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Sample records for chemical process safety

  1. Experiments To Demonstrate Chemical Process Safety Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorathy, Brian D.; Mooers, Jamisue A.; Warren, Matthew M.; Mich, Jennifer L.; Murhammer, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the need to educate undergraduate chemical engineering students on chemical process safety and introduces the content of a chemical process safety course offered at the University of Iowa. Presents laboratory experiments demonstrating flammability limits, flash points, electrostatic, runaway reactions, explosions, and relief design.…

  2. Safety Considerations in the Chemical Process Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englund, Stanley M.

    There is an increased emphasis on chemical process safety as a result of highly publicized accidents. Public awareness of these accidents has provided a driving force for industry to improve its safety record. There has been an increasing amount of government regulation.

  3. Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

  4. Chemical process safety management within the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Piatt, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    Although the Department of Energy (DOE) is not well known for its chemical processing activities, the DOE does have a variety of chemical processes covered under OSHA`s Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (the PSM Standard). DOE, like industry, is obligated to comply with the PSM Standard. The shift in the mission of DOE away from defense programs toward environmental restoration and waste management has affected these newly forming process safety management programs within DOE. This paper describes the progress made in implementing effective process safety management programs required by the PSM Standard and discusses some of the trends that have supported efforts to reduce chemical process risks within the DOE. In June of 1994, a survey of chemicals exceeding OSHA PSM or EPA Risk Management Program threshold quantities (TQs) at DOE sites found that there were 22 processes that utilized toxic or reactive chemicals over TQs; there were 13 processes involving flammable gases and liquids over TQs; and explosives manufacturing occurred at 4 sites. Examination of the survey results showed that 12 of the 22 processes involving toxic chemicals involved the use of chlorine for water treatment systems. The processes involving flammable gases and liquids were located at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve and Naval petroleum Reserve sites.

  5. Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

    2005-04-01

    Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

  6. Requirements analysis for safety-critical systems: A chemical batch processing example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delemos, R.; Saeed, A.; Anderson, T.

    1994-01-01

    An essential basis for the development of software for safety-critical systems is to establish high-quality requirements specifications. In the paper the authors present a methodology for requirements analysis that consists of: a framework which facilitates the systematic analysis of the safety requirements, a graph which records the safety specifications and their relationships, and a set of procedures for the quality analysis of the safety specifications. To illustrate the approach a case study, based on chemical batch processing, is presented.

  7. Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James A.; Davis, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "conservation of life" as a concept and unifying theme for increasing awareness, application, and integration of process safety in chemical engineering education. Students need to think of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of life as equally important in engineering design and analysis.…

  8. CHEMICAL SAFETY ALERTS-

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical Safety Alerts are short publications which explain specific hazards that have become evident through chemical accident investigation efforts. EPA has produced over a dozen Alerts to date. This year's Alert: Managing Chemical Reactivity Hazards

  9. Toxicology and Chemical Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Stephen K.

    1983-01-01

    Topics addressed in this discussion of toxicology and chemical safety include routes of exposure, dose/response relationships, action of toxic substances, and effects of exposure to chemicals. Specific examples are used to illustrate the principles discussed. Suggests prudence in handling any chemicals, whether or not toxicity is known. (JN)

  10. Chemical Safety Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the need to enhance understanding of chemical safety in educational facilities that includes adequate staff training and drilling requirements. The question of what is considered proper training is addressed. (GR)

  11. Chemical process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  12. Laboratory Safety and Chemical Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Toxicology/chemical hazards, safety policy, legal responsibilities, adequacy of ventilation, chemical storage, evaluating experimental hazards, waste disposal, and laws governing chemical safety were among topics discussed in 10 papers presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982). Several topics…

  13. Safety Tips: Hazardous Chemical Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses storage of hazardous chemicals and provides a list of eight basic safety rules to use in developing a safe storage system. Suggestions include not storing materials alphabetically, storing nonreactive chemicals together, and not storing oxidizers and fuels together. (JN)

  14. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V.

    1969-01-01

    Presents the Safety Guide used in the Research Center at Monsanto Chemical Company (St. Louis). Topics include: general safety practices, safety glasses and shoes, respiratory protection, electrical wiring, solvent handling and waste disposal. Procedures are given for evacuating, "tagging out, and "locking out. Special mention is given to…

  15. 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... distillation performed in accordance with the Standard Method of Test for Distillation of Petroleum Products...: Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) may be used to comply with this... requirements in 29 CFR 1910.252(a) have been implemented prior to beginning the hot work operations; it...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... distillation performed in accordance with the Standard Method of Test for Distillation of Petroleum Products... materials that could foreseeably occur. Note: Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR... requirements in 29 CFR 1910.252(a) have been implemented prior to beginning the hot work operations; it...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Distillation of Petroleum Products, ASTM D-86-62, may be used as the boiling point of the liquid... materials that could foreseeably occur. Note: Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR... requirements in 29 CFR 1926.352 have been implemented prior to beginning the hot work operations; it...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... distillation performed in accordance with the Standard Method of Test for Distillation of Petroleum Products... materials that could foreseeably occur. Note: Safety data sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910... requirements in 29 CFR 1910.252(a) have been implemented prior to beginning the hot work operations; it...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... distillation performed in accordance with the Standard Method of Test for Distillation of Petroleum Products... materials that could foreseeably occur. Note: Safety data sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910... requirements in 29 CFR 1910.252(a) have been implemented prior to beginning the hot work operations; it...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... distillation performed in accordance with the Standard Method of Test for Distillation of Petroleum Products...: Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) may be used to comply with this... requirements in 29 CFR 1910.252(a) have been implemented prior to beginning the hot work operations; it...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... materials that could foreseeably occur. Note: Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR... requirements in 29 CFR 1926.352 have been implemented prior to beginning the hot work operations; it shall... action plan for the entire plant in accordance with the provisions of 29 CFR 1926.35(a). In addition,...

  2. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Safety Course for Chemical Technologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Kathleen A.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two courses in chemical safety required as a part of a two-year program in chemical technology offered by the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (Canada). Lists the topics covered in each course. Provides descriptions of hand-outs, audiovisual materials, demonstrations, assignments, and examinations used in the courses. (TW)

  3. SAFETY IN THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEERE, NORMAN V.

    MONTHLY ARTICLES ON LABORATORY SAFETY THAT APPEARED IN THE "JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION" BETWEEN JANUARY 1964, AND JANUARY 1967, ARE COMBINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE CHEMISTRY TEACHERS. A GENERAL SECTION DEALS WITH (1) RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACCIDENT PREVENTION, (2) SAFETY CONSIDERATION IN RESEARCH PROPOSALS, (3) A SAFETY…

  4. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: A Chemical Laboratory Safety Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Arthur R.; Harris, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    Presented is an inspection form developed for use by college students to perform laboratory safety inspections. The form lists and classifies chemicals and is used to locate such physical facilities as: fume hoods, eye-wash fountains, deluge showers, and flammable storage cabinets. (BT)

  5. Safety in Handling Hazardous Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    This manual describes safety procedures which should be observed in the chemistry laboratory. Accidents which may occur when working with chemicals such as peroxides, phosphorus, heavy metals, acids, etc., need special treatment. Quite suitable descriptions of such treatment are listed for each kind of possible accident in the laboratory.…

  6. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the offering of a course in chemical and industrial hazards for junior and senior chemistry majors at City College of New York in 1972. Suggests inclusion of laboratory and industrial safety education as a formal part of chemistry or science curricula. (CC)

  7. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Berkner, K.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (CHSP) is to provide specific guidance to all LBL employees and contractors who use hazardous chemicals. This Plan, when implemented, fulfills the requirements of both the Federal OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) for laboratory workers, and the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for non-laboratory operations (e.g., shops). It sets forth safety procedures and describes how LBL employees are informed about the potential chemical hazards in their work areas so they can avoid harmful exposures and safeguard their health. Generally, communication of this Plan will occur through training and the Plan will serve as a the framework and reference guide for that training.

  8. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Laboratory Chemical Reports: The First Step in Chemical Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.; Tenpas, Carl J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a prelab activity, the chemistry report, that acquaints college students with the nature of the chemical(s) they are using in the laboratory. Methodology, experimental procedures and safety rules are emphasized, with particular emphasis on potential hazards, safety requirements and emergency procedures. (CS)

  9. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design of a chemical process involves many aspects: from profitability, flexibility and reliability to safety to the environment. While each of these is important, in this work, the focus will be on profitability and the environment. Key to the study of these aspects is the ...

  10. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report marks the culmination of a 4-month review conducted to identify chemical safety vulnerabilities existing at DOE facilities. This review is an integral part of DOE's efforts to raise its commitment to chemical safety to the same level as that for nuclear safety.

  11. Chemical Processing Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyerle, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical processes presented in this document include cleaning, pickling, surface finishes, chemical milling, plating, dry film lubricants, and polishing. All types of chemical processes applicable to aluminum, for example, are to be found in the aluminum alloy section. There is a separate section for each category of metallic alloy plus a section for non-metals, such as plastics. The refractories, super-alloys and titanium, are prime candidates for the space shuttle, therefore, the chemical processes applicable to these alloys are contained in individual sections of this manual.

  12. Chemical and process thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, B.G.

    1984-01-01

    The book is intended mainly to be used as a text for undergraduate chemical engineering studies. Presented is a unified and up-to-date treatment of the major chemical and engineering applications of thermodynamics. Special features include a four chapter sequence on phase equilibrium which begins with simple concepts discussions. More difficult concepts are introduced gradually. Partial molar properties and infinite dilution activity coefficients appear toward the end of the sequence. Solution behavior, including activity coefficients via UNIVAC, is covered. Chapter 14 discusses heat exchange, separation processes, and second law analysis of chemical processes. Chapter 12 provides a firm foundation for chemical equilibrium, and Chapter 13 includes complex chemical equilibrium and free energy minimization. A selection of end-of-chapter problems is included to help the student apply principles and concepts in practical situations.

  13. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Safety Showers and Eyewash Fountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronaugh, John C.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews safety and emergency equipment in their application to chemical laboratories. Discusses American National Standards (ANSI) for equipment. Presents practical considerations for the placement and purchase of equipment. (MVL)

  14. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffee, Robert D.

    1972-01-01

    The author discusses a system for establishing the relative potential of a chemical to release energy suddenly and to indicate release. This system is applicable to chemical storage and transportation. The system is based upon three simple tests requiring a minimum sample (1 go or 1 ml): (1) computation, (2) impact sensitivity, and (3) thermal…

  15. Relationship of safety culture and process safety.

    PubMed

    Olive, Claire; O'Connor, T Michael; Mannan, M Sam

    2006-03-17

    Throughout history, humans have gathered in groups for social, religious, and industrial purposes. As the conglomeration of people interact, a set of underlying values, beliefs, and principles begins to develop that serve to guide behavior within the group. These "guidelines" are commonly referred to as the group culture. Modern-day organizations, including corporations, have developed their own unique cultures derived from the diversity of the organizational interests and the background of the employees. Safety culture, a sub-set of organizational culture, has been a major focus in recent years. This is especially true in the chemical industry due to the series of preventable, safety-related disasters that occurred in the late seventies and eighties. Some of the most notable disasters, during this time period, occurred at Bhopal, Flixborough, and Seveso. However, current events, like the September 11th terrorist attacks and the disintegration of the Columbia shuttle, have caused an assessment of safety culture in a variety of other organizations. PMID:16314040

  16. Nuclear explosive safety study process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

  17. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V., Ed.

    1975-01-01

    The National Fire Protection Association has proposed national standards dealing with laboratory operations, ventilation, chemical handling and storage, compressed gases, fire prevention, and emergency procedures. The standards are likely to be used as guidelines by insurance companies, and governmental agencies that award grants and contracts for…

  18. Chemical Sensing in Process Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschfeld, T.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Discusses: (1) rationale for chemical sensors in process analysis; (2) existing types of process chemical sensors; (3) sensor limitations, considering lessons of chemometrics; (4) trends in process control sensors; and (5) future prospects. (JN)

  19. Animal-Free Chemical Safety Assessment.

    PubMed

    Loizou, George D

    2016-01-01

    The exponential growth of the Internet of Things and the global popularity and remarkable decline in cost of the mobile phone is driving the digital transformation of medical practice. The rapidly maturing digital, non-medical world of mobile (wireless) devices, cloud computing and social networking is coalescing with the emerging digital medical world of omics data, biosensors and advanced imaging which offers the increasingly realistic prospect of personalized medicine. Described as a potential "seismic" shift from the current "healthcare" model to a "wellness" paradigm that is predictive, preventative, personalized and participatory, this change is based on the development of increasingly sophisticated biosensors which can track and measure key biochemical variables in people. Additional key drivers in this shift are metabolomic and proteomic signatures, which are increasingly being reported as pre-symptomatic, diagnostic and prognostic of toxicity and disease. These advancements also have profound implications for toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of pharmaceuticals and environmental chemicals. An approach based primarily on human in vivo and high-throughput in vitro human cell-line data is a distinct possibility. This would transform current chemical safety assessment practice which operates in a human "data poor" to a human "data rich" environment. This could also lead to a seismic shift from the current animal-based to an animal-free chemical safety assessment paradigm. PMID:27493630

  20. Animal-Free Chemical Safety Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Loizou, George D.

    2016-01-01

    The exponential growth of the Internet of Things and the global popularity and remarkable decline in cost of the mobile phone is driving the digital transformation of medical practice. The rapidly maturing digital, non-medical world of mobile (wireless) devices, cloud computing and social networking is coalescing with the emerging digital medical world of omics data, biosensors and advanced imaging which offers the increasingly realistic prospect of personalized medicine. Described as a potential “seismic” shift from the current “healthcare” model to a “wellness” paradigm that is predictive, preventative, personalized and participatory, this change is based on the development of increasingly sophisticated biosensors which can track and measure key biochemical variables in people. Additional key drivers in this shift are metabolomic and proteomic signatures, which are increasingly being reported as pre-symptomatic, diagnostic and prognostic of toxicity and disease. These advancements also have profound implications for toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of pharmaceuticals and environmental chemicals. An approach based primarily on human in vivo and high-throughput in vitro human cell-line data is a distinct possibility. This would transform current chemical safety assessment practice which operates in a human “data poor” to a human “data rich” environment. This could also lead to a seismic shift from the current animal-based to an animal-free chemical safety assessment paradigm. PMID:27493630

  1. Chemical processing of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper highlights recent work on the general problem of processing lunar materials. The discussion covers lunar source materials, refined products, motivations for using lunar materials, and general considerations for a lunar or space processing plant. Attention is given to chemical processing through various techniques, including electrolysis of molten silicates, carbothermic/silicothermic reduction, carbo-chlorination process, NaOH basic-leach process, and HF acid-leach process. Several options for chemical processing of lunar materials are well within the state of the art of applied chemistry and chemical engineering to begin development based on the extensive knowledge of lunar materials.

  2. Chemical safety of meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Andrée, Sabine; Jira, W; Schwind, K-H; Wagner, H; Schwägele, F

    2010-09-01

    Since the Second World War the consumer behaviour in developed countries changed drastically. Primarily there existed the demand for sufficient food after a period of starvation, afterwards the desire for higher quality was arising, whereas today most people ask for safe and healthy food with high quality. Therefore a united approach comprising consistent standards, sound science and robust controls is required to ensure consumers' health and to maintain consumers' confidence and satisfaction. Chemical analysis along the whole food chain downstream (tracking) from primary production to the consumer and upstream (tracing) from the consumer to primary production is an important prerequisite to ensure food safety and quality. In this frame the focus of the following paper is the "chemical safety of meat and meat products" taking into account inorganic as well as organic residues and contaminants, the use of nitrite in meat products, the incidence of veterinary drugs, as well as a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) system assessing (prioritizing) vulnerable food chain steps to decrease or eliminate vulnerability. PMID:20510527

  3. OSHA`s process safety management standard

    SciTech Connect

    Morelli, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    On February 24, 1992, OSHA published the final rule for its Process Safety Management Standard (PSM) mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. (see Federal Register 57 FR 6356-6417). This standard imposes several responsibilities upon employers whose processes can cause large accident releases that could result in processes can cause large accident releases that could result in catastrophes. In contrast to OSHA`s Hazard Communication standard which focuses on routine daily exposures to hazardous materials, the PSM Standard is concerned with processes whereby the use, storage, manufacturing, handling or on-site movement of highly hazardous chemicals which exceed threshold quantities, provides potential for a catastrophic release. The PSM Standard requires: a written program, plans, training, hazard analysis and compliance auditing. This paper outlines the provisions under this Standard pursuant to OSHA regulation 29 Code of Federal Regulation 1910.119.

  4. Chemical waterflood process development

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.L.

    1980-04-01

    A waterflood process is claimed wherein a slug of biopolymer is injected into a formation, followed by a slug of synthetic polymer. The biopolymer slug protects the synthetic polymer from degradation due to presence of salts or surfactants in the formation.

