Science.gov

Sample records for chemical process safety

  1. Experiments To Demonstrate Chemical Process Safety Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorathy, Brian D.; Mooers, Jamisue A.; Warren, Matthew M.; Mich, Jennifer L.; Murhammer, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the need to educate undergraduate chemical engineering students on chemical process safety and introduces the content of a chemical process safety course offered at the University of Iowa. Presents laboratory experiments demonstrating flammability limits, flash points, electrostatic, runaway reactions, explosions, and relief design.

  2. Experiments To Demonstrate Chemical Process Safety Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorathy, Brian D.; Mooers, Jamisue A.; Warren, Matthew M.; Mich, Jennifer L.; Murhammer, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the need to educate undergraduate chemical engineering students on chemical process safety and introduces the content of a chemical process safety course offered at the University of Iowa. Presents laboratory experiments demonstrating flammability limits, flash points, electrostatic, runaway reactions, explosions, and relief design.…

  3. Chemical process safety at fuel cycle facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, D.A.

    1997-08-01

    This NUREG provides broad guidance on chemical safety issues relevant to fuel cycle facilities. It describes an approach acceptable to the NRC staff, with examples that are not exhaustive, for addressing chemical process safety in the safe storage, handling, and processing of licensed nuclear material. It expounds to license holders and applicants a general philosophy of the role of chemical process safety with respect to NRC-licensed materials; sets forth the basic information needed to properly evaluate chemical process safety; and describes plausible methods of identifying and evaluating chemical hazards and assessing the adequacy of the chemical safety of the proposed equipment and facilities. Examples of equipment and methods commonly used to prevent and/or mitigate the consequences of chemical incidents are discussed in this document.

  4. Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

  5. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant safety document ICPP hazardous chemical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a hazardous chemical evaluation performed for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). ICPP tracks chemicals on a computerized database, Haz Track, that contains roughly 2000 individual chemicals. The database contains information about each chemical, such as its form (solid, liquid, or gas); quantity, either in weight or volume; and its location. The Haz Track database was used as the primary starting point for the chemical evaluation presented in this report. The chemical data and results presented here are not intended to provide limits, but to provide a starting point for nonradiological hazards analysis.

  6. Chemical process safety management within the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Piatt, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    Although the Department of Energy (DOE) is not well known for its chemical processing activities, the DOE does have a variety of chemical processes covered under OSHA`s Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (the PSM Standard). DOE, like industry, is obligated to comply with the PSM Standard. The shift in the mission of DOE away from defense programs toward environmental restoration and waste management has affected these newly forming process safety management programs within DOE. This paper describes the progress made in implementing effective process safety management programs required by the PSM Standard and discusses some of the trends that have supported efforts to reduce chemical process risks within the DOE. In June of 1994, a survey of chemicals exceeding OSHA PSM or EPA Risk Management Program threshold quantities (TQs) at DOE sites found that there were 22 processes that utilized toxic or reactive chemicals over TQs; there were 13 processes involving flammable gases and liquids over TQs; and explosives manufacturing occurred at 4 sites. Examination of the survey results showed that 12 of the 22 processes involving toxic chemicals involved the use of chlorine for water treatment systems. The processes involving flammable gases and liquids were located at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve and Naval petroleum Reserve sites.

  7. Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

    2005-04-01

    Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

  8. Technical safety appraisal of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    On June 27, 1989, Secretary of Energy, Admiral James D. Watkins, US Navy (Retired), announced a 10-point initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES&H) programs and waste management operations in the Department of Energy (DOE). One of the initiatives involved conducting independent Tiger Team Assessments (TTA) at DOE operating facilities. A TTA of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was performed during June and July 1991. Technical Safety Appraisals (TSA) were conducted in conjunction with the TTA as its Safety and Health portion. However, because of operational constraints the the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), operated for the DOE by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO), was not included in the Safety and Health Subteam assessment at that time. This TSA, conducted April 12 - May 8, 1992, was performed by the DOE Office of Performance Assessment to complete the normal scope of the Safety and Health portion of the Tiger Team Assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The purpose of TSAs is to evaluate and strengthen DOE operations by verifying contractor compliance with DOE Orders, to assure that lessons learned from commercial operations are incorporated into facility operations, and to stimulate and encourage pursuit of excellence; thus, the appraisal addresses more issues than would be addressed in a strictly compliance-oriented appraisal. A total of 139 Performance Objectives have been addressed by this appraisal in 19 subject areas. These 19 areas are: organization and administration, quality verification, operations, maintenance, training and certification, auxiliary systems, emergency preparedness, technical support, packaging and transportation, nuclear criticality safety, safety/security interface, experimental activities, site/facility safety review, radiological protection, worker safety and health compliance, personnel protection, fire protection, medical services and natural phenomena.

  9. 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals. 1910.119 Section 1910.119 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Hazardous Materials § 1910.119 Process safety management of...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals. 1926.64 Section 1926.64 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls...

  11. Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James A.; Davis, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "conservation of life" as a concept and unifying theme for increasing awareness, application, and integration of process safety in chemical engineering education. Students need to think of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of life as equally important in engineering design and analysis.

  12. Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James A.; Davis, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "conservation of life" as a concept and unifying theme for increasing awareness, application, and integration of process safety in chemical engineering education. Students need to think of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of life as equally important in engineering design and analysis.…

  13. CHEMICAL SAFETY ALERTS-

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical Safety Alerts are short publications which explain specific hazards that have become evident through chemical accident investigation efforts. EPA has produced over a dozen Alerts to date. This year's Alert: Managing Chemical Reactivity Hazards

  14. Toxicology and Chemical Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Stephen K.

    1983-01-01

    Topics addressed in this discussion of toxicology and chemical safety include routes of exposure, dose/response relationships, action of toxic substances, and effects of exposure to chemicals. Specific examples are used to illustrate the principles discussed. Suggests prudence in handling any chemicals, whether or not toxicity is known. (JN)

  15. Chemical Safety Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the need to enhance understanding of chemical safety in educational facilities that includes adequate staff training and drilling requirements. The question of what is considered proper training is addressed. (GR)

  16. Laboratory Safety and Chemical Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Toxicology/chemical hazards, safety policy, legal responsibilities, adequacy of ventilation, chemical storage, evaluating experimental hazards, waste disposal, and laws governing chemical safety were among topics discussed in 10 papers presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982). Several topics

  17. Laboratory Safety and Chemical Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Toxicology/chemical hazards, safety policy, legal responsibilities, adequacy of ventilation, chemical storage, evaluating experimental hazards, waste disposal, and laws governing chemical safety were among topics discussed in 10 papers presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982). Several topics…

  18. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V.

    1969-01-01

    Presents the Safety Guide used in the Research Center at Monsanto Chemical Company (St. Louis). Topics include: general safety practices, safety glasses and shoes, respiratory protection, electrical wiring, solvent handling and waste disposal. Procedures are given for evacuating, "tagging out, and "locking out. Special mention is given to…

  19. Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing--experience from Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Nyirenda, D B; Chiwona-Karltun, L; Chitundu, M; Haggblade, S; Brimer, L

    2011-03-01

    The cassava belt area in Southern Africa is experiencing an unforeseen surge in cassava production, processing and consumption. Little documentation exists on the effects of this surge on processing procedures, the prevailing levels of cyanogenic glucosides of products consumed and the levels of products commercially available on the market. Risk assessments disclose that effects harmful to the developing central nervous system (CNS) may be observed at a lower exposure than previously anticipated. We interviewed farmers in Zambia and Malawi about their cultivars, processing procedures and perceptions concerning cassava and chemical food safety. Chips, mixed biscuits and flour, procured from households and markets in three regions of Zambia (Luapula-North, Western and Southern) as well as products from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi, were analyzed for total cyanogenic potential (CNp). Processed products from Luapula showed a low CNp, <10 mg HCN equiv./kg air dried weight, while samples from Mongu, Western Province, exhibited high levels of CNp, varying from 50 to 290 mg HCN equiv./kg. Even the lowest level is five times higher than the recommended safety level of 10mg/kg decided on for cassava flour. Our results call for concerted efforts in promoting gender oriented processing technologies. PMID:20654674

  20. 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... materials that could foreseeably occur. Note: Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR... requirements in 29 CFR 1910.252(a) have been implemented prior to beginning the hot work operations; it shall... action plan for the entire plant in accordance with the provisions of 29 CFR 1910.38. In addition,...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... materials that could foreseeably occur. Note: Safety data sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910... requirements in 29 CFR 1910.252(a) have been implemented prior to beginning the hot work operations; it shall... action plan for the entire plant in accordance with the provisions of 29 CFR 1910.38. In addition,...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) may be used to comply with this... requirements in 29 CFR 1910.252(a) have been implemented prior to beginning the hot work operations; it shall... action plan for the entire plant in accordance with the provisions of 29 CFR 1910.38. In addition,...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... materials that could foreseeably occur. Note: Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR... requirements in 29 CFR 1926.352 have been implemented prior to beginning the hot work operations; it shall... action plan for the entire plant in accordance with the provisions of 29 CFR 1926.35(a). In addition,...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) may be used to comply with this... requirements in 29 CFR 1910.252(a) have been implemented prior to beginning the hot work operations; it shall... action plan for the entire plant in accordance with the provisions of 29 CFR 1910.38. In addition,...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... materials that could foreseeably occur. Note: Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR... requirements in 29 CFR 1926.352 have been implemented prior to beginning the hot work operations; it shall... action plan for the entire plant in accordance with the provisions of 29 CFR 1926.35(a). In addition,...

  6. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Safety Course for Chemical Technologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Kathleen A.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two courses in chemical safety required as a part of a two-year program in chemical technology offered by the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (Canada). Lists the topics covered in each course. Provides descriptions of hand-outs, audiovisual materials, demonstrations, assignments, and examinations used in the courses. (TW)

  7. SAFETY IN THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEERE, NORMAN V.

    MONTHLY ARTICLES ON LABORATORY SAFETY THAT APPEARED IN THE "JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION" BETWEEN JANUARY 1964, AND JANUARY 1967, ARE COMBINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE CHEMISTRY TEACHERS. A GENERAL SECTION DEALS WITH (1) RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACCIDENT PREVENTION, (2) SAFETY CONSIDERATION IN RESEARCH PROPOSALS, (3) A SAFETY…

  8. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: A Chemical Laboratory Safety Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Arthur R.; Harris, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    Presented is an inspection form developed for use by college students to perform laboratory safety inspections. The form lists and classifies chemicals and is used to locate such physical facilities as: fume hoods, eye-wash fountains, deluge showers, and flammable storage cabinets. (BT)

  9. Safety in Handling Hazardous Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    This manual describes safety procedures which should be observed in the chemistry laboratory. Accidents which may occur when working with chemicals such as peroxides, phosphorus, heavy metals, acids, etc., need special treatment. Quite suitable descriptions of such treatment are listed for each kind of possible accident in the laboratory.…

  10. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Berkner, K.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (CHSP) is to provide specific guidance to all LBL employees and contractors who use hazardous chemicals. This Plan, when implemented, fulfills the requirements of both the Federal OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) for laboratory workers, and the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for non-laboratory operations (e.g., shops). It sets forth safety procedures and describes how LBL employees are informed about the potential chemical hazards in their work areas so they can avoid harmful exposures and safeguard their health. Generally, communication of this Plan will occur through training and the Plan will serve as a the framework and reference guide for that training.

  11. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design of a chemical process involves many aspects: from profitability, flexibility and reliability to safety to the environment. While each of these is important, in this work, the focus will be on profitability and the environment. Key to the study of these aspects is the ...

  12. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report marks the culmination of a 4-month review conducted to identify chemical safety vulnerabilities existing at DOE facilities. This review is an integral part of DOE's efforts to raise its commitment to chemical safety to the same level as that for nuclear safety.

  13. Chemical Lab Safety Draws Renewed Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, David

    1980-01-01

    The National Research Council has published a comprehensive report on procedures for handling hazardous chemicals and on other aspects of laboratory safety. By early 1981, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration intends to present preliminary proposals for safety in chemical research laboratories. (WB)

  14. Chemical Processing Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyerle, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical processes presented in this document include cleaning, pickling, surface finishes, chemical milling, plating, dry film lubricants, and polishing. All types of chemical processes applicable to aluminum, for example, are to be found in the aluminum alloy section. There is a separate section for each category of metallic alloy plus a section for non-metals, such as plastics. The refractories, super-alloys and titanium, are prime candidates for the space shuttle, therefore, the chemical processes applicable to these alloys are contained in individual sections of this manual.

  15. Project on chemical safety in Poland.

    PubMed

    Indulski, J A; Krajewski, J A; Majka, J; Dutkiewicz, T

    1990-01-01

    This work focuses on main aspects of a proposed system of chemical safety in Poland. General principles have been formulated, including theoretical guidelines, definitions and functions. Additionally, organizational and legislative structures have been proposed. A basic principal of the system says that each activity related to the application of chemical compounds creates a risk of adverse health and environmental effects. According to the definition adopted, chemical safety means such levels of chemical compounds in the environment, coming from various sources, which ensure that the risk of adverse health effects and other negative effects will not surpass socially acceptable levels. The chemical safety system is aimed at preventing and limiting the risk of undesirable health and environmental effects from chemical compounds. It is proposed that the system be coordinated by the National Coordinating Committee on Chemical Safety. The most urgent task of the Committee would be to draft a law on human health protection against the harmful effects of chemical compounds. PMID:2134317

  16. SOME CHEMICAL SAFETY ASPECTS AT LANL

    SciTech Connect

    J. LAUL

    2001-05-01

    Recently, the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors have begun activities to improve the quality and consistency of chemical safety programs throughout the DOE Complex. Several working groups have been formed to assemble a framework for systematically identifying and quantifying chemical hazards and managing chemical risks. At LANL, chemical safety program is implemented through Laboratory Implementation Requirements (LIRs), which are part of the Integrated Safety Management (ISM) plan that includes Safe Work Practices, emphasizing five core functions; define work, identify and analyze hazards, develop and implement controls, perform work safely, and ensure performance. Work is authorized in medium, low and minimal risk areas and not in high risk. Some chemical safety aspects are discussed in terms of chemical hazards and identification, screening, facility hazard categorization--Category A (high), Category B (moderate), and Category C (low), and their requirements in format and content in Authorization Safety Basis documents.

  17. Chemical safety and governance in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, C M; Porto, M F; de Freitas, N B; Pivetta, F; Arcuri, A S; Moreira, J C; Machado, J M

    2001-09-14

    Chemical safety is recognized in Agenda 21(UNCED--Rio 92), as one of the most serious problems to be faced worldwide being a problem not just of governability, restricted more to the role of states and governments, but of governance at the national and international levels. It poses greater challenges for countries like Brazil where the issues of democracy, security, sustainability and equity, which are fundamental to governance, are merely incipient and still far from solved. Taking as references the analysis of four cases in the Brazilian context, we illustrate the situation from less densely populated areas (as in the cases of mercury use by gold miners in the Amazon and pesticides in agricultural producing areas), through medium-sized towns (as in the accident with cesium 137 in Goiânia), to the major urban and industrial centers (as in the cases of lead from battery renovators and benzene in the oil and steel industries and oil refineries). What can be seen is a situation where problems connected with chemical safety have grown in intensity and extent far more than the capacity to deal with them. In industrializing countries, the formulation of chemical safety policies must take into account not only the complexity and uncertainties involved in understanding the problems, but also the aspects relating to the different modes and levels of vulnerability. This is necessary in order to attempt to build better contextualized and more participatory knowledge and decision-making processes at the local and global levels, which we take as basic prerequisites for governance. PMID:11532363

  18. 77 FR 66638 - The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... access to process hazard analyses and the development of other elements of the standard; developing a written action plan for implementation of employee participation in process hazard analyses and other... process hazard analysis; documenting actions taken to resolve process hazard analysis team findings...

  19. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffee, Robert D.

    1972-01-01

    The author discusses a system for establishing the relative potential of a chemical to release energy suddenly and to indicate release. This system is applicable to chemical storage and transportation. The system is based upon three simple tests requiring a minimum sample (1 go or 1 ml): (1) computation, (2) impact sensitivity, and (3) thermal…

  20. Relationship of safety culture and process safety.

    PubMed

    Olive, Claire; O'Connor, T Michael; Mannan, M Sam

    2006-03-17

    Throughout history, humans have gathered in groups for social, religious, and industrial purposes. As the conglomeration of people interact, a set of underlying values, beliefs, and principles begins to develop that serve to guide behavior within the group. These "guidelines" are commonly referred to as the group culture. Modern-day organizations, including corporations, have developed their own unique cultures derived from the diversity of the organizational interests and the background of the employees. Safety culture, a sub-set of organizational culture, has been a major focus in recent years. This is especially true in the chemical industry due to the series of preventable, safety-related disasters that occurred in the late seventies and eighties. Some of the most notable disasters, during this time period, occurred at Bhopal, Flixborough, and Seveso. However, current events, like the September 11th terrorist attacks and the disintegration of the Columbia shuttle, have caused an assessment of safety culture in a variety of other organizations. PMID:16314040

  1. Nuclear explosive safety study process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

  2. 40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... paragraph (b): Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) may be used to... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.65 Process safety... data; (4) Reactivity data: (5) Corrosivity data; (6) Thermal and chemical stability data; and...

  3. 40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... paragraph (b): Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) may be used to... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.65 Process safety... data; (4) Reactivity data: (5) Corrosivity data; (6) Thermal and chemical stability data; and...

  4. 40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... paragraph (b): Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) may be used to... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.65 Process safety... data; (4) Reactivity data: (5) Corrosivity data; (6) Thermal and chemical stability data; and...

  5. Striving for safety excellence in chemical and glovebox environments

    SciTech Connect

    Montalvo, M. L.; Vigil, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    Within Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division provides the foundation for maintaining the nuclear materials mission in support of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile. Plutonium research and production competencies reside in a suitably skilled and well-trained work force. Due to the unique chemical and physical properties of the actinide elements, specialized training, expert knowledge, and unique safety procedures are essential to the execution of NMT's mission. To ensure the highest degree of safety, NMT Division employs a behavior-based solution (ATOMICS) for assuring operations safety excellence. The subsequent mitigation efforts of the ATOMICS Process to enhance the safety culture of the NMT workforce in chemical and glovebox environments are the primary focus of this paper. The NMT ATOMICS Process demonstrates the application of LANLs first guiding principal of the Integrated Safety Management Program 'management commitment and worker involvement' as an integral element of the process. The vision of ATOMICS is to be the Department of Energy's (DOE) model of excellence in the application of safety performance.

  6. Chemical Safety. Part I: Safety in the Handling of Hazardous Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the importance of considering the hazards, precautions, and emergency procedures pertinent to the safe handling of chemicals before introducing students to the laboratory. Discusses safety hazards depending on the chemical's properties including flammability, corrosivity, toxicity, and reactivity; eye protection; and physical hazards.…

  7. Chemical processing of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper highlights recent work on the general problem of processing lunar materials. The discussion covers lunar source materials, refined products, motivations for using lunar materials, and general considerations for a lunar or space processing plant. Attention is given to chemical processing through various techniques, including electrolysis of molten silicates, carbothermic/silicothermic reduction, carbo-chlorination process, NaOH basic-leach process, and HF acid-leach process. Several options for chemical processing of lunar materials are well within the state of the art of applied chemistry and chemical engineering to begin development based on the extensive knowledge of lunar materials.

  8. The safety of process automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toola, A.

    1993-03-01

    The effect of automation on process safety is examined. The methods of safety analysis can be applied during the designing stages of safe process automation. The hazard and operability study makes it possible to take into account the potential process disturbances and to develop countermeasures. Action error analysis studies the consequences of potential human errors in task execution. Fault tree analysis can be used to study the causes of potential accidents and to examine the control actions suitable for providing protection against them thereby reducing the probability of accidents. Event tree analysis is a method for considering the consequences of potential hazardous situations and for developing countermeasures to reduce such consequences. Failure mode and effect analysis is a method for checking that the potential failures of the control and automation system are not overlooked. Reliability assessment can be used with safety analysis methods to study the bottlenecks in the design and to prioritize the countermeasures whereby the risk can be reduced to attain an acceptable level.

  9. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Safety Appendix to the 1983 CPT Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents an appendix to the Committee on Professional Training (CPT) of the Division of Chemical Health and Safety of the American Chemical Society. The information is applicable to chemical health and safety policies and practices within the chemistry department of an academic institution. Includes lists of references with safety information. (JN)

  10. Chemical waterflood process development

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.L.

    1980-04-01

    A waterflood process is claimed wherein a slug of biopolymer is injected into a formation, followed by a slug of synthetic polymer. The biopolymer slug protects the synthetic polymer from degradation due to presence of salts or surfactants in the formation.

  11. Screening for Chemical Contributions to Breast Cancer Risk: A Case Study for Chemical Safety Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Janet M.; Dairkee, Shanaz H.; Fenton, Suzanne E.; Johnson, Dale; Navarro, Kathleen M.; Osborne, Gwendolyn; Rudel, Ruthann A.; Solomon, Gina M.; Zeise, Lauren; Janssen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background Current approaches to chemical screening, prioritization, and assessment are being reenvisioned, driven by innovations in chemical safety testing, new chemical regulations, and demand for information on human and environmental impacts of chemicals. To conceptualize these changes through the lens of a prevalent disease, the Breast Cancer and Chemicals Policy project convened an interdisciplinary expert panel to investigate methods for identifying chemicals that may increase breast cancer risk. Methods Based on a review of current evidence, the panel identified key biological processes whose perturbation may alter breast cancer risk. We identified corresponding assays to develop the Hazard Identification Approach for Breast Carcinogens (HIA-BC), a method for detecting chemicals that may raise breast cancer risk. Finally, we conducted a literature-based pilot test of the HIA-BC. Results The HIA-BC identifies assays capable of detecting alterations to biological processes relevant to breast cancer, including cellular and molecular events, tissue changes, and factors that alter susceptibility. In the pilot test of the HIA-BC, chemicals associated with breast cancer all demonstrated genotoxic or endocrine activity, but not necessarily both. Significant data gaps persist. Conclusions This approach could inform the development of toxicity testing that targets mechanisms relevant to breast cancer, providing a basis for identifying safer chemicals. The study identified important end points not currently evaluated by federal testing programs, including altered mammary gland development, Her2 activation, progesterone receptor activity, prolactin effects, and aspects of estrogen receptor β activity. This approach could be extended to identify the biological processes and screening methods relevant for other common diseases. Citation Schwarzman MR, Ackerman JM, Dairkee SH, Fenton SE, Johnson D, Navarro KM, Osborne G, Rudel RA, Solomon GM, Zeise L, Janssen S. 2015. Screening for chemical contributions to breast cancer risk: a case study for chemical safety evaluation. Environ Health Perspect 123:1255–1264; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408337 PMID:26032647

  12. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Developing Departmental Safety Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.; Palladino, George F.

    1980-01-01

    Presents rationale and guidelines for development of Safety Standard Operating Procedures (Safety SOP) specific for local conditions. Includes an outline of a Safety SOP developed for a department primarily focused on undergraduate education with a wide variety of expertise from common laborer to PhD with 20 years experience. (Author/JN)

  13. Pantex: safety in nuclear weapons processing.

    PubMed

    Johannesen, R E; Farrell, L M

    2000-11-01

    The Pantex Plant, located in the Texas panhandle near Amarillo, is a major Department of Energy (DOE) participant in maintaining the safety of the nation's nuclear weapons resources and protecting the employees, public, and environment. With more than 168,000 person-years of operations involving nuclear materials, explosives, and hazardous chemicals, Pantex has maintained a notable safety record. This article overviews the nuclear weapon activities at Pantex and describes their safety culture. PMID:11045518

  14. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Fire Safety and Fire Control in the Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbraham, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses fire safety and fire control in the chemistry laboratory. The combustion process, extinguishing equipment, extinguisher maintenance and location, and fire safety and practices are included. (HM)

  15. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

  16. Tannins Influence Soil Chemical Processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannins, plant secondary compounds, can affect soil and water quality by interacting with inorganic and organic compounds. However, the fate of tannins and their effect on soil metal cycling dynamics and soil chemical processes is poorly understood. We examined the effects of commercial available ...

  17. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 3 consists of eleven appendices containing the following: Field verification reports for Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rocky Flats Plant, Brookhaven National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., and Sandia National Laboratories (NM); Mini-visits to small DOE sites; Working Group meeting, June 7--8, 1994; Commendable practices; Related chemical safety initiatives at DOE; Regulatory framework and industry initiatives related to chemical safety; and Chemical inventory data from field self-evaluation reports.

  18. Development of a written comprehensive chemical safety program

    SciTech Connect

    Sassone, D.M.; Holman, S.H.; Whyte, H.M.; Shinkel, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    It has become increasingly important for occupational safety and health (OSH) professionals to provide clear, definitive guidance to workers and supervisors on chemical safety. Internal OSH professionals find themselves in the role of consultants to their companies, providing {open_quotes}how-to`s{close_quotes} to line personnel. This has resulted in a need to provide information for chemical safety that extends beyond an MSDS, especially where requirements/guidance may be duplicative or conflicting. Requirements are contained in OSHA, DOT and internal documents; guidance includes ANSI, ASTM, and NFPA. OSH personnel, workers and supervisors at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), who must comply with DOE requirements, recognized the difficulty of complying with numerous regulations and guidelines. A document that resulted in {open_quotes}one-stop{close_quotes} shopping for chemical safety was proposed. This presentation describes our approach to simplifying chemical safety requirements and guidelines for LANL.

  19. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.; Birmingham, J.G.; McDonald, C.E.; Kurath, D.E.; Friedrich, M.

    1998-09-22

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 26 figs.

  20. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Drost, M. Kevin; Call, Charles J.; Birmingham, Joseph G.; McDonald, Carolyn Evans; Kurath, Dean E.; Friedrich, Michele

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  1. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

  2. Environmental and safety obligations of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1994-04-07

    Among its many unique and precedent-setting provisions, the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) includes important requirements for States Parties to protect the public safety and the environment in the course of carrying out the treaty. These obligations will apply to the destruction of chemical weapons, of former chemical weapons production facilities, and to other activities under the Convention such as the verification scheme. This morning, I will briefly discuss the Convention`s safety and environmental obligations, concentrating on their effects in this country as the United States chemical weapons stockpile is destroyed.

  3. A Chemical Plant Safety and Hazard Analysis Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course for teaching chemical engineering students about safety and hazards. Summarizes the course content including topics for term papers and disciplines related to this course. Lists 18 references. (YP)

  4. Support from Afar: Using Chemical Safety Information on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Ralph

    One of the major challenges facing people committed to Teaching Safety in High Schools, Colleges, and Universities is keeping up with both the wide range of relevant technical information about potential hazards (ranging from fire protection to chemical hazards to biological issues) and the ever-changing world of safety regulations and standards.…

  5. CHEMICAL SAFETY: ASKING THE RIGHT QUESTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, F

    2008-08-05

    Recent reports have shown that, despite efforts to the contrary, chemical accidents continue to occur at an unacceptable rate and there is no evidence that this rate is decreasing. Based on this observation, one can conclude that previous analyses have not accurately identified and implemented appropriate fixes to eliminate identified root causes for chemical events. Based on this, it is time to reevaluate chemical accident data with a fresh eye and determine (a) what corrective actions have already been identified but have not been implemented, (b) what other root causes may be involved, and (c) what new corrective actions should be taken to eliminate these newly identified root causes.

  6. Chemical safety: asking the right questions

    SciTech Connect

    Whyte, Helena M; Quigley, David; Freshwater, David

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that, despite efforts to the contrary, chemical accidents continue to occur at an unacceptable rate and there is no evidence that this rate is decreasing. Based on this observation, one can conclude that previous analyses have not accurately identified and implemented appropriate fixes to eliminate identified root causes for chemical events. Based on this, it is time to reevaluate chemical accident data with a fresh eye and determine (a) what corrective actions have already been identified but have not been implemented, (b) what other root causes may be involved, and (c) what new corrective actions should be taken to eliminate these newly identified root causes.

  7. Database for Safety-Oriented Tracking of Chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, Jacob; Carr, Sandra; Plumlee, Debrah; Slater, Andy; Samson, Thomas M.; Holowaty, Toby L.; Skeete, Darren; Haenz, Mary Alice; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa

    2010-01-01

    SafetyChem is a computer program that maintains a relational database for tracking chemicals and associated hazards at Johnson Space Center (JSC) by use of a Web-based graphical user interface. The SafetyChem database is accessible to authorized users via a JSC intranet. All new chemicals pass through a safety office, where information on hazards, required personal protective equipment (PPE), fire-protection warnings, and target organ effects (TOEs) is extracted from material safety data sheets (MSDSs) and recorded in the database. The database facilitates real-time management of inventory with attention to such issues as stability, shelf life, reduction of waste through transfer of unused chemicals to laboratories that need them, quantification of chemical wastes, and identification of chemicals for which disposal is required. Upon searching the database for a chemical, the user receives information on physical properties of the chemical, hazard warnings, required PPE, a link to the MSDS, and references to the applicable International Standards Organization (ISO) 9000 standard work instructions and the applicable job hazard analysis. Also, to reduce the labor hours needed to comply with reporting requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the data can be directly exported into the JSC hazardous- materials database.

  8. Chemical Hazards and Waste Disposal Safety and Health. Module SH-46. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on chemical hazards and waste disposal is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module presents the principles of safe chemical handling and provides an overview of the hazards associated with different types of chemicals. Following the introduction, 13 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the…

  9. Chemical Safety and Scientific Ethics in a Sophomore Chemistry Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Anne E.; Freeman, R. Griffith

    1999-01-01

    Describes how chemical safety and scientific ethics are incorporated into a sophomore seminar in chemistry. Suggests that students need to recognize potential chemical hazards, choose appropriate methods for protecting themselves, and understand the ethical guidelines that the scientific community needs in order to function. (CCM)

  10. Raman chemical imaging system for food safety and quality inspection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raman chemical imaging technique combines Raman spectroscopy and digital imaging to visualize composition and structure of a target, and it offers great potential for food safety and quality research. In this study, a laboratory-based Raman chemical imaging platform was designed and developed. The i...

  11. JICST Factual DatabaseJICST Chemical Substance Safety Regulation Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Atsushi; Sohma, Tohru

    JICST Chemical Substance Safety Regulation Database is based on the Database of Safety Laws for Chemical Compounds constructed by Japan Chemical Industry Ecology-Toxicology & Information Center (JETOC) sponsored by the Sience and Technology Agency in 1987. JICST has modified JETOC database system, added data and started the online service through JOlS-F (JICST Online Information Service-Factual database) in January 1990. JICST database comprises eighty-three laws and fourteen hundred compounds. The authors outline the database, data items, files and search commands. An example of online session is presented.

  12. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  13. The United States` Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board: A new international resource for enhancing safety in the chemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, P. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    On November 15, 1990, the United States took a bold step forward to make the world safer for workers and communities. On that day it enacted amendments (Public Law 101-549, 1990) to the United States` Clean Air Act, among which was a provision authorizing creation of an unprecedented, independent federal agency, the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (Board). By their respective actions, the Congress and the President of the United States acknowledged the growing risk that chemicals present and the need to work in partnership with industry to reduce the likelihood and effects of chemical-related accidents. Consistent with its charter to promote chemical safety by conducting independent accident investigations and preparing safety recommendations, the vision of the Board -- whose first Chairman was confirmed by Congress on October 6, 1994 -- is to be the world leader in industrial chemical safety information and services. The Board`s mission is to provide any and all industries that use of otherwise handle chemicals -- not just chemical manufacturers -- with information and tools to enable identification and mitigation of operational conditions that compromise safety.

  14. Aviation Safety Reporting System: Process and Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda J.

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) was established in 1976 under an agreement between the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cooperative safety program invites pilots, air traffic controllers, flight attendants, maintenance personnel, and others to voluntarily report to NASA any aviation incident or safety hazard. The FAA provides most of the program funding. NASA administers the program, sets its policies in consultation with the FAA and aviation community, and receives the reports submitted to the program. The FAA offers those who use the ASRS program two important reporting guarantees: confidentiality and limited immunity. Reports sent to ASRS are held in strict confidence. More than 350,000 reports have been submitted since the program's beginning without a single reporter's identity being revealed. ASRS removes all personal names and other potentially identifying information before entering reports into its database. This system is a very successful, proof-of-concept for gathering safety data in order to provide timely information about safety issues. The ASRS information is crucial to aviation safety efforts both nationally and internationally. It can be utilized as the first step in safety by providing the direction and content to informed policies, procedures, and research, especially human factors. The ASRS process and procedures will be presented as one model of safety reporting feedback systems.

  15. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOEpatents

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-06-23

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  16. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOEpatents

    Vobach, Arnold R.

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  17. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOEpatents

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-11-24

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  18. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOEpatents

    Vobach, Arnold R.

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  19. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT: A MULTISECTOR APPROACH TO THE MODERNIZATION OF HUMAN SAFETY REQUIREMENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Better understanding of toxicological mechanisms, enhanced testing capabilities, and demands for more sophisticated data for safety and health risk assessment have generated international interest in improving the current testing paradigm for agricultural chemicals. To address th...

