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1

Experiments To Demonstrate Chemical Process Safety Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points out the need to educate undergraduate chemical engineering students on chemical process safety and introduces the content of a chemical process safety course offered at the University of Iowa. Presents laboratory experiments demonstrating flammability limits, flash points, electrostatic, runaway reactions, explosions, and relief design.…

Dorathy, Brian D.; Mooers, Jamisue A.; Warren, Matthew M.; Mich, Jennifer L.; Murhammer, David W.

2001-01-01

2

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant safety document ICPP hazardous chemical evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a hazardous chemical evaluation performed for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). ICPP tracks chemicals on a computerized database, Haz Track, that contains roughly 2000 individual chemicals. The database contains information about each chemical, such as its form (solid, liquid, or gas); quantity, either in weight or volume; and its location. The Haz Track database was used as the primary starting point for the chemical evaluation presented in this report. The chemical data and results presented here are not intended to provide limits, but to provide a starting point for nonradiological hazards analysis.

Harwood, B.J.

1993-01-01

3

Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

2005-04-01

4

Safety-oriented Resilience Evaluation in Chemical Processes  

E-print Network

In the area of process safety, many efforts have focused on studying methods to prevent the transition of the state of the system from a normal state to an upset and/or catastrophic state, but many unexpected changes are unavoidable, and even under...

Dinh, Linh Thi Thuy

2012-02-14

5

Nuclear criticality safety evaluation -- DWPF Late Wash Facility, Salt Process Cell and Chemical Process Cell  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Nuclear Waste will be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for long term storage and disposal. This is a nuclear criticality safety evaluation for the Late Wash Facility (LWF), the Salt Processing Cell (SPC) and the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). of the DWPF. Waste salt solution is processed in the Tank Farm In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process and is then further washed in the DWPF Late Wash Facility (LWF) before it is fed to the DWPF Salt Processing Cell. In the Salt Processing Cell the precipitate slurry is processed in the Precipitate Reactor (PR) and the resultant Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) produce is combined with the sludge feed and frit in the DWPF Chemical Process Cell to produce a melter feed. The waste is finally immobilized in the Melt Cell. Material in the Tank Farm and the ITP and Extended Sludge processes have been shown to be safe against a nuclear criticality by others. The precipitate slurry feed from ITP and the first six batches of sludge feed are safe against a nuclear criticality and this evaluation demonstrates that the processes in the LWF, the SPC and the CPC do not alter the characteristics of the materials to compromise safety.

Williamson, T.G.

1994-10-17

6

CHEMICAL SAFETY Emergency Numbers  

E-print Network

- 1 - CHEMICAL SAFETY MANUAL 2010 #12;- 2 - Emergency Numbers UNBC Prince George Campus Security Prince George Campus Chemstores 6472 Chemical Safety 6472 Radiation Safety 5530 Biological Safety 5530 use, storage, handling, waste and emergency management of chemicals on the University of Northern

Bolch, Tobias

7

Normalization of Process Safety Metrics  

E-print Network

This study is aimed at exploring new process safety metrics for measuring the process safety performance in processing industries. Following a series of catastrophic incidents such as the Bhopal chemical tragedy (1984) and Phillips 66 explosion...

Wang, Mengtian

2012-10-19

8

Development of a relational chemical process safety database and applications to safety improvements  

E-print Network

of the chemical type, toxic or flammable, and the number of full time employees in the facilities are discussed. To increase the value of the lessons learned from this database, proposed links with failure rate databases and reactive chemical databases were...

Al-Qurashi, Fahad

2000-01-01

9

Enhancing the Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Curriculum with an Industrial Process Safety Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper summarizes the industrial process risk analysis approach that was used to enhance a chemical engineering unit operations laboratory, training the students about process safety in an inherently low-risk environment. The approach is based on more than ten years of industrial process hazards analysis experience, which includes assessing for process-related hazards and reducing process-related risks. Before the students began the experimental phase of their laboratory project, they documented that they understood the potential hazardous events related to their project. The students completed a series of Project Risk Analysis (PRA) check sheets which listed both the hazards addressed in the OSHA Process Safety Management standard (i.e., fire, explosion, and toxic release) as well as other area and personnel safety-related hazards (e.g., noise, utilities, etc.). Then the students evaluated the risks of these worst case events using a consequence versus likelihood risk matrix, with the consequences, the likelihood, and the risk qualitatively ranked as low, medium, or high. Before running their experiments, the students documented that the risks had been addressed and were reduced as much as is practical. They noted the design and implementation of any engineering controls, any administrative controls, and, if needed, any required personal protective equipment (PPE). The students documented awareness of potential hazards in their surroundings by documenting an area tour, as well. Whether the students continue onto graduate school or begin their careers at a plant site, this approach provides them with awareness tools that will help them ensure their safety when working in their new and potentially hazardous environment.

Vaughen, Bruce

10

Toxicology and Chemical Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Topics addressed in this discussion of toxicology and chemical safety include routes of exposure, dose/response relationships, action of toxic substances, and effects of exposure to chemicals. Specific examples are used to illustrate the principles discussed. Suggests prudence in handling any chemicals, whether or not toxicity is known. (JN)

Hall, Stephen K.

1983-01-01

11

Chemical process hazards analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

NONE

1996-02-01

12

Toolbox Safety Talk Chemical Labeling  

E-print Network

Toolbox Safety Talk Chemical Labeling Environmental Health & Safety Facilities Safety & Health to Environmental Health & Safety for recordkeeping. Cornell University and OSHA require all chemicals utilized, printed on, or attached to the immediate container of a hazardous chemical, or to the outside packaging

Pawlowski, Wojtek

13

CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY AND METHODOLOGY  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY AND METHODOLOGY MANUAL August 2013 #12;ii Emergency Numbers UNBC Prince-Emergency Numbers UNBC Prince George Campus Chemstores 6472 Chemical Safety 6472 Radiation Safety 6472 Biological the safe use, storage, handling, waste and emergency management of chemicals on the University of Northern

Northern British Columbia, University of

14

Laboratory Safety and Chemical Hazards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Toxicology/chemical hazards, safety policy, legal responsibilities, adequacy of ventilation, chemical storage, evaluating experimental hazards, waste disposal, and laws governing chemical safety were among topics discussed in 10 papers presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982). Several topics…

Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

1983-01-01

15

Thorium processing nuclear safety review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the nuclear safety aspects of a proposal to process about 150 to 250 tons of thorium containing about one kilogram U-233 per ton has been made. The review was made at the request of the Chemical Processing Department in whose Purex plant the thorium processing will be carried out. The review group finds that the proposed operation

E. D. Clayton; R. G. Geier; M. C. Leverett

1965-01-01

16

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the Safety Guide used in the Research Center at Monsanto Chemical Company (St. Louis). Topics include: general safety practices, safety glasses and shoes, respiratory protection, electrical wiring, solvent handling and waste disposal. Procedures are given for evacuating, "tagging out, and "locking out. Special mention is given to…

Steere, Norman V.

1969-01-01

17

SAFETY IN THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

MONTHLY ARTICLES ON LABORATORY SAFETY THAT APPEARED IN THE "JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION" BETWEEN JANUARY 1964, AND JANUARY 1967, ARE COMBINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE CHEMISTRY TEACHERS. A GENERAL SECTION DEALS WITH (1) RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACCIDENT PREVENTION, (2) SAFETY CONSIDERATION IN RESEARCH PROPOSALS, (3) A SAFETY

STEERE, NORMAN V.

18

29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...longer exists, such information may be developed in...the process hazard analysis in sufficient detail to support the analysis. (3) Information pertaining to the...classification; (D) Relief system design and design...

2010-07-01

19

29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...longer exists, such information may be developed in...the process hazard analysis in sufficient detail to support the analysis. (3) Information pertaining to the...classification; (D) Relief system design and design...

2010-07-01

20

29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...will be activated. For outdoor processes where wind direction is important for selecting the safe route to a refuge area, the employer should place a wind direction indicator such as a wind sock or pennant at the highest point that can...

2011-07-01

21

29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...will be activated. For outdoor processes where wind direction is important for selecting the safe route to a refuge area, the employer should place a wind direction indicator such as a wind sock or pennant at the highest point that can...

2013-07-01

22

29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...will be activated. For outdoor processes where wind direction is important for selecting the safe route to a refuge area, the employer should place a wind direction indicator such as a wind sock or pennant at the highest point that can...

2011-07-01

23

29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...will be activated. For outdoor processes where wind direction is important for selecting the safe route to a refuge area, the employer should place a wind direction indicator such as a wind sock or pennant at the highest point that can...

2012-07-01

24

29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...will be activated. For outdoor processes where wind direction is important for selecting the safe route to a refuge area, the employer should place a wind direction indicator such as a wind sock or pennant at the highest point that can...

2013-07-01

25

29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...will be activated. For outdoor processes where wind direction is important for selecting the safe route to a refuge area, the employer should place a wind direction indicator such as a wind sock or pennant at the highest point that can...

2012-07-01

26

29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.  

...will be activated. For outdoor processes where wind direction is important for selecting the safe route to a refuge area, the employer should place a wind direction indicator such as a wind sock or pennant at the highest point that can...

2014-07-01

27

29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.  

...will be activated. For outdoor processes where wind direction is important for selecting the safe route to a refuge area, the employer should place a wind direction indicator such as a wind sock or pennant at the highest point that can...

2014-07-01

28

Safety in Handling Hazardous Chemicals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual describes safety procedures which should be observed in the chemistry laboratory. Accidents which may occur when working with chemicals such as peroxides, phosphorus, heavy metals, acids, etc., need special treatment. Quite suitable descriptions of such treatment are listed for each kind of possible accident in the laboratory.…

1971

29

Occupational Hygiene & Chemical Safety Division Department of Environmental Health & Safety  

E-print Network

to Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) prior to using it. EXPOSURE CONTROLS Engineering Controls Always use/Isoflurane.pdf 2. Material Safety Data Sheet ­ Halocarbon http://www.halocarbon.com/halocarbon_media/Isoflurane_288Occupational Hygiene & Chemical Safety Division Department of Environmental Health & Safety Risk

Machel, Hans

30

Occupational Hygiene & Chemical Safety Division Department of Environmental Health & Safety  

E-print Network

the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) prior to working with EtBr. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS 1. Where possibleOccupational Hygiene & Chemical Safety Division Department of Environmental Health & Safety RiskG 2V2 Tel: 780.492-6888 Fax: 780.492.7790 1 | P a g e Ethidium Bromide ­ Fact Sheet Ethidium Bromide

Machel, Hans

31

DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The design of a chemical process involves many aspects: from profitability, flexibility and reliability to safety to the environment. While each of these is important, in this work, the focus will be on profitability and the environment. Key to the study of these aspects is the ...

32

Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group Report  

SciTech Connect

This report marks the culmination of a 4-month review conducted to identify chemical safety vulnerabilities existing at DOE facilities. This review is an integral part of DOE's efforts to raise its commitment to chemical safety to the same level as that for nuclear safety.

Not Available

1994-09-01

33

Chemical Lab Safety Draws Renewed Interest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Research Council has published a comprehensive report on procedures for handling hazardous chemicals and on other aspects of laboratory safety. By early 1981, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration intends to present preliminary proposals for safety in chemical research laboratories. (WB)

Hanson, David

1980-01-01

34

September 2013 Laboratory Safety Manual Section 2 -Chemical Management  

E-print Network

. Material Safety Data Sheet/Safety Data Sheet (MSDS/SDS)..........2-6 C. CHEMICAL PROCUREMENTSeptember 2013 Laboratory Safety Manual Section 2 - Chemical Management Page 2-1 Section 2 - Chemical Management Contents A. BASIC LABORATORY SAFETY PRACTICES

Wilcock, William

35

Chemical Process Synthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Process synthesis is the specification of chemical and physical operations and the selection and interconnection of equipment to implement these operations to effect desired chemical processing transformations. Optimization and evolutionary and systematic generation process synthesis approaches are described. (Author/SK)

Siirola, J. J.

1982-01-01

36

Chemical Processing Manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical processes presented in this document include cleaning, pickling, surface finishes, chemical milling, plating, dry film lubricants, and polishing. All types of chemical processes applicable to aluminum, for example, are to be found in the aluminum alloy section. There is a separate section for each category of metallic alloy plus a section for non-metals, such as plastics. The refractories, super-alloys and titanium, are prime candidates for the space shuttle, therefore, the chemical processes applicable to these alloys are contained in individual sections of this manual.

Beyerle, F. J.

1972-01-01

37

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Safety Showers and Eyewash Fountains.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews safety and emergency equipment in their application to chemical laboratories. Discusses American National Standards (ANSI) for equipment. Presents practical considerations for the placement and purchase of equipment. (MVL)

Bronaugh, John C.

1989-01-01

38

Relationship of safety culture and process safety.  

PubMed

Throughout history, humans have gathered in groups for social, religious, and industrial purposes. As the conglomeration of people interact, a set of underlying values, beliefs, and principles begins to develop that serve to guide behavior within the group. These "guidelines" are commonly referred to as the group culture. Modern-day organizations, including corporations, have developed their own unique cultures derived from the diversity of the organizational interests and the background of the employees. Safety culture, a sub-set of organizational culture, has been a major focus in recent years. This is especially true in the chemical industry due to the series of preventable, safety-related disasters that occurred in the late seventies and eighties. Some of the most notable disasters, during this time period, occurred at Bhopal, Flixborough, and Seveso. However, current events, like the September 11th terrorist attacks and the disintegration of the Columbia shuttle, have caused an assessment of safety culture in a variety of other organizations. PMID:16314040

Olive, Claire; O'Connor, T Michael; Mannan, M Sam

2006-03-17

39

Agile Safety Management System of Chemicals Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper develops an architecture of Agile Safety Management System of Chemicals Transportation (ASMSCT) based on multi-agent based model and software reusability. The decision maker can be an alliance which deal with management activities involving proactive risk analysis, emergency response and regular safety information service. The top level information model and control model are studied in detail and the system

Tao Yang; Zhongding Huang

2009-01-01

40

US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board began operations in 1998 with the stated mission to promote the prevention of major chemical accidents at fixed facilities. The independent, scientific investigative agency's Web site contains historical and current data, reports, and other information on chemical accidents from around the nation. For example, on September 13, 2002, a chemical plant explosion occurred in Freeport, Texas, involving an explosion, fire, and release of chemicals to the environment. The entry contains which specific chemicals were involved and a brief report of the incident, as well as injury, containment, and other relevant information.

41

Chemical Lab Safety Rules Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This learning module - Chemical Lab Safety Rules - covers safety rules for one's personal safety when working with and around chemicals, handling and pouring chemicals properly, the specifics for working with solvents vs. corrosives, spill or leak response, and many other areas. An activity and assessment are including in this learning module along with an observation checklist that you could use to observe participants in a laboratory environment and ensure that the safety rules are being followed. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and login in order to access the full set of resources.

2011-09-23

42

Integrating Safety Issues in Optimizing Solvent Selection and Process Design  

E-print Network

Incorporating consideration for safety issues while designing solvent processes has become crucial in light of the chemical process incidents involving solvents that have taken place in recent years. The implementation of inherently safer design...

Patel, Suhani Jitendra

2011-10-21

43

Nuclear and chemical safety analysis: Purex Plant 1970 thorium campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to discuss the flowsheet and the related processing equipment with respect to nuclear and chemical safety. The analyses presented are based on equipment utilization and revised piping as outlined in the design criteria. Processing of thorium and uranium-233 in the Purex Plant can be accomplished within currently accepted levels of risk with respect to

A. L. Boldt; G. C. Oberg

1970-01-01

44

Process development of specialty chemicals.  

E-print Network

??The chemical processing industries have shifted their attention from commodity chemicals to high-value-added specialty chemicals in recent decades. Specialty chemicals always serve as major ingredients… (more)

Fung, Ka Yip

2006-01-01

45

Lasers in chemical processing  

SciTech Connect

The high cost of laser energy is the crucial issue in any potential laser-processing application. It is expensive relative to other forms of energy and to most bulk chemicals. We show those factors that have previously frustrated attempts to find commercially viable laser-induced processes for the production of materials. Having identified the general criteria to be satisfied by an economically successful laser process and shown how these imply the laser-system requirements, we present a status report on the uranium laser isotope separation (LIS) program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

Davis, J.I.

1982-04-15

46

Safety management and risk assessment in chemical laboratories.  

PubMed

The present paper highlights a new safety management program, MICE (Management, Information, Control and Emergency), which has been specifically adapted for the academic environment. The process starts with an exhaustive hazard inventory supported by a platform assembling specific hazards encountered in laboratories and their subsequent classification. A proof of concept is given by a series of implementations in the domain of chemistry targeting workplace health protection. The methodology is expressed through three examples to illustrate how the MICE program can be used to address safety concerns regarding chemicals, strong magnetic fields and nanoparticles in research laboratories. A comprehensive chemical management program is also depicted. PMID:22026190

Marendaz, Jean-Luc; Friedrich, Kirstin; Meyer, Thierry

2011-01-01

47

SECTION 13-CHEMICAL SAFETY NOTE: Much of the information contained in this Chemical Safety section is duplicated from the  

E-print Network

these regulations and other rules governing the use of chemicals in Section 10- "Shop and Shop/Lab Safety", Section164 SECTION 13- CHEMICAL SAFETY NOTE: Much of the information contained in this Chemical Safety Laboratory Safety Manual. The CHP is to be used in conjunction with the Hazardous Communication Plan

Selmic, Sandra

48

Chemical safety of meat and meat products.  

PubMed

Since the Second World War the consumer behaviour in developed countries changed drastically. Primarily there existed the demand for sufficient food after a period of starvation, afterwards the desire for higher quality was arising, whereas today most people ask for safe and healthy food with high quality. Therefore a united approach comprising consistent standards, sound science and robust controls is required to ensure consumers' health and to maintain consumers' confidence and satisfaction. Chemical analysis along the whole food chain downstream (tracking) from primary production to the consumer and upstream (tracing) from the consumer to primary production is an important prerequisite to ensure food safety and quality. In this frame the focus of the following paper is the "chemical safety of meat and meat products" taking into account inorganic as well as organic residues and contaminants, the use of nitrite in meat products, the incidence of veterinary drugs, as well as a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) system assessing (prioritizing) vulnerable food chain steps to decrease or eliminate vulnerability. PMID:20510527

Andrée, Sabine; Jira, W; Schwind, K-H; Wagner, H; Schwägele, F

2010-09-01

49

Safety and Health Policy and Procedure Manual CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN  

E-print Network

Safety and Health Policy and Procedure Manual CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN Section 0030 Table of Contents INTRODUCTION I. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR LABORATORY CHEMICALS A. Chemical Procurement B. Chemical Storage C. Chemical Handling D. Laboratory Equipment and Glassware E. Personal Protective Equipment F

Saidak, Filip

50

Environmental Health and Safety Chemical Hygiene Laboratory Assessment  

E-print Network

Environmental Health and Safety Chemical Hygiene Laboratory Assessment PI of promptly. Work surfaces are free of contamination. Heavy objects are stored on lower shelves. Glassware are available and in use. Chemical Fume Hoods / Exhaust Points # Compliance Items: Category Item Comments

51

Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

Not Available

1994-09-01

52

Two centuries of process safety at DuPont  

Microsoft Academic Search

DuPont was founded over 200 years ago with a core value for understanding and managing the hazards associated with our processes. From the beginning of manufacturing gunpowder on the Brandywine River, to expansion into chemicals in the early 1900's, to the many, diverse businesses of today, this core value for safety has helped the company reduce risk and prevent serious

James A. Klein

2009-01-01

53

Beyond chemical safety— an integrated approach to laboratory safety management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health and safety programs for laboratories are typically oriented around specific regulatory requirements, even though hazards in laboratories seldom respect these boundaries. Not only does this place an unnecessary burden on researchers because they have to keep track of several related health and safety activities, it also increases the chance that laboratory hazards might not be addressed because they are

James M. Kapin

1999-01-01

54

TIER I CHEMICALS: 2.LABORATORY SAFETY PLAN  

E-print Network

Safety Plan is specific to lab __________________________________. Contact Information: Primary Contact materials are used and/or stored in this lab: Name CAS Hazard Material Safety Data Sheets: are attached to this document but can also be found on www.chematix.gatech.edu and www.hazard.com #12;o Safety glasses o Lab

Sherrill, David

55

Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 3  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 3 consists of eleven appendices containing the following: Field verification reports for Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rocky Flats Plant, Brookhaven National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., and Sandia National Laboratories (NM); Mini-visits to small DOE sites; Working Group meeting, June 7--8, 1994; Commendable practices; Related chemical safety initiatives at DOE; Regulatory framework and industry initiatives related to chemical safety; and Chemical inventory data from field self-evaluation reports.

Not Available

1994-09-01

56

Chemical Disposal The Office of Environmental Health & Safety operates a Chemical Waste Disposal Program  

E-print Network

Chemical Disposal Dec, 2011 Chemicals: The Office of Environmental Health & Safety operates a Chemical Waste Disposal Program where all University chemical waste is picked up and sent out for proper disposal. (There are some chemicals that they will not take because of their extreme hazards

Machel, Hans

57

Tannins Influence Soil Chemical Processes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tannins, plant secondary compounds, can affect soil and water quality by interacting with inorganic and organic compounds. However, the fate of tannins and their effect on soil metal cycling dynamics and soil chemical processes is poorly understood. We examined the effects of commercial available ...

58

A Chemical Plant Safety and Hazard Analysis Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course for teaching chemical engineering students about safety and hazards. Summarizes the course content including topics for term papers and disciplines related to this course. Lists 18 references. (YP)

Gupta, J. P.

1989-01-01

59

Support from Afar: Using Chemical Safety Information on the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the major challenges facing people committed to Teaching Safety in High Schools, Colleges, and Universities is keeping up with both the wide range of relevant technical information about potential hazards (ranging from fire protection to chemical hazards to biological issues) and the ever-changing world of safety regulations and standards.…

Stuart, Ralph

60

Database for Safety-Oriented Tracking of Chemicals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SafetyChem is a computer program that maintains a relational database for tracking chemicals and associated hazards at Johnson Space Center (JSC) by use of a Web-based graphical user interface. The SafetyChem database is accessible to authorized users via a JSC intranet. All new chemicals pass through a safety office, where information on hazards, required personal protective equipment (PPE), fire-protection warnings, and target organ effects (TOEs) is extracted from material safety data sheets (MSDSs) and recorded in the database. The database facilitates real-time management of inventory with attention to such issues as stability, shelf life, reduction of waste through transfer of unused chemicals to laboratories that need them, quantification of chemical wastes, and identification of chemicals for which disposal is required. Upon searching the database for a chemical, the user receives information on physical properties of the chemical, hazard warnings, required PPE, a link to the MSDS, and references to the applicable International Standards Organization (ISO) 9000 standard work instructions and the applicable job hazard analysis. Also, to reduce the labor hours needed to comply with reporting requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the data can be directly exported into the JSC hazardous- materials database.

Stump, Jacob; Carr, Sandra; Plumlee, Debrah; Slater, Andy; Samson, Thomas M.; Holowaty, Toby L.; Skeete, Darren; Haenz, Mary Alice; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa

2010-01-01

61

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements  

SciTech Connect

In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

Griebenow, B.

1996-03-01

62

JICST Factual DatabaseJICST Chemical Substance Safety Regulation Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JICST Chemical Substance Safety Regulation Database is based on the Database of Safety Laws for Chemical Compounds constructed by Japan Chemical Industry Ecology-Toxicology & Information Center (JETOC) sponsored by the Sience and Technology Agency in 1987. JICST has modified JETOC database system, added data and started the online service through JOlS-F (JICST Online Information Service-Factual database) in January 1990. JICST database comprises eighty-three laws and fourteen hundred compounds. The authors outline the database, data items, files and search commands. An example of online session is presented.

Abe, Atsushi; Sohma, Tohru

63

Scope on Safety: Chemicals: What's In? What's Out?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemistry should be fun and exciting, but much preparation and skill are needed by the teacher and students in working with chemicals. Unfortunately, accidents do happen and things can blow up, but you can help prevent these incidents by knowing and following proper safety procedures. Knowing which chemicals are appropriate for the middle level classroom is a good place to start. The following is a list of appropriate and inappropriate chemicals for the science lab as specified by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Laboratory Standards.

Ken Roy

2004-11-01

64

Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

2010-06-01

65

AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT: A MULTISECTOR APPROACH TO THE MODERNIZATION OF HUMAN SAFETY REQUIREMENTS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Better understanding of toxicological mechanisms, enhanced testing capabilities, and demands for more sophisticated data for safety and health risk assessment have generated international interest in improving the current testing paradigm for agricultural chemicals. To address th...

66

Scope on Safety: Common sense and chemicals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This monthâs column features two true stories about the use of chemicals in the middle school science classroom. The lesson of these stories is simple. Certainly, it is prudent to have age-appropriate experiences in science, given the developmental constraints of students in middle school. On the other hand, when the curriculum necessitates experiences to support concepts, theories, and ideas, a little investigation into materials or chemicals used in best practice will help you decide what is best for your classroom.

Roy, Ken

2010-01-01

67

CHEM 5510 Introduction to Laboratory Safety 1 credit course on chemical safety (1 hour course, Friday afternoons, Fall Semester)  

E-print Network

CHEM 5510 Introduction to Laboratory Safety ! 1 credit course on chemical safety (1 hour course in laboratory chemical safety is required for all entering chemistry graduate students. Topics to be covered include laboratory emergencies, chemical hazards, lab inspections and compliance, managing and working

Simons, Jack

68

Waste Receiving & Processing (WRAP) Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)  

SciTech Connect

The hazard and accident analysis concludes that all risks associated with operation of Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP) are within evaluation guidelines. Unmitigated effects of releases in all bounding accidents are below safety class criteria, eliminating the need for safety-class designation of any structures, systems, or components. Process enclosures are considered to be safety-significant, based on worker safety considerations and maintenance of defense in depth. This Final Safety Analysis Report demonstrates that adherence to the safety basis will ensure necessary operational safety considerations have been addressed sufficiently and justifies the adequacy of the safety basis in protecting the health and safety of the public, workers, and the environment.

TOMASZEWSKI, T.A.

2001-07-10

69

Natelson Lab abbreviated safety procedures For full, detailed discussion of lab safety, see Natelson Lab Safety Manual and Chemical Hygiene Plan.  

E-print Network

: 713-441- 3724). When the injury or illness involves a chemical, a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDSNatelson Lab abbreviated safety procedures For full, detailed discussion of lab safety, see Natelson Lab Safety Manual and Chemical Hygiene Plan. An additional resource is "Prudent Practices

Natelson, Douglas

70

Basic Chemical Safety and Laboratory Survival Skills  

E-print Network

to survive an emergency #12;5 What We Will Talk About Definition of a "hazardous" chemical Labeling Health take RTK, either on line at: http://www.usg.edu/ehs/training/rtkbasic/ Or Sign up at www.trainsweb.gatech.edu to take it "live and in person" #12;3 First of All- RTK What Is It? It is the Georgia Public Employees

Gallivan, Martha A.

71

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOEpatents

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-11-24

72

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOEpatents

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77389)

1987-01-01

73

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOEpatents

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-06-23

74

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOEpatents

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77379)

1987-01-01

75

Food safety. [chemical contaminants and human toxic diseases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Illness induced by unsafe food is a problem of great public health significance. This study relates exclusively to the occurrence of chemical agents which will result in food unsafe for human consumption since the matter of food safety is of paramount importance in the mission and operation of the manned spacecraft program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Pier, S. M.; Valentine, J. L.

1975-01-01

76

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS Pastoor, Timothy1, Barton, Hugh2 1 Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC, USA. 2 EPA, Office of Research and Development-NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. A multi-stakeholder series of discussions d...

77

Scope on Safety : Chemicals from cradle to grave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

School districts are not immune to fines assessed by the Environmental Protection Agency or of becoming victims of unscrupulous business practices. With this in mind, schools need to consider adopting a protocol for the purchase, storage, use, and disposal of chemicals. This article will address these factors to ensure safety in your lab.

Roy, Ken

2005-01-01

78

Chemical Safety: What You Don't Know Can Hurt You!  

E-print Network

Chemical Safety: What You Don't Know Can Hurt You! Laboratory Safety Colloquium Sponsored by Environmental Health & Safety The Office of Research & Graduate Studies #12;This group of chemicals manifests cytochrome oxidase. Chemical Trivia #12;This group of chemicals manifests its toxicity by way of starving

Farritor, Shane

79

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: An Undergraduate Chemical Laboratory Safety Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a two-quarter hour college chemistry course focusing on laboratory safety. Includes lists of topics/assignments, problem sets (toxicology, storage, and energy) and videotapes, films, and slide sets used in the course. (JN)

Nicholls, L. Jewel

1982-01-01

80

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Learning How to Run Safer Undergraduate Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses responsibilities for providing safe experiments and for teaching about safety. Provides lists of references on chemical safety and regulated/potential carcinogens. Also discusses general laboratory safety procedures including waste disposal and recycling of solvents. (JM)

Mohrig, Jerry R.

1983-01-01

81

Chemical SafetyChemical Safety What you donWhat you don''t know can hurt yout know can hurt you  

E-print Network

11 Chemical SafetyChemical Safety What you donWhat you don''t know can hurt yout know can hurt you #12;22 Introduction 1Introduction 1 Chemicals are all around us.Chemicals are all around us.The vehicles we drive. ·· In the products we use everyday.In the products we use everyday. Chemicals can help

Farritor, Shane

82

Developing system-based leading indicators for proactive risk management in the chemical processing industry  

E-print Network

The chemical processing industry has faced challenges with achieving improvements in safety performance, and accidents continue to occur. When accidents occur, they usually have a confluence of multiple factors, suggesting ...

Khawaji, Ibrahim A. (Ibrahim Abdullah)

2012-01-01

83

Chemical Safety for Teachers and Their Supervisors. Grades 7-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet contains information and guidelines for the safe use and handling of chemicals in laboratories and student classrooms. The theme of this handbook is prevention of accidents with chemicals which involves chemical knowledge and the habit of safety. Topics include: (1) safety in the use and handling of hazardous chemicals; (2) teaching…

American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

84

Obtaining Valid Safety Data for Software Safety Measurement and Process Improvement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on a preliminary case study to examine software safety risk in the early design phase of the NASA Constellation spaceflight program. Our goal is to provide NASA quality assurance managers with information regarding the ongoing state of software safety across the program. We examined 154 hazard reports created during the preliminary design phase of three major flight hardware systems within the Constellation program. Our purpose was two-fold: 1) to quantify the relative importance of software with respect to system safety; and 2) to identify potential risks due to incorrect application of the safety process, deficiencies in the safety process, or the lack of a defined process. One early outcome of this work was to show that there are structural deficiencies in collecting valid safety data that make software safety different from hardware safety. In our conclusions we present some of these deficiencies.

Basili, Victor r.; Zelkowitz, Marvin V.; Layman, Lucas; Dangle, Kathleen; Diep, Madeline

2010-01-01

85

The material safety data sheet: a guide to chemical safety in the OR.  

PubMed

1. Workers can call OSHA to report violations of the "right to know" standard. If OSHA finds violations, it can issue warnings, levy a fine, or shut down a facility until corrections are made. 2. The Material Safety Data Sheet was developed for use by the chemical industry and is written more for users of large quantities of chemicals, not small users such as OR nurses. 3. Every MSDS contains nine sections. There is no standardization of MSDSs among suppliers and the sections may be in different sequences depending on the source. PMID:2048172

Marousky, R T

1991-06-01

86

77 FR 71561 - Health and Safety Data Reporting; Addition of Certain Chemicals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Health and Safety Data Reporting; Addition of Certain Chemicals AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to recommend chemicals and chemical mixtures to EPA for priority testing...

2012-12-03

87

Chemical Waste Guide for Facilities Services UW Environmental Health and Safety  

E-print Network

CChemmical Fa Was aciliti Au te G ies S ugust uide Servic t 24, 2 for ces 2011 #12;Chemical Waste Guide for Facilities Services UW Environmental Health and Safety Page 2 Chemical Waste Guide ........................................................................................................... 3 Chemical Hazards

Wilcock, William

88

July 20, 2011 EH&S Guide for Peroxide Forming Chemicals UW Environmental Health and Safety  

E-print Network

EH&S Guide for Peroxide Forming Chemicals UW Environmental Health and Safety Page 2 EH&S Guidelines for Peroxide Forming Chemicals Contents Introduction ...................................................................................5 1. Examine chemical for visible crystals

Wilcock, William

89

40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Thermal and chemical stability data; and (7) Hazardous effects of inadvertent mixing of different materials that could foreseeably occur. Note to paragraph (b ): Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements...

2013-07-01

90

40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Thermal and chemical stability data; and (7) Hazardous effects of inadvertent mixing of different materials that could foreseeably occur. Note to paragraph (b) : Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements...

2010-07-01

91

40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Thermal and chemical stability data; and (7) Hazardous effects of inadvertent mixing of different materials that could foreseeably occur. Note to paragraph (b ): Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements...

2011-07-01

92

40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Thermal and chemical stability data; and (7) Hazardous effects of inadvertent mixing of different materials that could foreseeably occur. Note to paragraph (b ): Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements...

2012-07-01

93

40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.  

...Thermal and chemical stability data; and (7) Hazardous effects of inadvertent mixing of different materials that could foreseeably occur. Note to paragraph (b ): Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements...

2014-07-01

94

The Role of Patient Safety in the Device Purchasing Process  

E-print Network

341 The Role of Patient Safety in the Device Purchasing Process Todd R. Johnson, Jiajie Zhang Abstract To examine how patient safety considerations are incorporated into medical device purchasing. Strengths included (1) a general perception that patient safety was important and played a role

Zhang, Jiajie

95

Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Safety and Emission Control Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical sensor technology is being developed for leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire safety applications. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS)-based) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Using these technologies, sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed. A description is given of each sensor type and its present stage of development. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.-Y.; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.

1998-01-01

96

Electrochemical Reactions During Ru Chemical Mechanical Planarization and Safety Considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed electrochemical reactions during ruthenium (Ru) chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) using a potentiostat and a quartz crystal microbalance, and considered the potential safety issues. We evaluated the valence number derived from Faraday's law using the dissolution mass change of Ru and total coulomb consumption in the electrochemical reactions for Ru in acidic solution and slurry. The valence numbers of dissolved Ru ions were distributed in the range of 2 to 3.5. As toxic ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) has a valence number of 8, we were able to conclude that no toxic RuO4 was produced in the actual Ru CMP.

Shima, Shohei; Wada, Yutaka; Tokushige, Katsuhiko; Fukunaga, Akira; Tsujimura, Manabu

2011-05-01

97

Washington University in St. Louis Institutional Biological & Chemical Safety Committee (IBC)  

E-print Network

and certification of physical containment equipment (e.g., biological safety cabinets, chemical fume hoods) · EnsureWashington University in St. Louis Institutional Biological & Chemical Safety Committee (IBC · Instruct and train laboratory workers in: o the practices and techniques required to ensure safety, and o

Kroll, Kristen L.

98

Nurses' clinical reasoning: processes and practices of medication safety.  

PubMed

In this article, we describe the depth of knowledge and skill nurses used in making decisions regarding the safe processes and practices of medication administration. Using grounded theory, we identified the essence of medication safety by nurses as the theme of clinical reasoning. Nurses used two medication safety processes within the clinical reasoning theme-maintaining medication safety and managing the environment-together with six categories of patient-focused medication safety practices in the first process and four categories of environmental-focused safety practices within the second process. These processes and practices present an emerging model of safe medication administration developed from the narratives of 50 medical-surgical nurses. This model provides researchers with the basis for the development of systemic policies for safer medication administration for patients. Health care professional educators might also find the results useful in developing curricula focused on patient safety as the foundation of quality care. PMID:21873283

Dickson, Geri L; Flynn, Linda

2012-01-01

99

Quantum-Chemical Studies on TATB Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum chemical studies have gained paramount importance in screening of thermodynamically feasible chemical processes. The current investigation attempts to select an appropriate process for the synthesis of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitro benzene (TATB), a reasonably powerful insensitive high explosive (IHE) through density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Although, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene (THB) routes for synthesis of TATB have been well established, this article

R. S. Patil; S. Radhakrishnan; P. M. Jadhav; V. D. Ghule; T. Soman

2010-01-01

100

Microwave-enhanced chemical processes  

DOEpatents

A process is disclosed for the disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400 C in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient breaks the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds. Detoxification values in excess of 80 are provided and further detoxification of the bed is followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes. 1 figure.