  5. ILO activities in the area of chemical safety.

    PubMed

    Obadia, Isaac

    2003-08-21

    The ILO has been active in the area of safety in the use of chemicals at work since the year of its creation in 1919, including the development of international treaties and other technical instruments, the provision of technical assistance to its member States, and the development of chemical safety information systems. The two key ILO standards in this area are the Conventions on safety in the use of chemicals at work (No. 170, 1990), and the Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents (No. 174, 1993). The ILO Programme on occupational safety, health and environment (Safe Work) is currently responsible for ILO chemical safety activities. In the past two decades, most of ILO work in this area has been carried out within the context of inter-agency collaboration frameworks linking the ILO, WHO, UNEP, FAO, UNIDO, UNITAR, and the OECD, including the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the Inter-Organisation Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), and the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS). Apart from the regular development, updating and dissemination of chemical safety information data bases such as the IPCS International Chemical Cards, the elaboration of a Globally harmonized system for the classification and labelling of Chemicals (GHS) has been the most outstanding achievement of this international collaboration on chemical safety. PMID:12909402

  6. Screening for Chemical Contributions to Breast Cancer Risk: A Case Study for Chemical Safety Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Janet M.; Dairkee, Shanaz H.; Fenton, Suzanne E.; Johnson, Dale; Navarro, Kathleen M.; Osborne, Gwendolyn; Rudel, Ruthann A.; Solomon, Gina M.; Zeise, Lauren; Janssen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background Current approaches to chemical screening, prioritization, and assessment are being reenvisioned, driven by innovations in chemical safety testing, new chemical regulations, and demand for information on human and environmental impacts of chemicals. To conceptualize these changes through the lens of a prevalent disease, the Breast Cancer and Chemicals Policy project convened an interdisciplinary expert panel to investigate methods for identifying chemicals that may increase breast cancer risk. Methods Based on a review of current evidence, the panel identified key biological processes whose perturbation may alter breast cancer risk. We identified corresponding assays to develop the Hazard Identification Approach for Breast Carcinogens (HIA-BC), a method for detecting chemicals that may raise breast cancer risk. Finally, we conducted a literature-based pilot test of the HIA-BC. Results The HIA-BC identifies assays capable of detecting alterations to biological processes relevant to breast cancer, including cellular and molecular events, tissue changes, and factors that alter susceptibility. In the pilot test of the HIA-BC, chemicals associated with breast cancer all demonstrated genotoxic or endocrine activity, but not necessarily both. Significant data gaps persist. Conclusions This approach could inform the development of toxicity testing that targets mechanisms relevant to breast cancer, providing a basis for identifying safer chemicals. The study identified important end points not currently evaluated by federal testing programs, including altered mammary gland development, Her2 activation, progesterone receptor activity, prolactin effects, and aspects of estrogen receptor β activity. This approach could be extended to identify the biological processes and screening methods relevant for other common diseases. Citation Schwarzman MR, Ackerman JM, Dairkee SH, Fenton SE, Johnson D, Navarro KM, Osborne G, Rudel RA, Solomon GM, Zeise L, Janssen S. 2015

  7. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Developing Departmental Safety Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.; Palladino, George F.

    1980-01-01

    Presents rationale and guidelines for development of Safety Standard Operating Procedures (Safety SOP) specific for local conditions. Includes an outline of a Safety SOP developed for a department primarily focused on undergraduate education with a wide variety of expertise from common laborer to PhD with 20 years experience. (Author/JN)

  8. Pantex: safety in nuclear weapons processing.

    PubMed

    Johannesen, R E; Farrell, L M

    2000-11-01

    The Pantex Plant, located in the Texas panhandle near Amarillo, is a major Department of Energy (DOE) participant in maintaining the safety of the nation's nuclear weapons resources and protecting the employees, public, and environment. With more than 168,000 person-years of operations involving nuclear materials, explosives, and hazardous chemicals, Pantex has maintained a notable safety record. This article overviews the nuclear weapon activities at Pantex and describes their safety culture. PMID:11045518

  9. Industry/Department of Energy workshop on chemical safety: Summary and highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) oversight responsibilities under Secretary of Energy Notice 6D, the Office of Safety and Quality Assurance (EH-30) routinely evaluates the adequacy and effectiveness of line organization nonnuclear safety programs and processes, particularly where occupational safety can be affected. As a result of safety concerns raised in several forums, including Tiger Team Assessments and Technical Safety Appraisals, reviews of chemical incidents at DOE facilities, identification of safety issues by external DOE oversight organizations, and the EH oversight evaluation of Program Secretarial Officers` safety analysis programs, EH has determined that chemical safety is a key area requiring further evaluation. This workshop summary provides insight into the safety culture and management policies of leading US chemical companies. This summary also suggests some actions by the Department of Energy for improving its own safety activities. As part of the workshop, representatives of the chemical industry discussed the programs their companies have carried out to reduce or eliminate the use of highly hazardous chemicals as much as possible. The chemicals focused on for elimination or risk reduction included chlorine, ammonia, hydrogen fluoride, and sulfur dioxide.

  10. Industry/Department of Energy workshop on chemical safety: Summary and highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) oversight responsibilities under Secretary of Energy Notice 6D, the Office of Safety and Quality Assurance (EH-30) routinely evaluates the adequacy and effectiveness of line organization nonnuclear safety programs and processes, particularly where occupational safety can be affected. As a result of safety concerns raised in several forums, including Tiger Team Assessments and Technical Safety Appraisals, reviews of chemical incidents at DOE facilities, identification of safety issues by external DOE oversight organizations, and the EH oversight evaluation of Program Secretarial Officers' safety analysis programs, EH has determined that chemical safety is a key area requiring further evaluation. This workshop summary provides insight into the safety culture and management policies of leading US chemical companies. This summary also suggests some actions by the Department of Energy for improving its own safety activities. As part of the workshop, representatives of the chemical industry discussed the programs their companies have carried out to reduce or eliminate the use of highly hazardous chemicals as much as possible. The chemicals focused on for elimination or risk reduction included chlorine, ammonia, hydrogen fluoride, and sulfur dioxide.

  11. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Fire Safety and Fire Control in the Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbraham, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses fire safety and fire control in the chemistry laboratory. The combustion process, extinguishing equipment, extinguisher maintenance and location, and fire safety and practices are included. (HM)

  12. 78 FR 48029 - Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    .... [FR Doc. 2013-19220 Filed 8-6-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Executive Order 13650 of August 1, 2013 Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security By... departments and agencies (agencies) with regulatory authority to further improve chemical facility safety...

  13. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

  14. The Evolution of Process Safety: Current Status and Future Direction.

    PubMed

    Mannan, M Sam; Reyes-Valdes, Olga; Jain, Prerna; Tamim, Nafiz; Ahammad, Monir

    2016-06-01

    The advent of the industrial revolution in the nineteenth century increased the volume and variety of manufactured goods and enriched the quality of life for society as a whole. However, industrialization was also accompanied by new manufacturing and complex processes that brought about the use of hazardous chemicals and difficult-to-control operating conditions. Moreover, human-process-equipment interaction plus on-the-job learning resulted in further undesirable outcomes and associated consequences. These problems gave rise to many catastrophic process safety incidents that resulted in thousands of fatalities and injuries, losses of property, and environmental damages. These events led eventually to the necessity for a gradual development of a new multidisciplinary field, referred to as process safety. From its inception in the early 1970s to the current state of the art, process safety has come to represent a wide array of issues, including safety culture, process safety management systems, process safety engineering, loss prevention, risk assessment, risk management, and inherently safer technology. Governments and academic/research organizations have kept pace with regulatory programs and research initiatives, respectively. Understanding how major incidents impact regulations and contribute to industrial and academic technology development provides a firm foundation to address new challenges, and to continue applying science and engineering to develop and implement programs to keep hazardous materials within containment. Here the most significant incidents in terms of their impact on regulations and the overall development of the field of process safety are described. PMID:26979411

  15. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 3 consists of eleven appendices containing the following: Field verification reports for Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rocky Flats Plant, Brookhaven National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., and Sandia National Laboratories (NM); Mini-visits to small DOE sites; Working Group meeting, June 7--8, 1994; Commendable practices; Related chemical safety initiatives at DOE; Regulatory framework and industry initiatives related to chemical safety; and Chemical inventory data from field self-evaluation reports.

  16. Chemical Safety and Scientific Ethics in a Sophomore Chemistry Seminar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Anne E.; Griffith Freeman, R.

    1999-09-01

    A description of a course on chemical safety and scientific ethics is presented. The goals of this course are to impress upon the students the importance of safety in their professional lives; to empower the students to take charge of their own personal safety when working with chemicals; to illustrate and emphasize the vital importance of honesty and integrity within the scientific enterprise; and to explore issues of honesty and integrity through case studies that allow ethical decisions to be critically examined. The recent approaches and activities used to accomplish these goals are detailed. These include readings from chemical safety textbooks, chemical safety reports from news sources, and group discussions springing from problems in scientific ethics.

  17. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.; Birmingham, J.G.; McDonald, C.E.; Kurath, D.E.; Friedrich, M.

    1998-09-22

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 26 figs.

  18. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Drost, M. Kevin; Call, Charles J.; Birmingham, Joseph G.; McDonald, Carolyn Evans; Kurath, Dean E.; Friedrich, Michele

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  19. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

  20. CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Catherine; Millar, T. J.; Nomura, Hideko

    2010-10-20

    We have developed a high-resolution combined physical and chemical model of a protoplanetary disk surrounding a typical T Tauri star. Our aims were to use our model to calculate the chemical structure of disks on small scales (submilliarcsecond in the inner disk for objects at the distance of Taurus, {approx}140 pc) to investigate the various chemical processes thought to be important in disks and to determine potential molecular tracers of each process. Our gas-phase network was extracted from the UMIST Database for Astrochemistry to which we added gas-grain interactions including freezeout and thermal and non-thermal desorption (cosmic-ray-induced desorption, photodesorption, and X-ray desorption), and a grain-surface network. We find that cosmic-ray-induced desorption has the least effect on our disk chemical structure while photodesorption has a significant effect, enhancing the abundances of most gas-phase molecules throughout the disk and affecting the abundances and distribution of HCN, CN, and CS, in particular. In the outer disk, we also see enhancements in the abundances of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}. X-ray desorption is a potentially powerful mechanism in disks, acting to homogenize the fractional abundances of gas-phase species across the depth and increasing the column densities of most molecules, although there remain significant uncertainties in the rates adopted for this process. The addition of grain-surface chemistry enhances the fractional abundances of several small complex organic molecules including CH{sub 3}OH, HCOOCH{sub 3}, and CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} to potentially observable values (i.e., a fractional abundance of {approx}>10{sup -11}).

  1. Environmental and safety obligations of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1994-04-07

    Among its many unique and precedent-setting provisions, the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) includes important requirements for States Parties to protect the public safety and the environment in the course of carrying out the treaty. These obligations will apply to the destruction of chemical weapons, of former chemical weapons production facilities, and to other activities under the Convention such as the verification scheme. This morning, I will briefly discuss the Convention`s safety and environmental obligations, concentrating on their effects in this country as the United States chemical weapons stockpile is destroyed.

  2. Support from Afar: Using Chemical Safety Information on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Ralph

    One of the major challenges facing people committed to Teaching Safety in High Schools, Colleges, and Universities is keeping up with both the wide range of relevant technical information about potential hazards (ranging from fire protection to chemical hazards to biological issues) and the ever-changing world of safety regulations and standards.…

  3. Database for Safety-Oriented Tracking of Chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, Jacob; Carr, Sandra; Plumlee, Debrah; Slater, Andy; Samson, Thomas M.; Holowaty, Toby L.; Skeete, Darren; Haenz, Mary Alice; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa

    2010-01-01

    SafetyChem is a computer program that maintains a relational database for tracking chemicals and associated hazards at Johnson Space Center (JSC) by use of a Web-based graphical user interface. The SafetyChem database is accessible to authorized users via a JSC intranet. All new chemicals pass through a safety office, where information on hazards, required personal protective equipment (PPE), fire-protection warnings, and target organ effects (TOEs) is extracted from material safety data sheets (MSDSs) and recorded in the database. The database facilitates real-time management of inventory with attention to such issues as stability, shelf life, reduction of waste through transfer of unused chemicals to laboratories that need them, quantification of chemical wastes, and identification of chemicals for which disposal is required. Upon searching the database for a chemical, the user receives information on physical properties of the chemical, hazard warnings, required PPE, a link to the MSDS, and references to the applicable International Standards Organization (ISO) 9000 standard work instructions and the applicable job hazard analysis. Also, to reduce the labor hours needed to comply with reporting requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the data can be directly exported into the JSC hazardous- materials database.

  4. Chemical Hazards and Waste Disposal Safety and Health. Module SH-46. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on chemical hazards and waste disposal is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module presents the principles of safe chemical handling and provides an overview of the hazards associated with different types of chemicals. Following the introduction, 13 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the…

  5. Raman chemical imaging system for food safety and quality inspection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raman chemical imaging technique combines Raman spectroscopy and digital imaging to visualize composition and structure of a target, and it offers great potential for food safety and quality research. In this study, a laboratory-based Raman chemical imaging platform was designed and developed. The i...

  6. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  7. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Flood Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Bruce D.

    1983-01-01

    Describes events leading to a flood in the Wehr Chemistry Laboratory at Marquette University, discussing steps taken to minimize damage upon discovery. Analyzes the problem of flooding in the chemical laboratory and outlines seven steps of flood control: prevention; minimization; early detection; stopping the flood; evaluation; clean-up; and…

  8. Aviation Safety Reporting System: Process and Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda J.

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) was established in 1976 under an agreement between the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cooperative safety program invites pilots, air traffic controllers, flight attendants, maintenance personnel, and others to voluntarily report to NASA any aviation incident or safety hazard. The FAA provides most of the program funding. NASA administers the program, sets its policies in consultation with the FAA and aviation community, and receives the reports submitted to the program. The FAA offers those who use the ASRS program two important reporting guarantees: confidentiality and limited immunity. Reports sent to ASRS are held in strict confidence. More than 350,000 reports have been submitted since the program's beginning without a single reporter's identity being revealed. ASRS removes all personal names and other potentially identifying information before entering reports into its database. This system is a very successful, proof-of-concept for gathering safety data in order to provide timely information about safety issues. The ASRS information is crucial to aviation safety efforts both nationally and internationally. It can be utilized as the first step in safety by providing the direction and content to informed policies, procedures, and research, especially human factors. The ASRS process and procedures will be presented as one model of safety reporting feedback systems.

  9. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOEpatents

    Vobach, Arnold R.

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  10. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOEpatents

    Vobach, Arnold R.

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  11. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOEpatents

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-06-23

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  12. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOEpatents

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-11-24

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  13. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT: A MULTISECTOR APPROACH TO THE MODERNIZATION OF HUMAN SAFETY REQUIREMENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Better understanding of toxicological mechanisms, enhanced testing capabilities, and demands for more sophisticated data for safety and health risk assessment have generated international interest in improving the current testing paradigm for agricultural chemicals. To address th...

  14. Chemical Processing. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Reviews major organic and inorganic chemicals, their products, and the sociocultural impact of the chemical industry. Provides the following learning activity components: objectives, list of materials and equipment, procedures, student quiz with answers, and three references. (SK)

  15. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 2 consists of seven appendices containing the following: Tasking memorandums; Project plan for the CSV Review; Field verification guide for the CSV Review; Field verification report, Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Field verification report, Oak Ridge Reservation; Field verification report, Savannah River Site; and the Field verification report, Hanford Site.

  16. RUBBER-PROCESSING CHEMICALS DATA BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research program was to compile a data base covering all the commercially significant organic rubber-processing chemicals produced or imported in the United States. The Rubber-Processing Chemicals Data Base contains the following elements: chemical informati...

  17. Food safety. [chemical contaminants and human toxic diseases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pier, S. M.; Valentine, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Illness induced by unsafe food is a problem of great public health significance. This study relates exclusively to the occurrence of chemical agents which will result in food unsafe for human consumption since the matter of food safety is of paramount importance in the mission and operation of the manned spacecraft program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  18. Raman chemical imaging technology for food safety and quality evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raman chemical imaging combines Raman spectroscopy and digital imaging to visualize composition and morphology of a target. This technique offers great potential for food safety and quality research. Most commercial Raman instruments perform measurement at microscopic level, and the spatial range ca...

  19. Process safety management and interim or remedial action plans

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, M.J.; Henney, D.A.; Heitzman, V.K.; Day, D.W.

    1996-12-31

    Remedial Actions, including Interim Remedial Activities, often require the use of treatment facilities or stabilization techniques using on-site chemical processes. As such, the 29 CFR 1910.119 Process Safety Management (PSM) of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (PSM Standard) and the USEPA regulations for Risk Management Planning require that these chemicals and their attendant potential hazards be identified. A Hazard and Operation (HAZOP) study, Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis, or equivalent graphic presentation of processes must be completed. These studies form a segment of the Process Hazard Analysis (PHA). HAZOP addresses each system and each element of a system that could deviate from normal operations and thus cause a hazard. A full assessment of each process is produced by looking at the hazards, consequences, causes and personnel protection needed. Many variables must be considered when choosing the appropriate PHA technique including the size of the plant, the number of processes, the types of processes, and the types of chemicals used. A mixture of these techniques may be required to adequately transmit information about the process being evaluated.

  20. Nonthermal processing technologies as food safety intervention processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods should provide sensorial satisfaction and nutrition to people. Yet, foodborne pathogens cause significant illness and lose of life to human kind every year. A processing intervention step may be necessary prior to the consumption to ensure the safety of foods. Nonthermal processing technologi...

