transformation has accelerated during the last

  17. Safety Training for the Developmentally Disabled in Icon Recognition for the Safe Use of Hazardous Chemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoz, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This unique document is a training manual for individuals such as job coaches and janitorial crew supervisors who train and work with Developmentally Disabled (DD) workers in vocational classrooms and on job sites. These workers need to be taught the importance of safety in the workplace using methods appropriate to their developmental needs. The…

  18. Characterizing aquifer hydrogeology and anthropogenic chemical influences on groundwater near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fromm

    1995-01-01

    A conceptual model of the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of monitoring well USGS-44, downgradient of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), was developed by synthesis and comparison of previous work (40 years) and new investigations into local natural hydrogeological conditions and anthropogenic influences. Quantitative tests of the model, and

  19. TREATMENT TANK CORROSION STUDIES FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-08-24

    Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than in the PUREX/oxalic acid environment. (3) The corrosion rates for PUREX/8 wt.% oxalic acid were greater than or equal to those observed for the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid. No localized corrosion was observed in the tests with the 8 wt.% oxalic acid. Testing with HM/8 wt.% oxalic acid simulant was not performed. Thus, a comparison with the results with 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid, where the corrosion rate was 88 mpy and localized corrosion was observed at 75 C, cannot be made. (4) The corrosion rates in 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid solutions were temperature dependent: (a) At 50 C, the corrosion rates ranged between 90 to 140 mpy over the 30 day test period. The corrosion rates were higher under stagnant conditions. (b) At 75 C, the initial corrosion rates were as high as 300 mpy during the first day of exposure. The corrosion rates increased with agitation. However, once the passive ferrous oxalate film formed, the corrosion rate decreased dramatically to less than 20 mpy over the 30 day test period. This rate was independent of agitation. (5) Electrochemical testing indicated that for oxalic acid/sludge simulant mixtures the cathodic reaction has transport controlled reaction kinetics. The literature suggests that the dissolution of the sludge produces a di-oxalatoferrate ion that is reduced at the cathodic sites. The cathodic reaction does not appear to involve hydrogen evolution. On the other hand, electrochemical tests demonstrated that the cathodic reaction for corrosion of carbon steel in pure oxalic acid involves hydrogen evolution. (6) Agitation of the oxalic acid/sludge simulant mixtures typically resulted in a higher corrosion rates for both acid concentrations. The transport of the ferrous ion away from the metal surface results in a less protective ferrous oxalate film. (7) A mercury containing species along with aluminum, silicon and iron oxides was observed on the interior of the pits formed in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant at 75 C. The pitting rates in the agitated and non-agitated solution were 2 mils/day and 1 mil/day, respectively. A mechanism

  20. SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR TANK 241-AZ-101 MIXER PUMP PROCESS TEST

    SciTech Connect

    HAMMOND DM; HARRIS JP; MOUETTE P

    1997-06-09

    This document contains the completed safety analysis which establishes the safety envelope for performing the mixer pump process test in Tank 241-AZ-101. This process test is described in TF-210-OTP-001. All equipment necessary for the mixer pump test has been installed by Project W-151. The purpose of this document is to describe and analyze the mixer pump test for Aging Waste Facility (AWF) Tank 241-AZ-101 and to address the 'yes/maybe' responses marked for evaluation questions identified in Unreviewed Safety Question Evaluation (USQE) TF-94-0266. The scope of this document is limited to the performance of the mixer pump test for Tank 241-AZ-101. Unreviewed Safety Question Determination (USQD) TF-96-0018 verified that the installation of two mixer pumps into Tank 241-AZ-101 was within the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Authorization Basis. USQDs TF-96-0461, TF-96-0448, and TF-96-0805 verified that the installation of the in-tank video camera, thermocouples, and Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzer (URSILLA), respectively, were within the current TWRS Authorization Basis. USQD TF-96-1041 verified that the checkout testing of the installed equipment was within the current TWRS Authorization Basis. Installation of the pumps and equipment has been completed. An evaluation of safety considerations associated with operation of the mixer pumps for the mixer pump test is provided in this document. This document augments the existing AWF authorization basis as defined in the Interim Safety Basis (Stahl 1997), and as such, will use the existing Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSRs) of Heubach 1996 to adequately control the mixer pump test. The hazard and accident analysis is limited to the scope and impact of the mixer pump test, and therefore does not address hazards already addressed by the current AWF authorization basis. This document does not evaluate removal of the mixer pumps. Safety considerations for removal of the pumps will be addressed by separate safety documentation once that portion of the mission is defined. The mixer pump test has been evaluated to cover the use of either the existing ventilation system (241-A-702) or the ventilation system upgrade provided by Project W-030. Analysis of Project W-030 is outside of the scope of this document and is addressed in HNF-SD-WM-SARR-039 (Draft) which, should the W-030 system be in service at the time of the mixer pump test, will have been approved and made a part of the TWRS authorization basis. The test will use two high-capacity mixer pumps in various configurations and modes to demonstrate solids mobilization of waste in Tank 241-AZ-101. The information and experience gained during the test will provide data for comparison with sludge mobilization prediction models; provide data to estimate the number, location, and cycle times of the mixer pumps; and provide indication of the effects of mixer pump operation on the AWF tank systems and components. The slurry produced will be evaluated for future pretreatment processing. This process test does not transfer waste from the tank; the waste is mixed and confined within the existing system. At the completion of the mixer pump test, the mixer pumps will be stopped and normal tank operations, maintenance, and surveillance will continue. Periodic rotation of the mixer pumps and motor shafts, along with bearing greasing, is required to maintain the pumps following the mixer pump test.

  1. Scheduling of a multi-product batch process in the chemical industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferdinand Blömer; Hans-Otto Günther

    1998-01-01

    We present an example of a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model for the scheduling of a multi-product batch process occurring in the chemical industry. The batch process considered is organized in several stages. Various final products are produced out of a single feedstock by a number of chemical processes. The major scheduling objective is to minimize the makespan, i.e., to

  2. Lactic acid bacteria and natural antimicrobials to improve the safety and shelf-life of minimally processed sliced apples and lamb's lettuce.

    PubMed

    Siroli, Lorenzo; Patrignani, Francesca; Serrazanetti, Diana I; Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Gardini, Fausto; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2015-05-01

    Outbreaks of food-borne disease associated with the consumption of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables have increased dramatically over the last few years. Traditional chemical sanitizers are unable to completely eradicate or kill the microorganisms on fresh produce. These conditions have stimulated research to alternative methods for increasing food safety. The use of protective cultures, particularly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), has been proposed for minimally processed products. However, the application of bioprotective cultures has been limited at the industrial level. From this perspective, the main aims of this study were to select LAB from minimally processed fruits and vegetables to be used as biocontrol agents and then to evaluate the effects of the selected strains, alone or in combination with natural antimicrobials (2-(E)-hexenal/hexanal, 2-(E)-hexenal/citral for apples and thyme for lamb's lettuce), on the shelf-life and safety characteristics of minimally processed apples and lamb's lettuce. The results indicated that applying the Lactobacillus plantarum strains CIT3 and V7B3 to apples and lettuce, respectively, increased both the safety and shelf-life. Moreover, combining the selected strains with natural antimicrobials produced a further increase in the shelf-life of these products without detrimental effects on the organoleptic qualities. PMID:25583340

  3. Robust model-based fault diagnosis for chemical process systems

    E-print Network

    Rajaraman, Srinivasan

    2006-08-16

    of the process. Finally the proposed methodology for fault diagnosis has been applied in numerical simulations to a non-isothermal CSTR (continuous stirred tank reactor), an industrial melter process, and a debutanizer plant....

  4. The Radiance Process: Water and Chemical Free Cleaning 

    E-print Network

    Robison, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    the removed contaminant itself. The Process is inexpensive and readily adaptable to many manufacturing products ranging from computer chips, hard disks, and night vision goggles to tire molds. The Process is covered by 29 patents issued in the U...

  5. Indicators and Metrics for Evaluating the Sustainability of Chemical Processes

    EPA Science Inventory

    A metric-based method, called GREENSCOPE, has been developed for evaluating process sustainability. Using lab-scale information and engineering assumptions the method evaluates full-scale epresentations of processes in environmental, efficiency, energy and economic areas. The m...

  6. Incipient fault diagnosis of chemical processes via artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kajiro Watanabe; Ichiro Matsuura; Masahiro Abe; Makoto Kubota; D. M. Himmelblau

    1989-01-01

    Artificial neural networks have capacity to learn and store information about process faults via associative memory, and thus have an associative diagnostic ability with respect to faults that occur in a process. Knowledge of the faults to be learned by the network evolves from sets of data, namely values of steady-state process variables collected under normal operating condition and those

  7. CHEMICAL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT, OCTOBER-DECEMBER 1961

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. ed

    1962-01-01

    The ICPP processed Al fuel, prtncipally of the MTR-ETR type, durtng this ; quarter. Newly designed and installed processing equipment exhibited excellent ; operating performance. This included direct-air-pulsed extraction, stripping and ; scrub columns, and a cascade-controlled continuous evaporator in first cycle ; product concentration service. Aqueous zirconium fuel processing studies ; continued with the objective of adapting the hydrofluoric

  8. Improving the Highway Safety Process: An Update and Enhancement to the Oregon DOT's Crash Reduction Factors List

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Improving the Highway Safety Process: An Update and Enhancement to the Oregon DOT's Crash Reduction Appropriate selection of cost-effective countermeasures for highway safety improvement projects requires of traffic-related fatalities and injuries on United States highways--upwards of 42,000 fatalities and almost

  9. Nurses' Perceptions of the Impact of Work Systems and Technology on Patient Safety during the Medication Administration Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher Gordon, Mary

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines nurses' perceptions of the impacts of systems and technology utilized during the medication administration process on patient safety and the culture of medication error reporting. This exploratory research study was grounded in a model of patient safety based on Patricia Benner's Novice to Expert Skill…

  10. 77 FR 71561 - Health and Safety Data Reporting; Addition of Certain Chemicals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ...industrial gases, inorganic dyes and pigments, alkalis and chlorine, and carbon black...including importers) of inorganic dyes and pigments (NAICS code 325131). Manufacturers...industrial gases, synthetic organic dyes and pigments, gum and wood chemicals, cyclic...

  11. Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by military ... there are no guarantees of safety during a chemical emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. You ...