Varma, R.

1990-06-19

101

Chemical production processes and systems  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

Holladay, Johnathan E.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; White, James F.; Zacher, Alan H.

2014-06-17

102

Integrating system safety into the basic systems engineering process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic elements of a systems engineering process are given along with a detailed description of what the safety system requires from the systems engineering process. Also discussed is the safety that the system provides to other subfunctions of systems engineering.

Griswold, J. W.

1971-01-01

103

Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

Burnham, A.K.

1993-07-01

104

Safety assessment of the liquid-fed ceramic melter process  

SciTech Connect

As part of its development program for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste, Pacific Northwest Laboratory assessed the safety issues for a complete liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process. The LFCM process, an adaption of commercial glass-making technology, is being developed to convert high-level liquid waste from the nuclear fuel cycle into glass. This safety assessment uncovered no unresolved or significant safety problems with the LFCM process. Although in this assessment the LFCM process was not directly compared with other solidification processes, the safety hazards of the LFCM process are comparable to those of other processes. The high processing temperatures of the glass in the LFCM pose no additional significant safety concerns, and the dispersible inventory of dried waste (calcine) is small. This safety assessment was based on the nuclear power waste flowsheet, since power waste is more radioactive than defense waste at the time of solidification, and all accident conditions for the power waste would have greater radiological consequences than those for defense waste. An exhaustive list of possible off-standard conditions and equipment failures was compiled. These accidents were then classified according to severity of consequence and type of accident. Radionuclide releases to the stack were calculated for each group of accidents using conservative assumptions regarding the retention and decontamination features of the process and facility. Two recommendations that should be considered by process designers are given in the safety assessment.

Buelt, J.L.; Partain, W.L.

1980-08-01

105

21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19...ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.19 Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed...

2011-04-01

106

21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19...ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.19 Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed...

2011-04-01

107

A graded approach to safety documentation at processing facilities  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has over 40 major Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) in preparation for non-reactor facilities. These facilities include nuclear material production facilities, waste management facilities, support laboratories and environmental remediation facilities. The SARs for these various projects encompass hazard levels from High to Low, and mission times from startup, through operation, to shutdown. All of these efforts are competing for scarce resources, and therefore some mechanism is required for balancing the documentation requirements. Three of the key variables useful for the decision making process are Depth of Safety Analysis, Urgency of Safety Analysis, and Resource Availability. This report discusses safety documentation at processing facilities.

Cowen, M.L.

1992-01-01

108

A graded approach to safety documentation at processing facilities  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has over 40 major Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) in preparation for non-reactor facilities. These facilities include nuclear material production facilities, waste management facilities, support laboratories and environmental remediation facilities. The SARs for these various projects encompass hazard levels from High to Low, and mission times from startup, through operation, to shutdown. All of these efforts are competing for scarce resources, and therefore some mechanism is required for balancing the documentation requirements. Three of the key variables useful for the decision making process are Depth of Safety Analysis, Urgency of Safety Analysis, and Resource Availability. This report discusses safety documentation at processing facilities.

Cowen, M.L.

1992-09-01

109

September 2013 Laboratory Safety Manual Section 1 Chemical Hygiene Plan Responsibilities  

E-print Network

in Laboratories, WAC 296-828 1-3 b. International Fire Code.................................................1-3 cSeptember 2013 Laboratory Safety Manual Section 1 ­ Chemical Hygiene Plan Responsibilities UW AND APPLICATION ......................................................................1-4 1. Chemical Laboratory

Wilcock, William

110

NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) Payload Safety Review Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Issues addressed by this program: (1) Complicated roles and responsibilities associated with multi-partner projects (2) Working relationships and communications between all organizations involved in the payload safety process (3) Consistent interpretation and implementation of safety requirements from one project to the rest (4) Consistent implementation of the Tailoring Process (5) Clearly defined NASA decision-making-authority (6) Bring Agency-wide perspective to each ElV payload project. Current process requires a Payload Safety Working Group (PSWG) for eac payload with representatives from all involved organizations.

Starbus, Calvert S.; Donovan, Shawn; Dook, Mike; Palo, Tom

2007-01-01

111

A Novel Chemical Nitrate Destruction Process  

SciTech Connect

Nitrates represent one of the most significant pollutant discharged to the Baltic Sea by the Sliiamae hydrometallurgical plant. This article contains a brief overview of the existing nitrate destruction technologies followed by the description of a new process developed by the authors. The new chemical process for nitrate destruction is cost effective and simple to operate. It converts the nitrate to nitrogen gas which goes to the atmosphere.

Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.

1999-03-01

112

Updated: December 8, 2010 Washington University Institutional Biological & Chemical Safety Committee (IBC)  

E-print Network

significant spill of recombinant DNA-containing material outside of a biological safety cabinet, whereUpdated: December 8, 2010 Washington University Institutional Biological & Chemical Safety Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines) Section IV-B-2-b-(7), the Institutional Biological and Chemical

Kroll, Kristen L.

113

Institutional Biological & Chemical Safety Committee Infection Prevention, Department of Comparative Medicine  

E-print Network

Institutional Biological & Chemical Safety Committee Infection Prevention, Department Biological and Chemical Safety Committee (IBC). 4. Traffic into the procedure area should be limited to those/Equipment 1. Supplies for animals and humans should be maintained separately. 2. Cabinets containing supplies

Subramanian, Venkat

114

A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

115

[Research on chemical reactions during ginseng processing].  

PubMed

As a kind of commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, ginseng has a high reputation at home and abroad. The research of ginseng has been expanded to medicine, pharmacy, biology, food science and other fields, with great achievements in recent years. Ginseng contains ginsenosides, volatile oil, carbohydrates, amino acids, polypeptides, inorganic elements and othser chemical constituents. Each component has extensive physiological activity, and is the base of ginseng's effect. After processing, the complicated changes are taken place in the constituents of ginseng, and some new substances produced. This paper aims to review the studies on chemical constituents and their mechanisms during ginseng processing, and the ideas, methods and the direction of the development of traditional Chinese medicine processing in the future. PMID:25612424

Zhang, Miao; Qin, Kun-Ming; Li, Wei-Dong; Yin, Fang-Zhou; Cai, Hao; Cai, Bao-Chang

2014-10-01

116

Mechanical integrity implementation and related process safety management elements  

SciTech Connect

The OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) rule requires covered facilities to establish a mechanical integrity (MI) program. The MI program must address an ongoing effort to maintain the integrity of process equipment and safety systems by providing written procedures, training, inspection and testing, and quality assurance. Development of an MI program requires information from other PSM elements such as equipment process safety information and employee participation as building blocks for the program. Information obtained from other elements of PSM can be used as the basis for inspection and testing, frequency of testing, written maintenance procedures, training of maintenance personnel, and quality assurance of spare parts and newly installed equipment. This paper presents highlights in the implementation of a mechanical integrity program. A description of the use of process safety information and baseline inspections is detailed with appropriate examples. The MI program stems from an initial documentation review, and culminates in a completely functional MI program in compliance with the regulation.

Hudson, K.M. [General Physics Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

117

Fundamentals of fluidized bed chemical processes  

SciTech Connect

Chemical processes based on the use of fluidized solids, although widely used on an industrial scale for some four decades, are currently increasing in importance as industry looks for improved methods for handling and reacting solid materials. This book provides background necessary for an understanding of the technique of gas-solid fluidization. Contents: Some Fundamental Aspects of Fluidization-General Features of Gas-Solid Fluidization; Minimum Fluidization Velocity; Inter-particle forces; Liquid-Solid Fluidization; Bubbles; Slugging; Entrainment and Elutriation; Particle Movement; Bed Viscosity; Fluidization Under Pressure. Fluidized-Bed Reactor Models-ome Individual Models; Model Comparisons; Multiple Region Models. Catalytic Cracking-Process Developments Riser Cracking; Catalysis; Process Chemistry; Kinetics; Process Models. Combustion and Gasification-Plant Developments; Oil and Gas Combustion; Desulphurization; No/sub x/ Emissions; Coal Gassification. Miscellaneous Processes-Phthalic Anhydride (1,3-isobezofurandione); Acrylonitrile (prop-3-enenitrile); Vinyl Chloride (chloroethene); Titanium Dioxide; Uranium Processing; Sulphide Roasting; Indexes.

Yates, J.G.

1983-01-01

118

STS safety approval process for small self-contained payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The safety approval process established by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for Get Away Special (GAS) payloads is described. Although the designing organization is ultimately responsible for the safe operation of its payload, the Get Away Special team at the Goddard Space Flight Center will act as advisors while iterative safety analyses are performed and the Safety Data Package inputs are submitted. This four phase communications process will ultimately give NASA confidence that the GAS payload is safe, and successful completion of the Phase 3 package and review will clear the way for flight aboard the Space Transportation System orbiter.

Gum, Mary A.

1988-01-01

119

SAFETY EVALUATION OF RENOVATED WASTEWATER FROM A POULTRY PROCESSING PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

A three-phase evaluation of reclaimed process wastewater for reuse was undertaken at the Sterling Processing Corporation plant in Oakland, Maryland. The main objective was to evaluate the safety for human consumption of poultry exposed during processing to an average 50 percent m...

120

Scope on Safety: Chemical tracking systems--not your usual global positioning system!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The haphazard storing and tracking of chemicals in the laboratory is a serious safety issue facing science teachers. To get control of your chemicals, try implementing a chemical tracking system. A chemical tracking system (CTS) is a database of chemicals used in the laboratory. If implemented correctly, a CTS will reduce purchasing costs, eliminate overstocking, and reduce disposal costs. It will also allow you to respond more effectively to accidents, fires, and other hazardous situations.

Roy, Ken

2007-04-01

121

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Safety in the Laboratory: Are We Making Any Progress?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews trends in laboratory safety found in both industrial and academic situations. Reports that large industrial labs generally have excellent safety programs but that, although there have been improvements, academia still lags behind industry in safety. Includes recommendations for improving lab safety. (ML)

McKusick, Blaine C.

1987-01-01

122

Margin of Safety Definition and Examples Used in Safety Basis Documents and the USQ Process  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Safety Management final rule, 10 CFR 830, provides an undefined term, margin of safety (MOS). Safe harbors listed in 10 CFR 830, Table 2, such as DOE?STD?3009 use but do not define the term. This lack of definition has created the need for the definition. This paper provides a definition of MOS and documents examples of MOS as applied in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) approved safety basis for an existing nuclear facility. If we understand what MOS looks like regarding Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) parameters, then it helps us compare against other parameters that do not involve a MOS. This paper also documents parameters that are not MOS. These criteria could be used to determine if an MOS exists in safety basis documents. This paper helps DOE, including the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and its contractors responsible for the safety basis improve safety basis documents and the unreviewed safety question (USQ) process with respect to MOS.

Beaulieu, R. A.

2013-10-03

123

Active and Knowledge-based Process Safety Incident Retrieval System  

E-print Network

eliminates the opportunity to research, identify and react appropriately to reduce or eradicate the hazard.3 Therefore in improving process safety data systems, the objective of this research is twofold: 1. The first objective is to improve the traditional... results. Hazardous Material Incident Reporting System (HMIRS) and Integrated Pipeline Information System (IPIS) HMIRS and IPIS are maintained by US DOT?s Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA). DOT?s HMIRS database...

Khan, Sara Shammni

2011-10-21

124

Safety-driven system engineering process  

E-print Network

As the demand for high-performing complex systems has increased, the ability of engineers to meet that demand has not kept pace. The creators of the traditional system engineering processes did not anticipate modern complex ...

Stringfellow, Margaret Virgina

2008-01-01

125

Novel food processing innovations to improve food safety and health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Innovative food processing can be used to improve safety of specialty crops and their co-products, while improving sustainability of agricultural and food processing operations and enhancing overall nutritional quality of foods for both domestic and international consumers. The potential of various...

126

A Human Performance Modeling System for Process Safety Operations  

E-print Network

Operators have a crucial role in case of an emergency in a process facility. When an abnormality occurs in the process, the operator has a limited time to take corrective actions before system safety devices shut down the operation. It is crucial...

Harputlu, Emrah 1986-

2013-01-02

127

The Acquisition and Application of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Data in Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessments  

SciTech Connect

The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) formed the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee in the year 2000 to design a toxicity testing scheme that would incorporate current understanding of pesticide toxicology and exposure and recognize the specificity of agricultural products. The purpose of and background for the ACSA project are described in detail in the companion paper by Carmichael et al. (2006). As the proposed tiered testing approach for agricultural chemical safety assessment evolved, the ACSA Technical Committee and its task forces (Carmichael et al., 2006; Cooper et al., 2006; Doe et al., 2006) worked toward the following objectives: (1) Provide information that can be applied to a range of relevant human exposure situations. (2) Characterize effects that have the potential to damage human health at exposure levels approximating those that might be encountered in the use of these compounds. (3) Avoid high doses that cause unnecessary public concern (e.g., safety assessments should focus on doses that are relevant to realistic human exposures while maintaining adequate power for the experimental studies to detect toxicity). (4) Use the minimum number of animals necessary to produce a thorough safety assessment of the chemicals of interest. (5) Inflict the minimum amount of distress on animals. (6) Minimize excessive and unnecessary use of resources by regulatory authorities and industry, which could be used to address other issues of concern. (7) Increase both the efficiency and relevance of the current safety assessment process.

Barton, H. A.; Pastoor, Timothy P.; Baetcke, Karl; Chambers, Janice E.; Diliberto, Janet; Doerrer, Nancy G.; Driver, Jeffrey H.; Hastings, Charles E.; Iyengar, Seshadri; Krieger, Robert; Stahl, Bernhard; Timchalk, Chuck

2006-01-01

128

Chemical and Hazardous Materials Department of Environmental Health and Safety  

E-print Network

to be taken. It is important to distinguish the difference between hazard and risk. The two terms fire department and other emergency responders as appropriate. #12;3 The University Radiation Safety Section should be consulted for specific safety information concerning radioactive materials and

O'Toole, Alice J.

129

DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY EFFICIENT CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. Process emissio...

130

78 FR 69433 - Executive Order 13650 Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security Listening Sessions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Chemical Facility Safety and Security Listening Sessions AGENCY: National Protection...Directorate, DHS. ACTION: Notice of public listening sessions...is announcing a series of public listening sessions and webinars to solicit...

2013-11-19

131

Materials Safety Data Sheets: the basis for control of toxic chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Material Safety Data Sheets contained in this volume are the basis for the Toxic Chemical Control Program developed by the Industrial Hygiene Department, Health Division, ORNL. The three volumes are the update and expansion of ORNL\\/TM-5721 and ORNL\\/TM-5722 Material Safety Data Sheets: The Basis for Control of Toxic Chemicals, Volume I and Volume II. As such, they are a

E. E. Ketchen; W. E. Porter

1979-01-01

132

Chemical mass transfer in magmatic processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamic and mathematical relations are presented to facilitate the description of an algorithm for the calculation of chemical mass transfer in magmatic systems. This algorithm extends the silicate liquid solution model of Ghiorso et al. (1983) to allow for the quantitative modelling of natural magmatic processes such as crystal fractionation, equilibrium crystallization, magma mixing and solid-phase assimilation. The algorithm incorporates a new method for determining the saturation surface of a non-ideal multicomponent solid-solution crystallizing from a melt. It utilizes a mathematical programming (optimization) approach to determine the stable heterogeneous (solids+liquid) equilibrium phase assemblage at a particular temperature and pressure in magmatic systems both closed and open to oxygen. Closed system equilibria are computed by direct minimization of the Gibbs free energy of the system. Open system equilibria are determined by minimization of the Korzhinskii potential (Thompson 1970), where oxygen is treated as a perfectly mobile component. Magmatic systems undergoing chemical mass transfer processes are modelled in a series of discrete steps in temperature, pressure or bulk composition, with each step characterized by heterogeneous solid-liquid equilibrium. A numerical implementation of the algorithm has been developed (in the form of a FORTRAN 77 computer program) and calculations demonstrating its utility are provided in an accompanying paper (Ghiorso and Carmichael 1985).

Ghiorso, Mark S.

1985-07-01

133

Microfabricated Instrumentation for Chemical Sensing in Industrial Process Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monitoring of chemical constituents in manufacturing processes is of economic importance to most industries. The monitoring and control of chemical constituents may be of importance for product quality control or, in the case of process effluents, of environmental concern. The most common approach now employed for chemical process control is to collect samples which are returned to a conventional

2000-01-01

134

Chemical Process Modeling in Modelica Ali Baharev Arnold Neumaier  

E-print Network

Chemical Process Modeling in Modelica Ali Baharev Arnold Neumaier Fakultät für Mathematik, Universität Wien Nordbergstra�e 15, A-1090 Wien, Austria Abstract Chemical process models are highly for general-purpose chemical process modeling have been built. Multi- ple steady-states in ideal two

Neumaier, Arnold

135

Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains a discussion of the chemical safety improvements planned or already underway at DOE sites to correct facility or site-specific vulnerabilities. The main part of the report is a discussion of each of the programmatic deficiencies; a description of the tasks to be accomplished; the specific actions to be taken; and the organizational responsibilities for implementation.

Not Available

1994-09-01

136

UNREVIEWED SAFETY ISSUE SCREENING AND DETERMINATION PROCESS TRAINING WORKSHEET  

E-print Network

TA-53 UNREVIEWED SAFETY ISSUE SCREENING AND DETERMINATION PROCESS TRAINING WORKSHEET CT-TA53-FRM: This worksheet is used to document completion of the USI Reviewer / Approver requirements, per SBP113" to all of the above-referenced questions, please continue to the back of this worksheet. #12;TA-53

137

Safety of foods treated with novel process intervention technologies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many consumers are familiar with traditional food safety and preservation technologies such as thermal processing (cooking), salting, and pickling to inactivate common foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Many consumers are less familiar with other technologies s...

138

ENSURING THE SAFETY OF FRANKFURTERS BY THERMAL PROCESSING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that has occasionally compromised the safety of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods such as frankfurters. The occurrence of this organism in fully-cooked products is not caused by the bacterial cells surviving the cooking process, but by contamination after cooki...

139

Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions.

Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

1994-09-01

140

Foundations for Excellence in the Chemical Process Industries. Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses the Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers Project and issues of relevance to the education and employment of chemical laboratory technicians (CLTs) and process technicians (PTs). Section 1 consists of the following background information: overview of the chemical process industries,…

Hofstader, Robert; Chapman, Kenneth

141

Material Safety Data Sheet Ashland Chemical Co. Date Prepared: 01/06/98  

E-print Network

Material Safety Data Sheet Ashland Chemical Co. Date Prepared: 01/06/98 Date Printed: 06/23/99 MSDS __________________________________________________________________________ 1. CHEMICAL PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION Material Identity Product Name: ACT-KI GOLD ETCHANT, and other skin damage. Swallowing Swallowing this material may be harmful or fatal. Symptoms may include

Rubloff, Gary W.

142

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant failure rate database  

SciTech Connect

This report represents the first major upgrade to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Failure Rate Database. This upgrade incorporates additional site-specific and generic data while improving on the previous data reduction techniques. In addition, due to a change in mission at the ICPP, the status of certain equipment items has changed from operating to standby or off-line. A discussion of how this mission change influenced the relevance of failure data also has been included. This report contains two data sources: the ICPP Failure Rate Database and a generic failure rate database. A discussion is presented on the approaches and assumptions used to develop the data in the ICPP Failure Rate Database. The generic database is included along with a short discussion of its application. A brief discussion of future projects recommended to strengthen and lend credibility to the ICPP Failure Rate Database also is included.

Alber, T.G.; Hunt, C.R.; Fogarty, S.P.; Wilson, J.R.

1995-08-01

143

Configuration and Data Management Process and the System Safety Professional  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article presents a discussion of the configuration management (CM) and the Data Management (DM) functions and provides a perspective of the importance of configuration and data management processes to the success of system safety activities. The article addresses the basic requirements of configuration and data management generally based on NASA configuration and data management policies and practices, although the concepts are likely to represent processes of any public or private organization's well-designed configuration and data management program.

Shivers, Charles Herbert; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

144

The Implementation and Maintenance of a Behavioral Safety Process in a Petroleum Refinery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A values-centered and team-based behavioral safety process was implemented in a petroleum oil refinery. Employee teams defined the refinery's safety values and related practices, which were used to guide the process design and implementation. The process included (a) a safety assessment; (b) the clarification of safety-related values and related…

Myers, Wanda V.; McSween, Terry E.; Medina, Rixio E.; Rost, Kristen; Alvero, Alicia M.

2010-01-01

145

The Efficacy of a Condensed Seeking Safety Intervention for Women in Residential Chemical Dependence Treatment at 30 Days Posttreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the efficacy of a condensed version of the Seeking Safety intervention in the reduction of trauma-related symptoms and improved drug abstinence rates among women in residential chemical dependence treatment. One hundred and four women were randomly assigned to treatment including a condensed (six session) Seeking Safety intervention or the standard chemical dependence intervention. The Seeking Safety participants

Anna Cash Ghee; Lanny C. Bolling; Candace S. Johnson

2009-01-01

146

Assuring the Safety of Chemicals through Improved Exposure Science  

EPA Science Inventory

Thousands of chemicals are currently in commercial use and hundreds more are introduced each year. Of these, only a small fraction has been assessed adequately for potential risks. Existing chemical testing and exposure measurement protocols are expensive and time consuming. Fu...

147

Safety and accident prevention in chemical operations. 2nd edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book should be required reading for chemical engineers associated with the design and operation of chemical and petroleum plants who need a knowledge of a wide range of topics which touch on hazardous operations. Some chapters have not apparently been updated from the first edition. Some chapters deal with instrumentation for safe operation, pressure vessels, and blast resistant buildings.

Fawcett; Wood

1982-01-01

148

Process hazards analysis (PrHA) program, bridging accident analyses and operational safety  

SciTech Connect

Recently the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 55 (TA-55) was revised and submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE). As a part of this effort, over seventy Process Hazards Analyses (PrHAs) were written and/or revised over the six years prior to the FSAR revision. TA-55 is a research, development, and production nuclear facility that primarily supports US. defense and space programs. Nuclear fuels and material research; material recovery, refining and analyses; and the casting, machining and fabrication of plutonium components are some of the activities conducted at TA-35. These operations involve a wide variety of industrial, chemical and nuclear hazards. Operational personnel along with safety analysts work as a team to prepare the PrHA. PrHAs describe the process; identi fy the hazards; and analyze hazards including determining hazard scenarios, their likelihood, and consequences. In addition, the interaction of the process to facility systems, structures and operational specific protective features are part of the PrHA. This information is rolled-up to determine bounding accidents and mitigating systems and structures. Further detailed accident analysis is performed for the bounding accidents and included in the FSAR. The FSAR is part of the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) that defines the safety envelope for all facility operations in order to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. The DSA is in compliance with the US. Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management and is approved by DOE. The DSA sets forth the bounding conditions necessary for the safe operation for the facility and is essentially a 'license to operate.' Safely of day-to-day operations is based on Hazard Control Plans (HCPs). Hazards are initially identified in the PrI-IA for the specific operation and act as input to the HCP. Specific protective features important to worker safety are incorporated so the worker can readily identify the safety parameters of the their work. System safety tools such as Preliminary Hazard Analysis, What-If Analysis, Hazard and Operability Analysis as well as other techniques as necessary provide the groundwork for both determining bounding conditions for facility safety, operational safety, and day-to-clay worker safety.

Richardson, J. A. (Jeanne A.); McKernan, S. A. (Stuart A.); Vigil, M. J. (Michael J.)

2003-01-01

149

A system safety approach to the FAA surveillance process  

SciTech Connect

As commercial air travel grows in terms of the number of passenger miles flown, there is expected to be a corresponding dramatic increase in the absolute number of accidents. This despite an enviable safety record and a very low accident rate. The political environment is such that an increase in the absolute number of accidents is not acceptable, with a stated goal of a factor of five reduction in the aviation fatal accident rate within ten years. The objective of this project is to develop an improved surveillance process that will provide measurements of the current state-of-health and predictions of future state of health of aircraft, operators, facilities, and personnel. Methodologies developed for nuclear weapon safety, in addition to more well known system safety and high-consequence engineering techniques, will be used in this approach.

Werner, P.W.; Olson, D.R.

1997-08-08

150

Environmental Health and Safety Restricted Purchase Items Equipment and Chemicals Requiring Review by the Chemical and Environmental  

E-print Network

Environmental Health and Safety Restricted Purchase Items Equipment and Chemicals Requiring Review time the magnetic flux density in millitesla (mT) may be 60/frequency (in Hz) Equipment which may generate noise at any time in excess of 82 decibels, A weighted scale (dBA) (laboratory or research

151

Safety Sufficiency for NextGen: Assessment of Selected Existing Safety Methods, Tools, Processes, and Regulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NextGen is a complex socio-technical system and, in many ways, it is expected to be more complex than the current system. It is vital to assess the safety impact of the NextGen elements (technologies, systems, and procedures) in a rigorous and systematic way and to ensure that they do not compromise safety. In this study, the NextGen elements in the form of Operational Improvements (OIs), Enablers, Research Activities, Development Activities, and Policy Issues were identified. The overall hazard situation in NextGen was outlined; a high-level hazard analysis was conducted with respect to multiple elements in a representative NextGen OI known as OI-0349 (Automation Support for Separation Management); and the hazards resulting from the highly dynamic complexity involved in an OI-0349 scenario were illustrated. A selected but representative set of the existing safety methods, tools, processes, and regulations was then reviewed and analyzed regarding whether they are sufficient to assess safety in the elements of that OI and ensure that safety will not be compromised and whether they might incur intolerably high costs.

Xu, Xidong; Ulrey, Mike L.; Brown, John A.; Mast, James; Lapis, Mary B.

2013-01-01

152

Energy conservation in regenerated chemical absorption processes  

SciTech Connect

Energy savings from split-flow design modifications or the installation of absorber intercoolers are quantified for solvent-based separation processes. Absorber-stripper systems that use aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) or diethanolamine (DEA) to remove CO/sub 2/ or H/sub 2/S from natural gas streams are modeled. Use of split flow in regenerated chemical absorption processes with isothermal columns resulted in energy savings of over 50% for systems with large solute-recovery fractions. The energy savings are a linear function of the logarithm of percent unrecovered solute. Optimal values are found for the flow rate and withdrawal point of the split-flow stream. The optimal design and operating conditions for CO/sub 2/ systems with adiabatic columns are determined by the stripper column; the stripper exhibits a steam-consumption minimum with respect to the total solvent flow rate and the composition of the lean-solvent stream. In contrast, optimal conditions for H/sub 2/S systems are set by the absorber. These absorber-limited systems exhibit a steam consumption minimum for the lowest solvent flow which can achieve the specified solute recovery in the absorber. Absorber intercoolers conserve energy by reducing the solvent flow rate required for a specified solute recovery. The optimal intercooler location is near an acid-gas-to-amine ratio halfway between the same ratios for the lean and rich solvent streams. The intercooler location is near an acid-gas-to-amine ratio halfway between the same ratios for the lean and rich solvent streams. The intercooler is optically sized by equating the absorber-solvent-feed temperature, the absorber-intercooler process-outlet temperature, and the cooling-water effluent temperature.

Thompson, R.E.

1986-01-01

153

Commercialization of Turbulent Combustion Code CREBCOM for Chemical Industry Safety  

SciTech Connect

This program developed the Kurchatov Institute’s CREBCOM (CRiteria and Experimentally Based COMbustion) code to the point where it could be commercialized and marketed for the special applications described above, as well as for general purpose combustion calculations. The CREBCOM code uses a different approach to model the explosion phenomenon. The code models, with full 3D gas dynamics, the development of an explosion in three characteristics regimes: a) slow flames, b) fast flames, and c) detonation. The transition from one regime to another is governed by a set of empirical criteria and correlations. As part of the commercialization, the code was validated with the use of experimental data. The experimental data covered a range of thermodynamic initial conditions and apparatus scale. Proprietary experimental data were provided to the Kurchatov Institute by the DuPont for this purpose. The flame acceleration and detonation data was obtained from experiments in methane and oxygen enriched air mixtures carried out in two vessels with diameters of 20 and 27 cm. The experimental data covers a wide spectrum of initial temperature (20-525C) and pressure (1-3 atm). As part of this program, the Kurchatov Institute performed experiments in a 52 cm vessel in mixtures of methane-air at room temperature and pressure to be used in the validation of the code. The objective of these tests was to obtain frame acceleration data at a scale close to that found in actual industrial processes. BNL was responsible for managing the DOE/IPP portion of the program, and for satisfying DOE reporting requirements. BNL also participated in an independent assessment of the CREBOM code. DuPont provided proprietary experimental data to the Kurchatov Institute on flame acceleration and detonation in high temperature methane and oxygen enriched air mixtures in addition to the matching fund. In addition, DuPont also supplied to KI instrumentation for pressure and temperature measurement. Kurchatov (KI) performed experiments at close to full-scale in mixtures of room temperature methane and air to develop the CREBCOM code which was used for explosion simulation in confined geometrics, such as chemical reactors and converters. The code was validated by comparison of the code simulations with experimental data obtained under prototypic reactor mixture conditions.

Rohatgi, Upendra

2007-06-30

154

Testing of chemicals, safety evaluation and regulation at European Community level.  

PubMed

Regulations regarding safety of chemicals are covered by the following main programmes: health and safety at work, internal market and technical harmonization, environmental and consumer protection. The elaboration of draft Community legislation by the Commission for transmission to Council and the European Parliament requires an evaluation of the scientific data together with a determination of the technical possibilities and economic impact. Studies, scientific committees, national experts and tripartite advisory committees are used. For new chemicals premarketing testing is required for labelling. The testing scheme is described. From the legislative point of view chemical safety is considered essentially in terms of six broad categories: air and water pollution and handling of toxic wastes, classification and labelling of dangerous chemicals and preparations, limitations of use of dangerous substances and preparations, occupational health and safety measures, prevention of major industrial chemical accidents, public health measures related to dangerous chemicals. The classification and labelling of carcinogens and the regulation of the various facets of the use of lead will illustrate these regulatory procedures. PMID:3625815

Berlin, A; Bennett, E; van der Venne, M T

1987-05-01

155

Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. To address the facility-specific and site-specific vulnerabilities, responsible DOE and site-contractor line organizations have developed initial site response plans. These plans, presented as Volume 2 of this Management Response Plan, describe the actions needed to mitigate or eliminate the facility- and site-specific vulnerabilities identified by the CSV Working Group field verification teams. Initial site response plans are described for: Brookhaven National Lab., Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Lab., Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., Oak Ridge Reservation, Rocky Flats Plant, Sandia National Laboratories, and Savannah River Site.

Not Available

1994-09-01

156

Physical and Chemical Changes in the Digestion Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson demonstrates how students can determine the cause and effect relationship in the digestion process. Students will be able to determine where chemical and physical changes occur in the digestion process and support their findings from an informational text. This lesson provides students with an opportunity to apply their knowledge of physical and chemical changes in matter to the process of digestion.

Clark, Monica

2012-09-16

157

Speleothems as Examples of Chemical Equilibrium Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chemical formation of speleothems such as stalactites and stalagmites is poorly understood by introductory geology instructors and misrepresented in most textbooks. Although evaporation may be a controlling factor in some caves, it is necessary to consider chemical precipitation as more important in controlling the diagenesis of calcium…

Wilson, James R.

1984-01-01

158

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROCESS AND MECHANISM MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this task is to develop and test chemical and physical mechanisms for use in the chemical transport models of EPA's Models-3. The target model for this research is the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. These mechanisms include gas and aqueous phase ph...

159

EVALUATING AND DESIGNING CHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemicals and chemical processes are at the heart of most environmental problems. This isn't surprising since chemicals make up all of the products we use in our lives. The common use of cjhemicals makes them of high interest for systems analysis, particularly because of environ...

160

In tank processing safety analysis program summary report. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this summary report is to present results from the safety analysis work that was performed in support of the ``Seismic Safety Issue Resolution Program Plan`` for the In-Tank Processing (ITP) Facility. Results from this effort include estimates of the consequences that postulated earthquakes might introduce. For beyond evaluation based earthquake (EBE) events, best estimate values (e.g., waste tank volumes) are used rather than bounding values to analyze the consequences of such events. This is consistent with the probabilistic approach outlined in Attachment C of the program plan. Planned follow-on work will also involve best estimates of probabilities for soil liquefaction and differential settlement. These probabilities will be combined in an accident progression event tree (APET) model that is used to provide estimates of risk for beyond EBE seismic events.

Radder, J.A.

1994-11-01

161

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Safety: What Do We Really Mean?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests ways in which chemistry professionals, particularly academic faculty members, might improve the image of chemistry and engineering. Stresses damage done to this image because of recent media coverage regarding misuse and improper disposal of chemicals. (CS)

Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.; Fawcett, Howard H.

1981-01-01

162

Controlled versus Automatic Processes: Which Is Dominant to Safety? The Moderating Effect of Inhibitory Control  

PubMed Central

This study explores the precursors of employees' safety behaviors based on a dual-process model, which suggests that human behaviors are determined by both controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Employees' responses to a self-reported survey on safety attitudes capture their controlled cognitive process, while the automatic association concerning safety measured by an Implicit Association Test (IAT) reflects employees' automatic cognitive processes about safety. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effects of inhibition on the relationship between self-reported safety attitude and safety behavior, and that between automatic associations towards safety and safety behavior. The results suggest significant main effects of self-reported safety attitude and automatic association on safety behaviors. Further, the interaction between self-reported safety attitude and inhibition and that between automatic association and inhibition each predict unique variances in safety behavior. Specifically, the safety behaviors of employees with lower level of inhibitory control are influenced more by automatic association, whereas those of employees with higher level of inhibitory control are guided more by self-reported safety attitudes. These results suggest that safety behavior is the joint outcome of both controlled and automatic cognitive processes, and the relative importance of these cognitive processes depends on employees' individual differences in inhibitory control. The implications of these findings for theoretical and practical issues are discussed at the end. PMID:24520338

Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Ding, Weidong; Lu, Fan

2014-01-01

163

DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES WITH FUGITIVE AND OPEN EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Designing a chemical process normally includes aspects of economic and environmental disciplines. In this work we describe methods to quickly and easily evaluate the economics and potential environmental impacts of a process, with the hydrodealkylation of toluene as an example. ...

164

Integrated Design of Chemical Processes and Utility Systems  

E-print Network

The pinch concept for integrated heat recovery networks has recently become established in chemical process design. This paper presents an overview of the concept and shows how it has now been extended to total process design (reactors, separators...

Linnhoff, B.

165

Program Prepares Students for Chemical-Processing Careers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a chemical-processing program at Saginaw Career Complex in Saginaw, Michigan. The program is preparing 42 11th- and 12th-graders to work as chemical-processing operators or technicians by the time they graduate from high school. It was developed in partnership with the Saginaw Career Complex--one of 51 centers in the state…

Jorgensen, Haley

2005-01-01

166

The chromatographic uranium enrichment process by Asahi chemical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel uranium absorbents and catalysts for accelerating the electronexchange reaction between uranous and uranyl ions, as well as other technical developments since 1972, have drastically improved the basis of the chemical exchange process. A unit of a few packed towers is the basic enrichment module for the Asahi Chemical Enrichment Process. A stationary concentration profile of uranium isotopes is formed

S. Maomi; T. Hunihiko; M. Tetsuya

1982-01-01

167

Learning from the application of nuclear probabilistic safety assessment to the chemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the new approach of risk analysis established by the French Ministry of the Environment and develops the benefits of applying nuclear probabilistic safety assessment approaches to the chemical industry.In the aftermath of the AZF disaster in Toulouse on 21 September 2001, a new law was proposed by the French government asking for the investigation of all representative

Cyril Charvet; Jean-Luc Chambon; François Corenwinder; Jérôme Taveau

2011-01-01

168

Total chemical management in photographic processing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mission of the U. S. Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center is to produce high-quality photographs of the earth taken from aircraft and Landsat satellite. In order to meet the criteria of producing research-quality photographs, while at the same time meeting strict environmental restrictions, a total photographic chemical management system was installed. This involved a three-part operation consisting of the design of a modern chemical analysis laboratory, the implementation of a chemical regeneration system, and the installation of a waste treatment system, including in-plant pretreatment and outside secondary waste treatment. Over the last ten years the result of this program has yielded high-quality photographs while saving approximately 30,000 per year and meeting all Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restrictions.