  1. WORKSHOP ON ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    To encourage the consideration of environmental issues during chemical process design, the USEPA has developed techniques and software tools to evaluate the relative environmental impact of a chemical process. These techniques and tools aid in the risk management process by focus...

  2. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: An Undergraduate Chemical Laboratory Safety Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, L. Jewel

    1982-01-01

    Describes a two-quarter hour college chemistry course focusing on laboratory safety. Includes lists of topics/assignments, problem sets (toxicology, storage, and energy) and videotapes, films, and slide sets used in the course. (JN)

  3. Fast Reactor Spent Fuel Processing: Experience and Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Chad Pope

    2007-05-01

    This paper discusses operational and criticality safety experience associated with the Idaho National Laboratory Fuel Conditioning Facility which uses a pyrometallurgical process to treat spent fast reactor metallic fuel. The process is conducted in an inert atmosphere hot cell. The process starts with chopping metallic fuel elements into a basket. The basket is lowered into molten salt (LiCl-KCl) along with a steel mandrel. Active metal fission products, transuranic metals and sodium metal in the spent fuel undergo chemical oxidation and form chlorides. Voltage is applied between the basket, which serves as an anode, and the mandrel, which serves as a cathode, causing metallic uranium in the spent fuel to undergo electro-chemical oxidation thereby forming uranium chloride. Simultaneously at the cathode, uranium chloride undergoes electro-chemical reduction and deposits uranium metal onto the mandrel. The uranium metal and accompanying entrained salt are placed in a distillation furnace where the uranium melts forming an ingot and the entrained salt boils and subsequently condenses in a separate crucible. The uranium ingots are placed in long term storage. During the ten year operating history, over one hundred criticality safety evaluations were prepared. All criticality safety related limits and controls for the entire process are contained in a single document which required over thirty revisions to accommodate the process changes. Operational implementation of the limits and controls includes use of a near real-time computerized tracking system. The tracking system uses an Oracle database coupled with numerous software applications. The computerized tracking system includes direct fuel handler interaction with every movement of material. Improvements to this system during the ten year history include introduction of web based operator interaction, tracking of moderator materials and the development of a plethora database queries to assist in day to day

  4. Safety-Enclosure System For MOCVD Process Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singletery, James, Jr.; Velasquez, Hugo; Warner, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Safety-enclosure system filled with nitrogen surrounds reaction chamber in which metallo-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) performed. Designed to protect against explosions and/or escaping toxic gases and particulates. Gas-purification subsystem ensures during loading and unloading of process materials, interior of MOCVD chamber exposed to less than 1 ppm of oxygen and less than 5 ppm of water in nitrogen atmosphere. Toxic byproducts of MOCVD process collected within inert atmosphere. Enclosure strong enough to contain any fragments in unlikely event of explosion.

  5. Chemical Processing of Electrons and Holes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Timothy J.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a synopsis of four lectures given in an elective senior-level electronic material processing course to introduce solid state electronics. Provides comparisons of a large scale chemical processing plant and an integrated circuit. (YP)

  6. Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hentges, Dawn L.

    1999-01-01

    Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

  7. Inventory- or Consequence-Based Evaluation of Hazardous Chemicals: Recommendations for DOE Facility Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-06-09

    Two different methods are in use for establishing the safety of facilities, processes, or operations involving hazardous chemicals. One sets inventory limits using Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) threshold quantity (TQ), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Clean Air Act Amendment threshold quantity (CAA-TQ), threshold planning quantity (TPQ) or reportable quantity (RQ), values published in the Federal Register. The second method uses toxicological consequence estimates at different receptor points (e.g., facility boundary, 100 m, site boundary) of concentration limits established for this purpose. These include such parameters as EPA acute exposure guidance level (AEGL), emergency response planning guideline (ERPG), and immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) values. Estimating the potential downwind concentrations of all chemicals on the OSHA Process Safety Management regulation TQ list compared these two methods. EPA CAA-TQ, TPQ, and RQ, values were extracted for these chemicals. Only 61 of the 128 unique chemicals with TQs also have CAA-TQs, 60 have TPQs, and 78 have RQs. Only 8 of 60 TQs are less than TPQ values for that chemical. Conservative release fractions (at 25 degrees C), and dispersion conditions were used to calculate potential airborne concentrations at 100 m downwind of the assumed release of TQ quantities of each chemical. These calculations were repeated for all chemicals on the TQ list that also had CAA-TQs, TPQs or RQs. These concentrations were compared with ERPG values wherever possible. Every TPQ to ERPG ratio was greater than unity. For RQs, none of 24 RQ to ERPG-1, 6 of 33 RQ to ERPG-2, and 11 of 33 RQ to ERPG-3, ratios were less than ten and only one was less than unity. In other words, severe health consequences could result from potential releases of many of these chemicals. These results demonstrate the undesirability of using regulatory quantities established for different purposes to include these

  8. 10 CFR 830.203 - Unreviewed safety question process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unreviewed safety question process. 830.203 Section 830.203 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.203 Unreviewed safety question process. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3...

  9. 10 CFR 830.203 - Unreviewed safety question process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unreviewed safety question process. 830.203 Section 830.203 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.203 Unreviewed safety question process. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3...

  10. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Learning How to Run Safer Undergraduate Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrig, Jerry R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses responsibilities for providing safe experiments and for teaching about safety. Provides lists of references on chemical safety and regulated/potential carcinogens. Also discusses general laboratory safety procedures including waste disposal and recycling of solvents. (JM)

  11. ISV safety, processing, and starter path issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliard, D K; Kindle, C H

    1991-04-01

    Numerous experiments and studies related to safety concerns in the in situ vitrification (ISV) process have been conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Topics of interest include (1) combustible inclusions, (2) sealed containers, (3) radiant heat surge, (4) electrical shock, (5) general risk analysis, and (6) Pu criticality. The data and analyses are those used for the initial ISV development and subsequent improvement; the majority was performed in 1987 or earlier. The purpose of this report is to document these analyses for reference purposes; knowledge gained more recently is, or will be, incorporated in other documents. 33 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  12. Microwave-enhanced chemical processes

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Ravi

    1990-01-01

    A process for disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Effecting intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400.degree. C. in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient to break the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds and provide detoxification values in excess of 80 and further detoxifying the bed followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes.

  13. Microwave-enhanced chemical processes

    DOEpatents

    Varma, R.

    1990-06-19

    A process is disclosed for the disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400 C in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient breaks the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds. Detoxification values in excess of 80 are provided and further detoxification of the bed is followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes. 1 figure.

  14. 40 CFR 1.43 - Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution... ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.43 Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention. The Assistant Administrator, Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention (OCSPP), serves as...

  15. Chemical production processes and systems

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Johnathan E.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; White, James F.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2014-06-17

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  16. Chemical production processes and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Johnathan E; Muzatko, Danielle S; White, James F; Zacher, Alan H

    2015-04-21

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  17. Molecular Thermodynamics for Chemical Process Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prausnitz, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses that aspect of thermodynamics which is particularly important in chemical process design: the calculation of the equilibrium properties of fluid mixtures, especially as required in phase-separation operations. (MLH)

  18. Aligning the 3Rs with new paradigms in the safety assessment of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Burden, Natalie; Mahony, Catherine; Müller, Boris P; Terry, Claire; Westmoreland, Carl; Kimber, Ian

    2015-04-01

    There are currently several factors driving a move away from the reliance on in vivo toxicity testing for the purposes of chemical safety assessment. Progress has started to be made in the development and validation of non-animal methods. However, recent advances in the biosciences provide exciting opportunities to accelerate this process and to ensure that the alternative paradigms for hazard identification and risk assessment deliver lasting 3Rs benefits, whilst improving the quality and relevance of safety assessment. The NC3Rs, a UK-based scientific organisation which supports the development and application of novel 3Rs techniques and approaches, held a workshop recently which brought together over 20 international experts in the field of chemical safety assessment. The aim of this workshop was to review the current scientific, technical and regulatory landscapes, and to identify key opportunities towards reaching these goals. Here, we consider areas where further strategic investment will need to be focused if significant impact on 3Rs is to be matched with improved safety science, and why the timing is right for the field to work together towards an environment where we no longer rely on whole animal data for the accurate safety assessment of chemicals. PMID:25932488

  19. Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Safety and Emission Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.-Y.; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical sensor technology is being developed for leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire safety applications. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS)-based) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Using these technologies, sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed. A description is given of each sensor type and its present stage of development. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  20. Views on chemical safety information and influences on chemical disposal behaviour in the UK.

    PubMed

    Hinks, J; Bush, J; Andras, P; Garratt, J; Pigott, G; Kennedy, A; Pless-Mulloli, T

    2009-02-01

    This study examined how groups representing four tiers in the chemical supply chain (manufacturers, vendors, workers and consumers) understood safety information, and the factors that influenced disposal behaviour. Data from seven, semi-structured, focus groups was analysed both qualitatively (textual analysis) and quantitatively (network analysis). Such combined analytical methods enabled us to achieve both detailed insights into perceptions and behaviour and an objective understanding of the prevailing opinions that occurred within and between the focus group discussions. We found issues around awareness, trust, access and disposal behaviours differed between groups within the supply chain. Participants from the lower tiers perceived chemical safety information to be largely inaccessible. Labels were the main source of information on chemical risks for the middle and bottom tiers of the supply chain. Almost all of the participants were aware of the St Andrew's Cross and skull and crossbones symbols but few were familiar with the Volatile Organic Compound logo or the fish and tree symbol. Both the network and thematic analysis demonstrated that whilst frequent references to health risks associated with chemicals were made environmental risks were usually only articulated after prompting. It is clear that the issues surrounding public understanding of chemical safety labels are highly complex and this is compounded by inconsistencies in the cognitive profiles of chemical users. Substantially different cognitive profiles are likely to contribute towards communication difficulties between different tiers of the supply chain. Further research is needed to examine the most effective ways of communicating chemical hazards information to the public. The findings demonstrate a need to improve and simplify disposal guidance to members of the public, to raise public awareness of the graphic symbols in the CHIP 3.1, 2005 regulations and to improve access to disposal guidance

  1. U-GAS process for chemical manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Dihu, R.; Leppin, D.; Patel, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The U-GAS coal gasification process and its potential application to the manufacture of two important industrial chemicals, methanol and ammonia, are described. Pilot plant results, the current status of the process, and economic projections for the cost of manufacture of methanol and ammonia are presented.

  2. Process Security in Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piluso, Cristina; Uygun, Korkut; Huang, Yinlun; Lou, Helen H.

    2005-01-01

    The threats of terrorism have greatly alerted the chemical process industries to assure plant security at all levels: infrastructure-improvement-focused physical security, information-protection-focused cyber security, and design-and-operation-improvement-focused process security. While developing effective plant security methods and technologies…

  3. Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A.K.

    1993-07-01

    Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

  4. Chemicals Industry New Process Chemistry Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-08-01

    The Materials Technology I workshop was held in November 1998 to address future research needs for materials technology that will support the chemical industry. Areas covered included disassembly, recovery, reuse and renewable technology; new materials; and materials measurement and characterization. The Materials Technology II workshop was held in September 1999 and covered additives, modeling and prediction and an additional segment on new materials. Materials Technology Institute (MTI) for the Chemical Process Industries, Inc. and Air Products & Chemicals lead the workshops. The Materials Technology Roadmap presents the results from both workshops.

  5. Enzymes toughen up for chemical processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hairston, D.

    1995-05-01

    While enzymes have been making tremendous inroads into detergent formulation and food processing, the penetration of these protein-based catalysts into other chemical-process manufacture and hazardous waste treatment--where they are slated to replace heavy metal catalysts and other processing aids--has been relatively slow. Recently, however, enhancements in the enzyme`s properties are opening the door wider for such broadened usage. Some of these non-traditional uses of enzymes are described.

  6. Process/Equipment Co-Simulation on Syngas Chemical Looping Process

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Liang; Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2012-09-30

    The chemical looping strategy for fossil energy applications promises to achieve an efficient energy conversion system for electricity, liquid fuels, hydrogen and/or chemicals generation, while economically separate CO{sub 2} by looping reaction design in the process. Chemical looping particle performance, looping reactor engineering, and process design and applications are the key drivers to the success of chemical looping process development. In order to better understand and further scale up the chemical looping process, issues such as cost, time, measurement, safety, and other uncertainties need to be examined. To address these uncertainties, advanced reaction/reactor modeling and process simulation are highly desired and the modeling efforts can accelerate the chemical looping technology development, reduce the pilot-scale facility design time and operating campaigns, as well as reduce the cost and technical risks. The purpose of this work is thus to conduct multiscale modeling and simulations on the key aspects of chemical looping technology, including particle reaction kinetics, reactor design and operation, and process synthesis and optimization.

  7. 3 CFR 13650 - Executive Order 13650 of August 1, 2013. Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Chemical Facility Safety and Security 13650 Order 13650 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13650 of August 1, 2013 EO 13650 Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security By the authority... and implemented numerous programs aimed at reducing the safety risks and security risks...

  8. Obtaining Valid Safety Data for Software Safety Measurement and Process Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor r.; Zelkowitz, Marvin V.; Layman, Lucas; Dangle, Kathleen; Diep, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    We report on a preliminary case study to examine software safety risk in the early design phase of the NASA Constellation spaceflight program. Our goal is to provide NASA quality assurance managers with information regarding the ongoing state of software safety across the program. We examined 154 hazard reports created during the preliminary design phase of three major flight hardware systems within the Constellation program. Our purpose was two-fold: 1) to quantify the relative importance of software with respect to system safety; and 2) to identify potential risks due to incorrect application of the safety process, deficiencies in the safety process, or the lack of a defined process. One early outcome of this work was to show that there are structural deficiencies in collecting valid safety data that make software safety different from hardware safety. In our conclusions we present some of these deficiencies.

  9. Safety analysis of SISL process module

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    This report provides an assessment of various postulated accidental occurrences within an experimental process module which is part of a Special Isotope Separation Laboratory (SISL) currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The process module will contain large amounts of molten uranium and various water-cooled structures within a vacuum vessel. Special emphasis is therefore given to potential accidental interactions of molten uranium with water leading to explosive and/or rapid steam formation, as well as uranium oxidation and the potential for combustion. Considerations are also given to the potential for vessel melt-through. Evaluations include mechanical and thermal interactions and design implications both in terms of design basis as well as once-in-a-lifetime accident scenarios. These scenarios include both single- and multiple-failure modes leading to various contact modes and locations within the process module for possible thermal interactions. The evaluations show that a vacuum vessel design based upon nominal operating conditions would appear sufficient to meet safety requirements in connection with both design basis as well as once-in-a-lifetime accidents. Controlled venting requirements for removal of steam and hydrogen in order to avoid possible long-term pressurization events are recommended. Depending upon the resulting accident conditions, the vacuum system (i.e., the roughing system) could also serve this purpose. Finally, based upon accident evaluations of this study, immediate shut-off of all coolant water following an incident leak is not recommended, as such action may have adverse effects in terms of cool-down requirements for the melt crucibles etc. These requirements have not been assessed as part of this study.

  10. Application of process safety management to the coke industry

    SciTech Connect

    Mentzer, W.P. )

    1994-09-01

    OSHA's Process Safety Management (PSM) standard went into effect on May 26, 1992. Explosions at various industrial facilities that claimed the lives of workers over the past several years were the catalyst for the new federal regulations. The new PSM standard deals with 130 specific chemicals along with flammable liquids and gases used at nearly 25,000 worksites. The performance-based PSM standard consists of 14 elements that establish goals and describe basic program elements to fulfill these goals. The PSM standard requires employers to conduct a process hazard analysis to examine potential problems and determine what preventative measures should be taken. Key elements include employee training, written operating procedures, safety reviews and maintenance requirements to insure the mechanical integrity of critical components. The presentation will cover the evolution of OSHA's PSM standard, the requirements of the 14 elements in the PSM standard and discuss the significant achievements in the development and implementation of the PSM process at US Steel's Clairton coke plant.

  11. Chemical Processes in Astrophysical Radiation Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Stancil, P.C.; Dalgarno, A.

    1997-12-31

    The effects of stimulated photon emission on chemical processes in a radiation field are considered and their influence on the chemistry of the early universe and other astrophysical environments is investigated. Spontaneous and stimulated radiative attachment rate coefficients for H(-), Li(-) and C(-) are presented.

  12. Synthesis and optimization of integrated chemical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Paul I.; Evans, Lawrence B.

    2002-04-26

    This is the final technical report for the project titled ''Synthesis and optimization of integrated chemical processes''. Progress is reported on novel algorithms for the computation of all heteroazeotropic compositions present in complex liquid mixtures; the design of novel flexible azeotropic separation processes using middle vessel batch distillation columns; and theory and algorithms for sensitivity analysis and numerical optimization of hybrid discrete/continuous dynamic systems.

  13. A Novel Chemical Nitrate Destruction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.

    1999-03-01

    Nitrates represent one of the most significant pollutant discharged to the Baltic Sea by the Sliiamae hydrometallurgical plant. This article contains a brief overview of the existing nitrate destruction technologies followed by the description of a new process developed by the authors. The new chemical process for nitrate destruction is cost effective and simple to operate. It converts the nitrate to nitrogen gas which goes to the atmosphere.