  12. Research on chemical vapor deposition processes for advanced ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Daniel E.

    1993-01-01

    Our interdisciplinary background and fundamentally-oriented studies of the laws governing multi-component chemical vapor deposition (VD), particle deposition (PD), and their interactions, put the Yale University HTCRE Laboratory in a unique position to significantly advance the 'state-of-the-art' of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) R&D. With NASA-Lewis RC financial support, we initiated a program in March of 1988 that has led to the advances described in this report (Section 2) in predicting chemical vapor transport in high temperature systems relevant to the fabrication of refractory ceramic coatings for turbine engine components. This Final Report covers our principal results and activities for the total NASA grant of $190,000. over the 4.67 year period: 1 March 1988-1 November 1992. Since our methods and the technical details are contained in the publications listed (9 Abstracts are given as Appendices) our emphasis here is on broad conclusions/implications and administrative data, including personnel, talks, interactions with industry, and some known applications of our work.

  13. Particle size distribution and removal by a chemical-biological flocculation process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Zhao, Jian-Fu; Xia, Si-Qing; Liu, Chang-Qing; Kang, Xing-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The particle characterization from the influent and effluent of a chemical-biological flocculation (CBF) process was studied with a laser diffraction device. Water samples from a chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) process and a primary sediment tank process were also analyzed for comparison. The results showed that CBF process was not only effective for both the big size particles and small size particles removal, but also the best particle removal process in the three processes of CBF process, CEPT process, and PST process (primary sediment tanks). The results also indicated that CBF process was superior to CEPT process in the heavy metals removal. The high and non-selective removal for heavy metals might be closely related to its strong ability to eliminate small particles. Samples from different locations in CBF reactors showed that small particles were easier to aggregate into big ones and those disrupted flocs could properly flocculate again along CBF reactor because of the biological flocculation. PMID:17915684

  14. Laser ablation of maskant used in chemical milling process for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, C.; Lopresto, V.; Memola Capece Minutolo, F.; de Iorio, I.; Rinaldi, N.

    2010-09-01

    Chemical etching is a non-traditional machining process where a chemical solution is used to remove unwanted material by dissolution. To shape the etched area, before the process, a chemical inert paint (maskant) is applied on the surface. Then the maskant is trimmed away and the uncovered area is subject to the etching. The maskant cut could be obtained mechanically or by laser ablation. In this work, the effect of process parameters, cutting speed and beam power, on interaction phenomena and defect formation in laser cutting of polymeric maskant is studied, using a 30W CO2 laser source.

  15. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning: A New Process for Chemically Cleaning Savannah River Waste Tanks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Ketusky; Renee Spires; Neil Davis

    2009-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) there are 49 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks that eventually must be emptied, cleaned, and closed. The current method of chemically cleaning SRS HLW tanks, commonly referred to as Bulk Oxalic Acid Cleaning (BOAC), requires about a half million liters (130,000 gallons) of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to clean a single tank.

  16. Safety Rules

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL)

    2004-01-01

    Safety is an important part of a science lesson or activity. This safety material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Sixteen rules reinforce common safety concerns for science classrooms. Among the safety rules are the recommendations that teachers practice demonstrations before presenting them, make proper eyewear and shields available, use customary disposal techniques, and possess a thorough knowledge of the chemical reactions being used. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  17. Urban street canyons: Coupling dynamics, chemistry and within-canyon chemical processing of emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, Vivien Bianca; Bloss, William James; Cai, Xiaoming

    2013-04-01

    Street canyons, formed by rows of buildings in urban environments, are associated with high levels of atmospheric pollutants emitted primarily from vehicles, and substantial human exposure. The street canyon forms a semi-enclosed environment, within which emissions may be entrained in a re-circulatory system; chemical processing of emitted compounds alters the composition of the air vented to the overlying boundary layer, compared with the primary emissions. As the prevailing atmospheric chemistry is highly non-linear, and the canyon mixing and predominant chemical reaction timescales are comparable, the combined impacts of dynamics and chemistry must be considered to quantify these effects. Here we report a model study of the coupled impacts of dynamical and chemical processing upon the atmospheric composition in a street canyon environment, to assess the impacts upon air pollutant levels within the canyon, and to quantify the extent to which within-canyon chemical processing alters the composition of canyon outflow, in comparison to the primary emissions within the canyon. A new model for the simulation of street canyon atmospheric chemical processing has been developed, by integrating an existing Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) dynamical model of canyon atmospheric motion with a detailed chemical reaction mechanism, a Reduced Chemical Scheme (RCS) comprising 51 chemical species and 136 reactions, based upon a subset of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). The combined LES-RCS model is used to investigate the combined effects of mixing and chemical processing upon air quality within an idealised street canyon. The effect of the combination of dynamical (segregation) and chemical effects is determined by comparing the outputs of the full LES-RCS canyon model with those obtained when representing the canyon as a zero-dimensional box model (i.e. assuming mixing is complete and instantaneous). The LES-RCS approach predicts lower (canyon-averaged) levels of NOx, OH and HO2, but higher levels of O3, compared with the box model run under identical chemical and emissions conditions. When considering the level of chemical detail implemented, segregation effects were found to reduce the error introduced by simplifying the reaction mechanism. Chemical processing of emissions within the canyon leads to a significant increase in the Ox flux from the canyon into the overlying boundary layer, relative to primary emissions, for the idealised case considered here. These results demonstrate that within-canyon atmospheric chemical processing can substantially alter the concentrations of pollutants injected into the urban canopy layer, compared with the raw emission rates within the street canyon. The extent to which these effects occur is likely to be dependent upon the nature of the domain (canyon aspect ratio), prevailing meteorology and emission/pollution scenario considered.

  18. Detecting Sensor Signal Manipulations in Non-Linear Chemical Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Richard McEvoy; Stephen D. Wolthusen

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Modern process control systems are increasingly vulnerable to subversion. Attacks that directly target production processes\\u000a are difficult to detect because signature-based approaches are not well-suited to the unique requirements of process control\\u000a systems. Also, anomaly detection mechanisms have difficulty coping with the non-linearity of industrial processes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a This paper focuses on the problem where attackers gain supervisory control of systems and

  19. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Based Developmental Toxicity Assays for Chemical Safety Screening and Systems Biology Data Generation.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Vaibhav; Klima, Stefanie; Sureshkumar, Perumal Srinivasan; Meganathan, Kesavan; Jagtap, Smita; Rempel, Eugen; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Hengstler, Jan Georg; Waldmann, Tanja; Hescheler, Jürgen; Leist, Marcel; Sachinidis, Agapios

    2015-01-01

    Efficient protocols to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells to various tissues in combination with -omics technologies opened up new horizons for in vitro toxicity testing of potential drugs. To provide a solid scientific basis for such assays, it will be important to gain quantitative information on the time course of development and on the underlying regulatory mechanisms by systems biology approaches. Two assays have therefore been tuned here for these requirements. In the UKK test system, human embryonic stem cells (hESC) (or other pluripotent cells) are left to spontaneously differentiate for 14 days in embryoid bodies, to allow generation of cells of all three germ layers. This system recapitulates key steps of early human embryonic development, and it can predict human-specific early embryonic toxicity/teratogenicity, if cells are exposed to chemicals during differentiation. The UKN1 test system is based on hESC differentiating to a population of neuroectodermal progenitor (NEP) cells for 6 days. This system recapitulates early neural development and predicts early developmental neurotoxicity and epigenetic changes triggered by chemicals. Both systems, in combination with transcriptome microarray studies, are suitable for identifying toxicity biomarkers. Moreover, they may be used in combination to generate input data for systems biology analysis. These test systems have advantages over the traditional toxicological studies requiring large amounts of animals. The test systems may contribute to a reduction of the costs for drug development and chemical safety evaluation. Their combination sheds light especially on compounds that may influence neurodevelopment specifically. PMID:26132533

  20. Device Independent Process Control of Dielectric Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    E-print Network

    Boning, Duane S.

    these patterns and the pol- ishing behavior of a CMP tool make monitoring and controlling the process process on the pattern layout of the particular device being polished. The interactions between particularly difficult. Current techniques focus on the control of a few sites on a single type of layout being

  1. A chemical reaction heat pump system adopting the reactive distillation process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yonsoo Chung; Seungki Hong; Hyung Keun Song

    1996-01-01

    A new configuration of the chemical reaction heat pump system using 2-propanol dehydrogenation and acetone hydrogenation reactions was proposed in this study. To overcome the intrinsic thermodynamic limitation of chemical reaction heat pump systems, the reactive distillation process was adopted. Through the experimental study, the new configuration showed the better performance compared to previous ones. This study revealed a new

  2. Swimming Pool Water Treatment Chemicals and/or Processes. Standard No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    Chemicals or processes used or intended for use, in the treatment of swimming pool water are covered. Minimum public health limits or acceptability in regard to toxicity, biocidal effectiveness, and chemical behavior and analysis are presented. The appendices give guidelines to the scientific and statistically sound evaluations to determine the…

  3. SIMULATION OF ECOLOGICALLY CONSCIOUS CHEMICAL PROCESSES: FUGITIVE EMISSIONS VERSUS OPERATING CONDITIONS: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1531A Mata, T.M., Smith*, R.L., Young*, D., and Costa, C.A.V. "Simulation of Ecologically Conscious Chemical Processes: Fugitive Emissions versus Operating Conditions." Paper published in: CHEMPOR' 2001, 8th International Chemical Engineering Conference, Aveiro, Portu...

  4. Using a Laboratory Simulator in the Teaching and Study of Chemical Processes in Estuarine Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Luque, E.; Ortega, T.; Forja, J. M.; Gomez-Parra, A.