Luden, Charles; Schultz, Ronald

1985-01-01

169

Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure: A Safety Program Manual. Participatory Education with Farmworkers in Pesticide Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure among North Carolina Farmworkers (PACE) is a project designed to describe farmworker pesticide exposure and to develop an educational intervention to reduce farmworker pesticide exposure. The PACE project used a community participation framework to ensure that the community played a significant role in…

Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC. Dept. of Family and Community Medicine.

170

Chemical kinetics and modeling of combustion processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical kinetic modeling is an important tool in the analysis of many combustion systems. The use of detailed kinetic models in the interpretation of fundamental kinetics experiments in shock tubes and plug flow reactors is widespread. Recently these models, coupled with fluid mechanical models, have become valuable in helping to understand complex phenomena in practical combustion devices. This study reviews

C. K. Westbrook; F. L. Dryer

1981-01-01

171

Intelligent Chemical Sensor Systems for In-space Safety Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future in-space and lunar operations will require significantly improved monitoring and Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) throughout the mission. In particular, the monitoring of chemical species is an important component of an overall monitoring system for space vehicles and operations. For example, in leak monitoring of propulsion systems during launch, inspace, and on lunar surfaces, detection of low concentrations of hydrogen and other fuels is important to avoid explosive conditions that could harm personnel and damage the vehicle. Dependable vehicle operation also depends on the timely and accurate measurement of these leaks. Thus, the development of a sensor array to determine the concentration of fuels such as hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or hydrazine as well as oxygen is necessary. Work has been on-going to develop an integrated smart leak detection system based on miniaturized sensors to detect hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or hydrazine, and oxygen. The approach is to implement Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) based sensors incorporated with signal conditioning electronics, power, data storage, and telemetry enabling intelligent systems. The final sensor system will be self-contained with a surface area comparable to a postage stamp. This paper discusses the development of this "Lick and Stick" leak detection system and it s application to In-Space Transportation and other Exploration applications.

Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Neudeck, P. G.; Makel, D. B.; Ward, B.; Liu, C. C.

2006-01-01

172

Reduced product yield in chemical processes by second law effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of second law effects in chemical processes, where product yield is explicitly related to the individual irreversibilities within the process to indicate a maximum theoretical yield, is presented. Examples are given that indicate differences between first and second law approaches toward process efficiency and process yield. This analysis also expresses production capacity in terms of the heating value

C. England; J. E. Funk

1980-01-01

173

Chemical Sensing for Buried Landmines - Fundamental Processes Influencing Trace Chemical Detection  

SciTech Connect

Mine detection dogs have a demonstrated capability to locate hidden objects by trace chemical detection. Because of this capability, demining activities frequently employ mine detection dogs to locate individual buried landmines or for area reduction. The conditions appropriate for use of mine detection dogs are only beginning to emerge through diligent research that combines dog selection/training, the environmental conditions that impact landmine signature chemical vapors, and vapor sensing performance capability and reliability. This report seeks to address the fundamental soil-chemical interactions, driven by local weather history, that influence the availability of chemical for trace chemical detection. The processes evaluated include: landmine chemical emissions to the soil, chemical distribution in soils, chemical degradation in soils, and weather and chemical transport in soils. Simulation modeling is presented as a method to evaluate the complex interdependencies among these various processes and to establish conditions appropriate for trace chemical detection. Results from chemical analyses on soil samples obtained adjacent to landmines are presented and demonstrate the ultra-trace nature of these residues. Lastly, initial measurements of the vapor sensing performance of mine detection dogs demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of dogs in sensing landmine signature chemicals; however, reliability at these ultra-trace vapor concentrations still needs to be determined. Through this compilation, additional work is suggested that will fill in data gaps to improve the utility of trace chemical detection.

PHELAN, JAMES M.

2002-05-01

174

78 FR 17233 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Process...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review; Comment Request; Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals...request (ICR) titled, ``Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous...

2013-03-20

175

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory--Chemical Management: A Method for Waste Reduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses methods for reducing or eliminating waste disposal problems in the chemistry laboratory, considering both economic and environmental aspects of the problems. Proposes inventory control, shared use, solvent recycling, zero effluent, and various means of disposing of chemicals. (JM)

Pine, Stanley H.

1984-01-01

176

Decentralized chemical processes with supercritical fluid technology for sustainable society  

Microsoft Academic Search

For sustainable society, the design philosophy of chemical processes will need to be changed from large-scale mass production systems to decentralized local-scale production systems so that chemicals and energies can be supplied from diverse biomass and other renewable resources. Supercritical water allows fast reaction rates, high selectivities and high-yield conversions of many biomass and biomass-related feedstocks and allows chemical transformations

Kunio Arai; Richard L. Smith Jr.; Taku M. Aida

2009-01-01

177

Model for multi-strata safety performance measurements in the process industry  

E-print Network

) benchmarking of process safety elements among facilities; and (3) use of incident data collection from various sources for industrial safety performance assessment. The methods presently available for measurement of process safety within facilities... to explore the potential of integrating data sources and harnessing these databases for industrial safety performance assessment. In this study we developed models to pursue the measurement of samples of the strata described above. The measurement...

Keren, Nir

2004-09-30

178

BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly since the Mercury Water Wash Tank was replaced after the seventh batch of Sludge Batch 5. Since this time, essentially no recovery of mercury has been seen. Pertinent literature was reviewed, previous lab-scale data on mercury stripping and recovery was examined, and new lab-scale CPC Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were conducted. For previous lab-scale data, many of the runs with sufficient mercury recovery data were examined to determine what factors affect the stripping and recovery of mercury and to improve closure of the mercury material balance. Ten new lab-scale SRAT runs (HG runs) were performed to examine the effects of acid stoichiometry, sludge solids concentration, antifoam concentration, form of mercury added to simulant, presence of a SRAT heel, operation of the SRAT condenser at higher than prototypic temperature, varying noble metals from none to very high concentrations, and higher agitation rate. Data from simulant runs from SB6, SB7a, glycolic/formic, and the HG tests showed that a significant amount of Hg metal was found on the vessel bottom at the end of tests. Material balance closure improved from 12-71% to 48-93% when this segregated Hg was considered. The amount of Hg segregated as elemental Hg on the vessel bottom was 4-77% of the amount added. The highest recovery of mercury in the offgas system generally correlated with the highest retention of Hg in the slurry. Low retention in the slurry (high segregation on the vessel bottom) resulted in low recovery in the offgas system. High agitation rates appear to result in lower retention of mercury in the slurry. Both recovery of mercury in the offgas system and removal (segregation + recovery) from the slurry correlate with slurry consistency. Higher slurry consistency results in better retention of Hg in the slurry (less segregation) and better recovery in the offgas system, but the relationships of recovery and retention with consistency are sludge dependent. Some correlation with slurry yield stress and acid stoichiometry was also found. Better retention of mercury in the slurry results in better recovery in the offgas system because the mercury in the slurry is stripped more easily than the segregated mercury at the bottom of the vessel. Although better retention gives better recovery, the time to reach a particular slurry mercury content (wt%) is longer than if the retention is poorer because the segregation is faster. The segregation of mercury is generally a faster process than stripping. The stripping factor (mass of water evaporated per mass of mercury stripped) of mercury at the start of boiling were found to be less than 1000 compared to the assumed design basis value of 750 (the theoretical factor is 250). However, within two hours, this value increased to at least 2000 lb water per lb Hg. For runs with higher mercury recovery in the offgas system, the stripping factor remained around 2000, but runs with low recovery had stripping factors of 4000 to 40,000. DWPF data shows similar trends with the stripping factor value increasing during boiling. These high values correspond to high segregation and low retention of mercury in the sludge. The stripping factor for a pure Hg metal bead in water was found to be about 10,000 lb/lb. About 10-36% of the total Hg evaporated in a SRAT cycle was refluxed back to the SRAT during formic acid addition and boiling. Mercury is dissolved as a result of nitric acid formation from absorption of NO{sub x}. The actual solubility of dissolved mercury in the acidic condensate is about 100 times higher than the actual concentrations measured. Mercury metal present in the MWWT from previous batch

Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

2012-04-09

179

Laser/plasma chemical processing of substrates  

DOEpatents

A process for the modification of substrate surfaces is described, wherein etching or deposition at a surface occurs only in the presence of both reactive species and a directed beam of coherent light.

Gee, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Hargis, Jr., Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01

180

Sustainability Indicators for Chemical Processes: III. Biodiesel Case Study  

EPA Science Inventory

The chemical industry is one of the most important business sectors, not only economically, but also societally; as it allows humanity to attain higher standards and quality of life. Simultaneously, chemical products and processes can be the origin of potential human health and ...

181

EFFECTS OF TOXIC CHEMICAL ON NUTRIENT CYCLING PROCESSES IN SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Assessing the risk of toxic chemicals to soil nutrient cycling processes involves an understanding of the potential for chemical effects on the diversity and the activity of the microbial communities and higher life forms in the natural system. ssessments of risk associated with ...

182

Chemical Processing monthly report, April 1985  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the PUREX/UO3 operations, 151 tones of N reactor fuel were charged to the PUREX dissolvers in April 1985, bringing the Fiscal Year-to-Date (FYTD) total to 667, which is now only 61 tones behind the 1200 tone recovery plan. One hundred thirty-nine tonnes of UO3 were shipped to the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), bringing the FYTD total to 644 tones. Twenty-two percent of the PUO2 shipments were achieved, bringing the cumulative shipments to 52%. In the plutonium finishing (PF) plant/nuclear materials management program, 10% of plutonium nitrate was loaded out. Total Operating Efficiency for Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) was 53% for the month, compared to a goal of 70%. Remote Mechanical C (RMC) metal line reactivation activities are 95% complete. Terminal clean out operations are about one month behind schedule, due to diversion of personnel to the RMC reactivation effort. Within the area of decontamination and decommissioning activities, removal of the Sorter/Chopper hood in 232-Z Building was completed. Design on B-339, vault safety and inventory system was completed on schedule.

1985-04-01

183

Risk-based process safety assessment and control measures design for offshore process facilities.  

PubMed

Process operation is the most hazardous activity next to the transportation and drilling operation on an offshore oil and gas (OOG) platform. Past experiences of onshore and offshore oil and gas activities have revealed that a small mis-happening in the process operation might escalate to a catastrophe. This is of especial concern in the OOG platform due to the limited space and compact geometry of the process area, less ventilation, and difficult escape routes. On an OOG platform, each extra control measure, which is implemented, not only occupies space on the platform and increases congestion but also adds extra load to the platform. Eventualities in the OOG platform process operation can be avoided through incorporating the appropriate control measures at the early design stage. In this paper, the authors describe a methodology for risk-based process safety decision making for OOG activities. The methodology is applied to various offshore process units, that is, the compressor, separators, flash drum and driers of an OOG platform. Based on the risk potential, appropriate safety measures are designed for each unit. This paper also illustrates that implementation of the designed safety measures reduces the high Fatal accident rate (FAR) values to an acceptable level. PMID:12141993

Khan, Faisal I; Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir

2002-09-01

184

Chemical Engineering: Process Dynamics and Controls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the OpenCourseWare (OCW) initiative, the University of Michigan is offering this course as part of their generous contributions to the OCW archive. The course uses an open textbook, and all of the materials here were written by senior chemical engineering students, and subsequently reviewed by graduate students and faculty associated with the course. Visitors can click on one of four sections here: "Overview", "Highlights", "Materials", and "Sessions". The "Overview" provides a bit of introduction to how the course is structured, and "Highlights" talks a bit about the open textbook used in the course. The site has some great bells-and-whistles, including a "Live Study Group" area. In the "Sessions" area visitors can listen and watch all of the lectures from the course, and they can also download them for future reference.

185

Chemical and physical processes in Tank 241-SY-101: A preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

Since 1942, chemical and radioactive waste have been stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. In March 1981 one of the double shell tanks, 241-SY-101 (called 101-SY), began venting large quantities of gas, primarily hydrogen and nitrous oxide. Because of the potential for explosion Westinghouse Hanford Company and the US Department of Energy realized the need for knowledge about the processes occurring in this tank that lead to generation of the gases. In June 1990, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory began assembling a Tank Waste Science Panel to develop a better understanding of the processes occurring the Tank 101-SY. This knowledge is necessary to provide a technically defensible basis for the safety analyses, which will allow the tank contents to be sampled, as well as for the future remediation of the tank and its contents. The Panel concluded that the data available on Tank 101-SY are insufficient to allow the critical chemical and physical processes giving rise to gas formation and release to be unambiguously identified. To provide the needed information the Panel recommends that Tank 101-SY by physically and chemically characterized as fully as possible and as expeditiously as safety considerations allow, and laboratory studies and modeling efforts be undertaken the chemical and physical processes involved in gas generation and release. Finally, the Panel recommends that no remediation steps be taken until there is a better understanding of the chemical and physical phenomena occurring in Tank 101-SY. Premature remediation steps may only serve to compound the problem. Furthermore, such steps may change the chemical and physical characteristics of the tank and prevent a true understanding of the phenomena involved. As a consequence, similar problems in other tanks on the site may not be adequately addressed. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1991-02-01

186

2. OVERHEAD CHEMICAL PROCESS PIPING BETWEEN BUILDINGS 422, ON RIGHT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. OVERHEAD CHEMICAL PROCESS PIPING BETWEEN BUILDINGS 422, ON RIGHT, AND 431, ON LEFT. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Crude Mustard & Aldrin Manufacturing, 1200 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 600 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

187

Robust model-based fault diagnosis for chemical process systems  

E-print Network

Fault detection and diagnosis have gained central importance in the chemical process industries over the past decade. This is due to several reasons, one of them being that copious amount of data is available from a large number of sensors...

Rajaraman, Srinivasan

2006-08-16

188

SCREENING PROTOCOL FOR ASSESSING TOXICITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS TOANAEROBIC PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A screening protocol has been developed to provide a rapid andrepeatable assessment of the effect of toxic organic chemicals onanaerobic treatment processes. his protocol also providesinformation on the rate limiting biological reactions and theconcentrations at which changes in ...

189

DIOXINS. VOLUME III. ASSESSMENT OF DIOXIN-FORMING CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical reaction mechanisms by which dioxins may be formed are reviewed, particularly those likely to occur within commercially significant processes. Various routes of formation are identified in addition to the classical route of the hydrolysis of trichlorophenol. Basic organi...

190

64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

191

Decision support tools for environmentally conscious chemical process design  

E-print Network

The environment has emerged as an important determinant of the performance of the modern chemical industry. Process engineering in the 21st century needs to evolve to include environmental issues as part of the design ...

Cano Ruiz, José Alejandro, 1969-

1999-01-01

192

The EPRI DFDX Chemical Decontamination Process  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning of retired nuclear plants and components demands the proper management of the process, both for economic reasons and for retaining public confidence in the continued use of nuclear power for electricity generation. The cost and ease of management of radioactively contaminated components can be greatly assisted by the application of decontamination technology. EPRI initiated a program of research and development work in collaboration with Bradtec, which has led to the ''EPRI DFD'' (Decontamination for Decommissioning) Process. The Process has been patented and licensed to six companies worldwide. The purpose of this process is to achieve efficient removal of radioactivity with minimum waste from retired nuclear components and plant systems. The process uses dilute fluoroboric acid with controlled oxidation potential. By removing all the outer scale and a thin layer of base metal from the surfaces, contamination can in many cases be reduced below the levels required to allow clearance (free-release) or recycle to form new components for the nuclear industry. This reduces the need for on-site storage or burial of large amounts of contaminated material at low level radioactive disposal facilities. An additional benefit is that residual radiation fields can be reduced by a large factor, which reduces the worker radiation exposure associated with decommissioning. Furthermore, this dose rate reduction improves the viability of early dismantlement following plant closure, as opposed to waiting for a prolonged period for radioactive decay to occur. The results obtained in early applications of the EPRI DFD process demonstrated the benefits of taking this approach (reference 1).

Bushart, S.; Wood, C. J.; Bradbury, D.; Elder, G.

2003-02-25

193

Safety Issues of Hg and Pb as IFE Target Materials: Radiological Versus Chemical Toxicity  

SciTech Connect

We have performed a safety assessment of mercury and lead as possible hohlraum materials for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) targets, including for the first time a comparative analysis of the radiological and toxicological consequences of an accidental release. In order to calculate accident doses to the public, we have distinguished between accidents at the target fabrication facility and accidents at other areas of the power plant. Regarding the chemical toxicity assessment, we have used the U.S. DOE regulations to determine the maximum allowable release in order to protect the public from adverse health effects. Opposite to common belief, it has been found that the chemical safety requirements for these materials appear to be more stringent than the concentrations that would result in an acceptable radiological dose.

Reyes, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Latkowski, J.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Cadwallader, L.C. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States); Moir, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Gomez del Rio, J.; Sanz, J

2003-09-15

194

Dynamic displays of chemical process flowsheet models  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the algorithms used in constructing dynamic graphical displays of a process flowsheet. Movies are created which portray changes in the process over time using animation in the flowsheet such as individual streams that take on a color keyed to the current flow rate, tank levels that visibly rise and fall and {open_quotes}gauges{close_quotes} that move to display parameter values. Movies of this type can be a valuable tool for visualizing, analyzing, and communicating the behavior of a process model. This paper describes the algorithms used in constructing displays of this kind for dynamic models using the SPEEDUP{trademark} modeling package and the GMS{trademark} graphics package. It also tells how data is exported from the SPEEDUP{trademark} package to GMS{trademark} and describes how a user environment for running movies and editing flowsheets is set up. The algorithms are general enough to be applied to other processes and graphics packages. In fact the techniques described here can be used to create movies of any time-dependent data.

Aull, J.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

1996-11-01

195

Nitrogen-methanol atmospheres and the application of process safety management OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1119  

SciTech Connect

Process Safety Management (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.119) is a mandated standard that was originally intended to cover large chemical plants and refineries to prevent the consequences of catastrophic releases of toxic, reactive flammable or explosive chemicals. However, with a broad brush, this standard also applies to steel heat treat operations whose threshold quantities of methanol exceed 10,000 pounds (1,500 gallons). Non-compliance may result in OSHA citations and hefty fines. But what is more important, conditions could occur which could lead to the catastrophic release of methanol or explosion, with the associated loss of facility and personnel. This paper describes Process Safety Management as it applies to the use of nitrogen-methanol atmospheres used for the heat treatment of steel and the storage of liquid methanol. The paper shows what steps were taken by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace-St. Louis to reach compliance with this extensive standard.

MacKenzie, D.S.; Kick, T.J. [McDonnell Douglas Corp., St. Louis, MO (United States)

1995-12-31

196

Establishing the level of safety concern for chemicals in food without the need for toxicity testing.  

PubMed

There is demand for methodologies to establish levels of safety concern associated with dietary exposures to chemicals for which no toxicological data are available. In such situations, the application of in silico methods appears promising. To make safety statement requires quantitative predictions of toxicological reference points such as no observed adverse effect level and carcinogenic potency for DNA-reacting chemicals. A decision tree (DT) has been developed to aid integrating exposure information and predicted toxicological reference points obtained with quantitative structure activity relationship ((Q)SAR) software and read across techniques. The predicted toxicological values are compared with exposure to obtain margins of exposure (MoE). The size of the MoE defines the level of safety concern and should account for a number of uncertainties such as the classical interspecies and inter-individual variability as well as others determined on a case by case basis. An analysis of the uncertainties of in silico approaches together with results from case studies suggest that establishing safety concern based on application of the DT is unlikely to be significantly more uncertain than based on experimental data. The DT makes a full use of all data available, ensuring an adequate degree of conservatism. It can be used when fast decision making is required. PMID:24012706

Schilter, Benoît; Benigni, Romualdo; Boobis, Alan; Chiodini, Alessandro; Cockburn, Andrew; Cronin, Mark T D; Lo Piparo, Elena; Modi, Sandeep; Thiel, Anette; Worth, Andrew

2014-03-01

197

Laser cutting: industrial relevance, process optimization, and laser safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to other technological relevant laser machining processes, up to now laser cutting is the application most frequently used. With respect to the large amount of possible fields of application and the variety of different materials that can be machined, this technology has reached a stable position within the world market of material processing. Reachable machining quality for laser beam cutting is influenced by various laser and process parameters. Process integrated quality techniques have to be applied to ensure high-quality products and a cost effective use of the laser manufacturing plant. Therefore, rugged and versatile online process monitoring techniques at an affordable price would be desirable. Methods for the characterization of single plant components (e.g. laser source and optical path) have to be substituted by an omnivalent control system, capable of process data acquisition and analysis as well as the automatic adaptation of machining and laser parameters to changes in process and ambient conditions. At the Laser Zentrum Hannover eV, locally highly resolved thermographic measurements of the temperature distribution within the processing zone using cost effective measuring devices are performed. Characteristic values for cutting quality and plunge control as well as for the optimization of the surface roughness at the cutting edges can be deducted from the spatial distribution of the temperature field and the measured temperature gradients. Main influencing parameters on the temperature characteristic within the cutting zone are the laser beam intensity and pulse duration in pulse operation mode. For continuous operation mode, the temperature distribution is mainly determined by the laser output power related to the cutting velocity. With higher cutting velocities temperatures at the cutting front increase, reaching their maximum at the optimum cutting velocity. Here absorption of the incident laser radiation is drastically increased due to the angle between the normal of the cutting front and the laser beam axis. Beneath process optimization and control further work is focused on the characterization of particulate and gaseous laser generated air contaminants and adequate safety precautions like exhaust and filter systems.

Haferkamp, Heinz; Goede, Martin; von Busse, Alexander; Thuerk, Oliver

1998-09-01

198

Modeling operators' emergency response time for chemical processing operations.  

PubMed

Operators have a crucial role during emergencies at a variety of facilities such as chemical processing plants. When an abnormality occurs in the production process, the operator often has limited time to either take corrective actions or evacuate before the situation becomes deadly. It is crucial that system designers and safety professionals can estimate the time required for a response before procedures and facilities are designed and operations are initiated. There are existing industrial engineering techniques to establish time standards for tasks performed at a normal working pace. However, it is reasonable to expect the time required to take action in emergency situations will be different than working at a normal production pace. It is possible that in an emergency, operators will act faster compared to a normal pace. It would be useful for system designers to be able to establish a time range for operators' response times for emergency situations. This article develops a modeling approach to estimate the time standard range for operators taking corrective actions or following evacuation procedures in emergency situations. This will aid engineers and managers in establishing time requirements for operators in emergency situations. The methodology used for this study combines a well-established industrial engineering technique for determining time requirements (predetermined time standard system) and adjustment coefficients for emergency situations developed by the authors. Numerous videos of workers performing well-established tasks at a maximum pace were studied. As an example, one of the tasks analyzed was pit crew workers changing tires as quickly as they could during a race. The operations in these videos were decomposed into basic, fundamental motions (such as walking, reaching for a tool, and bending over) by studying the videos frame by frame. A comparison analysis was then performed between the emergency pace and the normal working pace operations to determine performance coefficients. These coefficients represent the decrease in time required for various basic motions in emergency situations and were used to model an emergency response. This approach will make hazardous operations requiring operator response, alarm management, and evacuation processes easier to design and predict. An application of this methodology is included in the article. The time required for an emergency response was roughly a one-third faster than for a normal response time. PMID:25530564

Murray, Susan L; Harputlu, Emrah; Mentzer, Ray A; Mannan, M Sam

2014-01-01

199

Improving Safety, Quality and Efficiency through the Management of Emerging Processes: The TenarisDalmine Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this contribution is to describe a new complexity-science-based approach for improving safety, quality and efficiency and the way it was implemented by TenarisDalmine. Design/methodology/approach: This methodology is called "a safety-building community". It consists of a safety-behaviour social self-construction process

Bonometti, Patrizia

2012-01-01

200

Assessment of aircraft impact probabilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility of an aircraft crash into a facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The ICPP is part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Based on the data used in this study, an air crash into any single facility at the ICPP is incredible. An air crash into aggregate areas incorporating the following is extremely unlikely: (1) ICPP radiological materials storage facilities, (2) ICPP major processing facilities, and (3) the ICPP land surface area, which excludes buildings. According to Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company safety analysis procedures, if the probability of a radiological release event is determined to be incredible, no further review is required. Therefore, an aircraft crash scenario is not required in the safety analysis for a single facility but should be discussed relative to the ICPP aggregate areas.

Lee, L.G.; Mines, J.M.; Webb, B.B.

1994-06-01

201

Sealed-bladdered chemical processing method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus which enables a complete multi-stepped chemical treatment process to occur within a single, sealed-bladdered vessel 31. The entire chemical process occurs without interruption of the sealed-bladdered vessel 31 such as opening the sealed-bladdered vessel 31 between various steps of the process. The sealed-bladdered vessel 31 is loaded with a batch to be dissolved, treated, decanted, rinsed and/or dried. A pressure filtration step may also occur. The self-contained chemical processing apparatus 32 contains a sealed-bladder 32, a fluid pump 34, a reservoir 20, a compressed gas inlet, a vacuum pump 24, and a cold trap 23 as well as the associated piping 33, numerous valves 21,22,25,26,29,30,35,36 and other controls associated with such an apparatus. The claimed invention allows for dissolution and/or chemical treatment without the operator of the self-contained chemical processing apparatus 38 coming into contact with any of the process materials.

Harless, D. Phillip (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01

202

Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

Hoseney, R. Carl

1984-01-01

203

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Chemical Process Technical Operators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is intended for workforce preparation program providers, details the Illinois Occupational Skill Standards for programs preparing students for employment as chemical process technical operators. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and credentialing, the process

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

204

Sparse matrix methods for chemical process separation calculations on supercomputers  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many complex chemical processes, multistage, multicornponent separation calculations dominate the computation time in a plantwide simulation. This paper focuses on using the frontal method on supercomputers to solve the large, sparse linear equation systems arising in process separation calculations. The motivation is that the frontal method takes advantage of vector computers by treating parts of the sparse matrix asfdl

Stephen E. Zitney

1992-01-01

205

DESIGNING CHEMICAL PROCESSES WITH OPEN AND FUGITIVE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Designing a chemical process normally includes aspects of economic and environmental disciplines. In this work we describe methods to quickly and easily evaluate the conomics and potential environmental impacts of a process, with the hydrodealkylation of toluene as an example. Th...

206

PROCESS ANALYSIS BY RADIOISOTOPES IN THE CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL INDUSTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of radioisotopes in process analysis in the chemical and ; metallurgical industries are reviewed. Applications discussed include studies in ; electrolysis of chlorine caustic; analysis of the flow pattern of electrolyte in ; the potassium chlorate cell; process analysis in an alumina plant, studies on the ; flow of glass in melting and working furnaces; the behavior of sulfur

1959-01-01

207

A model for the permitting of reactive chemical emergency projects: Closing the gap between regulation, safety and common sense  

SciTech Connect

The City of Boston is host to many industrial facilities, private research institutions and universities. Many of these facilities are in close proximity to densely populated residential neighborhoods, large office buildings, sports arenas and hospitals. These facilities all utilize and store many different potentially reactive chemicals either as ``raw materials``, finished products or hazardous waste in industrial process or research activities. In the vast majority of cases, these chemicals are used safely and without incident. In Boston, however, a series of minor incidents involving reactive chemicals several years ago, prompted the Boston Fire Department (BFD) to develop a departmental procedure and city regulation for the safe management of unstable/reactive or explosive materials discovered in Boston. BFD`s purpose in developing the regulation was to act decisively to protect the Health and Safety of the Boston Public from the hazards of Reactive Chemicals. The procedure provides for a standardized BFD response, evacuation of the public at risk and requires the facility involved to immediately arrange for a licensed hazardous waste contractor to inspect, stabilize and remove the designated material. The paper briefly summarizes the evolution of the program and it`s effective implementation within Boston, citing two recent case studies as examples. Pollutants of concern are hydrogen cyanide and ammonia.

Richter, M.F. [Advanced Environmental Technology Corp., Flanders, NJ (United States); Hartnett, R. [Boston Fire Department, MA (United States). Planning Dept.

1995-12-31

208

Chemical Processes and Thresholds in Hawaiin Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hawaiian Islands are a useful natural laboratory for studying soil development particularly those that can be understood using a matrix of chonosequences and climosequences. The islands are formed over a stationary mantle plume and then are carried to the northwest on the Pacific Plate. Thus the islands get older with distance from the hotspot; Kauai has remnant shield surfaces whose lavas date to about 4,000 ky. It is possible to sample soils that are developing on different age flows ranging from a few hundred years to a few million years. Additionally, individual volcanoes are impacted by differing amounts of rainfall depending on location with respect to the northeasterly trade winds. Whereas rainfall over the open ocean near Hawaii is about 700 mm, rainfall over the Islands ranges from 150 to 11,000 mm. Hawaii is minimally impacted by mineral aerosol additions compared to continental areas and this has a significant impact on soil development. More than 100 soil profiles have been sampled along the Hawaii time-climate matrix with some surprising results. For example, in arid soils might be expected to develop smectite clays, but they are rich in halloysite and allophane. Importantly, these same soils show a trend from high-Mg calcite to dolomite as carbonates accumulate within the profiles - this is one of the first documented occurrences of pedogenic dolomite that is not associated with high levels of salts. It appears that lack of smectite formation lowers the incorporation of Mg into silicate clays and increases its incorporation into carbonates. This is an unusual pedogenic process that seems to be enhanced by the lack of substantial amounts of mica in the basalt derived soils. The only mica is in surface horizons that receive dust derived from distant continents. Without mica there is no template to allow smectite clay formation under the rapid wetting and drying regimes encountered in the arid soils. At the same time that halloysite is forming, iron and aluminum oxides tend to move rapidly from poorly crystalline to crystalline forms, which in turn leads to formation of Oxisols under an arid climate regimes - Torrox formation without substantial climate change. By contrast, soils forming in humid environments along the same time trajectory take much longer to go through the same transformations (allophane to halloysite; poorly crystalline goethite to well crystallized goethite; poorly crystalline gibbsite to well crystallized gibbsite). The longer time required for transformation is related to wet rather than wet- dry cycles and interference by organic carbon in the transformation process. Thus whereas it takes about 400,000 years to form a Torrox, it takes more than three times that long to form a humid-zone Oxisol. In Hawaii we have identified several important thresholds in soil properties that have universal applicability: 1. the shift from udic to perudic soil moisture regime is accompanied by reduction related changes in soil properties particularly accumulation of organic matter and loss of iron-bound phosphorus; 2. shift from ustic to udic moisture leads to rapid loss of nutrients with far reaching implications for soil exchange properties and prehistoric land use, 3. the shift from from ustic to aridic soil conditions leads to greater losses of plant nutrients (bases, P, Si) due to greater wind erosion. Based on archeological evidence, it is clear that Polynesians made land-use decisions that incorporated observations of the soil properties associated with these thresholds.

Chadwick, O.

2007-12-01

209

The Efficacy of a Condensed "Seeking Safety" Intervention for Women in Residential Chemical Dependence Treatment at 30 Days Posttreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the efficacy of a condensed version of the "Seeking Safety" intervention in the reduction of trauma-related symptoms and improved drug abstinence rates among women in residential chemical dependence treatment. One hundred and four women were randomly assigned to treatment including a condensed (six session) "Seeking Safety"…

Cash Ghee, Anna; Bolling, Lanny C.; Johnson, Candace S.

2009-01-01

210

Organic chemical aging mechanisms: An annotated bibliography. Waste Tank Safety Program  

SciTech Connect

An annotated bibliography has been compiled of the potential chemical and radiological aging mechanisms of the organic constituents (non-ferrocyanide) that would likely be found in the UST at Hanford. The majority of the work that has been conducted on the aging of organic chemicals used for extraction and processing of nuclear materials has been in conjunction with the acid or PUREX type processes. At Hanford the waste being stored in the UST has been stabilized with caustic. The aging factors that were used in this work were radiolysis, hydrolysis and nitrite/nitrate oxidation. The purpose of this work was two-fold: to determine whether or not research had been or is currently being conducted on the species associated with the Hanford UST waste, either as a mixture or as individual chemicals or chemical functionalities, and to determine what areas of chemical aging need to be addressed by further research.

Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M.; Nelson, D.A.

1993-09-01

211

Chemical oxidation kinetics of pyrite in bioleaching processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bio-oxidation experiments with Leptospirillum bacteria were used to determine the chemical oxidation kinetics of pyrite in acidic ferric sulphate solutions (0.1–0.2 M) at 30°C and pH 1.6. The proposed method is applicable because the oxidation of pyrite with Leptospirillum bacteria consists of two sub-processes: (i) Pyrite is chemically oxidized with ferric iron to sulphate and ferrous iron, (ii) Ferric iron

M Boon; J. J Heijnen

1998-01-01

212

No Chemical, Zero Bleed Cooling Tower Water Treatment Process  

E-print Network

to do it. CONVENTIONAL WISDOM REPLACED So the conventional wisdom of yesterday has been replaced with better technology, Little by little, the conventional chemical technology is giving way to non-chemical methods of water treatment in cooling... solubility and begin the scale inhibition process. This also descales existing scale build-up in the system. Ozone is manufactured from ambient air and injected into the bypass system through a venturi type injector. This kills algae, slime and bacteria...

Coke, A. L.

213

An Introduction to Signal Processing in Chemical Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 26-page illustrated introduction to digital signal processing in chemical analysis covers signal arithmetic, signals and noise, smoothing, differentiation, resolution enhancement, harmonic analysis, convolution, deconvolution, Fourier filter, integration and peak area measurement, and curve fitting. It is accompanied by signal processing software for Macintosh with reference manual and tutorial (available for free download), video demonstrations, and Matlab signal processing modules for Mac, PC, and Unix.

O'Haver, Professor T.

214

3D LIDAR processing for vehicle safety and environment recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive safety systems like ldquoadaptive cruise controlrdquo (ACC), ldquolane change assistrdquo and pre-crash systems are nowadays dealing with the detection of vehicles on the road. All major upper class vehicle manufacturers like Mercedes, BMW, Chrysler and Lexus as well as leading suppliers (Bosch, Continental, Delphi) are currently developing intelligent vehicle safety systems. For vehicle environment perception many different sensors are

Philipp Lindner; Gerd Wanielik

2009-01-01

215

Reduced product yield in chemical processes by second law effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of second law effects in chemical processes, where product yield is explicitly related to the individual irreversibilities within the process to indicate a maximum theoretical yield, is presented. Examples are given that indicate differences between first and second law approaches toward process efficiency and process yield. This analysis also expresses production capacity in terms of the heating value of a product. As a result, it is particularly convenient in analyzing fuel conversion plants and their potential for improvement. Relationships are also given for the effects of irreversibilities on requirements for process heat and for feedstocks.

England, C.; Funk, J. E.

1980-01-01

216

Food safety management systems performance in African food processing companies: a review of deficiencies and possible improvement strategies.  

PubMed

This study seeks to provide insight into current deficiencies in food safety management systems (FSMS) in African food-processing companies and to identify possible strategies for improvement so as to contribute to African countries' efforts to provide safe food to both local and international markets. This study found that most African food products had high microbiological and chemical contamination levels exceeding the set (legal) limits. Relative to industrialized countries, the study identified various deficiencies at government, sector/branch, retail and company levels which affect performance of FSMS in Africa. For instance, very few companies (except exporting and large companies) have implemented HACCP and ISO 22000:2005. Various measures were proposed to be taken at government (e.g. construction of risk-based legislative frameworks, strengthening of food safety authorities, recommend use of ISO 22000:2005, and consumers' food safety training), branch/sector (e.g. sector-specific guidelines and third-party certification), retail (develop stringent certification standards and impose product specifications) and company levels (improving hygiene, strict raw material control, production process efficacy, and enhancing monitoring systems, assurance activities and supportive administrative structures). By working on those four levels, FSMS of African food-processing companies could be better designed and tailored towards their production processes and specific needs to ensure food safety. PMID:24425418

Kussaga, Jamal B; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Tiisekwa, Bendantunguka Pm; Luning, Pieternel A

2014-08-01

217

Signal Processing For Chemical Sensing: Statistics or Biological Inspiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current analytical instrumentation and continuous sensing can provide huge amounts of data. Automatic signal processing and information evaluation is needed to overcome drowning in data. Today, statistical techniques are typically used to analyse and extract information from continuous signals. However, it is very interesting to note that biology (insects and vertebrates) has found alternative solutions for chemical sensing and information processing. This is a brief introduction to the developments in the European Project: Bio-ICT NEUROCHEM: Biologically Inspired Computation for Chemical Sensing (grant no. 216916) Fp7 project devoted to biomimetic olfactory systems.