  14. Results of Safety Inspections of College Laboratory and Chemical Storage Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Results of on-site inspections of 11 New York colleges, laboratories and storage facilities are summarized according to: (1) chemical storage and disposal; (2) safety equipment; (3) ventilation; (4) general housekeeping; and (5) safety education. (Author/SK)

  15. Process for controlling accidents in chemical laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Delvin, W.L.

    1980-10-01

    Most laboratory safety programs include inspections to identify hazards and thereby control accidents. There are certain elements that must be a part of a successful inspection and control process. These are a systematic and consistent inspection procedure, a reliable evaluation of identified hazards, and effective follow-up actions. Laboratory management, through its responsibility for the total system, has a key role in the inspection and control process for follow-up actions and accepting risks. If any of the above requirements are missing, the process will be less than adequate. Understanding the relationship between accidents, hazards, and risks is important in establishing an effective inspection and control program. Hazards are potential sources of accidents (accidents waiting to happen). Associated with each is a risk, which has two components: probability and consequence. Probability refers to the likelihood that a hazard will turn into an accident and consequence is the result of such an accident. In assessing the seriousness of a hazard, both probability and consequence must be considered in terms of risk level and acceptability. This paper presents a process that can be used by laboratory management to establish an effective inspection and control program for the laboratory. A discussion of safety concepts and their relationships that affect the process is included.

  16. Chemical computing with reaction-diffusion processes.

    PubMed

    Gorecki, J; Gizynski, K; Guzowski, J; Gorecka, J N; Garstecki, P; Gruenert, G; Dittrich, P

    2015-07-28

    Chemical reactions are responsible for information processing in living organisms. It is believed that the basic features of biological computing activity are reflected by a reaction-diffusion medium. We illustrate the ideas of chemical information processing considering the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction and its photosensitive variant. The computational universality of information processing is demonstrated. For different methods of information coding constructions of the simplest signal processing devices are described. The function performed by a particular device is determined by the geometrical structure of oscillatory (or of excitable) and non-excitable regions of the medium. In a living organism, the brain is created as a self-grown structure of interacting nonlinear elements and reaches its functionality as the result of learning. We discuss whether such a strategy can be adopted for generation of chemical information processing devices. Recent studies have shown that lipid-covered droplets containing solution of reagents of BZ reaction can be transported by a flowing oil. Therefore, structures of droplets can be spontaneously formed at specific non-equilibrium conditions, for example forced by flows in a microfluidic reactor. We describe how to introduce information to a droplet structure, track the information flow inside it and optimize medium evolution to achieve the maximum reliability. Applications of droplet structures for classification tasks are discussed. PMID:26078345

  17. Process safety improvement--quality and target zero.

    PubMed

    Van Scyoc, Karl

    2008-11-15

    Process safety practitioners have adopted quality management principles in design of process safety management systems with positive effect, yet achieving safety objectives sometimes remain a distant target. Companies regularly apply tools and methods which have roots in quality and productivity improvement. The "plan, do, check, act" improvement loop, statistical analysis of incidents (non-conformities), and performance trending popularized by Dr. Deming are now commonly used in the context of process safety. Significant advancements in HSE performance are reported after applying methods viewed as fundamental for quality management. In pursuit of continual process safety improvement, the paper examines various quality improvement methods, and explores how methods intended for product quality can be additionally applied to continual improvement of process safety. Methods such as Kaizen, Poke yoke, and TRIZ, while long established for quality improvement, are quite unfamiliar in the process safety arena. These methods are discussed for application in improving both process safety leadership and field work team performance. Practical ways to advance process safety, based on the methods, are given. PMID:18374483

  18. An intelligent data collection tool for chemical safety/risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Verdonck, Frederik A M; Van Sprang, Patrick A; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2008-02-01

    REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) is the new European chemical legislation which aims to assess risk or safety of tens of thousands of chemicals to improve the protection of human health and the environment. The chemical safety assessment process is of an iterative nature. First, an initial, worst-case assessment is conducted after which refinements are made until no risk has been estimated or the risk is adequately controlled. Wasting time and resources on additional testing and implementing risk management measures with low effect on risk conclusions should be avoided as much as possible. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of an intelligent data collection strategy based on a sensitivity (and uncertainty) analysis on the risk assessment model EUSES to identify and order the most important "within-EU-TGD-reducible" input parameters influencing the local and regional risk characterisation ratios. The ordering can be adjusted for the costs involved in additional testing (e.g. ecotoxicity, physico-chemical properties, emission estimates, etc.). The risk refinement tool therefore reduces the resources needed to obtain a realistic risk estimate (both less conservative and less uncertain) as efficient as possible. PMID:17959222

  19. Advanced microlithography process with chemical shrink technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Takashi; Tanaka, Hatsuyuki; Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Watase, Natsuo; Eakin, Ronald J.; Ishibashi, Takeo; Toyoshima, Toshiyuki; Yasuda, Naoki; Tanaka, Mikihiro

    2000-06-01

    Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) has developed an advanced microlithographic process for producing 0.1 micrometer contact holes (CH). A chemical shrink technology, RELACSTM (Resolution Enhancement Lithography Assisted by Chemical Shrink), utilizes the crosslinking reaction catalyzed by the acid component existing in a predefined resist pattern. This 'RELACSTM' process is a hole shrinking procedure that includes simple coating, baking, and rinse steps applied after conventional photolithography. This paper examines the process parameters affecting shrinkage of CH size. We subsequently evaluated the dependency of CH shrinkage on resist formulation. We conducted investigations of shrink magnitude dependency on each process parameter. (1) Photoresist lithography process: CH size, exposure dose, post development bake temperature. (2) AZR R200 [a product of Clariant, Japan) K.K.] RELACSTM process: Soft bake temperature, film thickness, mixing bake temperature (diffusion bake temperature), etc. We found that the mixing bake condition (diffusion bake temperature) is one of most critical parameters to affect the amount of CH shrink. Additionally, the structural influence of photoacid generators on shrinkage performance was also investigated in both high and low activation energy resist systems. The shrinkage behavior by the photoacid generator of the resist is considered in terms of the structure (molecular volume) of the photogenerated acid and its acidity (pKa). The results of these studies are discussed in terms of base polymer influence on shrinkage performance and tendency. Process impact of the structure and acidity of the photogenerated acid is explored. Though the experimental acetal type KrF positive resist (low activation energy system) can achieve around 0.1 micrometer CH after RELACSTM processing under the optimized condition, the experimental acrylate type positive resist (high activation energy system) showed less shrinkage under the same process

  20. Process safety management (OSHA) and process risk management (CAA) application. Application to a coke plant

    SciTech Connect

    Graeser, W.C.; Mentzer, W.P.

    1995-12-01

    Risk Management Programs for Chemical Accidental Release Prevention is the name of the proposed rule for the RMP Risk Management Program. The RMP was written in response to several catastrophic releases of hazardous substances. The rule is applicable to facilities that store, process or use greater than threshold quantities of 62 listed flammable chemicals and another 100 listed toxic substances. Additionally, a Risk Management Plan is registered with the EPA, Chemical Safety and Hazardous Investigation Board, state governments and the local emergency planning commission. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (specifically Section 112r) required the EPA to develop a three phase Risk Management Plan for industry: prevention program; hazard assessment; and emergency response program. The Prevention Program closely follows the OSHA`s Process Safety Management Standard. The Hazard Assessment section requires facilities to develop plans for a worst case scenario. The Emergency Response section defines the steps the facility and each employee will take if a release occurs. This section also needs to be coordinated with the Local Emergency Planning Commission. These regulations are described using Clairton Works as an example of compliance.

  1. 40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... paragraph (b): Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) may be used to... process shall include: (i) Materials of construction; (ii) Piping and instrument diagrams (P&ID's); (iii... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process safety information....

  2. 40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... paragraph (b): Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) may be used to... process shall include: (i) Materials of construction; (ii) Piping and instrument diagrams (P&ID's); (iii... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Process safety information....

  3. 40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... paragraph (b): Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) may be used to... process shall include: (i) Materials of construction; (ii) Piping and instrument diagrams (P&ID's); (iii... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Process safety information....

  4. 40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... paragraph (b): Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) may be used to... process shall include: (i) Materials of construction; (ii) Piping and instrument diagrams (P&ID's); (iii... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Process safety information....

  5. Integrating system safety into the basic systems engineering process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griswold, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The basic elements of a systems engineering process are given along with a detailed description of what the safety system requires from the systems engineering process. Also discussed is the safety that the system provides to other subfunctions of systems engineering.

  6. 40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraph (b): Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) may be used to... process shall include at least the following: (i) A block flow diagram or simplified process flow...

  7. Safety assessment of the liquid-fed ceramic melter process

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.; Partain, W.L.

    1980-08-01

    As part of its development program for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste, Pacific Northwest Laboratory assessed the safety issues for a complete liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process. The LFCM process, an adaption of commercial glass-making technology, is being developed to convert high-level liquid waste from the nuclear fuel cycle into glass. This safety assessment uncovered no unresolved or significant safety problems with the LFCM process. Although in this assessment the LFCM process was not directly compared with other solidification processes, the safety hazards of the LFCM process are comparable to those of other processes. The high processing temperatures of the glass in the LFCM pose no additional significant safety concerns, and the dispersible inventory of dried waste (calcine) is small. This safety assessment was based on the nuclear power waste flowsheet, since power waste is more radioactive than defense waste at the time of solidification, and all accident conditions for the power waste would have greater radiological consequences than those for defense waste. An exhaustive list of possible off-standard conditions and equipment failures was compiled. These accidents were then classified according to severity of consequence and type of accident. Radionuclide releases to the stack were calculated for each group of accidents using conservative assumptions regarding the retention and decontamination features of the process and facility. Two recommendations that should be considered by process designers are given in the safety assessment.

  8. A graded approach to safety documentation at processing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cowen, M.L.

    1992-09-01

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has over 40 major Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) in preparation for non-reactor facilities. These facilities include nuclear material production facilities, waste management facilities, support laboratories and environmental remediation facilities. The SARs for these various projects encompass hazard levels from High to Low, and mission times from startup, through operation, to shutdown. All of these efforts are competing for scarce resources, and therefore some mechanism is required for balancing the documentation requirements. Three of the key variables useful for the decision making process are Depth of Safety Analysis, Urgency of Safety Analysis, and Resource Availability. This report discusses safety documentation at processing facilities.

  9. Denitrification as a Model Chemical Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grguric, Gordan

    2002-02-01

    Bacterial denitrification in seawater facilities such as aquaria and mariculture systems is a process particularly well suited for illustrating important concepts in chemistry to undergraduates. Students can gain firsthand experience related to these concepts, for example by (i) analyzing and quantifying chemical reactions based on empirical data, (ii) employing stoichiometry and mass balance to determine the amounts of reactants required and products produced in a chemical reaction, and (iii) using acid-base speciation diagrams and other information to quantify the changes in pH and carbonic acid speciation in an aqueous medium. At the Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, we have utilized actual data from several seawater systems to discuss topics such as stoichiometry, mass and charge balance, and limiting reagents. This paper describes denitrification in closed seawater systems and how the process can be used to enhance undergraduate chemistry education. A number of possible student exercises are described that can be used as practical tools to enhance the students' quantitative understanding of chemical reactions.

  10. A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

  11. 75 FR 29754 - Claims of Confidentiality of Certain Chemical Identities Contained in Health and Safety Studies...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 3462) (FRL-8807-9), EPA announced that `` here a health and safety study submitted under... chemical substances of unknown or variable composition, complex reaction products and biological materials... AGENCY Claims of Confidentiality of Certain Chemical Identities Contained in Health and Safety...

  12. High-Throughput Toxicity Testing: New Strategies for Assessing Chemical Safety

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, the food industry has made progress in improving safety testing methods focused on microbial contaminants in order to promote food safety. However, food industry toxicologists must also assess the safety of food-relevant chemicals including pesticides, direct add...

  13. NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) Payload Safety Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starbus, Calvert S.; Donovan, Shawn; Dook, Mike; Palo, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Issues addressed by this program: (1) Complicated roles and responsibilities associated with multi-partner projects (2) Working relationships and communications between all organizations involved in the payload safety process (3) Consistent interpretation and implementation of safety requirements from one project to the rest (4) Consistent implementation of the Tailoring Process (5) Clearly defined NASA decision-making-authority (6) Bring Agency-wide perspective to each ElV payload project. Current process requires a Payload Safety Working Group (PSWG) for eac payload with representatives from all involved organizations.

  14. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Safety in the Laboratory: Are We Making Any Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKusick, Blaine C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews trends in laboratory safety found in both industrial and academic situations. Reports that large industrial labs generally have excellent safety programs but that, although there have been improvements, academia still lags behind industry in safety. Includes recommendations for improving lab safety. (ML)

  15. Application of Annotated Logic Program to Pipeline Process Safety Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi

    We have developed a paraconsistent annotated logic program called Extended Vector Annotated Logic Program with Strong Negation (abbr. EVALPSN), which can deal with defeasible deontic reasoning and contradiction, and we have already applied it to safety verification and control such as railway interlocking safety verification and traffic signal control. In this paper, we introduce process safety verification as an application of EVALPSN with a small example for brewery pipeline valve control. The safety verification control is based on EVALPSN defeasible deontic reasoning to avoid unexpected mix of different sorts of liquid in pipeline networks.

  16. 40 CFR 799.5115 - Chemical testing requirements for certain chemicals of interest to the Occupational Safety and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chemical testing requirements for certain chemicals of interest to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 799.5115 Section 799.5115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF...

  17. Economic-Oriented Stochastic Optimization in Advanced Process Control of Chemical Processes

    PubMed Central

    Dobos, László; Király, András; Abonyi, János

    2012-01-01

    Finding the optimal operating region of chemical processes is an inevitable step toward improving economic performance. Usually the optimal operating region is situated close to process constraints related to product quality or process safety requirements. Higher profit can be realized only by assuring a relatively low frequency of violation of these constraints. A multilevel stochastic optimization framework is proposed to determine the optimal setpoint values of control loops with respect to predetermined risk levels, uncertainties, and costs of violation of process constraints. The proposed framework is realized as direct search-type optimization of Monte-Carlo simulation of the controlled process. The concept is illustrated throughout by a well-known benchmark problem related to the control of a linear dynamical system and the model predictive control of a more complex nonlinear polymerization process. PMID:23213298

  18. STS safety approval process for small self-contained payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gum, Mary A.

    1988-01-01

    The safety approval process established by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for Get Away Special (GAS) payloads is described. Although the designing organization is ultimately responsible for the safe operation of its payload, the Get Away Special team at the Goddard Space Flight Center will act as advisors while iterative safety analyses are performed and the Safety Data Package inputs are submitted. This four phase communications process will ultimately give NASA confidence that the GAS payload is safe, and successful completion of the Phase 3 package and review will clear the way for flight aboard the Space Transportation System orbiter.

  19. SAFETY EVALUATION OF RENOVATED WASTEWATER FROM A POULTRY PROCESSING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A three-phase evaluation of reclaimed process wastewater for reuse was undertaken at the Sterling Processing Corporation plant in Oakland, Maryland. The main objective was to evaluate the safety for human consumption of poultry exposed during processing to an average 50 percent m...

  20. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY EFFICIENT CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. Process emissio...

  1. Life cycle costs for chemical process pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Urwin, B.; Blong, R.; Jamieson, C.; Erickson, B.

    1998-01-01

    Though construction and startup costs are always a concern, proper investment in equipment and installation will save money down the line. This is particularly important for heavily used items, such as centrifugal pumps, one of the workhouses of the chemical process industries (CPI). By properly sizing and installing a centrifugal pump, the life and efficiency of the pump can be increased. At the same time, maintenance costs can be reduced. When considering a new pump, there are several areas that require attention. The first is the baseplate design. The impeller is another area of concern. The seal chamber, the third area of importance, must be designed for proper heat dissipation and lubrication of seal faces. Lastly, the power end must be considered. Optimum bearing life, effective oil cooling and minimum shaft deflection are all vital. The paper discusses installation costs, operating cost, maintenance cost, seal environment, and extended bearing life.

  2. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant failure rate database

    SciTech Connect

    Alber, T.G.; Hunt, C.R.; Fogarty, S.P.; Wilson, J.R.

    1995-08-01

    This report represents the first major upgrade to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Failure Rate Database. This upgrade incorporates additional site-specific and generic data while improving on the previous data reduction techniques. In addition, due to a change in mission at the ICPP, the status of certain equipment items has changed from operating to standby or off-line. A discussion of how this mission change influenced the relevance of failure data also has been included. This report contains two data sources: the ICPP Failure Rate Database and a generic failure rate database. A discussion is presented on the approaches and assumptions used to develop the data in the ICPP Failure Rate Database. The generic database is included along with a short discussion of its application. A brief discussion of future projects recommended to strengthen and lend credibility to the ICPP Failure Rate Database also is included.

  3. Quantification of chemical transport processes from soil to surface runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although there is a conceptual understanding on processes governing chemical transport from soil to surface runoff, there are little literature and research results actually quantifying these individual processes. We developed a laboratory flow cell and experimental procedures to quantify chemical ...