    2004-01-01

    The teaching of Chemical Oceanography in the Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences of the University of Cadiz (Spain) has been improved since 1994 by the employment of a device for the laboratory simulation of estuarine mixing processes and the characterisation of the chemical behaviour of many substances that pass through an estuary. The…

  5. Development of waste minimization and decontamination technologies at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Ferguson; K. E. Archibald; R. L. Demmer

    1995-01-01

    Emphasis on the minimization of decontamination secondary waste has increased because of restrictions on the use of hazardous chemicals and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) waste handling issues. The Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co. (LITCO) Decontamination Development Subunit has worked to evaluate and introduce new performed testing, evaluations, development and on-site demonstrations for a number of novel decontamination techniques that have

  6. Chemical mechanical polishing of Indium phosphide, Gallium arsenide and Indium gallium arsenide films and related environment and safety aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matovu, John Bogere

    As scaling continues with advanced technology nodes in the microelectronic industry to enhance device performance, the performance limits of the conventional substrate materials such as silicon as a channel material in the front-end-of-the-line of the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) need to be surmounted. These challenges have invigorated research into new materials such as III-V materials consisting of InP, GaAs, InGaAs for n-channel CMOS and Ge for p-channels CMOS to enhance device performance. These III-V materials have higher electron mobility that is required for the n-channel while Ge has high hole mobility that is required for the p-channel. Integration of these materials in future devices requires chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) to achieve a smooth and planar surface to enable further processing. The CMP process of these materials has been associated with environment, health and safety (EH&S) issues due to the presence of P and As that can lead to the formation of toxic gaseous hydrides. The safe handling of As contaminated consumables and post-CMP slurry waste is essential. In this work, the chemical mechanical polishing of InP, GaAs and InGaAs films and the associated environment, health and safety (EH&S) issues are discussed. InP removal rates (RRs) and phosphine generation during the CMP of blanket InP films in hydrogen peroxide-based silica particle dispersions in the presence and absence of three different multifunctional chelating carboxylic acids, namely oxalic acid, tartaric acid, and citric acid are reported. The presence of these acids in the polishing slurry resulted in good InP removal rates (about 400 nm min-1) and very low phosphine generation (< 15 ppb) with very smooth post-polish surfaces (0.1 nm RMS surface roughness). The optimized slurry compositions consisting of 3 wt % silica, 1 wt % hydrogen peroxide and 0.08 M oxalic acid or citric acid that provided the best results on blanket InP films were used to evaluate their planarization capability of patterned InP-STI structures of 200 mm diameter wafers. Cross sectional scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that InP in the shallow trench isolation structures was planarized and scratches, slurry particles and smearing of InP were absent. Additionally, wafers polished at pH 6 showed very low dishing values of about 12-15 nm, determined by cross sectional SEM. During the polishing of blanket GaAs, GaAs RRs were negligible with deionized water or with silica slurries alone. They were relatively high in aq. solutions of H2O2 alone and showed a strong pH dependence, with significantly higher RRs in the alkaline region. The addition of silica particles to aq. H2O2 did not increase the GaAs RRs significantly. The evolution of arsenic trihydride (AsH3) during the dissolution of GaAs in aq. H2O2 solution was similarly higher in the basic pH range than in neutral pH or in the acidic pH range. However, no AsH3 was measured during polishing, evidently because of the relatively high water solubility of AsH3. The work done on InGaAs polishing shows that InGaAs RR trends are different from those observed for InP or GaAs. InGaAs RRs at pH 2 are higher than those at pH 10 and highest at pH 4. Dissolution rates (DRs), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), contact angles, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF), zeta potential measurements and calculated Gibbs free energy changes of the reactions involved during polishing and gas formation were used to discuss the observed RRs and hydride gas generation trends and to propose the reaction pathways involved in the material removal and in hydride gas generation mechanisms.

  7. Cogeneration handbook for the chemical process industries. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, A.G.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The desision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the chemical industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  8. Dynamic Project and Workflow Management for Design Processes in Chemical Engineering

    E-print Network

    Westfechtel, Bernhard

    . Keywords process systems engineering, business decision making, workflow management 1. INTRODUCTION DesignDynamic Project and Workflow Management for Design Processes in Chemical Engineering Markus Heller difficult to manage the workflow in design processes, i.e., to coordinate the effort of experts working

  9. POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE DESIGN OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES USING HIERARCHICAL DESIGN AND SIMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design of chemical processes is normally an interactive process of synthesis and analysis. When one also desires or needs to limit the amount of pollution generated by the process the difficulty of the task can increase substantially. In this work, we show how combining hier...

  10. Two Case Studies for Applying Model Predictive Controllers on Chemical Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Danesh Pour; A. Montazeri; J. Poshtan; M. R. Jahed Motlahgh

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of model predictive control as the most famous advanced process control method, in real processes has some practical issues that are ignored in many simulation studies and needs more attention especially in implementing the controller. For this purpose, in this paper two chemical processes are simulated in HYSYS software as a more realistic environment that exhibits many properties of

  11. Pollution prevention with chemical process simulators: the generalized waste reduction (WAR) algorithm—full version

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heriberto Cabezas; Jane C. Bare; Subir K. Mallick

    1999-01-01

    A general theory for the flow and the generation of potential environmental impact through a chemical process has been developed. The theory defines six potential environmental impact indexes that characterize the generation of potential impact within a process, and the output of potential impact from a process. The indexes are used to quantify pollution reduction and to develop pollution reducing

  12. CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID BED FOR SOX CONTROL: VOLUME II. SPENT SORBENT PROCESSING FOR DISPOSAL/UTILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the processing of spent calcium-based sulfur sorbents (limestones or dolomites) from an atmospheric-pressure, chemically active fluid bed (CAFB) gasification process, using a regenerative sulfur sorbent process that produces low- to intermediate-Btu gas. Data...

  13. Chemical Evolution of Galaxies and the Relevance of Gas Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensler, Gerhard; Rieschick, Andreas

    Since stellar populations enhance particular element abundances according to the yields and lifetimes of the stellar progenitors, the chemical evolution of galaxies serves as one of the key tools that allows the tracing of galaxy evolution. In order to deduce the evolution of separate galactic regions one has to account for the dynamics of the interstellar medium, because distant regions can interact by means of large-scale dynamics. To be able to interpret the distributions and ratios of the characteristic elements and their relation to e.g. the galactic gas content, an understanding of the dynamical effects combined with small-scale transitions between the gas phases by evaporation and condensation is essential. In this paper, we address various complex signatures of chemical evolution and present in particular two problems of abundance distributions in different types of galaxies: the discrepancies of metallicity distributions and effective yields in the different regions of our Milky Way and the N/O abundance ratio in dwarf galaxies. These can be solved properly, if the chemodynamical prescription is applied to simulations of galaxy evolution.

  14. Risk Measures Constituting Risk Metrics for Decision Making in the Chemical Process Industry

    E-print Network

    Prem, Katherine

    2012-02-14

    and this is very beneficial for understanding the trends of historical incidents in the U.S. chemical process industry. Analyzing historical databases can provide valuable information on the incident occurrences and their consequences as lagging metrics (or lagging...

  15. Efficient Nonlinear Optimization with Rigorous Models for Large Scale Industrial Chemical Processes 

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Yu

    2011-08-08

    Large scale nonlinear programming (NLP) has proven to be an effective framework for obtaining profit gains through optimal process design and operations in chemical engineering. While the classical SQP and Interior Point methods have been...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF SULFATE RADICAL-BASED CHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESSES FOR GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigates the development of novel sulfate radical-based chemical oxidation processes for treatment of groundwater contaminants. Environmentally friendly transition metal (Fe (II), Fe (III)) has been evaluated for the activation of common oxidants (peroxymonosulfat...

  17. GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ARE REVEALED USING THE WASTE REDUCTION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (WAR DSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Waste Reduction Decision Support System (WAR DSS) is a Java-based software product providing comprehensive modeling of potential adverse environmental impacts (PEI) predicted to result from newly designed or redesigned chemical manufacturing processes. The purpose of this so...

  18. No Chemical, Zero Bleed Cooling Tower Water Treatment Process 

    E-print Network

    Coke, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    out of the tower sump, water goes through a permanent magnetic descaler to increase the water solubility and begin the scale inhibition process. This also descales existing scale build-up in the system. Ozone is manufactured from ambient air...

  19. Safety evaluation of mechanical recycling processes used to produce polyethylene terephthalate (PET) intended for food contact applications.

    PubMed

    Barthélémy, E; Spyropoulos, D; Milana, M-R; Pfaff, K; Gontard, N; Lampi, E; Castle, L

    2014-01-01

    The development of a scheme for the safety evaluation of mechanical recycling processes for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is described. The starting point is the adoption of a threshold of toxicological concern such that migration from the recycled PET should not give rise to a dietary exposure exceeding 0.0025 ?g kg(-1) bw day(-1), the exposure threshold value for chemicals with structural alerts raising concern for potential genotoxicity, below which the risk to human health would be negligible. It is practically impossible to test every batch of incoming recovered PET and every production batch of recycled PET for all the different chemical contaminants that could theoretically arise. Consequently, the principle of the safety evaluation is to measure the cleaning efficiency of a recycling process by using a challenge test with surrogate contaminants. This cleaning efficiency is then applied to reduce a reference contamination level for post-consumer PET, conservatively set at 3 mg kg(-1) PET for a contaminant resulting from possible misuse by consumers. The resulting residual concentration of each contaminant in recycled PET is used in conservative migration models to calculate migration levels, which are then used along with food consumption data to give estimates of potential dietary exposure. The default scenario, when the recycled PET is intended for general use, is that of an infant weighing 5 kg and consuming every day powdered infant formula reconstituted with 0.75 L of water coming from water bottles manufactured with 100% recycled PET. According to this scenario, it can be derived that the highest concentration of a substance in water that would ensure that the dietary exposure of 0.0025 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1) is not exceeded, is 0.017 ?g kg(-1) food. The maximum residual content that would comply with this migration limit depends on molecular weight and is in the range 0.09-0.32 mg kg(-1) PET for the typical surrogate contaminants. PMID:24341373

  20. Numerical Simulation of Rheological, Chemical and Hydromechanical Processes of Thrombolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khramchenkov, E.; Khramchenkov, M.

    2015-04-01

    Mathematical model of clot lysis in blood vessels is developed on the basis of equations of convection-diffusion. Fibrin of the clot is considered stationary solid phase, and plasminogen, plasmin and plasminogen-activators – as dissolved fluid phases. As a result of numerical solution of the model predictions of lysis process are gained. Important influence of clot swelling on the process of lysis is revealed.

  1. High-throughput Raman chemical imaging for rapid evaluation of food safety and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-throughput macro-scale Raman chemical imaging was realized on a newly developed line-scan hyperspectral system. The system utilizes a custom-designed 785 nm line laser with maximum power of 5 W as an excitation source. A 24 cm × 1 mm excitation line is normally projected on the sample surface u...