Marco, Santiago

2011-09-01

218

Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Data requirements for the ferrocyanide safety issue developed through the data quality objectives (DQO) process  

SciTech Connect

This document records the data quality objectives (DQO) process applied to the Ferrocyanide Waste Tank Safety Issue at the Hanford Site by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company. Specifically, the major recommendations and findings from this Ferrocyanide DQO process are presented so that decision makers can determine the type, quantity, and quality of data required for addressing tank safety issues. The decision logic diagrams and error tolerance equations also are provided. Finally, the document includes the DQO sample-size formulas for determining specific tank sampling requirements.

Buck, J.W.; Anderson, C.M.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Toth, J.J.; Turner, P.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Meacham, J.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-12-01

219

Processing, food applications and safety of aloe vera products: a review.  

PubMed

Aloe vera is used for vigor, wellness and medicinal purposes since rigvedic times. Health benefits of aloe vera include its application in wound healing, treating burns, minimizing frost bite damage, protection against skin damage from x-rays, lung cancer, intestinal problems, increasing high density lipoprotein (HDL), reducing low density lipoprotein (LDL), reducing blood sugar in diabetics, fighting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), allergies and improving immune system. Phytochemistry of aloe vera gel has revealed the presence of more than 200 bioactive chemicals. Aloe vera gel is extracted from its leaves and appropriate processing techniques are needed for stabilization as well as preparation of the end products. The industries involved in processing of aloe vera need Government surveillance to ensure that the aloe vera products have beneficial bio-active chemicals as per claims of the manufacturers. Regulatory bodies also need to look into the safety and toxicological aspects of aloe vera products for food applications. The claims made for medicinal value of aloe products should be supported by authentic and approved clinical trial data. It is presumptive to mention that nutraceutical claims of aloe products made by the manufacturers are numerous. However, approved clinical evidences are available only for lowering LDL, increasing HDL, decreasing blood glucose level, treating genital herpes and psoriases. PMID:23572784

Ahlawat, Kulveer Singh; Khatkar, Bhupender Singh

2011-10-01

220

Environmental, safety, and health engineering  

SciTech Connect

A complete guide to environmental, safety, and health engineering, including an overview of EPA and OSHA regulations; principles of environmental engineering, including pollution prevention, waste and wastewater treatment and disposal, environmental statistics, air emissions and abatement engineering, and hazardous waste storage and containment; principles of safety engineering, including safety management, equipment safety, fire and life safety, process and system safety, confined space safety, and construction safety; and principles of industrial hygiene/occupational health engineering including chemical hazard assessment, personal protective equipment, industrial ventilation, ionizing and nonionizing radiation, noise, and ergonomics.

Woodside, G.; Kocurek, D.

1997-12-31

221

Health information in material safety data sheets for a chemical that causes asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of health information on material safety data sheets (MSDS) for a workplace chemical that is well known\\u000a to cause or exacerbate asthma (toluene diisocyanate, TDI).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: We reviewed a random sample of 61 MSDSs for TDI products produced by 30 manufacturers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Two physicians independently abstracted data from each MSDS onto a

Linda M. Frazier; Brent W. Beasley; Gyanendra K. Sharma; Aliasghar A. Mohyuddin

2001-01-01

222

Enhancing the NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle Payload Safety Review Process Through Program Activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The safety review process for NASA spacecraft flown on Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs) has been guided by NASA-STD 8719.8, Expendable Launch Vehicle Payload Safety Review Process Standard. The standard focused primarily on the safety approval required to begin pre-launch processing at the launch site. Subsequent changes in the contractual, technical, and operational aspects of payload processing, combined with lessons-learned supported a need for the reassessment of the standard. This has resulted in the formation of a NASA ELV Payload Safety Program. This program has been working to address the programmatic issues that will enhance and supplement the existing process, while continuing to ensure the safety of ELV payload activities.

Palo, Thomas E.

2007-01-01

223

Integrating Safety into an Engineering Contractor's System Engineering process using the guidelines of STAMP (Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes)  

E-print Network

. ___________________________ ________________ Signature Date #12;Evaluating Project Safety (System Engineering and Safety Management) in an Organization 2: ...................................... #12;Evaluating Project Safety (System Engineering and Safety Management) in an Organization 3 TableIntegrating Safety into an Engineering Contractor's System Engineering process using the guidelines

Leveson, Nancy

224

Automobile safety regulation : technological change and regulatory process  

E-print Network

This report examines the history of automobile safety regulation since 1966, viewed as an attempt to substitute public decisions on the design of new automobiles for private decisions. The focus of the

Lorang, Philip Alphonse

225

Workshop: use of "read-across" for chemical safety assessment under REACH.  

PubMed

Read-across has generated much attention, since it may be used as an alternative approach for addressing the information requirements under REACH. Experience in the application of "read-across" has undoubtedly been gained within the context of the 2010 registrations (>1000 tonnes/annum). Industry, European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and EU Member States all conceptually accept read-across approaches but difficulties still remain in applying them consistently in practice. A workshop on the 'Use of Read-Across for Chemical Safety Assessment under REACH', organised by ECHA with the active support of Cefic LRI was held on the 3rd October 2012 to gain insight on how ECHA evaluates read-across justifications, to share Industry experiences with read-across approaches and to discuss practical strategies to help develop scientifically valid read-across for future submissions. PMID:23266660

Patlewicz, Grace; Roberts, David W; Aptula, Aynur; Blackburn, Karen; Hubesch, Bruno

2013-03-01

226

Chemical decontamination of NORM-contaminated processing equipment  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the application of chemical decontamination processes to the treatment of processing equipment from the oil and gas production industry, to reduce the activity of the equipment for the purpose of service, repair, or dramatically reduced disposal costs. The author discusses examples of lead 210 and polonium 210 contamination, as well as Radium 226 or 228 contamination, which can be found in greases and hydrocarbons, scales and oxides, is often in inaccessible areas, mixed with other corrosion products as well as the metal surface, and occurs in a variety of chemical forms. Using chemical blends which are registered, often non-toxic and non-corrosive, the author presents examples of decontamination activities which can often be brought off within equipment down times without disrupting other activities.

Zietlow, T.C. [CORPEX Technologies, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1997-12-31

227

Portfolio Assessment on Chemical Reactor Analysis and Process Design Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment determines what students regard as important: if a teacher wants to change students' learning, he/she should change the methods of assessment. This article describes the use of portfolio assessment on five courses dealing with chemical reactor and process design during the years 1999-2001. Although the use of portfolio was a new…

Alha, Katariina

2004-01-01

228

CHEMICAL AND NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FISH PROTEIN CONCENTRATE PROCESSED FROM  

E-print Network

concentrate (FPC) contains pro- tein that is high in quality. It therefore can be used to supplement diets processes for making FPC have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Both of these are chemical be expressed during the pressing stage. Raw fish are difficult to press because of their physical consistency

229

ASSESSING TOXICITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS TO ANAEROBIC TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A screening protocol has been developed to provide a rapid but dependable and repeatable assessment of the effect of toxic organic chemicals on anaerobic treatment processes. his protocol provides information on the rate limiting biological reactions and the concentration of toxi...

230

An Integrated Course and Design Project in Chemical Process Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a chemical engineering course curriculum on process design, analysis, and simulation. Includes information regarding the sequencing of engineering design classes and the location of the classes within the degree program at New Mexico State University. Details of course content are provided. (DDR)

Rockstraw, David A.; And Others

1997-01-01

231

Hazardous Waste Processing in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a sequence of two courses included in the chemical engineering program at the University of Minnesota, Duluth that deal with the processing of hazardous wastes. Covers course content and structure, and discusses developments in pollution prevention and waste management that led to the addition of these courses to the curriculum.…

Dorland, Dianne; Baria, Dorab N.

1995-01-01

232

GREENSCOPE: A Method for Modeling Chemical Process Sustainability  

EPA Science Inventory

Current work within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s National Risk Management Research Laboratory is focused on the development of a method for modeling chemical process sustainability. The GREENSCOPE methodology, defined for the four bases of Environment, Economics, Ef...

233

INCORPORATING INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY INTO HIERARCHICAL CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Incorporating Industrial Ecology into Hierarchical Chemical Process Design: Determining Targets for the Exchange of Waste The exchange of waste to be used as a recycled feed has long been encouraged by practitioners of industrial ecology. Industrial ecology is a field t...

234

ORGANIC CHEMICAL FATE PREDICTION IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes results from a broadly-based effort to determine the feasibility of predicting the fates of organic chemicals in diffused air, activated sludge wastewater treatment processes. The three conversion/removal mechanisms emphasized in the work were stripping, sorp...

235

26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT NORTH EDGE FROM DECEMBER 7TH AVENUE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

236

A memetic algorithm for global optimization in chemical process synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering optimization often deals with very large search spaces which are highly constrained by nonlinear equations that restrict the values of the continuous variables. In this contribution the development of a memetic algorithm (MA) for global optimization in the solution of a problem in the chemical process engineering domain is described. The combination of an evolutionary strategy and a local

Maren Urselmann; Guido Sand; Sebastian Engell

2009-01-01

237

MEYERS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT FOR CHEMICAL DESULFURIZATION OF COAL. VOLUME I  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of bench-scale development of the Meyers Process (for chemical removal of sulfur from coal) for desulfurization of both fine and coarse coal. More than 90% of the pyrite was removed from run-of-mine (ROM) fine coal and clean coarse coal, and more than 80%...

238

The Safety Data Sheet, or SDS, is written or printed material used to convey the hazards of a hazardous chemical product. It contains 16 sections of important chemical information, including  

E-print Network

The Safety Data Sheet, or SDS, is written or printed material used to convey the hazards products are used in a manner similar to the intended consumer use. Go to OSHA Safety Data Sheet Quick Card are training, chemical labels, Safety Data Sheets, and a list of all hazardous chemicals in the work area

239

Certification Processes for Safety-Critical and Mission-Critical Aerospace Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is a quick reference guide with an overview of the processes required to certify safety-critical and mission-critical flight software at selected NASA centers and the FAA. Researchers and software developers can use this guide to jumpstart their understanding of how to get new or enhanced software onboard an aircraft or spacecraft. The introduction contains aerospace industry definitions of safety and safety-critical software, as well as, the current rationale for certification of safety-critical software. The Standards for Safety-Critical Aerospace Software section lists and describes current standards including NASA standards and RTCA DO-178B. The Mission-Critical versus Safety-Critical software section explains the difference between two important classes of software: safety-critical software involving the potential for loss of life due to software failure and mission-critical software involving the potential for aborting a mission due to software failure. The DO-178B Safety-critical Certification Requirements section describes special processes and methods required to obtain a safety-critical certification for aerospace software flying on vehicles under auspices of the FAA. The final two sections give an overview of the certification process used at Dryden Flight Research Center and the approval process at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL).

Nelson, Stacy

2003-01-01

240

40 CFR 372.20 - Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities.  

...false Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities. 372.20 Section...COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW...20 Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities. (a) Request...

2014-07-01

241

40 CFR 372.20 - Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities. 372.20 Section...COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW...20 Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities. (a) Request...

2012-07-01

242

40 CFR 372.20 - Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities. 372.20 Section...COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW...20 Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities. (a) Request...

2013-07-01

243

Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content  

DOEpatents

A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content which includes: (a) A chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; (b) the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; (c) the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; (d) the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products.

Michaels, Edward D. (Spring Valley, OH)

1982-01-01

244

Mixtures of chemical pollutants at European legislation safety concentrations: how safe are they?  

PubMed

The risk posed by complex chemical mixtures in the environment to wildlife and humans is increasingly debated, but has been rarely tested under environmentally relevant scenarios. To address this issue, two mixtures of 14 or 19 substances of concern (pesticides, pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, a surfactant, and a plasticizer), each present at its safety limit concentration imposed by the European legislation, were prepared and tested for their toxic effects. The effects of the mixtures were assessed in 35 bioassays, based on 11 organisms representing different trophic levels. A consortium of 16 laboratories was involved in performing the bioassays. The mixtures elicited quantifiable toxic effects on some of the test systems employed, including i) changes in marine microbial composition, ii) microalgae toxicity, iii) immobilization in the crustacean Daphnia magna, iv) fish embryo toxicity, v) impaired frog embryo development, and vi) increased expression on oxidative stress-linked reporter genes. Estrogenic activity close to regulatory safety limit concentrations was uncovered by receptor-binding assays. The results highlight the need of precautionary actions on the assessment of chemical mixtures even in cases where individual toxicants are present at seemingly harmless concentrations. PMID:24958932

Carvalho, Raquel N; Arukwe, Augustine; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Bado-Nilles, Anne; Balzamo, Stefania; Baun, Anders; Belkin, Shimshon; Blaha, Ludek; Brion, François; Conti, Daniela; Creusot, Nicolas; Essig, Yona; Ferrero, Valentina E V; Flander-Putrle, Vesna; Fürhacker, Maria; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina; Hogstrand, Christer; Jonáš, Adam; Kharlyngdoh, Joubert B; Loos, Robert; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Modig, Carina; Olsson, Per-Erik; Pillai, Smitha; Polak, Natasa; Potalivo, Monica; Sanchez, Wilfried; Schifferli, Andrea; Schirmer, Kristin; Sforzini, Susanna; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R; Søfteland, Liv; Turk, Valentina; Viarengo, Aldo; Werner, Inge; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Zounková, Radka; Lettieri, Teresa

2014-09-01

245

On March 26, 2012, the Safety Culture Task Force (SCTF) of the Committee on Chemical Safety, American Chemical Society, published the final draft of its report on  

E-print Network

safety. Implement hazards analysis procedures in all new lab work, especially laboratory research. (The courses and sessions have successfully completed a course in lab safety. 6. Implement hazards analysis procedures in all new lab work, especially laboratory research. 7. Build awareness and caring for safety

Farritor, Shane

246

Chemical measurements with optical fibers for process control.  

PubMed

Several aspects of remote in situ spectrophotometric measurement by means of optical fibers are considered in the context of chemical process control. The technique makes it possible to measure a species in a particular oxidation state, such as plutonium(VI), sequentially, under the stringent conditions of automated analysis. For the control of several species in solution, measurements at discrete wavelengths on the sides of the absorption peaks serve to increase the dynamic range. Examples are given concerning the isotopic separation of uranium in the Chemex process. The chemical control of complex solutions containing numerous mutually interfering species requires a more elaborate spectral scan and real-time processing to determine the chemical kinetics. Photodiode array spectrophotometers are therefore ideal for analysing the uranium and plutonium solutions of the Purex process. Remote on-line control by ultraviolet monitoring exhibits limitations chiefly due to Rayleigh scattering in the optical fibers. The measurement of pH in acidic (0.8-3.2) and basic media (10-13) has also been attempted. Prior calibration, signal processing and optical spectra modeling are also discussed. PMID:18964472

Boisde, G; Blanc, F; Perez, J J

1988-02-01

247

Approaches to Chemical and Biochemical Information and Signal Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We outline models and approaches for error control required to prevent buildup of noise when ``gates'' and other ``network elements'' based on (bio)chemical reaction processes are utilized to realize stable, scalable networks for information and signal processing. We also survey challenges and possible future research. [4pt] [1] Control of Noise in Chemical and Biochemical Information Processing, V. Privman, Israel J. Chem. 51, 118-131 (2010).[0pt] [2] Biochemical Filter with Sigmoidal Response: Increasing the Complexity of Biomolecular Logic, V. Privman, J. Halamek, M. A. Arugula, D. Melnikov, V. Bocharova and E. Katz, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 14103-14109 (2010).[0pt] [3] Towards Biosensing Strategies Based on Biochemical Logic Systems, E. Katz, V. Privman and J. Wang, in: Proc. Conf. ICQNM 2010 (IEEE Comp. Soc. Conf. Publ. Serv., Los Alamitos, California, 2010), pages 1-9.

Privman, Vladimir

2012-02-01

248

A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

2005-07-01

249

A Framework to Design and Optimize Chemical Flooding Processes  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

2006-08-31

250

A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

2004-11-01

251

Chemical Modification for PAN Fibers during Heat-treatment Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical modification for Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers during heat-treatment process were systematically studied by DSC, FT-IR, EA, XPS, etal. Comparing with original PAN fibers, chemical reactions, structures and elemental compositions of fibers modified with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solutions were totally changed at a certain extent. KMnO4 had reduced the activation energy of cyclization, decreased the area and widened the peak of exothermic curve, decreased the velocity of cyclization reaction, increased the oxygen content about 67%, hence increased C-O-C and C=O groups and the core/shell ratio.

Wang, Yi; Yin, Wenyan

252

Development of a polysilicon process based on chemical vapor deposition (phase 1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dichlorosilane-based reductive chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process demonstrated is capable of producing, at low cost, high quality polycrystalline silicon. Testing of decomposition reactor heat shields to insure that the shield provides adequate personnel protection assuming a worst case explosion was completed. Minor modifications to a production reactor heat shield provided adequate heat shield integrity. Construction of the redesigned PDU (Process Development Unit) to accommodate all safety related information proceeded on schedule. Structural steel work was completed as is the piping and instrumentation design work. Major pieces of process equipment were received and positioned in the support structure and all transfer piping and conduits to the PDU were installed. Construction was completed on a feed system for supplying DCS to an intermediate sized reactor. The feed system was successfully interfaced with a reactor equipped with a modified heat shield. Reactor checkout was completed.

Mccormick, J.; Arvidson, A.; Sawyer, D.; Plahutnik, F.

1981-01-01

253

Development of a polysilicon process based on chemical vapor deposition (phase 1)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dichlorosilane-based reductive chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process demonstrated is capable of producing, at low cost, high quality polycrystalline silicon. Testing of decomposition reactor heat shields to insure that the shield provides adequate personnel protection assuming a worst case explosion was completed. Minor modifications to a production reactor heat shield provided adequate heat shield integrity. Construction of the redesigned PDU (Process Development Unit) to accommodate all safety related information proceeded on schedule. Structural steel work was completed as is the piping and instrumentation design work. Major pieces of process equipment were received and positioned in the support structure and all transfer piping and conduits to the PDU were installed. Construction was completed on a feed system for supplying DCS to an intermediate sized reactor. The feed system was successfully interfaced with a reactor equipped with a modified heat shield. Reactor checkout was completed.

McCormick, J.; Arvidson, A.; Sawyer, D.; Plahutnik, F.

1981-06-01

254

Microfab-supplied chemicals Process chemicals that are supplied by the Microfab are marked with the sticker  

E-print Network

Microfab-supplied chemicals Process chemicals that are supplied by the Microfab are marked with the sticker: These supplied chemicals are available for general use in the cleanroom. If the container is instead marked with a user or group name, ask the owner's permission before using that chemical. Below

Braun, Paul

255

Chemical oxygen demand reduction in coffee wastewater through chemical flocculation and advanced oxidation processes.  

PubMed

The removal of the natural organic matter present in coffee processing wastewater through chemical coagulation-flocculation and advanced oxidation processes (AOP) had been studied. The effectiveness of the removal of natural organic matter using commercial flocculants and UV/H2O2, UV/O3 and UV/H2O2/O3 processes was determined under acidic conditions. For each of these processes, different operational conditions were explored to optimize the treatment efficiency of the coffee wastewater. Coffee wastewater is characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and low total suspended solids. The outcomes of coffee wastewater treatment using coagulation-flocculation and photodegradation processes were assessed in terms of reduction of COD, color, and turbidity. It was found that a reduction in COD of 67% could be realized when the coffee wastewater was treated by chemical coagulation-flocculation with lime and coagulant T-1. When coffee wastewater was treated by coagulation-flocculation in combination with UV/H2O2, a COD reduction of 86% was achieved, although only after prolonged UV irradiation. Of the three advanced oxidation processes considered, UV/H2O2, UV/O3 and UV/H2O2/O3, we found that the treatment with UV/H2O2/O3 was the most effective, with an efficiency of color, turbidity and further COD removal of 87%, when applied to the flocculated coffee wastewater. PMID:17918591

Zayas Pérez, Teresa; Geissler, Gunther; Hernandez, Fernando

2007-01-01

256

Contamination and changes of food factors during processing with modeling applications-safety related issues  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chemical and microbiological contamination of food during processing and preservation can result in foodborne illness outbreaks and food poisoning. Chemical contaminations can occur through exposure of foods to illegal additives, pesticides and fertilizer residues, toxic compounds formed by microbes...

257

Chemical Process Research and Development Program annual report, FY 1984  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Process Research and Development Program has five main projects applying chemistry and chemical engineering to problems in the production of new fuels, their environmental impact, and energy storage. These projects are: organometallic geochemistry; processing of effluent gases and liquids resulting from synthetic-fuel production, to provide acceptable waste or recycle streams; production of liquid fuels from biomass; electrochemical energy storage; and thermal energy storage. Progress reports are presented for the following studies: production of sugars from cellulose - kinetics of Endoglucanase in cellulose hydrolysis; production of sugars from cellulose - cellulase production by T. Reesei in continuous culture in lactose medium; molecular characterization of vanadium and nickel non-porphyrin compounds isolated from heavy crude petroleums; polymer pendant ligand chemistry - reactions of organoarsonic acids and arsenic acid with catechol ligands bonded to polystyrene-divinylbenzene and regeneration of the ligand site by a simple hydrolysis procedure; homogeneous catalytic hydrogenation - regioselective reduction of polynuclear heteroaromatic compounds catalyzed by (PPh/sub 3/)/sub 3/RuHCl; reactions of polynuclear nitrogen heteroaromatic model coal compounds with triruthenium dodecacarbonyl; processing of condensate waters from coal gasification; separations of polar organics from aqueous solutions by processes based upon reversible chemical complexation; dynamics of liquid filament breakup; removal of H/sub 2/S from coal-derived synthesis gas; technology base research project for electrochemical energy storage; battery electrode studies; and advanced thermal energy storage technologies project.

Not Available

1985-07-01

258

Information Scanning and Processing at the Nuclear Safety Information Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a detailed manual of the information specialist's duties at the Nuclear Safety Information Center. Information specialists scan the literature for documents to be reviewed, procure the documents (books, journal articles, reports, etc.), keep the document location records, and return the documents to the plant library or other…

Parks, Celia; Julian, Carol

259

A system safety approach to the FAA surveillance process  

Microsoft Academic Search

As commercial air travel grows in terms of the number of passenger miles flown, there is expected to be a corresponding dramatic increase in the absolute number of accidents. This despite an enviable safety record and a very low accident rate. The political environment is such that an increase in the absolute number of accidents is not acceptable, with a

P. W. Werner; D. R. Olson

1997-01-01

260

Safety risk assessment on communication system based on satellite constellations with the analytic hierarchy process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method in safety risk assessment on communication system based on satellite constellations through constructing safety risk index system. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An empirical study using the AHP was carried out to find the relative weights of those assessment criterion and sub-objectives of subsystem. Then the risk

Li Yulong; Wu Xiande; Li Zhongfu

2008-01-01

261

A Meta-model for Integrating Safety Concerns into Systems Engineering Processes  

E-print Network

A Meta-model for Integrating Safety Concerns into Systems Engineering Processes Pierre-Yves Piriou difficulty of critical systems development, integrating the safety concerns into Systems Engineering on a small example from the domain of electric power production. I. INTRODUCTION The System Engineering (SE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

262

Commercial Processing and its effect on the Microbiological Safety of Shell Eggs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Though egg shell microbiology has been studied over the years, little of it describes how modern US processing conditions impact microbial populations. When safety based regulations are implemented, this information can be used to determine critical steps critical to product safety. Shell egg surf...

263

Effect of combination processing on the microbial, chemical and sensory quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable pulav  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of irradiation in combination with retort processing on the shelf life and safety aspects of an ethnic Indian food product like vegetable pulav was investigated. Gamma irradiation of RTE vegetable pulav was carried out at different dosage rates with 60Co followed by retort processing. The combination processed samples were analysed for microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics. Microbiological analysis indicated that irradiation in combination with retort processing has significantly reduced the microbial loads whereas the chemical and sensory analysis proved that this combination processing is effective in retaining the properties even after storage for one year at ambient conditions. The results also indicated that a minimum irradiation dosage at 4.0 kGy along with retort processing at an F0 value of 2.0 is needed to achieve the desired shelf life with improved organoleptic qualities.

Kumar, R.; George, Johnsy; Rajamanickam, R.; Nataraju, S.; Sabhapathy, S. N.; Bawa, A. S.

2011-12-01

264

[Chemical safety as a problem of epidemiology of non-infectious diseases].  

PubMed

Based on the analysis of adopted in sanitary science methodology for the study and evaluation of the biological action and hygienic significance of environmental factors there was shown the need for the use of laws and methodology of classical epidemiology to ensure the chemical safety in the recognition and elimination of the group of diseases of chemical etiology, outbreaks of similar non infectious diseases. It is stated that individually small "non-toxic" doses of chemicals, but "loading" a large population and forming a large collective dose apparently can be implemented in a stochastic population health damage, detectable only on the basis of large-scale epidemiological studies to assess the risk. These approaches are presented to be especially important for agents in the environment, optimal for which is not absence, but the presence for provision of necessary target effect (pesticides, disinfectants and other household products, etc.). The main task of the epidemiological analysis of local toxic "bursts" and large-scale "epidemics" of this kind is an optimization of the complex of measures implemented by an adequate assessment of their medical, social and economic performance. PMID:24340593

Shestopalov, N V; Shandala, M G

2013-01-01

265

Microfabricated Instrumentation for Chemical Sensing in Industrial Process Control  

SciTech Connect

The monitoring of chemical constituents in manufacturing processes is of economic importance to most industries. The monitoring and control of chemical constituents may be of importance for product quality control or, in the case of process effluents, of environmental concern. The most common approach now employed for chemical process control is to collect samples which are returned to a conventional chemical analysis laboratory. This project attempts to demonstrate the use of microfabricated structures, referred to as 'lab-on-a-chip' devices, that accomplish chemical measurement tasks that emulate those performed in the conventional laboratory. The devices envisioned could be used as hand portable chemical analysis instruments where samples are analyzed in the field or as emplaced sensors for continuous 'real-time' monitoring. This project focuses on the development of filtration elements and solid phase extraction elements that can be monolithically integrated onto electrophoresis and chromatographic structures pioneered in the laboratory. Successful demonstration of these additional functional elements on integrated microfabricated devices allows lab-on-a-chip technologies to address real world samples that would be encountered in process control environments. The resultant technology has a broad application to industrial environmental monitoring problems. such as monitoring municipal water supplies, waste water effluent from industrial facilities, or monitoring of run-off from agricultural activities. The technology will also be adaptable to manufacturing process control scenarios. Microfabricated devices integrating sample filtration, solid phase extraction, and chromatographic separation with solvent programming were demonstrated. Filtering of the sample was accomplished at the same inlet with an array of seven channels each 1 {micro}m deep and 18 {micro}m wide. Sample concentration and separation were performed on channels 5 {micro}m deep and 25 {micro}m wide coated with a C18 phase, and elution was achieved under isocratic, step, or linear gradient conditions. For the solid phase extraction signal enhancement factors of 400 over a standard injection of 1.0 s were observed for a 320 s injection. Four polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) were resolved by open channel electrochromatography in under 50 s. Chip operation was unaffected by the presence of the 5 {micro}m silica particles at the filter entrance.

Ramsey, J. M.

2000-06-01

266

Effects of Semiconductor Processing Chemicals on Conductivity of Graphene  

SciTech Connect

Graphene layers on SiO2/Si substrates were exposed to chemicals or gases commonly used in semiconductor fabrication processes, including solvents (isopropanol, acetone), acids (HCl), bases (ammonium hydroxide), UV ozone, H2O and O2 plasmas. The recovery of the initial graphene properties after these exposures was monitored by measuring both the layer resistance and Raman 2D peak position as a function of time in air or vacuum. Solvents and UV ozone were found to have the least affect while oxygen plasma exposure caused an increase of resistance of more than 3 orders of magnitude. Recovery is accelerated under vacuum but changes can persist for more than 5 hours. Careful design of fabrication schemes involving graphene is necessary to minimize these interactions with common processing chemicals.

Chen, Chung Wei [National Central University, Taiwan; Ren, F. [University of Florida; Chi, G.C. [National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan; Hung, S. C. [National Central University, Taiwan; Huang, Y. P. [National Central University, Taiwan; Kim, J. [Korea University; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL; Pearton, S. J. [University of Florida

2012-01-01

267

Toolbox Safety Talk Safety Data Sheets (SDS)  

E-print Network

to as "Material Safety Data Sheets" (MSDS), communicate important information regarding the hazards of chemicalToolbox Safety Talk Safety Data Sheets (SDS) Environmental Health & Safety Facilities Safety Safety Data Sheets (SDS) for all chemicals produced. "Safety Data Sheets", previously referred

Pawlowski, Wojtek

268

The influence of dispositional mindfulness on safety behaviors: a dual process perspective.  

PubMed

Based on the dual process model of human cognition, this study investigated the influence of dispositional mindfulness on operators' safety behaviors and its boundary conditions. In a sample of 212 nuclear power plant control room operators, it was found that both safety compliance and safety participation behaviors were positively influenced by dispositional mindfulness as measured by the 14-item Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory. This effect was still positive after controlling for age, intelligence, work experience and conscientiousness. Moreover, two boundary conditions were identified: the impact of dispositional mindfulness of safety behaviors was stronger among operators who were either more experienced or more intelligent. Theoretically, the framework we used to understand the benefit of mindfulness on safety behaviors has been proved to be useful. Practically, it provides a new and valid criterion that could be used in operators' selection and training program to improve organizational safety. PMID:24686163

Zhang, Jingyu; Wu, Changxu

2014-09-01

269

Supercritical Water Process for the Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of chemical recycling of waste plastics by decomposition reactions in sub- and supercritical water is reviewed. Decomposition reactions proceed rapidly and selectively using supercritical fluids compared to conventional processes. Condensation polymerization plastics such as PET, nylon, and polyurethane, are relatively easily depolymerized to their monomers in supercritical water. The monomer components are recovered in high yield. Addition polymerization plastics such as phenol resin, epoxy resin, and polyethylene, are also decomposed to monomer components with or without catalysts. Recycling process of fiber reinforced plastics has been studied. Pilot scale or commercial scale plants have been developed and are operating with sub- and supercritical fluids.

Goto, Motonobu

2010-11-01

270

Process for converting cellulosic materials into fuels and chemicals  

DOEpatents

A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major constituent of paper, cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. The cellulase is produced from a continuous, columnar, fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing immobilized microorganisms. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. The cellulase is recycled by an adsorption process. The resulting crude sugars are converted to dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing microorganisms. The dilute product is concentrated and purified by utilizing distillation and/or a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor system.

Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faison, Brendlyn D. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

271

Ugba, the fermented African oilbean seeds; its production, chemical composition, preservation, safety and health benefits.  

PubMed

Ugba is the Ibo name of the fermented African Oilbean seeds (Pentaclethra macrophylla, Benth). It is a traditional food condiment generally produced by natural (local) fermentation in homes as a small family business. It is an important and cheap source of protein for people whose staple foods are deficient in proteins. It is also eaten as a delicacy and used as flavouring for soup. This write up aims to review all published studies on ugba in the direction of the various methods used in the production, the chemical composition of the seeds, the microorganisms involved and the biochemical changes that occur during fermentation and optimization of the fermentation. The nutritional and food values, toxicological properties, health promoting potentials, microbiological safety as well as the storage and preservation have also been highlighted. PMID:21848073

Ogueke, C C; Nwosu, J N; Owuamanam, C I; Iwouno, J N

2010-05-15

272

ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION  

SciTech Connect

Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

2014-06-05

273

SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR TANK 241-AZ-101 MIXER PUMP PROCESS TEST  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document contains the completed safety analysis which establishes the safety envelope for performing the mixer pump process test in Tank 241-AZ-101. This process test is described in TF-210-OTP-001. All equipment necessary for the mixer pump test has been installed by Project W-151. The purpose of this document is to describe and analyze the mixer pump test for Aging Waste

HAMMOND DM; HARRIS JP; MOUETTE P

1997-01-01

274

Regulation and safety implementation of nanotechnology for chemical enterprises in the Central Europe Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As result of the gradually increasing nanotechnology sector there is the necessity of a contemporary analysis of the present regulations used for nanomaterials, to outline the current situation of the nanotechnology sector, to promote international cooperation and research's coordination to overcome disciplinary boundaries, to fill the gap between more and less experienced regions and to turn investments in R&D in industrial innovations. The general objective of the Central Europe project NANOFORCE, which is developed by national and regional chemistry associations and R&D Centres of the Central Europe area, is to foster the innovative nanotechnology-sector networks across Central Europe regions by bringing together public and private organizations to carry out collaborative and interdisciplinary researches on nanomaterials (in the frame of REACH Regulation) and to turn the most promising laboratory results into innovative industrial applications. To build up a legal advisory board for chemical enterprises starting in nanotechnology, a state of the art report on existing safety procedures and nanotech related regulations was produced to give an overview on currently available regulations used by chemical industries and manufacturing companies within the European region to secure their products. The main emphasis was placed on REACH regulation to search for relevant sections concentrating on nanomaterials which are applicable for nanotechnology. In addition, all relevant directives and amendments of REACH were screened with regard to identify gaps where action is still needed and give possible recommendations for the European Commission. Beyond literature research a questionnaire for producers, users, researchers and financiers was developed with the goal to collect information about the nanotechnology sector in the CE region concerning development, financial status, and international cooperation within joint ventures, safety and nanotoxicology.

Falk, A.; Hartl, S.; Sinner, F.

2013-04-01

275

Laminated solar-control safety glass incorporating chemically deposited metal chalcogenide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of producing safety glass made from 3 mm sheet glass coated with chemically deposited CuS, ZnS-CuS, Sb2S3-CuS, and PbS-CuS thin films are presented. The coatings are produced on the sheet glass from dilute solutions containing metal complexes and a source of sulfide ions such as thiourea, thioacetamide, or thiosulfate. Films of thickness ranging from 0.05 micrometer to 0.3 micrometer are deposited at different temperatures, 10 degrees Celsius - 50 degrees Celsius, with durations of depositions of 1 h to 6 h. These coatings are laminated using commercially available poly(vinyl butyral) based laminating polymer sheets and clear sheet glass at temperatures of 120 degrees Celsius to 140 degrees Celsius under 10 - 12 kg cm-2 pressure in an autoclave. The optical transmittance and reflectance spectra of the safety glasses show that a wide choice of solar control parameters are possible with these glazings: TVIS, 2.5 - 45%; RVIS, 10 - 25%; and shading coefficient (SC), 0.25 - 0.45.

Nair, Padmanabhan K.; Nair, M. T.; Gomez-Daza, O.; Garcia, V. M.; Castillo, A.; Arenas, O. L.; Pena, Y.; Guerrero, L.

1997-10-01

276

Development of a polysilicon process based on chemical vapor deposition, phase 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a dichlorosilane-based reductive chemical vapor deposition process for the production of polycrystalline silicon is discussed. Experimental data indicate that the ease of ignition and explosion severity of dichlorosilane (DCS)/air mixtures is substantially attenuated if the DCS is diluted with hydrogen. Redesign of the process development unit to accommodate safety related information is described. Several different sources of trichlorosilane were used to generate a mixture of redistributed chlorosilanes via Dowex ion exchange resin. The unseparated mixtures were then fed to an experimental reactor in which silicon was deposited and the deposited silicon analyzed for electrically active impurities. At least one trichlorosilane source provided material of requisite purity. Silicon grown in the experimental reactor was converted to single crystal material and solar cells fabricated and tested.

McCormick, J.; Sharp, K.; Arvidson, A.; Sawyer, D.