  4. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Impressions of Safety in Universities in the United States of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Dick; Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This is a report on a study done in 1976 of safety arrangements and procedures in teaching, research, and medical establishments in the United States. The results show that the Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA) has not yet had much impact as far as safety in teaching and research is concerned. (BB)

  5. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Safety in the Chemistry Laboratories: A Specific Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkern, Walter H.; Munchausen, Linda L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a safety program adopted by Southeastern Louisiana University. Students are given detailed instructions on laboratory safety during the first laboratory period and a test which must be completely correct before they are allowed to return to the laboratory. Test questions, list of safety rules, and a laboratory accident report form are…

  6. Chapter IV - Safety During Payload Ground Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Paul; Dollberg, John; Trinchero, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the typical hazards that can be expected to be encountered when processing payloads on the ground. Also described are some of the more common controls for these hazards. Many of these controls are based on hard requirements but they are also based on specific lessons learned. This chapter uses the term Flight Hardware (F/H) for all payloads regardless of size.

  7. Film processing investigation. [improved chemical mixing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The present operational chemical mixing system for the Photographic Technology Division is evaluated, and the limitations are defined in terms of meeting the present and programmed chemical supply and delivery requirements. A major redesign of the entire chemical mixing, storage, analysis, and supply system is recommended. Other requirements for immediate and future implementations are presented.

  8. Margin of Safety Definition and Examples Used in Safety Basis Documents and the USQ Process

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, R. A.

    2013-10-03

    The Nuclear Safety Management final rule, 10 CFR 830, provides an undefined term, margin of safety (MOS). Safe harbors listed in 10 CFR 830, Table 2, such as DOE-STD-3009 use but do not define the term. This lack of definition has created the need for the definition. This paper provides a definition of MOS and documents examples of MOS as applied in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) approved safety basis for an existing nuclear facility. If we understand what MOS looks like regarding Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) parameters, then it helps us compare against other parameters that do not involve a MOS. This paper also documents parameters that are not MOS. These criteria could be used to determine if an MOS exists in safety basis documents. This paper helps DOE, including the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and its contractors responsible for the safety basis improve safety basis documents and the unreviewed safety question (USQ) process with respect to MOS.

  9. Energy conservation in regenerated chemical absorption processes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Energy savings from split-flow design modifications or the installation of absorber intercoolers are quantified for solvent-based separation processes. Absorber-stripper systems that use aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) or diethanolamine (DEA) to remove CO/sub 2/ or H/sub 2/S from natural gas streams are modeled. Use of split flow in regenerated chemical absorption processes with isothermal columns resulted in energy savings of over 50% for systems with large solute-recovery fractions. The energy savings are a linear function of the logarithm of percent unrecovered solute. Optimal values are found for the flow rate and withdrawal point of the split-flow stream. The optimal design and operating conditions for CO/sub 2/ systems with adiabatic columns are determined by the stripper column; the stripper exhibits a steam-consumption minimum with respect to the total solvent flow rate and the composition of the lean-solvent stream. In contrast, optimal conditions for H/sub 2/S systems are set by the absorber. These absorber-limited systems exhibit a steam consumption minimum for the lowest solvent flow which can achieve the specified solute recovery in the absorber. Absorber intercoolers conserve energy by reducing the solvent flow rate required for a specified solute recovery. The optimal intercooler location is near an acid-gas-to-amine ratio halfway between the same ratios for the lean and rich solvent streams. The intercooler location is near an acid-gas-to-amine ratio halfway between the same ratios for the lean and rich solvent streams. The intercooler is optically sized by equating the absorber-solvent-feed temperature, the absorber-intercooler process-outlet temperature, and the cooling-water effluent temperature.

  10. Assuring the Safety of Chemicals through Improved Exposure Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thousands of chemicals are currently in commercial use and hundreds more are introduced each year. Of these, only a small fraction has been assessed adequately for potential risks. Existing chemical testing and exposure measurement protocols are expensive and time consuming. Fu...

  11. Novel food processing innovations to improve food safety and health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innovative food processing can be used to improve safety of specialty crops and their co-products, while improving sustainability of agricultural and food processing operations and enhancing overall nutritional quality of foods for both domestic and international consumers. The potential of various...

  12. Foundations for Excellence in the Chemical Process Industries. Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstader, Robert; Chapman, Kenneth

    This document discusses the Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers Project and issues of relevance to the education and employment of chemical laboratory technicians (CLTs) and process technicians (PTs). Section 1 consists of the following background information: overview of the chemical process industries,…

  13. The Acquisition and Application of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Data in Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, H. A.; Pastoor, Timothy P.; Baetcke, Karl; Chambers, Janice E.; Diliberto, Janet; Doerrer, Nancy G.; Driver, Jeffrey H.; Hastings, Charles E.; Iyengar, Seshadri; Krieger, Robert; Stahl, Bernhard; Timchalk, Chuck

    2006-01-01

    The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) formed the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee in the year 2000 to design a toxicity testing scheme that would incorporate current understanding of pesticide toxicology and exposure and recognize the specificity of agricultural products. The purpose of and background for the ACSA project are described in detail in the companion paper by Carmichael et al. (2006). As the proposed tiered testing approach for agricultural chemical safety assessment evolved, the ACSA Technical Committee and its task forces (Carmichael et al., 2006; Cooper et al., 2006; Doe et al., 2006) worked toward the following objectives: (1) Provide information that can be applied to a range of relevant human exposure situations. (2) Characterize effects that have the potential to damage human health at exposure levels approximating those that might be encountered in the use of these compounds. (3) Avoid high doses that cause unnecessary public concern (e.g., safety assessments should focus on doses that are relevant to realistic human exposures while maintaining adequate power for the experimental studies to detect toxicity). (4) Use the minimum number of animals necessary to produce a thorough safety assessment of the chemicals of interest. (5) Inflict the minimum amount of distress on animals. (6) Minimize excessive and unnecessary use of resources by regulatory authorities and industry, which could be used to address other issues of concern. (7) Increase both the efficiency and relevance of the current safety assessment process.

  14. Chemical kinetics models for semiconductor processing

    SciTech Connect

    Coltrin, M.E.; Creighton, J.R.; Meeks, E.; Grcar, J.F.; Houf, W.G.; Kee, R.J.

    1997-12-31

    Chemical reactions in the gas-phase and on surfaces are important in the deposition and etching of materials for microelectronic applications. A general software framework for describing homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction kinetics utilizing the Chemkin suite of codes is presented. Experimental, theoretical and modeling approaches to developing chemical reaction mechanisms are discussed. A number of TCAD application modules for simulating the chemically reacting flow in deposition and etching reactors have been developed and are also described.

  15. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains a discussion of the chemical safety improvements planned or already underway at DOE sites to correct facility or site-specific vulnerabilities. The main part of the report is a discussion of each of the programmatic deficiencies; a description of the tasks to be accomplished; the specific actions to be taken; and the organizational responsibilities for implementation.

  16. Chemical management and control strategies: experiences from the GTZ pilot project on chemical safety in Indonesian small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Tischer, M; Scholaen, S

    2003-10-01

    In 1998 the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) launched the Convention Project on Chemical Safety in developing countries. The project aims to support developing countries in the implementation of the Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions, create human resources and institutional capacities and to demonstrate via pilot measures how chemical safety in the partner countries can be improved and sustainably implemented in line with international standards. With this objective the development of a Chemical Management Guide (CM Guide) for small and medium-sized enterprises in developing countries has been initiated. The guide describes a step-by-step approach which is based on identifying 'hot-spots' as a first step, and making a chemical inventory as a second step. The third step is the continuous improvement of chemical management. In total, there are six tools that aim to support the chemical management process: basic concepts for risk assessment; description of control approaches; using material safety data sheets (MSDSs); risk phrases for hazardous substances; safety phrases for hazardous substances; symbols used for labelling hazardous substances. In the course of the test-implementation of the CM Guide in Indonesia, it was found that MSDSs were not available in most of the smaller companies. In contrast, medium-sized and larger companies do have more MSDSs available. It was also found that the way to engage the minds of company owners and managers is with economic arguments related to the loss, waste and expiry of materials, and quality standards expected from importing countries. PMID:14530183

  17. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Hazards in a Photography Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houk, Cliff; Hart, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Described are case studies illustrating chemical hazards in a photography lab due to compounds containing cyanide. Suggestions for preventing problems including proper procedures, housekeeping, facilities, and ventilation are considered. (RH)

  18. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Cyclohexane as a Cryoscopic Solvent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffel, Margaret J.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that cyclohexane be used as a solvent in experiments usually using benzene, which has been placed on the list of chemicals that are confirmed carcinogens. Reasons for selection of cyclohexane and experimental procedures using this solvent are described. (CS)

  19. Physical-chemical processes in a protoplanetary cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavrukhina, Avgusta K.

    1991-01-01

    Physical-chemical processes in a protoplanetary cloud are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) characteristics of the chemical composition of molecular interstellar clouds; (2) properties and physico-chemical process in the genesis of interstellar dust grains; and (3) the isotope composition of volatiles in bodies of the Solar System.

  20. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROCESS AND MECHANISM MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this task is to develop and test chemical and physical mechanisms for use in the chemical transport models of EPA's Models-3. The target model for this research is the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. These mechanisms include gas and aqueous phase ph...

  1. Speleothems as Examples of Chemical Equilibrium Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James R.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical formation of speleothems such as stalactites and stalagmites is poorly understood by introductory geology instructors and misrepresented in most textbooks. Although evaporation may be a controlling factor in some caves, it is necessary to consider chemical precipitation as more important in controlling the diagenesis of calcium…

  2. ‘Geo’chemical research: A key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmann, Scott

    2008-12-01

    Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland…), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case

  3. 'Geo'chemical research: a key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Scott

    2008-12-12

    Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland...), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case

  4. Agricultural Chemical and Pesticide Hazards. Module SH-50. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on agricultural chemical and pesticide hazards is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module contains information concerning the safe handling, use, and storage of many chemicals that are frequently used in the control of pests. Following the introduction, 10 objectives (each keyed to a page in the…

  5. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES (AOP'S FOR THE TREATMENT OF CCL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on treatment of Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) chemicals is being conducted. Specific groups of contaminants on the CCL will be evaluated using numerous advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Initially, these CCL contaminants will be evaluated in groups based on chemical...

  6. Computer aided microbial safety design of food processes.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, M; Martens, T; Roberts, T A; Mackey, B M; Nicolaï, B M; Van Impe, J F; De Baerdemaeker, J

    1994-12-01

    To reduce the time required for product development, to avoid expensive experimental tests, and to quantify safety risks for fresh products and the consequence of processing there is a growing interest in computer aided food process design. This paper discusses the application of hybrid object-oriented and rule-based expert system technology to represent the data and knowledge of microbial experts and food engineers. Finite element models for heat transfer calculation routines, microbial growth and inactivation models and texture kinetics are combined with food composition data, thermophysical properties, process steps and expert knowledge on type and quantity of microbial contamination. A prototype system has been developed to evaluate changes in food composition, process steps and process parameters on microbiological safety and textual quality of foods. PMID:7703003

  7. CHEMICAL PROCESSES AND MODELING IN ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trends in regulatory strategies require EPA to understand better chemical behavior in natural and impacted ecosystems and in biological systems to carry out the increasingly complex array of exposure and risk assessments needed to develop scientifically defensible regulations (GP...

  8. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Synthesis-Laboratory Fumehoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, John B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a procedure by which the performance of chemical hoods can be tested. This procedure uses a mixture of dry ice and water to create a "smoke" for use in the test. Implications for sash design, performance evaluations and testing under standard and nonstandard conditions are discussed. (CW)

  9. Safety of foods treated with novel process intervention technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many consumers are familiar with traditional food safety and preservation technologies such as thermal processing (cooking), salting, and pickling to inactivate common foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Many consumers are less familiar with other technologies s...

  10. Configuration and Data Management Process and the System Safety Professional

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, Charles Herbert; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the configuration management (CM) and the Data Management (DM) functions and provides a perspective of the importance of configuration and data management processes to the success of system safety activities. The article addresses the basic requirements of configuration and data management generally based on NASA configuration and data management policies and practices, although the concepts are likely to represent processes of any public or private organization's well-designed configuration and data management program.

  11. Total chemical management in photographic processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luden, Charles; Schultz, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    The mission of the U. S. Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center is to produce high-quality photographs of the earth taken from aircraft and Landsat satellite. In order to meet the criteria of producing research-quality photographs, while at the same time meeting strict environmental restrictions, a total photographic chemical management system was installed. This involved a three-part operation consisting of the design of a modern chemical analysis laboratory, the implementation of a chemical regeneration system, and the installation of a waste treatment system, including in-plant pretreatment and outside secondary waste treatment. Over the last ten years the result of this program has yielded high-quality photographs while saving approximately 30,000 per year and meeting all Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restrictions.

  12. Image processing for safety assessment in civil engineering.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Belen; Pomares, Juan C; Irles, Ramon; Espinosa, Julian; Mas, David

    2013-06-20

    Behavior analysis of construction safety systems is of fundamental importance to avoid accidental injuries. Traditionally, measurements of dynamic actions in civil engineering have been done through accelerometers, but high-speed cameras and image processing techniques can play an important role in this area. Here, we propose using morphological image filtering and Hough transform on high-speed video sequence as tools for dynamic measurements on that field. The presented method is applied to obtain the trajectory and acceleration of a cylindrical ballast falling from a building and trapped by a thread net. Results show that safety recommendations given in construction codes can be potentially dangerous for workers. PMID:23842183

  13. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Tested Disposal Methods for Chemical Wastes from Academic Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, M. A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes procedures for disposing of dichromate cleaning solution, picric acid, organic azides, oxalic acid, chemical spills, and hydroperoxides in ethers and alkenes. These methods have been tested under laboratory conditions and are specific for individual chemicals rather than for groups of chemicals. (JN)

  14. EVALUATING AND DESIGNING CHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals and chemical processes are at the heart of most environmental problems. This isn't surprising since chemicals make up all of the products we use in our lives. The common use of cjhemicals makes them of high interest for systems analysis, particularly because of environ...

  15. Safety evaluation of chemically modified beta-lactoglobulin administered intravaginally.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuetao; Qiu, Lixia; Wang, Yonghong; Wang, Yue; Meng, Yuanguang; Zhu, Yun; Lu, Lu; Jiang, Shibo

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is no specific antiviral therapy for treatment of HPV infection. Jiang and colleagues previously reported that anhydride-modified proteins have inhibitory activities against multiple viruses including HPV. Here, we evaluated the safety of 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride-modified bovine beta-lactoglobulin, designated JB01, vaginally applied in women infected by high-risk HPV. After the vaginal application of JB01 in 38 women for 3 months, no serious adverse events were reported, and normalization of the vaginal micro-environment has been observed. It can be concluded that JB01-BD is safe for vaginal use in HPV-infected women, suggesting its potential application for the treatment of HPV infection. J. Med. Virol. 88:1098-1101, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26629967

  16. Applying the Extended Parallel Process Model to workplace safety messages.

    PubMed

    Basil, Michael; Basil, Debra; Deshpande, Sameer; Lavack, Anne M

    2013-01-01

    The extended parallel process model (EPPM) proposes fear appeals are most effective when they combine threat and efficacy. Three studies conducted in the workplace safety context examine the use of various EPPM factors and their effects, especially multiplicative effects. Study 1 was a content analysis examining the use of EPPM factors in actual workplace safety messages. Study 2 experimentally tested these messages with 212 construction trainees. Study 3 replicated this experiment with 1,802 men across four English-speaking countries-Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The results of these three studies (1) demonstrate the inconsistent use of EPPM components in real-world work safety communications, (2) support the necessity of self-efficacy for the effective use of threat, (3) show a multiplicative effect where communication effectiveness is maximized when all model components are present (severity, susceptibility, and efficacy), and (4) validate these findings with gory appeals across four English-speaking countries. PMID:23330856

  17. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. To address the facility-specific and site-specific vulnerabilities, responsible DOE and site-contractor line organizations have developed initial site response plans. These plans, presented as Volume 2 of this Management Response Plan, describe the actions needed to mitigate or eliminate the facility- and site-specific vulnerabilities identified by the CSV Working Group field verification teams. Initial site response plans are described for: Brookhaven National Lab., Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Lab., Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., Oak Ridge Reservation, Rocky Flats Plant, Sandia National Laboratories, and Savannah River Site.

  18. Safety Sufficiency for NextGen: Assessment of Selected Existing Safety Methods, Tools, Processes, and Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Xidong; Ulrey, Mike L.; Brown, John A.; Mast, James; Lapis, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    NextGen is a complex socio-technical system and, in many ways, it is expected to be more complex than the current system. It is vital to assess the safety impact of the NextGen elements (technologies, systems, and procedures) in a rigorous and systematic way and to ensure that they do not compromise safety. In this study, the NextGen elements in the form of Operational Improvements (OIs), Enablers, Research Activities, Development Activities, and Policy Issues were identified. The overall hazard situation in NextGen was outlined; a high-level hazard analysis was conducted with respect to multiple elements in a representative NextGen OI known as OI-0349 (Automation Support for Separation Management); and the hazards resulting from the highly dynamic complexity involved in an OI-0349 scenario were illustrated. A selected but representative set of the existing safety methods, tools, processes, and regulations was then reviewed and analyzed regarding whether they are sufficient to assess safety in the elements of that OI and ensure that safety will not be compromised and whether they might incur intolerably high costs.