  2. Recent advances in chemical imaging technology for the detection of contaminants for food safety and security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need for routine, non-destructive chemical screening of agricultural products is increasing due to the health hazards to animals and humans associated with intentional and unintentional contamination of foods. Melamine, an industrial additive used to increase flame retardation in the resin indus...

  3. NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH (NIOSH) POCKET GUIDE TO CHEMICAL HAZARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NPG is intended as a source of general industrial hygiene information on several hundred chemicals/classes for workers, employers, and occupational health professionals. The NPG does not contain an analysis of all pertinent data, rather it presents key information and data in...

  4. Criteria for the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) safety evaluation process for fragrance ingredients.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bruze, M; Cadby, P; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Ellis, G; Fryer, A D; Fukayama, M; Griem, P; Hickey, C; Kromidas, L; Lalko, J F; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Renskers, K; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Sipes, I G; Smith, B; Vitale, D; Wilcox, D K

    2015-08-01

    The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) has been engaged in the generation and evaluation of safety data for fragrance materials since its inception over 45 years ago. Over time, RIFM's approach to gathering data, estimating exposure and assessing safety has evolved as the tools for risk assessment evolved. This publication is designed to update the RIFM safety assessment process, which follows a series of decision trees, reflecting advances in approaches in risk assessment and new and classical toxicological methodologies employed by RIFM over the past ten years. These changes include incorporating 1) new scientific information including a framework for choosing structural analogs, 2) consideration of the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC), 3) the Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) for dermal sensitization, 4) the respiratory route of exposure, 5) aggregate exposure assessment methodology, 6) the latest methodology and approaches to risk assessments, 7) the latest alternatives to animal testing methodology and 8) environmental risk assessment. The assessment begins with a thorough analysis of existing data followed by in silico analysis, identification of 'read across' analogs, generation of additional data through in vitro testing as well as consideration of the TTC approach. If necessary, risk management may be considered. PMID:25510979

  5. Workplace Safety and Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-03-02

    An index of information on workplace hazards, illnesses, injuries, and safety compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Includes information on biosafety, chemical safety, and electrical safety.

  6. Safety and reliability analysis in a polyvinyl chloride batch process using dynamic simulator-case study: Loss of containment incident.

    PubMed

    Rizal, Datu; Tani, Shinichi; Nishiyama, Kimitoshi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko

    2006-10-11

    In this paper, a novel methodology in batch plant safety and reliability analysis is proposed using a dynamic simulator. A batch process involving several safety objects (e.g. sensors, controller, valves, etc.) is activated during the operational stage. The performance of the safety objects is evaluated by the dynamic simulation and a fault propagation model is generated. By using the fault propagation model, an improved fault tree analysis (FTA) method using switching signal mode (SSM) is developed for estimating the probability of failures. The timely dependent failures can be considered as unavailability of safety objects that can cause the accidents in a plant. Finally, the rank of safety object is formulated as performance index (PI) and can be estimated using the importance measures. PI shows the prioritization of safety objects that should be investigated for safety improvement program in the plants. The output of this method can be used for optimal policy in safety object improvement and maintenance. The dynamic simulator was constructed using Visual Modeler (VM, the plant simulator, developed by Omega Simulation Corp., Japan). A case study is focused on the loss of containment (LOC) incident at polyvinyl chloride (PVC) batch process which is consumed the hazardous material, vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). PMID:16777320

  7. Recycling of Cu powder from industrial sludge by combined acid leaching, chemical exchange and ferrite process.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yao-Jen; Chang, Chien-Kuei; You, Chen-Feng; Lou, Jie-Chung

    2010-09-15

    A method in combination of acid leaching, chemical exchange and ferrite process was applied to recycle copper and confer higher chemical stability to the sludge generated from etching process in printed circuit board industry. Ninety-five percent copper could be recycled in the form of powder from the sludge. Moreover, not only the wastewater after chemical exchange can be treated to fulfill the effluent standard, but also the sludge can satisfy the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limits made by Taiwan's environmental protection administration. PMID:20638967

  8. In-can melting demonstration of wastes from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorklund, W.J.; Chick, L.A.; Hollis, H.H.; Mellinger, G.B.; Nelson, T.A.; Petkus, L.L.

    1980-07-01

    The immobilization of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) zirconia calcine using Idaho glass composition (ICPP-127) was evaluated at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in two engineering-scale in-can melter tests. The glass was initially characterized in the laboratory to verify processing parameters. Glass was then produced in a pilot-scale melter and then in a full-scale melter to evaluate the processing and the resultant product. Potential corrosion problems were identified with the glass and some processing problems were encountered, but neither is insurmountable. The product is a durable leach-resistant glass. The glass appears to be nonhomogeneous, but chemically it is quite uniform.

  9. Safety evaluation of chemicals in food: toxicological data profiles for pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Vettorazzi, G.; Miles-Vettorazzi, P.

    1975-01-01

    The sources of the scientific information used over the past several years by the Joint FAO/WHO Meetings on Pesticide Residues in carrying out toxicological evaluations are classified systematically according to compound and subject for the first time in this paper. It is hoped that those engaged in the toxicological assessment of pesticide chemicals, for the purpose of standardizing pesticide tolerances or for developing criteria of acceptability, will profit from this classification. PMID:779805

  10. DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Aproximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use tis inform...

  11. Functionalized sorbent for chemical separations and sequential forming process

    DOEpatents

    Fryxell, Glen E. (Kennewick, WA); Zemanian, Thomas S. (Richland, WA)

    2012-03-20

    A highly functionalized sorbent and sequential process for making are disclosed. The sorbent includes organic short-length amino silanes and organic oligomeric polyfunctional amino silanes that are dispersed within pores of a porous support that form a 3-dimensional structure containing highly functionalized active binding sites for sorption of analytes.

  12. Electrical, chemical and mechanical processes in water treeing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre Crine

    1998-01-01

    Water treeing is a complex phenomenon involving several processes with many synergistic effects. Although a huge number of papers on the subject have been published over the last 25 years, there is no comprehensive theory able to describe the often contradictory experimental results. However, there are some tendencies that are always observed, whatever the experimental conditions. A critical review of

  13. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 23: Nuclear Chemical Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  14. DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Approximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use this infor...

  15. Review of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D. C.

    2004-12-31

    This report was prepared to fulfill the Phase I deliverable for HLW/DWPF/TTR-98-0018, Rev. 2, ''Hydrogen Generation in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell'', 6/4/2001. The primary objective for the preliminary phase of the hydrogen generation study was to complete a review of past data on hydrogen generation and to prepare a summary of the findings. The understanding was that the focus should be on catalytic hydrogen generation, not on hydrogen generation by radiolysis. The secondary objective was to develop scope for follow-up experimental and analytical work. The majority of this report provides a summary of past hydrogen generation work with radioactive and simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste sludges. The report also includes some work done with Hanford waste sludges and simulants. The review extends to idealized systems containing no sludge, such as solutions of sodium formate and formic acid doped with a noble metal catalyst. This includes general information from the literature, as well as the focused study done by the University of Georgia for the SRS. The various studies had a number of points of universal agreement. For example, noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, catalyze hydrogen generation from formic acid and formate ions, and more acid leads to more hydrogen generation. There were also some points of disagreement between different sources on a few topics such as the impact of mercury on the noble metal catalysts and the identity of the most active catalyst species. Finally, there were some issues of potential interest to SRS that apparently have not been systematically studied, e.g. the role of nitrite ion in catalyst activation and reactivity. The review includes studies covering the period from about 1924-2002, or from before the discovery of hydrogen generation during simulant sludge processing in 1988 through the Shielded Cells qualification testing for Sludge Batch 2. The review of prior studies is followed by a discussion of proposed experimental work, additional data analysis, and future modeling programs. These proposals have led to recent investigations into the mercury issue and the effect of co-precipitating noble metals which will be documented in two separate reports. SRS hydrogen generation work since 2002 will also be collected and summarized in a future report on the effect of noble metal-sludge matrix interactions on hydrogen generation. Other potential factors for experimental investigation include sludge composition variations related to both the washing process and to the insoluble species with particular attention given to the role of silver and to improving the understanding of the interaction of nitrite ion with the noble metals.

  16. Properties and processing of chemical vapor deposited zinc sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCloy, John S.

    The structure and properties of chemical vapor deposited zinc sulfide (CVD ZnS) were assessed before and after heat treatments, involving different annealing and hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) profiles. Samples were characterized using optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, electron diffraction, polycrystalline and powder x-ray diffraction, x-ray chemical microanalysis, photoluminescence, ultraviolet through longwave infrared transmission, and mechanical testing. Before heat treatment, CVD ZnS consists of lamellar twinned structures in 10 to 100 nm layers aggregated into domains which compose grains typically 5 to 10 mum in diameter with an overall crystallographic texture on the {100} planes. The scattering behavior of CVD ZnS was investigated and described by a surface scattering model based on internal surface roughness and refractive index variations due to one-dimensional stacking disorder. The two to five percent hexagonality measured by x-ray diffraction is believed to form due to oxygen impurities at the twin boundaries which cause nanostructural polytypism and result in differential refractive index and scattering. CVD ZnS variants in low temperature deposited red ZnS and sulfur precursor elemental ZnS are examined as well. Color in CVD ZnS is believed to be due to band edge position, probably due to oxygen content, and not directly related to the hydride absorption at 6 mum. After annealing or hot isostatic pressing above 850°C for sufficient time, CVD ZnS recrystallizes and becomes strongly textured on the {111} planes. This recrystallization is required to remove stacking disorder, resulting in a structure with less than half a percent hexagonality and low visible scattering. The recrystallization is believed to proceed by diffusing the oxygen at the nano-twin boundaries back into the lattice, thus unpinning the boundaries and allowing them to move and grow into the tabular recrystallized morphology by polytype induced exaggerated grain growth. The presence of active metals like platinum, silver, copper, or nickel during hot isostatic pressing causes a reaction with sulfur and lowers the temperature required for recrystallization. The optical scattering model is consistent in describing standard CVD ZnS, elemental ZnS, and multispectral recrystallized ZnS as having successively lower birefringence at internal surfaces.