1981-03-01

277

Chemical engineering challenges in driving thermochemical hydrogen processes with the tandem mirror reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Tandem Mirror Reactor is described and compared with Tokamaks, both from a basic physics viewpoint and from the suitability of the respective reactor for synfuel production. Differences and similarities between the TMR as an electricity producer or a synfuel producer are also cited. The Thermochemical cycle chosen to link with the fusion energy source is the General Atomic Sulfur-Iodine Cycle, which is a purely thermal-driven process with no electrochemical steps. There are real chemical engineering challenges of getting this high quality heat into the large thermochemical plant in an efficient manner. We illustrate with some of our approaches to providing process heat via liquid sodium to drive a 1050 K, highly-endothermic, catalytic and fluidized-bed SO/sub 3/ Decomposition Reactor. The technical, economic, and safety tradeoffs that arise are discussed.

Galloway, T.R.; Werner, R.W.

1980-01-01

278

Thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical processes in fractured-porous media: Benchmarks and examples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The book comprises an assembly of benchmarks and examples for porous media mechanics collected over the last twenty years. Analysis of thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes is essential to many applications in environmental engineering, such as geological waste deposition, geothermal energy utilisation, carbon capture and storage, water resources management, hydrology, even climate change. In order to assess the feasibility as well as the safety of geotechnical applications, process-based modelling is the only tool to put numbers, i.e. to quantify future scenarios. This charges a huge responsibility concerning the reliability of computational tools. Benchmarking is an appropriate methodology to verify the quality of modelling tools based on best practices. Moreover, benchmarking and code comparison foster community efforts. The benchmark book is part of the OpenGeoSys initiative - an open source project to share knowledge and experience in environmental analysis and scientific computation.

Kolditz, O.; Shao, H.; Görke, U.; Kalbacher, T.; Bauer, S.; McDermott, C. I.; Wang, W.

2012-12-01

279

75 FR 36306 - Chemical Mixtures Containing Listed Forms of Phosphorus and Change in Application Process  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...plastics, flame retardants, pyrotechnics, striker plates (e.g., for safety matches and flares), incendiary shells, smoke bombs, and tracer bullets. Chemical mixtures containing hypophosphorous acid salts (e.g., hypophosphite salts) function...

2010-06-25

280

Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

Education in Science, 1996

1996-01-01

281

[Chemical constituents from processed rhizomes of Panax notoginseng].  

PubMed

To investigate the chemical constituents of the processed rhizomes of Panax notoginseng, their 70% ethanol extract was chromatographed on macroporous resin (SP825), silica gel, RP-C18 and semi-preparative HPLC to afford compounds 1-23. On the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data analysis, their structures were identified to be 6'-O-Acetylginsenoside Rh1 (1), ginsenoside RK3 (2), ginsenoside Rh4 (3), 20S-ginsenoside Rg3 (4), ginsenoside Rk1 (5), 20R-ginsenoside Rg3 (6), ginsenoside Rg5 (7), ginsenoside F2 (8), 20S-ginsenoside Rh1 (9), 20R-ginsenoside Rh1 (10), gypenoside X VII (11), notoginsenoside Fa, (12), ginsenoside Ra3 (13), ginsenoside Rg1 (14), ginsenoside Re (15), notoginsenoside R2 (16), ginsenoside Rg2 (17), notoginsenoside R1 (18), ginsenoside Rd (19), ginsenoside Rb1 (20), notoginsenoside D (21), notoginsenoside R4 (22) and ginsenoside Rb2 (23), respectively. Among them, compound 1 was isolated from P. notoginseng for the first time, and compounds 4, 6, 8 and 11 were isolated from the processed P. notoginseng for the first time. According to the fingerprint profiles of raw and processed P. notoginseng, the putative chemical conversion pathways of panoxatriol and panoxadiol compounds in the processing procedure was deduced, and the results revealed the main reactions to be dehydration and glycosyl hydrolysis. PMID:24558875

Yu, He-Shui; Zhang, Li-Juan; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Yi-Xun; Zhang, Jie; Cao, Man; Kang, Li-Ping; Kang, Ting-Guo; Ma, Bai-Ping

2013-11-01

282

Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process  

PubMed Central

Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:22768233

Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

2012-01-01

283

An Approach to Help Departments Meet the New ABET Process Safety Requirements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proposed program criteria changes by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc. (ABET), for chemical, biochemical, biomolecular, and similarly named programs includes a fundamental awareness expectation of the hazards involved in chemical processing for a graduating chemical engineer. As of July 2010, these four new words…

Vaughen, Bruce K.

2012-01-01

284

Mechanistic, kinetic, and processing aspects of tungsten chemical mechanical polishing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation presents an investigation into tungsten chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). CMP is the industrially predominant unit operation that removes excess tungsten after non-selective chemical vapor deposition (CVD) during sub-micron integrated circuit (IC) manufacture. This work explores the CMP process from process engineering and fundamental mechanistic perspectives. The process engineering study optimized an existing CMP process to address issues of polish pad and wafer carrier life. Polish rates, post-CMP metrology of patterned wafers, electrical test data, and synergy with a thermal endpoint technique were used to determine the optimal process. The oxidation rate of tungsten during CMP is significantly lower than the removal rate under identical conditions. Tungsten polished without inhibition during cathodic potentiostatic control. Hertzian indenter model calculations preclude colloids of the size used in tungsten CMP slurries from indenting the tungsten surface. AFM surface topography maps and TEM images of post-CMP tungsten do not show evidence of plow marks or intergranular fracture. Polish rate is dependent on potassium iodate concentration; process temperature is not. The colloid species significantly affects the polish rate and process temperature. Process temperature is not a predictor of polish rate. A process energy balance indicates that the process temperature is predominantly due to shaft work, and that any heat of reaction evolved during the CMP process is negligible. Friction and adhesion between alumina and tungsten were studied using modified AFM techniques. Friction was constant with potassium iodate concentration, but varied with applied pressure. This corroborates the results from the energy balance. Adhesion between the alumina and the tungsten was proportional to the potassium iodate concentration. A heuristic mechanism, which captures the relationship between polish rate, pressure, velocity, and slurry chemistry, is presented. In this mechanism, the colloid reacts with the chemistry of the slurry to produce active sites. These active sites become inactive by removing tungsten from the film. The process repeats when then inactive sites are reconverted to active sites. It is shown that the empirical form of the heuristic mechanism fits all of the data obtained. The mechanism also agrees with the limiting cases that were investigated.

Stein, David

285

Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

1992-05-01

286

High-lift chemical heat pump technologies for industrial processes  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally industrial heat pumps (IHPs) have found applications on a process specific basis with reject heat from a process being upgraded and returned to the process. The IHP must be carefully integrated into a process since improper placement may result in an uneconomic application. Industry has emphasized a process integration approach to the design and operation of their plants. Heat pump applications have adopted this approach and the area of applicability was extended by utilizing a process integrated approach where reject heat from one process is upgraded and then used as input for another process. The DOE IHP Program has extended the process integration approach of heat pump application with a plant utility emphasis. In this design philosophy, reject heat from a process is upgraded to plant utility conditions and fed into the plant distribution system. This approach has the advantage that reject heat from any pr@s can be used as input and the output can be used at any location within the plant. Thus the approach can be easily integrated into existing industrial applications and all reject heat streams are potential targets of opportunity. The plant utility approach can not be implemented without having heat pumps with high-lift capabilities (on the order of 65{degree}C). Current heat pumps have only about half the lift capability required. Thus the current emphasis for the DOE IHP Program is the development of high lift chemical heat pumps that can deliver heat more economically to higher heat delivery temperatures. This is achieved with innovative cooling (refrigeration) and heating technologies which are based on advanced cycles and advanced working fluids or a combination of both. This paper details the plan to develop economically competitive, environmentally acceptable heat pump technologies that are capable of providing the delivery temperature and lift required to supply industrial plant utility-grade process heating and/or cooling.

Olszewski, M.; Zaltash, A.

1995-03-01

287

Chemical evolution of the Earth: Equilibrium or disequilibrium process?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To explain the apparent chemical incompatibility of the Earth's core and mantle or the disequilibrium process, various core forming mechanisms have been proposed, i.e., rapid disequilibrium sinking of molten iron, an oxidized core or protocore materials, and meteorite contamination of the upper mantle after separation from the core. Adopting concepts used in steady state thermodynamics, a method is devised for evaluating how elements should distribute stable in the Earth's interior for the present gradients of temperature, pressure, and gravitational acceleration. Thermochemical modeling gives useful insights into the nature of chemical evolution of the Earth without overly speculative assumptions. Further work must be done to reconcile siderophile elements, rare gases, and possible light elements in the outer core.

Sato, M.

1985-01-01

288

Laboratory Studies of Heterogeneous Chemical Processes of Atmospheric Importance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study is to conduct measurements of chemical kinetics parameters for heterogeneous reactions of importance in the stratosphere and the troposphere. It involves the elucidation of the mechanism of the interaction of HC1 vapor with ice surfaces, which is the first step in the heterogeneous chlorine activation processes, as well as the investigation of the atmospheric oxidation mechanism of soot particles emitted by biomass and fossil fuels. The techniques being employed include turbulent flow- chemical ionization mass spectrometry and optical ellipsometry, among others. The next section summarizes our research activities during the first year of the project, and the section that follows consists of the statement of work for the second year.

Molina, Mario J.

2003-01-01

289

Comparison of the efficiency of a thermo-chemical process to that of a fuel cell process when both involve the same chemical reaction  

E-print Network

This work assesses if a plausible theoretical thermo-chemical scheme can be conceived of, that is capable of extracting work from chemical reactants which can be compared with work produced by a fuel cell, when both processes are supplied...

Bulusu, Seshu Periah

2009-05-15

290

WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL NUCLEAR SAFETY RELATED R AND D REPORT FOR CY2008  

SciTech Connect

The Engineering and Technology Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks associated with key waste processing project decisions. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment (TDD). The Office of Waste Processing TDD program prioritizes and approves research and development scopes of work that address nuclear safety related to processing of highly radioactive nuclear wastes. Thirteen of the thirty-five R&D approved work scopes in FY2009 relate directly to nuclear safety, and are presented in this report.

Fellinger, A.

2009-10-15

291

What can I do with a degree in Chemical and Process Engineering?  

E-print Network

What can I do with a degree in Chemical and Process Engineering? ENGINEERING Planning your career to www.canterbury.ac.nz/liaison/best_prep.shtml What is Chemical and Process Engineering? Chemical and process engineers are concerned with transforming bulk raw materials into processed, marketable products

Hickman, Mark

292

UVM chemical use planning form.docx; 2012 Version 4 Page 1 of 6 Risk Management & Safety  

E-print Network

UVM chemical use planning form.docx; 2012 Version 4 Page 1 of 6 Risk Management & Safety Your spill control equipment emergency exits emergency contact information V. Medical Monitoring and Exposure Environmental Management Plan I. Laboratory Information: Laboratory Supervisor: Department: Building: Room

Hayden, Nancy J.

293

A Case Study of Measuring Process Risk for Early Insights into Software Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this case study, we examine software safety risk in three flight hardware systems in NASA's Constellation spaceflight program. We applied our Technical and Process Risk Measurement (TPRM) methodology to the Constellation hazard analysis process to quantify the technical and process risks involving software safety in the early design phase of these projects. We analyzed 154 hazard reports and collected metrics to measure the prevalence of software in hazards and the specificity of descriptions of software causes of hazardous conditions. We found that 49-70% of 154 hazardous conditions could be caused by software or software was involved in the prevention of the hazardous condition. We also found that 12-17% of the 2013 hazard causes involved software, and that 23-29% of all causes had a software control. The application of the TPRM methodology identified process risks in the application of the hazard analysis process itself that may lead to software safety risk.

Layman, Lucas; Basili, Victor; Zelkowitz, Marvin V.; Fisher, Karen L.

2011-01-01

294

An integrated biotechnology platform for developing sustainable chemical processes.  

PubMed

Genomatica has established an integrated computational/experimental metabolic engineering platform to design, create, and optimize novel high performance organisms and bioprocesses. Here we present our platform and its use to develop E. coli strains for production of the industrial chemical 1,4-butanediol (BDO) from sugars. A series of examples are given to demonstrate how a rational approach to strain engineering, including carefully designed diagnostic experiments, provided critical insights about pathway bottlenecks, byproducts, expression balancing, and commercial robustness, leading to a superior BDO production strain and process. PMID:25416472

Barton, Nelson R; Burgard, Anthony P; Burk, Mark J; Crater, Jason S; Osterhout, Robin E; Pharkya, Priti; Steer, Brian A; Sun, Jun; Trawick, John D; Van Dien, Stephen J; Yang, Tae Hoon; Yim, Harry

2015-03-01

295

Sealing OS processes to improve dependability and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most modern operating systems, a process is a hardware-protected abstraction for isolating code and data. This protection, however, is selective. Many common mechanisms—dynamic code loading, run-time code generation, shared memory, and intrusive system APIs— make the barrier between processes very permeable. This paper argues that this traditional open process architecture exacerbates the dependability and security weaknesses of modern systems.

Galen C. Hunt; Mark Aiken; Manuel Fähndrich; Chris Hawblitzel; Orion Hodson; James R. Larus; Steven Levi; Bjarne Steensgaard; David Tarditi; Ted Wobber

2007-01-01

296

Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic-nozzle sprays.

Lyons, Shawn M.; Harrison, Mark A.; Law, S. Edward

2011-06-01

297

Process for converting cellulosic materials into fuels and chemicals  

DOEpatents

A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major constituent of paper, cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. The cellulase is produced from a continuous, columnar, fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing immobilized microorganisms. An attrition mill and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. The cellulase is recycled by an adsorption process. The resulting crude sugars are converted to dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing microorganisms. The dilute product is concentrated and purified by utilizing distillation and/or a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor system. 1 fig.

Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

1994-09-20

298

Role of pyro-chemical processes in advanced fuel cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) of Minor Actinides (MAs) and Long-Lived Fission Products (LLFP) arising out of the back-end of the fuel cycle would be one of the key-steps in any future sustainable nuclear fuel cycle. Pyro-chemical separation methods would form a critical stage of P&T by recovering long-lived elements and thus reducing the environmental impact by the back-end of the fuel-cycle. This paper attempts to overview global developments of pyro-chemical process that are envisaged in advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Research and development needs for molten-salt electro-refining as well as molten salt extraction process that are foreseen as partitioning methods for spent nuclear fuels such as oxide, metal and nitride fuels from thermal or fast reactors; high level liquid waste from back-end fuel cycle as well as targets from sub-critical Accelerator Driven Sub-critical reactors would be addressed. The role of high temperature thermodynamic data of minor actinides in defining efficiency of recovery or separation of minor actinides from other fission products such as lanthanides will also be illustrated. In addition, the necessity for determination of accurate high temperature thermodynamic data of minor actinides would be discussed.

Nawada, Hosadu Parameswara; Fukuda, Kosaku

2005-02-01

299

Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to nanocellulose: structure and chemical process.  

PubMed

Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate's application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulose crystallinity, which inhibit the digestibility of the biomass for cellulose extraction. This situation offers both challenges and promises for the biomass biorefinery development to utilize the cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass. Thus, multistep biorefinery processes are necessary to ensure the deconstruction of noncellulosic content in lignocellulosic biomass, while maintaining cellulose product for further hydrolysis into nanocellulose material. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance, reengineering process of lignocellulosic biomass into nanocellulose via chemical, and novel catalytic approaches. Furthermore, review on catalyst design to overcome key barriers regarding the natural resistance of biomass will be presented herein. PMID:25247208

Lee, H V; Hamid, S B A; Zain, S K

2014-01-01

300

CRITICALITY SAFETY OF PROCESSING SALT SOLUTION AT SRS  

SciTech Connect

High level radioactive liquid waste generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site has been stored as 36 million gallons in underground tanks. About ten percent of the waste volume is sludge, composed of insoluble metal hydroxides primarily hydroxides of Mn, Fe, Al, Hg, and most radionuclides including fission products. The remaining ninety percent of the waste volume is saltcake, composed of primarily sodium (nitrites, nitrates, and aluminates) and hydroxides. Saltcakes account for 30% of the radioactivity while the sludge accounts for 70% of the radioactivity. A pilot plant salt disposition processing system has been designed at the Savannah River Site for interim processing of salt solution and is composed of two facilities: the Actinide Removal Process Facility (ARPF) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Data from the pilot plant salt processing system will be used for future processing salt at a much higher rate in a new salt processing facility. Saltcake contains significant amounts of actinides, and other long-lived radioactive nuclides such as strontium and cesium that must be extracted prior to disposal as low level waste. The extracted radioactive nuclides will be mixed with the sludge from waste tanks and vitrified in another facility. Because of the presence of highly enriched uranium in the saltcake, there is a criticality concern associated with concentration and/or accumulation of fissionable material in the ARP and MCU.

Stephens, K; Davoud Eghbali, D; Michelle Abney, M

2008-01-15

301

vwDepartment of Geoscience Lab Safety Guidelines for Micropalo Processing  

E-print Network

vwDepartment of Geoscience Lab Safety Guidelines for Micropalo Processing 1. Processing. No more than two levels will be put on any hood. 4. Labs will be kept clear of all unnecessary materials brought into the lab from other labs will be accompanied by MSDSs, which will be placed the MSDS binders

Habib, Ayman

302

A platform surveillance monitoring system using image processing for passenger safety in railway station  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a platform surveillance monitoring system using image processing technology for passenger safety in railway station. The proposed system monitors almost entire length of the track line in the platform by using multiple cameras, and determines in real-time whether a human or dangerous obstacle is in the preset monitoring area by using image processing technology. According

Sehchan Oh; Changmu Lee

2007-01-01

303

[Substantiation of both safety indices for control over the use of chemicals for water disinfection and need to harmonize them with international requirements].  

PubMed

The domestic and also foreign indices applied for control over the safety of chemical disinfecting of water are considered. The data confirming need of extension of the list of legislatively approved indices are provided of water, efficiency and safety indicators, harmful impurity, transformation products. On the basis of the performed analysis of literature data and own investigations the following indices for inclusion in the processed. Sanitary standards and rules on drinking water are suggested: the total content of THM, the total content of haloacetic acids, the total maintenance of up to AHC index (adsorbed halogen-containing organic compounds) in water chlorination; chlorite- and chlorate ions in application of dioxide of chlorine; control over efficiency of water disinfection up to the steadiest microorganisms depending on an applied method. Introduction of settlement about necessity of control over the content of dangerous monomers and impurities in a commodity products in application of polymeric reagents and means of water disinfection is proved. PMID:23458009

Tul'skaia, E A; Rakhmanin, Iu A; Zholdakova, Z I

2012-01-01

304

Experience of Hot Cell Renovation Work in CPF (Chemical Processing Facility)  

SciTech Connect

Renovation work for operation room A of the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF) was carried out. Cell renovation work involved disassembly, removal and installation of new equipment for the CA-3 cell of operation room A and the crane renovation work involved the repair of the in-cell crane for the CA-5 cell of operation room A. There were not many examples of renovation work performed on cells under high radiation environment and alpha contamination in Japan. Lessons learnt: With respect to the cell renovation work and crane repair work, a method that gave full consideration to safety was employed and the work was performed without accidents or disaster. Moreover, through improvement of the method, reduction of radioactive exposure of the workers was achieved and a melt reduction device was designed to deal with the radioactive waste material that was generated in the renovation work to achieve significant melt reduction of waste material.

Toyonobu Nabemoto; Fujio Katahira; Tadatsugu Sakaya [IHI Corporation: Isogo-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa pref, 235-8501 (Japan); Shinichi Aose; Takafumi Kitajima; Kouji Ogasawara; Kazunori Nomura; Shigehiko Miyachi; Yoshiaki Ichige; Tadahiro Shinozaki; Shinichi Ohuchi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency: Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki pref, 319-1194 (Japan)

2008-01-15

305

FY13 GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATIONS OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL WITH SIMULANTS  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River Remediation is evaluating changes to its current Defense Waste Processing Facility flowsheet to replace formic acid with glycolic acid in order to improve processing cycle times and decrease by approximately 100x the production of hydrogen, a potentially flammable gas. Higher throughput is needed in the Chemical Processing Cell since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the safety significant gas chromatographs and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, eliminating the use of formic acid is highly desirable. Previous testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with glycolic acid allows the reduction and removal of mercury without significant catalytic hydrogen generation. Five back-to-back Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycles and four back-to-back Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were successful in demonstrating the viability of the nitric/glycolic acid flowsheet. The testing was completed in FY13 to determine the impact of process heels (approximately 25% of the material is left behind after transfers). In addition, back-to-back experiments might identify longer-term processing problems. The testing was designed to be prototypic by including sludge simulant, Actinide Removal Product simulant, nitric acid, glycolic acid, and Strip Effluent simulant containing Next Generation Solvent in the SRAT processing and SRAT product simulant, decontamination frit slurry, and process frit slurry in the SME processing. A heel was produced in the first cycle and each subsequent cycle utilized the remaining heel from the previous cycle. Lower SRAT purges were utilized due to the low hydrogen generation. Design basis addition rates and boilup rates were used so the processing time was shorter than current processing rates.

Lambert, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Best, D.

2014-03-13

306

Data Refining for Text Mining Process in Aviation Safety Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful data mining is an iterative process during which data will be refined and adjusted to achieve more accurate mining results. Most important tools in the text mining context are list of stop words and list of synonyms. The size and richness of the lists mentioned depend on the structure of the language used in the text to be mined. English, for example, is an “easy” language for search technologies, because with a couple of exceptions, the stem of the word is not conjugated and terms are formed using several words instead of creating compounds. This requires special attention to definitions when processing morphologically rich languages like Finnish. This chapter introduces the need and realisation of refining the source data for a successful data mining process based onto the results achieved from first mining round.

Sjöblom, Olli

307

Proceedings of the first international conference on pervaporation processes in the chemical industry  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings collect papers given at conference on chemical pervaporation processes. Topics include: evaporation and evaporators; fermentation and distillation; biomass conversion and waste processing.

Bakish, R.

1986-01-01

308

Chemical compositional, biological, and safety studies of a novel maple syrup derived extract for nutraceutical applications.  

PubMed

Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789

Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Li, Liya; Nahar, Pragati; Slitt, Angela; Seeram, Navindra P

2014-07-16

309

Enhanced Chemical Cleaning: A New Process for Chemically Cleaning Savannah River Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

At the Savannah River Site (SRS) there are 49 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks that eventually must be emptied, cleaned, and closed. The current method of chemically cleaning SRS HLW tanks, commonly referred to as Bulk Oxalic Acid Cleaning (BOAC), requires about a half million liters (130,000 gallons) of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to clean a single tank. During the cleaning, the oxalic acid acts as the solvent to digest sludge solids and insoluble salt solids, such that they can be suspended and pumped out of the tank. Because of the volume and concentration of acid used, a significant quantity of oxalate is added to the HLW process. This added oxalate significantly impacts downstream processing. In addition to the oxalate, the volume of liquid added competes for the limited available tank space. A search, therefore, was initiated for a new cleaning process. Using TRIZ (Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadatch or roughly translated as the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving), Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination with Ultraviolet Light (CORD-UV{reg_sign}), a mature technology used in the commercial nuclear power industry was identified as an alternate technology. Similar to BOAC, CORD-UV{reg_sign} also uses oxalic acid as the solvent to dissolve the metal (hydr)oxide solids. CORD-UV{reg_sign} is different, however, since it uses photo-oxidation (via peroxide/UV or ozone/UV to form hydroxyl radicals) to decompose the spent oxalate into carbon dioxide and water. Since the oxalate is decomposed and off-gassed, CORD-UV{reg_sign} would not have the negative downstream oxalate process impacts of BOAC. With the oxalate destruction occurring physically outside the HLW tank, re-precipitation and transfer of the solids, as well as regeneration of the cleaning solution can be performed without adding additional solids, or a significant volume of liquid to the process. With a draft of the pre-conceptual Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) flowsheet, taking full advantage of the many CORD-UV{reg_sign} benefits, performance demonstration testing was initiated using available SRS sludge simulant. The demonstration testing confirmed that ECC is a viable technology, as it can dissolve greater than 90% of the sludge simulant and destroy greater than 90% of the oxalates. Additional simulant and real waste testing are planned.

Ketusky, Edward; Spires, Renee; Davis, Neil

2009-02-11

310

Chemical and crystallographic events in the caries process.  

PubMed

The chemical and crystallographic events associated with the caries process can be described based on the results from the following studies: (a) effects of carbonate, magnesium, fluoride, and strontium on the physico-chemical properties--lattice parameters, crystallinity (crystal size and strain); dissolution properties of synthetic apatites; (b) factors influencing the in vitro formation and transformation of DCPD, OCP, AP (Ca-deficient apatites), FAP, beta-TCMP (Mg-substituted), and CaF2; and (c) studies on properties (crystallinity, composition, chemical, and thermal stabilities) of enamel, dentin, and bone. The dissolution of CO3-rich/Mg-rich/F-poor dental apatite crystals and re-precipitation of CO3-poor/Mg-poor/F-rich apatite in the presence of F- ions in solution contribute to a more acid-resistant surface layer of the caries lesion. Fluoride promotes the formation of less Ca-deficient and more stable apatite crystals. The presence of Ca, P, and F in solution inhibits dissolution of apatite more than does the presence of F alone. Low levels of F in solution promote the formation of (F, OH)-apatite, even under very acid conditions; an increase in F levels causes the formation of CaF2 at the expense of DCPD or apatite, especially in acid conditions. F in apatite and/or in solution suppresses extensive dissolution of dental apatite and enhances the formation of (F, OH)-apatite crystals which are more resistant against acid-dissolution than are F-free apatite crystals. PMID:2179315

LeGeros, R Z

1990-02-01

311

Deposition of zinc sulfide thin films by chemical bath process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deposition of high quality zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin film over a large area is required if it is to be effectively used in electroluminescent devices, solar cells, and other optoelectronic devices. Of all deposition techniques, chemical bath deposition (CBD) is the least costly technique that meets the above requirements. Recently it is found that the growth of ZnS film, of thickness less than 100 nm in a single dip, by CBD is facilitated by the use of ammonia and hydrazine as complexing agents. Here we report that the thickness of the deposited ZnS film can be increased if ammonium salt is used as a buffer. We also present an analytical study to explain our results and to further understand the ZnS growth process in CBD.

Oladeji, Isaiah O.; Chow, Lee

1996-11-01

312

Radon: Chemical and physical processes associated with its distribution  

SciTech Connect

Assessing the mechanisms which govern the distribution, fate, and pathways of entry into biological systems, as well as the ultimate hazards associated with the radon progeny and their secondary reaction products, depends on knowledge of their chemistry. Our studies are directed toward developing fundamental information which will provide a basis for modeling studies that are requisite in obtaining a complete picture of growth, attachment to aerosols, and transport to the bioreceptor and ultimate incorporation within. Our program is divided into three major areas of research. These include measurement of the determination of their mobilities, study of the role of radon progeny ions in affecting reactions, including study of the influence of the degree of solvation (clustering), and examination of the important secondary reaction products, with particular attention to processes leading to chemical conversion of either the core ions or the ligands as a function of the degree of clustering.

Castleman, A.W. Jr.

1992-01-01

313

A fuzzy model for assessing risk of occupational safety in the processing industry.  

PubMed

Managing occupational safety in any kind of industry, especially in processing, is very important and complex. This paper develops a new method for occupational risk assessment in the presence of uncertainties. Uncertain values of hazardous factors and consequence frequencies are described with linguistic expressions defined by a safety management team. They are modeled with fuzzy sets. Consequence severities depend on current hazardous factors, and their values are calculated with the proposed procedure. The proposed model is tested with real-life data from fruit processing firms in Central Serbia. PMID:22721531

Tadic, Danijela; Djapan, Marko; Misita, Mirjana; Stefanovic, Miladin; Milanovic, Dragan D

2012-01-01

314

Overview of tritium safety technology at the Tritium Process Laboratory of JAERI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tritium Process Laboratory of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is the only laboratory in Japan where grams of tritium can be handled to carry out R&D on tritium processing and tritium safety handling technologies for fusion reactors. The tritium inventory is approximately 13 grams. Since 1988, basic research has been performed using gram-level tritium quantities. During the past 5 years, approximately 1 kilogram of tritium has been handled in experimental apparatus. The total amount of tritium released through the stack of TPL was controlled to less than 1 Ci without any accidents. In order to establish more complete tritium safety for DT fusion reactors, main R&D areas on tritium safety technology at TPL were focused on a new compact tritium confinement system, reliable tritium accounting and inventory control, new tritium waste treatments, and tritium release behavior into a room.

Hayashi, Takumi; Okuno, Kenji

1993-06-01

315

Overview of tritium safety technology at the tritium process laboratory of JAERI  

SciTech Connect

The Tritium Process Laboratory of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is the only laboratory in Japan where grams of tritium can be handled to carry out R D on tritium processing and tritium safety handling technologies for fusion reactors. The tritium inventory is approximately 13 grams. Since 1988, basic research has been performed using gram-level tritium quantities. During the past 5 years, approximately 1 kilogram of tritium has been handled in experimental apparatus. The total amount of tritium released through the stack of TPL was controlled to less than 1 Ci without any accidents. In order to establish more complete tritium safety for DT fusion reactors, main R D areas on tritium safety technology at TPL were focused on a new compact tritium confinement system, reliable tritium accounting and inventory control, new tritium waste treatments, and tritium release behavior into a room.

Hayashi, Takumi; Okuno, Kenji (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan))

1993-06-01

316

Characterization of graphene oxide reduced through chemical and biological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of new materials for transparent electrodes or new heterojunctions made of 2D materials combinations is a very active research topic. Challenges to overcome are the modulation of the optoelectronic properties of such materials to achieve competitive photovoltaic devices. In this work, graphene oxide was reduced into graphene through different chemical (hydrazine, ultraviolet photocatalysis) and biological (microorganisms) processes. W e benchmarked the reduction efficiency by probing materials characteristics using various physical characterization techniques. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses were carried out to observe the effectiveness of the reduction processes through the sp2/sp3 content. In addition, the homogeneity of the reduction is investigated on micrometer scale sample with micro Raman mapping and extraction of the ID/IG ratio. Conductive-probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM) was employed to investigate the longitudinal conductivity of the different samples. The results show that hydrazine based reduction remains the most efficient. However, the bacterial procedure demonstrated partial reconstruction of the carbon network and reduced the amount of oxygenated functional groups.

Boutchich, M.; Jaffré, A.; Alamarguy, D.; Alvarez, J.; Barras, A.; Tanizawa, Y.; Tero, R.; Okada, H.; Thu, T. V.; Kleider, J. P.; Sandhu, A.

2013-04-01

317

An Analysis of Trainers' Perspectives within an Ecological Framework: Factors that Influence Mine Safety Training Processes  

PubMed Central

Background Satisfactory completion of mine safety training is a prerequisite for being hired and for continued employment in the coal industry. Although training includes content to develop skills in a variety of mineworker competencies, research and recommendations continue to specify that specific limitations in the self-escape portion of training still exist and that mineworkers need to be better prepared to respond to emergencies that could occur in their mine. Ecological models are often used to inform the development of health promotion programs but have not been widely applied to occupational health and safety training programs. Methods Nine mine safety trainers participated in in-depth semi-structured interviews. A theoretical analysis of the interviews was completed via an ecological lens. Each level of the social ecological model was used to examine factors that could be addressed both during and after mine safety training. Results The analysis suggests that problems surrounding communication and collaboration, leadership development, and responsibility and accountability at different levels within the mining industry contribute to deficiencies in mineworkers' mastery and maintenance of skills. Conclusion This study offers a new technique to identify limitations in safety training systems and processes. The analysis suggests that training should be developed and disseminated with consideration of various levels—individual, interpersonal, organizational, and community—to promote skills. If factors identified within and between levels are addressed, it may be easier to sustain mineworker competencies that are established during safety training. PMID:25379324

Haas, Emily J.; Hoebbel, Cassandra L.; Rost, Kristen A.

2014-01-01

318

Assessment of impacts at the advanced test reactor as a result of chemical releases at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides an assessment of potential impacts at the Advanced Test Reactor Facility (ATR) resulting from accidental chemical spill at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Spills postulated to occur at the Lincoln Blvd turnoff to ICPP were also evaluated. Peak and time weighted average concentrations were calculated for receptors at the ATR facility and the Test Reactor Area

Rood

1991-01-01

319

Correlation between safety assessments in the driver–car interaction design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the functional revolution in modern cars, evaluation methods to be used in all phases of driver–car interaction design have gained importance. It is crucial for car manufacturers to discover and solve safety issues early in the interaction design process. A current problem is thus to find a correlation between the formative methods that are used during development and the

Robert Broström; Peter Bengtsson; Jakob Axelsson

2011-01-01

320

Education Department Begins Process to Implement HEA Reauthorization with New Campus Safety Provisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Department of Education has announced the beginning of the process to develop rules for new requirements in the recently passed Higher Education Act (HEA). Highlights of the HEA that affect campus public safety departments include measures that: (1) Require a fire log be maintained at an institution of higher education for events that…

Phillips, Lisa

2008-01-01

321

SOUS-VIDE PROCESSED FOODS: SAFETY HAZARDS AND CONTROL OF MICROBIAL RISKS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Concerns have been expressed about the public-health risks associated with sous-vide processed foods because the mild heat treatment applied to such foods to retain the organoleptic attributes may not be adequate to ensure proper destruction of pathogenic and spoilage organisms. The safety of sous-v...

322

Process Programming to Support Medical Safety: A Case Study on Blood Transfusion  

E-print Network

University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 USA henneman@nursing.umass.edu Abstract. Medical errors are now of medical errors, the Medical Safety Project at the University of Massachusetts is exploring using a process that there are approximately 98,000 deaths per year in the United States resulting from medical errors [7]. The Institute

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

323

Preliminary Evaluation of an Aviation Safety Thesaurus' Utility for Enhancing Automated Processing of Incident Reports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document presents a preliminary evaluation the utility of the FAA Safety Analytics Thesaurus (SAT) utility in enhancing automated document processing applications under development at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). Current development efforts at ARC are described, including overviews of the statistical machine learning techniques that have been investigated. An analysis of opportunities for applying thesaurus knowledge to improving algorithm performance is then presented.

Barrientos, Francesca; Castle, Joseph; McIntosh, Dawn; Srivastava, Ashok

2007-01-01

324

Performance evaluation of process safety management systems of paint manufacturing facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to develop a model to evaluate the performance of process safety management systems of paint manufacturing facilities. The model was constructed based on a three-level multi-attribute value model (MAVT) approach. The first level consisted of Deming's PDCA cycle, labeled as Plan, Do, Control, and Act Factors. The 20 attributes of the second level and

James I. Chang; Chiu-Lan Liang

2009-01-01

325

Safety and environmental process for the design and construction of the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laser fusion experimental facility currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This paper describes the safety and environmental processes followed by NIF during the design and construction activities.

Brereton, S.J., LLNL

1998-05-27

326

Recognizing Chemical Hazards Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for the Advancement of Process Technology presents this free sample module on recognizing chemical hazards. It focuses on chemical hazards specific to process industries, and their impact on safety, health and the environment. The material also introduces the purpose and components of an MSDS.

2013-01-09

327

40 CFR 63.132 - Process wastewater provisions-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry...accordance with good engineering and safety practices...accordance with good engineering and safety practices...stream composition, engineering calculations, or process...this subpart) from a chemical manufacturing...

2010-07-01

328

The effects of physical environments in medical wards on medication communication processes affecting patient safety.  

PubMed

Physical environments of clinical settings play an important role in health communication processes. Effective medication management requires seamless communication among health professionals of different disciplines. This paper explores how physical environments affect communication processes for managing medications and patient safety in acute care hospital settings. Findings highlighted the impact of environmental interruptions on communication processes about medications. In response to frequent interruptions and limited space within working environments, nurses, doctors and pharmacists developed adaptive practices in the local clinical context. Communication difficulties were associated with the ward physical layout, the controlled drug key and the medication retrieving device. Health professionals should be provided with opportunities to discuss the effects of ward environments on medication communication processes and how this impacts medication safety. Hospital administrators and architects need to consider health professionals' views and experiences when designing hospital spaces. PMID:24486620

Liu, Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie

2014-03-01

329

49 CFR Appendix B to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Rating Process  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...To meet the safety fitness standard, a motor...has adequate safety management controls in place...a)). A “safety fitness rating methodology...adherence to the Safety fitness standard in § 385...the carrier's safety management controls, are...