  20. Chemical Processing. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Reviews major organic and inorganic chemicals, their products, and the sociocultural impact of the chemical industry. Provides the following learning activity components: objectives, list of materials and equipment, procedures, student quiz with answers, and three references. (SK)

  1. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Chemical Safety and Emergency Response in Small Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for safety programs in small colleges/universities and secondary schools, addressing objectives of such programs and major program components. Sample forms are included (hazardous materials log sheet, laboratory class safety checklist, laboratory room safety checklist, injury accident report, noninjury accident report, and room…

  2. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 2 consists of seven appendices containing the following: Tasking memorandums; Project plan for the CSV Review; Field verification guide for the CSV Review; Field verification report, Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Field verification report, Oak Ridge Reservation; Field verification report, Savannah River Site; and the Field verification report, Hanford Site.

  3. RUBBER-PROCESSING CHEMICALS DATA BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research program was to compile a data base covering all the commercially significant organic rubber-processing chemicals produced or imported in the United States. The Rubber-Processing Chemicals Data Base contains the following elements: chemical informati...

  4. MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF THERMALLY PROCESSED FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need for better control of foodborne pathogens has been paramount in recent years. Heat inactivation of foodborne pathogens is one of the fundamentally important strategies to assure microbiological safety of processed foods. Basic research on cellular and molecular mechanisms of heat resistan...

  5. 78 FR 48029 - Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ..., and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and CSB for timely and full disclosure of..., chemical facility owners and operators, and local and tribal communities to work together to improve.... [FR Doc. 2013-19220 Filed 8-6-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3...

  6. Raman chemical imaging technology for food safety and quality evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raman chemical imaging combines Raman spectroscopy and digital imaging to visualize composition and morphology of a target. This technique offers great potential for food safety and quality research. Most commercial Raman instruments perform measurement at microscopic level, and the spatial range ca...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS
    Pastoor, Timothy1, Barton, Hugh2
    1 Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC, USA.
    2 EPA, Office of Research and Development-NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA.

    A multi-stakeholder series of discussions d...

  8. Food safety. [chemical contaminants and human toxic diseases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pier, S. M.; Valentine, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Illness induced by unsafe food is a problem of great public health significance. This study relates exclusively to the occurrence of chemical agents which will result in food unsafe for human consumption since the matter of food safety is of paramount importance in the mission and operation of the manned spacecraft program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  9. Nonthermal processing technologies as food safety intervention processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods should provide sensorial satisfaction and nutrition to people. Yet, foodborne pathogens cause significant illness and lose of life to human kind every year. A processing intervention step may be necessary prior to the consumption to ensure the safety of foods. Nonthermal processing technologi...

  10. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: An Undergraduate Chemical Laboratory Safety Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, L. Jewel

    1982-01-01

    Describes a two-quarter hour college chemistry course focusing on laboratory safety. Includes lists of topics/assignments, problem sets (toxicology, storage, and energy) and videotapes, films, and slide sets used in the course. (JN)

  11. Fast Reactor Spent Fuel Processing: Experience and Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Chad Pope

    2007-05-01

    This paper discusses operational and criticality safety experience associated with the Idaho National Laboratory Fuel Conditioning Facility which uses a pyrometallurgical process to treat spent fast reactor metallic fuel. The process is conducted in an inert atmosphere hot cell. The process starts with chopping metallic fuel elements into a basket. The basket is lowered into molten salt (LiCl-KCl) along with a steel mandrel. Active metal fission products, transuranic metals and sodium metal in the spent fuel undergo chemical oxidation and form chlorides. Voltage is applied between the basket, which serves as an anode, and the mandrel, which serves as a cathode, causing metallic uranium in the spent fuel to undergo electro-chemical oxidation thereby forming uranium chloride. Simultaneously at the cathode, uranium chloride undergoes electro-chemical reduction and deposits uranium metal onto the mandrel. The uranium metal and accompanying entrained salt are placed in a distillation furnace where the uranium melts forming an ingot and the entrained salt boils and subsequently condenses in a separate crucible. The uranium ingots are placed in long term storage. During the ten year operating history, over one hundred criticality safety evaluations were prepared. All criticality safety related limits and controls for the entire process are contained in a single document which required over thirty revisions to accommodate the process changes. Operational implementation of the limits and controls includes use of a near real-time computerized tracking system. The tracking system uses an Oracle database coupled with numerous software applications. The computerized tracking system includes direct fuel handler interaction with every movement of material. Improvements to this system during the ten year history include introduction of web based operator interaction, tracking of moderator materials and the development of a plethora database queries to assist in day to day operations as well as obtaining historical information. Over 12,000 driver fuel elements have been processed resulting in the production of 2500 kg of 20% enriched uranium. Also, over one thousand blanket fuel elements have been processed resulting in the production of 2400 kg of depleted uranium. These operations required over 35,000 fissile material transfers between zones and over 6000 transfers between containers. Throughout all of these movements, no mass limit violations occurred. Numerous lessons were learned over the ten year operating history. From a criticality safety perspective, the most important lesson learned was the involvement of a criticality safety practitioner in daily operations. A criticality safety engineer was assigned directly to facility operations, and was responsible for implementation of limits and controls including upkeep of the associated computerized tracking files. The criticality safety engineer was also responsible for conducting fuel handler training activities including serving on fuel handler qualification oral boards, and continually assessing operations from a criticality control perspective. The criticality safety engineer also attended bimonthly project planning meetings to identify upcoming process changes that would require criticality safety evaluation. Finally, the excellent criticality safety record was due in no small part to the continual support, involvement, trust, and confidence of project and operations mana

  12. Dialysis Facility Safety: Processes and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Garrick, Renee; Morey, Rishikesh

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional human errors are the source of most safety breaches in complex, high-risk environments. The environment of dialysis care is extremely complex. Dialysis patients have unique and changing physiology, and the processes required for their routine care involve numerous open-ended interfaces between providers and an assortment of technologically advanced equipment. Communication errors, both within the dialysis facility and during care transitions, and lapses in compliance with policies and procedures are frequent areas of safety risk. Some events, such as air emboli and needle dislodgments occur infrequently, but are serious risks. Other adverse events include medication errors, patient falls, catheter and access-related infections, access infiltrations and prolonged bleeding. A robust safety system should evaluate how multiple, sequential errors might align to cause harm. Systems of care can be improved by sharing the results of root cause analyses, and "good catches." Failure mode effects and analyses can be used to proactively identify and mitigate areas of highest risk, and methods drawn from cognitive psychology, simulation training, and human factor engineering can be used to advance facility safety. PMID:26073909

  13. Safety-Enclosure System For MOCVD Process Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singletery, James, Jr.; Velasquez, Hugo; Warner, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Safety-enclosure system filled with nitrogen surrounds reaction chamber in which metallo-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) performed. Designed to protect against explosions and/or escaping toxic gases and particulates. Gas-purification subsystem ensures during loading and unloading of process materials, interior of MOCVD chamber exposed to less than 1 ppm of oxygen and less than 5 ppm of water in nitrogen atmosphere. Toxic byproducts of MOCVD process collected within inert atmosphere. Enclosure strong enough to contain any fragments in unlikely event of explosion.

  14. Chemical Processing of Electrons and Holes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Timothy J.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a synopsis of four lectures given in an elective senior-level electronic material processing course to introduce solid state electronics. Provides comparisons of a large scale chemical processing plant and an integrated circuit. (YP)

  15. Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hentges, Dawn L.

    1999-01-01

    Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

  16. [Chemical safety (II)--Methodologic and practical problems].

    PubMed

    Indulski, J A; Krajewski, J A; Majka, J A

    1988-01-01

    Main components of the problem of chemical safety, their role and aims as well as their mutual relations are presented. Need to create a register of chemical compounds and necessity to set up an information centre which would help functioning the whole system are justified. Risk assessment is believed to be the main aspect of cognitive activities aimed at determining the probability of occurrence of harmful consequences of exposure. Risk assessment is a set of complex legal, organizational and administrative undertakings supposed to reduce the hazards resulting from exposure to chemicals. Necessity to calculate costs and benefits coming from the undertaking and need to analyse social perception of risk which is important for preventive action are justified. What is stressed is the significance of a widespread education aimed at forming attitudes towards chemical hazards. PMID:3075253

  17. 10 CFR 830.203 - Unreviewed safety question process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unreviewed safety question process. 830.203 Section 830.203 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.203 Unreviewed safety question process. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3...

  18. 10 CFR 830.203 - Unreviewed safety question process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unreviewed safety question process. 830.203 Section 830.203 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.203 Unreviewed safety question process. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3...

  19. 10 CFR 830.203 - Unreviewed safety question process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unreviewed safety question process. 830.203 Section 830.203 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.203 Unreviewed safety question process. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3...

  20. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Learning How to Run Safer Undergraduate Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrig, Jerry R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses responsibilities for providing safe experiments and for teaching about safety. Provides lists of references on chemical safety and regulated/potential carcinogens. Also discusses general laboratory safety procedures including waste disposal and recycling of solvents. (JM)

  1. ISV safety, processing, and starter path issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliard, D K; Kindle, C H

    1991-04-01

    Numerous experiments and studies related to safety concerns in the in situ vitrification (ISV) process have been conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Topics of interest include (1) combustible inclusions, (2) sealed containers, (3) radiant heat surge, (4) electrical shock, (5) general risk analysis, and (6) Pu criticality. The data and analyses are those used for the initial ISV development and subsequent improvement; the majority was performed in 1987 or earlier. The purpose of this report is to document these analyses for reference purposes; knowledge gained more recently is, or will be, incorporated in other documents. 33 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  2. Microwave-enhanced chemical processes

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Ravi

    1990-01-01

    A process for disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Effecting intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400.degree. C. in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient to break the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds and provide detoxification values in excess of 80 and further detoxifying the bed followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes.

  3. Chemical vapor infiltration process modeling and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Matlin, W.M.

    1995-12-31

    Chemical vapor infiltration is a unique method for preparing continuous fiber ceramic composites that spares the strong but relatively fragile fibers from damaging thermal, mechanical, and chemical degradation. The process is relatively complex and modeling requires detailed phenomenological knowledge of the chemical kinetics and mass and heat transport. An overview of some of the current understanding and modeling of CVI and examples of efforts to optimize the processes is given. Finally, recent efforts to scale-up the process to produce tubular forms are described.

  4. Microwave-enhanced chemical processes

    DOEpatents

    Varma, R.

    1990-06-19

    A process is disclosed for the disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400 C in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient breaks the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds. Detoxification values in excess of 80 are provided and further detoxification of the bed is followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes. 1 figure.

  5. 10 CFR 830.203 - Unreviewed safety question process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unreviewed safety question process. 830.203 Section 830... Unreviewed safety question process. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE... a procedure for its USQ process on a schedule that allows DOE approval in a safety evaluation...

  6. 10 CFR 830.203 - Unreviewed safety question process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unreviewed safety question process. 830.203 Section 830... Unreviewed safety question process. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE... a procedure for its USQ process on a schedule that allows DOE approval in a safety evaluation...

  7. Chemical production processes and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Johnathan E.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; White, James F.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2014-06-17

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  8. Chemical production processes and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Johnathan E; Muzatko, Danielle S; White, James F; Zacher, Alan H

    2015-04-21

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  9. Intelligent image processing for machine operator safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Dennis N.

    1994-09-01

    This paper describes the use of intelligent image processing as a machine tool operator safety technology. One or more color, linear array cameras are positioned to view the critical region(s) around a machine tool. The image data is processed to provide indicators of an operator danger condition via color content, shape content, and motion content. The data from these analyses is then sent to a threat evaluator. The purpose of the evaluator is to determine if a danger condition exists based on the analyses of color, shape, and motion, and on `knowledge' of the specific environment of the machine tool. The threat evaluator employs fuzzy logic as a means of dealing with uncertainty in the vision data.

  10. Chemicals/processes classified as carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.W.; Schoenborn, T.F.; Tatken, R.L.

    1985-04-30

    Chemicals and processes which have been deemed as having carcinogenic potential by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the National Toxicology Program, NIOSH, OSHA, or the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) were compiled in a tabular listing. The document indicated the category which each of the agencies specified for each chemical compound or process. These categories differentiated between substances or processes which are known to be carcinogens in humans, which are probably carcinogenic to humans, which give sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in laboratory animals, which have potential for carcinogenicity, which are currently regulated by OSHA as carcinogens, which are currently regulated by OSHA for reasons other than carcinogenicity, and human carcinogens with or without ACGIH assigned threshold limit values. Also indicated were IARC laboratory reference compounds. Synonyms for the compounds were listed and grouped by their Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Numbers. An alphabetical listing of these synonyms was also provided. Over 180 different chemicals and processes are listed.

  11. Molecular Thermodynamics for Chemical Process Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prausnitz, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses that aspect of thermodynamics which is particularly important in chemical process design: the calculation of the equilibrium properties of fluid mixtures, especially as required in phase-separation operations. (MLH)

  12. Aligning the 3Rs with new paradigms in the safety assessment of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Burden, Natalie; Mahony, Catherine; Müller, Boris P; Terry, Claire; Westmoreland, Carl; Kimber, Ian

    2015-04-01

    There are currently several factors driving a move away from the reliance on in vivo toxicity testing for the purposes of chemical safety assessment. Progress has started to be made in the development and validation of non-animal methods. However, recent advances in the biosciences provide exciting opportunities to accelerate this process and to ensure that the alternative paradigms for hazard identification and risk assessment deliver lasting 3Rs benefits, whilst improving the quality and relevance of safety assessment. The NC3Rs, a UK-based scientific organisation which supports the development and application of novel 3Rs techniques and approaches, held a workshop recently which brought together over 20 international experts in the field of chemical safety assessment. The aim of this workshop was to review the current scientific, technical and regulatory landscapes, and to identify key opportunities towards reaching these goals. Here, we consider areas where further strategic investment will need to be focused if significant impact on 3Rs is to be matched with improved safety science, and why the timing is right for the field to work together towards an environment where we no longer rely on whole animal data for the accurate safety assessment of chemicals. PMID:25932488

  13. Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Safety and Emission Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.-Y.; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical sensor technology is being developed for leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire safety applications. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS)-based) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Using these technologies, sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed. A description is given of each sensor type and its present stage of development. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  14. Electrochemical Reactions During Ru Chemical Mechanical Planarization and Safety Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, Shohei; Wada, Yutaka; Tokushige, Katsuhiko; Fukunaga, Akira; Tsujimura, Manabu

    2011-05-01

    We analyzed electrochemical reactions during ruthenium (Ru) chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) using a potentiostat and a quartz crystal microbalance, and considered the potential safety issues. We evaluated the valence number derived from Faraday's law using the dissolution mass change of Ru and total coulomb consumption in the electrochemical reactions for Ru in acidic solution and slurry. The valence numbers of dissolved Ru ions were distributed in the range of 2 to 3.5. As toxic ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) has a valence number of 8, we were able to conclude that no toxic RuO4 was produced in the actual Ru CMP.

  15. Chemical Safety for Teachers and Their Supervisors. Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains information and guidelines for the safe use and handling of chemicals in laboratories and student classrooms. The theme of this handbook is prevention of accidents with chemicals which involves chemical knowledge and the habit of safety. Topics include: (1) safety in the use and handling of hazardous chemicals; (2) teaching

  16. Process Security in Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piluso, Cristina; Uygun, Korkut; Huang, Yinlun; Lou, Helen H.

    2005-01-01

    The threats of terrorism have greatly alerted the chemical process industries to assure plant security at all levels: infrastructure-improvement-focused physical security, information-protection-focused cyber security, and design-and-operation-improvement-focused process security. While developing effective plant security methods and technologies…

  17. Chemicals Industry New Process Chemistry Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-08-01

    The Materials Technology I workshop was held in November 1998 to address future research needs for materials technology that will support the chemical industry. Areas covered included disassembly, recovery, reuse and renewable technology; new materials; and materials measurement and characterization. The Materials Technology II workshop was held in September 1999 and covered additives, modeling and prediction and an additional segment on new materials. Materials Technology Institute (MTI) for the Chemical Process Industries, Inc. and Air Products & Chemicals lead the workshops. The Materials Technology Roadmap presents the results from both workshops.

  18. 49 CFR 1106.4 - The Safety Integration Plan process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ongoing environmental review process under 49 CFR part 1105. The procedures governing the process shall be... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Safety Integration Plan process. 1106.4... OF CONTROL § 1106.4 The Safety Integration Plan process. (a) Each applicant in a transaction...

  19. 49 CFR 1106.4 - The Safety Integration Plan process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ongoing environmental review process under 49 CFR part 1105. The procedures governing the process shall be... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The Safety Integration Plan process. 1106.4... OF CONTROL § 1106.4 The Safety Integration Plan process. (a) Each applicant in a transaction...

  20. 49 CFR 1106.4 - The Safety Integration Plan process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ongoing environmental review process under 49 CFR part 1105. The procedures governing the process shall be... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Safety Integration Plan process. 1106.4... OF CONTROL § 1106.4 The Safety Integration Plan process. (a) Each applicant in a transaction...

  1. Process/Equipment Co-Simulation on Syngas Chemical Looping Process

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Liang; Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2012-09-30

    The chemical looping strategy for fossil energy applications promises to achieve an efficient energy conversion system for electricity, liquid fuels, hydrogen and/or chemicals generation, while economically separate CO{sub 2} by looping reaction design in the process. Chemical looping particle performance, looping reactor engineering, and process design and applications are the key drivers to the success of chemical looping process development. In order to better understand and further scale up the chemical looping process, issues such as cost, time, measurement, safety, and other uncertainties need to be examined. To address these uncertainties, advanced reaction/reactor modeling and process simulation are highly desired and the modeling efforts can accelerate the chemical looping technology development, reduce the pilot-scale facility design time and operating campaigns, as well as reduce the cost and technical risks. The purpose of this work is thus to conduct multiscale modeling and simulations on the key aspects of chemical looping technology, including particle reaction kinetics, reactor design and operation, and process synthesis and optimization.

  2. Obtaining Valid Safety Data for Software Safety Measurement and Process Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor r.; Zelkowitz, Marvin V.; Layman, Lucas; Dangle, Kathleen; Diep, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    We report on a preliminary case study to examine software safety risk in the early design phase of the NASA Constellation spaceflight program. Our goal is to provide NASA quality assurance managers with information regarding the ongoing state of software safety across the program. We examined 154 hazard reports created during the preliminary design phase of three major flight hardware systems within the Constellation program. Our purpose was two-fold: 1) to quantify the relative importance of software with respect to system safety; and 2) to identify potential risks due to incorrect application of the safety process, deficiencies in the safety process, or the lack of a defined process. One early outcome of this work was to show that there are structural deficiencies in collecting valid safety data that make software safety different from hardware safety. In our conclusions we present some of these deficiencies.

  3. Safety analysis of SISL process module

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    This report provides an assessment of various postulated accidental occurrences within an experimental process module which is part of a Special Isotope Separation Laboratory (SISL) currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The process module will contain large amounts of molten uranium and various water-cooled structures within a vacuum vessel. Special emphasis is therefore given to potential accidental interactions of molten uranium with water leading to explosive and/or rapid steam formation, as well as uranium oxidation and the potential for combustion. Considerations are also given to the potential for vessel melt-through. Evaluations include mechanical and thermal interactions and design implications both in terms of design basis as well as once-in-a-lifetime accident scenarios. These scenarios include both single- and multiple-failure modes leading to various contact modes and locations within the process module for possible thermal interactions. The evaluations show that a vacuum vessel design based upon nominal operating conditions would appear sufficient to meet safety requirements in connection with both design basis as well as once-in-a-lifetime accidents. Controlled venting requirements for removal of steam and hydrogen in order to avoid possible long-term pressurization events are recommended. Depending upon the resulting accident conditions, the vacuum system (i.e., the roughing system) could also serve this purpose. Finally, based upon accident evaluations of this study, immediate shut-off of all coolant water following an incident leak is not recommended, as such action may have adverse effects in terms of cool-down requirements for the melt crucibles etc. These requirements have not been assessed as part of this study.

  4. Chemical food safety issues in the United States: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lauren S

    2009-09-23

    Considerable advances have been made over the past century in the understanding of the chemical hazards in food and ways for assessing and managing these risks. At the turn of the 20th century, many Americans were exposed to foods adulterated with toxic compounds. In the 1920s the increasing use of insecticides led to concerns of chronic ingestion of heavy metals such as lead and arsenic from residues remaining on crops. By the 1930s, a variety of agrochemicals were commonly used, and food additives were becoming common in processed foods. During the 1940s and 1950s advances were made in toxicology, and more systematic approaches were adopted for evaluating the safety of chemical contaminants in food. Modern gas chromatography and liquid chromatography, both invented in the 1950s and 1960s, were responsible for progress in detecting, quantifying, and assessing the risk of food contaminants and adulterants. In recent decades, chemical food safety issues that have been the center of media attention include the presence of natural toxins, processing-produced toxins (e.g., acrylamide, heterocyclic aromatic amines, and furan), food allergens, heavy metals (e.g., lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium), industrial chemicals (e.g., benzene, perchlorate), contaminants from packaging materials, and unconventional contaminants (melamine) in food and feed. Due to the global nature of the food supply and advances in analytical capabilities, chemical contaminants will continue to be an area of concern for regulatory agencies, the food industry, and consumers in the future. PMID:19719131

  5. A Novel Chemical Nitrate Destruction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.

    1999-03-01

    Nitrates represent one of the most significant pollutant discharged to the Baltic Sea by the Sliiamae hydrometallurgical plant. This article contains a brief overview of the existing nitrate destruction technologies followed by the description of a new process developed by the authors. The new chemical process for nitrate destruction is cost effective and simple to operate. It converts the nitrate to nitrogen gas which goes to the atmosphere.

  6. 40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compilation of written process safety information before conducting any process hazard analysis required by... paragraph (b): Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) may be used to... in conjunction with the process hazard analysis in sufficient detail to support the analysis....

  7. 40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compilation of written process safety information before conducting any process hazard analysis required by... paragraph (b): Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) may be used to... in conjunction with the process hazard analysis in sufficient detail to support the analysis....

  8. Safety evaluation of chemical mixtures and combinations of chemical and non-chemical stressors.

    PubMed

    Jonker, D; Freidig, A P; Groten, J P; de Hollander, A E M; Stierum, R H; Woutersen, R A; Feron, V J

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in hazard identification and risk assessment of chemical mixtures are reviewed. Empirical, descriptive approaches to study and characterize the toxicity of mixtures have dominated during the past two decades, but an increasing number of mechanistic approaches have made their entry into mixture toxicology. A series of empirical studies with simple chemical mixtures in rats is described in some detail because of the important lessons from this work. The development of regulatory guidelines for the toxicological evaluation of chemical mixtures is discussed briefly. Current issues in mixture toxicology include the adverse health effects of ambient air pollution; the application of such modern, sophisticated methodologies as genomics, bioinformatics, and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling; and databases for mixture toxicity. Finally, the state of the art of our knowledge on the potential adverse health effects of combined exposures to chemicals and non-chemical stressors (noise, heat/cold, microorganisms, immobilization, restraint, or transportation), research initiatives in these fields, and the development of an indicator for the cumulative health impact of multiple environmental exposures are discussed. PMID:15329008

  9. Process safety improvement--quality and target zero.

    PubMed

    Van Scyoc, Karl

    2008-11-15

    Process safety practitioners have adopted quality management principles in design of process safety management systems with positive effect, yet achieving safety objectives sometimes remain a distant target. Companies regularly apply tools and methods which have roots in quality and productivity improvement. The "plan, do, check, act" improvement loop, statistical analysis of incidents (non-conformities), and performance trending popularized by Dr. Deming are now commonly used in the context of process safety. Significant advancements in HSE performance are reported after applying methods viewed as fundamental for quality management. In pursuit of continual process safety improvement, the paper examines various quality improvement methods, and explores how methods intended for product quality can be additionally applied to continual improvement of process safety. Methods such as Kaizen, Poke yoke, and TRIZ, while long established for quality improvement, are quite unfamiliar in the process safety arena. These methods are discussed for application in improving both process safety leadership and field work team performance. Practical ways to advance process safety, based on the methods, are given. PMID:18374483

  10. Chemical computing with reaction-diffusion processes.

    PubMed

    Gorecki, J; Gizynski, K; Guzowski, J; Gorecka, J N; Garstecki, P; Gruenert, G; Dittrich, P

    2015-07-28

    Chemical reactions are responsible for information processing in living organisms. It is believed that the basic features of biological computing activity are reflected by a reaction-diffusion medium. We illustrate the ideas of chemical information processing considering the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction and its photosensitive variant. The computational universality of information processing is demonstrated. For different methods of information coding constructions of the simplest signal processing devices are described. The function performed by a particular device is determined by the geometrical structure of oscillatory (or of excitable) and non-excitable regions of the medium. In a living organism, the brain is created as a self-grown structure of interacting nonlinear elements and reaches its functionality as the result of learning. We discuss whether such a strategy can be adopted for generation of chemical information processing devices. Recent studies have shown that lipid-covered droplets containing solution of reagents of BZ reaction can be transported by a flowing oil. Therefore, structures of droplets can be spontaneously formed at specific non-equilibrium conditions, for example forced by flows in a microfluidic reactor. We describe how to introduce information to a droplet structure, track the information flow inside it and optimize medium evolution to achieve the maximum reliability. Applications of droplet structures for classification tasks are discussed. PMID:26078345

  11. Fundamentals of fluidized bed chemical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical processes based on the use of fluidized solids, although widely used on an industrial scale for some four decades, are currently increasing in importance as industry looks for improved methods for handling and reacting solid materials. This book provides background necessary for an understanding of the technique of gas-solid fluidization. Contents: Some Fundamental Aspects of Fluidization-General Features of Gas-Solid Fluidization; Minimum Fluidization Velocity; Inter-particle forces; Liquid-Solid Fluidization; Bubbles; Slugging; Entrainment and Elutriation; Particle Movement; Bed Viscosity; Fluidization Under Pressure. Fluidized-Bed Reactor Models-ome Individual Models; Model Comparisons; Multiple Region Models. Catalytic Cracking-Process Developments Riser Cracking; Catalysis; Process Chemistry; Kinetics; Process Models. Combustion and Gasification-Plant Developments; Oil and Gas Combustion; Desulphurization; No/sub x/ Emissions; Coal Gassification. Miscellaneous Processes-Phthalic Anhydride (1,3-isobezofurandione); Acrylonitrile (prop-3-enenitrile); Vinyl Chloride (chloroethene); Titanium Dioxide; Uranium Processing; Sulphide Roasting; Indexes.

  12. Safety of dermal diphoterine application: an active decontamination solution for chemical splash injuries.

    PubMed

    Hall, Alan H; Cavallini, Maurizio; Mathieu, Laurence; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-01-01

    Diphoterine (Laboratoire Prevor, Valmondois, France) is an active, amphoteric, polyvalent, chelating, slightly hypertonic decontamination solution for chemical splashes to the skin and eyes. It chemically binds a large number of chemical substances present on the skin surface without causing a significant release of heat (exothermic reactions). Because of its amphoteric properties, it can bind chemically opposite substances such as acids and bases or oxidizers and reducing agents. No adverse effects have been observed in an ongoing postmarketing surveillance program during many years of use in European industrial facilities. Diphoterine has more recently been used in hospitals for delayed management of chemical burns to the skin and eyes. There is interest in having protocols for both immediate and delayed diphoterine use for skin decontamination. Whereas studies of diphoterine efficacy, clinical and in vitro or ex vivo, have been published or are in the process of being prepared for publication, no review has yet been published focusing solely on the safety of this decontamination solution. Therefore, all available studies on the safety of diphoterine are described here, including recent studies demonstrating no harmful effects on the skin. Diphoterine can be used, even on damaged skin, without toxic, irritant, allergenic, or sensitizing effects. PMID:19888884

  13. An intelligent data collection tool for chemical safety/risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Verdonck, Frederik A M; Van Sprang, Patrick A; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2008-02-01

    REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) is the new European chemical legislation which aims to assess risk or safety of tens of thousands of chemicals to improve the protection of human health and the environment. The chemical safety assessment process is of an iterative nature. First, an initial, worst-case assessment is conducted after which refinements are made until no risk has been estimated or the risk is adequately controlled. Wasting time and resources on additional testing and implementing risk management measures with low effect on risk conclusions should be avoided as much as possible. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of an intelligent data collection strategy based on a sensitivity (and uncertainty) analysis on the risk assessment model EUSES to identify and order the most important "within-EU-TGD-reducible" input parameters influencing the local and regional risk characterisation ratios. The ordering can be adjusted for the costs involved in additional testing (e.g. ecotoxicity, physico-chemical properties, emission estimates, etc.). The risk refinement tool therefore reduces the resources needed to obtain a realistic risk estimate (both less conservative and less uncertain) as efficient as possible. PMID:17959222

  14. Novel approaches to improving the chemical safety of the meat chain towards toxicants.

    PubMed

    Engel, E; Ratel, J; Bouhlel, J; Planche, C; Meurillon, M

    2015-11-01

    In addition to microbiological issues, meat chemical safety is a growing concern for the public authorities, chain stakeholders and consumers. Meat may be contaminated by various chemical toxicants originating from the environment, treatments of agricultural production or food processing. Generally found at trace levels in meat, these toxicants may harm human health during chronic exposure. This paper overviews the key issues to be considered to ensure better control of their occurrence in meat and assessment of the related health risk. We first describe potential contaminants of meat products. Strategies to move towards a more efficient and systematic control of meat chemical safety are then presented in a second part, with a focus on emerging approaches based on toxicogenomics. The third part presents mitigation strategies to limit the impact of process-induced toxicants in meat. Finally, the last part introduces methodological advances to refine chemical risk assessment related to the occurrence of toxicants in meat by quantifying the influence of digestion on the fraction of food contaminants that may be assimilated by the human body. PMID:26043665

  15. Laser spectroscopy for studying chemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfrum, J.

    1988-07-01

    In recent years, various methods have been developed to observe and to influence the course of chemical reactions using laser radiation. By selectively increasing the translational, rotational, and vibrational energies and by controlling the relative orientation of the reaction partners with tunable infrared and UV lasers, direct insight can be gained into the molecular course of the breaking and re-forming of chemical bonds. As exmaples for the application of lasers in chemical synthesis the production of monomers and catalysts is discussed. The application of linear and nonlinear laser spectroscopic methods, such as laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS), infrared-absorption measurements with tunable diode and molecular lasers is described for non-intrusive observation of the interaction of transport processes with chemical reactions used in industrial processes with high temporal, spectral and spatial resolution. Finally the application of a UV laser microbeam apparatus in genetic engineering for laser-induced cell fusion, genetic transformation of plant cells as well as diagnosis of human diseases by laser-microdissection of chromosomes is described.

  16. Integrating system safety into the basic systems engineering process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griswold, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The basic elements of a systems engineering process are given along with a detailed description of what the safety system requires from the systems engineering process. Also discussed is the safety that the system provides to other subfunctions of systems engineering.

  17. Are classical process safety concepts relevant to nanotechnology applications?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amyotte, Paul R.

    2011-07-01

    The answer to the question posed by the title of this paper is yes - with adaptation to the specific hazards and challenges found in the field of nanotechnology. The validity of this affirmative response is demonstrated by relating key process safety concepts to various aspects of the nanotechnology industry in which these concepts are either already practised or could be further applied. This is accomplished by drawing on the current author's experience in process safety practice and education as well as a review of the relevant literature on the safety of nanomaterials and their production. The process safety concepts selected for analysis include: (i) risk management, (ii) inherently safer design, (iii) human error and human factors, (iv) safety management systems, and (v) safety culture.

  18. Safety assessment of the liquid-fed ceramic melter process

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.; Partain, W.L.

    1980-08-01

    As part of its development program for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste, Pacific Northwest Laboratory assessed the safety issues for a complete liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process. The LFCM process, an adaption of commercial glass-making technology, is being developed to convert high-level liquid waste from the nuclear fuel cycle into glass. This safety assessment uncovered no unresolved or significant safety problems with the LFCM process. Although in this assessment the LFCM process was not directly compared with other solidification processes, the safety hazards of the LFCM process are comparable to those of other processes. The high processing temperatures of the glass in the LFCM pose no additional significant safety concerns, and the dispersible inventory of dried waste (calcine) is small. This safety assessment was based on the nuclear power waste flowsheet, since power waste is more radioactive than defense waste at the time of solidification, and all accident conditions for the power waste would have greater radiological consequences than those for defense waste. An exhaustive list of possible off-standard conditions and equipment failures was compiled. These accidents were then classified according to severity of consequence and type of accident. Radionuclide releases to the stack were calculated for each group of accidents using conservative assumptions regarding the retention and decontamination features of the process and facility. Two recommendations that should be considered by process designers are given in the safety assessment.

  19. Solar chemical process for sludge treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Boyko, M.

    1980-03-04

    A solar chemical process for converting sewer sludge from a gelatinous mass into a manageable product suitable for fertilizer includes the manufacture of a carbonaceous product by treating cellulose waste such as newspaper with sulfuric acid and heating the mixture until the cellulose product becomes substantially black. The black product is mixed with sludge in a ratio to produce a grainy product that can be chlorinated for sterility and spread as fertilizer. In a modified version of the process, coal ash is added to the sludge with the carbonaceous product for its nutrient value, and sand may be added with the coal ash to aid in aeration of the soil.