  17. Emissions model of waste treatment operations at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    An integrated model of the waste treatment systems at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) was developed using a commercially-available process simulation software (ASPEN Plus) to calculate atmospheric emissions of hazardous chemicals for use in an application for an environmental permit to operate (PTO). The processes covered by the model are the Process Equipment Waste evaporator, High Level Liquid Waste evaporator, New Waste Calcining Facility and Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal facility. The processes are described along with the model and its assumptions. The model calculates emissions of NO{sub x}, CO, volatile acids, hazardous metals, and organic chemicals. Some calculated relative emissions are summarized and insights on building simulations are discussed.

  18. Fiber Opt Ic Chemical Sensors For Industrial And Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, H. H.; Hirschfeld, I. B.

    1987-04-01

    Fiber Optic Sensors Have Been Developed For Monitoring In-Plant Gaseous Emissions Of Ammonia, Formaldehyde, Organohalides, Hydrogen Sulfide, Carbon Dioxide, Oxygen And Nitrogen Dioxide. In Addition, Industrial, Process Control Sensors For Real-Time Process Or Effluent Monii0R1Ng Have Been Developed For Measuring The Aqueous Concentrations Of Such Ions As H+, Na4, K+, Uov, As Well As Organohalides. Some Of 1Hese Fiber Optic Sensors, Or Optrodes, Are Reversible And Are Engineered To Remain In Place For Periods Up 10 One Year. Other Op1Rodes Are Nonreversible And Require Replacemen1 Of 1He Sensor Tip Every 1-2 Days. The Design And Sensitivity Of Selected Optrodes Are Described As Well As Applications.

  19. Pretreatment of landfill leachate by chemical oxidation processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ján Derco; Andreja Žgajnar Gotvajn; Jana Zagorc-Kon?an; Beáta Almásiová; Angelika Kassai

    2010-01-01

    Kinetics and efficiency of Fenton’s and ozonation processes for the pretreatment of two landfill leachates (fresh and mature)\\u000a resulting from municipal waste disposal were studied. Both samples presented high organic load, high toxicity and low biodegradability.\\u000a These were the reasons why oxidative treatment was proposed. Fresh and mature leachate showed different behaviors in the oxidation\\u000a experiments. The final extents of

  20. Leaching properties and chemical compositions of calcines produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, B.A.; Paige, B.E.; Rhodes, D.W.; Wilding, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    No significant chemical differences were determined between retrieved and fresh calcine based on chemical and spectrochemical analyses. Little can be derived from the amounts of the radioisotopes present in the retrieved calcine samples other than the ratios of strontium-90 to cesium-137 are typical of aged fission product. The variations in concentrations of radionuclides within the composite samples of each bin also reflect the differences in compositions of waste solutions calcined. In general the leaching characteristics of both calcines by distilled water are similar. In both materials the radionuclides of cesium and strontium were selectively leached at significant rates, although cesium leached much more completely from the alumina calcine than from the zirconia calcine. Cesium and strontium are probably contained in both calcines as nitrate salts and also as fluoride salts in zirconia calcine, all of which are at least slightly soluble in water. Radionuclides of cerium, ruthenium, and plutonium in both calcines were highly resistant to leaching and leached at rates similar to or less than those of the matrix elements. These elements exist as polyvalent metal ions in the waste solutions before calcination and they probably form insoluble oxides and fluorides in the calcine. The relatively slow leaching of nitrate ion from zirconia calcine and radiocesium from both calcines suggests that the calcine matrix in some manner prevents complete or immediate contact of the soluble ions with water. Whether radiostrontium forms slightly fluoride salts or forms nitrate salts which are protected in the same manner as radiocesium is unknown. Nevertheless, selective leaching of cesium and strontim is retarded in some manner by the calcine matrix.

  1. Computerized Aid Improves Safety Decision Process for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Nancy; Eden, Karen B.; Bloom, Tina; Perrin, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    A computerized safety decision aid was developed and tested with Spanish or English-speaking abused women in shelters or domestic violence (DV) support groups (n = 90). The decision aid provides feedback about risk for lethal violence, options for safety, assistance with setting priorities for safety, and a safety plan personalized to the user.…

  2. Chemical analysis and genotoxicological safety assessment of paper and paperboard used for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Asako; Yamaguchi, Yukihiko; Fujita, Tadao; Kuroda, Koichi; Endo, Ginji

    2004-08-01

    This study presents the research on the chemical analysis and genotoxicity of 28 virgin/recycled paper products in food-contact use. In the chemical analysis, paper products were extracted by reflux with ethanol, and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 4,4'-bis(dimethylamino)benzophenone (Michler's ketone: MK), 4,4'-bis(diethylamino)benzophenone (DEAB), 4-(dimethylamino)benzophenone (DMAB) and bisphenol A (BPA) were found characteristically in recycled products. Seventy-five percent of the recycled paper products contained MK (1.7-12 microg/g), 67% contained DEAB (0.64-10 micro g/g), 33% contained DMAB (0.68-0.9 microg/g) and 67% contained BPA (0.19-26 microg/g). Although, BPA was also detected in virgin paper products, the detection levels in the recycled products were ten or more times higher than those in the virgin products. The genotoxicity of paper and paperboard extracts and compounds found in them were investigated by Rec-assay and comet assay. Of the 28 products tested by Rec-assay using Bacillus subtilis, 13 possessed DNA-damaging activity. More recycled than virgin products (75% against 25%) exhibited such activity, which, of the compounds, was observed in BPA, 1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one (BIT), 2-(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole, 2,4,5,6-tetrachloro-isophthalonitrile, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP), and pentachlorophenol. The critical toxicant in one virgin paper product was concluded to be BIT. Eight samples with DNA-damaging activity were also tested by comet assay using HL-60 cells; six induced comet cells significantly (five times or higher than the control) without a decrease of viable cells. TCP, BZ, DEAB, and BIT also caused a slight increase in comet cells. In conclusion, we showed that most recycled paper products contain chemicals such as MK, DEAB, DMAB, and BPA, and possess genotoxicity. However, the levels of the chemicals in the recycled products could not explain their genotoxic effects. PMID:15207384

  3. Chemically bonded ceramic processing of mono-calcium aluminate

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.R.; Guelguen, M.A.; Kriven, W.M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1996-06-01

    A ceramic matrix composite consisting of mono-calcium aluminate as the matrix phase and calcia stabilized zirconia as the second phase was fabricated by warm-pressing. The hydraulic properties of calcium aluminate (CA) were exploited in order to form strong green bodies. Pressureless sintering of composites with zirconia loadings of 60 wt% (44 vol%) were accomplished with no evidence of constrained sintering. Novel processing techniques enhanced homogenization of the starting powders, thereby facilitating the elimination of agglomeration and constrained sintering. Samples were characterized using SEM, XRD, dilatometry and helium pycnometry. Vickers hardness testing was done to evaluate mechanical properties.

  4. Model Reduction in Chemical Engineering: Case studies applied to process analysis, design and operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Dorneanu

    2011-01-01

    During the last decades, models have become widely used for supporting a broad range of chemical engineering activities, such as product and process design and development, process monitoring and control, real time optimization of plant operation or supply chain management. Although tremendous advancements continue to take place in the development of numerical techniques and the acceleration of the computing speed,

  5. EVALUATING THE ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS OF NEWLY DESIGNED OR RETROFITTED CHEMICAL PROCESSES: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1646 Smith*, R.L. Evaluating the Economics and Environmental Friendliness of Newly Designed or Retrofitted Chemical Processes. Clean Products and Processes (Springer-Verlag) 3:383-391 (2002). 10/22/2001 This work describes a method for using spreadsheet analyses of ...

  6. Tool support for the management of design processes in chemical engineering

    E-print Network

    Westfechtel, Bernhard

    mutual relation- ships between parts of the design product are neither explicitly stored nor maintained or maintain the complex product of a design process. Moreover, there are lot of gaps with respect to toolTool support for the management of design processes in chemical engineering Manfred Nagl

  7. An Investigation of the Potential Uses of Plasma Processing in the United States Chemical Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Norman Estey

    1985-01-01

    This thesis describes a systematic approach to determine the potential for high pressure (thermal) plasma processing in the United States chemical industry. A model was developed that describes the physical inputs and outputs of a plasma-based processing system. This model consists of an empirical model of an electric arc heater and an analytical model of the reaction chamber into which

  8. PREDICTION OF THE FATES OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESS-AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    A program for prediction of organic chemical fates in activated sludge processes has been implemented. Bio-oxidation, stripping, and biomass adsorption fate mechanisms were identified as major transport/conversion mechanisms in the activated sludge process. Each mechanism was stu...

  9. APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS - THE REACTOR SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report details the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation of Eco Logic International's gas-phase chemical reduction process, with an emphasis on their Reactor System. he Eco Logic process employees a high temperature reactor filled with hydrogen gas as the means to destr...

  10. The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhin, Lev M.; Gerasimov, M. V.

    1991-01-01

    The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) Earth's initial atmosphere; (2) continuous degassing; (3) impact processes and the Earth's protoatmosphere; and (4) the evolution of an impact-generated atmosphere.