  19. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Safety: What Do We Really Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.; Fawcett, Howard H.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests ways in which chemistry professionals, particularly academic faculty members, might improve the image of chemistry and engineering. Stresses damage done to this image because of recent media coverage regarding misuse and improper disposal of chemicals. (CS)

  20. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES WITH FUGITIVE AND OPEN EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Designing a chemical process normally includes aspects of economic and environmental disciplines. In this work we describe methods to quickly and easily evaluate the economics and potential environmental impacts of a process, with the hydrodealkylation of toluene as an example. ...

  1. Laboratory conditions and safety in a chemical warfare agent analysis and research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kenar, Levent; Karayilanoğlu, Turan; Kose, Songul

    2002-08-01

    Toxic chemicals have been used as weapons of war and also as means of terrorist attacks on civilian populations. Research focusing on chemical warfare agents (CWAs) may be associated with an increased risk of exposure to and contamination by these agents. This article summarizes some of the regulations concerning designation and safety in a CWA analysis and research laboratory and medical countermeasures in case of an accidental exposure. The design of such a laboratory, coupled with a set of safety guidelines, provides for the safe conduct of research and studies involving CWAs. Thus, a discussion of decontamination and protection means against CWAs is also presented. PMID:12188231

  2. Program Prepares Students for Chemical-Processing Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Haley

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a chemical-processing program at Saginaw Career Complex in Saginaw, Michigan. The program is preparing 42 11th- and 12th-graders to work as chemical-processing operators or technicians by the time they graduate from high school. It was developed in partnership with the Saginaw Career Complex--one of 51 centers in the state…

  3. Stereodynamics: From elementary processes to macroscopic chemical reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, Toshio; Che, Dock-Chil; Tsai, Po-Yu; Lin, King-Chuen; Palazzetti, Federico; Aquilanti, Vincenzo

    2015-12-31

    This paper aims at discussing new facets on stereodynamical behaviors in chemical reactions, i.e. the effects of molecular orientation and alignment on reactive processes. Further topics on macroscopic processes involving deviations from Arrhenius behavior in the temperature dependence of chemical reactions and chirality effects in collisions are also discussed.

  4. The Implementation and Maintenance of a Behavioral Safety Process in a Petroleum Refinery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Wanda V.; McSween, Terry E.; Medina, Rixio E.; Rost, Kristen; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2010-01-01

    A values-centered and team-based behavioral safety process was implemented in a petroleum oil refinery. Employee teams defined the refinery's safety values and related practices, which were used to guide the process design and implementation. The process included (a) a safety assessment; (b) the clarification of safety-related values and related…

  5. News: Good chemical manufacturing process criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This news column covers topics relating to manufacturing criteria, machine to machine technology, novel process windows, green chemistry indices, business resilience, immobilized enzymes, and Bt crops.

  6. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SPILL MONITORING: SAFETY HANDBOOK AND CHEMICAL HAZARD GUIDE. PART B - CHEMICAL DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This two-part document is intended to serve as a guide to the hazards associated with a broad range of chemical compounds which may be encountered in hazardous materials spills. The document addresses 655 chemicals identified on the basis of known toxicity or spill history and de...

  7. Intelligent Chemical Sensor Systems for In-space Safety Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Neudeck, P. G.; Makel, D. B.; Ward, B.; Liu, C. C.

    2006-01-01

    Future in-space and lunar operations will require significantly improved monitoring and Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) throughout the mission. In particular, the monitoring of chemical species is an important component of an overall monitoring system for space vehicles and operations. For example, in leak monitoring of propulsion systems during launch, inspace, and on lunar surfaces, detection of low concentrations of hydrogen and other fuels is important to avoid explosive conditions that could harm personnel and damage the vehicle. Dependable vehicle operation also depends on the timely and accurate measurement of these leaks. Thus, the development of a sensor array to determine the concentration of fuels such as hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or hydrazine as well as oxygen is necessary. Work has been on-going to develop an integrated smart leak detection system based on miniaturized sensors to detect hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or hydrazine, and oxygen. The approach is to implement Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) based sensors incorporated with signal conditioning electronics, power, data storage, and telemetry enabling intelligent systems. The final sensor system will be self-contained with a surface area comparable to a postage stamp. This paper discusses the development of this "Lick and Stick" leak detection system and it s application to In-Space Transportation and other Exploration applications.

  8. Chemical Sensing for Buried Landmines - Fundamental Processes Influencing Trace Chemical Detection

    SciTech Connect

    PHELAN, JAMES M.

    2002-05-01

    Mine detection dogs have a demonstrated capability to locate hidden objects by trace chemical detection. Because of this capability, demining activities frequently employ mine detection dogs to locate individual buried landmines or for area reduction. The conditions appropriate for use of mine detection dogs are only beginning to emerge through diligent research that combines dog selection/training, the environmental conditions that impact landmine signature chemical vapors, and vapor sensing performance capability and reliability. This report seeks to address the fundamental soil-chemical interactions, driven by local weather history, that influence the availability of chemical for trace chemical detection. The processes evaluated include: landmine chemical emissions to the soil, chemical distribution in soils, chemical degradation in soils, and weather and chemical transport in soils. Simulation modeling is presented as a method to evaluate the complex interdependencies among these various processes and to establish conditions appropriate for trace chemical detection. Results from chemical analyses on soil samples obtained adjacent to landmines are presented and demonstrate the ultra-trace nature of these residues. Lastly, initial measurements of the vapor sensing performance of mine detection dogs demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of dogs in sensing landmine signature chemicals; however, reliability at these ultra-trace vapor concentrations still needs to be determined. Through this compilation, additional work is suggested that will fill in data gaps to improve the utility of trace chemical detection.

  9. The Safety "Use Case": Co-Developing Chemical Information Management and Laboratory Safety Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Ralph B.; McEwen, Leah R.

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 edition of the American Chemical Society's "Guidelines and Evaluation Procedures for Bachelor's Degree Programs" identifies six skill sets that undergraduate chemistry programs should instill in their students. In our roles as support staff for chemistry departments at two different institutions (one a Primarily Undergraduate…

  10. Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure: A Safety Program Manual. Participatory Education with Farmworkers in Pesticide Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC. Dept. of Family and Community Medicine.

    Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure among North Carolina Farmworkers (PACE) is a project designed to describe farmworker pesticide exposure and to develop an educational intervention to reduce farmworker pesticide exposure. The PACE project used a community participation framework to ensure that the community played a significant role in…

  11. Laser/plasma chemical processing of substrates

    DOEpatents

    Gee, James M.; Hargis, Jr., Philip J.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the modification of substrate surfaces is described, wherein etching or deposition at a surface occurs only in the presence of both reactive species and a directed beam of coherent light.

  12. Chemical Process Design: An Integrated Teaching Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debelak, Kenneth A.; Roth, John A.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews a one-semester senior plant design/laboratory course, focusing on course structure, student projects, laboratory assignments, and course evaluation. Includes discussion of laboratory exercises related to process waste water and sludge. (SK)

  13. Chemical Processing monthly report, April 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-04-01

    In the PUREX/UO3 operations, 151 tones of N reactor fuel were charged to the PUREX dissolvers in April 1985, bringing the Fiscal Year-to-Date (FYTD) total to 667, which is now only 61 tones behind the 1200 tone recovery plan. One hundred thirty-nine tonnes of UO3 were shipped to the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), bringing the FYTD total to 644 tones. Twenty-two percent of the PUO2 shipments were achieved, bringing the cumulative shipments to 52%. In the plutonium finishing (PF) plant/nuclear materials management program, 10% of plutonium nitrate was loaded out. Total Operating Efficiency for Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) was 53% for the month, compared to a goal of 70%. Remote Mechanical C (RMC) metal line reactivation activities are 95% complete. Terminal clean out operations are about one month behind schedule, due to diversion of personnel to the RMC reactivation effort. Within the area of decontamination and decommissioning activities, removal of the Sorter/Chopper hood in 232-Z Building was completed. Design on B-339, vault safety and inventory system was completed on schedule.

  14. SAFETY STUDIES TO MEASURE EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS OF SPENT PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATION CHEMICALS USING WET AND DRY DECONTAMINATION METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Andrea M.; Jackson, George W.; Minette, Michael J.; Ewalt, John R.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Scott, Paul A.; Jones, Susan A.; Scheele, Randall D.; Charboneau, Stacy L.

    2005-10-12

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford site in Eastern Washington is currently being decommissioned by Fluor Hanford. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes in PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions that include acids and sequestering agents. Aggressive chemicals are commonly used to remove transuranic contaminants from process equipment to allow disposal of the equipment as low level waste. Fluor's decontamination procedure involves application of chemical solutions as a spray on the contaminated surfaces, followed by a wipe-down with rags. Alternatively, a process of applying oxidizing Ce IV ions contained in a gel matrix and vacuuming a dry gel material is being evaluated. These processes effectively transfer the transuranic materials to rags or a gel matrix which is then packaged as TRU waste and disposed. Fluor is investigating plutonium decontamination chemicals as a result of concerns regarding the safety of chemical procedures following a fire at Rocky Flats in 2003. The fire at Rocky Flats occurred in a glovebox that had been treated with cerium nitrate, which is one of the decontamination chemicals that Fluor Hanford has proposed to use. Although the investigation of the fire was not conclusive as to cause, the reviewers noted that rags were found in the glovebox, suggesting that the combination of rags and chemicals may have contributed to the fire. Because of this underlying uncertainty, Fluor began an investigation into the potential for fire when using the chemicals and materials using wet disposition and dry disposition of the waste generated in the decontamination process and the storage conditions to which the waste drum would be exposed. The focus of this work has been to develop a disposal strategy that will provide a chemically stable waste form at expected Hanford waste storage temperatures. Hanford waste storage conditions are such that there is added

  15. Safety Evaluation for Hull Waste Treatment Process in JNC

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, H.; Kurakata, K.

    2002-02-26

    Hull wastes and some scrapped equipment are typical radioactive wastes generated from reprocessing process in Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). Because hulls are the wastes remained in the fuel shearing and dissolution, they contain high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started the project of Hull Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF) to treat these solid wastes using compaction and incineration methods since 1993. It is said that Zircaloy fines generated from compaction process might burn and explode intensely. Therefore explosive conditions of the fines generated in compaction process were measured. As these results, it was concluded that the fines generated from the compaction process were not hazardous material. This paper describes the outline of the treatment process of hulls and results of safety evaluation.

  16. Water in Biological and Chemical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Biman

    2013-11-01

    Part I. Bulk Water: 1. Uniqueness of water; 2. Anomalies of water; 3. Dynamics of water: molecular motions and hydrogen bond breaking kinetics; 4. Inherent structures of liquid water; 5. pH of water; Part II. Water in Biology: Dynamical View and Function: 6. Biological water; 7. Explicit role of water in biological functions; 8. Hydration of proteins; 9. Can we understand protein hydration layer: lessons from computer simulations; 10. Water in and around DNA and RNA; 11. Role of water in protein-DNA interaction; 12. Water surrounding lipid bilayers; 13. Water in Darwin's world; Part III. Water in Complex Chemical Systems: 14. Hydrophilic effects; 15. Hydrophobic effects; 16. Aqueous binary mixtures: amphiphilic effect; 17. Water in and around micelles, reverse micelles and microemulsions; 18. Water in carbon nanotubes; Part IV. Bulk Water: Advanced Topics: 19. Entropy of water; 20. Freezing of water into ice; 21. Supercritical water; 22. Microscopic approaches to understand water anomalies.

  17. Chemical surface modification of fluorocarbon polymers by excimer laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niino, Hiroyuki; Yabe, Akira

    1996-04-01

    Surface of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) [PTFE] film was modified chemically by an ArF excimer laser-induced reaction in a hydrazine gas atmosphere. The polymer surface modified upon the irradiation of 1000 pulses at 27 mJ cm -2, which was a fairly lower fluence than the ablation threshold for usual polymer films, showed hydrophilicity (contact angle for water: 30°) enough to be metallized by chemical plating. The mechanism for chemical surface modification was investigated by FTIR, XPS, and SIMS analyses. The laser-treated PTFE film was metallized by a chemical plating process. These processes will be used to fabricate printed wiring boards for high frequency electronics.

  18. Safety. [requirements for software to monitor and control critical processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1991-01-01

    Software requirements, design, implementation, verification and validation, and especially management are affected by the need to produce safe software. This paper discusses the changes in the software life cycle that are necessary to ensure that software will execute without resulting in unacceptable risk. Software is being used increasingly to monitor and control safety-critical processes in which a run-time failure or error could result in unacceptable losses such as death, injury, loss of property, or environmental harm. Examples of such processes maybe found in transportation, energy, aerospace, basic industry, medicine, and defense systems.

  19. BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

    2012-04-09

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly since the Mercury Water Wash Tank was replaced after the seventh batch of Sludge Batch 5. Since this time, essentially no recovery of mercury has been seen. Pertinent literature was reviewed, previous lab-scale data on mercury stripping and recovery was examined, and new lab-scale CPC Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were conducted. For previous lab-scale data, many of the runs with sufficient mercury recovery data were examined to determine what factors affect the stripping and recovery of mercury and to improve closure of the mercury material balance. Ten new lab-scale SRAT runs (HG runs) were performed to examine the effects of acid stoichiometry, sludge solids concentration, antifoam concentration, form of mercury added to simulant, presence of a SRAT heel, operation of the SRAT condenser at higher than prototypic temperature, varying noble metals from none to very high concentrations, and higher agitation rate. Data from simulant runs from SB6, SB7a, glycolic/formic, and the HG tests showed that a significant amount of Hg metal was found on the vessel bottom at the end of tests. Material balance closure improved from 12-71% to 48-93% when this segregated Hg was considered. The amount of Hg segregated as elemental Hg on the vessel bottom was 4-77% of the amount added. The highest recovery of mercury in the offgas system generally correlated with the highest retention of Hg in the slurry. Low retention in the slurry (high segregation on the vessel bottom) resulted in low recovery in the offgas system. High agitation rates appear to result in lower

  20. Task Group report to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health on oversight of chemical safety at the Department of Energy. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary review of chemical safety within the Department of Energy (DOE). The review was conducted by Chemical Safety Oversight Review (CSOR) Teams composed of Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) staff members and contractors. The primary objective of the CSOR was to assess, the safety status of DOE chemical operations and identify any significant deficiencies associated with such operations. Significant was defined as any situation posing unacceptable risk, that is, imminent danger or threat to workers, co-located workers, the general public, or the environment, that requires prompt action by EH or the line organizations. A secondary objective of the CSOR was to gather and analyze technical and programmatic information related to chemical safety to be used in conjunction with the longer-range EH Workplace Chemical Accident Risk Review (WCARR) Program. The WCARR Program is part of the ongoing EH oversight of nonnuclear safety at all DOE facilities. `` The program objective is to analyze DOE and industry chemical safety programs and performance and determine the need for additional or improved safety guidance for DOE. During the period June 6, 1992, through July 31, 1992, EH conducted CSORs at five DOE sites. The sites visited were Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Savannah River Site (SRS), the Y-12 Plant (Y-12), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  1. Chemical mass transfer in magmatic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiorso, Mark S.

    1987-07-01

    Lasaga's (1982) Master Equation for crystal growth is solved for multicomponent systems in situations which allow for coupled diffusion of melt species. The structure of the solution is explored in some detail for the case of a constant diffusion coefficient matrix. Incorporating these results, the growth of plagioclase is modeled in undercooled tholeiitic melts by approximating interface growth rates with (1) a reduced growth rate function and with (2) calculated solid-liquid solution properties obtained from the silicate liquid solution model of Ghiorso et al. (1983; appendix of Ghiorso 1985). For this purpose algorithms are provided for estimating the liquidus temperature or the chemical affinity of a multicomponent solid solution precipitating from a complex melt of specified bulk composition. Compositional trends in initial solids produced by successive degrees of undercooling are opposite to those predicted in the binary system NaAlSi3O8-CaAl2Si2O8. Calculations suggest that the solid phase and interface melt compositions rapidly approach a “steady state” for a given degree of undercooling. Consequently, the overall isothermal growth rate of plagioclase forming from tholeiitic melts appears to be entirely diffusion controlled. In magmatic systems the multicomponent growth equations allow for the formation of oscillatory zoned crystals as a consequence of the “couplingr” between interface reaction kinetics and melt diffusion. The magnitude of this effect is largely dependent upon the asymmetry of the diffusion coefficient matrix. Methods are described to facilitate the calibration of diffusion matrices from experimental data on multicomponent penetration curves. Experimental results (Lesher and Walker 1986) on steady state Soret concentration profiles resulting from thermal diffusion in MORB and andesitic liquids are analyzed using the theory of multicomponent linear irreversible thermodynamics. Under conditions where the entropy production is

  2. Dynamic displays of chemical process flowsheet models

    SciTech Connect

    Aull, J.E.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes the algorithms used in constructing dynamic graphical displays of a process flowsheet. Movies are created which portray changes in the process over time using animation in the flowsheet such as individual streams that take on a color keyed to the current flow rate, tank levels that visibly rise and fall and {open_quotes}gauges{close_quotes} that move to display parameter values. Movies of this type can be a valuable tool for visualizing, analyzing, and communicating the behavior of a process model. This paper describes the algorithms used in constructing displays of this kind for dynamic models using the SPEEDUP{trademark} modeling package and the GMS{trademark} graphics package. It also tells how data is exported from the SPEEDUP{trademark} package to GMS{trademark} and describes how a user environment for running movies and editing flowsheets is set up. The algorithms are general enough to be applied to other processes and graphics packages. In fact the techniques described here can be used to create movies of any time-dependent data.