  20. Molecular beam studies of elementary chemical processes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y T

    1987-05-15

    The experimental investigation of elementary chemical reactions is presently in a very exciting period. The advance in modern microscopic experimental methods, especially crossed molecular beams and laser technology, has made it possible to explore the dynamics and mechanisms of important elementary chemical reactions in great detail. Through the continued accumulation of detailed and reliable knowledge about elementary reactions, we will be in a better position to understand, predict, and control many time-dependent macroscopic chemical processes that are important in nature or to human society. In addition, because of recent improvements in the accuracy of theoretical predictions based on large-scale ab initio quantum mechanical calculations, meaningful comparisons between theoretical and experimental findings have become possible. In the remaining years of the 20th century, there is no doubt that the experimental investigation of the dynamics and mechanisms of elementary chemical reactions will play a very important role in bridging the gap between the basic laws of mechanics and the real world of chemistry. PMID:17777849

  1. A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

  2. 75 FR 29754 - Claims of Confidentiality of Certain Chemical Identities Contained in Health and Safety Studies...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 3462) (FRL-8807-9), EPA announced that `` here a health and safety study submitted under... chemical substances of unknown or variable composition, complex reaction products and biological materials... AGENCY Claims of Confidentiality of Certain Chemical Identities Contained in Health and Safety...

  3. 40 CFR 1.43 - Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention. 1.43 Section 1.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.43 Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution...

  4. High-Throughput Toxicity Testing: New Strategies for Assessing Chemical Safety

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, the food industry has made progress in improving safety testing methods focused on microbial contaminants in order to promote food safety. However, food industry toxicologists must also assess the safety of food-relevant chemicals including pesticides, direct add...

  5. Use of process hazard analysis to control chemical process hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Piatt, J.A.

    1994-07-01

    One objective of this project was to demonstrate how the PrHA could satisfy OSHA`s requirements. OSHA requires that the PrHA address: the hazards of the process; the identification of any previous incident which had a likely potential for catastrophic consequences in the workplace; engineering and administrative controls applicable to the hazards and their interrelationships; consequences of failure of engineering and administrative controls; facility siting; human factors; and a qualitative evaluation of a range of the possible safety and health effects of failure of controls on employees in the workplace. In addition, OSHA requires that the PrHA must be conducted by a team with at least one member having expertise in engineering and process operations, one having experience and knowledge specific to the process being evaluated, and a team leader knowledgeable in the specific PrHA methodology being used.

  6. 21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19... chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed foods due to the use of raw agricultural commodities that bore or contained a pesticide chemical in conformity with...

  7. NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) Payload Safety Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starbus, Calvert S.; Donovan, Shawn; Dook, Mike; Palo, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Issues addressed by this program: (1) Complicated roles and responsibilities associated with multi-partner projects (2) Working relationships and communications between all organizations involved in the payload safety process (3) Consistent interpretation and implementation of safety requirements from one project to the rest (4) Consistent implementation of the Tailoring Process (5) Clearly defined NASA decision-making-authority (6) Bring Agency-wide perspective to each ElV payload project. Current process requires a Payload Safety Working Group (PSWG) for eac payload with representatives from all involved organizations.

  8. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Safety in the Laboratory: Are We Making Any Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKusick, Blaine C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews trends in laboratory safety found in both industrial and academic situations. Reports that large industrial labs generally have excellent safety programs but that, although there have been improvements, academia still lags behind industry in safety. Includes recommendations for improving lab safety. (ML)

  9. Application of Annotated Logic Program to Pipeline Process Safety Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi

    We have developed a paraconsistent annotated logic program called Extended Vector Annotated Logic Program with Strong Negation (abbr. EVALPSN), which can deal with defeasible deontic reasoning and contradiction, and we have already applied it to safety verification and control such as railway interlocking safety verification and traffic signal control. In this paper, we introduce process safety verification as an application of EVALPSN with a small example for brewery pipeline valve control. The safety verification control is based on EVALPSN defeasible deontic reasoning to avoid unexpected mix of different sorts of liquid in pipeline networks.

  10. 40 CFR 799.5115 - Chemical testing requirements for certain chemicals of interest to the Occupational Safety and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chemical testing requirements for certain chemicals of interest to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 799.5115 Section 799.5115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF...

  11. STS safety approval process for small self-contained payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gum, Mary A.

    1988-01-01

    The safety approval process established by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for Get Away Special (GAS) payloads is described. Although the designing organization is ultimately responsible for the safe operation of its payload, the Get Away Special team at the Goddard Space Flight Center will act as advisors while iterative safety analyses are performed and the Safety Data Package inputs are submitted. This four phase communications process will ultimately give NASA confidence that the GAS payload is safe, and successful completion of the Phase 3 package and review will clear the way for flight aboard the Space Transportation System orbiter.

  12. SAFETY EVALUATION OF RENOVATED WASTEWATER FROM A POULTRY PROCESSING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A three-phase evaluation of reclaimed process wastewater for reuse was undertaken at the Sterling Processing Corporation plant in Oakland, Maryland. The main objective was to evaluate the safety for human consumption of poultry exposed during processing to an average 50 percent m...

  13. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY EFFICIENT CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. Process emissio...

  14. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant failure rate database

    SciTech Connect

    Alber, T.G.; Hunt, C.R.; Fogarty, S.P.; Wilson, J.R.

    1995-08-01

    This report represents the first major upgrade to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Failure Rate Database. This upgrade incorporates additional site-specific and generic data while improving on the previous data reduction techniques. In addition, due to a change in mission at the ICPP, the status of certain equipment items has changed from operating to standby or off-line. A discussion of how this mission change influenced the relevance of failure data also has been included. This report contains two data sources: the ICPP Failure Rate Database and a generic failure rate database. A discussion is presented on the approaches and assumptions used to develop the data in the ICPP Failure Rate Database. The generic database is included along with a short discussion of its application. A brief discussion of future projects recommended to strengthen and lend credibility to the ICPP Failure Rate Database also is included.

  15. [Chemical safety, health, and environment: prospects for governance in the Brazilian context].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carlos Machado de; Porto, Marcelo Firpo S; Moreira, Josino Costa; Pivetta, Fatima; Machado, Jorge M Huet; Freitas, Nilton B B de; Arcuri, Arline S

    2002-01-01

    Chemical safety is acknowledged by Agenda 21 as one of the most serious problems worldwide, involving governance at the national and international levels. In Brazil, chemical safety problems have increased in intensity and extent, far beyond the capacity to deal with them. The problems are all the more serious in Brazil because issues of democracy, security, sustainability, and equity, all fundamental to governance, are still incipient and still far from being solved. New societal arrangements and a new, contextualized and more participatory science form the basis for developing and expanding strategies for governance to deal with the problem of chemical safety. PMID:11910443

  16. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Impressions of Safety in Universities in the United States of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Dick; Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This is a report on a study done in 1976 of safety arrangements and procedures in teaching, research, and medical establishments in the United States. The results show that the Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA) has not yet had much impact as far as safety in teaching and research is concerned. (BB)

  17. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Lab Safety as a Collateral Duty in Small Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Examines reasons why individuals in academic institutions do not feel the same safety-related pressures as individuals in nonacademic institutions. Also lists elements that should be included in any basic safety/health program and describes the steps taken at one college to improve laboratory safety. (JN)

  18. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Safety in the Chemistry Laboratories: A Specific Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkern, Walter H.; Munchausen, Linda L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a safety program adopted by Southeastern Louisiana University. Students are given detailed instructions on laboratory safety during the first laboratory period and a test which must be completely correct before they are allowed to return to the laboratory. Test questions, list of safety rules, and a laboratory accident report form are…

  19. Introducing Proper Chemical Hygiene and Safety in the General Chemistry Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Gordon J.; Heideman, Stephen A.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

    2000-09-01

    Chemical safety is an important component of science education for everyone, not just for chemistry majors. Developing a responsible and knowledgeable attitude towards chemical safety best starts at the early stages of a student's career. In many colleges and universities, safety education in undergraduate chemistry has been relegated primarily to a few regulatory documents at the beginning of a laboratory course, or an occasional warning in the description of a specific experiment in a prelaboratory lecture. Safety issues are seldom raised in general chemistry or organic chemistry lecture-based chemistry courses. At Iowa State University we have begun to implement a program, Chemical Hygiene and Safety in the Laboratory, into the undergraduate chemistry curriculum. This program is designed to increase the awareness and knowledge of proper chemical hygiene and laboratory safety issues among all students taking general chemistry and organic chemistry courses. Laboratory protocol, use of safety equipment, familiarity with MSD sheets, basics of first aid, some specific terminology surrounding chemical hygiene, EPA and OSHA requirements, and the use of the World Wide Web to search and locate chemical safety information are topics that are applied throughout the chemistry curriculum. The novelty of this approach is to incorporate MSD sheets and safety information that can be located on the World Wide Web in a series of safety problems and assignments, all related to the chemistry experiments students are about to perform. The fundamental idea of our approach is not only to teach students what is required for appropriate safety measures, but also to involve them in the enforcement of basic prudent practices.

  20. Installation of a multiplexed Raman system in a chemical process.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Lois G; Yee, Dupon; Pearson, Gary I; Wade, John

    2004-12-01

    A 785 nm laser dispersive Raman system was installed in a hazardous chemical production plant to monitor two reactors, a still, and a holding tank with measurement directly through sight glasses. Compositional information for several raw materials, intermediates, and products was obtained using partial least squares (PLS) calibrations. Discriminate analysis was used to exclude extremely poor spectra while including usable ones. Derivative/standard normal variate (SNV) treatment was found to be effective for correcting for background fluorescence and for large differences in spectral intensity. Final regression equations incorporated temperature fluctuations, occasional fluorescence, some sunlight effects, large intensity variations, and large compositional changes. Various installation problems were solved via data treatment or mechanical changes. The Raman system provides information for control of the process, resulting in cost savings and improved safety. PMID:15606965

  1. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Basilio, C.I.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan.

    1991-01-01

    Liberation studies on the Elkhorn No. 3 coal were completed in this quarter. The results obtained from the 65 {times} 150 mesh samples showed that the amount of mineral matter and pyrite liberated by the Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process increases with time. The free mineral matter undergoes some reduction in size during the CECC treatment and the majority of the liberated mineral particles in this sample are finer than 150 mesh. This is opposite that found for the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, which may explain the better response of the Elkhorn No. 3 coal to CECC treatment. The continuous bench-scale unit was modified during the quarter to satisfy the health and safety requirements of the university. The unit was modified to ensure that any spill or leakage can be contained. Due to these modifications, continuous testing work was delayed.

  2. Intelligent image processing for machine safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Dennis N.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes the use of intelligent image processing as a machine guarding technology. One or more color, linear array cameras are positioned to view the critical region(s) around a machine tool or other piece of manufacturing equipment. The image data is processed to provide indicators of conditions dangerous to the equipment via color content, shape content, and motion content. The data from these analyses is then sent to a threat evaluator. The purpose of the evaluator is to determine if a potentially machine-damaging condition exists based on the analyses of color, shape, and motion, and on `knowledge' of the specific environment of the machine. The threat evaluator employs fuzzy logic as a means of dealing with uncertainty in the vision data.

  3. Chapter IV - Safety During Payload Ground Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Paul; Dollberg, John; Trinchero, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the typical hazards that can be expected to be encountered when processing payloads on the ground. Also described are some of the more common controls for these hazards. Many of these controls are based on hard requirements but they are also based on specific lessons learned. This chapter uses the term Flight Hardware (F/H) for all payloads regardless of size.

  4. Margin of Safety Definition and Examples Used in Safety Basis Documents and the USQ Process

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, R. A.

    2013-10-03

    The Nuclear Safety Management final rule, 10 CFR 830, provides an undefined term, margin of safety (MOS). Safe harbors listed in 10 CFR 830, Table 2, such as DOE-STD-3009 use but do not define the term. This lack of definition has created the need for the definition. This paper provides a definition of MOS and documents examples of MOS as applied in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) approved safety basis for an existing nuclear facility. If we understand what MOS looks like regarding Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) parameters, then it helps us compare against other parameters that do not involve a MOS. This paper also documents parameters that are not MOS. These criteria could be used to determine if an MOS exists in safety basis documents. This paper helps DOE, including the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and its contractors responsible for the safety basis improve safety basis documents and the unreviewed safety question (USQ) process with respect to MOS.

  5. Novel food processing innovations to improve food safety and health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innovative food processing can be used to improve safety of specialty crops and their co-products, while improving sustainability of agricultural and food processing operations and enhancing overall nutritional quality of foods for both domestic and international consumers. The potential of various...

  6. Assuring the Safety of Chemicals through Improved Exposure Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thousands of chemicals are currently in commercial use and hundreds more are introduced each year. Of these, only a small fraction has been assessed adequately for potential risks. Existing chemical testing and exposure measurement protocols are expensive and time consuming. Fu...

  7. Foundations for Excellence in the Chemical Process Industries. Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstader, Robert; Chapman, Kenneth

    This document discusses the Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers Project and issues of relevance to the education and employment of chemical laboratory technicians (CLTs) and process technicians (PTs). Section 1 consists of the following background information: overview of the chemical process industries,…

  8. The Acquisition and Application of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Data in Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, H. A.; Pastoor, Timothy P.; Baetcke, Karl; Chambers, Janice E.; Diliberto, Janet; Doerrer, Nancy G.; Driver, Jeffrey H.; Hastings, Charles E.; Iyengar, Seshadri; Krieger, Robert; Stahl, Bernhard; Timchalk, Chuck

    2006-01-01

    The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) formed the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee in the year 2000 to design a toxicity testing scheme that would incorporate current understanding of pesticide toxicology and exposure and recognize the specificity of agricultural products. The purpose of and background for the ACSA project are described in detail in the companion paper by Carmichael et al. (2006). As the proposed tiered testing approach for agricultural chemical safety assessment evolved, the ACSA Technical Committee and its task forces (Carmichael et al., 2006; Cooper et al., 2006; Doe et al., 2006) worked toward the following objectives: (1) Provide information that can be applied to a range of relevant human exposure situations. (2) Characterize effects that have the potential to damage human health at exposure levels approximating those that might be encountered in the use of these compounds. (3) Avoid high doses that cause unnecessary public concern (e.g., safety assessments should focus on doses that are relevant to realistic human exposures while maintaining adequate power for the experimental studies to detect toxicity). (4) Use the minimum number of animals necessary to produce a thorough safety assessment of the chemicals of interest. (5) Inflict the minimum amount of distress on animals. (6) Minimize excessive and unnecessary use of resources by regulatory authorities and industry, which could be used to address other issues of concern. (7) Increase both the efficiency and relevance of the current safety assessment process.

  9. Electron Beam Applications in Chemical Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D.; Dragusin, M.; Radoiu, M.; Moraru, R.; Oproiu, C.; Cojocaru, G.; Margarit, C.

    1997-05-01

    Our recent results in the field of polymeric materials obtained by electron beam irradiation are presented. Two types of polymeric flocculants and three hydrogels are described. The effects of radiation absorbed dose and chemical composition of the irradiated solutions upon the polymeric materials characteristics are discussed. The required absorbed dose levels to produce the polymeric flocculants are in the range of 0.4 kGy to 1 kGy, and 4 kGy to 12 kGy for hydrogels. Experimental results obtained by testing polymeric flocculants with waste water from food industry are given. Plymeric materials processing was developed on a pilot small scale level with a 0.7 kW and 5.5 MeV linac built in Romania. A new facility for application of combined electron beam and microwave irradiation in the field of polymeric materials preparation is presently under investigation. Preliminary results have demonstrated that some polymeric flocculants characteristics, such as linearity, were improved by using combined electron beam and microwave irradiation. Also, the absorbed dose levels decreases in comparison with those required when only electron beam irradiation was used.

  10. Chemical kinetics models for semiconductor processing

    SciTech Connect

    Coltrin, M.E.; Creighton, J.R.; Meeks, E.; Grcar, J.F.; Houf, W.G.; Kee, R.J.

    1997-12-31

    Chemical reactions in the gas-phase and on surfaces are important in the deposition and etching of materials for microelectronic applications. A general software framework for describing homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction kinetics utilizing the Chemkin suite of codes is presented. Experimental, theoretical and modeling approaches to developing chemical reaction mechanisms are discussed. A number of TCAD application modules for simulating the chemically reacting flow in deposition and etching reactors have been developed and are also described.

  11. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains a discussion of the chemical safety improvements planned or already underway at DOE sites to correct facility or site-specific vulnerabilities. The main part of the report is a discussion of each of the programmatic deficiencies; a description of the tasks to be accomplished; the specific actions to be taken; and the organizational responsibilities for implementation.

  12. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Cyclohexane as a Cryoscopic Solvent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffel, Margaret J.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that cyclohexane be used as a solvent in experiments usually using benzene, which has been placed on the list of chemicals that are confirmed carcinogens. Reasons for selection of cyclohexane and experimental procedures using this solvent are described. (CS)

  13. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Hazards in a Photography Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houk, Cliff; Hart, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Described are case studies illustrating chemical hazards in a photography lab due to compounds containing cyanide. Suggestions for preventing problems including proper procedures, housekeeping, facilities, and ventilation are considered. (RH)

  14. Physical-chemical processes in a protoplanetary cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavrukhina, Avgusta K.

    1991-01-01

    Physical-chemical processes in a protoplanetary cloud are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) characteristics of the chemical composition of molecular interstellar clouds; (2) properties and physico-chemical process in the genesis of interstellar dust grains; and (3) the isotope composition of volatiles in bodies of the Solar System.

  15. Speleothems as Examples of Chemical Equilibrium Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James R.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical formation of speleothems such as stalactites and stalagmites is poorly understood by introductory geology instructors and misrepresented in most textbooks. Although evaporation may be a controlling factor in some caves, it is necessary to consider chemical precipitation as more important in controlling the diagenesis of calcium

  16. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROCESS AND MECHANISM MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this task is to develop and test chemical and physical mechanisms for use in the chemical transport models of EPA's Models-3. The target model for this research is the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. These mechanisms include gas and aqueous phase ph...

  17. Speleothems as Examples of Chemical Equilibrium Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James R.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical formation of speleothems such as stalactites and stalagmites is poorly understood by introductory geology instructors and misrepresented in most textbooks. Although evaporation may be a controlling factor in some caves, it is necessary to consider chemical precipitation as more important in controlling the diagenesis of calcium…

  18. ‘Geo’chemical research: A key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmann, Scott

    2008-12-01

    Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland…), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case supporting how radionuclide transfer is represented in the performance assessment model. The objective here is to illustrate how geochemical research contributes to this process and, above all, to identify a certain number of subjects which should be treated in priority.

  19. 'Geo'chemical research: a key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Scott

    2008-12-12

    Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland...), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case supporting how radionuclide transfer is represented in the performance assessment model. The objective here is to illustrate how geochemical research contributes to this process and, above all, to identify a certain number of subjects which should be treated in priority. PMID:19008019

  20. Agricultural Chemical and Pesticide Hazards. Module SH-50. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on agricultural chemical and pesticide hazards is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module contains information concerning the safe handling, use, and storage of many chemicals that are frequently used in the control of pests. Following the introduction, 10 objectives (each keyed to a page in the…

  1. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES (AOP'S FOR THE TREATMENT OF CCL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on treatment of Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) chemicals is being conducted. Specific groups of contaminants on the CCL will be evaluated using numerous advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Initially, these CCL contaminants will be evaluated in groups based on chemical...

  2. Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions.

  3. CHEMICAL PROCESSES AND MODELING IN ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trends in regulatory strategies require EPA to understand better chemical behavior in natural and impacted ecosystems and in biological systems to carry out the increasingly complex array of exposure and risk assessments needed to develop scientifically defensible regulations (GP...

  4. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Synthesis-Laboratory Fumehoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, John B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a procedure by which the performance of chemical hoods can be tested. This procedure uses a mixture of dry ice and water to create a "smoke" for use in the test. Implications for sash design, performance evaluations and testing under standard and nonstandard conditions are discussed. (CW)

  5. Safety of foods treated with novel process intervention technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many consumers are familiar with traditional food safety and preservation technologies such as thermal processing (cooking), salting, and pickling to inactivate common foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Many consumers are less familiar with other technologies s...

  6. Configuration and Data Management Process and the System Safety Professional

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, Charles Herbert; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the configuration management (CM) and the Data Management (DM) functions and provides a perspective of the importance of configuration and data management processes to the success of system safety activities. The article addresses the basic requirements of configuration and data management generally based on NASA configuration and data management policies and practices, although the concepts are likely to represent processes of any public or private organization's well-designed configuration and data management program.

  7. Image processing for safety assessment in civil engineering.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Belen; Pomares, Juan C; Irles, Ramon; Espinosa, Julian; Mas, David

    2013-06-20

    Behavior analysis of construction safety systems is of fundamental importance to avoid accidental injuries. Traditionally, measurements of dynamic actions in civil engineering have been done through accelerometers, but high-speed cameras and image processing techniques can play an important role in this area. Here, we propose using morphological image filtering and Hough transform on high-speed video sequence as tools for dynamic measurements on that field. The presented method is applied to obtain the trajectory and acceleration of a cylindrical ballast falling from a building and trapped by a thread net. Results show that safety recommendations given in construction codes can be potentially dangerous for workers. PMID:23842183

  8. Total chemical management in photographic processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luden, Charles; Schultz, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    The mission of the U. S. Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center is to produce high-quality photographs of the earth taken from aircraft and Landsat satellite. In order to meet the criteria of producing research-quality photographs, while at the same time meeting strict environmental restrictions, a total photographic chemical management system was installed. This involved a three-part operation consisting of the design of a modern chemical analysis laboratory, the implementation of a chemical regeneration system, and the installation of a waste treatment system, including in-plant pretreatment and outside secondary waste treatment. Over the last ten years the result of this program has yielded high-quality photographs while saving approximately 30,000 per year and meeting all Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restrictions.

  9. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Tested Disposal Methods for Chemical Wastes from Academic Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, M. A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes procedures for disposing of dichromate cleaning solution, picric acid, organic azides, oxalic acid, chemical spills, and hydroperoxides in ethers and alkenes. These methods have been tested under laboratory conditions and are specific for individual chemicals rather than for groups of chemicals. (JN)

  10. A system safety approach to the FAA surveillance process

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, P.W.; Olson, D.R.

    1997-08-08

    As commercial air travel grows in terms of the number of passenger miles flown, there is expected to be a corresponding dramatic increase in the absolute number of accidents. This despite an enviable safety record and a very low accident rate. The political environment is such that an increase in the absolute number of accidents is not acceptable, with a stated goal of a factor of five reduction in the aviation fatal accident rate within ten years. The objective of this project is to develop an improved surveillance process that will provide measurements of the current state-of-health and predictions of future state of health of aircraft, operators, facilities, and personnel. Methodologies developed for nuclear weapon safety, in addition to more well known system safety and high-consequence engineering techniques, will be used in this approach.

  11. Safety evaluation of chemically modified beta-lactoglobulin administered intravaginally.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuetao; Qiu, Lixia; Wang, Yonghong; Wang, Yue; Meng, Yuanguang; Zhu, Yun; Lu, Lu; Jiang, Shibo

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is no specific antiviral therapy for treatment of HPV infection. Jiang and colleagues previously reported that anhydride-modified proteins have inhibitory activities against multiple viruses including HPV. Here, we evaluated the safety of 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride-modified bovine beta-lactoglobulin, designated JB01, vaginally applied in women infected by high-risk HPV. After the vaginal application of JB01 in 38 women for 3 months, no serious adverse events were reported, and normalization of the vaginal micro-environment has been observed. It can be concluded that JB01-BD is safe for vaginal use in HPV-infected women, suggesting its potential application for the treatment of HPV infection. J. Med. Virol. 88:1098-1101, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26629967

  12. EVALUATING AND DESIGNING CHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals and chemical processes are at the heart of most environmental problems. This isn't surprising since chemicals make up all of the products we use in our lives. The common use of cjhemicals makes them of high interest for systems analysis, particularly because of environ...

  13. Safety Sufficiency for NextGen: Assessment of Selected Existing Safety Methods, Tools, Processes, and Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Xidong; Ulrey, Mike L.; Brown, John A.; Mast, James; Lapis, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    NextGen is a complex socio-technical system and, in many ways, it is expected to be more complex than the current system. It is vital to assess the safety impact of the NextGen elements (technologies, systems, and procedures) in a rigorous and systematic way and to ensure that they do not compromise safety. In this study, the NextGen elements in the form of Operational Improvements (OIs), Enablers, Research Activities, Development Activities, and Policy Issues were identified. The overall hazard situation in NextGen was outlined; a high-level hazard analysis was conducted with respect to multiple elements in a representative NextGen OI known as OI-0349 (Automation Support for Separation Management); and the hazards resulting from the highly dynamic complexity involved in an OI-0349 scenario were illustrated. A selected but representative set of the existing safety methods, tools, processes, and regulations was then reviewed and analyzed regarding whether they are sufficient to assess safety in the elements of that OI and ensure that safety will not be compromised and whether they might incur intolerably high costs.

  14. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. To address the facility-specific and site-specific vulnerabilities, responsible DOE and site-contractor line organizations have developed initial site response plans. These plans, presented as Volume 2 of this Management Response Plan, describe the actions needed to mitigate or eliminate the facility- and site-specific vulnerabilities identified by the CSV Working Group field verification teams. Initial site response plans are described for: Brookhaven National Lab., Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Lab., Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., Oak Ridge Reservation, Rocky Flats Plant, Sandia National Laboratories, and Savannah River Site.

  15. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Safety: What Do We Really Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.; Fawcett, Howard H.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests ways in which chemistry professionals, particularly academic faculty members, might improve the image of chemistry and engineering. Stresses damage done to this image because of recent media coverage regarding misuse and improper disposal of chemicals. (CS)

  16. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES WITH FUGITIVE AND OPEN EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Designing a chemical process normally includes aspects of economic and environmental disciplines. In this work we describe methods to quickly and easily evaluate the economics and potential environmental impacts of a process, with the hydrodealkylation of toluene as an example. ...

  17. Efficiency of chemical process development increased by computerized control system

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, B.; Powers, J.

    1984-10-01

    New chemical processes are developed at a $12 million research facility operated by Halcon SD in Montvale, NJ. Since its founding in 1946, Halcon SD has contributed an estimated one-fourth of the petrochemical industry's major process discoveries. Included are Halcon's ethylene oxide process, a terephthalic acid process sold to Standard Oil of Indiana, and many other patented technologies for producing a major portion of the commodity chemicals used to manufacture polyester, nylon, and other products. Halcon's future success depends upon developing patented processes at an increasingly faster rate. Recognizing this fact, Halcon began a major automation program coincident with its 1979 move into the new Montvale facility. Chemical process R and D requires that a large number of tests be conducted on many different process unit operations. Analytical and engineering data from such unit operations as distillation and reaction systems are combined into a process model which is then used to design the chemical plant.

  18. A framework for chemical plant safety assessment under uncertainty.

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, X.; Anitescu, M.; Pereira, C.; Regalbuto, M.

    2009-03-01

    We construct a framework for assessing the risk that the uncertainty in the plant feed and physical parameters may mask the loss of a reaction product. To model the plant, we use a nonlinear, quasi-steady-state model with stochastic input and parameters. We compute the probability that more than a certain product amount is diverted, given the statistics of the uncertainty in the plant feed, in the values of the chemical parameters, and in the output measurement. The uncertainty in the physical parameters is based on the one provided by the recently developed concept of thermochemical tables. We use Monte Carlo methods to compute the probabilities, based on a Cauchy-theorem-like approach to avoid making anything but the safest asymptotic assumptions, as well as to avoid the excessive noise in the region of low-probability events.

  19. The Implementation and Maintenance of a Behavioral Safety Process in a Petroleum Refinery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Wanda V.; McSween, Terry E.; Medina, Rixio E.; Rost, Kristen; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2010-01-01

    A values-centered and team-based behavioral safety process was implemented in a petroleum oil refinery. Employee teams defined the refinery's safety values and related practices, which were used to guide the process design and implementation. The process included (a) a safety assessment; (b) the clarification of safety-related values and related…

  20. The Implementation and Maintenance of a Behavioral Safety Process in a Petroleum Refinery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Wanda V.; McSween, Terry E.; Medina, Rixio E.; Rost, Kristen; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2010-01-01

    A values-centered and team-based behavioral safety process was implemented in a petroleum oil refinery. Employee teams defined the refinery's safety values and related practices, which were used to guide the process design and implementation. The process included (a) a safety assessment; (b) the clarification of safety-related values and related

  1. Program Prepares Students for Chemical-Processing Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Haley

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a chemical-processing program at Saginaw Career Complex in Saginaw, Michigan. The program is preparing 42 11th- and 12th-graders to work as chemical-processing operators or technicians by the time they graduate from high school. It was developed in partnership with the Saginaw Career Complex--one of 51 centers in the state

  2. 21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19 Section 170.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.19 Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. When...

  3. Program Prepares Students for Chemical-Processing Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Haley

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a chemical-processing program at Saginaw Career Complex in Saginaw, Michigan. The program is preparing 42 11th- and 12th-graders to work as chemical-processing operators or technicians by the time they graduate from high school. It was developed in partnership with the Saginaw Career Complex--one of 51 centers in the state…

  4. Laboratory conditions and safety in a chemical warfare agent analysis and research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kenar, Levent; Karayilanoğlu, Turan; Kose, Songul

    2002-08-01

    Toxic chemicals have been used as weapons of war and also as means of terrorist attacks on civilian populations. Research focusing on chemical warfare agents (CWAs) may be associated with an increased risk of exposure to and contamination by these agents. This article summarizes some of the regulations concerning designation and safety in a CWA analysis and research laboratory and medical countermeasures in case of an accidental exposure. The design of such a laboratory, coupled with a set of safety guidelines, provides for the safe conduct of research and studies involving CWAs. Thus, a discussion of decontamination and protection means against CWAs is also presented. PMID:12188231

  5. News: Good chemical manufacturing process criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This news column covers topics relating to manufacturing criteria, machine to machine technology, novel process windows, green chemistry indices, business resilience, immobilized enzymes, and Bt crops.

  6. Intelligent Chemical Sensor Systems for In-space Safety Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Neudeck, P. G.; Makel, D. B.; Ward, B.; Liu, C. C.

    2006-01-01

    Future in-space and lunar operations will require significantly improved monitoring and Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) throughout the mission. In particular, the monitoring of chemical species is an important component of an overall monitoring system for space vehicles and operations. For example, in leak monitoring of propulsion systems during launch, inspace, and on lunar surfaces, detection of low concentrations of hydrogen and other fuels is important to avoid explosive conditions that could harm personnel and damage the vehicle. Dependable vehicle operation also depends on the timely and accurate measurement of these leaks. Thus, the development of a sensor array to determine the concentration of fuels such as hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or hydrazine as well as oxygen is necessary. Work has been on-going to develop an integrated smart leak detection system based on miniaturized sensors to detect hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or hydrazine, and oxygen. The approach is to implement Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) based sensors incorporated with signal conditioning electronics, power, data storage, and telemetry enabling intelligent systems. The final sensor system will be self-contained with a surface area comparable to a postage stamp. This paper discusses the development of this "Lick and Stick" leak detection system and it s application to In-Space Transportation and other Exploration applications.

  7. Chemical Sensing for Buried Landmines - Fundamental Processes Influencing Trace Chemical Detection

    SciTech Connect

    PHELAN, JAMES M.

    2002-05-01

    Mine detection dogs have a demonstrated capability to locate hidden objects by trace chemical detection. Because of this capability, demining activities frequently employ mine detection dogs to locate individual buried landmines or for area reduction. The conditions appropriate for use of mine detection dogs are only beginning to emerge through diligent research that combines dog selection/training, the environmental conditions that impact landmine signature chemical vapors, and vapor sensing performance capability and reliability. This report seeks to address the fundamental soil-chemical interactions, driven by local weather history, that influence the availability of chemical for trace chemical detection. The processes evaluated include: landmine chemical emissions to the soil, chemical distribution in soils, chemical degradation in soils, and weather and chemical transport in soils. Simulation modeling is presented as a method to evaluate the complex interdependencies among these various processes and to establish conditions appropriate for trace chemical detection. Results from chemical analyses on soil samples obtained adjacent to landmines are presented and demonstrate the ultra-trace nature of these residues. Lastly, initial measurements of the vapor sensing performance of mine detection dogs demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of dogs in sensing landmine signature chemicals; however, reliability at these ultra-trace vapor concentrations still needs to be determined. Through this compilation, additional work is suggested that will fill in data gaps to improve the utility of trace chemical detection.

  8. Laser/plasma chemical processing of substrates

    DOEpatents

    Gee, James M.; Hargis, Jr., Philip J.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the modification of substrate surfaces is described, wherein etching or deposition at a surface occurs only in the presence of both reactive species and a directed beam of coherent light.

  9. Chemical Process Design: An Integrated Teaching Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debelak, Kenneth A.; Roth, John A.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews a one-semester senior plant design/laboratory course, focusing on course structure, student projects, laboratory assignments, and course evaluation. Includes discussion of laboratory exercises related to process waste water and sludge. (SK)

  10. Safety Evaluation for Hull Waste Treatment Process in JNC

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, H.; Kurakata, K.

    2002-02-26

    Hull wastes and some scrapped equipment are typical radioactive wastes generated from reprocessing process in Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). Because hulls are the wastes remained in the fuel shearing and dissolution, they contain high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started the project of Hull Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF) to treat these solid wastes using compaction and incineration methods since 1993. It is said that Zircaloy fines generated from compaction process might burn and explode intensely. Therefore explosive conditions of the fines generated in compaction process were measured. As these results, it was concluded that the fines generated from the compaction process were not hazardous material. This paper describes the outline of the treatment process of hulls and results of safety evaluation.

  11. Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure: A Safety Program Manual. Participatory Education with Farmworkers in Pesticide Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC. Dept. of Family and Community Medicine.

    Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure among North Carolina Farmworkers (PACE) is a project designed to describe farmworker pesticide exposure and to develop an educational intervention to reduce farmworker pesticide exposure. The PACE project used a community participation framework to ensure that the community played a significant role in…

  12. The Safety "Use Case": Co-Developing Chemical Information Management and Laboratory Safety Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Ralph B.; McEwen, Leah R.

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 edition of the American Chemical Society's "Guidelines and Evaluation Procedures for Bachelor's Degree Programs" identifies six skill sets that undergraduate chemistry programs should instill in their students. In our roles as support staff for chemistry departments at two different institutions (one a Primarily Undergraduate…

  13. Safety. [requirements for software to monitor and control critical processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1991-01-01

    Software requirements, design, implementation, verification and validation, and especially management are affected by the need to produce safe software. This paper discusses the changes in the software life cycle that are necessary to ensure that software will execute without resulting in unacceptable risk. Software is being used increasingly to monitor and control safety-critical processes in which a run-time failure or error could result in unacceptable losses such as death, injury, loss of property, or environmental harm. Examples of such processes maybe found in transportation, energy, aerospace, basic industry, medicine, and defense systems.

  14. BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

    2012-04-09

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly since the Mercury Water Wash Tank was replaced after the seventh batch of Sludge Batch 5. Since this time, essentially no recovery of mercury has been seen. Pertinent literature was reviewed, previous lab-scale data on mercury stripping and recovery was examined, and new lab-scale CPC Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were conducted. For previous lab-scale data, many of the runs with sufficient mercury recovery data were examined to determine what factors affect the stripping and recovery of mercury and to improve closure of the mercury material balance. Ten new lab-scale SRAT runs (HG runs) were performed to examine the effects of acid stoichiometry, sludge solids concentration, antifoam concentration, form of mercury added to simulant, presence of a SRAT heel, operation of the SRAT condenser at higher than prototypic temperature, varying noble metals from none to very high concentrations, and higher agitation rate. Data from simulant runs from SB6, SB7a, glycolic/formic, and the HG tests showed that a significant amount of Hg metal was found on the vessel bottom at the end of tests. Material balance closure improved from 12-71% to 48-93% when this segregated Hg was considered. The amount of Hg segregated as elemental Hg on the vessel bottom was 4-77% of the amount added. The highest recovery of mercury in the offgas system generally correlated with the highest retention of Hg in the slurry. Low retention in the slurry (high segregation on the vessel bottom) resulted in low recovery in the offgas system. High agitation rates appear to result in lower retention of mercury in the slurry. Both recovery of mercury in the offgas system and removal (segregation + recovery) from the slurry correlate with slurry consistency. Higher slurry consistency results in better retention of Hg in the slurry (less segregation) and better recovery in the offgas system, but the relationships of recovery and retention with consistency are sludge dependent. Some correlation with slurry yield stress and acid stoichiometry was also found. Better retention of mercury in the slurry results in better recovery in the offgas system because the mercury in the slurry is stripped more easily than the segregated mercury at the bottom of the vessel. Although better retention gives better recovery, the time to reach a particular slurry mercury content (wt%) is longer than if the retention is poorer because the segregation is faster. The segregation of mercury is generally a faster process than stripping. The stripping factor (mass of water evaporated per mass of mercury stripped) of mercury at the start of boiling were found to be less than 1000 compared to the assumed design basis value of 750 (the theoretical factor is 250). However, within two hours, this value increased to at least 2000 lb water per lb Hg. For runs with higher mercury recovery in the offgas system, the stripping factor remained around 2000, but runs with low recovery had stripping factors of 4000 to 40,000. DWPF data shows similar trends with the stripping factor value increasing during boiling. These high values correspond to high segregation and low retention of mercury in the sludge. The stripping factor for a pure Hg metal bead in water was found to be about 10,000 lb/lb. About 10-36% of the total Hg evaporated in a SRAT cycle was refluxed back to the SRAT during formic acid addition and boiling. Mercury is dissolved as a result of nitric acid formation from absorption of NO{sub x}. The actual solubility of dissolved mercury in the acidic condensate is about 100 times higher than the actual concentrations measured. Mercury metal present in the MWWT from previous batches could be dissolved by this acidic condensate. The test of the effect of higher SRAT condenser temperature on recovery of mercury in the MWWT and offgas system was inconclusive. The recovery at higher temperature was lower than several low temperature runs, but about the same as other runs. Factors other than temperature appear to affect the mercury recovery. The presence of chloride and iodide in simulants resulted in the formation of mercurous chloride and mercurous iodide, respectively, in the offgas system. Actual waste data shows that the chloride content is much less than the simulant concentrations. Future simulant tests should minimize the addition of chloride. Similarly, iodine addition should be eliminated unless actual waste analyses show it to be present; currently, total iodine is not measured on actual waste samples.

  15. The EPRI DFDX Chemical Decontamination Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bushart, S.; Wood, C. J.; Bradbury, D.; Elder, G.

    2003-02-25

    Decommissioning of retired nuclear plants and components demands the proper management of the process, both for economic reasons and for retaining public confidence in the continued use of nuclear power for electricity generation. The cost and ease of management of radioactively contaminated components can be greatly assisted by the application of decontamination technology. EPRI initiated a program of research and development work in collaboration with Bradtec, which has led to the ''EPRI DFD'' (Decontamination for Decommissioning) Process. The Process has been patented and licensed to six companies worldwide. The purpose of this process is to achieve efficient removal of radioactivity with minimum waste from retired nuclear components and plant systems. The process uses dilute fluoroboric acid with controlled oxidation potential. By removing all the outer scale and a thin layer of base metal from the surfaces, contamination can in many cases be reduced below the levels required to allow clearance (free-release) or recycle to form new components for the nuclear industry. This reduces the need for on-site storage or burial of large amounts of contaminated material at low level radioactive disposal facilities. An additional benefit is that residual radiation fields can be reduced by a large factor, which reduces the worker radiation exposure associated with decommissioning. Furthermore, this dose rate reduction improves the viability of early dismantlement following plant closure, as opposed to waiting for a prolonged period for radioactive decay to occur. The results obtained in early applications of the EPRI DFD process demonstrated the benefits of taking this approach (reference 1).

  16. Task Group report to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health on oversight of chemical safety at the Department of Energy. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary review of chemical safety within the Department of Energy (DOE). The review was conducted by Chemical Safety Oversight Review (CSOR) Teams composed of Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) staff members and contractors. The primary objective of the CSOR was to assess, the safety status of DOE chemical operations and identify any significant deficiencies associated with such operations. Significant was defined as any situation posing unacceptable risk, that is, imminent danger or threat to workers, co-located workers, the general public, or the environment, that requires prompt action by EH or the line organizations. A secondary objective of the CSOR was to gather and analyze technical and programmatic information related to chemical safety to be used in conjunction with the longer-range EH Workplace Chemical Accident Risk Review (WCARR) Program. The WCARR Program is part of the ongoing EH oversight of nonnuclear safety at all DOE facilities. `` The program objective is to analyze DOE and industry chemical safety programs and performance and determine the need for additional or improved safety guidance for DOE. During the period June 6, 1992, through July 31, 1992, EH conducted CSORs at five DOE sites. The sites visited were Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Savannah River Site (SRS), the Y-12 Plant (Y-12), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  17. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory--Chemical Management: A Method for Waste Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Stanley H.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods for reducing or eliminating waste disposal problems in the chemistry laboratory, considering both economic and environmental aspects of the problems. Proposes inventory control, shared use, solvent recycling, zero effluent, and various means of disposing of chemicals. (JM)

  18. Chemical mass transfer in magmatic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiorso, Mark S.

    1987-07-01

    Lasaga's (1982) Master Equation for crystal growth is solved for multicomponent systems in situations which allow for coupled diffusion of melt species. The structure of the solution is explored in some detail for the case of a constant diffusion coefficient matrix. Incorporating these results, the growth of plagioclase is modeled in undercooled tholeiitic melts by approximating interface growth rates with (1) a reduced growth rate function and with (2) calculated solid-liquid solution properties obtained from the silicate liquid solution model of Ghiorso et al. (1983; appendix of Ghiorso 1985). For this purpose algorithms are provided for estimating the liquidus temperature or the chemical affinity of a multicomponent solid solution precipitating from a complex melt of specified bulk composition. Compositional trends in initial solids produced by successive degrees of undercooling are opposite to those predicted in the binary system NaAlSi3O8-CaAl2Si2O8. Calculations suggest that the solid phase and interface melt compositions rapidly approach a “steady state” for a given degree of undercooling. Consequently, the overall isothermal growth rate of plagioclase forming from tholeiitic melts appears to be entirely diffusion controlled. In magmatic systems the multicomponent growth equations allow for the formation of oscillatory zoned crystals as a consequence of the “couplingr” between interface reaction kinetics and melt diffusion. The magnitude of this effect is largely dependent upon the asymmetry of the diffusion coefficient matrix. Methods are described to facilitate the calibration of diffusion matrices from experimental data on multicomponent penetration curves. Experimental results (Lesher and Walker 1986) on steady state Soret concentration profiles resulting from thermal diffusion in MORB and andesitic liquids are analyzed using the theory of multicomponent linear irreversible thermodynamics. Under conditions where the entropy production is minimized, a linear relationship is derived between liquid chemical potentials and temperature. This relationship is utilized to evaluate the validity of the solution model of Ghiorso et al. (1983) in melts up to 300° C above their liquidus. The results indicate that configurational entropies are accurately modeled for MORB and andesite bulk compositions. The modeling fails in two four-component systems tested. Equations are derived which allow the calibration of multicomponent regular solution parameters from steady state Soret arrays. An algorithm is demonstrated which permits the calculation of steady state Soret concentration profiles, given an overall bulk melt composition and temperature gradient. This algorithm uses the liquid solution properties of Ghiorso et al. (1983) and constants obtained from the experimental measurements of Lesher and Walker (1986).

  19. Dynamic displays of chemical process flowsheet models

    SciTech Connect

    Aull, J.E.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes the algorithms used in constructing dynamic graphical displays of a process flowsheet. Movies are created which portray changes in the process over time using animation in the flowsheet such as individual streams that take on a color keyed to the current flow rate, tank levels that visibly rise and fall and {open_quotes}gauges{close_quotes} that move to display parameter values. Movies of this type can be a valuable tool for visualizing, analyzing, and communicating the behavior of a process model. This paper describes the algorithms used in constructing displays of this kind for dynamic models using the SPEEDUP{trademark} modeling package and the GMS{trademark} graphics package. It also tells how data is exported from the SPEEDUP{trademark} package to GMS{trademark} and describes how a user environment for running movies and editing flowsheets is set up. The algorithms are general enough to be applied to other processes and graphics packages. In fact the techniques described here can be used to create movies of any time-dependent data.

  20. Efficient Nonlinear Programming Algorithms for Chemical Process Control and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biegler, Lorenz T.

    Optimization is applied in numerous areas of chemical engineering including the development of process models from experimental data, design of process flowsheets and equipment, planning and scheduling of chemical process operations, and the analysis of chemical processes under uncertainty and adverse conditions. These off-line tasks require the solution of nonlinear programs (NLPs) with detailed, large-scale process models. Recently, these tasks have been complemented by time-critical, on-line optimization problems with differential-algebraic equation (DAE) process models that describe process behavior over a wide range of operating conditions, and must be solved sufficiently quickly. This paper describes recent advances in this area especially with dynamic models. We outline large-scale NLP formulations and algorithms as well as NLP sensitivity for on-line applications, and illustrate these advances on a commercial-scale low density polyethylene (LDPE) process.

  1. In tank processing safety analysis program summary report. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Radder, J.A.

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this summary report is to present results from the safety analysis work that was performed in support of the ``Seismic Safety Issue Resolution Program Plan`` for the In-Tank Processing (ITP) Facility. Results from this effort include estimates of the consequences that postulated earthquakes might introduce. For beyond evaluation based earthquake (EBE) events, best estimate values (e.g., waste tank volumes) are used rather than bounding values to analyze the consequences of such events. This is consistent with the probabilistic approach outlined in Attachment C of the program plan. Planned follow-on work will also involve best estimates of probabilities for soil liquefaction and differential settlement. These probabilities will be combined in an accident progression event tree (APET) model that is used to provide estimates of risk for beyond EBE seismic events.

  2. Chemical processing in geothermal nuclear chimney

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, O.H.

    1973-10-01

    A closed rubble filled nuclear chimney is provided in a subterranean geothermal formation by detonation of a nuclear explosive device therein, with reagent input and product output conduits connecting the chimney cavity with appropriate surface facilities. Such facilities will usually comprise reagent preparation, product recovery and recycle facilities. Proccsses are then conducted in the nuclear chimney which processes are facilitated by temperature, pressure, catalytic and other conditions existent or which are otherwise provided in the nuclear chimney. (auth)

  3. Work and safety, 1-98: Chemical abstracts, health and safety science abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce safety-at-work experts to the main sources, harmful effects on health and biological monitoring of occupational exposure to the toxic metals lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, chromium and nickel. There are various sources of exposure to these metals in the metallurgical, machine and metal industry, electrical engineering industry, construction, motor and aviation industry, as well as in other industries, and to a small extent also in the organic industry. Special emphasis is given to the basic principles of biological monitoring and its advantages in relation to the monitoring of the working environment from the standpoint of health protection of workers. Characteristic biological indicators of exposure are critically evaluated for each metal. Biological exposure indices of the chosen biological indicators of exposure are determined, the implementation of which, according to the present knowledge and experience, should not cause health impairment to the workers exposed.

  4. Evaluation of Chemical Coating Processes for AXAF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhaupt, Darell; Ramsey, Brian; Mendrek, Mitchell

    1998-01-01

    The need existed at MSFC for the development and fabrication of radioisotope calibration sources of cadmium 109 and iron 55 isotopes. This was in urgent response to the AXA-F program. Several issues persisted in creating manufacturing difficulties for the supplier. In order to meet the MSFC requirements very stringent control needed to be maintained for the coating quality, specific activity and thickness. Due to the difficulties in providing the precisely controlled devices for testing, the delivery of the sources was seriously delayed. It became imperative that these fabrication issues be resolved to avoid further delays in this AXA-F observatory key component. The objectives are: 1) Research and provide expert advice on coating materials and procedures. 2) Research and recommend solutions to problems that have been experienced with the coating process. 3) Provide recommendations on the selection and preparation of substrates. 4) Provide consultation on the actual coating process including the results of the qualification and acceptance test programs. 5) Perform independent tests at UAH or MSFC as necessary.

  5. Sustainability Indicators for Chemical Processes: III. Biodiesel Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical industry is one of the most important business sectors, not only economically, but also societally; as it allows humanity to attain higher standards and quality of life. Simultaneously, chemical products and processes can be the origin of potential human health and ...

  6. EFFECTS OF TOXIC CHEMICAL ON NUTRIENT CYCLING PROCESSES IN SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the risk of toxic chemicals to soil nutrient cycling processes involves an understanding of the potential for chemical effects on the diversity and the activity of the microbial communities and higher life forms in the natural system. ssessments of risk associated with ...

  7. 2. OVERHEAD CHEMICAL PROCESS PIPING BETWEEN BUILDINGS 422, ON RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERHEAD CHEMICAL PROCESS PIPING BETWEEN BUILDINGS 422, ON RIGHT, AND 431, ON LEFT. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Crude Mustard & Aldrin Manufacturing, 1200 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 600 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. SCREENING PROTOCOL FOR ASSESSING TOXICITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS TOANAEROBIC PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A screening protocol has been developed to provide a rapid andrepeatable assessment of the effect of toxic organic chemicals onanaerobic treatment processes. his protocol also providesinformation on the rate limiting biological reactions and theconcentrations at which changes in ...

  9. CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR FUGITIVE VOC EMISSIONS FROM CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook contains information concerning volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the synthetic organic chemicals manufacturing industry (SOCMI), petroleum refineries, on-shore natural gas processing plants, polymer manufacturing plants, benzene from particular equipme...

  10. Chemical etching for automatic processing of integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical etching for automatic processing of integrated circuits is discussed. The wafer carrier and loading from a receiving air track into automatic furnaces and unloading onto a sending air track are included.

  11. 64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. Microbial production of bulk chemicals: development of anaerobic processes.

    PubMed

    Weusthuis, Ruud A; Lamot, Ischa; van der Oost, John; Sanders, Johan P M

    2011-04-01

    Innovative fermentation processes are necessary for the cost-effective production of bulk chemicals from renewable resources. Current microbial processes are either anaerobic processes, with high yield and productivity, or less-efficient aerobic processes. Oxygen utilization plays an important role in energy generation and redox metabolism that is necessary for product formation. The aerobic productivity, however, is relatively low because of rate-limiting volumetric oxygen transfer; whereas the product yield in the presence of oxygen is generally low because part of the substrate is completely oxidized to CO₂. Hence, new microbial conversion processes for the production of bulk chemicals should be anaerobic. In this opinion article, we describe different scenarios for the development of highly efficient microbial conversion processes for the anaerobic production of bulk chemicals. PMID:21227520

  13. Analysis of chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Six chemical coal cleaning processes were examined. Conceptual designs and costs were prepared for these processes and coal preparation facilities, including physical cleaning and size reduction. Transportation of fine coal in agglomerated and unagglomerated forms was also discussed. Chemical cleaning processes were: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Ledgemont, Ames Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (two versions), and Guth Process (KVB). Three of the chemical cleaning processes are similar in concept: PETC, Ledgemont, and Ames. Each of these is based on the reaction of sulfur with pressurized oxygen, with the controlling factor being the partial pressure of oxygen in the reactor. All of the processes appear technically feasible. Economic feasibility is less certain. The recovery of process chemicals is vital to the JPL and Guth processes. All of the processes consume significant amounts of energy in the form of electric power and coal. Energy recovery and increased efficiency are potential areas for study in future more detailed designs. The Guth process (formally designed KVB) appears to be the simplest of the systems evaluated. All of the processes require future engineering to better determine methods for scaling laboratory designs/results to commercial-scale operations. A major area for future engineering is to resolve problems related to handling, feeding, and flow control of the fine and often hot coal.

  14. Chemical mass transfer in magmatic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiorso, Mark S.; Carmichael, Ian S. E.

    1985-07-01

    Numerical examples of the approach described in Part I of this series (Ghiorso, 1985) are presented in this paper. These examples include the calculation of the compositions and proportions of liquid and solid phases produced during (1) the equilibrium crystallization of a basaltic andesite at 1 bar, (2) the fractional crystallization of an olivine tholeiite at 1 bar and elevated pressures, (3) the fractional and equilibrium crystallization of an olivine boninite at 1 bar, and (4) the (a) isothermal and (b) isenthalpic assimilation of olivine (Fo90) into a liquid/solid assemblage of quartz dioritic composition at ˜1,125° C and 3 kbars. The numerical results on the crystallization of the basaltic andesite are verified by comparison with experimental data while those calculations performed using olivine tholeiitic and olivine boninitic compositions are favorably compared against whole rock and mineral analytical data and petrographic and field observations. In each of the examples presented, the heat effects associated with the modelled process are calculated (e.g. heat of crystallization, heat of assimilation), and free energies of crystallization are examined as a function of the degree of mineral supersaturation. The former quantities are on the order of 173 cal/grm for the cooling and fractional crystallization of an olivine tholeiite to a rhyolitic residuum (corresponding to a 400° C temperature interval). The latter represents an important petrological parameter, in that it quantifies the driving force for the rate of crystal growth and rate of nucleation in magmatic systems. Calculated free energies of crystallization are small (on the order of hundreds of calories per mole per 25° C of undercooling) which indicates that the kinetics of crystallization in magmatic systems are affinity controlled. Melt oxygen fugacity and the degree of oxygen metasomatism play a major role in controlling the fractionation trends produced from crystallizing basaltic liquids. Calculations suggest that in order to generate a silica rich residuum and the characteristic iron enrichment trend during the fractional crystallization of a tholeiitic basalt, the magma must crystallize esentially along f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } buffer. This buffered state can be maintained by exchange of oxygen (via hydrogen diffusion) between the magma and the surrounding country rocks or by magmatic oxidation-reduction equilibria. Additional calculations indicate the possibility that oxygen exchange may be unnecessary if the magma contains sufficient sulfur to maintain the system along an S2/SO2 oxygen buffer during the initial stages of crystallization.

  15. Chemical processing and shampooing impact cortisol measured in human hair

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, M. Camille; Karban, Laura V.; Benitez, Patrick; Goodteacher, Angela; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The assessment of cortisol in hair has gained popularity as a means to measure retrospective hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in a number of species; however, cortisol levels from human hair subjected to typical chemicals for cosmetic or hygienic purposes may be altered by the chemicals used. The purposed of this study was to determine if exposure of hair to chemical processing or shampooing impacts cortisol values. Methods Human hair not exposed to prior chemical processing was cut from the posterior vertex region of the head of 106 human subjects as close to the scalp as possible. The hair sample was divided into 4-6 full-length clusters depending on quantity of hair available. Each hair sample was processed for baseline (native) cortisol and remaining clusters were exposed to five standard chemical hair treatments (Experiment 1) or were shampooed 15 or 30 times (Experiment 2). Hair was ground and cortisol levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Comparisons were made between native hair and processed hair using paired t-tests and Pearson correlation. Results Hair cortisol as assessed by EIA was significantly altered by chemical processing but in somewhat different ways. Exposure to bleach (harshest exposure), demi-perm (least exposure) or 15-30 shampoos resulted in a significant decrease in cortisol level while exposure to varying percentages of peroxides increased cortisol measured. There were no differences in cortisol levels associated with sex, age or tobacco use in the native hair for this particular group. Conclusion Chemical processing and frequent shampooing affect cortisol levels measured in hair. Chemically processed or excessively shampooed hair should be avoided when recruiting subjects for hair cortisol studies. PMID:25090265

  16. Controlled versus automatic processes: which is dominant to safety? The moderating effect of inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Ding, Weidong; Lu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the precursors of employees' safety behaviors based on a dual-process model, which suggests that human behaviors are determined by both controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Employees' responses to a self-reported survey on safety attitudes capture their controlled cognitive process, while the automatic association concerning safety measured by an Implicit Association Test (IAT) reflects employees' automatic cognitive processes about safety. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effects of inhibition on the relationship between self-reported safety attitude and safety behavior, and that between automatic associations towards safety and safety behavior. The results suggest significant main effects of self-reported safety attitude and automatic association on safety behaviors. Further, the interaction between self-reported safety attitude and inhibition and that between automatic association and inhibition each predict unique variances in safety behavior. Specifically, the safety behaviors of employees with lower level of inhibitory control are influenced more by automatic association, whereas those of employees with higher level of inhibitory control are guided more by self-reported safety attitudes. These results suggest that safety behavior is the joint outcome of both controlled and automatic cognitive processes, and the relative importance of these cognitive processes depends on employees' individual differences in inhibitory control. The implications of these findings for theoretical and practical issues are discussed at the end. PMID:24520338

  17. Controlled versus Automatic Processes: Which Is Dominant to Safety? The Moderating Effect of Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Ding, Weidong; Lu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the precursors of employees' safety behaviors based on a dual-process model, which suggests that human behaviors are determined by both controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Employees' responses to a self-reported survey on safety attitudes capture their controlled cognitive process, while the automatic association concerning safety measured by an Implicit Association Test (IAT) reflects employees' automatic cognitive processes about safety. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effects of inhibition on the relationship between self-reported safety attitude and safety behavior, and that between automatic associations towards safety and safety behavior. The results suggest significant main effects of self-reported safety attitude and automatic association on safety behaviors. Further, the interaction between self-reported safety attitude and inhibition and that between automatic association and inhibition each predict unique variances in safety behavior. Specifically, the safety behaviors of employees with lower level of inhibitory control are influenced more by automatic association, whereas those of employees with higher level of inhibitory control are guided more by self-reported safety attitudes. These results suggest that safety behavior is the joint outcome of both controlled and automatic cognitive processes, and the relative importance of these cognitive processes depends on employees' individual differences in inhibitory control. The implications of these findings for theoretical and practical issues are discussed at the end. PMID:24520338

  18. Dust as interstellar catalyst. I. Quantifying the chemical desorption process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minissale, M.; Dulieu, F.; Cazaux, S.; Hocuk, S.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The presence of dust in the interstellar medium has profound consequences on the chemical composition of regions where stars are forming. Recent observations show that many species formed onto dust are populating the gas phase, especially in cold environments where UV- and cosmic-ray-induced photons do not account for such processes. Aims: The aim of this paper is to understand and quantify the process that releases solid species into the gas phase, the so-called chemical desorption process, so that an explicit formula can be derived that can be included in astrochemical models. Methods: We present a collection of experimental results of more than ten reactive systems. For each reaction, different substrates such as oxidized graphite and compact amorphous water ice were used. We derived a formula for reproducing the efficiencies of the chemical desorption process that considers the equipartition of the energy of newly formed products, followed by classical bounce on the surface. In part II of this study we extend these results to astrophysical conditions. Results: The equipartition of energy correctly describes the chemical desorption process on bare surfaces. On icy surfaces, the chemical desorption process is much less efficient, and a better description of the interaction with the surface is still needed. Conclusions: We show that the mechanism that directly transforms solid species into gas phase species is efficient for many reactions.

  19. Sealed-bladdered chemical processing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Harless, D. Phillip

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus which enables a complete multi-stepped chemical treatment process to occur within a single, sealed-bladdered vessel 31. The entire chemical process occurs without interruption of the sealed-bladdered vessel 31 such as opening the sealed-bladdered vessel 31 between various steps of the process. The sealed-bladdered vessel 31 is loaded with a batch to be dissolved, treated, decanted, rinsed and/or dried. A pressure filtration step may also occur. The self-contained chemical processing apparatus 32 contains a sealed-bladder 32, a fluid pump 34, a reservoir 20, a compressed gas inlet, a vacuum pump 24, and a cold trap 23 as well as the associated piping 33, numerous valves 21,22,25,26,29,30,35,36 and other controls associated with such an apparatus. The claimed invention allows for dissolution and/or chemical treatment without the operator of the self-contained chemical processing apparatus 38 coming into contact with any of the process materials.

  20. Physical and chemical characterization of bioaerosols - Implications for nucleation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariya, P. A.; Sun, J.; Eltouny, N. A.; Hudson, E. D.; Hayes, C. T.; Kos, G.

    The importance of organic compounds in the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, and as cloud condensation and ice-forming nuclei, has been recognized for several decades. Organic compounds comprise a significant fraction of the suspended matter mass, leading to local (e.g. toxicity, health hazards) and global (e.g. climate change) impacts. The state of knowledge of the physical chemistry of organic aerosols has increased during the last few decades. However, due to their complex chemistry and the multifaceted processes in which they are involved, the importance of organic aerosols, particularly bioaerosols, in driving physical and chemical atmospheric processes is still very uncertain and poorly understood. Factors such as solubility, surface tension, chemical impurities, volatility, morphology, contact angle, deliquescence, wettability, and the oxidation process are pivotal in the understanding of the activation processes of cloud droplets, and their chemical structures, solubilities and even the molecular configuration of the microbial outer membrane, all impact ice and cloud nucleation processes in the atmosphere. The aim of this review paper is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols with a focus on those properties important in nucleation processes. We herein discuss the potential importance (or lack thereof) of physical and chemical properties of bioaerosols and illustrate how the knowledge of these properties can be employed to study nucleation processes using a modeling exercise. We also outline a list of major uncertainties due to a lack of understanding of the processes involved or lack of available data. We will also discuss key issues of atmospheric significance deserving future physical chemistry research in the fields of bioaerosol characterization and microphysics, as well as bioaerosol modeling. These fundamental questions are to be addressed prior to any definite conclusions on the potential significance of the role of bioaerosols on physico-chemical atmospheric processes and that of climate.

  1. Testing Chemical Safety: What Is Needed to Ensure the Widespread Application of Non-animal Approaches?

    PubMed Central

    Burden, Natalie; Sewell, Fiona; Chapman, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe. Numerous ethical, scientific, business, and legislative incentives will help to drive this shift. However, a number of hurdles must be overcome in the coming years before non-animal methods are adopted into widespread practice, particularly from regulatory, scientific, and global perspectives. Several initiatives are nevertheless underway that promise to increase the confidence in newer alternative methods, which will support the move towards a future in which less data from animal tests is required in the assessment of chemical safety. PMID:26018957

  2. DESIGNING CHEMICAL PROCESSES WITH OPEN AND FUGITIVE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Designing a chemical process normally includes aspects of economic and environmental disciplines. In this work we describe methods to quickly and easily evaluate the conomics and potential environmental impacts of a process, with the hydrodealkylation of toluene as an example. Th...

  3. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  4. Chemical and physical processes in Tank 241-SY-101: A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    Since 1942, chemical and radioactive waste have been stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. In March 1981 one of the double shell tanks, 241-SY-101 (called 101-SY), began venting large quantities of gas, primarily hydrogen and nitrous oxide. Because of the potential for explosion Westinghouse Hanford Company and the US Department of Energy realized the need for knowledge about the processes occurring in this tank that lead to generation of the gases. In June 1990, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory began assembling a Tank Waste Science Panel to develop a better understanding of the processes occurring the Tank 101-SY. This knowledge is necessary to provide a technically defensible basis for the safety analyses, which will allow the tank contents to be sampled, as well as for the future remediation of the tank and its contents. The Panel concluded that the data available on Tank 101-SY are insufficient to allow the critical chemical and physical processes giving rise to gas formation and release to be unambiguously identified. To provide the needed information the Panel recommends that Tank 101-SY by physically and chemically characterized as fully as possible and as expeditiously as safety considerations allow, and laboratory studies and modeling efforts be undertaken the chemical and physical processes involved in gas generation and release. Finally, the Panel recommends that no remediation steps be taken until there is a better understanding of the chemical and physical phenomena occurring in Tank 101-SY. Premature remediation steps may only serve to compound the problem. Furthermore, such steps may change the chemical and physical characteristics of the tank and prevent a true understanding of the phenomena involved. As a consequence, similar problems in other tanks on the site may not be adequately addressed. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Establishing the level of safety concern for chemicals in food without the need for toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Schilter, Benoît; Benigni, Romualdo; Boobis, Alan; Chiodini, Alessandro; Cockburn, Andrew; Cronin, Mark T D; Lo Piparo, Elena; Modi, Sandeep; Thiel, Anette; Worth, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    There is demand for methodologies to establish levels of safety concern associated with dietary exposures to chemicals for which no toxicological data are available. In such situations, the application of in silico methods appears promising. To make safety statement requires quantitative predictions of toxicological reference points such as no observed adverse effect level and carcinogenic potency for DNA-reacting chemicals. A decision tree (DT) has been developed to aid integrating exposure information and predicted toxicological reference points obtained with quantitative structure activity relationship ((Q)SAR) software and read across techniques. The predicted toxicological values are compared with exposure to obtain margins of exposure (MoE). The size of the MoE defines the level of safety concern and should account for a number of uncertainties such as the classical interspecies and inter-individual variability as well as others determined on a case by case basis. An analysis of the uncertainties of in silico approaches together with results from case studies suggest that establishing safety concern based on application of the DT is unlikely to be significantly more uncertain than based on experimental data. The DT makes a full use of all data available, ensuring an adequate degree of conservatism. It can be used when fast decision making is required. PMID:24012706

  6. Chemical technology for the toxic gas flow control through process water system.

    PubMed

    Broussard, G; Bramanti, O; Salvatore, A; Marchese, F M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is focused on the safety and toxicological aspects due to under-pressure industrial plant management, above all in the case which the gas is very dangerous for human health and environment. Here is illustrated the safe method of control of risks through specific choices of engineering devices and chemical process: in this way we have shown the mathematical calculation regarding the case of ammonia flow gas running in the piping and plant under-pressure. In this paper the Authors show the assessment of the technological solution for falling down of a toxic gas as NH3, which lets off from safety values facilities. The under pressure industrial plants with ammonia are protected through the safety valves, settled at 20 bar pressure. The out-let gas flow is capted by a tank of a water bulk of five time theoretical water amount necessary to the complete absorption of gas. In order to prevent any health risk and carry out a safety management, it needs to verify two basic aspects, with connected specific techniques: 1. The safety valves technology through the mathematical calculation of operating device; 2. The absorption process of the toxic agent for controlling of dangerous runaway of gas. PMID:11386179

  7. Risk-based process safety assessment and control measures design for offshore process facilities.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faisal I; Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir

    2002-09-01

    Process operation is the most hazardous activity next to the transportation and drilling operation on an offshore oil and gas (OOG) platform. Past experiences of onshore and offshore oil and gas activities have revealed that a small mis-happening in the process operation might escalate to a catastrophe. This is of especial concern in the OOG platform due to the limited space and compact geometry of the process area, less ventilation, and difficult escape routes. On an OOG platform, each extra control measure, which is implemented, not only occupies space on the platform and increases congestion but also adds extra load to the platform. Eventualities in the OOG platform process operation can be avoided through incorporating the appropriate control measures at the early design stage. In this paper, the authors describe a methodology for risk-based process safety decision making for OOG activities. The methodology is applied to various offshore process units, that is, the compressor, separators, flash drum and driers of an OOG platform. Based on the risk potential, appropriate safety measures are designed for each unit. This paper also illustrates that implementation of the designed safety measures reduces the high Fatal accident rate (FAR) values to an acceptable level. PMID:12141993

  8. Aquatic environmental safety assessment and inhibition mechanism of chemicals for targeting Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Bo; Hao, Kai; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-11-01

    Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria that produce an array of secondary compounds with selective bioactivity against vertebrates, invertebrates, fungi, bacteria and cell lines. Recently the main methods of controlling cyanobacteria are using chemicals, medicinal plants and microorganism but fewer involved the safety research in hydrophytic ecosystems. In search of an environmentally safe compound, 53 chemicals were screened against the developed heavy cyanobacteria bloom Microcystis aeruginosa using coexistence culture system assay. The results of the coexistence assay showed that 9 chemicals inhibited M. aeruginosa effectively at 20 mg L(-1) after 7 days of exposure. Among them dimethomorph, propineb, and paraquat were identified that they are safe for Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, Carassius auratus (Goldfish) and Bacillus subtilis within half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values 5.2, 4.2 and 0.06 mg L(-1) after 7 days, respectively. Paraquat as the positive control observed to be more efficient than the other compounds with the inhibitory rate (IR) of 92% at 0.5 mg L(-1). For the potential inhibition mechanism, the chemicals could destroy the cell ultrastructure in different speed. The safety assay proved dimethomorph, propineb and paraquat as harmless formulations or products having potential value in M. aeruginosa controlling, with the advantage of its cell morphology degrading ability. PMID:25139029

  9. Reduced product yield in chemical processes by second law effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.; Funk, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of second law effects in chemical processes, where product yield is explicitly related to the individual irreversibilities within the process to indicate a maximum theoretical yield, is presented. Examples are given that indicate differences between first and second law approaches toward process efficiency and process yield. This analysis also expresses production capacity in terms of the heating value of a product. As a result, it is particularly convenient in analyzing fuel conversion plants and their potential for improvement. Relationships are also given for the effects of irreversibilities on requirements for process heat and for feedstocks.