  11. SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 40 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, David

    2010-04-28

    Phase III simulant flowsheet testing was completed using the latest composition estimates for SB6/Tank 40 feed to DWPF. The goals of the testing were to determine reasonable operating conditions and assumptions for the startup of SB6 processing in the DWPF. Testing covered the region from 102-159% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. Nitrite ion concentration was reduced to 90 mg/kg in the SRAT product of the lowest acid run. The 159% acid run reached 60% of the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) limit of 0.65 lb H2/hr, and then sporadically exceeded the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) limit of 0.223 lb H2/hr. Hydrogen generation rates peaked at 112% of the SME limit, but higher than targeted wt% total solids levels may have been partially responsible for rates seen. A stoichiometric factor of 120% met both objectives. A processing window for SB6 exists from 102% to something close to 159% based on the simulant results. An initial recommendation for SB6 processing is at 115-120% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. The addition of simulated Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) streams to the SRAT cycle had no apparent impact on the preferred stoichiometric factor. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 120%, 118.4% with ARP/MCU, and 159% stoichiometry were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 36 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 120% acid run reached 23% of the SRAT limit and 37% of the SME limit. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 29 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two processing issues, identified during SB6 Phase II flowsheet testing and qualification simulant testing, were monitored during Phase III. Mercury material balance closure was impacted by acid stoichiometry, and significant mercury was not accounted for in the highest acid run. Coalescence of elemental mercury droplets in the mercury water wash tank (MWWT) appeared to degrade with increasing stoichiometry. Observations were made of mercury scale formation in the SRAT condenser and MWWT. A tacky mercury amalgam with Rh, Pd, and Cu, plus some Ru and Ca formed on the impeller at 159% acid. It contained a significant fraction of the available Pd, Cu, and Rh as well as about 25% of the total mercury charged. Free (elemental) mercury was found in all of the SME products. Ammonia scrubbers were used during the tests to capture off-gas ammonia for material balance purposes. Significant ammonium ion formation was again observed during the SRAT cycle, and ammonia gas entered the off-gas as the pH rose during boiling. Ammonium ion production was lower than in the SB6 Phase II and the qualification simulant testing. Similar ammonium ion formation was seen in the ARP/MCU simulation as in the 120% flowsheet run. A slightly higher pH caused most of the ammonium to vaporize and collect in the ammonia scrubber reflux solution. Two periods of foaminess were noted. Neither required additional antifoam to control the foam growth. A steady foam layer formed during reflux in the 120% acid run. It was about an inch thick, but was 2-3 times more volume of bubbles than is typically seen during reflux. A similar foam layer also was seen during caustic boiling of the simulant during the ARP addition. While frequently seen with the radioactive sludge, foaminess during caustic boiling with simulants has been relatively rare. Two further flowsheet tests were performed and will be documented separately. One test was to evaluate the impact of process conditions that match current DWPF operation (lower rates). The second test was to evaluate the impact of SRAT/SME processing on the rheology of a modified Phase III simulant that had been made five times more viscous using ultrasonication.

  12. Cancer mortality among workers exposed to chemicals during uranium processing.

    PubMed

    Ritz, B

    1999-07-01

    Data provided by the Comprehensive Epidemiology Data Resource allowed us to study patterns of cancer mortality as experienced by 3814 uranium-processing workers employed at the Fernald Feed Materials Production Center in Fernald, Ohio. Using risk-set analyses for cohorts, we estimated the effects of exposure to trichloroethylene, cutting fluids, and kerosene on cancer mortality. Our results suggest that workers who were exposed to trichloroethylene experienced an increase in mortality from cancers of the liver. Cutting-fluid exposure was found to be strongly associated with laryngeal cancers and, furthermore, with brain, hemato- and lymphopoietic system, bladder, and kidney cancer mortality. Kerosene exposure increased the rate of death from several digestive-tract cancers (esophageal, stomach, pancreatic, colon, and rectal cancers) and from prostate cancer. Effect estimates for these cancers increased with duration and level of exposure and were stronger when exposure was lagged. PMID:10412097

  13. Method of manipulating the chemical properties of water to improve the effectiveness of a desired chemical process

    DOEpatents

    Hawthorne, Steven B. (Grand Forks, ND); Miller, David J. (Grand Forks, ND); Yang, Yu (Greenville, NC); Lagadec, Arnaud Jean-Marie (Grand Forks, ND)

    1999-01-01

    The method of the present invention is adapted to manipulate the chemical properties of water in order to improve the effectiveness of a desired chemical process. The method involves heating the water in the vessel to subcritical temperatures between 100.degree. to 374.degree. C. while maintaining sufficient pressure to the water to maintain the water in the liquid state. Various physiochemical properties of the water can be manipulated including polarity, solute solubility, surface tension, viscosity, and the disassociation constant. The method of the present invention has various uses including extracting organics from solids and semisolids such as soil, selectively extracting desired organics from nonaqueous liquids, selectively separating organics using sorbent phases, enhancing reactions by controlling the disassociation constant of water, cleaning waste water, and removing organics from water using activated carbon or other suitable sorbents.

  14. Hydration and chemical ingredients in sport drinks: food safety in the European context.

    PubMed

    Urdampilleta, Aritz; Gómez-Zorita, Saioa; Soriano, José M; Martínez-Sanz, José M; Medina, Sonia; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Before, during and after physical activity, hydration is a limiting factor in athletic performance. Therefore, adequate hydration provides benefits for health and performance of athletes. Besides, hydration is associated to the intake of carbohydrates, protein, sodium, caffeine and other substances by different dietary aids, during the training and/or competition by athletes. These requirements have led to the development of different products by the food industry, to cover the nutritional needs of athletes. Currently in the European context, the legal framework for the development of products, substances and health claims concerning to sport products is incomplete and scarce. Under these conditions, there are many products with different ingredients out of European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) control where claims are wrong due to no robust scientific evidence and it can be dangerous for the health. Further scientific evidence should be constructed by new clinical trials in order to assist to the Experts Commitees at EFSA for obtaining robust scientific opinions concerning to the functional foods and the individual ingredients for sport population. PMID:25929356

  15. Palatability and chemical safety of apple juice fortified with pomegranate peel extract.

    PubMed

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Harholt, Jesper; Brimer, Leon; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

    2013-10-01

    Pomegranate peel extract (PPE), a by-product of the pomegranate juice industry with potential health effects, was explored for use to fortify reconstituted apple juice in the concentration range 0.5 to 2.0% (w/w). Radical scavenging and antioxidative capacities of the fortified apple juices were evaluated using (i) electron spin resonance (ESR) to quantify their ability to scavenge the stable radical Fremy's salt and (ii) the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and compared to apple juice without fortification as control. The highest antioxidative capacity was found in the apple juice fortified with the highest percentage of pomegranate peel extract, while the optimal sensory quality was found by addition of 0.5 g PPE per 100 mL. The Artemia salina assay was used as a fast screening method for evaluating overall toxicity, and showed little toxicity with up to 1.0 g per 100 mL addition of PPE, but increasing toxicity at higher concentrations. Accordingly, it is important to balance addition of PPE, when used for enrichment of apple juice in order to obtain a healthier product, without compromising the sensorial quality or toxicological safety of the apple juice. Concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 g PPE per 100 mL seem to be acceptable. PMID:23989519

  16. Automatic modelling of reaction systems using genetic algorithms and its application to chemical vapour deposition processes: advanced utilizations of simulators for chemical systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahiro Takahashi; Kimito Funatsu; Yoshinori Ema

    2005-01-01

    The identification of appropriate reaction models is very helpful for developing chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes. We introduced novel algorithms to analyse experimental data from CVD processes and identify reaction models automatically using genetic algorithms (GAs). The reaction models, which consist of various deposition species and gas-phase and surface reactions, were determined both quantitatively and qualitatively, based on chemical kinetics.

  17. Extended Characterization of Chemical Processes in Hot Cells Using Environmental Swipe Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Khris B.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Thomas, M-L; Lepel, Elwood A.; Brunson, Ronald R.; Ladd-Lively, Jennifer

    2012-09-15

    Environmental sampling is used extensively by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for verification of information from State declarations or a facility’s design regarding nuclear activities occurring within the country or a specific facility. Environmental sampling of hot cells within a facility under safeguards is conducted using 10.2 cm x 10.2 cm cotton swipe material or cellulose swipes. Traditional target analytes used by the IAEA to verify operations within a facility include a select list of gamma-emitting radionuclides and total and isotopic U and Pu. Analysis of environmental swipe samples collected within a hot-cell facility where chemical processing occurs may also provide information regarding specific chemicals used in fuel processing. However, using swipe material to elucidate what specific chemical processes were/are being used within a hot cell has not been previously evaluated. Staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) teamed to evaluate the potential use of environmental swipe samples as collection media for volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. This evaluation was initiated with sample collection during a series of Coupled End-to-End (CETE) reprocessing runs at ORNL. The study included measurement of gamma emitting radionuclides, total and isotopic U and Pu, and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. These results allowed us to elucidate what chemical processes used in the hot cells during reprocessing of power reactor and identify other legacy chemicals used in hot cell operations which predate the CETE process.

  18. SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 51 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, David; Best, David

    2010-04-28

    Qualification simulant testing was completed to determine appropriate processing conditions and assumptions for the Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) Shielded Cells demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet using the qualification sample from Tank 51 for SB6 after SRNL washing. It was found that an acid addition window of 105-139% of the DWPF acid equation (100-133% of the Koopman minimum acid equation) gave acceptable Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) results for nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 117%, 133%, and 150% stoichiometry (Koopman) were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 42 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 150% acid run reached 110% of the DWPF SRAT limit of 0.65 lb H{sub 2}/hr, and the 133% acid run reached 75% of the DWPF SME limit of 0.223 lb H{sub 2}/hr. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 25 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two other processing issues were noted. First, incomplete mercury suspension impacted mercury stripping from the SRAT slurry. This led to higher SRAT product mercury concentrations than targeted (>0.45 wt% in the total solids). Associated with this issue was a general difficulty in quantifying the mass of mercury in the SRAT vessel as a function of time, especially as acid stoichiometry increased. About ten times more mercury was found after drying the 150% acid SME product to powder than was indicated by the SME product sample results. Significantly more mercury was also found in the 133% acid SME product samples than was found during the SRAT cycle sampling. It appears that mercury is segregating from the bulk slurry in the SRAT vessel, as mercury amalgam deposits for example, and is not being resuspended by the agitators. The second processing issue was significant ammonium ion formation as the acid stoichiometry was increased due to the high noble metal-high mercury feed conditions. Ammonium ion was found partitioned between the SRAT product slurry and the condensate from the lab-scale off-gas chiller downstream of the SRAT condenser. The ammonium ion was produced from nitrate ion by formic acid. Formate losses increased with increasing acid stoichiometry reaching 40% at the highest stoichiometry tested. About a third of the formate loss at higher acid stoichiometries appeared to be due to ammonia formation. The full extent of ammonia formation was not determined in these tests, since uncondensed ammonia vapor was not quantified; but total formation was bounded by the combined loss of nitrite and nitrate. Nitrate losses during ammonia formation led to nitrite-to-nitrate conversion values that were negative in three of the four tests. The negative results were an artifact of the calculation that assumes negligible SRAT nitrate losses. The sample data after acid addition indicated that some of the initial nitrite was converted to nitrate, so the amount of nitrate destroyed included nitrite converted to nitrate plus some of the added nitrate from the sludge and nitric acid. It is recommended that DWPF investigate the impact of SME product ammonium salts on melter performance (hydrogen, redox). It was recommended that the SB6 Shielded Cells qualification run be performed at 115% acid stoichiometry and allow about 35 hours of boiling for mercury stripping at the equivalent of a 5,000 lb/hr boil-up rate.