  3. Efficient Nonlinear Programming Algorithms for Chemical Process Control and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biegler, Lorenz T.

    Optimization is applied in numerous areas of chemical engineering including the development of process models from experimental data, design of process flowsheets and equipment, planning and scheduling of chemical process operations, and the analysis of chemical processes under uncertainty and adverse conditions. These off-line tasks require the solution of nonlinear programs (NLPs) with detailed, large-scale process models. Recently, these tasks have been complemented by time-critical, on-line optimization problems with differential-algebraic equation (DAE) process models that describe process behavior over a wide range of operating conditions, and must be solved sufficiently quickly. This paper describes recent advances in this area especially with dynamic models. We outline large-scale NLP formulations and algorithms as well as NLP sensitivity for on-line applications, and illustrate these advances on a commercial-scale low density polyethylene (LDPE) process.

  4. Chemical processing in geothermal nuclear chimney

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, O.H.

    1973-10-01

    A closed rubble filled nuclear chimney is provided in a subterranean geothermal formation by detonation of a nuclear explosive device therein, with reagent input and product output conduits connecting the chimney cavity with appropriate surface facilities. Such facilities will usually comprise reagent preparation, product recovery and recycle facilities. Proccsses are then conducted in the nuclear chimney which processes are facilitated by temperature, pressure, catalytic and other conditions existent or which are otherwise provided in the nuclear chimney. (auth)

  5. A sequential-move game for enhancing safety and security cooperation within chemical clusters.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Yulia; Reniers, Genserik

    2011-02-15

    The present paper provides a game theoretic analysis of strategic cooperation on safety and security among chemical companies within a chemical industrial cluster. We suggest a two-stage sequential move game between adjacent chemical plants and the so-called Multi-Plant Council (MPC). The MPC is considered in the game as a leader player who makes the first move, and the individual chemical companies are the followers. The MPC's objective is to achieve full cooperation among players through establishing a subsidy system at minimum expense. The rest of the players rationally react to the subsidies proposed by the MPC and play Nash equilibrium. We show that such a case of conflict between safety and security, and social cooperation, belongs to the 'coordination with assurance' class of games, and we explore the role of cluster governance (fulfilled by the MPC) in achieving a full cooperative outcome in domino effects prevention negotiations. The paper proposes an algorithm that can be used by the MPC to develop the subsidy system. Furthermore, a stepwise plan to improve cross-company safety and security management in a chemical industrial cluster is suggested and an illustrative example is provided. PMID:21146296

  6. Sustainability Indicators for Chemical Processes: III. Biodiesel Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical industry is one of the most important business sectors, not only economically, but also societally; as it allows humanity to attain higher standards and quality of life. Simultaneously, chemical products and processes can be the origin of potential human health and ...

  7. Evaluation of Chemical Coating Processes for AXAF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhaupt, Darell; Ramsey, Brian; Mendrek, Mitchell

    1998-01-01

    The need existed at MSFC for the development and fabrication of radioisotope calibration sources of cadmium 109 and iron 55 isotopes. This was in urgent response to the AXA-F program. Several issues persisted in creating manufacturing difficulties for the supplier. In order to meet the MSFC requirements very stringent control needed to be maintained for the coating quality, specific activity and thickness. Due to the difficulties in providing the precisely controlled devices for testing, the delivery of the sources was seriously delayed. It became imperative that these fabrication issues be resolved to avoid further delays in this AXA-F observatory key component. The objectives are: 1) Research and provide expert advice on coating materials and procedures. 2) Research and recommend solutions to problems that have been experienced with the coating process. 3) Provide recommendations on the selection and preparation of substrates. 4) Provide consultation on the actual coating process including the results of the qualification and acceptance test programs. 5) Perform independent tests at UAH or MSFC as necessary.

  8. An analysis of the chemical safety of secondary effluent for reuse purposes and the requirement for advanced treatment.

    PubMed

    Jin, Pengkang; Jin, Xin; Wang, Xiaochang C; Shi, Xinbin

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a study on the chemical safety of the secondary effluent for reuse purposes and the requirement of advanced treatment. Water quality analysis was conducted regarding conventional chemical items, hazardous metals, trace organics and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Generally speaking, the turbidity, COD, BOD, TN and TP of the secondary effluent can meet the Chinese standards for urban miscellaneous water reuse but higher colour is a problem. Further removal of BOD and TP may still be required if the water is reused for landscape and environmental purposes especially relating to recreation. In addition, Hazardous metals, trace organics and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are not the main problems for water reuse. At the same time, several tertiary treatment processes were evaluated. The coagulation-filtration process is effective process for further improvement of the conventional water quality items and removal of hazardous metals but less effective in dealing with dissolved organic matter. The ultrafiltration (UF) can achieve almost complete removal of turbid matter while its ability to remove dissolved substances is limited. The ozone-biofiltration is the most effective for colour and organic removal but it can hardly remove the residual hazardous metals. Therefore, the selection of suitable process for different water quality is important for water use. PMID:23384543

  9. Post cleaning of chemical mechanical polishing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chi-Wen; Dai, Bau-Tong; Yeh, Ching-Fa

    1996-02-01

    We describe a study on the effect of the electrostatic nature in silica particles on the post CMP cleaning behavior. A fall-off for the zeta potential of silica particles is observed as the pH of dip solutions is increased. In this study, we also observed that particle counts on the SiO 2 and the Si 3N 4 dielectric films had a similar dependence on the pH. Furthermore, we confirmed that surface hardness of the wafer is an important factor for particles physically embedded in different dielectric materials during and after the CMP process. The nanoscale surface hardness of dielectric films was measured by the nanoindentation technique. Experimental results showed that particles had difficulty attaching to a harder surface of the dielectric film.

  10. 64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 2. OVERHEAD CHEMICAL PROCESS PIPING BETWEEN BUILDINGS 422, ON RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERHEAD CHEMICAL PROCESS PIPING BETWEEN BUILDINGS 422, ON RIGHT, AND 431, ON LEFT. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Crude Mustard & Aldrin Manufacturing, 1200 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 600 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. SCREENING PROTOCOL FOR ASSESSING TOXICITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS TOANAEROBIC PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A screening protocol has been developed to provide a rapid andrepeatable assessment of the effect of toxic organic chemicals onanaerobic treatment processes. his protocol also providesinformation on the rate limiting biological reactions and theconcentrations at which changes in ...

  13. DIOXINS. VOLUME III. ASSESSMENT OF DIOXIN-FORMING CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical reaction mechanisms by which dioxins may be formed are reviewed, particularly those likely to occur within commercially significant processes. Various routes of formation are identified in addition to the classical route of the hydrolysis of trichlorophenol. Basic organi...

  14. Chemical etching for automatic processing of integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical etching for automatic processing of integrated circuits is discussed. The wafer carrier and loading from a receiving air track into automatic furnaces and unloading onto a sending air track are included.

  15. 78 FR 32010 - Pipeline Safety: Public Workshop on Integrity Verification Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... published April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477). Information on Services for Individuals with Disabilities: For... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Public Workshop on Integrity... ``Integrity Verification Process.'' The Integrity Verification Process shares similar characteristics...

  16. Analysis of chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Six chemical coal cleaning processes were examined. Conceptual designs and costs were prepared for these processes and coal preparation facilities, including physical cleaning and size reduction. Transportation of fine coal in agglomerated and unagglomerated forms was also discussed. Chemical cleaning processes were: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Ledgemont, Ames Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (two versions), and Guth Process (KVB). Three of the chemical cleaning processes are similar in concept: PETC, Ledgemont, and Ames. Each of these is based on the reaction of sulfur with pressurized oxygen, with the controlling factor being the partial pressure of oxygen in the reactor. All of the processes appear technically feasible. Economic feasibility is less certain. The recovery of process chemicals is vital to the JPL and Guth processes. All of the processes consume significant amounts of energy in the form of electric power and coal. Energy recovery and increased efficiency are potential areas for study in future more detailed designs. The Guth process (formally designed KVB) appears to be the simplest of the systems evaluated. All of the processes require future engineering to better determine methods for scaling laboratory designs/results to commercial-scale operations. A major area for future engineering is to resolve problems related to handling, feeding, and flow control of the fine and often hot coal.

  17. Chemical Processes and Thresholds in Hawaiin Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, O.

    2007-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are a useful natural laboratory for studying soil development particularly those that can be understood using a matrix of chonosequences and climosequences. The islands are formed over a stationary mantle plume and then are carried to the northwest on the Pacific Plate. Thus the islands get older with distance from the hotspot; Kauai has remnant shield surfaces whose lavas date to about 4,000 ky. It is possible to sample soils that are developing on different age flows ranging from a few hundred years to a few million years. Additionally, individual volcanoes are impacted by differing amounts of rainfall depending on location with respect to the northeasterly trade winds. Whereas rainfall over the open ocean near Hawaii is about 700 mm, rainfall over the Islands ranges from 150 to 11,000 mm. Hawaii is minimally impacted by mineral aerosol additions compared to continental areas and this has a significant impact on soil development. More than 100 soil profiles have been sampled along the Hawaii time-climate matrix with some surprising results. For example, in arid soils might be expected to develop smectite clays, but they are rich in halloysite and allophane. Importantly, these same soils show a trend from high-Mg calcite to dolomite as carbonates accumulate within the profiles - this is one of the first documented occurrences of pedogenic dolomite that is not associated with high levels of salts. It appears that lack of smectite formation lowers the incorporation of Mg into silicate clays and increases its incorporation into carbonates. This is an unusual pedogenic process that seems to be enhanced by the lack of substantial amounts of mica in the basalt derived soils. The only mica is in surface horizons that receive dust derived from distant continents. Without mica there is no template to allow smectite clay formation under the rapid wetting and drying regimes encountered in the arid soils. At the same time that halloysite is forming, iron

  18. Some aspects of mathematical and chemical modeling of complex chemical processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemes, I.; Botar, L.; Danoczy, E.; Vidoczy, T.; Gal, D.

    1983-01-01

    Some theoretical questions involved in the mathematical modeling of the kinetics of complex chemical process are discussed. The analysis is carried out for the homogeneous oxidation of ethylbenzene in the liquid phase. Particular attention is given to the determination of the general characteristics of chemical systems from an analysis of mathematical models developed on the basis of linear algebra.

  19. Microlenses with focal length controlled by chemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muric, B. D.; Panic, B. M.

    2012-05-01

    The influence of chemical processing on the optical properties of microlenses formed on a gelatin-sensitized layer was investigated. The gelatin is sensitized with tot'hema and eosin, irradiated with a Gaussian profile laser beam and subsequently chemically processed. Microlenses with a focal length of 400 μm were obtained after alcohol processing. Additionally, focal lengths could be controlled by varying the alum concentration, and lenses with focal length up to 1.2 mm were obtained. The microlenses become stable after alum processing. Their optical properties remain unchanged.

  20. Chemical processing and shampooing impact cortisol measured in human hair

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, M. Camille; Karban, Laura V.; Benitez, Patrick; Goodteacher, Angela; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The assessment of cortisol in hair has gained popularity as a means to measure retrospective hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in a number of species; however, cortisol levels from human hair subjected to typical chemicals for cosmetic or hygienic purposes may be altered by the chemicals used. The purposed of this study was to determine if exposure of hair to chemical processing or shampooing impacts cortisol values. Methods Human hair not exposed to prior chemical processing was cut from the posterior vertex region of the head of 106 human subjects as close to the scalp as possible. The hair sample was divided into 4-6 full-length clusters depending on quantity of hair available. Each hair sample was processed for baseline (native) cortisol and remaining clusters were exposed to five standard chemical hair treatments (Experiment 1) or were shampooed 15 or 30 times (Experiment 2). Hair was ground and cortisol levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Comparisons were made between native hair and processed hair using paired t-tests and Pearson correlation. Results Hair cortisol as assessed by EIA was significantly altered by chemical processing but in somewhat different ways. Exposure to bleach (harshest exposure), demi-perm (least exposure) or 15-30 shampoos resulted in a significant decrease in cortisol level while exposure to varying percentages of peroxides increased cortisol measured. There were no differences in cortisol levels associated with sex, age or tobacco use in the native hair for this particular group. Conclusion Chemical processing and frequent shampooing affect cortisol levels measured in hair. Chemically processed or excessively shampooed hair should be avoided when recruiting subjects for hair cortisol studies. PMID:25090265

  1. Controlled versus Automatic Processes: Which Is Dominant to Safety? The Moderating Effect of Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Ding, Weidong; Lu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the precursors of employees' safety behaviors based on a dual-process model, which suggests that human behaviors are determined by both controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Employees' responses to a self-reported survey on safety attitudes capture their controlled cognitive process, while the automatic association concerning safety measured by an Implicit Association Test (IAT) reflects employees' automatic cognitive processes about safety. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effects of inhibition on the relationship between self-reported safety attitude and safety behavior, and that between automatic associations towards safety and safety behavior. The results suggest significant main effects of self-reported safety attitude and automatic association on safety behaviors. Further, the interaction between self-reported safety attitude and inhibition and that between automatic association and inhibition each predict unique variances in safety behavior. Specifically, the safety behaviors of employees with lower level of inhibitory control are influenced more by automatic association, whereas those of employees with higher level of inhibitory control are guided more by self-reported safety attitudes. These results suggest that safety behavior is the joint outcome of both controlled and automatic cognitive processes, and the relative importance of these cognitive processes depends on employees' individual differences in inhibitory control. The implications of these findings for theoretical and practical issues are discussed at the end. PMID:24520338

  2. Modeling operators' emergency response time for chemical processing operations.

    PubMed

    Murray, Susan L; Harputlu, Emrah; Mentzer, Ray A; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-01-01

    Operators have a crucial role during emergencies at a variety of facilities such as chemical processing plants. When an abnormality occurs in the production process, the operator often has limited time to either take corrective actions or evacuate before the situation becomes deadly. It is crucial that system designers and safety professionals can estimate the time required for a response before procedures and facilities are designed and operations are initiated. There are existing industrial engineering techniques to establish time standards for tasks performed at a normal working pace. However, it is reasonable to expect the time required to take action in emergency situations will be different than working at a normal production pace. It is possible that in an emergency, operators will act faster compared to a normal pace. It would be useful for system designers to be able to establish a time range for operators' response times for emergency situations. This article develops a modeling approach to estimate the time standard range for operators taking corrective actions or following evacuation procedures in emergency situations. This will aid engineers and managers in establishing time requirements for operators in emergency situations. The methodology used for this study combines a well-established industrial engineering technique for determining time requirements (predetermined time standard system) and adjustment coefficients for emergency situations developed by the authors. Numerous videos of workers performing well-established tasks at a maximum pace were studied. As an example, one of the tasks analyzed was pit crew workers changing tires as quickly as they could during a race. The operations in these videos were decomposed into basic, fundamental motions (such as walking, reaching for a tool, and bending over) by studying the videos frame by frame. A comparison analysis was then performed between the emergency pace and the normal working pace operations

  3. Sealed-bladdered chemical processing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Harless, D. Phillip

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus which enables a complete multi-stepped chemical treatment process to occur within a single, sealed-bladdered vessel 31. The entire chemical process occurs without interruption of the sealed-bladdered vessel 31 such as opening the sealed-bladdered vessel 31 between various steps of the process. The sealed-bladdered vessel 31 is loaded with a batch to be dissolved, treated, decanted, rinsed and/or dried. A pressure filtration step may also occur. The self-contained chemical processing apparatus 32 contains a sealed-bladder 32, a fluid pump 34, a reservoir 20, a compressed gas inlet, a vacuum pump 24, and a cold trap 23 as well as the associated piping 33, numerous valves 21,22,25,26,29,30,35,36 and other controls associated with such an apparatus. The claimed invention allows for dissolution and/or chemical treatment without the operator of the self-contained chemical processing apparatus 38 coming into contact with any of the process materials.

  4. Dust as interstellar catalyst. I. Quantifying the chemical desorption process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minissale, M.; Dulieu, F.; Cazaux, S.; Hocuk, S.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The presence of dust in the interstellar medium has profound consequences on the chemical composition of regions where stars are forming. Recent observations show that many species formed onto dust are populating the gas phase, especially in cold environments where UV- and cosmic-ray-induced photons do not account for such processes. Aims: The aim of this paper is to understand and quantify the process that releases solid species into the gas phase, the so-called chemical desorption process, so that an explicit formula can be derived that can be included in astrochemical models. Methods: We present a collection of experimental results of more than ten reactive systems. For each reaction, different substrates such as oxidized graphite and compact amorphous water ice were used. We derived a formula for reproducing the efficiencies of the chemical desorption process that considers the equipartition of the energy of newly formed products, followed by classical bounce on the surface. In part II of this study we extend these results to astrophysical conditions. Results: The equipartition of energy correctly describes the chemical desorption process on bare surfaces. On icy surfaces, the chemical desorption process is much less efficient, and a better description of the interaction with the surface is still needed. Conclusions: We show that the mechanism that directly transforms solid species into gas phase species is efficient for many reactions.