  10. Processes of technology assessment: The National Transportation Safety Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, E.

    1972-01-01

    The functions and operations of the Safety Board as related to technology assessment are described, and a brief history of the Safety Board is given. Recommendations made for safety in all areas of transportation and the actions taken are listed. Although accident investigation is an important aspect of NTSB's activity, it is felt that the greatest contribution is in pressing for development of better accident prevention programs. Efforts of the Safety Board in changing transportation technology to improve safety and prevent accidents are illustrated.

  11. Signal Processing For Chemical Sensing: Statistics or Biological Inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, Santiago

    2011-09-01

    Current analytical instrumentation and continuous sensing can provide huge amounts of data. Automatic signal processing and information evaluation is needed to overcome drowning in data. Today, statistical techniques are typically used to analyse and extract information from continuous signals. However, it is very interesting to note that biology (insects and vertebrates) has found alternative solutions for chemical sensing and information processing. This is a brief introduction to the developments in the European Project: Bio-ICT NEUROCHEM: Biologically Inspired Computation for Chemical Sensing (grant no. 216916) Fp7 project devoted to biomimetic olfactory systems.

  12. Organic chemical aging mechanisms: An annotated bibliography. Waste Tank Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M.; Nelson, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    An annotated bibliography has been compiled of the potential chemical and radiological aging mechanisms of the organic constituents (non-ferrocyanide) that would likely be found in the UST at Hanford. The majority of the work that has been conducted on the aging of organic chemicals used for extraction and processing of nuclear materials has been in conjunction with the acid or PUREX type processes. At Hanford the waste being stored in the UST has been stabilized with caustic. The aging factors that were used in this work were radiolysis, hydrolysis and nitrite/nitrate oxidation. The purpose of this work was two-fold: to determine whether or not research had been or is currently being conducted on the species associated with the Hanford UST waste, either as a mixture or as individual chemicals or chemical functionalities, and to determine what areas of chemical aging need to be addressed by further research.

  13. Assessment of aircraft impact probabilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, L.G.; Mines, J.M.; Webb, B.B.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility of an aircraft crash into a facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The ICPP is part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Based on the data used in this study, an air crash into any single facility at the ICPP is incredible. An air crash into aggregate areas incorporating the following is extremely unlikely: (1) ICPP radiological materials storage facilities, (2) ICPP major processing facilities, and (3) the ICPP land surface area, which excludes buildings. According to Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company safety analysis procedures, if the probability of a radiological release event is determined to be incredible, no further review is required. Therefore, an aircraft crash scenario is not required in the safety analysis for a single facility but should be discussed relative to the ICPP aggregate areas.

  14. A model for the permitting of reactive chemical emergency projects: Closing the gap between regulation, safety and common sense

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, M.F.; Hartnett, R.

    1995-12-31

    The City of Boston is host to many industrial facilities, private research institutions and universities. Many of these facilities are in close proximity to densely populated residential neighborhoods, large office buildings, sports arenas and hospitals. These facilities all utilize and store many different potentially reactive chemicals either as ``raw materials``, finished products or hazardous waste in industrial process or research activities. In the vast majority of cases, these chemicals are used safely and without incident. In Boston, however, a series of minor incidents involving reactive chemicals several years ago, prompted the Boston Fire Department (BFD) to develop a departmental procedure and city regulation for the safe management of unstable/reactive or explosive materials discovered in Boston. BFD`s purpose in developing the regulation was to act decisively to protect the Health and Safety of the Boston Public from the hazards of Reactive Chemicals. The procedure provides for a standardized BFD response, evacuation of the public at risk and requires the facility involved to immediately arrange for a licensed hazardous waste contractor to inspect, stabilize and remove the designated material. The paper briefly summarizes the evolution of the program and it`s effective implementation within Boston, citing two recent case studies as examples. Pollutants of concern are hydrogen cyanide and ammonia.

  15. THE ACQUISITION AND APPLICATION OF ABSORPTION, DISTRIBUTION, METABOLISM, AND EXCRETION (ADME) DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multi-sector international group of government, academic, and industry scientists has developed a proposal for an improved testing scheme for assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. Incorporation of pharmacokinetic studies describing the absorption, distribution, me...

  16. MEYERS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT FOR CHEMICAL DESULFURIZATION OF COAL. VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of bench-scale development of the Meyers Process (for chemical removal of sulfur from coal) for desulfurization of both fine and coarse coal. More than 90% of the pyrite was removed from run-of-mine (ROM) fine coal and clean coarse coal, and more than 80%...

  17. Portfolio Assessment on Chemical Reactor Analysis and Process Design Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alha, Katariina

    2004-01-01

    Assessment determines what students regard as important: if a teacher wants to change students' learning, he/she should change the methods of assessment. This article describes the use of portfolio assessment on five courses dealing with chemical reactor and process design during the years 1999-2001. Although the use of portfolio was a new…

  18. ASSESSING TOXICITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS TO ANAEROBIC TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A screening protocol has been developed to provide a rapid but dependable and repeatable assessment of the effect of toxic organic chemicals on anaerobic treatment processes. his protocol provides information on the rate limiting biological reactions and the concentration of toxi...

  19. A POLLUTION REDUCTION METHODOLOGY FOR CHEMICAL PROCESS SIMULATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pollution minimization methodology was developed for chemical process design using computer simulation. It is based on a pollution balance that at steady state is used to define a pollution index with units of mass of pollution per mass of products. The pollution balance has be...

  20. Hazardous Waste Processing in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorland, Dianne; Baria, Dorab N.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a sequence of two courses included in the chemical engineering program at the University of Minnesota, Duluth that deal with the processing of hazardous wastes. Covers course content and structure, and discusses developments in pollution prevention and waste management that led to the addition of these courses to the curriculum.…

  1. MTR AND ETR COMPLEXES. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY TOWARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR AND ETR COMPLEXES. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY TOWARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING PLANT. MTR AND ITS ATTACHMENTS IN FOREGROUND. ETR BEYOND TO RIGHT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4100. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. ORGANIC CHEMICAL FATE PREDICTION IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes results from a broadly-based effort to determine the feasibility of predicting the fates of organic chemicals in diffused air, activated sludge wastewater treatment processes. The three conversion/removal mechanisms emphasized in the work were stripping, sorp...

  3. 21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19 Section 170.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.19...

  4. 21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19 Section 570.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.19...

  5. 21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19 Section 570.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.19...

  6. 21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19 Section 170.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.19...

  7. 21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19 Section 570.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.19...

  8. 26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT NORTH EDGE FROM DECEMBER 7TH AVENUE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  9. 21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19 Section 570.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.19...

  10. 21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19 Section 570.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.19...

  11. 21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19 Section 170.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.19...

  12. GREENSCOPE: A Method for Modeling Chemical Process Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current work within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory is focused on the development of a method for modeling chemical process sustainability. The GREENSCOPE methodology, defined for the four bases of Environment, Economics, Ef...

  13. Chemical Processing and Analysis of 'JACEE' Circumpolar Flight 13 & 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fountain, Walter

    1997-01-01

    This informal presentation will address the chemical processing status, the current locations and state of data analysis (including mapping and densitometry of x-ray films, event lists and tracing of events in nuclear emulsions, etc.) of the 12 cosmic ray chambers comprising the JACEE-13 and JACEE-14 South Pole circumnavigational long duration balloon flights.

  14. Chemical vapor deposition for automatic processing of integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition for automatic processing of integrated circuits including the wafer carrier and loading from a receiving air track into automatic furnaces and unloading on to a sending air track is discussed. Passivation using electron beam deposited quartz is also considered.

  15. INCORPORATING INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY INTO HIERARCHICAL CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incorporating Industrial Ecology into Hierarchical Chemical Process Design: Determining Targets for the Exchange of Waste

    The exchange of waste to be used as a recycled feed has long been encouraged by practitioners of industrial ecology. Industrial ecology is a field t...

  16. GREENSCOPE: A Method for Modeling Chemical Process Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current work within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys National Risk Management Research Laboratory is focused on the development of a method for modeling chemical process sustainability. The GREENSCOPE methodology, defined for the four bases of Environment, Economics, Ef...

  17. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Chemical Process Technical Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended for workforce preparation program providers, details the Illinois Occupational Skill Standards for programs preparing students for employment as chemical process technical operators. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and credentialing, the process…

  18. WORKSHOP ON GREEN SYNTHESES AND PROCESSING IN CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Workshop on Green Syntheses and Processing in Chemical Manufacturing was held in Cincinnati, Ohio on July 12 and 13, 1994. he purpose of the workshop was to solicit information from industry, academia, and government regarding research related to the advancement of environmen...

  19. Quantum Chemical Molecular Dynamics Studies on the Chemical Mechanical Polishing Process of Cu Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokosuka, Toshiyuki; Sasata, Katsumi; Kurokawa, Hitoshi; Takami, Seiichi; Kubo, Momoji; Imamura, Akira; Miyamoto, Akira

    2003-04-01

    The dynamic behavior of the oxidation reaction of the Cu surface during the Cu chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) process was investigated by a novel tight-binding quantum chemical molecular dynamics method. We confirmed that our tight-binding quantum chemical molecular dynamics method with first-principles parameterization can calculate the structures, and electronic states of various molecules and solids related to the Cu-CMP process as accurately as the density functional calculations, while the CPU time of the new method is around 5,000 times faster than that of the first-principles molecular dynamics calculations. We employed hydrogen peroxide solution as a slurry and the Cu surface as a substrate to simulate the Cu-CMP process by using our accelerated quantum chemical molecular dynamics method. Three types of models were constructed to analyze the effect of the pH of the slurry and Miller plane of the Cu surface on the dynamic behaviors of the oxidation process of the Cu surface. We indicate that the pH of the slurry strongly affects the oxidation process of Cu surface. Moreover, we clarified that the oxidation mechanism depends on the Miller plane of the Cu surfaces.

  20. CRITICALITY SAFETY LIMIT EVALUATION PROGRAM (CSLEP) & QUICK SCREENS, ANSWERS TO EXPEDITED PROCESSING LEGACY CRITICALITY SAFETY LIMITS & EVALUATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    TOFFER, H.

    2006-02-21

    Since the end of the cold war, the need for operating weapons production facilities has faded. Criticality Safety Limits and controls supporting production modes in these facilities became outdated and furthermore lacked the procedure based rigor dictated by present day requirements. In the past, in many instances, the formalism of present day criticality safety evaluations was not applied. Some of the safety evaluations amounted to a paragraph in a notebook with no safety basis and questionable arguments with respect to double contingency criteria. When material stabilization, clean out, and deactivation activities commenced, large numbers of these older criticality safety evaluations were uncovered with limits and controls backed up by tenuous arguments. A dilemma developed: on the one hand, cleanup activities were placed on very aggressive schedules; on the other hand, a highly structured approach to limits development was required and applied to the cleanup operations. Some creative approaches were needed to cope with the limits development process.

  1. Effects of chemical, physical, and technological processes on the nature of food allergens.

    PubMed

    Poms, Roland E; Anklam, Elke

    2004-01-01

    A review is presented of studies of different processing techniques and their effect on the allergenicity and antigenicity of certain allergenic foods. An overview of investigated technologies is given with regard to their impact on the protein structure and their potential application in the production of hypoallergenic foods. The use of physical processes (such as heating, high pressure, microparticulation, ultrafiltration, and irradiation), chemical processes (such as proteolysis, fermentation, and refining by extraction), and biotechnological approaches, as well as the effects of these processes on individual allergenic foods, are included. Additionally, the implications of food processing for food allergen analysis with respect to food safety assessment and industrial quality control are briefly discussed. PMID:15675460

  2. Individual differences in drivers' cognitive processing of road safety messages.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; White, Melanie J; Lewis, Ioni M

    2013-01-01

    Using Gray and McNaughton's (2000) revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (r-RST), we examined the influence of personality on processing of words presented in gain-framed and loss-framed anti-speeding messages and how the processing biases associated with personality influenced message acceptance. The r-RST predicts that the nervous system regulates personality and that behaviour is dependent upon the activation of the behavioural activation system (BAS), activated by reward cues and the fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS), activated by punishment cues. According to r-RST, individuals differ in the sensitivities of their BAS and FFFS (i.e., weak to strong), which in turn leads to stable patterns of behaviour in the presence of rewards and punishments, respectively. It was hypothesised that individual differences in personality (i.e., strength of the BAS and the FFFS) would influence the degree of both message processing (as measured by reaction time to previously viewed message words) and message acceptance (measured three ways by perceived message effectiveness, behavioural intentions, and attitudes). Specifically, it was anticipated that, individuals with a stronger BAS would process the words presented in the gain-frame messages faster than those with a weaker BAS and individuals with a stronger FFFS would process the words presented in the loss-frame messages faster than those with a weaker FFFS. Further, it was expected that greater processing (faster reaction times) would be associated with greater acceptance for that message. Driver licence holding students (N=108) were recruited to view one of four anti-speeding messages (i.e., social gain-frame, social loss-frame, physical gain-frame, and physical loss-frame). A computerised lexical decision task assessed participants' subsequent reaction times to message words, as an indicator of the extent of processing of the previously viewed message. Self-report measures assessed personality and the three message acceptance measures. As predicted, the degree of initial processing of the content of the social gain-framed message mediated the relationship between the reward sensitive trait and message effectiveness. Initial processing of the physical loss-framed message partially mediated the relationship between the punishment sensitive trait and both message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. These results show that reward sensitivity and punishment sensitivity traits influence cognitive processing of gain-framed and loss-framed message content, respectively, and subsequently, message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. Specifically, a range of road safety messages (i.e., gain-frame and loss-frame messages) could be designed which align with the processing biases associated with personality and which would target those individuals who are sensitive to rewards and those who are sensitive to punishments. PMID:22608267

  3. Influence of surface coverage on the chemical desorption process

    SciTech Connect

    Minissale, M.; Dulieu, F.

    2014-07-07

    In cold astrophysical environments, some molecules are observed in the gas phase whereas they should have been depleted, frozen on dust grains. In order to solve this problem, astrochemists have proposed that a fraction of molecules synthesized on the surface of dust grains could desorb just after their formation. Recently the chemical desorption process has been demonstrated experimentally, but the key parameters at play have not yet been fully understood. In this article, we propose a new procedure to analyze the ratio of di-oxygen and ozone synthesized after O atoms adsorption on oxidized graphite. We demonstrate that the chemical desorption efficiency of the two reaction paths (O+O and O+O{sub 2}) is different by one order of magnitude. We show the importance of the surface coverage: for the O+O reaction, the chemical desorption efficiency is close to 80% at zero coverage and tends to zero at one monolayer coverage. The coverage dependence of O+O chemical desorption is proved by varying the amount of pre-adsorbed N{sub 2} on the substrate from 0 to 1.5 ML. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the different physical parameters that could play a role in the chemical desorption process: binding energy, enthalpy of formation, and energy transfer from the new molecule to the surface or to other adsorbates.

  4. Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content

    DOEpatents

    Michaels, Edward D.

    1982-01-01

    A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content which includes: (a) A chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; (b) the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; (c) the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; (d) the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products.

  5. The Efficacy of a Condensed "Seeking Safety" Intervention for Women in Residential Chemical Dependence Treatment at 30 Days Posttreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash Ghee, Anna; Bolling, Lanny C.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a condensed version of the "Seeking Safety" intervention in the reduction of trauma-related symptoms and improved drug abstinence rates among women in residential chemical dependence treatment. One hundred and four women were randomly assigned to treatment including a condensed (six session) "Seeking Safety"

  6. The Efficacy of a Condensed "Seeking Safety" Intervention for Women in Residential Chemical Dependence Treatment at 30 Days Posttreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash Ghee, Anna; Bolling, Lanny C.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a condensed version of the "Seeking Safety" intervention in the reduction of trauma-related symptoms and improved drug abstinence rates among women in residential chemical dependence treatment. One hundred and four women were randomly assigned to treatment including a condensed (six session) "Seeking Safety"…

  7. A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

    2004-11-01

    The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

  8. A Framework to Design and Optimize Chemical Flooding Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

    2006-08-31

    The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

  9. A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

    2005-07-01

    The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

  10. Laboratory Studies of Heterogeneous Chemical Processes of Atmospheric Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, Mario J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct measurements of chemical kinetics parameters for heterogeneous reactions of importance in the stratosphere and the troposphere. It involves the elucidation of the mechanism of the interaction of HCl vapor with ice surfaces, which is the first step in the heterogeneous chlorine activation processes, as well as the investigation of the atmospheric oxidation mechanism of soot particles emitted by biomass and fossil fuels. The techniques being employed include turbulent flow-chemical ionization mass spectrometry and optical ellipsometry, among others.

  11. Chemical measurements with optical fibers for process control.

    PubMed

    Boisde, G; Blanc, F; Perez, J J

    1988-02-01

    Several aspects of remote in situ spectrophotometric measurement by means of optical fibers are considered in the context of chemical process control. The technique makes it possible to measure a species in a particular oxidation state, such as plutonium(VI), sequentially, under the stringent conditions of automated analysis. For the control of several species in solution, measurements at discrete wavelengths on the sides of the absorption peaks serve to increase the dynamic range. Examples are given concerning the isotopic separation of uranium in the Chemex process. The chemical control of complex solutions containing numerous mutually interfering species requires a more elaborate spectral scan and real-time processing to determine the chemical kinetics. Photodiode array spectrophotometers are therefore ideal for analysing the uranium and plutonium solutions of the Purex process. Remote on-line control by ultraviolet monitoring exhibits limitations chiefly due to Rayleigh scattering in the optical fibers. The measurement of pH in acidic (0.8-3.2) and basic media (10-13) has also been attempted. Prior calibration, signal processing and optical spectra modeling are also discussed. PMID:18964472

  12. Impact of food processing on the safety assessment for proteins introduced into biotechnology-derived soybean and corn crops.

    PubMed

    Hammond, B G; Jez, J M

    2011-04-01

    The food safety assessment of new agricultural crop varieties developed through biotechnology includes evaluation of the proteins introduced to impart desired traits. Safety assessments can include dietary risk assessments similar to those performed for chemicals intentionally, or inadvertently added to foods. For chemicals, it is assumed they are not degraded during processing of the crop into food fractions. For introduced proteins, the situation can be different. Proteins are highly dependent on physical forces in their environment to maintain appropriate three-dimensional structure that supports functional activity. Food crops such as corn and soy are not consumed raw but are extensively processed into various food fractions. During processing, proteins in corn and soy are subjected to harsh environmental conditions that drastically change the physical forces leading to denaturation and loss of protein function. These conditions include thermal processing, changes in pH, reducing agents, mechanical shearing etc. Studies have shown that processing of introduced proteins such as enzymes that impart herbicide tolerance or proteins that control insect pests leads to a complete loss of functional activity. Thus, dietary exposure to functionally active proteins in processed food products can be negligible and below levels of any safety concerns. PMID:21167896

  13. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Rating Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... past 12 months. A recordable accident, consistent with the definition for “accident” in 49 CFR 390.5... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explanation of Safety Rating Process B Appendix B... CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Rating Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... past 12 months. A recordable accident, consistent with the definition for “accident” in 49 CFR 390.5... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Explanation of Safety Rating Process B Appendix B... CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY...

  15. Improving Safety, Quality and Efficiency through the Management of Emerging Processes: The TenarisDalmine Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonometti, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this contribution is to describe a new complexity-science-based approach for improving safety, quality and efficiency and the way it was implemented by TenarisDalmine. Design/methodology/approach: This methodology is called "a safety-building community". It consists of a safety-behaviour social self-construction process

  16. 78 FR 32010 - Pipeline Safety: Public Workshop on Integrity Verification Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... published April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477). Information on Services for Individuals with Disabilities: For... Verification Process AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of... ``Integrity Verification Process.'' The Integrity Verification Process shares similar characteristics...

  17. Chemical oxygen demand reduction in coffee wastewater through chemical flocculation and advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Zayas Pérez, Teresa; Geissler, Gunther; Hernandez, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The removal of the natural organic matter present in coffee processing wastewater through chemical coagulation-flocculation and advanced oxidation processes (AOP) had been studied. The effectiveness of the removal of natural organic matter using commercial flocculants and UV/H2O2, UV/O3 and UV/H2O2/O3 processes was determined under acidic conditions. For each of these processes, different operational conditions were explored to optimize the treatment efficiency of the coffee wastewater. Coffee wastewater is characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and low total suspended solids. The outcomes of coffee wastewater treatment using coagulation-flocculation and photodegradation processes were assessed in terms of reduction of COD, color, and turbidity. It was found that a reduction in COD of 67% could be realized when the coffee wastewater was treated by chemical coagulation-flocculation with lime and coagulant T-1. When coffee wastewater was treated by coagulation-flocculation in combination with UV/H2O2, a COD reduction of 86% was achieved, although only after prolonged UV irradiation. Of the three advanced oxidation processes considered, UV/H2O2, UV/O3 and UV/H2O2/O3, we found that the treatment with UV/H2O2/O3 was the most effective, with an efficiency of color, turbidity and further COD removal of 87%, when applied to the flocculated coffee wastewater. PMID:17918591

  18. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of primary biological aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguillaume, L.; Leriche, M.; Amato, P.; Ariya, P. A.; Delort, A.-M.; Pöschl, U.; Chaumerliac, N.; Bauer, H.; Flossmann, A. I.; Morris, C. E.

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses the influence of primary biological aerosols (PBA) on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that PBA represent a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affect the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms, namely fungal spores and bacteria, can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of PBA in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  19. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: A NEW PROCESS FOR CHEMICALLY CLEANING SAVANNAH RIVER WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E; Neil Davis, N; Renee Spires, R

    2008-01-17

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 high level waste (HLW) tanks that must be emptied, cleaned, and closed as required by the Federal Facilities Agreement. The current method of chemical cleaning uses several hundred thousand gallons per tank of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to partially dissolve and suspend residual waste and corrosion products such that the waste can be pumped out of the tank. This adds a significant quantity of sodium oxalate to the tanks and, if multiple tanks are cleaned, renders the waste incompatible with the downstream processing. Tank space is also insufficient to store this stream given the large number of tanks to be cleaned. Therefore, a search for a new cleaning process was initiated utilizing the TRIZ literature search approach, and Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination--Ultraviolet (CORD-UV), a mature technology currently used for decontamination and cleaning of commercial nuclear reactor primary cooling water loops, was identified. CORD-UV utilizes oxalic acid for sludge dissolution, but then decomposes the oxalic acid to carbon dioxide and water by UV treatment outside the system being treated. This allows reprecipitation and subsequent deposition of the sludge into a selected container without adding significant volume to that container, and without adding any new chemicals that would impact downstream treatment processes. Bench top and demonstration loop measurements on SRS tank sludge stimulant demonstrated the feasibility of applying CORD-UV for enhanced chemical cleaning of SRS HLW tanks.

  20. Chemical Safety for Sustainability (CSS): Human in vivobiomonitoring data for complementing results from in vitro toxicology -A Commentary

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has instituted the Chemical Safety for Sustainability (CSS) research program for assessing the health and environmental impact of manufactured chemicals. This is a broad program wherein one of the tasks is to develop high throughput...

  1. Microfabricated Instrumentation for Chemical Sensing in Industrial Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, J. M.

    2000-06-01

    The monitoring of chemical constituents in manufacturing processes is of economic importance to most industries. The monitoring and control of chemical constituents may be of importance for product quality control or, in the case of process effluents, of environmental concern. The most common approach now employed for chemical process control is to collect samples which are returned to a conventional chemical analysis laboratory. This project attempts to demonstrate the use of microfabricated structures, referred to as 'lab-on-a-chip' devices, that accomplish chemical measurement tasks that emulate those performed in the conventional laboratory. The devices envisioned could be used as hand portable chemical analysis instruments where samples are analyzed in the field or as emplaced sensors for continuous 'real-time' monitoring. This project focuses on the development of filtration elements and solid phase extraction elements that can be monolithically integrated onto electrophoresis and chromatographic structures pioneered in the laboratory. Successful demonstration of these additional functional elements on integrated microfabricated devices allows lab-on-a-chip technologies to address real world samples that would be encountered in process control environments. The resultant technology has a broad application to industrial environmental monitoring problems. such as monitoring municipal water supplies, waste water effluent from industrial facilities, or monitoring of run-off from agricultural activities. The technology will also be adaptable to manufacturing process control scenarios. Microfabricated devices integrating sample filtration, solid phase extraction, and chromatographic separation with solvent programming were demonstrated. Filtering of the sample was accomplished at the same inlet with an array of seven channels each 1 {micro}m deep and 18 {micro}m wide. Sample concentration and separation were performed on channels 5 {micro}m deep and 25 {micro}m wide coated with a C18 phase, and elution was achieved under isocratic, step, or linear gradient conditions. For the solid phase extraction signal enhancement factors of 400 over a standard injection of 1.0 s were observed for a 320 s injection. Four polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) were resolved by open channel electrochromatography in under 50 s. Chip operation was unaffected by the presence of the 5 {micro}m silica particles at the filter entrance.

  2. Effects of Semiconductor Processing Chemicals on Conductivity of Graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chung Wei; Ren, F.; Chi, G.C.; Hung, S. C.; Huang, Y. P.; Kim, J.; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Pearton, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Graphene layers on SiO2/Si substrates were exposed to chemicals or gases commonly used in semiconductor fabrication processes, including solvents (isopropanol, acetone), acids (HCl), bases (ammonium hydroxide), UV ozone, H2O and O2 plasmas. The recovery of the initial graphene properties after these exposures was monitored by measuring both the layer resistance and Raman 2D peak position as a function of time in air or vacuum. Solvents and UV ozone were found to have the least affect while oxygen plasma exposure caused an increase of resistance of more than 3 orders of magnitude. Recovery is accelerated under vacuum but changes can persist for more than 5 hours. Careful design of fabrication schemes involving graphene is necessary to minimize these interactions with common processing chemicals.

  3. Mixtures of chemical pollutants at European legislation safety concentrations: how safe are they?

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Raquel N; Arukwe, Augustine; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Bado-Nilles, Anne; Balzamo, Stefania; Baun, Anders; Belkin, Shimshon; Blaha, Ludek; Brion, François; Conti, Daniela; Creusot, Nicolas; Essig, Yona; Ferrero, Valentina E V; Flander-Putrle, Vesna; Fürhacker, Maria; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina; Hogstrand, Christer; Jonáš, Adam; Kharlyngdoh, Joubert B; Loos, Robert; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Modig, Carina; Olsson, Per-Erik; Pillai, Smitha; Polak, Natasa; Potalivo, Monica; Sanchez, Wilfried; Schifferli, Andrea; Schirmer, Kristin; Sforzini, Susanna; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R; Søfteland, Liv; Turk, Valentina; Viarengo, Aldo; Werner, Inge; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Zounková, Radka; Lettieri, Teresa

    2014-09-01

    The risk posed by complex chemical mixtures in the environment to wildlife and humans is increasingly debated, but has been rarely tested under environmentally relevant scenarios. To address this issue, two mixtures of 14 or 19 substances of concern (pesticides, pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, a surfactant, and a plasticizer), each present at its safety limit concentration imposed by the European legislation, were prepared and tested for their toxic effects. The effects of the mixtures were assessed in 35 bioassays, based on 11 organisms representing different trophic levels. A consortium of 16 laboratories was involved in performing the bioassays. The mixtures elicited quantifiable toxic effects on some of the test systems employed, including i) changes in marine microbial composition, ii) microalgae toxicity, iii) immobilization in the crustacean Daphnia magna, iv) fish embryo toxicity, v) impaired frog embryo development, and vi) increased expression on oxidative stress-linked reporter genes. Estrogenic activity close to regulatory safety limit concentrations was uncovered by receptor-binding assays. The results highlight the need of precautionary actions on the assessment of chemical mixtures even in cases where individual toxicants are present at seemingly harmless concentrations. PMID:24958932

  4. Mixtures of Chemical Pollutants at European Legislation Safety Concentrations: How Safe Are They?

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Raquel N.; Arukwe, Augustine; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Bado-Nilles, Anne; Balzamo, Stefania; Baun, Anders; Belkin, Shimshon; Blaha, Ludek; Brion, François; Conti, Daniela; Creusot, Nicolas; Essig, Yona; Ferrero, Valentina E. V.; Flander-Putrle, Vesna; Fürhacker, Maria; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina; Hogstrand, Christer; Jonáš, Adam; Kharlyngdoh, Joubert B.; Loos, Robert; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Modig, Carina; Olsson, Per-Erik; Pillai, Smitha; Polak, Natasa; Potalivo, Monica; Sanchez, Wilfried; Schifferli, Andrea; Schirmer, Kristin; Sforzini, Susanna; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R.; Søfteland, Liv; Turk, Valentina; Viarengo, Aldo; Werner, Inge; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Zounková, Radka; Lettieri, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The risk posed by complex chemical mixtures in the environment to wildlife and humans is increasingly debated, but has been rarely tested under environmentally relevant scenarios. To address this issue, two mixtures of 14 or 19 substances of concern (pesticides, pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, a surfactant, and a plasticizer), each present at its safety limit concentration imposed by the European legislation, were prepared and tested for their toxic effects. The effects of the mixtures were assessed in 35 bioassays, based on 11 organisms representing different trophic levels. A consortium of 16 laboratories was involved in performing the bioassays. The mixtures elicited quantifiable toxic effects on some of the test systems employed, including i) changes in marine microbial composition, ii) microalgae toxicity, iii) immobilization in the crustacean Daphnia magna, iv) fish embryo toxicity, v) impaired frog embryo development, and vi) increased expression on oxidative stress-linked reporter genes. Estrogenic activity close to regulatory safety limit concentrations was uncovered by receptor-binding assays. The results highlight the need of precautionary actions on the assessment of chemical mixtures even in cases where individual toxicants are present at seemingly harmless concentrations. PMID:24958932

  5. A tiered approach to systemic toxicity testing for agricultural chemical safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Doe, John E; Boobis, Alan R; Blacker, Ann; Dellarco, Vicki; Doerrer, Nancy G; Franklin, Claire; Goodman, Jay I; Kronenberg, Joel M; Lewis, Richard; Mcconnell, Ernest E; Mercier, Thierry; Moretto, Angelo; Nolan, Canice; Padilla, Stephanie; Phang, Whang; Solecki, Roland; Tilbury, Lorraine; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Wolf, Douglas C

    2006-01-01

    A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studies are scientifically appropriate and necessary without being redundant, and that tests emphasize toxicological endpoints and exposure durations that are relevant for risk assessment. The ACSA Systemic Toxicity Task Force proposes an approach to systemic toxicity testing as one part of the overall assessment of a compound's potential to cause adverse effects on health. The approach is designed to provide more relevant data for deriving reference doses for shorter time periods of human exposure, and includes fewer studies for deriving longer term reference doses-that is, neither a 12-month dog study nor a mouse carcinogenicity study is recommended. All available data, including toxicokinetics and metabolism data and life stages information, are taken into account. The proposed tiered testing approach has the potential to provide new risk assessment information for shorter human exposure durations while reducing the number of animals used and without compromising the sensitivity of the determination of longer term reference doses. PMID:16708694

  6. Achievements and challenges of Space Station Freedom's safety review process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David W.

    1993-01-01

    The most complex space vehicle in history, Space Station Freedom, is well underway to completion, and System Safety is a vital part of the program. The purpose is to summarize and illustrate the progress that over one-hundred System Safety engineers have made in identifying, documenting, and controlling the hazards inherent in the space station. To date, Space Station Freedom has been reviewed by NASA's safety panels through the first six assembly flights, when Freedom achieves a configuration known as Man Tended Capability. During the eight weeks of safety reviews spread out over a year and a half, over 200 preliminary hazard reports were presented. Along the way NASA and its contractors faced many challenges, made much progress, and even learned a few lessons.