2010-10-01

330

The process of glauconitization: chemical and isotopic evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequential leaching experiments were made on Recent glauconies and clay fractions of the associated mud from off-shore Africa near the estuary of the Congo River. Analyses of major/rare earth elements (REE) and Nd isotopic compositions on the resulting leachate and residue pairs allow identification of at least three important and isotopically distinct components which contributed to the glauconitization process: (1) a detrital component with relatively high 87Sr/86Sr and relatively low 143Nd/144Nd isotopic ratios; (2) a phosphate phase rich in REE and Sr with sea water Sr and Nd isotopic characteristics; (3) a component rich in organic matter and Ca with a sea water Sr isotopic signature, a relatively low Nd isotopic composition and elevated Sm/Nd ratios. This latter component probably represents the suspended organic and carbonate-rich river load. The detrital and the river components were mixed up in the muddy off-shore sediment, ingested by worms, and integrated into faecal pellets. The resulting material has Sr and Nd isotopic signatures intermediate between those of the detrital and river components, and represents the precursor of the glaucony minerals. During the subsequent dissolution-crystallization process, the glauconitic pellets remain isotopically closed to any external supply, but expulsion of Sr and Nd with increasing degree of maturation is observed without any effect on the Sr and Nd isotopic compositions. At a higher maturation stage (K2O>4.5%), the Sr and Nd isotopic compositions tend to decrease and increase, respectively, approximating the isotopic composition values of the phosphate-rich phase. Because the Sr and Nd concentrations decrease, the evolution of the glauconies toward lower Sr and higher Nd isotopic compositions can only be explained by expulsion of Sr and Nd of the detrital component with high Sr and low Nd isotopic signatures. Dissolution of the chemically unstable, wormdigested clay material from mud may be responsible for the liberation of these elements. Consequently, the phosphate-rich phase with sea water Sr and Nd isotopic signatures becomes increasingly important for the isotopic characteristics of the maturing glauconite grains, and sea water isotopic signatures can be reached during the stage of mature glauconite (K2O>6.5%), without chemical exchange with the depositional environment.

Stille, Peter; Clauer, Norbert

1994-08-01

331

40 CFR 799.5115 - Chemical testing requirements for certain chemicals of interest to the Occupational Safety and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...receptor fluid for radioactivity or test chemical (iii) Results...absorption rates. When a radiolabeled test substance is used, a full balance of the radioactivity must be...rinsing and stability of the test substance in the donor...

2011-07-01

332

40 CFR 799.5115 - Chemical testing requirements for certain chemicals of interest to the Occupational Safety and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...receptor fluid for radioactivity or test chemical (iii) Results...absorption rates. When a radiolabeled test substance is used, a full balance of the radioactivity must be...rinsing and stability of the test substance in the donor...

2013-07-01

333

40 CFR 799.5115 - Chemical testing requirements for certain chemicals of interest to the Occupational Safety and...  

...receptor fluid for radioactivity or test chemical (iii) Results...absorption rates. When a radiolabeled test substance is used, a full balance of the radioactivity must be...rinsing and stability of the test substance in the donor...

2014-07-01

334

40 CFR 799.5115 - Chemical testing requirements for certain chemicals of interest to the Occupational Safety and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...receptor fluid for radioactivity or test chemical (iii) Results...absorption rates. When a radiolabeled test substance is used, a full balance of the radioactivity must be...rinsing and stability of the test substance in the donor...

2012-07-01

335

Chemical and process integration: Synergies in co-production of power and chemicals from natural gas with CO 2 capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO2 legislation in power production decreases the overall efficiency of the plant by 9–13% points. The decrease in efficiency results in increased fuel consumption and the need for CO2 capture increases the size of the process trains. In this paper, process and chemical integration is proposed as one option to increase the overall efficiency as co-production of power and chemicals

Kristin Herder Kaggerud; Olav Bolland; Truls Gundersen

2006-01-01

336

Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa, L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D10-values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on

L. Goularte; C. G Martins; I. C Morales-Aizpurúa; M. T Destro; B. D. G. M Franco; D. M Vizeu; B. W Hutzler; M. Landgraf

2004-01-01

337

Laboratory Safety Certificate Course Completion Form  

E-print Network

is available electronically at: http://sp.ehs.cornell.edu/lab-research-safety/chemical-safety/lab-safety-certificate-program/Documents/Lab electronically at: http://sp.ehs.cornell.edu/lab-research-safety/chemical-safety/lab-safety-certificate-program/Documents/Lab of this document is available electronically at: http://sp.ehs.cornell.edu/lab-research-safety/chemical-safety/lab-safety-certificate-program/Documents/Lab

Pawlowski, Wojtek

338

A method to assess safety and resilience in radiopharmaceuticals production process.  

PubMed

Radiopharmaceuticals are radiation-emitting substances used in medicine for radiotherapy and imaging diagnosis. A Research Institute, located in Rio de Janeiro, produces three radiopharmaceuticals: the sodium iodate is used in the diagnosis of thyroid dysfunctions, the meta-iodo-benzylguanidine is used in the diagnosis of cardiac diseases, and the fluordesoxyglucose is used in diagnosis in cardiology, oncology, neurology and neuropsychiatry. This paper presents a method to access safety and resilience in radiopharmaceuticals production processes. The method uses resilience indicators in order to proactively evaluate and manage the safety. PMID:22317705

Grecco, Cláudio H S; Vidal, Mario C R; Santos, Isaac J A L; Carvalho, Paulo V R

2012-01-01

339

A concurrent diagnosis of microbiological food safety output and food safety management system performance: Cases from meat processing industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stakeholder requirements force companies to analyse their food safety management system (FSMS) performance to improve food safety. Performance is commonly analysed by checking compliance against preset requirements via audits\\/inspections, or actual food safety (FS) output is analysed by microbiological testing. This paper discusses the usefulness of a concurrent diagnosis of FSMS performance and FS output using new tools; illustrated for

P. A. Luning; L. Jacxsens; J. Rovira; S. M. Osés; M. Uyttendaele; W. J. Marcelis

2011-01-01

340

ChBE 4505/4525 Chemical Process Design/Biochemical Process Design Basic Curriculum and Learning Outcomes.  

E-print Network

sizing and costing, profitability analysis, and optimization.( Student Outcomes: a, b, c, e, k) 6 of flowsheet synthesis and economic analysis and optimization. A complete design on a chemical process requirements for chemical process plants.( Student Outcomes: a, e, k) Topical Outline 1. Profit upper bound

Sherrill, David

341

The role of chemical oxidation in combined chemical-physical and biological processes: experiences of industrial wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

In this work, some experiences are described concerning the application of chemical oxidation in the treatment of industrial wastewaters in combination with other chemical-physical and/or biological processes. In the first case, two different wastewaters from saturated and unsaturated polyester resin production were considered. In a second case, optimal process conditions were assessed for the treatment of a wastewater deriving from polystyrene production. A third experience dealt with a comparison among different processes (flocculation, Fenton process, ozonisation, oxidation by means of ozone and hydrogen peroxide, oxidation by means of hydrogen peroxide and UV radiation), for the pretreatment of two industrial wastewaters (the first one being produced in a textile factory, the second one coming from detergent manufacturing). The evaluation of different processes was carried out by means of laboratory scale tests, considering treatment efficiency (organic substance removal, changes in wastewater biodegradability) and parameters (chemicals and energy consumption, sludge production) which play an important role in cost determination. PMID:11695447

Bertanza, G; Collivignarelli, C; Pedrazzani, R

2001-01-01

342

Quality and safety attributes of afghan raisins before and after processing  

PubMed Central

Raisins are an important export commodity for Afghanistan; however, Afghan packers are unable to export to markets seeking high-quality products due to limited knowledge regarding their quality and safety. To evaluate this, Afghan raisin samples from pre-, semi-, and postprocessed raisins were obtained from a raisin packer in Kabul, Afghanistan. The raisins were analyzed and compared to U.S. standards for processed raisins. The samples tested did not meet U.S. industry standards for embedded sand and pieces of stem, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity. The Afghan raisins did meet or exceed U.S. Grade A standard for the number of cap-stems, percent damaged, crystallization levels, moisture content, and color. Following processing, the number of total aerobic bacteria, yeasts, molds, and total coliforms were within the acceptable limits. Although quality issues are present in the Afghan raisins, the process used to clean the raisins is suitable to maintain food safety standards. PMID:25650241

McCoy, Stacy; Chang, Jun Won; McNamara, Kevin T; Oliver, Haley F; Deering, Amanda J

2015-01-01

343

ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING TECHNOLOGY: AN EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL COAL CLEANING PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report assembles and assesses technical and economic information on chemical coal cleaning processes. Sufficient data was located to evaluate 11 processes in detail. It was found that chemical coal cleaning processes can remove up to 99% of the pyritic sulfur and 40% of the o...

344

Designing property specifications to improve the safety of the blood transfusion process.  

PubMed

Computer scientists use a number of well-established techniques that have the potential to improve the safety of patient care processes. One is the formal definition of a process; the other is the formal definition of the properties of a process. Even highly regulated processes, such as laboratory specimen acquisition and transfusion therapy, use guidelines that may be vague, misunderstood, and hence erratically implemented. Examining processes in a systematic way has led us to appreciate the potential variability in routine health care practice and the impact of this variability on patient safety in the clinical setting. The purpose of this article is to discuss the use of innovative computer science techniques as a means of formally defining and specifying certain desirable goals of common, high-risk, patient care processes. Our focus is on describing the specification of process properties, that is, the high-level goals of a process that ultimately dictate why a process should be performed in a given manner. PMID:18848156

Henneman, Elizabeth A; Cobleigh, Rachel; Avrunin, George S; Clarke, Lori A; Osterweil, Leon J; Henneman, Philip L

2008-10-01

345

Control and optimization system and method for chemical looping processes  

DOEpatents

A control system for optimizing a chemical loop system includes one or more sensors for measuring one or more parameters in a chemical loop. The sensors are disposed on or in a conduit positioned in the chemical loop. The sensors generate one or more data signals representative of an amount of solids in the conduit. The control system includes a data acquisition system in communication with the sensors and a controller in communication with the data acquisition system. The data acquisition system receives the data signals and the controller generates the control signals. The controller is in communication with one or more valves positioned in the chemical loop. The valves are configured to regulate a flow of the solids through the chemical loop.

Lou, Xinsheng; Joshi, Abhinaya; Lei, Hao

2014-06-24

346

Chemical and biological safety: Biosensors and nanotechnological methods for the detection and monitoring of chemical and biological agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elaboration of highly sensitive and express methods for quantitative and qual- itative detection and monitoring of chemical warfare agents (CWA), organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, compounds with delayed neurotoxicity, and pathogenic microorgan- isms and viruses is discussed. The application of potentiometric and amperometric biosen- sors, automatic biosensors discriminating the neurotoxins of different classes, is performed. The information about biosensors detecting

S. Varfolomeyev; I. Kurochkin; A. Eremenko; E. Efremenko

2002-01-01

347

Dynamic Processes of Conceptual Change: Analysis of Constructing Mental Models of Chemical Equilibrium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates students' mental models of chemical equilibrium using dynamic science assessments. Reports that students at various levels have misconceptions about chemical equilibrium. Involves 10th grade students (n=30) in the study doing a series of hands-on chemical experiments. Focuses on the process of constructing mental models, dynamic…

Chiu, Mei-Hung; Chou, Chin-Cheng; Liu, Chia-Ju

2002-01-01

348

Prediction of the safety level to an installation of the tritium process through predictive maintenance  

SciTech Connect

The safety level for personnel and environment to a nuclear installation is given in generally by the technological process quality of operation and maintenance and in particular by a lot of technical, technological, economic and human factors. The maintenance role is fundamental because it has to quantify all the technical, economic and human elements as an integrated system for it creates an important feedback for activities concerning the life cycle of the nuclear installation. In maintenance activities as in any dynamic area, new elements appear continuously which, sometimes require new approaches. The theory of fuzzy logic and the software LabVIEW supplied to the Nuclear Detritiation Plant (NDP) is part of National Research and Development Inst. for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies-ICIT, Rm.Valcea, used for predictive maintenance to assure safety operation. The final aim is to achieve the best practices for maintenance of the Plant that processes tritium. (authors)

Anghel, V. [National Research and Development Inst. for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICIT, Rm. Valcea Uzinei Street no.4, 240050 (Romania)

2008-07-15

349

Monitoring the Long-Term Effectiveness of Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Implementation Through Use of a Performance Dashboard Process  

SciTech Connect

This session will examine a method developed by Federal and Contractor personnel at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) to examine long-term maintenance of DOE Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) criteria, including safety culture attributes, as well as identification of process improvement opportunities. This process was initially developed in the summer of 2000 and has since been expanded to recognize the importance of safety culture attributes, and associated safety culture elements, as defined in DOE M 450.4-1, “Integrated Safety Management System Manual.” This process has proven to significantly enhance collective awareness of the importance of long-term ISMS implementation as well as support commitments by NNSA/NSO personnel to examine the continued effectiveness of ISMS processes.

Michael D. Kinney and William D. Barrick

2008-09-01

350

Enhancing Credibility of Chemical Safety Studies: Emerging Consensus on Key Assessment Criteria  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examined the extent to which consensus exists on the criteria that should be used for assessing the credibility of a scientific work, regardless of its funding source, and explored how these criteria might be implemented. Data sources Three publications, all presented at a session of the 2009 annual meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, have proposed a range of criteria for evaluating the credibility of scientific studies. At least two other similar sets of criteria have recently been proposed elsewhere. Data extraction/synthesis In this article we review these criteria, highlight the commonalities among them, and integrate them into a list of 10 criteria. We also discuss issues inherent in any attempt to implement the criteria systematically. Conclusions Recommendations by many scientists and policy experts converge on a finite list of criteria for assessing the credibility of a scientific study without regard to funding source. These criteria should be formalized through a consensus process or a governmental initiative that includes discussion and pilot application of a system for reproducibly implementing them. Formal establishment of such a system should enable the debate regarding chemical studies to move beyond funding issues and focus on scientific merit. PMID:21163723

Conrad, James W.; Becker, Richard A.

2011-01-01

351

Safety management of complex research operators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complex research and technology operations present varied potential hazards which are addressed in a disciplined, independent safety review and approval process. Potential hazards vary from high energy fuels to hydrocarbon fuels, high pressure systems to high voltage systems, toxic chemicals to radioactive materials and high speed rotating machinery to high powered lasers. A Safety Permit System presently covers about 600 potentially hazardous operations. The Safety Management Program described is believed to be a major factor in maintaining an excellent safety record.

Brown, W. J.

1981-01-01

352

Safety evaluation of food contact paper and board using chemical tests and in vitro bioassays: role of known and unknown substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro toxicological tests have been proposed as an approach to complement the chemical safety assessment of food contact materials, particularly those with a complex or unknown chemical composition such as paper and board. Among the concerns raised regarding the applicability of in vitro tests are the effects of interference of the extractables on the outcome of the cytotoxicity and

U. Honkalampi-Hämäläinen; E. L. Bradley; L. Castle; I. Severin; L. Dahbi; O. Dahlman; J.-C. Lhuguenot; M. A. Andersson; P. Hakulinen; D. Hoornstra; J. Mäki-Paakkanen; M. Salkinoja-Salonen; L. Turco; A. Stammati; F. Zucco; A. Weber; A. von Wright

2010-01-01

353

IMPROVING THE ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES THROUGH THE USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Efforts are currently underway at the USEPA to develop information technology applications to improve the environmental performance of the chemical process industry. These efforts include the use of genetic algorithms to optimize different process options for minimal environmenta...

354

Effect of chemical mechanical planarization processing conditions on polyurethane pad properties  

E-print Network

Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) is a vital process used in the semiconductor industry to isolate and connect individual transistors on a chip. However, many of the fundamental mechanisms of the process are yet to ...

Ng, Grace Siu-Yee, 1980-

2003-01-01

355

Mechanics,Mechanisms and Modeling of the Chemical Mechanical Polishing Process  

E-print Network

The Chemical Mechanical polishing (CMP) process is now widely employed in the Integrated Circuit Fabrication. However, due to the complexity of process parameters on the material removal rate (MRR), mechanism of material ...

Noh, Kyungyoon

356

CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID BED FOR SOX CONTROL. VOLUME I. PROCESS EVALUATION STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes selected process evaluation studies supporting the development of an atmospheric-pressure, fluidized-bed, chemically active gasification process, using a regenerative limestone sulfur sorbent to produce low- to intermediate-Btu fuel gas. Limestone sorbent sel...

357

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM TO ENHANCE AND ENCOURAGE SUSTAINABLE CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an opportunity to minimize the potential environmental impacts (PEIs) of industrial chemical processes by providing process designers with timely data nad models elucidating environmentally favorable design options. The second generation of the Waste Reduction (WAR) algo...

358

Definition & means of maintaining the process vacuum liquid detection interlock systems portion of the PFP safety envelope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to record the technical evaluation of the Technical Safety Requirements described in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Safety Technical Requirements, HNF-SD-CP-OSR-010, Rev. 1, Section 3.1.1, ''Criticality Prevention System.'' This document also defines the Safety Envelope (SE) for the liquid detection interlock system in the Process Vacuum System. The SE is derived from information in

2003-01-01

359

Definition and means of maintaining the process vacuum liquid detection interlock systems portion of the PFP safety envelope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to record the technical evaluation of the Technical Safety Requirements described in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Safety Technical Requirements, HNF-SD-CP-OSR-010, Rev. 1, Section 3.1.1, ''Criticality Prevention System.'' This document also defines the Safety Envelope (SE) for the liquid detection interlock system in the Process Vacuum System. The SE is derived from information in

2003-01-01

360

Improved methodology for determination of submicron particle concentrations in semiconductor process chemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved counting methodology has been developed for measurement of submicron particle concentrations to semiconductor process chemicals. The methodology reduces counting of air bubbles and makes corrections for counter inefficiency, medium refractive index, and particle coincidence. The methodology has been used to measure bottled chemical particle concentrations and to determine filter particle removal efficiencies. Use of the methodology allows comparison of particle counts obtained in process liquid chemicals.

Grant, Donald C.; Schmidt, William R.

1987-06-01

361

Relict olivine grains, chondrule recycling, and implications for the chemical, thermal, and mechanical processing  

E-print Network

Relict olivine grains, chondrule recycling, and implications for the chemical, thermal other incompatible ele- ments in olivine. Terrestrial weathering in a hot desert environment may have repeated thermal, chemical, and mechanical process- ing during a ``recycling" process over an extended time

362

Comprehensive Mass Analysis for Chemical Processes, a Case Study on L-Dopa Manufacture  

EPA Science Inventory

To evaluate the ?greenness? of chemical processes in route selection and process development, we propose a comprehensive mass analysis to inform the stakeholders from different fields. This is carried out by characterizing the mass intensity for each contributing chemical or wast...

363

Development of a security vulnerability assessment process for the RAMCAP chemical sector.  

PubMed

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Directorate of Information Analysis & Infrastructure Protection (IAIP), Protective Services Division (PSD), contracted the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Innovative Technologies Institute, LLC (ASME ITI, LLC) to develop guidance on Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection (RAMCAP). AcuTech Consulting Group (AcuTech) has been contracted by ASME ITI, LLC, to provide assistance by facilitating the development of sector-specific guidance on vulnerability analysis and management for critical asset protection for the chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) sectors. This activity involves two key tasks for these three sectors: Development of a screening to supplement DHS understanding of the assets that are important to protect against terrorist attack and to prioritize the activities. Development of a standard security vulnerability analysis (SVA) framework for the analysis of consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats. This project involves the cooperative effort of numerous leading industrial companies, industry trade associations, professional societies, and security and safety consultants representative of those sectors. Since RAMCAP is a voluntary program for ongoing risk management for homeland security, sector coordinating councils are being asked to assist in communicating the goals of the program and in encouraging participation. The RAMCAP project will have a profound and positive impact on all sectors as it is fully developed, rolled-out and implemented. It will help define the facilities and operations of national and regional interest for the threat of terrorism, define standardized methods for analyzing consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats, and describe best security practices of the industry. This paper will describe the results of the security vulnerability analysis process that was developed and field tested for the chemical manufacturing sector. This method was developed through the cooperation of the many organizations and the individuals involved from the chemical sector RAMCAP development activities. The RAMCAP SVA method is intended to provide a common basis for making vulnerability assessments and risk-based decisions for homeland security. Mr. Moore serves as the coordinator for the chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and LNG sectors for the RAMCAP project and Dr. Jones is the chief technology officer for ASME-ITI, LLC for RAMCAP. PMID:16920260

Moore, David A; Fuller, Brad; Hazzan, Michael; Jones, J William

2007-04-11

364

Process waste assessment plan: Environmental safety and health programs. Revision C  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to establish a procedure and schedule for conducting process waste assessments (PWAS) at the Pinellas Plant. The plan specifies those activities and methods that will be employed to characterize all waste streams and to identify opportunities to reduce or eliminate waste generation. The plan also includes a methodology for evaluating proposed modifications to site processes and other options to minimize waste. The plan is intended to satisfy the requirement of the Pinellas Plant Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan to conduct PWAS. The plan will also include an assessment of safety, hazards and ergonomics associated with each waste stream.

Poole, R.L.; Hall, R.L.

1992-06-18

365

CHEMICAL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT, OCTOBER-DECEMBER 1962  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous zirconium fuel processing studies, directed at adapting the RF ; process to continuous dissolutioncomplexing to increase the capacity of the ICPP ; process, have led to a tentative recommendation for a flow-sheet change and minor ; equipment modification which will greatly expand the processing capacity. Basis ; of the change is use of a boron-containing hydrofluoric acid dissolvent which,

J. R. ed

1963-01-01

366

Assessment of aircraft impact possibilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant on the INEL Site  

SciTech Connect

The concern of this study was the possibility of an aircraft collision with facilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Two sets of data were combined in calculating the probability of this event. The first was from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission data is used to check the adequacy of nuclear power plant location relative to aircraft crashes. For neighboring airport scenarios, the accepted rate unit is fatal crashes per square mile. For in-flight crash scenarios, a total loss of control crash rate (where the pilot was completely out of control) is used for evaluating nuclear reactors. Numbers were given per linear mile of flight. The other set of data was obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board`s annual review. These data points show higher crash frequencies because crashes in which the pilot maintained some control have not been excluded. By including this data set, the evaluation gained two advantages. First, the data are separated by type of aircraft, which makes frequencies for specific flight paths more meaningful. Second, the data are given year by year over a ten-year time span. Therefore, it is possible to gain a sense of the variability in crash frequencies from one year to another.

Lee, L.G.; Mines, J.M.; Webb, B.B.

1993-08-01

367

Laser studies of chemical reaction and collision processes  

SciTech Connect

This work has concentrated on several interrelated projects in the area of laser photochemistry and photophysics which impinge on a variety of questions in combustion chemistry and general chemical kinetics. Infrared diode laser probes of the quenching of molecules with {open_quotes}chemically significant{close_quotes} amounts of energy in which the energy transferred to the quencher has, for the first time, been separated into its vibrational, rotational, and translational components. Probes of quantum state distributions and velocity profiles for atomic fragments produced in photodissociation reactions have been explored for iodine chloride.

Flynn, G. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

1993-12-01

368

Safety Training for the Developmentally Disabled in Icon Recognition for the Safe Use of Hazardous Chemicals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unique document is a training manual for individuals such as job coaches and janitorial crew supervisors who train and work with Developmentally Disabled (DD) workers in vocational classrooms and on job sites. These workers need to be taught the importance of safety in the workplace using methods appropriate to their developmental needs. The…

Sandoz, Jeff

2005-01-01

369

Chemical Engineering Design and Safety at the University of Kansas C. S. Howat  

E-print Network

a remarkable transformation during the last fifteen years. This transformation has accelerated during the last different backgrounds, different interests and no long term history with this department. Design at KU and Plant & Environmental Safety (C&PE 613, 623, 624). Since you discussed this in faculty meeting today (9

Howat, Colin S. "Chip"

370

Hydrogen Safety Project chemical analysis support task: Window ``C`` volatile organic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This data package contains the results obtained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff in the characterization of samples for the 101-SY Hydrogen Safety Project. The samples were submitted for analysis by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the Technical Project Plan (TPP) 17667 and the Quality Assurance Plan MCS-027. They came from a core taken during Window ``C`` after the May

B. M. Gillespie; R. W. Stromatt; G. A. Ross; E. A. Hoope

1992-01-01

371

Hydrogen Safety Project chemical analysis support task: Window C'' volatile organic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This data package contains the results obtained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff in the characterization of samples for the 101-SY Hydrogen Safety Project. The samples were submitted for analysis by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the Technical Project Plan (TPP) 17667 and the Quality Assurance Plan MCS-027. They came from a core taken during Window C'' after the May

B. M. Gillespie; R. W. Stromatt; G. A. Ross; E. A. Hoope

1992-01-01

372

Chemical Thinning Process for Fabricating UV-Imaging CCDs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thinning stage of the postfabrication process reported in the immediately preceding article is notable in its own right. Although the thinning process was described in the preceding article as part of an overall process of fabrication of a supported charge-coupled device (CCD), it is more generally applicable to both free-standing and supported devices that have been fabricated in die and wafer formats. Like the thermocompression bonding process described in the preceding article, the thinning process is compatible with CCD-fabrication processes, as well as postfabrication processes that enhance the response of CCDs to ultraviolet (UV) light, including the delta-doping process. CCDs that are thinned by this process and then delta-doped exhibit high quantum efficiencies that are stable with time and with exposure to the environment.

Jones, TOdd; Grunthaner, Paula; Nikzad, Shouleh; Wilson, Rick

2004-01-01

373

Nurses' Perceptions of the Impact of Work Systems and Technology on Patient Safety during the Medication Administration Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines nurses' perceptions of the impacts of systems and technology utilized during the medication administration process on patient safety and the culture of medication error reporting. This exploratory research study was grounded in a model of patient safety based on Patricia Benner's Novice to Expert Skill…

Gallagher Gordon, Mary

2012-01-01

374

Integrated Quality and Food Safety Management model for small food processing industries: The Lower-Northern region of Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, quality and safety food are vital for Thais as qualified food provides healthiness and quality of life. Moreover, Food Processing Industries have been the major industrial sector in Thailand. However, from the pilot survey, it illustrated that Quality and Food Safety Management were considered as inferior issues than the profit and marketing strategies. Therefore, this paper intends to present

P. Buranajarukorn; Chakthong Thongchattu

2010-01-01

375

Improving the Highway Safety Process: An Update and Enhancement to the Oregon DOT's Crash Reduction Factors List  

E-print Network

Improving the Highway Safety Process: An Update and Enhancement to the Oregon DOT's Crash Reduction Appropriate selection of cost-effective countermeasures for highway safety improvement projects requires of traffic-related fatalities and injuries on United States highways--upwards of 42,000 fatalities and almost

Bertini, Robert L.

376

Deposition of zinc sulfide thin films by chemical bath process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposition of high quality zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin film over a large area is required if it is to be effectively used in electroluminescent devices, solar cells, and other optoelectronic devices. Of all deposition techniques, chemical bath deposition (CBD) is the least costly technique that meets the above requirements. Recently it is found that the growth of ZnS film, of

Isaiah O. Oladeji; Lee Chow

1996-01-01

377

The Chemistry of Lightsticks: Demonstrations to Illustrate Chemical Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lightsticks, or glowsticks as they are sometimes called, are perhaps the chemist's quintessential toy. Because they are easy to activate and appealing to observe, experimenting with lightsticks provides a great way to get young people interested in science. Thus, we have used lightsticks to teach chemical concepts in a variety of outreach settings…

Kuntzleman, Thomas Scott; Rohrer, Kristen; Schultz, Emeric

2012-01-01

378

Chemical Changes in Lipids Produced by Thermal Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes heat effects on lipids, indicating that the chemical and physical changes that occur depend on the lipid's composition and conditions of treatment. Thermolytic and oxidation reactions, thermal/oxidative interaction of lipids with other food components and the chemistry of frying are considered. (JN)

Nawar, Wassef W.

1984-01-01

379

CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID BED (CAFB) PROCESS SOLIDS - TRANSPORT STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes cold-modeling efforts directed toward the development of a solids-transport system capable of transferring 40,000 lb/hr of bed material between two operating fluidized beds of a chemically active fluidized bed (CAFB) gasification/desulfurization commercial de...

380

WATER AS A REACTION MEDIUM FOR CLEAN CHEMICAL PROCESSES.  

EPA Science Inventory

Green chemistry is a rapid developing new field that provides us a pro-active avenue for the sustainable development of future science and technologies. When designed properly, clean chemical technology can be developed in water as a reaction media. The technologies generated f...

381

Lactic acid bacteria and natural antimicrobials to improve the safety and shelf-life of minimally processed sliced apples and lamb's lettuce.  

PubMed

Outbreaks of food-borne disease associated with the consumption of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables have increased dramatically over the last few years. Traditional chemical sanitizers are unable to completely eradicate or kill the microorganisms on fresh produce. These conditions have stimulated research to alternative methods for increasing food safety. The use of protective cultures, particularly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), has been proposed for minimally processed products. However, the application of bioprotective cultures has been limited at the industrial level. From this perspective, the main aims of this study were to select LAB from minimally processed fruits and vegetables to be used as biocontrol agents and then to evaluate the effects of the selected strains, alone or in combination with natural antimicrobials (2-(E)-hexenal/hexanal, 2-(E)-hexenal/citral for apples and thyme for lamb's lettuce), on the shelf-life and safety characteristics of minimally processed apples and lamb's lettuce. The results indicated that applying the Lactobacillus plantarum strains CIT3 and V7B3 to apples and lettuce, respectively, increased both the safety and shelf-life. Moreover, combining the selected strains with natural antimicrobials produced a further increase in the shelf-life of these products without detrimental effects on the organoleptic qualities. PMID:25583340

Siroli, Lorenzo; Patrignani, Francesca; Serrazanetti, Diana I; Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Gardini, Fausto; Lanciotti, Rosalba

2015-05-01

382

Alternative Processes for Water Reclamation and Solid Waste Processing in a Physical/chemical Bioregenerative Life Support System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on alternative processes for water reclamation and solid waste processing in a physical/chemical-bioregenerative life support system are presented. The main objective is to focus attention on emerging influences of secondary factors (i.e., waste composition, type and level of chemical contaminants, and effects of microorganisms, primarily bacteria) and to constructively address these issues by discussing approaches which attack them in a direct manner.

Rogers, Tom D.

1990-01-01

383

TREATMENT TANK CORROSION STUDIES FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than in the PUREX/oxalic acid environment. (3) The corrosion rates for PUREX/8 wt.% oxalic acid were greater than or equal to those observed for the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid. No localized corrosion was observed in the tests with the 8 wt.% oxalic acid. Testing with HM/8 wt.% oxalic acid simulant was not performed. Thus, a comparison with the results with 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid, where the corrosion rate was 88 mpy and localized corrosion was observed at 75 C, cannot be made. (4) The corrosion rates in 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid solutions were temperature dependent: (a) At 50 C, the corrosion rates ranged between 90 to 140 mpy over the 30 day test period. The corrosion rates were higher under stagnant conditions. (b) At 75 C, the initial corrosion rates were as high as 300 mpy during the first day of exposure. The corrosion rates increased with agitation. However, once the passive ferrous oxalate film formed, the corrosion rate decreased dramatically to less than 20 mpy over the 30 day test period. This rate was independent of agitation. (5) Electrochemical testing indicated that for oxalic acid/sludge simulant mixtures the cathodic reaction has transport controlled reaction kinetics. The literature suggests that the dissolution of the sludge produces a di-oxalatoferrate ion that is reduced at the cathodic sites. The cathodic reaction does not appear to involve hydrogen evolution. On the other hand, electrochemical tests demonstrated that the cathodic reaction for corrosion of carbon steel in pure oxalic acid involves hydrogen evolution. (6) Agitation of the oxalic acid/sludge simulant mixtures typically resulted in a higher corrosion rates for both acid concentrations. The transport of the ferrous ion away from the metal surface results in a less protective ferrous oxalate film. (7) A mercury containing species along with aluminum, silicon and iron oxides was observed on the interior of the pits formed in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant at 75 C. The pitting rates in the agitated and non-agitated solution were 2 mils/day and 1 mil/day, respectively. A mechanism

Wiersma, B.

2011-08-24

384

Indicators and Metrics for Evaluating the Sustainability of Chemical Processes  

EPA Science Inventory

A metric-based method, called GREENSCOPE, has been developed for evaluating process sustainability. Using lab-scale information and engineering assumptions the method evaluates full-scale epresentations of processes in environmental, efficiency, energy and economic areas. The m...

385

PARTITIONING OF GADOLINIUM IN THE CHEMICAL PROCESSING CELL  

SciTech Connect

A combination of short-term beaker tests and longer-duration Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) simulations were performed to investigate the relative partitioning behaviors of gadolinium and iron under conditions applicable to the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The testing was performed utilizing non-radioactive simple Fe-Gd slurries, non-radioactive Sludge Batch 6 simulant slurries, and a radioactive real-waste slurry representative of Sludge Batch 7 material. The testing focused on the following range of conditions: (a) Fe:Gd ratios of 25-100; (b) pH values of 2-6; (c) acidification via addition of nitric, formic, and glycolic acids; (d) temperatures of {approx}93 C and {approx}22 C; and (e) oxalate concentrations of <100 mg/kg and {approx}10,000 mg/kg. The purpose of the testing was to provide data for assessing the potential use of gadolinium as a supplemental neutron poison when dispositioning excess plutonium. Understanding of the partitioning behavior of gadolinium in the CPC was the first step in assessing gadolinium's potential applicability. Significant fractions of gadolinium partitioned to the liquid-phase at pH values of 4.0 and below, regardless of the Fe:Gd ratio. In SRAT simulations targeting nitric and formic acid additions of 150% acid stoichiometry, the pH dropped to a minimum of 3.5-4.0, and the maximum fractions of gadolinium and iron partitioning to solution were both {approx}20%. In contrast, in a SRAT simulation utilizing a nitric and formic acid addition under atypical conditions (due to an anomalously low insoluble solids content), the pH dropped to a minimum of 3.7, and the maximum fractions of gadolinium and iron partitioning to solution were {approx}60% and {approx}70%, respectively. When glycolic acid was used in combination with nitric and formic acids at 100% acid stoichiometry, the pH dropped to a minimum of 3.6-4.0, and the maximum fractions of gadolinium and iron partitioning to solution were 60-80% and 3-5%, respectively. Thus, the presence of glycolic acid increased dissolution of gadolinium, but decreased dissolution of iron. In beaker tests, the fractions of gadolinium partitioning to solution were all less than the minimum detection limits at pH 6, on the order of a few percent at pH 4, and ranging from 70-90% at pH 2. In contrast, the fractions of iron partitioning to solution were all less than the minimum detection limits at pH 6, {le} 0.04% at pH 4, and {le} 0.9% at pH 2. A possible explanation for the small magnitude of these fractions (as compared to the fractions observed in the SRAT simulations) was incomplete equilibrium, due to the short duration (30 minutes) of the beaker tests. As demonstrated by the SRAT simulations, the typical partitioning equilibration time was on the order of hours. The Fe:Gd ratio appeared to impact the extent of liquid-phase conditions under certain conditions, although the exact relationship was not clear. Temperature impacts on the liquid-phase gadolinium concentrations were modest, with liquid phase concentrations typically increasing about 25% as temperatures rose from {approx}22 C to {approx}93 C. The presence of high concentrations of oxalate did not appear to change the liquid-phase gadolinium concentrations - however, it did increase the liquid-phase iron concentrations (from being undetectable to being detectable but still minor). Additional gadolinium partitioning testing is recommended. Of greatest usefulness will be SRAT simulations focusing on a wider range of acid addition scenarios and alternate sludge compositions, particularly those specific to future sludge batches where addition of excess plutonium is being considered.

Reboul, S.; Best, D.; Stone, M.; Click, D.