  19. Commercialization of Kennedy Space Center Instrumentation Developed to Improve Safety, Reliability, Cost Effectiveness of Space Shuttle Processing, Launch, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, William R.; Starr, Stanley O.

    1997-01-01

    Priorities and achievements of the Kennedy Space Center (KSF) Instrumentation Laboratories in improving operational safety and decreasing processing costs associated with the Shuttle vehicle are addressed. Technologies that have been or are in the process of technology transfer are reviewed, and routes by which commercial concerns can obtain licenses to other KSF Instrumentation Laboratory technologies are discussed.

  20. Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Miriam C., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Outlines a cooperative effort in Iowa to eliminate dangerous or unwanted chemicals from school science storerooms. Also reviews the Council of State Science Supervisor's safety program and discusses how to prevent cuts and punctures from jagged glass tubing. (JN)

  1. Behavior of N2 and nitrogen oxides in plasma chemical processing of hazardous air pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeru Futamura; Aihua Zhang; Toshiaki Yamamoto

    1998-01-01

    Plasma chemical behavior of N2-O2 mixed gases and nitrogen oxides such as N2O, NO, and NO2 was investigated to obtain baseline information on the generation of active oxygen species and the formation of inorganic byproducts in plasma chemical processing of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Ozone concentrations were too low even in air to oxidatively decompose 300~1000 ppm of HAPs. The

  2. Behavior of N2 and nitrogen oxides in nonthermal plasma chemical processing of hazardous air pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeru Futamura; Aihua Zhang; Toshiaki Yamamoto

    2000-01-01

    Nonthermal plasma chemical behavior of N2-O2 mixed gases and nitrogen oxides such as N2O, NO, and NO2 was investigated to obtain baseline information on the generation of active oxygen species and the formation of inorganic byproducts in the nonthermal plasma chemical processing of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) with a ferroelectric packed-bed reactor. Ozone concentrations were too low, even in air,

  3. 18th IEEE Conference on Advanced Thermal Processing of Semiconductors -RTP 2010 Pure-Boron Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Layers

    E-print Network

    Technische Universiteit Delft

    -Boron Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Layers: a New Material for Silicon Device Processing L.K. Nanver', T. L. M chemical-vapor deposition (CVD) thin-film layers that, in several device applications, have recently been by chemical-vapor deposition (CVD) in its pure form, exhibits both electrical and processing properties

  4. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Basilio, C.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    Mechanistic studies (Subtask 4.3) for the Middle Wyodak and Pittsburgh No. 8 coal samples continued during the quarter. The leaching kinetics of the different soluble mineral matter present in the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal were studied. The kinetics of pyrite dissolution and mineral matter liberation were also investigated by measuring the redox potential of the system with respect to time. The measured potential will be used during the next quarter to calculate the ratio of the ferric to ferrous ions. The response of the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal to alternative methods of ferric ion regeneration was also studied. Using bacterial or air oxidation to regenerate the ferric ions gave poorer mineral matter rejection than was obtained with the electrochemical regeneration scheme. Image analysis of the 65 {times} 325 mesh Pittsburgh No. 8 coal samples showed that the amount of mineral matter liberated by EIL mechanism increases with time; however, a significant fraction of the liberated mineral matter is larger than 325 mesh. This finding provides an explanation for the poor result obtained with this sample when a 325 mesh screen was used to remove the liberated mineral matter. Another reason for the poor result was that the coal samples were oxidized before processing. 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Teaching Science: Lab Safety

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Before entering the world of pipettes and Geiger counters, budding scientists will need to know about lab safety. Science educators will benefit from this laboratory safety site, developed by Professor Norman Herr, who teaches at California State University, Northridge. On his site, Professor Herr provides topically organized links that fall into the areas of safety standards, chemical hazards, chemical storage, and five other relevant topics. Within each section, visitors will find links to state safety standards, sample laboratory safety contracts, and fact sheets on chemical hazards. One potentially delightful classroom activity is the laboratory safety "scavenger hunt". Through this activity, students will learn about storage requirements, chemical risks, and other potential delicate matters.

  6. In-situ FT-IR monitoring of a solar flux induced chemical process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Markham; J. E. Cosgrove; C. M. Nelson; A. S. Bonanno; R. E. Schlief; M. A. Stoy; G. C. Glatzmaier; C. E. Bingham; A. A. Lewandowski

    1997-01-01

    The capability to perform in-situ, on-line monitoring of processes induced by concentrated solar flux will enhance the development and utilization of solar technologies. Temperature measurements and chemical concentration measurements provide an understanding of the ongoing chemistry, process limits, and process reproducibility. A Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer was optically coupled to a quartz flow reactor at the High Flux Solar

  7. Engineering Contractors in the Chemical Industry. The Development of Ammonia Processes, 1910–1940

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arjan van Rooij

    2005-01-01

    Ammonia is the crucial intermediate for the production of nitrogen fertilisers. BASF, today still one of the largest chemical companies in the world, was the first company to develop a process for the synthesis of ammonia from its compounds hydrogen and nitrogen: the well?known Haber–Bosch process. Other processes were developed as well in the 1910s and ’20s but these technologies

  8. Integrated Oil Shale Processing into Energy and Chemicals Using Combined-Cycle Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VALENTIN FAINBERG; ALINA GARBAR; GAD HETSRONI

    1998-01-01

    Oil shale integrated processing and an exhaustive utilization of its energy and chemical potential are described herein. The principal features of this method are two-stage oil shale processing and power cogeneration by means of the combined-cycle turbine unit As a result of the two-stage processing, two principal products—gas and liquids—are obtained. The gas is used for power production in a

  9. Treatment of effluents arising from a material characterization laboratory, using chemical precipitation and reverse osmosis processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bello, S.M.G.; Mierzwa, J.C. [Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1995-11-01

    Owing to the restrictions imposed by the Regulations, mainly in the field of effluent release into a water body, it`s necessary to use a set of technologies that will help meeting the standards established by these regulations. Taking into account what was exposed above, a process for treating the effluents arising from a Material Characterization Laboratory, that will characterize nuclear materials is proposed in this paper. The process proposed uses chemical precipitation for removing chemicals which can be removed by this means (Chromium, Calcium and Sulfate for instance), and reverse osmosis process to purify the filtrate from precipitation process. The reverse osmosis process is used to remove dissolved chemicals (Nitrates and Chlorides). A synthetic solution with a COD of 8000 mg/l was used to simulate the treatment process. After treatment was finished, a purified stream, which represents 90 % of the intake stream have presented a COD of less then 10 mg/l, showing that this process can be utilized to minimize the impact caused to the environment. The characterization of all streams involved in the treatment process as well as the process description is presented in this paper.

  10. The comparison of removing plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging for near-well ultrasonic processing technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenjun; Xu, Yuanming; Bajracharya, Suman

    2015-11-01

    Near-well ultrasonic processing technology is characterized by high adaptability, simple operation, low cost and zero pollution. The main plugs of oil production include paraffin deposition plug, polymer plug, and drilling fluid plug etc. Although some good results have been obtained through laboratory experiments and field tests, systematic and intensive studies are absent for certain major aspects, such as: effects of ultrasonic treatment for different kinds of plugs and whether effect of ultrasound-chemicals combination deplugging is better than that of ultrasonic deplugging. In this paper, the experiments of removing drilling fluid plug, paraffin deposition plug and polymer plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging respectively are carried out. Results show that the effect of ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging is clearly better than that of using ultrasonic wave and chemical deplugging agent separately, which indicates that ultrasonic deplugging and chemical deplugging can produce synergetic effects. On the one hand, ultrasonic treatment can boost the activity of chemical deplugging agent and turn chemical deplugging into dynamic chemical process, promoting chemical agent reaction speed and enhancing deplugging effect; on the other hand, chemical agent can reduce the adhesion strength of plugs so that ultrasonic deplugging effect can be improved significantly. Experimental results provide important reference for near-well ultrasonic processing technology. PMID:26186853

  11. Chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the EDS coal liquefaction process: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Later, D.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1984-05-01

    Representative process materials were obtained from the EDS pilot plant for chemical and biological analyses. These materials were characterized for biological activity and chemical composition using a microbial mutagenicity assay and chromatographic and mass spectrometric analytical techniques. The two highest boiling distillation cuts, as well as process solvent (PS) obtained from the bottoms recycle mode operation, were tested for initiation of mouse skin tumorigenicity. All three materials were active; the crude 800/sup 0 +/F cut was substantially more potent than the crude bottoms recycle PS or 750 to 800/sup 0/F distillate cut. Results from chemical analyses showed the EDS materials, in general, to be more highly alkylated and have higher hydroaromatic content than analogous SRC II process materials (no in-line process hydrogenation) used for comparison. In the microbial mutagenicity assays the N-PAC fractions showed greater activity than did the aliphatic hydrocarbon, hydroxy-PAH, or PAH fractions, although mutagenicity was detected in certain PAH fractions by a modified version of the standard microbial mutagenicity assay. Mutagenic activities for the EDS materials were lower, overall, than those for the corresponding materials from the SRC II process. The EDS materials produced under different operational modes had distinguishable differences in both their chemical constituency and biological activity. The primary differences between the EDS materials studied here and their SRC II counterparts used for comparison are most likely attributable to the incorporation of catalytic hydrogenation in the EDS process. 27 references, 28 figures, 27 tables.

  12. Assessment of impacts at the advanced test reactor as a result of chemical releases at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, A.S.

    1991-02-01

    This report provides an assessment of potential impacts at the Advanced Test Reactor Facility (ATR) resulting from accidental chemical spill at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Spills postulated to occur at the Lincoln Blvd turnoff to ICPP were also evaluated. Peak and time weighted average concentrations were calculated for receptors at the ATR facility and the Test Reactor Area guard station at a height above ground level of 1.0 m. Calculated concentrations were then compared to the 15 minute averaged Threshold Limit Value - Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL) and the 30 minute averaged Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) limit. Several different methodologies were used to estimate source strength and dispersion. Fifteen minute time weighted averaged concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and anhydrous ammonia exceeded TLV-STEL values for the cases considered. The IDLH value for these chemicals was not exceeded. Calculated concentrations of ammonium hydroxide, hexone, nitric acid, propane, gasoline, chlorine and liquid nitrogen were all below the TLV-STEL value.