  7. Safety evaluation report related to the renewal of the facility license for the research reactor at the Dow Chemical Company

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This safety evaluation report for the application filed by the Dow Chemical Company for renewal of facility Operating License R-108 to continue to operate its research reactor at an increased operating power level has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located on the grounds of the Michigan Division of the Dow Chemical Company in Midland, Michigan. The staff concludes that the Dow Chemical Company can continue to operate its reactor without endangering the health and safety of the public.

  8. Supercritical Water Process for the Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Motonobu

    2010-11-01

    The development of chemical recycling of waste plastics by decomposition reactions in sub- and supercritical water is reviewed. Decomposition reactions proceed rapidly and selectively using supercritical fluids compared to conventional processes. Condensation polymerization plastics such as PET, nylon, and polyurethane, are relatively easily depolymerized to their monomers in supercritical water. The monomer components are recovered in high yield. Addition polymerization plastics such as phenol resin, epoxy resin, and polyethylene, are also decomposed to monomer components with or without catalysts. Recycling process of fiber reinforced plastics has been studied. Pilot scale or commercial scale plants have been developed and are operating with sub- and supercritical fluids.

  9. Process for converting cellulosic materials into fuels and chemicals

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Faison, Brendlyn D.; Davison, Brian H.; Woodward, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major constituent of paper, cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. The cellulase is produced from a continuous, columnar, fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing immobilized microorganisms. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. The cellulase is recycled by an adsorption process. The resulting crude sugars are converted to dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing microorganisms. The dilute product is concentrated and purified by utilizing distillation and/or a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor system.

  10. Solar Processes for the Destruction of Hazardous Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, D. M.

    1993-06-01

    Solar technologies are being developed to address a wide range of environmental problems. Sunlight plays a role in the passive destruction of hazardous substances in soil, water, and air. Development of processes that use solar energy to remediate environmental problems or to treat process wastes is underway in laboratories around the world. This paper reviews progress in understanding the role of solar photochemistry in removing man-made chemicals from the environment, and developing technology that uses solar photochemistry for this purpose in an efficient manner.

  11. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Data requirements for the ferrocyanide safety issue developed through the data quality objectives (DQO) process

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, J.W.; Anderson, C.M.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Toth, J.J.; Turner, P.J.; Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Meacham, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    This document records the data quality objectives (DQO) process applied to the Ferrocyanide Waste Tank Safety Issue at the Hanford Site by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company. Specifically, the major recommendations and findings from this Ferrocyanide DQO process are presented so that decision makers can determine the type, quantity, and quality of data required for addressing tank safety issues. The decision logic diagrams and error tolerance equations also are provided. Finally, the document includes the DQO sample-size formulas for determining specific tank sampling requirements.

  12. Cleaning process in high density plasma chemical vapor deposition reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskenderova, Kamilla

    One of the major emitters of perfluorocompounds (PFCs) in semiconductor manufacturing is the in situ plasma cleaning procedure performed after the chemical vapor deposition of dielectric thin films. The release of these man-made gases can contribute to the greenhouse effect. To reduce emissions of PFCs, it has developed a new plasma cleaning technology that uses a remote plasma source (RPS) to completely break down fluorine-containing gases into an effective cleaning chemical. The downstream plasma reactor consists of a plasma source, where the inductive discharge occurs; a transport region, which connects the source to the chamber; and the actual chemical vapor deposition chamber, where the fluorine radicals react with the deposition residues to form non-global-warming volatile byproducts that are pumped through the exhaust. From environmental point of view the overall method has clear benefits, however, with the new technology several new optimization problems arise. In recent years, semiconductor equipment manufacturers have put in a great effort to improve the production worthiness and the overall effectiveness of the tools. Equipment qualification procedures can be quite expensive and lengthy. The film deposition process stability is of great importance since it can be correlated to the final integrated circuit quality and yield. The chamber cleaning process can affect the stability of the film properties. The objective of this work is to concern the main aspects of the problems that prevent the remote clean process for achieving both superior chamber cleaning performance and improved environmental friendliness. In order to meet these significant technical challenges we have developed detailed numerical models of the systems involved in the downstream cleaning process. For the remote plasma source, the detailed plasma-kinetic model has been developed to describe the atomic fluorine production from NF3, CF4, and C2F6 and provided comparison of the effectiveness in decomposition of these parent molecules. In the transport tube the homogeneous and heterogeneous kinetic model was developed to analyze the recombination mechanism of atomic fluorine. To study the optimization process of gas and power consumption in the processing chamber, the numerical 2D modeling of complex plasma-chemical processes was performed.

  13. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  14. Processing, food applications and safety of aloe vera products: a review.

    PubMed

    Ahlawat, Kulveer Singh; Khatkar, Bhupender Singh

    2011-10-01

    Aloe vera is used for vigor, wellness and medicinal purposes since rigvedic times. Health benefits of aloe vera include its application in wound healing, treating burns, minimizing frost bite damage, protection against skin damage from x-rays, lung cancer, intestinal problems, increasing high density lipoprotein (HDL), reducing low density lipoprotein (LDL), reducing blood sugar in diabetics, fighting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), allergies and improving immune system. Phytochemistry of aloe vera gel has revealed the presence of more than 200 bioactive chemicals. Aloe vera gel is extracted from its leaves and appropriate processing techniques are needed for stabilization as well as preparation of the end products. The industries involved in processing of aloe vera need Government surveillance to ensure that the aloe vera products have beneficial bio-active chemicals as per claims of the manufacturers. Regulatory bodies also need to look into the safety and toxicological aspects of aloe vera products for food applications. The claims made for medicinal value of aloe products should be supported by authentic and approved clinical trial data. It is presumptive to mention that nutraceutical claims of aloe products made by the manufacturers are numerous. However, approved clinical evidences are available only for lowering LDL, increasing HDL, decreasing blood glucose level, treating genital herpes and psoriases. PMID:23572784

  15. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Rating Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... unsatisfactory) to motor carriers operating in interstate commerce. This process conforms to 49 CFR 385.5, Safety..., consistent with the definition for “accident” in 49 CFR 390.5, means an occurrence involving a commercial... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Explanation of Safety Rating Process B Appendix...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Rating Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... unsatisfactory) to motor carriers operating in interstate commerce. This process conforms to 49 CFR 385.5, Safety... past 12 months. A recordable accident, consistent with the definition for “accident” in 49 CFR 390.5... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Explanation of Safety Rating Process B Appendix...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Rating Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... unsatisfactory) to motor carriers operating in interstate commerce. This process conforms to 49 CFR 385.5, Safety... past 12 months. A recordable accident, consistent with the definition for “accident” in 49 CFR 390.5... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Explanation of Safety Rating Process B Appendix...

  18. 78 FR 47012 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... issued with a temporary identification as Draft Regulatory Guide DG-1210 on August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50724... COMMISSION Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY... Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital Computer Software used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power...

  19. Chemical treatment of plutonium with hydrogen peroxide before nitrate anion exchange processing. [Reduction to (IV)

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.F.; Gallegos, T.D.

    1987-05-01

    The major aqueous process used to recover and purify plutonium at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility is anion exchange in nitric acid. This process is highly selective for plutonium; however, all plutonium must be as Pu(IV) to form the strongly sorbed anionic nitrato complex. The previous ''full-reduction treatment'' used at Los Alamos to obtain Pu(IV) results in a three- to fourfold increase in the feed solution volume and the introduction of kilogram quantities of extraneous salts immediately before a process whose function is to remove such impurities. That treatment has been successfully replaced by a single reagent, hydrogen peroxide, which converts all plutonium to Pu(IV), minimally increases the feed volume, and introduces no residual impurities. Safety aspects of this revised chemical treatment are addressed.

  20. Development of a polysilicon process based on chemical vapor deposition (phase 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, J.; Arvidson, A.; Sawyer, D.; Plahutnik, F.

    1981-01-01

    A dichlorosilane-based reductive chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process demonstrated is capable of producing, at low cost, high quality polycrystalline silicon. Testing of decomposition reactor heat shields to insure that the shield provides adequate personnel protection assuming a worst case explosion was completed. Minor modifications to a production reactor heat shield provided adequate heat shield integrity. Construction of the redesigned PDU (Process Development Unit) to accommodate all safety related information proceeded on schedule. Structural steel work was completed as is the piping and instrumentation design work. Major pieces of process equipment were received and positioned in the support structure and all transfer piping and conduits to the PDU were installed. Construction was completed on a feed system for supplying DCS to an intermediate sized reactor. The feed system was successfully interfaced with a reactor equipped with a modified heat shield. Reactor checkout was completed.

  1. [Chemical safety as a problem of epidemiology of non-infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Shestopalov, N V; Shandala, M G

    2013-01-01

    Based on the analysis of adopted in sanitary science methodology for the study and evaluation of the biological action and hygienic significance of environmental factors there was shown the need for the use of laws and methodology of classical epidemiology to ensure the chemical safety in the recognition and elimination of the group of diseases of chemical etiology, outbreaks of similar non infectious diseases. It is stated that individually small "non-toxic" doses of chemicals, but "loading" a large population and forming a large collective dose apparently can be implemented in a stochastic population health damage, detectable only on the basis of large-scale epidemiological studies to assess the risk. These approaches are presented to be especially important for agents in the environment, optimal for which is not absence, but the presence for provision of necessary target effect (pesticides, disinfectants and other household products, etc.). The main task of the epidemiological analysis of local toxic "bursts" and large-scale "epidemics" of this kind is an optimization of the complex of measures implemented by an adequate assessment of their medical, social and economic performance. PMID:24340593

  2. Processing and classification of chemical data inspired by insect olfaction.

    PubMed

    Schmuker, Michael; Schneider, Gisbert

    2007-12-18

    The chemical sense of insects has evolved to encode and classify odorants. Thus, the neural circuits in their olfactory system are likely to implement an efficient method for coding, processing, and classifying chemical information. Here, we describe a computational method to process molecular representations and classify molecules. The three-step approach mimics neurocomputational principles observed in olfactory systems. In the first step, the original stimulus space is sampled by "virtual receptors," which are chemotopically arranged by a self-organizing map. In the second step, the signals from the virtual receptors are decorrelated via correlation-based lateral inhibition. Finally, in the third step, olfactory scent perception is modeled by a machine learning classifier. We found that signal decorrelation during the second stage significantly increases the accuracy of odorant classification. Moreover, our results suggest that the proposed signal transform is capable of dimensionality reduction and is more robust against overdetermined representations than principal component scores. Our olfaction-inspired method was successfully applied to predicting bioactivities of pharmaceutically active compounds with high accuracy. It represents a way to efficiently connect chemical structure with biological activity space. PMID:18077325

  3. Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process

    PubMed Central

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:22768233

  4. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

    1992-05-01

    The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

  5. Food safety management systems performance in African food processing companies: a review of deficiencies and possible improvement strategies.

    PubMed

    Kussaga, Jamal B; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Tiisekwa, Bendantunguka Pm; Luning, Pieternel A

    2014-08-01

    This study seeks to provide insight into current deficiencies in food safety management systems (FSMS) in African food-processing companies and to identify possible strategies for improvement so as to contribute to African countries' efforts to provide safe food to both local and international markets. This study found that most African food products had high microbiological and chemical contamination levels exceeding the set (legal) limits. Relative to industrialized countries, the study identified various deficiencies at government, sector/branch, retail and company levels which affect performance of FSMS in Africa. For instance, very few companies (except exporting and large companies) have implemented HACCP and ISO 22000:2005. Various measures were proposed to be taken at government (e.g. construction of risk-based legislative frameworks, strengthening of food safety authorities, recommend use of ISO 22000:2005, and consumers' food safety training), branch/sector (e.g. sector-specific guidelines and third-party certification), retail (develop stringent certification standards and impose product specifications) and company levels (improving hygiene, strict raw material control, production process efficacy, and enhancing monitoring systems, assurance activities and supportive administrative structures). By working on those four levels, FSMS of African food-processing companies could be better designed and tailored towards their production processes and specific needs to ensure food safety. PMID:24425418

  6. Enhancing the NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle Payload Safety Review Process Through Program Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palo, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    The safety review process for NASA spacecraft flown on Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs) has been guided by NASA-STD 8719.8, Expendable Launch Vehicle Payload Safety Review Process Standard. The standard focused primarily on the safety approval required to begin pre-launch processing at the launch site. Subsequent changes in the contractual, technical, and operational aspects of payload processing, combined with lessons-learned supported a need for the reassessment of the standard. This has resulted in the formation of a NASA ELV Payload Safety Program. This program has been working to address the programmatic issues that will enhance and supplement the existing process, while continuing to ensure the safety of ELV payload activities.

  7. Chemical evolution of the Earth: Equilibrium or disequilibrium process?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, M.

    1985-01-01

    To explain the apparent chemical incompatibility of the Earth's core and mantle or the disequilibrium process, various core forming mechanisms have been proposed, i.e., rapid disequilibrium sinking of molten iron, an oxidized core or protocore materials, and meteorite contamination of the upper mantle after separation from the core. Adopting concepts used in steady state thermodynamics, a method is devised for evaluating how elements should distribute stable in the Earth's interior for the present gradients of temperature, pressure, and gravitational acceleration. Thermochemical modeling gives useful insights into the nature of chemical evolution of the Earth without overly speculative assumptions. Further work must be done to reconcile siderophile elements, rare gases, and possible light elements in the outer core.

  8. Incorporation of chemical kinetic models into process control

    SciTech Connect

    Herget, C.J.; Frazer, J.W.

    1981-07-08

    An important consideration in chemical process control is to determine the precise rationing of reactant streams, particularly when a large time delay exists between the mixing of the reactants and the measurement of the product. In this paper, a method is described for incorporating chemical kinetic models into the control strategy in order to achieve optimum operating conditions. The system is first characterized by determining a reaction rate surface as a function of all input reactant concentrations over a feasible range. A nonlinear constrained optimization program is then used to determine the combination of reactants which produces the specified yield at minimum cost. This operating condition is then used to establish the nominal concentrations of the reactants. The actual operation is determined through a feedback control system employing a Smith predictor. The method is demonstrated on a laboratory bench scale enzyme reactor.

  9. Progress and challenges in control of chemical processes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jay H; Lee, Jong Min

    2014-01-01

    This review covers key developments and trends in chemical process control during the past two decades. Control methodologies and related supporting technologies are covered, and recent trends in applications are also examined. After the widespread adoption of model-based techniques by industry, control interest has begun to move beyond the traditional realm of readily measured variables to include chemical compositions and particle features. However, the shift is being slowed by the shortage of accurate, reliable, and inexpensive sensing devices. Although the past two decades saw no new major theoretical or methodological advances, several important incremental improvements and extensions have been made to help the ripening of the technologies developed in the preceding two decades. Control is regaining its importance owing to society's renewed focus on energy and the maturation of various emerging technologies, but a community-wide consensus on what general problems should be solved is lacking. PMID:24702300

  10. Laboratory Studies of Heterogeneous Chemical Processes of Atmospheric Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, Mario J.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct measurements of chemical kinetics parameters for heterogeneous reactions of importance in the stratosphere and the troposphere. It involves the elucidation of the mechanism of the interaction of HC1 vapor with ice surfaces, which is the first step in the heterogeneous chlorine activation processes, as well as the investigation of the atmospheric oxidation mechanism of soot particles emitted by biomass and fossil fuels. The techniques being employed include turbulent flow- chemical ionization mass spectrometry and optical ellipsometry, among others. The next section summarizes our research activities during the first year of the project, and the section that follows consists of the statement of work for the second year.

  11. High-lift chemical heat pump technologies for industrial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, M.; Zaltash, A.

    1995-03-01

    Traditionally industrial heat pumps (IHPs) have found applications on a process specific basis with reject heat from a process being upgraded and returned to the process. The IHP must be carefully integrated into a process since improper placement may result in an uneconomic application. Industry has emphasized a process integration approach to the design and operation of their plants. Heat pump applications have adopted this approach and the area of applicability was extended by utilizing a process integrated approach where reject heat from one process is upgraded and then used as input for another process. The DOE IHP Program has extended the process integration approach of heat pump application with a plant utility emphasis. In this design philosophy, reject heat from a process is upgraded to plant utility conditions and fed into the plant distribution system. This approach has the advantage that reject heat from any pr@s can be used as input and the output can be used at any location within the plant. Thus the approach can be easily integrated into existing industrial applications and all reject heat streams are potential targets of opportunity. The plant utility approach can not be implemented without having heat pumps with high-lift capabilities (on the order of 65{degree}C). Current heat pumps have only about half the lift capability required. Thus the current emphasis for the DOE IHP Program is the development of high lift chemical heat pumps that can deliver heat more economically to higher heat delivery temperatures. This is achieved with innovative cooling (refrigeration) and heating technologies which are based on advanced cycles and advanced working fluids or a combination of both. This paper details the plan to develop economically competitive, environmentally acceptable heat pump technologies that are capable of providing the delivery temperature and lift required to supply industrial plant utility-grade process heating and/or cooling.

  12. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations.

    PubMed

    Mengolini, A; Debarberis, L

    2008-06-30

    Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well. PMID:18241983

  13. Information Scanning and Processing at the Nuclear Safety Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Celia; Julian, Carol

    This report is a detailed manual of the information specialist's duties at the Nuclear Safety Information Center. Information specialists scan the literature for documents to be reviewed, procure the documents (books, journal articles, reports, etc.), keep the document location records, and return the documents to the plant library or other…

  14. The World Library of Toxicology, Chemical Safety, and Environmental Health (WLT).

    PubMed

    Wexler, Philip; Gilbert, Steven G; Thorp, Nick; Faustman, Elaine; Breskin, Donna D

    2012-03-01

    The World Library of Toxicology, Chemical Safety, and Environmental Health, commonly referred to as the World Library of Toxicology (WLT), is a multilingual online portal of links to key global resources, representing a host of individual countries and multilateral organizations. The Site is designed as a network of, and gateway to, toxicological information and activities from around the world. It is built on a Wiki platform by a roster of Country Correspondents, with the aim of efficiently exchanging information and stimulating collaboration among colleagues, and building capacity, with the ultimate objective of serving as a tool to help improve global public health. The WLT was publicly launched on September 7, 2009, at the Seventh Congress of Toxicology in Developing Countries (CTDC-VII) in Sun City, South Africa. PMID:21071551

  15. Regulation and safety implementation of nanotechnology for chemical enterprises in the Central Europe Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, A.; Hartl, S.; Sinner, F.

    2013-04-01

    As result of the gradually increasing nanotechnology sector there is the necessity of a contemporary analysis of the present regulations used for nanomaterials, to outline the current situation of the nanotechnology sector, to promote international cooperation and research's coordination to overcome disciplinary boundaries, to fill the gap between more and less experienced regions and to turn investments in R&D in industrial innovations. The general objective of the Central Europe project NANOFORCE, which is developed by national and regional chemistry associations and R&D Centres of the Central Europe area, is to foster the innovative nanotechnology-sector networks across Central Europe regions by bringing together public and private organizations to carry out collaborative and interdisciplinary researches on nanomaterials (in the frame of REACH Regulation) and to turn the most promising laboratory results into innovative industrial applications. To build up a legal advisory board for chemical enterprises starting in nanotechnology, a state of the art report on existing safety procedures and nanotech related regulations was produced to give an overview on currently available regulations used by chemical industries and manufacturing companies within the European region to secure their products. The main emphasis was placed on REACH regulation to search for relevant sections concentrating on nanomaterials which are applicable for nanotechnology. In addition, all relevant directives and amendments of REACH were screened with regard to identify gaps where action is still needed and give possible recommendations for the European Commission. Beyond literature research a questionnaire for producers, users, researchers and financiers was developed with the goal to collect information about the nanotechnology sector in the CE region concerning development, financial status, and international cooperation within joint ventures, safety and nanotoxicology.

  16. Fundamental studies of chemical vapor deposition diamond growth processes

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, R.W.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.; Heatherly, L.

    1991-01-01

    We are developing laser spectroscopic techniques to foster a fundamental understanding of diamond film growth by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Several spectroscopic techniques are under investigation to identify intermediate species present in the bulk reactor volume, the thin active volume immediately above the growing film, and the actual growing surface. Such a comprehensive examination of the overall deposition process is necessary because a combination of gas phase and surface chemistry is probably operating. Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) techniques have been emphasized. A growth rector that permits through-the-substrate gas sampling for REMPI/time-of-flight mass spectroscopy has been developed. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Laminated solar-control safety glass incorporating chemically deposited metal chalcogenide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Padmanabhan K.; Nair, M. T. S.; Gomez-Daza, O.; Garcia, Victor M.; Castillo, A.; Arenas, O. L.; Pena, Y.; Guerrero, L.

    1997-10-01

    The feasibility of producing safety glass made from 3 mm sheet glass coated with chemically deposited CuS, ZnS-CuS, Sb2S3-CuS, and PbS-CuS thin films are presented. The coatings are produced on the sheet glass from dilute solutions containing metal complexes and a source of sulfide ions such as thiourea, thioacetamide, or thiosulfate. Films of thickness ranging from 0.05 micrometer to 0.3 micrometer are deposited at different temperatures, 10 degrees Celsius - 50 degrees Celsius, with durations of depositions of 1 h to 6 h. These coatings are laminated using commercially available poly(vinyl butyral) based laminating polymer sheets and clear sheet glass at temperatures of 120 degrees Celsius to 140 degrees Celsius under 10 - 12 kg cm-2 pressure in an autoclave. The optical transmittance and reflectance spectra of the safety glasses show that a wide choice of solar control parameters are possible with these glazings: TVIS, 2.5 - 45%; RVIS, 10 - 25%; and shading coefficient (SC), 0.25 - 0.45.

  18. Guidance on health effects of toxic chemicals. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, C.B.; Griffin, G.D.; Munro, N.B.; Socolof, M.L.

    1994-02-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES), and Martin Marietta Utility Services, Inc. (MMUS), are engaged in phased programs to update the safety documentation for the existing US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facilities. The safety analysis of potential toxic hazards requires a methodology for evaluating human health effects of predicted toxic exposures. This report provides a consistent set of health effects and documents toxicity estimates corresponding to these health effects for some of the more important chemicals found within MMES and MMUS. The estimates are based on published toxicity information and apply to acute exposures for an ``average`` individual. The health effects (toxicological endpoints) used in this report are (1) the detection threshold; (2) the no-observed adverse effect level; (3) the onset of irritation/reversible effects; (4) the onset of irreversible effects; and (5) a lethal exposure, defined to be the 50% lethal level. An irreversible effect is defined as a significant effect on a person`s quality of life, e.g., serious injury. Predicted consequences are evaluated on the basis of concentration and exposure time.

  19. Certification Processes for Safety-Critical and Mission-Critical Aerospace Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Stacy

    2003-01-01

    This document is a quick reference guide with an overview of the processes required to certify safety-critical and mission-critical flight software at selected NASA centers and the FAA. Researchers and software developers can use this guide to jumpstart their understanding of how to get new or enhanced software onboard an aircraft or spacecraft. The introduction contains aerospace industry definitions of safety and safety-critical software, as well as, the current rationale for certification of safety-critical software. The Standards for Safety-Critical Aerospace Software section lists and describes current standards including NASA standards and RTCA DO-178B. The Mission-Critical versus Safety-Critical software section explains the difference between two important classes of software: safety-critical software involving the potential for loss of life due to software failure and mission-critical software involving the potential for aborting a mission due to software failure. The DO-178B Safety-critical Certification Requirements section describes special processes and methods required to obtain a safety-critical certification for aerospace software flying on vehicles under auspices of the FAA. The final two sections give an overview of the certification process used at Dryden Flight Research Center and the approval process at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL).

  20. Rainwater as a chemical agent of geologic processes; a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, Dorothy

    1962-01-01

    Chemical analyses of the rainwater collected at several localities are given to show the variations of the principal constitutents. In rock weathering and soil-forming processes, the chemical composition of rainwater has an important effect which has been evaluated for only a few arid areas. In humid regions the important amounts of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium added yearly by rain may be expected to influence the composition of the soil water and thereby the cations in the exchange positions of soil clay minerals. The acquisition of cations by clay minerals may slow down chemical weathering. The stability of soil clay minerals is influenced by the constant accession of cations from rainwater. Conversely, the clay minerals modify the amounts and kinds of cations that are leached out by drainage waters. The stability of micaceous minerals in soils may be partly due to accessions of K +1 ions from rainwater. The pH of rainwater in any area varies considerably and seems to form a seasonal and regional pattern. The recorded pH values range from 3.0 to 9.8.

  1. Shield verification testing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, A.J.

    1991-02-26

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory processes spent nuclear reactor fuels for recovery of usable uranium. The new Fuel Processing Facility (FPF), currently under construction, is a 400 million dollar project that will replace the aging processing facility. A Shield Testing Program is being conducted to verify that shield walls, doors, and windows meet the design criteria for radiation attenuation, and to identify defects in suspect areas that could be unacceptable during processing operations. This document provides a description of this program.

  2. Collaborative decision support and documentation in chemical safety with KnowSEC.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Joachim; Striffler, Albrecht; Brandt, Marc; Neumann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    To protect the health of human and environment, the European Union implemented the REACH regulation for chemical substances. REACH is an acronym for Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals. Under REACH, the authorities have the task of assessing chemical substances, especially those that might pose a risk to human health or environment. The work under REACH is scientifically, technically and procedurally a complex and knowledge-intensive task that is jointly performed by the European Chemicals Agency and member state authorities in Europe. The assessment of substances under REACH conducted in the German Environment Agency is supported by the knowledge-based system KnowSEC, which is used for the screening, documentation, and decision support when working on chemical substances. The software KnowSEC integrates advanced semantic technologies and strong problem solving methods. It allows for the collaborative work on substances in the context of the European REACH regulation. We discuss the applied methods and process models and we report on experiences with the implementation and use of the system. PMID:27110289

  3. Effect of combination processing on the microbial, chemical and sensory quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable pulav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; George, Johnsy; Rajamanickam, R.; Nataraju, S.; Sabhapathy, S. N.; Bawa, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Effect of irradiation in combination with retort processing on the shelf life and safety aspects of an ethnic Indian food product like vegetable pulav was investigated. Gamma irradiation of RTE vegetable pulav was carried out at different dosage rates with 60Co followed by retort processing. The combination processed samples were analysed for microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics. Microbiological analysis indicated that irradiation in combination with retort processing has significantly reduced the microbial loads whereas the chemical and sensory analysis proved that this combination processing is effective in retaining the properties even after storage for one year at ambient conditions. The results also indicated that a minimum irradiation dosage at 4.0 kGy along with retort processing at an F0 value of 2.0 is needed to achieve the desired shelf life with improved organoleptic qualities.

  4. Contamination and changes of food factors during processing with modeling applications-safety related issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical and microbiological contamination of food during processing and preservation can result in foodborne illness outbreaks and food poisoning. Chemical contaminations can occur through exposure of foods to illegal additives, pesticides and fertilizer residues, toxic compounds formed by microbes...

  5. Chemical Solution Processing of Strontium Bismuth Tantalate Films

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, T.J.; Lakeman, C.D.E.

    1998-12-21

    We describe Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) processes by which Strontium Bismuth Tantalate (SBT) thin films can be prepared at temperatures as low as 550 C. In this paper, we will present strategies used to optimize the properties of the films including solution chemistry, film composition, the nature of the substrate (or bottom electrode) used, and the thermal processing cycle. Under suitable conditions, {approximately} 1700 {angstrom} films can be prepared which have a large switchable polarization (2P{sub r} > 10{micro}C/cm{sup 2}), and an operating voltage, defined as the voltage at which 0.80 x 2P{sub r} max is switched, 2.0V. We also describe an all-alkoxide route to SBT films from which SBT can be crystallized at 550 C.

  6. Process for converting cellulosic materials into fuels and chemicals

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

    1994-09-20

    A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major constituent of paper, cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. The cellulase is produced from a continuous, columnar, fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing immobilized microorganisms. An attrition mill and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. The cellulase is recycled by an adsorption process. The resulting crude sugars are converted to dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing microorganisms. The dilute product is concentrated and purified by utilizing distillation and/or a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor system. 1 fig.

  7. Chemical engineering challenges in driving thermochemical hydrogen processes with the tandem mirror reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, T.R.; Werner, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Reactor is described and compared with Tokamaks, both from a basic physics viewpoint and from the suitability of the respective reactor for synfuel production. Differences and similarities between the TMR as an electricity producer or a synfuel producer are also cited. The Thermochemical cycle chosen to link with the fusion energy source is the General Atomic Sulfur-Iodine Cycle, which is a purely thermal-driven process with no electrochemical steps. There are real chemical engineering challenges of getting this high quality heat into the large thermochemical plant in an efficient manner. We illustrate with some of our approaches to providing process heat via liquid sodium to drive a 1050 K, highly-endothermic, catalytic and fluidized-bed SO/sub 3/ Decomposition Reactor. The technical, economic, and safety tradeoffs that arise are discussed.

  8. Development of a polysilicon process based on chemical vapor deposition, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, J.; Sharp, K.; Arvidson, A.; Sawyer, D.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a dichlorosilane-based reductive chemical vapor deposition process for the production of polycrystalline silicon is discussed. Experimental data indicate that the ease of ignition and explosion severity of dichlorosilane (DCS)/air mixtures is substantially attenuated if the DCS is diluted with hydrogen. Redesign of the process development unit to accommodate safety related information is described. Several different sources of trichlorosilane were used to generate a mixture of redistributed chlorosilanes via Dowex ion exchange resin. The unseparated mixtures were then fed to an experimental reactor in which silicon was deposited and the deposited silicon analyzed for electrically active impurities. At least one trichlorosilane source provided material of requisite purity. Silicon grown in the experimental reactor was converted to single crystal material and solar cells fabricated and tested.

  9. Thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical processes in fractured-porous media: Benchmarks and examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolditz, O.; Shao, H.; Grke, U.; Kalbacher, T.; Bauer, S.; McDermott, C. I.; Wang, W.

    2012-12-01

    The book comprises an assembly of benchmarks and examples for porous media mechanics collected over the last twenty years. Analysis of thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes is essential to many applications in environmental engineering, such as geological waste deposition, geothermal energy utilisation, carbon capture and storage, water resources management, hydrology, even climate change. In order to assess the feasibility as well as the safety of geotechnical applications, process-based modelling is the only tool to put numbers, i.e. to quantify future scenarios. This charges a huge responsibility concerning the reliability of computational tools. Benchmarking is an appropriate methodology to verify the quality of modelling tools based on best practices. Moreover, benchmarking and code comparison foster community efforts. The benchmark book is part of the OpenGeoSys initiative - an open source project to share knowledge and experience in environmental analysis and scientific computation.

  10. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Nanocellulose: Structure and Chemical Process

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H. V.; Hamid, S. B. A.; Zain, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate's application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulose crystallinity, which inhibit the digestibility of the biomass for cellulose extraction. This situation offers both challenges and promises for the biomass biorefinery development to utilize the cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass. Thus, multistep biorefinery processes are necessary to ensure the deconstruction of noncellulosic content in lignocellulosic biomass, while maintaining cellulose product for further hydrolysis into nanocellulose material. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance, reengineering process of lignocellulosic biomass into nanocellulose via chemical, and novel catalytic approaches. Furthermore, review on catalyst design to overcome key barriers regarding the natural resistance of biomass will be presented herein. PMID:25247208

  11. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to nanocellulose: structure and chemical process.

    PubMed

    Lee, H V; Hamid, S B A; Zain, S K

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate's application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulose crystallinity, which inhibit the digestibility of the biomass for cellulose extraction. This situation offers both challenges and promises for the biomass biorefinery development to utilize the cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass. Thus, multistep biorefinery processes are necessary to ensure the deconstruction of noncellulosic content in lignocellulosic biomass, while maintaining cellulose product for further hydrolysis into nanocellulose material. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance, reengineering process of lignocellulosic biomass into nanocellulose via chemical, and novel catalytic approaches. Furthermore, review on catalyst design to overcome key barriers regarding the natural resistance of biomass will be presented herein. PMID:25247208

  12. Chemical and Plant-Based Insect Repellents: Efficacy, Safety, and Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2016-03-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases today are arthropod-borne and cannot be prevented by vaccinations. Because insect repellents offer important topical barriers of personal protection from arthropod-borne infectious diseases, the main objectives of this article were to describe the growing threats to public health from emerging arthropod-borne infectious diseases, to define the differences between insect repellents and insecticides, and to compare the efficacies and toxicities of chemical and plant-derived insect repellents. Internet search engines were queried with key words to identify scientific articles on the efficacy, safety, and toxicity of chemical and plant-derived topical insect repellants and insecticides to meet these objectives. Data sources reviewed included case reports; case series; observational, longitudinal, and surveillance studies; and entomological and toxicological studies. Descriptive analysis of the data sources identified the most effective application of insect repellents as a combination of topical chemical repellents, either N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (formerly N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide, or DEET) or picaridin, and permethrin-impregnated or other pyrethroid-impregnated clothing over topically treated skin. The insecticide-treated clothing would provide contact-level insecticidal effects and provide better, longer lasting protection against malaria-transmitting mosquitoes and ticks than topical DEET or picaridin alone. In special cases, where environmental exposures to disease-transmitting ticks, biting midges, sandflies, or blackflies are anticipated, topical insect repellents containing IR3535, picaridin, or oil of lemon eucalyptus (p-menthane-3, 8-diol or PMD) would offer better topical protection than topical DEET alone. PMID:26827259

  13. Postharvest processing technologies to improve food safety and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables by foodborne pathogens is an ongoing problem. The limitations of conventional sanitation methods have prompted research into novel interventions. In addition to advanced applications of gas-phase chemical sanitizers, several promising physic...