2011-04-27

386

New insights into chemical processes within martian high latitude soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our analysis of near-infrared spectra of low albedo soils in the northern lowlands of Mars has revealed that they can be classified into three compositional groups: (1) relatively unaltered and high-calcium pyroxene-rich, (2) pervasively leached and glass-rich, and (3) gypsum-rich. Here we present results from spectral and morphologic studies, which together show that the diversity of soils observed from orbit and those observed in situ by the Phoenix lander can largely be explained by aqueous processes acting on high-calcium pyroxene-rich soils. Soils in Acidalia Planitia, parts of the north polar sand sea, and certain units within the north polar plateau exhibit spectral signatures consistent with an enrichment in iron-bearing glass, as well as signatures consistent with leached glass rinds, which form during acidic alteration of glass surfaces. As glass enrichment can be produced during acidic leaching of basaltic sand, we have proposed that these soils are the endproducts of widespread and pervasive acidic leaching. If these altered sands originally had a composition similar to the relatively unaltered high-calcium pyroxene-rich soils observed elsewhere in the northern lowlands, then we should also expect them to contain calcium-bearing secondary precipitates, primarily gypsum. While spectral analysis of Acidalia-type soils places an approximate upper limit on their gypsum concentration of 15-20 wt.%, our results suggest that the gypsum-rich (up to 40 wt.%) sands in the Olympia Undae region of the north polar sand sea could also be sourced from Acidalia-type materials within the north polar plateau. Although Olympia Undae gypsum concentrations appear too high to justify this hypothesis, our morphologic studies of the region suggest that the high concentrations are most likely surficial and do not represent the volumetric concentrations. By mapping the distribution of tensional surface cracks on sand dunes in HiRISE images, we have shown that the strength of gypsum absorptions correlates with the density of cracks on the dunes, which we interpret as evidence that the dune surfaces are cemented by gypsum. As chemical cementation requires dissolution and transport of salts by liquid water, we hypothesize that the gypsum precipitated out of brines, perhaps similar to the putative brines observed at the Phoenix landing site. If these brines originated from ice melt within or beneath the dunes and were transported to the surface via capillary wicking, they would have produced a surface layer enriched in gypsum, consistent with the observed distribution of gypsum on the dunes. This hypothesis explains why Olympia Undae is the only unit in the region with strong gypsum signatures, even at high resolution. These results shed new light on soils at the Phoenix landing site, as particles sourced from all of the above soil types may have been observed in Optical Microscope studies of Phoenix soils. Furthermore, the high-calcium pyroxene-rich soils that we have identified could serve as a source of calcium for the calcium carbonates identified at the landing site, which differ from the magnesium and iron carbonates that have been identified elsewhere on the planet.

Horgan, B.; Bell, J. F.

2010-12-01

387

Farm Health and Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

388

40 CFR 1.43 - Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention.  

...responsible to the Assistant Administrator for leadership of the overall pesticide activities...Policy (OSCP) provides coordination, leadership, peer review, and synthesis of science...and chemical management through the leadership of the Scientific Advisory Panel...

2014-07-01

389

CHEMICAL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT, APRIL-JUNE 1962  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous zirconium fuel processing studies, directed at adapting the ; hydrofluoric acid process to continuous dissolution-complexing in order to ; increase the capacity of the ICPP process, resulted in determination of ; dissolution rates over a wide range of conditions. The addition of oxidants to ; 4.8M hydrofluoric acid used for the continuous dissolution of 3% uranium-Zircaloy-; 2 fuel decreased

J. R. ed

1962-01-01

390

Incipient fault diagnosis of chemical processes via artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial neural networks have capacity to learn and store information about process faults via associative memory, and thus have an associative diagnostic ability with respect to faults that occur in a process. Knowledge of the faults to be learned by the network evolves from sets of data, namely values of steady-state process variables collected under normal operating condition and those

Kajiro Watanabe; Ichiro Matsuura; Masahiro Abe; Makoto Kubota; D. M. Himmelblau

1989-01-01

391

[Current problems in medical support for provision of radiation and chemical safety in the Armed Forces].  

PubMed

The events and changes of the last decade, appearance of new factors determining the character of professional activities of military doctors have become the cause of displace of some accents in organization of medical support of RF AF radiation and chemical security. The possibility to use chemical and radiation factors for military ends as well as wide spread of chemical substances and sources of ionizing radiation in human everyday activities during peacetime allow to confirm that protection of subject, society and state is closely connected with support of radiation and chemical security. Considerable widening of class of problems standing before medical service and their increased complexity make impossible medical support of radiation and chemical security of the RF AF staff with forces and means of specialists working only in one field (toxicologists-radiologists). Such complex problem requires the conduction of scientifically well-founded, effective measures based on the knowledge of specific effects of radiation and chemical factors on human body. PMID:11219926

Kutsenko, S A; Murin, M B; Grebeniuk, A N

2001-01-01

392

Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa, L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce ( Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D10-values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce as well as the sensory evaluation of the irradiated product were evaluated. The immersion in chlorine (200 ppm) reduced coliform and aerobic mesophilic microorganisms by 0.9 and 2.7 log, respectively. D-values varied from 0.16 to 0.23 kGy for Salmonella spp. and from 0.11 to 0.12 kGy for E. coli O157:H7. Minimally processed iceberg lettuce exposed to 0.9 kGy does not show any change in sensory attributes. However, the texture of the vegetable was affected during the exposition to 1.1 kGy. The exposition of MP iceberg lettuce to 0.7 kGy reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by 4.0 log and E. coli by 6.8 log without impairing the sensory attributes. The combination of minimal process and gamma radiation to improve the safety of iceberg lettuce is feasible if good hygiene practices begins at farm stage.

Goularte, L.; Martins, C. G.; Morales-Aizpurúa, I. C.; Destro, M. T.; Franco, B. D. G. M.; Vizeu, D. M.; Hutzler, B. W.; Landgraf, M.

2004-09-01

393

Quality and safety of fish curry processed by sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology process during refrigerated storage.  

PubMed

Fish curry, a traditional Indian dish was prepared from farmed fish Cobia (Rachycentron canadum), packaged by two different cook-chill processes namely, sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology and held at 2?°C. Biochemical composition revealed that fish curry contained 5% protein and 6% fat. Omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) retained 55.44% while docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) retained 29% during cook-chilling process. The major fatty acids in fish curry were C18:2, C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1. Shelf-life of sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed fish curry were 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacterial counts were detected after 4 weeks and 12 weeks in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processes, respectively. Total staphylococci were detected in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed cobia fish curry after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacilli, anaerobic sulfite reducing clostridia, Salmonella, and lactic acid bacteria were absent. Hot filled technology process was more efficient and could be applied for chilled fish curry preservation for 12 weeks without any safety problems. PMID:22701059

Shakila, R Jeya; Raj, B Edwin; Felix, N

2012-06-01

394

Safety Rules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Safety is an important part of a science lesson or activity. This safety material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Sixteen rules reinforce common safety concerns for science classrooms. Among the safety rules are the recommendations that teachers practice demonstrations before presenting them, make proper eyewear and shields available, use customary disposal techniques, and possess a thorough knowledge of the chemical reactions being used. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL); Jacobs, Steve

2004-01-01

395

Research on chemical vapor deposition processes for advanced ceramic coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our interdisciplinary background and fundamentally-oriented studies of the laws governing multi-component chemical vapor deposition (VD), particle deposition (PD), and their interactions, put the Yale University HTCRE Laboratory in a unique position to significantly advance the 'state-of-the-art' of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) R&D. With NASA-Lewis RC financial support, we initiated a program in March of 1988 that has led to the advances described in this report (Section 2) in predicting chemical vapor transport in high temperature systems relevant to the fabrication of refractory ceramic coatings for turbine engine components. This Final Report covers our principal results and activities for the total NASA grant of $190,000. over the 4.67 year period: 1 March 1988-1 November 1992. Since our methods and the technical details are contained in the publications listed (9 Abstracts are given as Appendices) our emphasis here is on broad conclusions/implications and administrative data, including personnel, talks, interactions with industry, and some known applications of our work.

Rosner, Daniel E.

1993-01-01

396

Data processing of vibrational chemical imaging for pharmaceutical applications.  

PubMed

Vibrational spectroscopy (MIR, NIR and Raman) based hyperspectral imaging is one of the most powerful tools to analyze pharmaceutical preparation. Indeed, it combines the advantages of vibrational spectroscopy to imaging techniques and allows therefore the visualization of distribution of compounds or crystallization processes. However, these techniques provide a huge amount of data that must be processed to extract the relevant information. This review presents fundamental concepts of hyperspectral imaging, the basic theory of the most used chemometric tools used to pre-process, process and post-process the generated data. The last part of the present paper focuses on pharmaceutical applications of hyperspectral imaging and highlights the data processing approaches to enable the reader making the best choice among the different tools available. PMID:24809748

Sacré, P-Y; De Bleye, C; Chavez, P-F; Netchacovitch, L; Hubert, Ph; Ziemons, E

2014-12-01

397

Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to toxic chemicals. Collection, processing, and storage of specimens  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to at least 100 different chemicals may be estimated on an individual basis from their concentrations in blood or urine. The present document reviews sources of error in the collection, processing and storage of specimens for this biological monitoring. Physiological factors cause variation in the concentration of chemicals in the body fluids. Distribution of water depends on posture. Exercise and meals cause changes in blood constituents. The urine output varies and, thus, the concentrations of dissolved chemicals change. Many toxic chemicals show short half times in the blood; thus, their concentrations depend on the timing of the specimen collection. Skin absorption may result in dramatically different chemical concentrations in different parts of the circulation. The stability of chemicals in the collected specimens is generally limited: chemical deterioration, adsorption, precipitation, and evaporation are the main causes of losses. For many chemicals, especially for trace elements, contamination of the specimen is the overwhelmingly most important source of error. As the range of the chemicals measured is wide, the relative importance of the sources of error is different for different chemicals. Information on most chemicals is at present very limited. Thus, before commencing a program on biological exposure monitoring, it is advisable to search the optimal conditions for specimen collection, processing, and storage.

Aitio, A.; Jaervisalo, J.

1985-03-01

398

78 FR 56268 - Pipeline Safety: Public Workshop on Integrity Verification Process, Comment Extension  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2013-0119] Pipeline Safety: Public Workshop on Integrity Verification...AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION:...

2013-09-12

399

Monitoring the Long-Term Effectiveness of Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Implementation Through Use of a Performance Dashboard Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This session will examine a method developed by Federal and Contractor personnel at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA\\/NSO) to examine long-term maintenance of DOE Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) criteria, including safety culture attributes, as well as identification of process improvement opportunities. This process was initially developed in the summer of 2000

William D. Barrick; Michael D. Kinney

2008-01-01

400

Fully Funded PhD studentships in Chemical Engineering Fully-funded Scholarships are available for 2014-15 in the Department of Chemical and Process  

E-print Network

for 2014-15 in the Department of Chemical and Process Engineering at the University of Strathclyde information about the Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, please visit httpFully Funded PhD studentships in Chemical Engineering Fully-funded Scholarships are available

Mottram, Nigel

401

Chemical Changes in Proteins Produced by Thermal Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses effects of thermal processing on proteins, focusing on (1) the Maillard reaction; (2) heat denaturation of proteins; (3) aggregation, precipitation, gelation, and degradation; and (4) other thermally induced protein reactions. Also discusses effects of thermal processing on muscle foods, egg proteins, fruits and vegetables, and cereal…

Dutson, T. R.; Orcutt, M. W.

1984-01-01

402

Standardization of process parameters for a chemical reaction using neutron activation analysis technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical process to convert polyepichlorohydrin (PECH) into a glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) has been standardized by measuring the relative concentrations of nitrogen, chlorine and oxygen with the fast neutron activation analysis technique. For comparison PECH and GAP samples were also analysed by IR spectroscopy. The results indicate that, for standardization of the present chemical process, the fast neutron activation analysis technique is superior to IR spectroscopy. In this paper the techniques used to analyse the samples are described in detail but the information on the actual chemical process adopted is provided in brief.

Dokhale, P. A.; Bhoraskar, V. N.

1996-08-01

403

Cogeneration handbook for the chemical process industries. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

The desision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the chemical industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

Fassbender, A.G.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

1984-03-01

404

Urban street canyons: Coupling dynamics, chemistry and within-canyon chemical processing of emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Street canyons, formed by rows of buildings in urban environments, are associated with high levels of atmospheric pollutants emitted primarily from vehicles, and substantial human exposure. The street canyon forms a semi-enclosed environment, within which emissions may be entrained in a re-circulatory system; chemical processing of emitted compounds alters the composition of the air vented to the overlying boundary layer, compared with the primary emissions. As the prevailing atmospheric chemistry is highly non-linear, and the canyon mixing and predominant chemical reaction timescales are comparable, the combined impacts of dynamics and chemistry must be considered to quantify these effects. Here we report a model study of the coupled impacts of dynamical and chemical processing upon the atmospheric composition in a street canyon environment, to assess the impacts upon air pollutant levels within the canyon, and to quantify the extent to which within-canyon chemical processing alters the composition of canyon outflow, in comparison to the primary emissions within the canyon. A new model for the simulation of street canyon atmospheric chemical processing has been developed, by integrating an existing Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) dynamical model of canyon atmospheric motion with a detailed chemical reaction mechanism, a Reduced Chemical Scheme (RCS) comprising 51 chemical species and 136 reactions, based upon a subset of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). The combined LES-RCS model is used to investigate the combined effects of mixing and chemical processing upon air quality within an idealised street canyon. The effect of the combination of dynamical (segregation) and chemical effects is determined by comparing the outputs of the full LES-RCS canyon model with those obtained when representing the canyon as a zero-dimensional box model (i.e. assuming mixing is complete and instantaneous). The LES-RCS approach predicts lower (canyon-averaged) levels of NOx, OH and HO2, but higher levels of O3, compared with the box model run under identical chemical and emissions conditions. When considering the level of chemical detail implemented, segregation effects were found to reduce the error introduced by simplifying the reaction mechanism. Chemical processing of emissions within the canyon leads to a significant increase in the Ox flux from the canyon into the overlying boundary layer, relative to primary emissions, for the idealised case considered here. These results demonstrate that within-canyon atmospheric chemical processing can substantially alter the concentrations of pollutants injected into the urban canopy layer, compared with the raw emission rates within the street canyon. The extent to which these effects occur is likely to be dependent upon the nature of the domain (canyon aspect ratio), prevailing meteorology and emission/pollution scenario considered.

Bright, Vivien Bianca; Bloss, William James; Cai, Xiaoming

2013-04-01

405

The Fabrication of Vertical Light-Emitting Diodes Using Chemical Lift-Off Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were successfully fabricated by a chemical lift-off process using a selectively etchable CrN buffer layer. The novel CrN metallic layer worked well as a buffer layer for growth of the GaN LED and was etched out clearly during selective chemical etching. The vertical LED by chemical lift-off showed very good current-voltage performance with low series resistance

Jun-Seok Ha; S. W. Lee; Hyun-Jae Lee; Hyo-Jong Lee; H. Goto; T. Kato; Katsushi Fujii; M. W. Cho; T. Yao

2008-01-01

406

Recent advances in chemical imaging technology for the detection of contaminants for food safety and security  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The need for routine, non-destructive chemical screening of agricultural products is increasing due to the health hazards to animals and humans associated with intentional and unintentional contamination of foods. Melamine, an industrial additive used to increase flame retardation in the resin indus...

407

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Is Thioacetamide a Serious Health Hazard in Inorganic Chemistry Laboratories?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the potential health hazards of using thioacetamide in introductory courses where students are involved in qualitative inorganic analysis. Describes the chemical as possessing carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, and mutagenic properties. Cautions that thioacetamide has caused various biochemical changes in the liver, and recommends limited uses…

Elo, Hannu

1987-01-01

408

NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH (NIOSH) POCKET GUIDE TO CHEMICAL HAZARDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The NPG is intended as a source of general industrial hygiene information on several hundred chemicals/classes for workers, employers, and occupational health professionals. The NPG does not contain an analysis of all pertinent data, rather it presents key information and data in...

409

Global Optimization of Chemical Processes using Stochastic Algorithms  

E-print Network

of a fermentation process, to deter­ mine multiphase equilibria, for the optimal control of a penicillin reactor of the penicillin reactor and the non­differentiable system. 1. INTRODUCTION Gradient­based optimization algorithms

Neumaier, Arnold

410

Using design of experiments to improve a batch chemical process  

E-print Network

Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics has made a strong commitment to manufacturing seasonal influenza vaccines through their cell culture technology called Optaflu®. The goal of this project is to improve overall process yield ...

Hill, Andrew, S.M. (Andrew James). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

411

Incipient fault diagnosis of chemical processes via artificial neural networks  

SciTech Connect

Artificial neural networks have capacity to learn and store information about process faults via associative memory, and thus have an associative diagnostic ability with respect to faults that occur in a process. Knowledge of the faults to be learned by the network evolves from sets of data, namely values of steady-state process variables collected under normal operating condition and those collected under faulty conditions, together with information about the degree of the faults and their causes. The authors describe how to apply artificial neural networks to fault diagnosis. A suitable two-stage multilayer neural network is proposed as the network to be used for diagnosis. The first stage of the network discriminates between the causes of faults when fed the noisy process measurements. Once the fault is identified, the second stage of the network estimates the degree of the fault. Thus, the diagnosis of incipient faults becomes possible.

Watanabe, K.; Matsuura, I.; Abe, M. Kubota, M. (Dept. of Instrument and Control Engineering, Hosei Univ. Tokyo 184 (JP))

1989-11-01

412

SIMULATION OF ECOLOGICALLY CONSCIOUS CHEMICAL PROCESSES: FUGITIVE EMISSIONS VERSUS OPERATING CONDITIONS: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-CIN-1531A Mata, T.M., Smith*, R.L., Young*, D., and Costa, C.A.V. "Simulation of Ecologically Conscious Chemical Processes: Fugitive Emissions versus Operating Conditions." Paper published in: CHEMPOR' 2001, 8th International Chemical Engineering Conference, Aveiro, Portu...

413

A study of fluid flow, heat transfer and particle deposition in chemical vapor deposition processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is a study of the flow, heat and mass transfer in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes with application to the manufacture of optical fiber preforms. The governing conservation equations have been solved numerically to determine the velocity, temperature and species concentration fields. The effects of chemical reactions, buoyancy, variable properties, gas flow rates, burner and target configurations have

Shao-Luen Chou

1999-01-01

414

Using a Laboratory Simulator in the Teaching and Study of Chemical Processes in Estuarine Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching of Chemical Oceanography in the Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences of the University of Cadiz (Spain) has been improved since 1994 by the employment of a device for the laboratory simulation of estuarine mixing processes and the characterisation of the chemical behaviour of many substances that pass through an estuary. The…

Garcia-Luque, E.; Ortega, T.; Forja, J. M.; Gomez-Parra, A.

2004-01-01

415

Decision Making for a Sustainable Chemical Process Xun Jin and Karen A. High  

E-print Network

Decision Making for a Sustainable Chemical Process Xun Jin and Karen A. High School of Chemical-744-5280, Fax:405-744-6338 xun.jin@okstate.edu, high@okstate.edu ABSTRACT Decision-making for sustainability essentially constitutes a MultiCriteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem. The real challenge relies upon

High, Karen

416

Vesicle-based method for collecting, manipulating, and chemically processing trace macromolecular species  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is an apparatus and method for inserting one or several chemical or biological species into phospholipid containers that are controlled within a microfluidic network, wherein individual containers are tracked and manipulated by electric fields and wherein the contained species may be chemically processed.

Davalos, Rafael V. (Oakland, CA); Ellis, Christopher R. B. (Oakland, CA)

2010-08-17

417

Swimming Pool Water Treatment Chemicals and/or Processes. Standard No. 22.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chemicals or processes used or intended for use, in the treatment of swimming pool water are covered. Minimum public health limits or acceptability in regard to toxicity, biocidal effectiveness, and chemical behavior and analysis are presented. The appendices give guidelines to the scientific and statistically sound evaluations to determine the…

National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

418

Processes and timescales in the evolution of a chemically zoned trachyte: Fogo A, Sao Miguel, Azores  

Microsoft Academic Search

U-series disequilibria analyses have been combined with chemical and petrographic analyses in order to assess both the timescales and processes involved in the formation of the chemically zoned Fogo A trachytes. Least squares major element modelling demonstrates that the mafic trachytes could have evolved from a parental alkali basalt via trachybasalt with ~70% fractionation of augite (35–36%), plagioclase (23%), magnetite

E. Widom; H.-U. Schmincke; J. B. Gill

1992-01-01

419

CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID BED FOR SOX CONTROL: VOLUME II. SPENT SORBENT PROCESSING FOR DISPOSAL/UTILIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the processing of spent calcium-based sulfur sorbents (limestones or dolomites) from an atmospheric-pressure, chemically active fluid bed (CAFB) gasification process, using a regenerative sulfur sorbent process that produces low- to intermediate-Btu gas. Data...

420

Chip-scale modeling of pattern dependencies in copper chemical mechanical polishing processes  

E-print Network

Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has become a necessary processing step in the fabrication of copper interconnects. Copper CMP is recognized to suffer from pattern dependent problems such as dishing and erosion, which ...

Gbondo-Tugbawa, Tamba Edward

2002-01-01

421

Use of electric fields to enhance industrial chemical processing. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the use of electric fields applied to chemical processing. In particular, the application was made to a ROHM & HAAS polymer suspension for the removal of organic compounds utilizing solvent extraction. Results are described.

Scott, T.C.; Bowe, M.D.

1995-10-01

422

GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ARE REVEALED USING THE WASTE REDUCTION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (WAR DSS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Waste Reduction Decision Support System (WAR DSS) is a Java-based software product providing comprehensive modeling of potential adverse environmental impacts (PEI) predicted to result from newly designed or redesigned chemical manufacturing processes. The purpose of this so...

423

DEVELOPMENT OF SULFATE RADICAL-BASED CHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESSES FOR GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This study investigates the development of novel sulfate radical-based chemical oxidation processes for treatment of groundwater contaminants. Environmentally friendly transition metal (Fe (II), Fe (III)) has been evaluated for the activation of common oxidants (peroxymonosulfat...

424

Development of a Fast and Detailed Model of Urban-Scale Chemical and Physical Processing  

E-print Network

A reduced form metamodel has been produced to simulate the effects of physical, chemical, and meteorological processing of highly reactive trace species in hypothetical urban areas, which is capable of efficiently simulating ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

425

Computerized Aid Improves Safety Decision Process for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computerized safety decision aid was developed and tested with Spanish or English-speaking abused women in shelters or domestic violence (DV) support groups (n = 90). The decision aid provides feedback about risk for lethal violence, options for safety, assistance with setting priorities for safety, and a safety plan personalized to the user.…

Glass, Nancy; Eden, Karen B.; Bloom, Tina; Perrin, Nancy

2010-01-01

426

Intelligent Modeling and Multi–Objective Optimization of Die Sinking ElectroChemical Spark Machining Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die Sinking–Electro Chemical Spark Machining (DS–ECSM) is one of the hybrid machining processes, combining the features of Electro Chemical Machining (ECM) and Electro Discharge Machining (EDM), used for machining of non-conducting materials. This paper reports, an intelligent approach for the modelling of DS–ECSM process using FEM and ANN in integrated manner. It primarily comprises development of two models. First one

Mohan Charan Panda; Vinod Yadava

2011-01-01

427

A Modified Discrete Binary Ant Colony Optimization and Its Application in Chemical Process Fault Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering fault diagnosis is a small sample problem in real chemical process industry, Support Vector Machines (SVM) is\\u000a adopted as classifier to discriminate chemical process steady faults. To improve fault diagnosis performance, it is essential\\u000a to reduce the dimensionality of collected data. This paper presents a modified discrete binary ant colony optimization (MDBACO)\\u000a to optimize discrete combinational problems, and then

Ling Wang; Jinshou Yu

2006-01-01

428

A hazard and probabilistic safety analysis of a high-level waste transfer process  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a safety analysis of a transfer process for high-level radioactive and toxic waste. The analysis began with a hazard assessment that used elements of What If, Checklist, Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and Hazards and Operability Study (HAZOP) techniques to identify and rough-in accident sequences. Based on this preliminary analysis, the most significant accident sequences were developed further using event trees. Quantitative frequency estimates for the accident sequences were based on operational data taken from the historical record of the site where the process is performed. Several modeling challenges were encountered in the course of the study. These included linked initiating and accident progression events, fire propagation modeling, accounting for administrative control violations, and handling mission-phase effects.

Bott, T.F.; Sasser, M.K.

1996-09-01

429

Safety in Science Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents 12 amendments to the second edition of Safety in Science Laboratories. Covers topics such as regular inspection of equipment, wearing safety glasses, dating stock chemicals, and safe use of chemicals. (MA)

Education in Science, 1978

1978-01-01

430

DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Approximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use this infor...

431

METHODS FOR INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS INTO CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN DECISIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this cooperative agreement was to postulate a means by which an engineer could routinely include environmental considerations in day-to-day conceptual design problems; a means that could easily integrate with existing design processes, and thus avoid massive retr...

432

DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Aproximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use tis inform...

433

Functionalized sorbent for chemical separations and sequential forming process  

DOEpatents

A highly functionalized sorbent and sequential process for making are disclosed. The sorbent includes organic short-length amino silanes and organic oligomeric polyfunctional amino silanes that are dispersed within pores of a porous support that form a 3-dimensional structure containing highly functionalized active binding sites for sorption of analytes.

Fryxell, Glen E. (Kennewick, WA); Zemanian, Thomas S. (Richland, WA)

2012-03-20

434

Nuclear Technology Series. Course 23: Nuclear Chemical Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

435

Hydrogen Safety Project chemical analysis support task: Window C'' volatile organic analysis  

SciTech Connect

This data package contains the results obtained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff in the characterization of samples for the 101-SY Hydrogen Safety Project. The samples were submitted for analysis by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the Technical Project Plan (TPP) 17667 and the Quality Assurance Plan MCS-027. They came from a core taken during Window C'' after the May 1991 gas release event. The analytical procedures required for analysis were defined in the Test Instructions (TI) prepared by the PNL 101-SY Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) Project Management Office in accordance with the TPP and the QA Plan. The requested analysis for these samples was volatile organic analysis. The quality control (QC) requirements for each sample are defined in the Test Instructions for each sample. The QC requirements outlined in the procedures and requested in the WHC statement of work were followed.

Gillespie, B.M.; Stromatt, R.W.; Ross, G.A.; Hoope, E.A.

1992-01-01

436

Hydrogen Safety Project chemical analysis support task: Window ``C`` volatile organic analysis  

SciTech Connect

This data package contains the results obtained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff in the characterization of samples for the 101-SY Hydrogen Safety Project. The samples were submitted for analysis by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the Technical Project Plan (TPP) 17667 and the Quality Assurance Plan MCS-027. They came from a core taken during Window ``C`` after the May 1991 gas release event. The analytical procedures required for analysis were defined in the Test Instructions (TI) prepared by the PNL 101-SY Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) Project Management Office in accordance with the TPP and the QA Plan. The requested analysis for these samples was volatile organic analysis. The quality control (QC) requirements for each sample are defined in the Test Instructions for each sample. The QC requirements outlined in the procedures and requested in the WHC statement of work were followed.

Gillespie, B.M.; Stromatt, R.W.; Ross, G.A.; Hoope, E.A.

1992-01-01

437

Damage Mechanisms In Polymers Upon NIR Femtosecond Pulse Laser Irradiation: Sub-Threshold Processes And Their Implications For Laser Safety Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution investigates laser-induced damage of thin film and bulk polymer samples, with the focus on physical processes occurring close to the damage threshold. In-situ real-time reflectivity (RTR) measurements with picosecond (ps) and nanosecond (ns) temporal resolution were performed on thin polymer films on a timescale up to a few microseconds (?s). A model for polymer thin film damage is presented, indicating that irreversible chemical modification processes take place already below the fluence threshold for macroscopic damage. On dye-doped bulk polymer filters (as used for laser goggles), transmission studies using fs-and ps-laser pulses reveal the optical saturation behavior of the material and its relation to the threshold of permanent damage. Implications of the sub-threshold processes for laser safety applications will be discussed for thin film and bulk polymer damage.

Bonse, Jörn; Solis, Javier; Spielmann, Christian; Lippert, Thomas; Krüger, Jörg

2010-10-01

438

Review of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared to fulfill the Phase I deliverable for HLW/DWPF/TTR-98-0018, Rev. 2, ''Hydrogen Generation in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell'', 6/4/2001. The primary objective for the preliminary phase of the hydrogen generation study was to complete a review of past data on hydrogen generation and to prepare a summary of the findings. The understanding was that the focus should be on catalytic hydrogen generation, not on hydrogen generation by radiolysis. The secondary objective was to develop scope for follow-up experimental and analytical work. The majority of this report provides a summary of past hydrogen generation work with radioactive and simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste sludges. The report also includes some work done with Hanford waste sludges and simulants. The review extends to idealized systems containing no sludge, such as solutions of sodium formate and formic acid doped with a noble metal catalyst. This includes general information from the literature, as well as the focused study done by the University of Georgia for the SRS. The various studies had a number of points of universal agreement. For example, noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, catalyze hydrogen generation from formic acid and formate ions, and more acid leads to more hydrogen generation. There were also some points of disagreement between different sources on a few topics such as the impact of mercury on the noble metal catalysts and the identity of the most active catalyst species. Finally, there were some issues of potential interest to SRS that apparently have not been systematically studied, e.g. the role of nitrite ion in catalyst activation and reactivity. The review includes studies covering the period from about 1924-2002, or from before the discovery of hydrogen generation during simulant sludge processing in 1988 through the Shielded Cells qualification testing for Sludge Batch 2. The review of prior studies is followed by a discussion of proposed experimental work, additional data analysis, and future modeling programs. These proposals have led to recent investigations into the mercury issue and the effect of co-precipitating noble metals which will be documented in two separate reports. SRS hydrogen generation work since 2002 will also be collected and summarized in a future report on the effect of noble metal-sludge matrix interactions on hydrogen generation. Other potential factors for experimental investigation include sludge composition variations related to both the washing process and to the insoluble species with particular attention given to the role of silver and to improving the understanding of the interaction of nitrite ion with the noble metals.

Koopman, D. C.

2004-12-31

439

On Chemical Modeling an Alchemical Process: The Use of Combined Chemical Methods in a Historical Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory work is an important component of a course in the History of Chemistry and Alchemy, though it can only be illustrative and not comprehensive. The course should exercise both the cognitive and research abilities of an university student. Therefore methods of modeling are of prime importance at this stage of instruction. Modeling can be both a priori and experimental. The experiment can use the alchemist's materials, or it can reproduce the procedure with modern reagents. A good example for the use of this method is a recipe for the preparation of the Philosopher's Stone attributed to Lullius and cited by J. Ripley in Liber Duodecium Portarum. Thus, the Ripley's recipe is not only considered to be the first indication of the existence of acetone, but it may also indicate the formation of acetyl acetone and its derivatives. Thus, as far as the history of alchemy is concerned, the use of an experimental model not only allows us to solve a number of specific problems such as recipe interpretation and product identification, but it allows also to probe the essence of alchemical work. The combination of empirical and speculative modelings leads to the interaction of the exact methods of chemistry with the broad historico-chemical generalizations, thus introducing some additional dimensions to the definition of historico-chemical practice.

Rodygin, Mikhail Yu.; Rodygin, Irene V.

1997-08-01

440

In-can melting demonstration of wastes from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

SciTech Connect

The immobilization of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) zirconia calcine using Idaho glass composition (ICPP-127) was evaluated at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in two engineering-scale in-can melter tests. The glass was initially characterized in the laboratory to verify processing parameters. Glass was then produced in a pilot-scale melter and then in a full-scale melter to evaluate the processing and the resultant product. Potential corrosion problems were identified with the glass and some processing problems were encountered, but neither is insurmountable. The product is a durable leach-resistant glass. The glass appears to be nonhomogeneous, but chemically it is quite uniform.

Bjorklund, W.J.; Chick, L.A.; Hollis, H.H.; Mellinger, G.B.; Nelson, T.A.; Petkus, L.L.

1980-07-01

441

Radical formation, chemical processing, and explosion of interstellar grains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ultraviolet radiation in interstellar space is shown to create a sufficient steady-state density of free radicals in the grain mantle material consisting of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen to satisfy the critical condition for initiation of chain reactions. The criterion for minimum critical particle size for maintaining the chain reaction is of the order of the larger grain sizes in a distribution satisfying the average extinction and polarization measures. The triggering of the explosion of interstellar grains leading to the ejection of complex interstellar molecules is shown to be most probable where the grains are largest and where radiation is suddenly introduced; i.e., in regions of new star formation. Similar conditions prevail at the boundaries between very dark clouds and H II regions. When the energy released by the chemical activity of the free radicals is inadequate to explode the grain, the resulting mantle material must consist of extremely large organic molecules which are much more resistant to the hostile environment of H II regions than the classical dirty-ice mantles made up of water, methane, and ammonia.

Greenberg, J. M.

1976-01-01

442

Settling velocities of multifractal flocs formed in chemical coagulation process.  

PubMed

A number of different flocculation mechanisms are involved in the formation of chemical coagulation flocs. Consequently, two flocs with the same size may have been formed by different mechanisms of aggregation and therefore have different arrangement of primary particles. As a result, two flocs with the same size may have different masses or mass distributions and therefore, different settling velocities. Although the correct estimation of the floc mass and density is critical for the development of the floc settling model, none of the suggested floc settling models incorporate the information on mass distribution and variable density of flocs. A probability-based method is used to determine the floc fractal dimensions on floc images. The results demonstrated that flocs formed in lime softening coagulation are multifractal. The multifractal spectra indicated the existence of a multiple fractal dimensions as opposed to the unique box-counting dimension which is a morphology-based fractal dimensions typically introduced into the Stokes' Law. These fractal dimensions may provide information on the flocs' aggregation mechanism, floc's structure, and the distribution of mass inside the floc. More research is required to investigate how to utilize the information obtained from the multifractal spectra to incorporate the variable floc density and nonhomogeneous mass distribution of flocs into the floc settling models. PMID:24530551

Vahedi, Arman; Gorczyca, Beata

2014-04-15

443

Improvement of the safety of the red pepper spice with FMEA and post processing EWMA quality control charts.  

PubMed

Although there are numerous decades-old studies drawing attention to the presence of aflatoxins in spices, and particularly in red pepper spice, the problem has not been eradicated. In the present study, information presented in the literature, about production method of red pepper spice, its contamination with aflatoxin, and the uncertainty about the data are assessed to find out the points where improvement may be achieved. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) are performed to assess the risk. The highest total risk attributable to chemical plus physical plus biological causes is associated with the washing stage (RPN=363), which is followed by the receiving (RPN=342) and the storage (RPN=342) stages. The highest risk attributable to biological causes (RPN=180) is associated with microbial growth and aflatoxin production due to insufficient control of drying conditions. The highest chemical risk (RPN=144) is found for the presence of unintentional food additives, such as pesticides, herbicides, hormones, and heavy metals in fresh red pepper fruits. EWMA (exponentially weighted average) charts are employed to monitor aflatoxin production during storage. They successfully distinguished between the batches, which turned to be unsafe. Risk associated with unintentional additives may be reduced by using certified additives only. Better drying control will definitely reduce the risk associated with the drying process. Codex Alimentarius plan has worldwide acceptance for assessing safety of the nuts. Risk of accepting the batches contaminated with aflatoxin may be eliminated by applying the Codex Alimentarius sampling plan before putting the dry pulverized red pepper into the storage facility. PMID:24425941

Ozilgen, Sibel; Bucak, Seyda; Ozilgen, Mustafa

2013-06-01

444

SLUDGE BATCH 6\\/TANK 40 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase III simulant flowsheet testing was completed using the latest composition estimates for SB6\\/Tank 40 feed to DWPF. The goals of the testing were to determine reasonable operating conditions and assumptions for the startup of SB6 processing in the DWPF. Testing covered the region from 102-159% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. Nitrite ion concentration was reduced to 90

Koopman

2010-01-01

445

Quantifying solute transport processes: are chemically "conservative" tracers electrically conservative?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The concept of a nonreactive or conservative tracer, commonly invoked in investigations of solute transport, requires additional study in the context of electrical geophysical monitoring. Tracers that are commonly considered conservative may undergo reactive processes, such as ion exchange, thus changing the aqueous composition of the system. As a result, the measured electrical conductivity may reflect not only solute transport but also reactive processes. We have evaluated the impacts of ion exchange reactions, rate-limited mass transfer, and surface conduction on quantifying tracer mass, mean arrival time, and temporal variance in laboratory-scale column experiments. Numerical examples showed that (1) ion exchange can lead to resistivity-estimated tracer mass, velocity, and dispersivity that may be inaccurate; (2) mass transfer leads to an overestimate in the mobile tracer mass and an underestimate in velocity when using electrical methods; and (3) surface conductance does not notably affect estimated moments when high-concentration tracers are used, although this phenomenon may be important at low concentrations or in sediments with high and/or spatially variable cation-exchange capacity. In all cases, colocated groundwater concentration measurements are of high importance for interpreting geophysical data with respect to the controlling transport processes of interest.