  13. Toolbox Safety Talk Safety Data Sheets (SDS)

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    to as "Material Safety Data Sheets" (MSDS), communicate important information regarding the hazards of chemical techniques, equipment; chemical hazards from fire. Section 6. Accidental release measures: lists emergency-in sheet to Environmental Health & Safety for recordkeeping. Chemical manufacturers are required to produce

  14. Use of a dry fractionation process to manipulate the chemical profile and nutrient supply of a coproduct from bioethanol processing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuewei; Beltranena, Eduardo; Christensen, Colleen; Yu, Peiqiang

    2012-07-11

    With an available processing technology (fractionation), coproducts from bioethanol processing (wheat dried distillers grains with solubles, DDGS) could be fractionated to a desired/optimal chemical and nutrient profile. There is no study, to the author's knowledge, on manipulating nutrient profiles through fractionation processing in bioethanol coproducts in ruminants. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of fractionation processing of a coproduct from bioethanol processing (wheat DDGS) on the metabolic characteristics of the proteins and to study the effects of fractionation processing on the magnitude of changes in chemical and nutrient supply to ruminants by comparing chemical and nutrient characterization, in situ rumen degradation kinetics, truly absorbed protein supply, and protein degraded balance among different fractions of coproduct of wheat DDGS. In this study, wheat DDGS was dry fractionationed into A, B, C, and D fractions according to particle size, gravity, and protein and fiber contents. The results showed that the fractionation processing changed wheat DDGS chemical and nutrient profiles. NDF and ADF increased from fraction A to D (NDF, from 330 to 424; ADF, from 135 to 175 g/kg DM). Subsequently, CP decreased (CP, from 499 to 363 g/kg DM), whereas soluble CP, NPN, and carbohydrate increased (SCP, from 247 to 304 g/kg CP; NPN, from 476 to 943 g/kg SCP; CHO, from 409 to 538 g/kg DM) from fraction A to D. The CNCPS protein and carbohydrate subfractions were also changed by the fractionation processing. Effective degradability of DM and CP and total digestible protein decreased from fraction A to D (EDDM, from 734 to 649; EDCP, from 321 to 241; TDP, from 442 to 312 g/kg DM). Total truly absorbed protein in the small intestine decreased from fraction A to D (DVE value, from 186 to 124 g/kg DM; MP in NRC-2001, from 193 to 136 g/kg DM). Degraded protein balance decreased from wheat DDGS fractions A-D (DPB in the DVE/OEB system, from 245 to 161 g/kg DM; DPB in NRC-2001, from 242 to 158 g/kg DM). The fractionation processing had a great impact on the chemical and nutrition profiles. Total truly digested and absorbed protein supply and degraded protein balance were decreased. The processing relatively optimized the protein degraded balance of the coproducts to dairy cattle. Compared with the original wheat DDGS (without fractionation), fractionation processing decreased truly absorbed protein supply of DVE and MP values. In conclusion, fractionation processing can be used to manipulate the nutrient supply and N-to-energy degradation synchronization ratio of coproducts from bioethanol processing. Among the fractions, fraction A was the best in terms of its highest truly absorbed protein DVE and MP values. Fractionation processing has great potential to fractionate a coproduct into a desired and optimal chemical and nutrient profile. To the author's knowledge, this is the first paper to show that with fractionation processing, the coproducts from bioethanol processing (wheat DDGS) could be manipulated to provide a desired/optimized nutrient supply to ruminants. PMID:22703236

  15. Environmental Health and Safety Department

    E-print Network

    ://www.usg.edu/ehs/training/chemical/ #12;CHEMICAL SAFETY Basic Lab Safety ­ Required (1.5 hrs) All persons workinEnvironmental Health and Safety Department New Hire Safety Orientation #12;EHS FUNCTION The Environmental Health and Safety (EHS) Office at Georgia Tech develops programs and provides oversight

  16. Risk Measures Constituting Risk Metrics for Decision Making in the Chemical Process Industry 

    E-print Network

    Prem, Katherine

    2012-02-14

    $-curve Frequency Dollar Curve FTA Fault Tree Analysis GT Game Theory HAZOP Hazard and Operability Analysis HSE Health and Safety Executive HSEES Hazardous Substance and Emergency Events Surveillance ix LOPA Layers Of Protection Analysis NFPA National... Fire Protection Association OREDA Offshore Reliability Data pdf probability distribution function PHA Process Hazard Analysis QRA Quantitative Risk Analysis RMP Risk Management Program SRS Scenario Risk Spectrum VCE Vapor Cloud Explosion...

  17. Experimental evaluation of chemical cleaning processes for high-lifetime silicon processing

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.L.; McBrayer, J.D.; Basore, P.A.; Buck, M.E.; Tingley, J.W.; Gee, J.M.; Hansen, B.R.; Ruby, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The first in a series of multi-factor experiments designed to optimize the chemical cleaning procedure for four types of silicon material used in solar cell fabrication has been completed. The goal of this first experiment (a twenty-two factor main-effects experiment) was to determine the factors associated with chemical cleaning procedures that are most important in obtaining high excess charge-carrier recombination lifetime following a high-temperature furnace oxidation. It was determined that the factors having the strongest influence on charge-carrier lifetime were different for the four different silicon materials considered. In general, the lower the lifetime of the material, the less sensitive the material was to different chemical cleaning steps. The stability of the lifetime was also evaluated with several factors exhibiting a significant effect for high-quality silicon. Chemical cleaning procedures were identified that resulted in stable post-oxidation lifetimes greater than 2 ms for high-resistivity float-zone silicon. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Real-time in-situ chemical sensing in aluminum gallium nitride/gallium nitride metal-organic chemical vapor deposition processes for advanced process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Soon

    Gallium nitride and its alloys promise to be key materials for future semiconductor devices aimed at high frequency, high power electronic applications. However, manufacturing for such high performance products is challenged by reproducibility and material quality constraints that are notably more stringent than those required for optoelectronic applications. To meet this challenge, in-situ mass spectrometry was implemented as a real-time process- and wafer-state metrology tool in AlGaN/GaN/AlN metal-organic chemical vapor deposition processes on semi-insulating SiC substrate wafers. Dynamic chemical sensing through the process cycle, carried out downstream from the wafer, revealed generation of methane and ethane reaction byproducts, as well as other residual gas species. Real-time metrics were derived based on the chemical signals to predict/control material quality and thickness of critical layers within the heterostructure in real time during growth, and corresponding metrologies were used for real-time advanced process control. Using the methane/ethane ratio, GaN epilayer crystal quality was predicted in real time to 2--5% precision, which was verified by post-process x-ray diffraction. Moreover, the same real-time metric predicted material quality as indicated by post-process photoluminescence band-edge intensities to ˜5% precision. The methane/ethane ratio has a fundamental significance in terms of the intrinsic chemistry in that the two byproducts are believed to reflect two parallel reaction pathways leading to GaN-based material growth, namely the gas phase adduct formation route and the surface route for direct precursor decomposition, respectively. The fact that lower methane/ethane ratios consistently yield better material quality suggests that the surface pathway is preferred for high quality GaN growth. In addition, a metric based on methane and ethane signals integrated through the AlGaN growth period (˜1 min or less) enabled prediction of the cap layer thickness (˜20 nm) to within ˜1% precision, which was verified by post-process x-ray reflectance. These types of real-time advanced process control activities in terms of fault detection and management, course correction, and pre-growth contamination control have made significant contributions to the GaN-based semiconductor development and manufacturing at Northrop Grumman Electronics Systems in terms of improved material quality, yield, and consequent cost reduction, and they are now in routine use.

  19. Physical Processes and Real-Time Chemical Measurement of the Insect Olfactory Environment

    PubMed Central

    Abrell, Leif; Hildebrand, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Odor-mediated insect navigation in airborne chemical plumes is vital to many ecological interactions, including mate finding, flower nectaring, and host locating (where disease transmission or herbivory may begin). After emission, volatile chemicals become rapidly mixed and diluted through physical processes that create a dynamic olfactory environment. This review examines those physical processes and some of the analytical technologies available to characterize those behavior-inducing chemical signals at temporal scales equivalent to the olfactory processing in insects. In particular, we focus on two areas of research that together may further our understanding of olfactory signal dynamics and its processing and perception by insects. First, measurement of physical atmospheric processes in the field can provide insight into the spatiotemporal dynamics of the odor signal available to insects. Field measurements in turn permit aspects of the physical environment to be simulated in the laboratory, thereby allowing careful investigation into the links between odor signal dynamics and insect behavior. Second, emerging analytical technologies with high recording frequencies and field-friendly inlet systems may offer new opportunities to characterize natural odors at spatiotemporal scales relevant to insect perception and behavior. Characterization of the chemical signal environment allows the determination of when and where olfactory-mediated behaviors may control ecological interactions. Finally, we argue that coupling of these two research areas will foster increased understanding of the physicochemical environment and enable researchers to determine how olfactory environments shape insect behaviors and sensory systems. PMID:18548311

  20. Physical processes and real-time chemical measurement of the insect olfactory environment.

    PubMed

    Riffell, Jeffrey A; Abrell, Leif; Hildebrand, John G

    2008-07-01

    Odor-mediated insect navigation in airborne chemical plumes is vital to many ecological interactions, including mate finding, flower nectaring, and host locating (where disease transmission or herbivory may begin). After emission, volatile chemicals become rapidly mixed and diluted through physical processes that create a dynamic olfactory environment. This review examines those physical processes and some of the analytical technologies available to characterize those behavior-inducing chemical signals at temporal scales equivalent to the olfactory processing in insects. In particular, we focus on two areas of research that together may further our understanding of olfactory signal dynamics and its processing and perception by insects. First, measurement of physical atmospheric processes in the field can provide insight into the spatiotemporal dynamics of the odor signal available to insects. Field measurements in turn permit aspects of the physical environment to be simulated in the laboratory, thereby allowing careful investigation into the links between odor signal dynamics and insect behavior. Second, emerging analytical technologies with high recording frequencies and field-friendly inlet systems may offer new opportunities to characterize natural odors at spatiotemporal scales relevant to insect perception and behavior. Characterization of the chemical signal environment allows the determination of when and where olfactory-mediated behaviors may control ecological interactions. Finally, we argue that coupling of these two research areas will foster increased understanding of the physicochemical environment and enable researchers to determine how olfactory environments shape insect behaviors and sensory systems. PMID:18548311