  14. Safety analysis of IFR fuel processing in the Argonne National Laboratory Fuel Cycle Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Charak, I; Pedersen, D.R.; Forrester, R.J.; Phipps, R.D.

    1993-09-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) includes on-site processing and recycling of discharged core and blanket fuel materials. The process is being demonstrated in the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) at ANL`s Idaho site. This paper describes the safety analyses that were performed in support of the FCF program; the resulting safety analysis report was the vehicle used to secure authorization to operate the facility and carry out the program, which is now under way. This work also provided some insights into safety-related issues of a commercial IFR fuel processing facility. These are also discussed.

  15. Commercial Processing and its effect on the Microbiological Safety of Shell Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though egg shell microbiology has been studied over the years, little of it describes how modern US processing conditions impact microbial populations. When safety based regulations are implemented, this information can be used to determine critical steps critical to product safety. Shell egg surf...

  16. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept.

  17. No Respect: Research in Quality, Safety, and Process Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Rubinfeld, Ilan S; Horst, H Mathilda

    2009-01-01

    The need for good quality and safety research has never been more imperative, but even as we encourage and promote such work, we seem to suppress it through institutional bias and inertia. Indeed the culture of health care seems to have a love-hate relationship with quality-improvement work as a whole. In this commentary we explore some of the implications of the application of pure science standards at the sharp end of clinical practice, where the down-and-dirty street-level improvement work happens. PMID:20740106

  18. How chemical information processing interferes with face processing: a magnetoencephalographic study.

    PubMed

    Walla, Peter; Mayer, Dagmar; Deecke, Lüder; Lang, Wilfried

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic field changes related to face encoding were recorded in 20 healthy young participants. Faces had to be deeply encoded under four kinds of simultaneous nasal chemical stimulation. Neutral room air, phenyl ethyl alcohol (PEA, rose flavor), carbon dioxide (CO2, pain), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S, rotten eggs flavor) were used as chemical stimuli. PEA and H2S represented odor stimuli, whereas CO2 was used for trigeminal stimulation (pain sensation). After the encoding of faces, the respective recognition performances were tested focusing on recognition effects related to specific chemical stimulation during encoding. The number of correctly recognized faces (hits) varied between chemical conditions. PEA stimulation during face encoding significantly increased the number of hits compared to the control condition. H2S also led to an increased mean number of hits, whereas simultaneous CO2 administration during face encoding resulted in a reduction. Analysis of the physiological data revealed two latency regions of interest. Compared to the control condition, both olfactory stimulus conditions resulted in reduced activity components peaking at about 260 ms after stimulus onset, whereas CO2 produced a strongly pronounced enhanced activity component peaking at about 700 ms after stimulus onset. Both olfactory conditions elicited only weak enhanced activities at about 700 ms, and CO2 did not show any difference activity at 260 ms after stimulus onset compared to the control condition. It is concluded that the early activity differences represent subconscious olfactory information processing leading to enhanced memory performances irrespective of the hedonic value, at least if they are only subconsciously processed. The later activity is suggested to reflect conscious CO2 perception negatively affecting face encoding and therefore leading to reduced subsequent face recognition. We interpret that conscious processing of nasal chemical stimulation competes with deep face encoding with respect to cortical resources, whereas subconscious processing of nasal chemical stimulation does not. PMID:15588602

  19. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning: A New Process for Chemically Cleaning Savannah River Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, Edward; Spires, Renee; Davis, Neil

    2009-02-11

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) there are 49 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks that eventually must be emptied, cleaned, and closed. The current method of chemically cleaning SRS HLW tanks, commonly referred to as Bulk Oxalic Acid Cleaning (BOAC), requires about a half million liters (130,000 gallons) of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to clean a single tank. During the cleaning, the oxalic acid acts as the solvent to digest sludge solids and insoluble salt solids, such that they can be suspended and pumped out of the tank. Because of the volume and concentration of acid used, a significant quantity of oxalate is added to the HLW process. This added oxalate significantly impacts downstream processing. In addition to the oxalate, the volume of liquid added competes for the limited available tank space. A search, therefore, was initiated for a new cleaning process. Using TRIZ (Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadatch or roughly translated as the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving), Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination with Ultraviolet Light (CORD-UV{reg_sign}), a mature technology used in the commercial nuclear power industry was identified as an alternate technology. Similar to BOAC, CORD-UV{reg_sign} also uses oxalic acid as the solvent to dissolve the metal (hydr)oxide solids. CORD-UV{reg_sign} is different, however, since it uses photo-oxidation (via peroxide/UV or ozone/UV to form hydroxyl radicals) to decompose the spent oxalate into carbon dioxide and water. Since the oxalate is decomposed and off-gassed, CORD-UV{reg_sign} would not have the negative downstream oxalate process impacts of BOAC. With the oxalate destruction occurring physically outside the HLW tank, re-precipitation and transfer of the solids, as well as regeneration of the cleaning solution can be performed without adding additional solids, or a significant volume of liquid to the process. With a draft of the pre-conceptual Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) flowsheet, taking full advantage of the many CORD-UV{reg_sign} benefits, performance demonstration testing was initiated using available SRS sludge simulant. The demonstration testing confirmed that ECC is a viable technology, as it can dissolve greater than 90% of the sludge simulant and destroy greater than 90% of the oxalates. Additional simulant and real waste testing are planned.

  20. The influence of dispositional mindfulness on safety behaviors: a dual process perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyu; Wu, Changxu

    2014-09-01

    Based on the dual process model of human cognition, this study investigated the influence of dispositional mindfulness on operators' safety behaviors and its boundary conditions. In a sample of 212 nuclear power plant control room operators, it was found that both safety compliance and safety participation behaviors were positively influenced by dispositional mindfulness as measured by the 14-item Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory. This effect was still positive after controlling for age, intelligence, work experience and conscientiousness. Moreover, two boundary conditions were identified: the impact of dispositional mindfulness of safety behaviors was stronger among operators who were either more experienced or more intelligent. Theoretically, the framework we used to understand the benefit of mindfulness on safety behaviors has been proved to be useful. Practically, it provides a new and valid criterion that could be used in operators' selection and training program to improve organizational safety. PMID:24686163

  1. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  2. Corrosion study in the chemical air separation (MOLTOX trademark ) process

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Doohee; Wong, Kai P.; Archer, R.A.; Cassano, A.A.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents the results of studies aimed at solving the corrosion problems encountered during operation of the MOLTOX{trademark} pilot plant. These studies concentrated on the screening of commercial and developmental alloys under conditions simulating operation conditions in this high temperature molten salt process. Process economic studies were preformed in parallel with the laboratory testing to ensure that an economically feasible solution would be achieved. In addition to the above DOE co-funded studies, Air Products and Chemicals pursued proprietary studies aimed at developing a less corrosive salt mixture which would potentially allow the use of chemurgically available alloys such as stainless steels throughout the system. These studies will not be reported here; however, the results of corrosion tests in the new less corrosive salt mixtures are reported. Because our own studies on salt chemistry impacts heavily on the overall process and thereby has an influence on the experimental work conducted under this contract, some of the studies discussed here were impacted by our own proprietary data. Therefore, the reasons behind some of the experiments presented herein will not be explained because that information is proprietary to Air Products. 14 refs., 42 figs., 21 tabs.

  3. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan.

    1989-01-01

    Research continued on coal cleaning. Sample characterization (Task 3) of the Middle Wyodak and Upper Freeport coal samples is now complete. Parametric testing (Subtask 4.1) of the Middle Wyodak coal was finished last quarter. The results showed that dissolution, rather than liberation, played a major role in the ash removal of Middle Wyodak coal. This may be attributed to the presence of exchangeable cations in this particular coal sample. Complete mass balance studies undertaken this quarter verified these observations. The XRF and chemical analysis of the feed, as well as elemental analysis of the solution obtained after the CECC treatment, indicated the presence of Ca and Mg ions. On the other hand, the results of the mass balance experiments for the other coal samples showed that liberation is more responsible for the ash rejection in the CECC process. The Pittsburgh No. 8 coal sample showed good response to this process, but not the Upper Freeport and Widow Kennedy coal. These last two coal samples were found to be highly oxidized, which may probably account for their poor performance in the CECC process. Ferric ion regeneration experiments using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans were continued this quarter. 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  4. Radon: Chemical and physical processes associated with its distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Assessing the mechanisms which govern the distribution, fate, and pathways of entry into biological systems, as well as the ultimate hazards associated with the radon progeny and their secondary reaction products, depends on knowledge of their chemistry. Our studies are directed toward developing fundamental information which will provide a basis for modeling studies that are requisite in obtaining a complete picture of growth, attachment to aerosols, and transport to the bioreceptor and ultimate incorporation within. Our program is divided into three major areas of research. These include measurement of the determination of their mobilities, study of the role of radon progeny ions in affecting reactions, including study of the influence of the degree of solvation (clustering), and examination of the important secondary reaction products, with particular attention to processes leading to chemical conversion of either the core ions or the ligands as a function of the degree of clustering.

  5. Chemical Reactions in the Processing of Mosi2 + Carbon Compacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Lee, Kang N.; Maloy, Stuart A.; Heuer, Arthur H.

    1993-01-01

    Hot-pressing of MoSi2 powders with carbon at high temperatures reduces the siliceous grain boundary phase in the resultant compact. The chemical reactions in this process were examined using the Knudsen cell technique. A 2.3 wt pct oxygen MoSi2 powder and a 0.59 wt pct oxygen MoSi2 powder, both with additions of 2 wt pct carbon, were examined. The reduction of the siliceous grain boundary phase was examined at 1350 K and the resultant P(SiO)/P(CO) ratios interpreted in terms of the SiO(g) and CO(g) isobars on the Si-C-O predominance diagram. The MoSi2 + carbon mixtures were then heated at the hot-pressing temperature of 2100 K. Large weight losses were observed and could be correlated with the formation of a low-melting eutectic and the formation and vaporization of SiC.

  6. Reusing water in CPI plants. [Chemical Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Rosain, R.M.

    1993-04-01

    Increasing regulatory pressure for expanded wastewater treatment, waste minimization, and direct water conservation have forced many chemical process industries (CPI) plants to look seriously at water reuse. Many companies are finding that water reuse, in some form, can be cost-effective for existing plants, can open up previously closed opportunities for new plant siting and, in some cases, can even increase product quality and plant reliability. This article presents a systematic approach to evaluating water reuse for a CPI plant. It briefly reviews the major water reuse issues, and then discusses establishing a plant information database, evaluating water reuse strategies and technical options, developing and selecting water reuse alternatives, implementing a reuse plan, and measuring success.

  7. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process?

    PubMed

    Koppel, Sjaanie; Charlton, Judith; Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Whilst there has been a significant increase in the amount of consumer interest in the safety performance of privately owned vehicles, the role that it plays in consumers' purchase decisions is poorly understood. The aims of the current study were to determine: how important vehicle safety is in the new vehicle purchase process; what importance consumers place on safety options/features relative to other convenience and comfort features, and how consumers conceptualise vehicle safety. In addition, the study aimed to investigate the key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase. Participants recruited in Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire about their new vehicle purchase. The findings from the questionnaire indicated that participants ranked safety-related factors (e.g., EuroNCAP (or other) safety ratings) as more important in the new vehicle purchase process than other vehicle factors (e.g., price, reliability etc.). Similarly, participants ranked safety-related features (e.g., advanced braking systems, front passenger airbags etc.) as more important than non-safety-related features (e.g., route navigation systems, air-conditioning etc.). Consistent with previous research, most participants equated vehicle safety with the presence of specific vehicle safety features or technologies rather than vehicle crash safety/test results or crashworthiness. The key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase were: use of EuroNCAP, gender and education level, age, drivers' concern about crash involvement, first vehicle purchase, annual driving distance, person for whom the vehicle was purchased, and traffic infringement history. The findings from this study are important for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion and publicity of vehicle safety features for particular consumer groups (such as younger consumers) in order to increase their knowledge regarding vehicle safety and to encourage them to place highest priority on safety in the new vehicle purchase process. PMID:18460367

  8. Environmental, safety, and health engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Woodside, G.; Kocurek, D.

    1997-12-31

    A complete guide to environmental, safety, and health engineering, including an overview of EPA and OSHA regulations; principles of environmental engineering, including pollution prevention, waste and wastewater treatment and disposal, environmental statistics, air emissions and abatement engineering, and hazardous waste storage and containment; principles of safety engineering, including safety management, equipment safety, fire and life safety, process and system safety, confined space safety, and construction safety; and principles of industrial hygiene/occupational health engineering including chemical hazard assessment, personal protective equipment, industrial ventilation, ionizing and nonionizing radiation, noise, and ergonomics.

  9. Accelerating chemical database searching using graphics processing units.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pu; Agrafiotis, Dimitris K; Rassokhin, Dmitrii N; Yang, Eric

    2011-08-22

    The utility of chemoinformatics systems depends on the accurate computer representation and efficient manipulation of chemical compounds. In such systems, a small molecule is often digitized as a large fingerprint vector, where each element indicates the presence/absence or the number of occurrences of a particular structural feature. Since in theory the number of unique features can be exceedingly large, these fingerprint vectors are usually folded into much shorter ones using hashing and modulo operations, allowing fast "in-memory" manipulation and comparison of molecules. There is increasing evidence that lossless fingerprints can substantially improve retrieval performance in chemical database searching (substructure or similarity), which have led to the development of several lossless fingerprint compression algorithms. However, any gains in storage and retrieval afforded by compression need to be weighed against the extra computational burden required for decompression before these fingerprints can be compared. Here we demonstrate that graphics processing units (GPU) can greatly alleviate this problem, enabling the practical application of lossless fingerprints on large databases. More specifically, we show that, with the help of a ~$500 ordinary video card, the entire PubChem database of ~32 million compounds can be searched in ~0.2-2 s on average, which is 2 orders of magnitude faster than a conventional CPU. If multiple query patterns are processed in batch, the speedup is even more dramatic (less than 0.02-0.2 s/query for 1000 queries). In the present study, we use the Elias gamma compression algorithm, which results in a compression ratio as high as 0.097. PMID:21696144

  10. Radioactive decay as a forced nuclear chemical process: Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timashev, S. F.

    2015-11-01

    Concepts regarding the mechanism of radioactive decay of nuclei are developed on the basis of a hypothesis that there is a dynamic relationship between the electronic and nuclear subsystems of an atom, and that fluctuating initiating effects of the electronic subsystem on a nucleus are possible. Such relationship is reflected in experimental findings that show the radioactive decay of nuclei might be determined by a positive difference between the mass of an initial nucleus and the mass of an atom's electronic subsystem, i.e., the mass of the entire atom (rather than that of its nucleus) and the total mass of the decay products. It is established that an intermediate nucleus whose charge is lower by unity than the charge of the initial radioactive nucleus is formed as a result of the above fluctuating stimuli that initiate radioactive decay, and its nuclear matter is thus in an unbalanced metastable state of inner shakeup, affecting the quark subsystem of nucleons. The intermediate nucleus thus experiences radioactive decay with the emission of α or β particles. At the same time, the high energy (with respect to the chemical scale) of electrons in plasma served as a factor initiating the processes in different nuclear chemical transformations and radioactive decays in low-temperature plasma studied earlier, particularly during the laser ablation of metals in aqueous solutions of different compositions and in near-surface cathode layers upon glow discharge. It is shown that a wide variety of nucleosynthesis processes in the Universe can be understood on the same basis, and a great many questions regarding the formation of light elements in the solar atmosphere and some heavy elements (particularly p-nuclei) in the interiors of massive stars at late stages of their evolution can also be resolved.

  11. An Approach to Help Departments Meet the New ABET Process Safety Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughen, Bruce K.

    2012-01-01

    The proposed program criteria changes by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc. (ABET), for chemical, biochemical, biomolecular, and similarly named programs includes a fundamental awareness expectation of the hazards involved in chemical processing for a graduating chemical engineer. As of July 2010, these four new words

  12. An Approach to Help Departments Meet the New ABET Process Safety Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughen, Bruce K.

    2012-01-01

    The proposed program criteria changes by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc. (ABET), for chemical, biochemical, biomolecular, and similarly named programs includes a fundamental awareness expectation of the hazards involved in chemical processing for a graduating chemical engineer. As of July 2010, these four new words…

  13. Primary Polymer Aging Processes Identified from Weapon Headspace Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D M; Bazan, J M; Ithaca, J G

    2002-03-25

    A current focus of our weapon headspace sampling work is the interpretation of the volatile chemical signatures that we are collecting. To help validate our interpretation we have been developing a laboratory-based material aging capability to simulate material decomposition chemistries identified. Key to establishing this capability has been the development of an automated approach to process, analyze, and quantify arrays of material combinations as a function of time and temperature. Our initial approach involves monitoring the formation and migration of volatile compounds produced when a material decomposes. This approach is advantageous in that it is nondestructive and provides a direct comparison with our weapon headspace surveillance initiative. Nevertheless, this approach requires us to identify volatile material residue and decomposition byproducts that are not typically monitored and reported in material aging studies. Similar to our weapon monitoring method, our principle laboratory-based method involves static headspace collection by solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). SPME is a sorbent collection technique that is ideally suited for preconcentration and delivery of trace gas-phase compounds for analysis by GC. When combined with MS, detection limits are routinely in the low- and sub-ppb ranges, even for semivolatile and polar compounds. To automate this process we incorporated a robotic sample processor configured for SPME collection. The completed system will thermally process, sample, and analyze a material sample. Quantification of the instrument response is another process that has been integrated into the system. The current system screens low-milligram quantities of material for the formation or outgas of small compounds as initial indicators of chemical decomposition. This emerging capability offers us a new approach to identify and non-intrusively monitor decomposition mechanisms that are accelerated by stockpile-relevant aging parameters such as heat, irradiation, material incompatibility and physical force. The primary organic material groups that make up many of the weapon systems are chlorofluoropolymers, polysiloxanes, and polyurethanes (PUR). In the weapon headspace we see the greatest residue from polysiloxanes and PUR and, therefore, are interested in identifying and quantifying the origin responsible for their presence. Although we have produced a number of significant findings concerning the chlorofluoropolymer and polysiloxane materials, this work focuses on the decomposition of PUR.

  14. 49 CFR 1106.4 - The Safety Integration Plan process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... at 49 CFR part 244, or other FRA guidelines or requirements regarding the contents of a SIP, with SEA... ongoing environmental review process under 49 CFR part 1105. The procedures governing the process shall be as follows: (1) In accordance with 49 CFR 244.17, FRA will provide its findings and conclusions...

  15. 49 CFR 1106.4 - The Safety Integration Plan process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... at 49 CFR part 244, or other FRA guidelines or requirements regarding the contents of a SIP, with SEA... ongoing environmental review process under 49 CFR part 1105. The procedures governing the process shall be as follows: (1) In accordance with 49 CFR 244.17, FRA will provide its findings and conclusions...

  16. Chemical Processing and Characterization of Fiber Reinforced Nanocomposite Silica Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Steven Shannon

    Ultrasound techniques, acoustic and electroacoustic spectroscopy, are used to investigate and characterize concentrated fluid phase nanocomposites. In particular, the data obtained from ultrasound methods are used as tools to improve the understanding of the fundamental process chemistry of concentrated, multicomponent, nanomaterial dispersions. Silicon nitride nanofibers embedded in silica are particularly interesting for lightweight nanocomposites, because silicon nitride is isostructural to carbon nitride, a super hard material. However, the major challenge with processing these composites is retarding particle-particle aggregation, to maintain highly dispersed systems. Therefore, a systematic approach was developed to evaluate the affect of process parameters on particle-particle aggregation, and improving the chemical kinetics for gelation. From the acoustic analysis of the nanofibers, this thesis was able to deduce that changes in aspect ratio affects the ultrasound propagation. In particular, higher aspect ratio fibers attenuate the ultrasound wave greater than lower aspect fibers of the same material. Furthermore, our results confirm that changes in attenuation depend on the hydrodynamical interactions between particles, the aspect ratio, and the morphology of the dispersant. The results indicate that the attenuation is greater for fumed silica due to its elastic nature and its size, when compared to silica Ludox. Namely, the larger the size, the greater the attenuation. This attenuation is mostly the result of scattering loss in the higher frequency range. In addition, the silica nanofibers exhibit greater attenuation than their nanoparticle counterparts because of their aspect ratio influences their interaction with the ultrasound wave. In addition, this study observed how 3M NH 4 Cl's acoustic properties changes during the gelation process, and during that change, the frequency dependency deviates from the expected squared of the frequency, until the system becomes fully dense and turns into a pure gel. Moreover, our results demonstrated the use of ultrasound to determine the critical coagulation concentration, and a double logarithm plot of the CVI indicated a possible power law dependency for NH4 Cl concentrations. Lastly, the mechanism of the gelation reaction of colloidal silica, Si(OH) 4(aq) + Si(OH)3(O) --(aq) → Si2O8H5--( aq) + H2O, by an anionic pathway was investigated using density functional theory (DFT). Using transition state theory, the rate constants were obtained by analyzing the potential energy surface at the reactants, saddle point, and the products. In addition, reaction rate constants were investigated in the presence of ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl) and sodium chloride (NaCl). These salts act as catalysis to induce gelation due to their ability to destabilize the double layer of the colloid. Furthermore, it was observed that ammonium chloride plays an important role by initiating a hydride transfer allowing the reaction to proceed from the second transition state to the final product, and was predicted to be spontaneous for all temperatures. In summary, this thesis provides a comprehensive approach on examining the parameters required for the chemical processing of nanofiber dispersions, thus improving the understanding of the physio-chemical interactions, the gelation mechanism, and their influence on obtaining highly dispersed fluid phase composite systems.

  17. Experience of Hot Cell Renovation Work in CPF (Chemical Processing Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Toyonobu Nabemoto; Fujio Katahira; Tadatsugu Sakaya; Shinichi Aose; Takafumi Kitajima; Kouji Ogasawara; Kazunori Nomura; Shigehiko Miyachi; Yoshiaki Ichige; Tadahiro Shinozaki; Shinichi Ohuchi

    2008-01-15

    Renovation work for operation room A of the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF) was carried out. Cell renovation work involved disassembly, removal and installation of new equipment for the CA-3 cell of operation room A and the crane renovation work involved the repair of the in-cell crane for the CA-5 cell of operation room A. There were not many examples of renovation work performed on cells under high radiation environment and alpha contamination in Japan. Lessons learnt: With respect to the cell renovation work and crane repair work, a method that gave full consideration to safety was employed and the work was performed without accidents or disaster. Moreover, through improvement of the method, reduction of radioactive exposure of the workers was achieved and a melt reduction device was designed to deal with the radioactive waste material that was generated in the renovation work to achieve significant melt reduction of waste material.

  18. Chemical Compositional, Biological, and Safety Studies of a Novel Maple Syrup Derived Extract for Nutraceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789

  19. Characterization of graphene oxide reduced through chemical and biological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutchich, M.; Jaffré, A.; Alamarguy, D.; Alvarez, J.; Barras, A.; Tanizawa, Y.; Tero, R.; Okada, H.; Thu, T. V.; Kleider, J. P.; Sandhu, A.

    2013-04-01

    The study of new materials for transparent electrodes or new heterojunctions made of 2D materials combinations is a very active research topic. Challenges to overcome are the modulation of the optoelectronic properties of such materials to achieve competitive photovoltaic devices. In this work, graphene oxide was reduced into graphene through different chemical (hydrazine, ultraviolet photocatalysis) and biological (microorganisms) processes. W e benchmarked the reduction efficiency by probing materials characteristics using various physical characterization techniques. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses were carried out to observe the effectiveness of the reduction processes through the sp2/sp3 content. In addition, the homogeneity of the reduction is investigated on micrometer scale sample with micro Raman mapping and extraction of the ID/IG ratio. Conductive-probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM) was employed to investigate the longitudinal conductivity of the different samples. The results show that hydrazine based reduction remains the most efficient. However, the bacterial procedure demonstrated partial reconstruction of the carbon network and reduced the amount of oxygenated functional groups.

  20. Process ichnology and the elucidation of physico-chemical stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingras, Murray K.; MacEachern, James A.; Dashtgard, Shahin E.

    2011-06-01

    This paper sets out a philosophical approach to ichnological (trace fossil) analysis, which focuses on the interpretation of trace fossils as sedimentary structures rather than as paleontological entities per se. Using wide-ranging datasets and a large number of observations and interpretations, a "Process Ichnology" framework is proposed. This interpretive framework provides an improved means of estimating the presence and magnitude of various physical and chemical (i.e., physico-chemical) depositional stresses (e.g., water turbidity, sedimentation rates, substrate consistency, salinity, and oxygenation) in ancient sedimentary environments. Ichnological datasets that are considered include: 1) trace-fossil distributions; 2) ethological diversity and the range of diversity; 3) the significance of burrow linings; 4) trace-fossil size; and, 5) post-depositional compaction of trace fossils. From these data, higher-resolution estimates can be made for the determination of sedimentation rates, temporal variation in sedimentation rate, sediment consistency, and aspects of the bottom- and interstitial-water chemistries. Additionally, the character of depositional bypassing of sediment grains can be determined. The methodologies and interpretations herein are intended for use by non-ichnologists in a manner akin to the interpretation of physical sedimentary structures. However, the outlined framework is complementary to other methods of ichnological analysis, such as ichnofacies- or ichnofabric-analysis, and can be applied as such. Indeed, this method is a derivative of these and other earlier techniques, and should be employed where a systematic approach to obtaining high-resolution sedimentological interpretations is a required aspect of the study.

  1. FY13 GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATIONS OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL WITH SIMULANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Best, D.

    2014-03-13

    Savannah River Remediation is evaluating changes to its current Defense Waste Processing Facility flowsheet to replace formic acid with glycolic acid in order to improve processing cycle times and decrease by approximately 100x the production of hydrogen, a potentially flammable gas. Higher throughput is needed in the Chemical Processing Cell since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the safety significant gas chromatographs and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, eliminating the use of formic acid is highly desirable. Previous testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with glycolic acid allows the reduction and removal of mercury without significant catalytic hydrogen generation. Five back-to-back Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycles and four back-to-back Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were successful in demonstrating the viability of the nitric/glycolic acid flowsheet. The testing was completed in FY13 to determine the impact of process heels (approximately 25% of the material is left behind after transfers). In addition, back-to-back experiments might identify longer-term processing problems. The testing was designed to be prototypic by including sludge simulant, Actinide Removal Product simulant, nitric acid, glycolic acid, and Strip Effluent simulant containing Next Generation Solvent in the SRAT processing and SRAT product simulant, decontamination frit slurry, and process frit slurry in the SME processing. A heel was produced in the first cycle and each subsequent cycle utilized the remaining heel from the previous cycle. Lower SRAT purges were utilized due to the low hydrogen generation. Design basis addition rates and boilup rates were used so the processing time was shorter than current processing rates.

  2. Physical-chemical treatment of tar-sand processing wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    King, P.H.

    1982-07-01

    This final report for Phase I summarizes work done to determine the ability of several coagulants to contribute significantly in the treatment of selected tar sand wastewaters. The coagulation process must be considered as one possible step in a treatment scheme to reduce pollutants in these wastewaters and lead to a water quality acceptable for reuse or disposal. Two wastewaters were provided by the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC). The primary emphasis in this study was focused on a representative steam flooding wastewater designated in the report as TARSAND 1S. The coagulation study in which treatment of this wastewater was the prime goal is described in full detail in the thesis entitled Chemical Coagulation of Steam Flooding Tar Sand Wastewaters. This thesis, written by Mr. Omar Akad, is included as Appendix A in this report. A representative combustion wastewater, designated as TARSAND 2C, was also provided by LETC. This wastewater was characteristically low in suspended solids and after initial screening experiments were conducted, it was concluded that coagulation was relatively ineffective in the treatment of TARSAND 2C. Hence, efforts were concentrated on the parametric evaluation of coagulation of TARSAND 1S. The objectives for the research conducted under Phase I were: (1) to compare the effectiveness of lime, alum, ferric chloride and representative synthetic organic polymers in reducing suspended solids and total organic carbon (TOC) from TARSAND 1S wastewater; (2) to determine the effects of pH, coagulant aids, and mixing conditions on the coagulation process; (3) to determine the relative volume of sludge produced from each selected coagulation process.

  3. WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL NUCLEAR SAFETY RELATED R AND D REPORT FOR CY2008

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-10-15

    The Engineering and Technology Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks associated with key waste processing project decisions. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment (TDD). The Office of Waste Processing TDD program prioritizes and approves research and development scopes of work that address nuclear safety related to processing of highly radioactive nuclear wastes. Thirteen of the thirty-five R&D approved work scopes in FY2009 relate directly to nuclear safety, and are presented in this report.

  4. Chemical inhibition of PCDD/F formation in incineration processes.

    PubMed

    Ruokojärvi, Päivi H; Asikainen, Arja H; Tuppurainen, Kari A; Ruuskanen, Juhani

    2004-06-01

    This review summarises results of our pilot-scale experiments to find suitable inhibitors for preventing the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) during waste incineration and to specify the role of the main factors affecting the inhibition process, and is based on doctoral dissertation of Ruokojaärvi (2002). Results of previous experiments reported by other researchers are also presented and compared with ours. The detailed aims of our experiments were (1) to compare the effects of different inhibitors on PCDD/F formation during incineration in a pilot plant, (2) to investigate the role of the particle size distribution of the flue gas on the inhibition of PCDD/Fs, and (3) to find the main parameters affecting PCDD/F inhibition in waste incineration. Prevention of the formation of PCDD/Fs with chemical inhibitors and the effects of different supply points, feed temperatures and process parameters were studied in a pilot scale incinerator (50 kW) using light heating oil and refuse-derived fuel as test fuels. Various concentrations of the gaseous inhibitors (sulfur dioxide, ammonia, dimethylamine and methyl mercaptan) were sprayed into the flue gases after the furnace, in addition to which urea was dissolved in water and injected in at different concentrations. The residence time of the flue gas between the furnace and the PCDD/F sampling point was varied in the tests. In another set of urea tests, urea-water solutions at three concentrations were mixed with the RDF prior to incineration. PCDD/F and chlorophenol concentrations, together with other flue gas parameters (e.g. temperature, O2, CO, CO2 and NO), were analysed in the cooling flue gases. The gaseous and liquid inhibitors both notably reduced PCDD/F concentrations in the flue gas, the reductions achieved with the gaseous inhibitors varying from 50 to 78%, with dimethyl amine the most effective, while that produced with urea was up to 90%. The PCDD/F reductions were greater at increased inhibitor concentrations and with increased residence time of the flue gas between the furnace and the sampling point. PCDD/F concentrations in the particle phase decreased much more markedly than those in the gas phase. The urea inhibitor did not alter the particle size distribution of the PCDD/Fs when the amount of inhibitor was adequate. Chemical inhibitors seem to offer a very promising technique for preventing the formation of PCDD/Fs in waste incineration. The addition of urea to the fuel before combustion proved to be very effective approach and could be a useful technique even in the full-scale incinerators. PMID:15144780

  5. A Case Study of Measuring Process Risk for Early Insights into Software Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layman, Lucas; Basili, Victor; Zelkowitz, Marvin V.; Fisher, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    In this case study, we examine software safety risk in three flight hardware systems in NASA's Constellation spaceflight program. We applied our Technical and Process Risk Measurement (TPRM) methodology to the Constellation hazard analysis process to quantify the technical and process risks involving software safety in the early design phase of these projects. We analyzed 154 hazard reports and collected metrics to measure the prevalence of software in hazards and the specificity of descriptions of software causes of hazardous conditions. We found that 49-70% of 154 hazardous conditions could be caused by software or software was involved in the prevention of the hazardous condition. We also found that 12-17% of the 2013 hazard causes involved software, and that 23-29% of all causes had a software control. The application of the TPRM methodology identified process risks in the application of the hazard analysis process itself that may lead to software safety risk.

  6. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Shawn M.; Harrison, Mark A.; Law, S. Edward

    2011-06-01

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic-nozzle sprays.

  7. Irradiation treatment of minimally processed carrots for ensuring microbiological safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf Chaudry, Muhammad; Bibi, Nizakat; Khan, Misal; Khan, Maazullah; Badshah, Amal; Jamil Qureshi, Muhammad

    2004-09-01

    Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are very common in developed countries and are gaining popularity in developing countries due to their convenience and freshness. However, minimally processing may result in undesirable changes in colour, taste and appearance due to the transfer of microbes from skin to the flesh. Irradiation is a well-known technology for elimination of microbial contamination. Food irradiation has been approved by 50 countries and is being applied commercially in USA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the quality of minimally processed carrots. Fresh carrots were peeled, sliced and PE packaged. The samples were irradiated (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 kGy) and stored at 5°C for 2 weeks. The samples were analyzed for hardness, organoleptic acceptance and microbial load at 0, 7th and 15th day. The mean firmness of the control and all irradiated samples remained between 4.31 and 4.42 kg of force, showing no adverse effect of radiation dose. The effect of storage (2 weeks) was significant ( P< 0.05) with values ranging between 4.28 and 4.39 kg of force. The total bacterial counts at 5°C for non-irradiated and 0.5 kGy irradiated samples were 6.3×10 5 cfu/g, 3.0×10 2 and few colonies(>10) in all other irradiated samples(1.0, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy) after 2 weeks storage. No coliform or E. coli were detected in any of the samples (radiated or control) immediately after irradiation and during the entire storage period in minimally processed carrots. A dose of 2.0 kGy completely controlled the fungal and bacterial counts. The irradiated samples (2.0 kGy) were also acceptable sensorially.