Singha, Kamini; Li, Li; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Regberg, Aaron B.

2012-01-01

446

Emissions model of waste treatment operations at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

SciTech Connect

An integrated model of the waste treatment systems at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) was developed using a commercially-available process simulation software (ASPEN Plus) to calculate atmospheric emissions of hazardous chemicals for use in an application for an environmental permit to operate (PTO). The processes covered by the model are the Process Equipment Waste evaporator, High Level Liquid Waste evaporator, New Waste Calcining Facility and Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal facility. The processes are described along with the model and its assumptions. The model calculates emissions of NO{sub x}, CO, volatile acids, hazardous metals, and organic chemicals. Some calculated relative emissions are summarized and insights on building simulations are discussed.

Schindler, R.E.

1995-03-01

447

Thermo-chemical process with sewage sludge by using CO2.  

PubMed

This work proposed a novel methodology for energy recovery from sewage sludge via the thermo-chemical process. The impact of CO2 co-feed on the thermo-chemical process (pyrolysis and gasification) of sewage sludge was mainly investigated to enhance thermal efficiency and to modify the end products from the pyrolysis and gasification process. The CO2 injected into the pyrolysis and gasification process enhance the generation of CO. As compared to the thermo-chemical process in an inert atmosphere (i.e., N2), the generation of CO in the presence of CO2 was enhanced approximately 200% at the temperature regime from 600 to 900 °C. The introduction of CO2 into the pyrolysis and gasification process enabled the condensable hydrocarbons (tar) to be reduced considerably by expediting thermal cracking (i.e., approximately 30-40%); thus, exploiting CO2 as chemical feedstock and/or reaction medium for the pyrolysis and gasification process leads to higher thermal efficiency, which leads to environmental benefits. This work also showed that sewage sludge could be a very strong candidate for energy recovery and a raw material for chemical feedstock. PMID:23792821

Kwon, Eilhann E; Yi, Haakrho; Kwon, Hyun-Han

2013-10-15

448

Micromanufacturing Of Hard To Machine Materials By Physical And Chemical Ablation Processes  

SciTech Connect

Miniaturization leads to high requirements to the applied manufacturing processes especially in respect to the used hard to machine materials and the aims of structure size and geometrical accuracy. Traditional manufacturing processes reach their limits here. One alternative for these provide thermal and chemical ablation processes. These processes are applied for the production of different microstructures in different materials like hardened steel, carbides and ceramics especially for medical engineering and tribological applications.

Schubert, A. [Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU, Chemnitz, 09126 (Germany); Chair Micromanufacturing Technology, Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz, 09107 (Germany); Edelmann, J.; Gross, S.; Meichsner, G.; Wolf, N.; Schneider, J. [Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU, Chemnitz, 09126 (Germany); Zeidler, H.; Hackert, M. [Chair Micromanufacturing Technology, Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz, 09107 (Germany)

2011-01-17

449

The medication process in a psychiatric hospital: are errors a potential threat to patient safety?  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the frequency, type, and potential severity of errors in several stages of the medication process in an inpatient psychiatric setting. Methods A cross-sectional study using three methods for detecting errors: (1) direct observation; (2) unannounced control visits in the wards collecting dispensed drugs; and (3) chart reviews. All errors, except errors in discharge summaries, were assessed for potential consequences by two clinical pharmacologists. Setting Three psychiatric wards with adult patients at Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark, from January 2010–April 2010. The observational unit The individual handling of medication (prescribing, dispensing, and administering). Results In total, 189 errors were detected in 1,082 opportunities for error (17%) of which 84/998 (8%) were assessed as potentially harmful. The frequency of errors was: prescribing, 10/189 (5%); dispensing, 18/189 (10%); administration, 142/189 (75%); and discharge summaries, 19/189 (10%). The most common errors were omission of pro re nata dosing regime in computerized physician order entry, omission of dose, lack of identity control, and omission of drug. Conclusion Errors throughout the medication process are common in psychiatric wards to an extent which resembles error rates in somatic care. Despite a substantial proportion of errors with potential to harm patients, very few errors were considered potentially fatal. Medical staff needs greater awareness of medication safety and guidelines related to the medication process. Many errors in this study might potentially be prevented by nursing staff when handling medication and observing patients for effect and side effects of medication. The nurses’ role in psychiatric medication safety should be further explored as nurses appear to be in the unique position to intercept errors before they reach the patient. PMID:24049464

Soerensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Lisby, Marianne; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Poulsen, Birgitte Klindt; Mainz, Jan

2013-01-01

450

Nanothin Films Obtained by an Improved Wet Chemical Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, we have tried to study and develop the processing of amorphous BaTiO3 nanothin films, which have amorphous structure and nanometric thickness. It was seen that they exhibit enhanced optical responses. An improved method was used to prepare amorphous BaTiO3 nanothin films, which, compared to other approaches, is simple, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly. It was found that amorphous BaTiO3 films exhibit better optical transmittance in contrast to the similar nanocrystalline, polycrystalline, or thick films. This finding is due to the absence of grain boundaries, which have an important role in light scattering processes. AFM and SEM results indicate that the surface of the nanothin film is uniform, smooth, and amorphous. Moreover, the surface of the nanothin film exhibits a dense structure with no crack and voids. RMS roughness of the prepared nanothin film was quite small and equal to 0.7 nm. This value is very less than other reported RMS roughness values which were in the range of 5 to 11 nm. XRD results indicate that all of the prepared thin films in this work are amorphous, independent of number of dip-coated layers and preparation conditions. The work also aims to study and develop the processing of the amorphous BaTiO3 nanothin films deeply. The results showed that annealing temperature has a more pronounced effect on transmittance, thickness, and shift in the absorption edge of the thin films than annealing time. It was found that the viscosity of the sol has remarkable influence on the transmission spectrum and shift in the absorption edge of the films. The transparency of the films decreases with an increase in the viscosity and concentration of the sol. It was found that size of particle within the sol and rate of the sol-gel reactions have important roles on the transmittance of the films.

Ashiri, Rouholah

2014-08-01

451

Chemically bonded ceramic processing of mono-calcium aluminate  

SciTech Connect

A ceramic matrix composite consisting of mono-calcium aluminate as the matrix phase and calcia stabilized zirconia as the second phase was fabricated by warm-pressing. The hydraulic properties of calcium aluminate (CA) were exploited in order to form strong green bodies. Pressureless sintering of composites with zirconia loadings of 60 wt% (44 vol%) were accomplished with no evidence of constrained sintering. Novel processing techniques enhanced homogenization of the starting powders, thereby facilitating the elimination of agglomeration and constrained sintering. Samples were characterized using SEM, XRD, dilatometry and helium pycnometry. Vickers hardness testing was done to evaluate mechanical properties.

Johnson, B.R.; Guelguen, M.A.; Kriven, W.M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1996-06-01

452

Active Chemical Sensing With Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an active-perception strategy to optimize the temperature program of metal-oxide sensors in real time, as the sensor reacts with its environment. We model the problem as a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP), where actions correspond to measurements at particular temperatures, and the agent is to find a temperature sequence that minimizes the Bayes risk. We validate the method on a binary classification problem with a simulated sensor. Our results show that the method provides a balance between classification rate and sensing costs.

Gosangi, Rakesh; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

2009-05-01

453

3 CFR 13650 - Executive Order 13650 of August 1, 2013. Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security  

...Domestic Policy Council; (iv) the Office of Science and Technology Policy; (v) the Office of...with section 3 of this order, and shall address computer-based and non-computer-based means for improving the process in...

2014-01-01

454

Commercialization of Kennedy Space Center Instrumentation Developed to Improve Safety, Reliability, Cost Effectiveness of Space Shuttle Processing, Launch, and Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Priorities and achievements of the Kennedy Space Center (KSF) Instrumentation Laboratories in improving operational safety and decreasing processing costs associated with the Shuttle vehicle are addressed. Technologies that have been or are in the process of technology transfer are reviewed, and routes by which commercial concerns can obtain licenses to other KSF Instrumentation Laboratory technologies are discussed.

Helms, William R.; Starr, Stanley O.

1997-01-01

455

Processing electric arc furnace dust into saleable chemical products  

SciTech Connect

The modern steel industry uses electric arc furnace (EAF) technology to manufacture steel. A major drawback of this technology is the production of EAF dust, which is listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The annual disposal of approximately 0.65 million tons of EAF dust in the United States and Canada is an expensive, unresolved problem for the steel industry. EAF dust byproducts are generated during the manufacturing process by a variety of mechanisms. The dust consists of various metals (e.g., zinc, lead, cadmium) that occur as vapors at 1,600{degrees}C (EAF hearth temperature); these vapors are condensed and collected in a baghouse. The production of one ton of steel will generate approximately 25 pounds of EAF dust as a byproduct, which is currently disposed of in landfills.

NONE

1998-04-01

456

Thermo-Chemical Modelling Strategies for the Pultrusion Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, three dimensional (3D) numerical modeling strategies of a thermosetting pultrusion process are investigated considering both transient and steady state approaches. For the transient solution, an unconditionally stable alternating direction implicit Douglas-Gunn (ADI-DG) scheme is implemented as a first contribution of its kind in this specific field of application. The corresponding results are compared with the results obtained from the transient fully implicit scheme, the straightforward extension of the 2D ADI and the steady state approach. The implementation of the proposed approach is described in detail. The calculated temperature and cure degree profiles at steady state are found to agree well with results obtained from similar analyses in the literature. Detailed case studies are carried out investigating the computational accuracy and the efficiency of the 3D ADI-DG solver. It is found that the steady state approach is much faster than the transient approach in terms of the computational time and the number of iteration loops to obtain converged results for reaching the steady state. Hence, it is highly suitable for automatic process optimization which often involves many design evaluations. On the other hand sometimes the transient regime may be of interest and here the proposed ADI-DG method shows to be considerably faster than the transient fully implicit method which is generally used by the general purpose commercial finite element solvers. Finally, using the proposed steady-state approach, a design of experiments is carried out for the curing characteristic of the product based on pulling speed and part thickness.

Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper H.; Tutum, Cem C.

2013-12-01

457

Synergistic Pollutants Removal of the Pre-denitrification Chemical and Biological Flocculation Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on previous studies on the chemical and biological flocculation (CBF) process and the post suspended-carrier-bed CBF process, a pre-denitrification CBF process was proposed and optimized. Pollutant removing mechanisms of the process were investigated based on COD, TN, and TP removal. Nitrogen transformation in the process was investigated and particle size distributions of influent and effluent were analyzed. Operation results show that concentrations of main pollutants such as COD, TP and NH4+-N in effluent can meet the Discharging Standards for Chinese Urban WWTPs (GB18918-2002) first grade (B) stably with a total process hydraulic retention time (HRT) as short as 6hr and poly ferric sulphate (PFS, ferrous content 18.5%) dosage amount as low as 70 mgL-1. Synergistic chemical and biological pollutants removal mechanisms of the process were also discussed.

Liu, Hong-bo; Xia, Si-qing

2010-11-01

458

The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) Earth's initial atmosphere; (2) continuous degassing; (3) impact processes and the Earth's protoatmosphere; and (4) the evolution of an impact-generated atmosphere.

Mukhin, Lev M.; Gerasimov, M. V.

1991-01-01

459

APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS - THE REACTOR SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

This report details the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation of Eco Logic International's gas-phase chemical reduction process, with an emphasis on their Reactor System. he Eco Logic process employees a high temperature reactor filled with hydrogen gas as the means to destr...

460

EVALUATING THE ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS OF NEWLY DESIGNED OR RETROFITTED CHEMICAL PROCESSES: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-CIN-1646 Smith*, R.L. Evaluating the Economics and Environmental Friendliness of Newly Designed or Retrofitted Chemical Processes. Clean Products and Processes (Springer-Verlag) 3:383-391 (2002). 10/22/2001 This work describes a method for using spreadsheet analyses of ...

461

CHEMICAL PROCESS SIMULATION FOR WASTE REDUCTION: WAR ALGORITHM (SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

In traditional chemical process design, attention is focused primarily upon minimizing cost while the environmental impact of a process is often overlooked. This may in many instances lead to the production of large quantities of waste materials. It is possible to reduce the gene...

462

Real-time growth rate metrology for a tungsten chemical vapor deposition process by acoustic sensing  

E-print Network

Real-time growth rate metrology for a tungsten chemical vapor deposition process by acoustic from 300 to 350 °C. Despite WF6 depletion rates as low as 3%­5%, in situ wafer-state metrology was achieved with an error less than 6% over 17 processed wafers. This in situ metrology capability combined

Rubloff, Gary W.

463

ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS - THE THERMAL DESORPTION UNIT - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report details the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation of the Eco Logic International's gas-phase chemical reduction process, with an emphasis on their thermal desorption unit. he Eco Logic process employs a high temperature reactor filled with hydrogen as a means to ...

464

78 FR 47012 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Validation, Reviews, and Audits for Digital Computer Software used in Safety...Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software used in Safety...Revision 1 of RG 1.170, ``Test Documentation for Digital Computer Software used in...

2013-08-02

465

Venus - Chemical and dynamical processes in the stratosphere and mesosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photochemical models for the Venus clouds are presented and discussed. We illustrate models for sulfuric acid density as a function of altitude based on a proposed photochemical scheme. Emphasis is placed on two competing removal mechanisms for sulfur atoms above the visible clouds: S + O2 yields SO + O, and S + COS yields S2 + CO. The first reaction (which forms the major oxygen sink in the visible cloud region) requires reasonable O2 concentrations and leads to sulfuric acid production. The second reaction occurs in regions where O2 is severely depleted and leads to elemental sulfur production. Quantitative estimates of the balance between these two competing processes are presented together with a discussion of the complete sulfur and oxygen cycles on the planet. We propose that the dark regions in the ultraviolet of Venus are oxygen-depleted regions where a significant amount of ultraviolet-absorbing sulfur is being produced. We also discuss observations of particle densities on Venus and their implications for vertical mixing rates.

Prinn, R. G.

1975-01-01

466

Chemical lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamental properties of chemical lasers are presented and principal systems described in the nonclassified literature are reviewed. The fundamentals of the production of inversion in molecular gases by chemical processes are discussed. Iodine, HF, and DF lasers are described. The chemical reaction in the pulsed chemical HF and DF lasers is introduced by a transverse electrical discharge. In spite of the high dissociation energy and the electronegative properties which are unfavorable for a stable discharge regime, SF6 is used as fluorine source for safety reasons. The pulse energies reach 26 J in agreement with estimated values. The advantage of the present system is that is can also operate as CO2 laser in the TEA mode. The radiation of DF lasers is particularly interesting for military near-Earth applications because of its good transmission properties in the atmosphere.

Hugenschmidt, M.; Wey, J.

1985-05-01

467

A Process for Derivation and Quantification of Safety Requirements for Components of Complex Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a formal approach to verification and validation of safety requirements for embedded software, by application to a simple c ontrol-logic c ase study. The logic is formally specified in Z. System safety properties are formalised by defining The paper develops a theoretical basis for assigning safety requirements for components of complex systems, including software, in a form

Peter A. Lindsay; John A. McDermid; David J. Tombs

468

Beyond Texas City: the state of process safety in the unionized U.S. oil refining industry.  

PubMed

The March 2005 British Petroleum (BP) Texas City Refinery disaster provided a stimulus to examine the state of process safety in the U.S. refining industry. Participatory action researchers conducted a nation-wide mail-back survey of United Steelworkers local unions and collected data from 51 unionized refineries. The study examined the prevalence of highly hazardous conditions key to the Texas City disaster, refinery actions to address those conditions, emergency preparedness and response, process safety systems, and worker training. Findings indicate that the key highly hazardous conditions were pervasive and often resulted in incidents or near-misses. Respondents reported worker training was insufficient and less than a third characterized their refineries as very prepared to respond safely to a hazardous materials emergency. The authors conclude that the potential for future disasters plagues the refining industry. In response, they call for effective proactive OSHA regulation and outline ten urgent and critical actions to improve refinery process safety. PMID:19778828

McQuiston, Thomas H; Lippin, Tobi Mae; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Anderson, Joseph; Beach, Josie; Beevers, Gary; Frederick, Randy J; Frederick, James; Greene, Tammy; Hoffman, Thomas; Lefton, James; Nibarger, Kim; Renner, Paul; Ricks, Brian; Seymour, Thomas; Taylor, Ren; Wright, Mike

2009-01-01

469

Teaching Science: Lab Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Before entering the world of pipettes and Geiger counters, budding scientists will need to know about lab safety. Science educators will benefit from this laboratory safety site, developed by Professor Norman Herr, who teaches at California State University, Northridge. On his site, Professor Herr provides topically organized links that fall into the areas of safety standards, chemical hazards, chemical storage, and five other relevant topics. Within each section, visitors will find links to state safety standards, sample laboratory safety contracts, and fact sheets on chemical hazards. One potentially delightful classroom activity is the laboratory safety "scavenger hunt". Through this activity, students will learn about storage requirements, chemical risks, and other potential delicate matters.

470

Treatment of effluents arising from a material characterization laboratory, using chemical precipitation and reverse osmosis processes  

SciTech Connect

Owing to the restrictions imposed by the Regulations, mainly in the field of effluent release into a water body, it`s necessary to use a set of technologies that will help meeting the standards established by these regulations. Taking into account what was exposed above, a process for treating the effluents arising from a Material Characterization Laboratory, that will characterize nuclear materials is proposed in this paper. The process proposed uses chemical precipitation for removing chemicals which can be removed by this means (Chromium, Calcium and Sulfate for instance), and reverse osmosis process to purify the filtrate from precipitation process. The reverse osmosis process is used to remove dissolved chemicals (Nitrates and Chlorides). A synthetic solution with a COD of 8000 mg/l was used to simulate the treatment process. After treatment was finished, a purified stream, which represents 90 % of the intake stream have presented a COD of less then 10 mg/l, showing that this process can be utilized to minimize the impact caused to the environment. The characterization of all streams involved in the treatment process as well as the process description is presented in this paper.

Bello, S.M.G.; Mierzwa, J.C. [Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1995-11-01

471

Low temperature metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth processes for high-efficiency solar cells  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a program to develop a more complete understanding of the physical and chemical processes involved in low-temperature growth of III-V compounds by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and to develop a low-temperature process that is suitable for the growth of high-efficiency solar cells. The program was structured to develop a better understanding of the chemical reactions involved in MOCVD growth, to develop a model of the processes occurring in the gas phase, to understand the physical kinetics and reactions operative on the surface of the growing crystal, and to develop an understanding of the means by which these processes may be altered to reduce the temperature of growth and the utilization of toxic hydrides. The basic approach was to develop the required information about the chemical and physical kinetics operative in the gas phase and on the surface by the direct physical measurement of the processes whenever possible. The program included five tasks: (1) MOCVD growth process characterization, (2) photoenhanced MOCVD studies, (3) materials characterization, (4) device fabrication and characterization, and (5) photovoltaic training. Most of the goals of the program were met and significant progress was made in defining an approach that would allow both high throughput and high uniformity growth of compound semiconductors at low temperatures. The technical activity was focused on determining the rates of thermal decomposition of trimethyl gallium, exploring alternate arsenic sources for use MOCVD, and empirical studies of atomic layer epitaxy as an approach.

Dapkus, P.D. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

1993-02-01

472

Fourth Calcined Solids Storage Facility. Final safety analysis report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This safety analysis report describes the Fourth Calcined Solids Storage Facility and presents the results of a safety evaluation of the facility including a design basis accident. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is a multi-purpose facility for recovering enriched U-235 from a wide variety of spent reactor fuels. Solvent extraction processes employed in recovery of fissile materials generate radioactive

Schindler

1980-01-01

473

Environmental Health and Safety Department  

E-print Network

://www.usg.edu/ehs/training/chemical/ #12;CHEMICAL SAFETY Basic Lab Safety ­ Required (1.5 hrs) All persons workinEnvironmental Health and Safety Department New Hire Safety Orientation #12;EHS FUNCTION The Environmental Health and Safety (EHS) Office at Georgia Tech develops programs and provides oversight

474

Preliminary Safety Analysis of the Gorleben Site: Safety Concept and Application to Scenario Development Based on a Site-Specific Features, Events and Processes (FEP) Database - 13304  

SciTech Connect

Based upon the German safety criteria, released in 2010 by the Federal Ministry of the Environment (BMU), a safety concept and a safety assessment concept for the disposal of heat-generating high-level waste have both been developed in the framework of the preliminary safety case for the Gorleben site (Project VSG). The main objective of the disposal is to contain the radioactive waste inside a defined rock zone, which is called containment-providing rock zone. The radionuclides shall remain essentially at the emplacement site, and at the most, a small defined quantity of material shall be able to leave this rock zone. This shall be accomplished by the geological barrier and a technical barrier system, which is required to seal the inevitable penetration of the geological barrier by the construction of the mine. The safe containment has to be demonstrated for probable and less probable evolutions of the site, while evolutions with very low probability (less than 1 % over the demonstration period of 1 million years) need not to be considered. Owing to the uncertainty in predicting the real evolution of the site, plausible scenarios have been derived in a systematic manner. Therefore, a comprehensive site-specific features, events and processes (FEP) data base for the Gorleben site has been developed. The safety concept was directly taken into account, e.g. by identification of FEP with direct influence on the barriers that provide the containment. No effort was spared to identify the interactions of the FEP, their probabilities of occurrence, and their characteristics (values). The information stored in the data base provided the basis for the development of scenarios. The scenario development methodology is based on FEP related to an impairment of the functionality of a subset of barriers, called initial barriers. By taking these FEP into account in their probable characteristics the reference scenario is derived. Thus, the reference scenario describes a comprehensive set of probable future evolutions of the repository site. By stepwise consideration of less probable FEP or less probable characteristics of FEP within this process, alternative scenarios are also developed, which are characterized by a lower probability of occurrence. An important methodological aspect is that some assumptions had to be made for the scenario development. They allow, on the one hand, to deal systematically with incomplete knowledge regarding the geological situation below ground owing to restricted site investigations, and, on the other hand, to structure the scenario development process. The consideration of alternative assumptions may result in additional alternative scenarios. (authors)

Moenig, Joerg; Beuth, Thomas; Wolf, Jens [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Theodor-Heuss-Str. 4, D-38122 Braunschweig (Germany)] [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Theodor-Heuss-Str. 4, D-38122 Braunschweig (Germany); Lommerzheim, Andre [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Eschenstr. 55, D-31224 Peine (Germany)] [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Eschenstr. 55, D-31224 Peine (Germany); Mrugalla, Sabine [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover (Germany)] [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover (Germany)

2013-07-01

475

Real-time in-situ chemical sensing in aluminum gallium nitride/gallium nitride metal-organic chemical vapor deposition processes for advanced process control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gallium nitride and its alloys promise to be key materials for future semiconductor devices aimed at high frequency, high power electronic applications. However, manufacturing for such high performance products is challenged by reproducibility and material quality constraints that are notably more stringent than those required for optoelectronic applications. To meet this challenge, in-situ mass spectrometry was implemented as a real-time process- and wafer-state metrology tool in AlGaN/GaN/AlN metal-organic chemical vapor deposition processes on semi-insulating SiC substrate wafers. Dynamic chemical sensing through the process cycle, carried out downstream from the wafer, revealed generation of methane and ethane reaction byproducts, as well as other residual gas species. Real-time metrics were derived based on the chemical signals to predict/control material quality and thickness of critical layers within the heterostructure in real time during growth, and corresponding metrologies were used for real-time advanced process control. Using the methane/ethane ratio, GaN epilayer crystal quality was predicted in real time to 2--5% precision, which was verified by post-process x-ray diffraction. Moreover, the same real-time metric predicted material quality as indicated by post-process photoluminescence band-edge intensities to ˜5% precision. The methane/ethane ratio has a fundamental significance in terms of the intrinsic chemistry in that the two byproducts are believed to reflect two parallel reaction pathways leading to GaN-based material growth, namely the gas phase adduct formation route and the surface route for direct precursor decomposition, respectively. The fact that lower methane/ethane ratios consistently yield better material quality suggests that the surface pathway is preferred for high quality GaN growth. In addition, a metric based on methane and ethane signals integrated through the AlGaN growth period (˜1 min or less) enabled prediction of the cap layer thickness (˜20 nm) to within ˜1% precision, which was verified by post-process x-ray reflectance. These types of real-time advanced process control activities in terms of fault detection and management, course correction, and pre-growth contamination control have made significant contributions to the GaN-based semiconductor development and manufacturing at Northrop Grumman Electronics Systems in terms of improved material quality, yield, and consequent cost reduction, and they are now in routine use.

Cho, Soon

476

Physical Processes and Real-Time Chemical Measurement of the Insect Olfactory Environment  

PubMed Central

Odor-mediated insect navigation in airborne chemical plumes is vital to many ecological interactions, including mate finding, flower nectaring, and host locating (where disease transmission or herbivory may begin). After emission, volatile chemicals become rapidly mixed and diluted through physical processes that create a dynamic olfactory environment. This review examines those physical processes and some of the analytical technologies available to characterize those behavior-inducing chemical signals at temporal scales equivalent to the olfactory processing in insects. In particular, we focus on two areas of research that together may further our understanding of olfactory signal dynamics and its processing and perception by insects. First, measurement of physical atmospheric processes in the field can provide insight into the spatiotemporal dynamics of the odor signal available to insects. Field measurements in turn permit aspects of the physical environment to be simulated in the laboratory, thereby allowing careful investigation into the links between odor signal dynamics and insect behavior. Second, emerging analytical technologies with high recording frequencies and field-friendly inlet systems may offer new opportunities to characterize natural odors at spatiotemporal scales relevant to insect perception and behavior. Characterization of the chemical signal environment allows the determination of when and where olfactory-mediated behaviors may control ecological interactions. Finally, we argue that coupling of these two research areas will foster increased understanding of the physicochemical environment and enable researchers to determine how olfactory environments shape insect behaviors and sensory systems. PMID:18548311

Abrell, Leif; Hildebrand, John G.

2009-01-01

477

Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content. [nitrogen 15-enriched nitric acid  

DOEpatents

A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content includes: a chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products. A particular embodiment of the process in the production of nitrogen-15-enriched nitric acid.

Michaels, E.D.

1981-02-25

478

Magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process: Preparation and optimization of particles for removal of transuranic elements  

SciTech Connect

The Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process combines the selectivity afforded by solvent extractants with magnetic separation by using specially coated magnetic particles to provide a more efficient chemical separation of transuranic (TRU) elements, other radionuclides, and heavy metals from waste streams. Development of the MACS process uses chemical and physical techniques to elucidate the properties of particle coatings and the extent of radiolytic and chemical damage to the particles, and to optimize the stages of loading, extraction, and particle regeneration. This report describes the development of a separation process for TRU elements from various high-level waste streams. Polymer-coated ferromagnetic particles with an adsorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted with tributyl phosphate (TBP) were evaluated for use in the separation and recovery of americium and plutonium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles, which can then be recovered from the solution by using a magnet. The partition coefficients were larger than those expected based on liquid[liquid extractions, and the extraction proceeded with rapid kinetics. Extractants were stripped from the particles with alcohols and 400-fold volume reductions were achieved. Particles were more sensitive to acid hydrolysis than to radiolysis. Overall, the optimization of a suitable NMCS particle for TRU separation was achieved under simulant conditions, and a MACS unit is currently being designed for an in-lab demonstration.

Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Bradley, C.; Buchholz, B.A.; Aase, S.B.; Tuazon, H.E.; Vandegrift, G.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Landsberger, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1995-05-01

479

Process for the preparation of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites by chemical vapor deposition  

DOEpatents

A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for preparing fiber-reinforced ceramic composites. A specially designed apparatus provides a steep thermal gradient across the thickness of a fibrous preform. A flow of gaseous ceramic matrix material is directed into the fibrous preform at the cold surface. The deposition of the matrix occurs progressively from the hot surface of the fibrous preform toward the cold surface. Such deposition prevents the surface of the fibrous preform from becoming plugged. As a result thereof, the flow of reactant matrix gases into the uninfiltrated (undeposited) portion of the fibrous preform occurs throughout the deposition process. The progressive and continuous deposition of ceramic matrix within the fibrous preform provides for a significant reduction in process time over known chemical vapor deposition processes.

Lackey, Jr., Walter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Caputo, Anthony J. (Knoxville, TN)

1986-01-01

480

THE EFFECT OF DEGREE OF CORN PROCESSING ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CORN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of degree of processing on the chemical composition of corn. Corn was processed by dry rolling to a bulk density of 0.59 kg/L (46 pounds/bushel, DR46) or steam flaking to a bulk density of 0.36 or 0.28 kg/L (28 [SF28] and 22 [SF22] pounds/bushel, ...

481

Development of a reusable protein seed crystal processed by chemical cross-linking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reusable protein seed crystal processed by chemical cross-linking is developed. The process used to achieve cross-linking with glutaraldehyde is described. The lattice constants of the resulting crystals were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, and the characteristics of the seed crystals were investigated using an optical microscope and an atomic-force microscope. The results showed that the lattice constants of the crystalline

Yoshikazu Iimura; Izumi Yoshizaki; Long Rong; Satoshi Adachi; Shinichi Yoda; Hiroshi Komatsu

2005-01-01

482

Hybrid dry-wet chemical etching process for via holes for gallium arsenide MMIC manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the wafer via-hole connections for monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) manufacturing have been developed by combining reactive ion etching (RIE) and wet chemical spray etching processes for 100-?m-thick gallium arsenide wafers. The dry process is based on the use of SiCl4-BCl3-Cl2 and BCl3-Cl2 gas mixtures at room temperature is a reactive ion etcher. The etching parameters are optimized for

EDWARD Y. CHANG; R. M. Nagarajan; CHARLES J. KRYZAK; K. P. Pande

1988-01-01

483

Material accounting in a complex chemical processing unit: an application of estimation/detection  

SciTech Connect

The design of a real-time material accounting technique for a complex chemical processing unit is considered. This technique is applied to a liquid--liquid extraction column where sensitive and/or expensive material is being processed. On-line material accounting is accomplished using a generalized likelihood ratio detector. It is shown that the detector performs well on simulated data which includes various diversion schemes.

Candy, J.V.; Emmert, R.A.; Patterson, G.K.

1977-10-01

484

School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide presents information about ordering, using, storing, and maintaining chemicals in the high school laboratory. The guide also provides information about chemical waste, safety and emergency equipment, assessing chemical hazards, common safety symbols and signs, and fundamental resources relating to chemical safety, such as Material…

Brundage, Patricia; Palassis, John

2006-01-01

485

40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes...443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes...operator of each pulping system using the kraft process subject to the...

2010-07-01

486

Bovine Bone Screws: Metrology and Effects of Chemical Processing and Ethylene Oxide Sterilization on Bone Surface and Mechanical Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess the effects of chemical processing, ethylene oxide sterilization, and threading on bone surface and mechanical properties of bovine undecalcified bone screws. In addition, we evaluate the possibility of manufacturing bone screws with predefined dimensions. Scanning electronic microscopic images show that chemical processing and ethylene oxide treatment causes collagen fiber amalgamation on the bone surface. Processed screws hold higher

D. P. Haje; J. B. Volpon; C. A. Moro

2009-01-01

487

Advanced Biocatalytic Processing of Heterogeneous Lignocellulosic Feedstocks to a Platform Chemical Intermediate (Lactic acid Ester)  

SciTech Connect

The development of commercial boi-based processes and products derived from agricultural waste biomass has the potential for significant impact on the economy and security of our nation. Adding value, rather than disposing of the waste of agriculture, can solve an environmental problem and reduce our dependence on foreign sources of fossil fuel for production of chemicals, materials and fuels.

Dr. Sharon Shoemaker

2004-09-03

488

Antarctic glaciers and rock weathering: Exploring chemical and mineralogy processes within the blue ice fields  

E-print Network

Antarctic glaciers and rock weathering: Exploring chemical and mineralogy processes within the blue, and precipitation of weathering products (e.g. magnesium carbonates and iron oxyhydroxides, or `rust'), is highly into a virtue by using weathering products to unlock the information that contain regarding the mechanisms

Guo, Zaoyang

489

Flow Tube Studies of Gas Phase Chemical Processes of Atmospheric Importance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project is to conduct measurements of elementary reaction rate constants and photochemistry parameters for processes of importance in the atmosphere. These measurements are being carried out under temperature and pressure conditions covering those applicable to the stratosphere and upper troposphere, using the chemical ionization mass spectrometry turbulent flow technique developed in our laboratory.

Molina, Mario J.

1997-01-01

490

Disappearance of Barrier Metal during Cu Chemical Mechanical Planarization Processing and Its Mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bald disappearance of barrier metal had been observed on the wafer after Cu chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) processing. It was speculated that this phenomenon occurs because the excessively oxidized Ta by electrochemical reaction with Cu ion was removed more easily than the normal Ta oxide around it. The inhibition of the electrochemical reaction is necessary to solve this phenomenon.

Asano, Hiroshi; Yasui, Akihito; Hirano, Tatsuhiko; Tamai, Kazusei; Morinaga, Hitoshi

2011-05-01

491

An Overview of Chemical Processes That Damage Cellular DNA: Spontaneous Hydrolysis, Alkylation, and Reactions with Radicals  

E-print Network

ReViews An Overview of Chemical Processes That Damage Cellular DNA: Spontaneous Hydrolysis damage under physiological conditions. Contents 1. Introduction 1747 2. Hydrolysis of DNA 1747 2.1. Spontaneous Hydrolysis of the Phosphodiester Backbone Is Very Slow 1747 2.2. Hydrolytic Deamination of DNA

Gates, Kent. S.

492

Using Drawing Technology to Assess Students' Visualizations of Chemical Reaction Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we investigated how students used a drawing tool to visualize their ideas of chemical reaction processes. We interviewed 30 students using thinking-aloud and retrospective methods and provided them with a drawing tool. We identified four types of connections the students made as they used the tool: drawing on existing knowledge,…

Chang, Hsin-Yi; Quintana, Chris; Krajcik, Joseph

2014-01-01

493

Experience of Hot Cell Renovation Work in CPF (Chemical Processing Facility)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renovation work for operation room A of the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF) was carried out. Cell renovation work involved disassembly, removal and installation of new equipment for the CA-3 cell of operation room A and the crane renovation work involved the repair of the in-cell crane for the CA-5 cell of operation room A. There were not many examples of

Toyonobu Nabemoto; Fujio Katahira; Tadatsugu Sakaya; Shinichi Aose; Takafumi Kitajima; Kouji Ogasawara; Kazunori Nomura; Shigehiko Miyachi; Yoshiaki Ichige; Tadahiro Shinozaki; Shinichi Ohuchi

2008-01-01

494

Renovation of CPF (Chemical Processing Facility) for Development of Advanced Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle System  

Microsoft Academic Search

CPF (Chemical Processing Facility) was constructed at Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories of JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) in 1980 as a basic research field where spent fuel pins from fast reactor (FR) and high level liquid waste can be dealt with. The renovation consists of remodeling of the CA-3 cell and the laboratory A, installation of globe boxes, hoods

Shinichi Aose; Takafumi Kitajima; Kouji Ogasawara; Kazunori Nomura; Shigehiko Miyachi; Yoshiaki Ichige; Tadahiro Shinozaki; Shinichi Ohuchi

2008-01-01

495

ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS - THE REACTOR SYSTEM - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The ELI Eco Logic International Inc. (Eco Logic) process thermally separates organics, then chemically reduces them in a hydrogen atmosphere, converting them to