  5. Testing Chemical Safety: What Is Needed to Ensure the Widespread Application of Non-animal Approaches?

    PubMed

    Burden, Natalie; Sewell, Fiona; Chapman, Kathryn

    2015-05-01

    Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe. Numerous ethical, scientific, business, and legislative incentives will help to drive this shift. However, a number of hurdles must be overcome in the coming years before non-animal methods are adopted into widespread practice, particularly from regulatory, scientific, and global perspectives. Several initiatives are nevertheless underway that promise to increase the confidence in newer alternative methods, which will support the move towards a future in which less data from animal tests is required in the assessment of chemical safety. PMID:26018957

  6. Testing Chemical Safety: What Is Needed to Ensure the Widespread Application of Non-animal Approaches?

    PubMed Central

    Burden, Natalie; Sewell, Fiona; Chapman, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe. Numerous ethical, scientific, business, and legislative incentives will help to drive this shift. However, a number of hurdles must be overcome in the coming years before non-animal methods are adopted into widespread practice, particularly from regulatory, scientific, and global perspectives. Several initiatives are nevertheless underway that promise to increase the confidence in newer alternative methods, which will support the move towards a future in which less data from animal tests is required in the assessment of chemical safety. PMID:26018957

  7. Safety Issues of HG and PB as IFE Target Materials: Radiological Versus Chemical Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Cadwallader, L C; Moir, R W; Rio, G. D; Sanz, J

    2002-11-11

    We have performed a safety assessment of mercury and lead as possible hohlraum materials for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) targets, including for the first time a comparative analysis of the radiological and toxicological consequences of an accidental release. In order to calculate accident doses to the public, we have distinguished between accidents at the target fabrication facility and accidents at other areas of the power plant. Regarding the chemical toxicity assessment, we have used the USDOE regulations to determine the maximum allowable release in order to protect the public from adverse health effects. Opposite to common belief, it has been found that the chemical safety requirements for these materials appear to be more stringent than the concentrations that would result in an acceptable radiological dose.

  8. Resist roughness improvement by a chemical shrink process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagahara, Tatsuro; Sekito, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuriko

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we will discuss the improvement of resist pattern roughness on NTD (Negative Tone Development) resist by chemical shrink process. Chemical shrink process is one of the most practical approaches to achieve small feature size CH (Contact Hole) or trench with ArF immersion lithography. We found that this shrink material has not only general benefits of shrink process like DOF (Depth of Focus) margin improvement, but also demonstrates a pattern smoothing effect through observation of the surface of shrink layer using SPM (Scanning Probe Microscope). Additionally, an improvement of LWR (Line Width Roughness) over 16% and an improvement of LCDU (Local Critical Dimension Uniformity) around 60% were observed.

  9. A Course in Project Evaluation in the Chemical Process Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle-Riestra, J. Frank

    1983-01-01

    Describes a course designed to expose neophytes to methodology used in chemical process industries to evaluate commercial feasibility of proposed projects. Previously acquired disciplines are integrated to facilitate process synthesis, gain appreciation of nature of industrial projects and industrial viewpoint in managing them, and to become adept…

  10. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  11. DESIGNING CHEMICAL PROCESSES WITH OPEN AND FUGITIVE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Designing a chemical process normally includes aspects of economic and environmental disciplines. In this work we describe methods to quickly and easily evaluate the conomics and potential environmental impacts of a process, with the hydrodealkylation of toluene as an example. Th...

  12. Chemical and physical processes in Tank 241-SY-101: A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    Since 1942, chemical and radioactive waste have been stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. In March 1981 one of the double shell tanks, 241-SY-101 (called 101-SY), began venting large quantities of gas, primarily hydrogen and nitrous oxide. Because of the potential for explosion Westinghouse Hanford Company and the US Department of Energy realized the need for knowledge about the processes occurring in this tank that lead to generation of the gases. In June 1990, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory began assembling a Tank Waste Science Panel to develop a better understanding of the processes occurring the Tank 101-SY. This knowledge is necessary to provide a technically defensible basis for the safety analyses, which will allow the tank contents to be sampled, as well as for the future remediation of the tank and its contents. The Panel concluded that the data available on Tank 101-SY are insufficient to allow the critical chemical and physical processes giving rise to gas formation and release to be unambiguously identified. To provide the needed information the Panel recommends that Tank 101-SY by physically and chemically characterized as fully as possible and as expeditiously as safety considerations allow, and laboratory studies and modeling efforts be undertaken the chemical and physical processes involved in gas generation and release. Finally, the Panel recommends that no remediation steps be taken until there is a better understanding of the chemical and physical phenomena occurring in Tank 101-SY. Premature remediation steps may only serve to compound the problem. Furthermore, such steps may change the chemical and physical characteristics of the tank and prevent a true understanding of the phenomena involved. As a consequence, similar problems in other tanks on the site may not be adequately addressed. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. The National Toxicology Program chemical nomination selection and testing process.

    PubMed

    Heindel, J J

    1988-01-01

    The NTP is an interagency program of the Federal Government which coordinates toxicological programs at the NIH (NIEHS), FDA (NCTR), and CDC (NIOSH) with input from NCI, NIH, OSHA, CPSC, EPA, and ATSDR. The NTP has the capability to completely characterize the toxicologic profile of a chemical, including studies of chemical disposition, genetic toxicity, immunotoxicity, teratology, reproductive toxicity, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, and specific organ toxicity. The NTP encourages nominations of chemicals of human health concern from all sectors of the public, including industry, labor, and the general public. The specific process of nomination, evaluation, and selection of chemicals for testing by the NTP is described. It is a multicomponent system with several evaluations and a public peer review step to assure adequate consideration of all nominated chemicals. The results of NTP studies are all peer reviewed and available to the general public as well as to the scientific community. PMID:2980357

  14. Chemical industrial wastewater treated by combined biological and chemical oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Guomin, Cao; Guoping, Yang; Mei, Sheng; Yongjian, Wang

    2009-01-01

    Wastewaters from phenol and rubber synthesis were treated by the activated sludge process in a large-scale chemical factory in Shanghai, but the final effluent quality cannot conform with the local discharge limit without using river water for dilution. Therefore, this chemical factory had to upgrade its wastewater treatment plant. To fully use the present buildings and equipment during upgrading of the chemical factory's wastewater treatment plant and to save operation costs, a sequential biological pre-treatement, chemical oxidation, and biological post-treatment (or BCB for short) process had been proposed and investigated in a pilot trial. The pilot trial results showed that about 80% COD in the chemical wastewater could be removed through anoxic and aerobic degradation in the biological pre-treatement section, and the residual COD in the effluent of the biological pre-treatment section belongs to refractory chemicals which cannot be removed by the normal biological process. The refractory chemicals were partial oxidized using Fenton's reagent in the chemical oxidation section to improve their biodegradability; subsequently the wastewater was treated by the SBR process in the biological post-treatment section. The final effluent COD reached the first grade discharge limit (<100 mg l(-1)) of Chinese Notational Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996) even if without using any dilution water. Compared with the original dilution and biological process, the operation cost of the BCB process increased by about 0.5 yuan (RMB) per cubic metre wastewater, but about 1,240,000 m(3) a(-1) dilution water could be saved and the COD emission could be cut down by 112 tonne each year. PMID:19273902

  15. Aquatic environmental safety assessment and inhibition mechanism of chemicals for targeting Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Bo; Hao, Kai; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-11-01

    Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria that produce an array of secondary compounds with selective bioactivity against vertebrates, invertebrates, fungi, bacteria and cell lines. Recently the main methods of controlling cyanobacteria are using chemicals, medicinal plants and microorganism but fewer involved the safety research in hydrophytic ecosystems. In search of an environmentally safe compound, 53 chemicals were screened against the developed heavy cyanobacteria bloom Microcystis aeruginosa using coexistence culture system assay. The results of the coexistence assay showed that 9 chemicals inhibited M. aeruginosa effectively at 20 mg L(-1) after 7 days of exposure. Among them dimethomorph, propineb, and paraquat were identified that they are safe for Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, Carassius auratus (Goldfish) and Bacillus subtilis within half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values 5.2, 4.2 and 0.06 mg L(-1) after 7 days, respectively. Paraquat as the positive control observed to be more efficient than the other compounds with the inhibitory rate (IR) of 92% at 0.5 mg L(-1). For the potential inhibition mechanism, the chemicals could destroy the cell ultrastructure in different speed. The safety assay proved dimethomorph, propineb and paraquat as harmless formulations or products having potential value in M. aeruginosa controlling, with the advantage of its cell morphology degrading ability. PMID:25139029

  16. Treatment Process Requirements for Waters Containing Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringfellow, W. T.; Camarillo, M. K.; Domen, J. K.; Sandelin, W.; Varadharajan, C.; Cooley, H.; Jordan, P. D.; Heberger, M. G.; Reagan, M. T.; Houseworth, J. E.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    A wide variety of chemical additives are used as part of the hydraulic fracturing (HyF) process. There is concern that HyF chemicals will be released into the environment and contaminate drinking water, agricultural water, or other water used for beneficial purposes. There is also interest in using produced water (water extracted from the subsurface during oil and gas production) for irrigation and other beneficial purposes, especially in the arid Southwest US. Reuse of produced water is not speculative: produced water can be low in salts and is being used in California for irrigation after minimal treatment. In this study, we identified chemicals that are used for hydraulic fracturing in California and conducted an analysis to determine if those chemicals would be removed by a variety of technically available treatment processes, including oil/water separation, air stripping, a variety of sorption media, advanced oxidation, biological treatment, and a variety of membrane treatment systems. The approach taken was to establish major physiochemical properties for individual chemicals (log Koc, Henry's constant, biodegradability, etc.), group chemicals by function (e.g corrosion inhibition, biocides), and use those properties to predict the fate of chemical additives in a treatment process. Results from this analysis is interpreted in the context of what is known about existing systems for the treatment of produced water before beneficial reuse, which includes a range of treatment systems from oil/water separators (the most common treatment) to sophisticated treatment trains used for purifying produced water for groundwater recharge. The results show that most HyF chemical additives will not be removed in existing treatment systems, but that more sophisticated treatment trains can be designed to remove additives before beneficial reuse.

  17. Reduced product yield in chemical processes by second law effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.; Funk, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of second law effects in chemical processes, where product yield is explicitly related to the individual irreversibilities within the process to indicate a maximum theoretical yield, is presented. Examples are given that indicate differences between first and second law approaches toward process efficiency and process yield. This analysis also expresses production capacity in terms of the heating value of a product. As a result, it is particularly convenient in analyzing fuel conversion plants and their potential for improvement. Relationships are also given for the effects of irreversibilities on requirements for process heat and for feedstocks.

  18. Influence of chemical processing on the imaging properties of microlenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiljević, Darko; Murić, Branka; Pantelić, Dejan; Panić, Bratimir

    2009-07-01

    Microlenses are produced by irradiation of a layer of tot'hema and eosin sensitized gelatin (TESG) by using a laser beam (Nd:YAG 2nd harmonic; 532 nm). All the microlenses obtained are concave with a parabolic profile. After the production, the microlenses are chemically processed with various concentrations of alum. The following imaging properties of microlenses were calculated and analyzed: the root mean square (rms) wavefront aberration, the geometric encircled energy and the spot diagram. The microlenses with higher concentrations of alum in solution had a greater effective focal length and better image quality. The microlenses chemically processed with 10% alum solution had near-diffraction-limited performance.

  19. Signal Processing For Chemical Sensing: Statistics or Biological Inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, Santiago

    2011-09-01

    Current analytical instrumentation and continuous sensing can provide huge amounts of data. Automatic signal processing and information evaluation is needed to overcome drowning in data. Today, statistical techniques are typically used to analyse and extract information from continuous signals. However, it is very interesting to note that biology (insects and vertebrates) has found alternative solutions for chemical sensing and information processing. This is a brief introduction to the developments in the European Project: Bio-ICT NEUROCHEM: Biologically Inspired Computation for Chemical Sensing (grant no. 216916) Fp7 project devoted to biomimetic olfactory systems.

  20. The process and results of departmental specific safety surveys for health care organizations. Successful program.

    PubMed

    Meittunen, E; Snyder, B; Meyer, M

    2001-04-01

    1. Meeting compliance and accreditation standards can be challenging for any organization, especially in the health care setting. Safety surveys can play a strategic role in proactively preparing for such events. 2. Implementing department specific safety surveys offers a tailored approach to monitoring and addressing the occupational safety issues that occur within each department. 3. Safety surveys are a method for assessing and monitoring the environment and employee training needs, and for driving safety decisions. 4. Safety in the workplace must be a shared and continuous responsibility among employees. A formal safety survey process instilling a culture of responsibility and "buy in" by all employees is necessary. PMID:11760523

  1. Nuclear instrumentation, process instrumentation and control, and engineered safety features. Volume nine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Volume nine covers nuclear instrumentation (detection of nuclear radiation, gas-filled detectors, measuring neutron population, BWR/PWR nuclear instrumentation), process instrumentation and control (what is process instrumentation, pressure detectors and transducers, temperature detectors and transducers, level detectors and transducers, flow detectors and transducers, mechanical position detectors and transducers, what are the major processes controlled, BWR and PWR process instrumentation and control), engineered safety features (why are engineered safety features provided, the design basis accident, engineered safety feature operation, PWR engineered safety feature systems, BWR engineered safety feature systems).

  2. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  3. Processes of technology assessment: The National Transportation Safety Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, E.

    1972-01-01

    The functions and operations of the Safety Board as related to technology assessment are described, and a brief history of the Safety Board is given. Recommendations made for safety in all areas of transportation and the actions taken are listed. Although accident investigation is an important aspect of NTSB's activity, it is felt that the greatest contribution is in pressing for development of better accident prevention programs. Efforts of the Safety Board in changing transportation technology to improve safety and prevent accidents are illustrated.

  4. Organic chemical aging mechanisms: An annotated bibliography. Waste Tank Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M.; Nelson, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    An annotated bibliography has been compiled of the potential chemical and radiological aging mechanisms of the organic constituents (non-ferrocyanide) that would likely be found in the UST at Hanford. The majority of the work that has been conducted on the aging of organic chemicals used for extraction and processing of nuclear materials has been in conjunction with the acid or PUREX type processes. At Hanford the waste being stored in the UST has been stabilized with caustic. The aging factors that were used in this work were radiolysis, hydrolysis and nitrite/nitrate oxidation. The purpose of this work was two-fold: to determine whether or not research had been or is currently being conducted on the species associated with the Hanford UST waste, either as a mixture or as individual chemicals or chemical functionalities, and to determine what areas of chemical aging need to be addressed by further research.

  5. Assessment of aircraft impact probabilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, L.G.; Mines, J.M.; Webb, B.B.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility of an aircraft crash into a facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The ICPP is part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Based on the data used in this study, an air crash into any single facility at the ICPP is incredible. An air crash into aggregate areas incorporating the following is extremely unlikely: (1) ICPP radiological materials storage facilities, (2) ICPP major processing facilities, and (3) the ICPP land surface area, which excludes buildings. According to Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company safety analysis procedures, if the probability of a radiological release event is determined to be incredible, no further review is required. Therefore, an aircraft crash scenario is not required in the safety analysis for a single facility but should be discussed relative to the ICPP aggregate areas.

  6. Composition and placement process for oil field chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu, L.A.; Yost, M.E.

    1991-01-22

    This patent describes a process for the continuous release of an oil field chemical within a subterranean hydrocarbon bearing formation or wellbore penetrating such formation. It comprises placing the oil field chemical in a polymeric microcapsule; dispersing such polymeric microcapsules; introducing the wellbore fluid containing the microcapsules into a well bore or subterranean formation through a wellbore; then allowing water and temperature at formation conditions to degrade; continuously releasing the chemical from the degraded microcapsules. This patent describes a composition comprising an oil field chemical incorporated in a polymeric microcapsule comprising the condensation product of hydroxyacetic acid monomer or hydroxyacetic acid co-condensed with up to 15 percent by weight of other hydroxy-, carboxylic acid-, or hydroxycarboxylic acid- containing moieties. The product has a number average molecular weight of from about 200 to about 4000.

  7. Combined system of monothermal chemical exchange process with electrolysis and thermal diffusion process for enriching tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamoto, A.; Hasegawa, K.; Masui, T.

    1988-09-01

    Monothermal chemical exchange process with electrolysis (wellknown as the CECE process) is an effective method for enriching and removing tritium from tritiated water of low to middle level activity. The thermal diffusion process (ThD) is a low inventory gas phase method for enriching tritium from hydrogen. ThD and CECE process can be combined with each other by hydrogen gas line.

  8. ASSESSING TOXICITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS TO ANAEROBIC TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A screening protocol has been developed to provide a rapid but dependable and repeatable assessment of the effect of toxic organic chemicals on anaerobic treatment processes. his protocol provides information on the rate limiting biological reactions and the concentration of toxi...

  9. 26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT NORTH EDGE FROM DECEMBER 7TH AVENUE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. Portfolio Assessment on Chemical Reactor Analysis and Process Design Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alha, Katariina

    2004-01-01

    Assessment determines what students regard as important: if a teacher wants to change students' learning, he/she should change the methods of assessment. This article describes the use of portfolio assessment on five courses dealing with chemical reactor and process design during the years 1999-2001. Although the use of portfolio was a new…