  8. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Special Nuclear Material vault upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.C.; Holloway, E.R.

    1992-06-24

    This document discusses storage space in a Special Nuclear Material (SNM) product storage vault at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which has been recently expanded by approximately 175%. This expansion required a minimum of space and funding and resulted in a large increase in net storage capacity. Security for the additional storage is provided by standard intrusion sensors and by a real-time monitoring system, which monitors the weight of the material as it rests on weight sensors (load cells). The monitoring system also feeds weight data to a Safeguards processor which provides further confidence to Safeguards personnel. The Department of Energy requirements for bimonthly inventories for SNM stored in a particular part of this facility have been eliminated because of the guarantees provided by a real-time monitoring system. A higher efficiency has been obtained by using the expensive real estate inside a hardened product storage vault. This project has provided the ICPP with a relatively inexpensive vault upgrade and when product material is placed in this area of the vault the manpower requirements to inventory it will be reduced, resulting in a net reduction in plant worker radiation exposure.

  9. Adaptive and repeated cumulative meta-analyses of safety data during a new drug development process.

    PubMed

    Quan, Hui; Ma, Yingqiu; Zheng, Yan; Cho, Meehyung; Lorenzato, Christelle; Hecquet, Carole

    2015-01-01

    During a new drug development process, it is desirable to timely detect potential safety signals. For this purpose, repeated meta-analyses may be performed sequentially on accumulating safety data. Moreover, if the amount of safety data from the originally planned program is not enough to ensure adequate power to test a specific hypothesis (e.g., the noninferiority hypothesis of an event of interest), the total sample size may be increased by adding new studies to the program. Without appropriate adjustment, it is well known that the type I error rate will be inflated because of repeated analyses and sample size adjustment. In this paper, we discuss potential issues associated with adaptive and repeated cumulative meta-analyses of safety data conducted during a drug development process. We consider both frequentist and Bayesian approaches. A new drug development example is used to demonstrate the application of the methods. PMID:25612310

  10. [Demonstration of quality, safety and efficacy of biological products subject to changes in their manufacturing process].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, A N; Gavrishina, E V; Niiazov, R R; Snegireva, A A; Adonin, V K

    2013-01-01

    Ensuring quality, safety and efficacy of the medicinal products placed on the market of the Russian Federation constitutes the area that requires strict regulation. When changes are made to the manufacturing process, the manufacturer generally needs to evaluate the relevant quality attributes of the product to demonstrate that modifications did not occur that would adversely impact the safety and efficacy of the drug. Where there is the lack of a sound legal basis, there is a need in harmonization of current Russian legislation with international and European rules governing medicinal product for human use to ensure quality, safety and efficacy thereof. PMID:24738243

  11. 20 CFR 404.937 - Protecting the safety of the public and our employees in our hearing process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Protecting the safety of the public and our employees in our hearing process. (a) Notwithstanding any other... section to ensure the safety of the public and our employees in our hearing process. (b)(1) At the request... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Protecting the safety of the public and...

  12. 20 CFR 416.1437 - Protecting the safety of the public and our employees in our hearing process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 416.1437 Protecting the safety of the public and our employees in our hearing process. (a... set out in this section to ensure the safety of the public and our employees in our hearing process... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Protecting the safety of the public and...

  13. 20 CFR 404.937 - Protecting the safety of the public and our employees in our hearing process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Protecting the safety of the public and our employees in our hearing process. (a) Notwithstanding any other... section to ensure the safety of the public and our employees in our hearing process. (b)(1) At the request... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Protecting the safety of the public and...

  14. 20 CFR 404.937 - Protecting the safety of the public and our employees in our hearing process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Protecting the safety of the public and our employees in our hearing process. (a) Notwithstanding any other... section to ensure the safety of the public and our employees in our hearing process. (b)(1) At the request... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Protecting the safety of the public and...

  15. 20 CFR 416.1437 - Protecting the safety of the public and our employees in our hearing process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 416.1437 Protecting the safety of the public and our employees in our hearing process. (a... set out in this section to ensure the safety of the public and our employees in our hearing process... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Protecting the safety of the public and...

  16. 20 CFR 416.1437 - Protecting the safety of the public and our employees in our hearing process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 416.1437 Protecting the safety of the public and our employees in our hearing process. (a... set out in this section to ensure the safety of the public and our employees in our hearing process... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Protecting the safety of the public and...

  17. AN OUTLOOK OF NONTHERMAL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES AS FOOD SAFETY INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods should provide sensorial satisfaction and nutrition to people. Yet, foodborne pathogens cause significant illness and lose of life to human kind every year. A processing intervention step may be necessary prior to the consumption to ensure the safety of foods. Nonthermal processing technologi...

  18. Sustainability Indicators for Chemical Processes : II. Data Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to begin repair of the environmental quality of the planet, there is a need to embrace sustainable development at many levels of the chemical industry and society. One way that the chemical industry is responding to this need is through sustainability evaluations, retrof...

  19. Control and optimization system and method for chemical looping processes

    DOEpatents

    Lou, Xinsheng; Joshi, Abhinaya; Lei, Hao

    2015-02-17

    A control system for optimizing a chemical loop system includes one or more sensors for measuring one or more parameters in a chemical loop. The sensors are disposed on or in a conduit positioned in the chemical loop. The sensors generate one or more data signals representative of an amount of solids in the conduit. The control system includes a data acquisition system in communication with the sensors and a controller in communication with the data acquisition system. The data acquisition system receives the data signals and the controller generates the control signals. The controller is in communication with one or more valves positioned in the chemical loop. The valves are configured to regulate a flow of the solids through the chemical loop.

  20. Control and optimization system and method for chemical looping processes

    DOEpatents

    Lou, Xinsheng; Joshi, Abhinaya; Lei, Hao

    2014-06-24

    A control system for optimizing a chemical loop system includes one or more sensors for measuring one or more parameters in a chemical loop. The sensors are disposed on or in a conduit positioned in the chemical loop. The sensors generate one or more data signals representative of an amount of solids in the conduit. The control system includes a data acquisition system in communication with the sensors and a controller in communication with the data acquisition system. The data acquisition system receives the data signals and the controller generates the control signals. The controller is in communication with one or more valves positioned in the chemical loop. The valves are configured to regulate a flow of the solids through the chemical loop.

  1. Augmented evaluation of the false criticality alarm at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Office of Self-Assessment (DP-9), Defense Programs (DP) began to monitor a Criticality Alarm system (CAS) failure occurrence at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) shortly after January 11, 1992, when a false trip of the CAS in building CPP-601/602 caused a plant evacuation. Building CPP-601/602 contains the uranium fuel reprocessing denitration system, which was not operating at the time of the CAS failure occurrence. At that time DP-9 and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO), the Department of Energy (DOE) operating contractor, believed that this event may represent a potential generic safety concern for other DOE facilities. This false criticality alarm activation did not pose a significant danger to the health and safety of the public or to ICPP employees. Once the CAS was activated, the ICPP was evacuated per procedures. However, false CAS actuations are undesirable. The CAS system should be extremely reliable because of the dangers associated with criticality events and the potential for accidents and injuries resulting from prompt process termination and building evacuation. The Office of Self-Assessment then formed an Augmented Evaluation Team (AET) for an on-site diagnostic assessment of the CAS at ICPP. The AET's on-site evaluation process included briefings by ICPP management, discussions with pertinent technical supervisors and managers, an examination of relevant CAS documentation, physical examination of failed equipment, and a walk-through of the ICPP CAS. The AET judged that the most probable direct causes of the CAS failure were the heat induced failure of a low voltage power supply combined with the concurrent and/or prior failure of its back-up nickel cadium (NiCad) battery located in the CAS. The battery was not adequately maintained. These judgments are consistent with WINCO's analyses.

  2. Augmented evaluation of the false criticality alarm at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Office of Self-Assessment (DP-9), Defense Programs (DP) began to monitor a Criticality Alarm system (CAS) failure occurrence at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) shortly after January 11, 1992, when a false trip of the CAS in building CPP-601/602 caused a plant evacuation. Building CPP-601/602 contains the uranium fuel reprocessing denitration system, which was not operating at the time of the CAS failure occurrence. At that time DP-9 and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO), the Department of Energy (DOE) operating contractor, believed that this event may represent a potential generic safety concern for other DOE facilities. This false criticality alarm activation did not pose a significant danger to the health and safety of the public or to ICPP employees. Once the CAS was activated, the ICPP was evacuated per procedures. However, false CAS actuations are undesirable. The CAS system should be extremely reliable because of the dangers associated with criticality events and the potential for accidents and injuries resulting from prompt process termination and building evacuation. The Office of Self-Assessment then formed an Augmented Evaluation Team (AET) for an on-site diagnostic assessment of the CAS at ICPP. The AET`s on-site evaluation process included briefings by ICPP management, discussions with pertinent technical supervisors and managers, an examination of relevant CAS documentation, physical examination of failed equipment, and a walk-through of the ICPP CAS. The AET judged that the most probable direct causes of the CAS failure were the heat induced failure of a low voltage power supply combined with the concurrent and/or prior failure of its back-up nickel cadium (NiCad) battery located in the CAS. The battery was not adequately maintained. These judgments are consistent with WINCO`s analyses.

  3. Current concepts on integrative safety assessment of active substances of botanical, mineral or chemical origin in homeopathic medicinal products within the European regulatory framework.

    PubMed

    Buchholzer, Marie-Luise; Werner, Christine; Knoess, Werner

    2014-03-01

    For active substances of botanical, mineral or chemical origin processed in homeopathic medicinal products for human use, the adequate safety principles as with other human medicinal products are applied in line with the European regulatory framework. In homeopathy, nonclinical safety assessment is facing a particular challenge because of a multitude and diversity of source materials used and due to rarely available toxicological data. Thus, current concepts applied by the national regulatory authority in Germany (BfArM) on integrative safety assessment of raw materials used in homeopathic medicinal products involve several evaluation approaches like the use of the Lowest Human Recommended Dose (LHRD), toxicological limit values, Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC), data from food regulation or the consideration of unavoidable environmental or dietary background exposure. This publication is intended to further develop and clarify the practical use of these assessment routes by exemplary application on selected homeopathic preparations. In conclusion, the different approaches are considered a very useful scientific and simultaneously pragmatic procedure in differentiated risk assessment of homeopathic medicinal products. Overall, this paper aims to increase the visibility of the safety issues in homeopathy and to stimulate scientific discussion of worldwide existing regulatory concepts on homeopathic medicinal products. PMID:24384395

  4. In vitro Perturbations of Targets in Cancer Hallmark Processes Predict Rodent Chemical Carcinogenesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thousands of untested chemicals in the environment require efficient characterization of carcinogenic potential in humans. A proposed solution is rapid testing of chemicals using in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) assays for targets in pathways linked to disease processes ...

  5. Experimental investigation of Mars meandering rivers: Chemical precipitation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Lim, Y.; Cleveland, J.; Reid, E.; Jew, C.

    2014-12-01

    On Earth, meandering streams occur where the banks are resistant to erosion, which enhances narrow and deep channels. Often this is because the stream banks are held firm by vegetation. The ancient, highly sinuous channels with cutoffs found on Mars are enigmatic because vegetation played no role in providing bank cohesion and enhancing fine sediment deposition. Possible causes of the meandering therefore include ice under permafrost conditions and chemical processes. We conducted carbonate flume experiments to investigate possible mechanisms creating meandering channels other than vegetation. The experiment includes a tank that dissolves limestone by adding CO2 gas and produces artificial spring water, peristaltic pumps to drive water through the system, a heater to control the temperature of the spring water, and a flume where carbonate sediment deposits. Spring water containing dissolved calcium and carbonate ions moves through a heater to increase temperature, and then into the flume. The flume surface is open to the air to allow CO2 degassing, decrease temperature, and increase pH, which promotes carbonate precipitation. A preliminary experiment was done and successfully created a meander pattern that evolved over a 3-day experiment. The experiment showed lateral migration of the bend and avulsion of the stream, similar to a natural meander. The lateral variation in flow speed increased the local residence time of water, thus increasing the degassing of CO2 on the two sides of the flow and promoting more precipitation. This enhanced precipitation on the sides provided a mechanism to build levees along the channel and created a stream confined in a narrow path. This mechanism also potentially applies to Earthly single thread and/or meandering rivers developed and recorded before vegetation appeared on Earth's surface.

  6. National toxicology program chemical nomination and selection process

    SciTech Connect

    Selkirk, J.K.

    1990-12-31

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) was organized to support national public health programs by initiating research designed to understand the physiological, metabolic, and genetic basis for chemical toxicity. The primary mandated responsibilities of NTP were in vivo and vitro toxicity testing of potentially hazardous chemicals; broadening the spectrum of toxicological information on known hazardous chemicals; validating current toxicological assay systems as well as developing new and innovative toxicity testing technology; and rapidly communicating test results to government agencies with regulatory responsibilities and to the medical and scientific communities. 2 figs.

  7. The role of chemical oxidation in combined chemical-physical and biological processes: experiences of industrial wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Bertanza, G; Collivignarelli, C; Pedrazzani, R

    2001-01-01

    In this work, some experiences are described concerning the application of chemical oxidation in the treatment of industrial wastewaters in combination with other chemical-physical and/or biological processes. In the first case, two different wastewaters from saturated and unsaturated polyester resin production were considered. In a second case, optimal process conditions were assessed for the treatment of a wastewater deriving from polystyrene production. A third experience dealt with a comparison among different processes (flocculation, Fenton process, ozonisation, oxidation by means of ozone and hydrogen peroxide, oxidation by means of hydrogen peroxide and UV radiation), for the pretreatment of two industrial wastewaters (the first one being produced in a textile factory, the second one coming from detergent manufacturing). The evaluation of different processes was carried out by means of laboratory scale tests, considering treatment efficiency (organic substance removal, changes in wastewater biodegradability) and parameters (chemicals and energy consumption, sludge production) which play an important role in cost determination. PMID:11695447

  8. Measurement tools and process indicators of patient safety culture in primary care. A mixed methods study by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dianne; Wensing, Michel; Esmail, Aneez; Valderas, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: There is little guidance available to healthcare practitioners about what tools they might use to assess the patient safety culture. Objective: To identify useful tools for assessing patient safety culture in primary care organizations in Europe; to identify those aspects of performance that should be assessed when investigating the relationship between safety culture and performance in primary care. Methods: Two consensus-based studies were carried out, in which subject matter experts and primary healthcare professionals from several EU states rated (a) the applicability to their healthcare system of several existing safety culture assessment tools and (b) the appropriateness and usefulness of a range of potential indicators of a positive patient safety culture to primary care settings. The safety culture tools were field-tested in four countries to ascertain any challenges and issues arising when used in primary care. Results: The two existing tools that received the most favourable ratings were the Manchester patient safety framework (MaPsAF primary care version) and the Agency for healthcare research and quality survey (medical office version). Several potential safety culture process indicators were identified. The one that emerged as offering the best combination of appropriateness and usefulness related to the collection of data on adverse patient events. Conclusion: Two tools, one quantitative and one qualitative, were identified as applicable and useful in assessing patient safety culture in primary care settings in Europe. Safety culture indicators in primary care should focus on the processes rather than the outcomes of care. PMID:26339832

  9. Data requirements for the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue developed through the data quality objectives process

    SciTech Connect

    Meacham, J.E.; Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Babad, H.; Buck, J.W.; Anderson, C.M.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Toth, J.J.; Turner, P.J.

    1994-08-01

    This document records the data quality objectives (DQO) process applied to the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue at the Hanford Site. Specifically, the major recommendations and findings from this Ferrocyanide DQO process are presented. The decision logic diagrams and decision error tolerances also are provided. The document includes the DQO sample-size formulas for determining specific tank sampling requirements, and many of the justifications for decision thresholds and decision error tolerances are briefly described. More detailed descriptions are presented in other Ferrocyanide Safety Program companion documents referenced in this report. This is a living document, and the assumptions contained within will be refined as more data from sampling and characterization become available.

  10. Criticality safety of project W-151, 241-AZ-101 retrieval system process test

    SciTech Connect

    Vail, T.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-16

    This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) documents a review of the criticality safety implications of a process test to be performed in tank 241-AZ-101 (101-AZ). The process test will determine the effectiveness of the retrieval system for mobilization of solids and the practicality of the system for future use in the underground storage tanks at Hanford. The scope of the CSER extends only to the testing and operation of the mixer pumps and does not include the transfer of waste from the tank. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality is extremely unlikely, if not impossible, in this tank.

  11. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Advanced Firemanship: How to Teach Your Audience a Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, Martin J.

    1984-01-01

    Provides tips to assist in preparing a training program designed to show that: (1) fire is dangerous; (2) ordinary individuals can neither understand fire nor extinguish it; and (3) a fire safety officer can do both. (JN)

  12. Laser studies of chemical reaction and collision processes

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, G.

    1993-12-01

    This work has concentrated on several interrelated projects in the area of laser photochemistry and photophysics which impinge on a variety of questions in combustion chemistry and general chemical kinetics. Infrared diode laser probes of the quenching of molecules with {open_quotes}chemically significant{close_quotes} amounts of energy in which the energy transferred to the quencher has, for the first time, been separated into its vibrational, rotational, and translational components. Probes of quantum state distributions and velocity profiles for atomic fragments produced in photodissociation reactions have been explored for iodine chloride.

  13. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  14. Chemical effects head-loss research in support of generic safety issue 191.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J. H.; Kasza, K.; Fisher, B.; Oras, J.; Natesan, K.; Shack, W. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-10-31

    This summary report describes studies conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on the potential for chemical effects on head loss across sump screens. Three different buffering solutions were used for these tests: trisodium phosphate (TSP), sodium hydroxide, and sodium tetraborate. These pH control agents used following a LOCA at a nuclear power plant show various degrees of interaction with the insulating materials Cal-Sil and NUKON. Results for Cal-Sil dissolution tests in TSP solutions, settling rate tests of calcium phosphate precipitates, and benchmark tests in chemically inactive environments are also presented. The dissolution tests were intended to identify important environmental variables governing both calcium dissolution and subsequent calcium phosphate formation over a range of simulated sump pool conditions. The results from the dissolution testing were used to inform both the head loss and settling test series. The objective of the head loss tests was to assess the head loss produced by debris beds created by Cal-Sil, fibrous debris, and calcium phosphate precipitates. The effects of both the relative arrival time of the precipitates and insulation debris and the calcium phosphate formation process were specifically evaluated. The debris loadings, test loop flow rates, and test temperature were chosen to be reasonably representative of those expected in plants with updated sump screen configurations, although the approach velocity of 0.1 ft/s used for most of the tests is 3-10 times that expected in plants with large screens . Other variables were selected with the intent to reasonably bound the head loss variability due to arrival time and calcium phosphate formation uncertainty. Settling tests were conducted to measure the settling rates of calcium phosphate precipitates (formed by adding dissolved Ca to boric acid and TSP solutions) in water columns having no bulk directional flow. For PWRs where NaOH and sodium tetraborate are used to control sump pH and fiberglass insulation is prevalent, relatively high concentrations of soluble aluminum can be expected. Tests in which the dissolved aluminum (Al) resulted from aluminum nitrate additions were used to investigate potential chemical effects that may lead to high head loss. Dissolved Al concentrations of 100 ppm were shown to lead to large pressure drops for the screen area to sump volume ratio and fiber debris bed studied. No chemical effects on head loss were observed in sodium tetraborate buffered solutions even for environments with high ratios of submerged Al area to sump volume. However, in tests with much higher concentrations of dissolved Al than expected in plants, large pressure drops did occur. Interaction with NUKON/Cal-Sil debris mixtures produced much lower head losses than observed in corresponding tests with TSP, although tests were not performed over the full range of Cal-Sil that might be of interest.

  15. An Analysis of Trainers' Perspectives within an Ecological Framework: Factors that Influence Mine Safety Training Processes

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Emily J.; Hoebbel, Cassandra L.; Rost, Kristen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Satisfactory completion of mine safety training is a prerequisite for being hired and for continued employment in the coal industry. Although training includes content to develop skills in a variety of mineworker competencies, research and recommendations continue to specify that specific limitations in the self-escape portion of training still exist and that mineworkers need to be better prepared to respond to emergencies that could occur in their mine. Ecological models are often used to inform the development of health promotion programs but have not been widely applied to occupational health and safety training programs. Methods Nine mine safety trainers participated in in-depth semi-structured interviews. A theoretical analysis of the interviews was completed via an ecological lens. Each level of the social ecological model was used to examine factors that could be addressed both during and after mine safety training. Results The analysis suggests that problems surrounding communication and collaboration, leadership development, and responsibility and accountability at different levels within the mining industry contribute to deficiencies in mineworkers' mastery and maintenance of skills. Conclusion This study offers a new technique to identify limitations in safety training systems and processes. The analysis suggests that training should be developed and disseminated with consideration of various levels—individual, interpersonal, organizational, and community—to promote skills. If factors identified within and between levels are addressed, it may be easier to sustain mineworker competencies that are established during safety training. PMID:25379324

  16. Safety Assessment and Biological Effects of a New Cold Processed SilEmulsion for Dermatological Purpose

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Ana; Gonçalves, Lídia; Pinto, Pedro C.; Urbano, Manuela; Ribeiro, Helena M.

    2013-01-01

    It is of crucial importance to evaluate the safety profile of the ingredients used in dermatological emulsions. A suitable equilibrium between safety and efficacy is a pivotal concern before the marketing of a dermatological product. The aim was to assess the safety and biological effects of a new cold processed silicone-based emulsion (SilEmulsion). The hazard, exposure, and dose-response assessment were used to characterize the risk for each ingredient. EpiSkin assay and human repeat insult patch tests were performed to compare the theoretical safety assessment to in vitro and in vivo data. The efficacy of the SilEmulsion was studied using biophysical measurements in human volunteers during 21 days. According to the safety assessment of the ingredients, 1,5-pentanediol was an ingredient of special concern since its margin of safety was below the threshold of 100 (36.53). EpiSkin assay showed that the tissue viability after the application of the SilEmulsion was 92 ± 6% and, thus considered nonirritant to the skin. The human studies confirmed that the SilEmulsion was not a skin irritant and did not induce any sensitization on the volunteers, being safe for human use. Moreover, biological effects demonstrated that the SilEmulsion increased both the skin hydration and skin surface lipids. PMID:24294598

  17. Dynamic Processes of Conceptual Change: Analysis of Constructing Mental Models of Chemical Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Mei-Hung; Chou, Chin-Cheng; Liu, Chia-Ju

    2002-01-01

    Investigates students' mental models of chemical equilibrium using dynamic science assessments. Reports that students at various levels have misconceptions about chemical equilibrium. Involves 10th grade students (n=30) in the study doing a series of hands-on chemical experiments. Focuses on the process of constructing mental models, dynamic…

  18. Corrosion Resistance of Various High Chromium Alloys in Simulated Chemical Processing Nuclear Plant Waste Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.A.; Agarwal, D.C.

    1997-12-31

    High chromium nickel alloys were tested at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) to determine their corrosion performance in the high temperature aggressive chemical environments of liquid waste evaporators used in the chemical reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels. The results of these tests, which included a variety of base metal alloys I weld filler material combinations, are presented and discussed.

  19. WATER AS A REACTION MEDIUM FOR CLEAN CHEMICAL PROCESSES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green chemistry is a rapid developing new field that provides us a pro-active avenue for the sustainable development of future science and technologies. When designed properly, clean chemical technology can be developed in water as a reaction media. The technologies generated f...

  20. The Chemistry of Lightsticks: Demonstrations to Illustrate Chemical Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntzleman, Thomas Scott; Rohrer, Kristen; Schultz, Emeric

    2012-01-01

    Lightsticks, or glowsticks as they are sometimes called, are perhaps the chemist's quintessential toy. Because they are easy to activate and appealing to observe, experimenting with lightsticks provides a great way to get young people interested in science. Thus, we have used lightsticks to teach chemical concepts in a variety of outreach settings

  1. The Chemistry of Lightsticks: Demonstrations to Illustrate Chemical Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntzleman, Thomas Scott; Rohrer, Kristen; Schultz, Emeric

    2012-01-01

    Lightsticks, or glowsticks as they are sometimes called, are perhaps the chemist's quintessential toy. Because they are easy to activate and appealing to observe, experimenting with lightsticks provides a great way to get young people interested in science. Thus, we have used lightsticks to teach chemical concepts in a variety of outreach settings…

  2. Chemical Changes in Lipids Produced by Thermal Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nawar, Wassef W.

    1984-01-01

    Describes heat effects on lipids, indicating that the chemical and physical changes that occur depend on the lipid's composition and conditions of treatment. Thermolytic and oxidation reactions, thermal/oxidative interaction of lipids with other food components and the chemistry of frying are considered. (JN)

  3. Helping Students Develop a Critical Attitude towards Chemical Process Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Nevers, Noel; Seader, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of computer-assisted programs that allow chemical engineering students to study textbook thermodynamics problems from different perspectives, including the classical graphical method, while utilizing more than one property correlation and/or operation model so that comparisons can be made and sensitivities determined more…

  4. Chemical and Physical Properties, Safety and Application of Partially Hydrolized Guar Gum as Dietary Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seon-Joo; Chu, Djong-Chi; Raj Juneja, Lekh

    2008-01-01

    The ideal water-soluble dietary fiber for the fiber-enrichment of foods must be very low in viscosity, tasteless, odorless, and should produce clear solutions in beverages. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) produced from guar gum by enzymatic process has the same chemical structure with intact guar gum but less than one-tenth the original molecular length of guar gum, which make available to be used as film former, foam stabilizer and swelling agent. The viscosity of PHGG is about 10 mPa·s in 5% aqueous solution, whereas 1% solution of guar gum shows range from 2,000 to 3,000 mPa·s. In addition, PHGG is greatly stable against low pH, heat, acid and digestive enzyme. For these reasons, PHGG seems to be one of the most beneficial dietary fiber materials. It also showed that interesting physiological functions still fully exert the nutritional function of a dietary fiber. PHGG has, therefore, been used primarily for a nutritional purpose and became fully integrated food material without altering the rheology, taste, texture and color of final products. PHGG named as Benefiber® in USA has self-affirmation on GRAS status of standard grade PHGG. PHGG named as Sunfiber® is now being used in various beverages, food products and medicinal foods as a safe, natural and functional dietary fiber in all over the world. PMID:18231623

  5. Enhancing Credibility of Chemical Safety Studies: Emerging Consensus on Key Assessment Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, James W.; Becker, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We examined the extent to which consensus exists on the criteria that should be used for assessing the credibility of a scientific work, regardless of its funding source, and explored how these criteria might be implemented. Data sources Three publications, all presented at a session of the 2009 annual meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, have proposed a range of criteria for evaluating the credibility of scientific studies. At least two other similar sets of criteria have recently been proposed elsewhere. Data extraction/synthesis In this article we review these criteria, highlight the commonalities among them, and integrate them into a list of 10 criteria. We also discuss issues inherent in any attempt to implement the criteria systematically. Conclusions Recommendations by many scientists and policy experts converge on a finite list of criteria for assessing the credibility of a scientific study without regard to funding source. These criteria should be formalized through a consensus process or a governmental initiative that includes discussion and pilot application of a system for reproducibly implementing them. Formal establishment of such a system should enable the debate regarding chemical studies to move beyond funding issues and focus on scientific merit. PMID:21163723

  6. Education Department Begins Process to Implement HEA Reauthorization with New Campus Safety Provisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education has announced the beginning of the process to develop rules for new requirements in the recently passed Higher Education Act (HEA). Highlights of the HEA that affect campus public safety departments include measures that: (1) Require a fire log be maintained at an institution of higher education for events that

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of an Aviation Safety Thesaurus' Utility for Enhancing Automated Processing of Incident Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrientos, Francesca; Castle, Joseph; McIntosh, Dawn; Srivastava, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    This document presents a preliminary evaluation the utility of the FAA Safety Analytics Thesaurus (SAT) utility in enhancing automated document processing applications under development at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). Current development efforts at ARC are described, including overviews of the statistical machine learning techniques that have been investigated. An analysis of opportunities for applying thesaurus knowledge to improving algorithm performance is then presented.

  8. [Comparative analysis of ecologic safety in major oil processing enterprise, using criteria of public health risks].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Comparative analysis covered ecologic safety of production branches in major oil processing enterprise. According to health risk criteria, maximal jeopardy levels appear to be connected with respiratory diseases caused by fuel components, deep oil refining complex and biologic treatment facilities. PMID:22288181

  9. Infrared Heating for Improved Safety and Processing Efficiency of Dry-Roasted Almonds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of infrared (IR) heating technology was investigated for improving safety and processing efficiency of dry-roasted almonds. Almonds were roasted at 130, 140 and 150°C with three different methods: IR heating, sequential infrared and hot air (SIRHA) heating, and traditional hot air (HA) heat...

  10. SOUS-VIDE PROCESSED FOODS: SAFETY HAZARDS AND CONTROL OF MICROBIAL RISKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns have been expressed about the public-health risks associated with sous-vide processed foods because the mild heat treatment applied to such foods to retain the organoleptic attributes may not be adequate to ensure proper destruction of pathogenic and spoilage organisms. The safety of sous-v...

  11. 78 FR 56268 - Pipeline Safety: Public Workshop on Integrity Verification Process, Comment Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... the Federal Register published April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Cameron... the Federal Register a notice (78 FR 32010) to solicit comments and announce a public workshop... Verification Process, Comment Extension AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration,...

  12. TREATMENT TANK CORROSION STUDIES FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-08-24

    Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than in the PUREX/oxalic acid environment. (3) The corrosion rates for PUREX/8 wt.% oxalic acid were greater than or equal to those observed for the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid. No localized corrosion was observed in the tests with the 8 wt.% oxalic acid. Testing with HM/8 wt.% oxalic acid simulant was not performed. Thus, a comparison with the results with 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid, where the corrosion rate was 88 mpy and localized corrosion was observed at 75 C, cannot be made. (4) The corrosion rates in 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid solutions were temperature dependent: (a) At 50 C, the corrosion rates ranged between 90 to 140 mpy over the 30 day test period. The corrosion rates were higher under stagnant conditions. (b) At 75 C, the initial corrosion rates were as high as 300 mpy during the first day of exposure. The corrosion rates increased with agitation. However, once the passive ferrous oxalate film formed, the corrosion rate decreased dramatically to less than 20 mpy over the 30 day test period. This rate was independent of agitation. (5) Electrochemical testing indicated that for oxalic acid/sludge simulant mixtures the cathodic reaction has transport controlled reaction kinetics. The literature suggests that the dissolution of the sludge produces a di-oxalatoferrate ion that is reduced at the cathodic sites. The cathodic reaction does not appear to involve hydrogen evolution. On the other hand, electrochemical tests demonstrated that the cathodic reaction for corrosion of carbon steel in pure oxalic acid involves hydrogen evolution. (6) Agitation of the oxalic acid/sludge simulant mixtures typically resulted in a higher corrosion rates for both acid concentrations. The transport of the ferrous ion away from the metal surface results in a less protective ferrous oxalate film. (7) A mercury containing species along with aluminum, silicon and iron oxides was observed on the interior of the pits formed in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant at 75 C. The pitting rates in the agitated and non-agitated solution were 2 mils/day and 1 mil/day, respectively. A mechanism by which the mercury interacts with the aluminum and silicon oxides in this simulant to accelerate corrosion was proposed.

  13. PARTITIONING OF GADOLINIUM IN THE CHEMICAL PROCESSING CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S.; Best, D.; Stone, M.; Click, D.

    2011-04-27

    A combination of short-term beaker tests and longer-duration Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) simulations were performed to investigate the relative partitioning behaviors of gadolinium and iron under conditions applicable to the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The testing was performed utilizing non-radioactive simple Fe-Gd slurries, non-radioactive Sludge Batch 6 simulant slurries, and a radioactive real-waste slurry representative of Sludge Batch 7 material. The testing focused on the following range of conditions: (a) Fe:Gd ratios of 25-100; (b) pH values of 2-6; (c) acidification via addition of nitric, formic, and glycolic acids; (d) temperatures of {approx}93 C and {approx}22 C; and (e) oxalate concentrations of <100 mg/kg and {approx}10,000 mg/kg. The purpose of the testing was to provide data for assessing the potential use of gadolinium as a supplemental neutron poison when dispositioning excess plutonium. Understanding of the partitioning behavior of gadolinium in the CPC was the first step in assessing gadolinium's potential applicability. Significant fractions of gadolinium partitioned to the liquid-phase at pH values of 4.0 and below, regardless of the Fe:Gd ratio. In SRAT simulations targeting nitric and formic acid additions of 150% acid stoichiometry, the pH dropped to a minimum of 3.5-4.0, and the maximum fractions of gadolinium and iron partitioning to solution were both {approx}20%. In contrast, in a SRAT simulation utilizing a nitric and formic acid addition under atypical conditions (due to an anomalously low insoluble solids content), the pH dropped to a minimum of 3.7, and the maximum fractions of gadolinium and iron partitioning to solution were {approx}60% and {approx}70%, respectively. When glycolic acid was used in combination with nitric and formic acids at 100% acid stoichiometry, the pH dropped to a minimum of 3.6-4.0, and the maximum fractions of gadolinium and iron partitioning to solution were 60-80% and 3-5%, respectively. Thus, the presence of glycolic acid increased dissolution of gadolinium, but decreased dissolution of iron. In beaker tests, the fractions of gadolinium partitioning to solution were all less than the minimum detection limits at pH 6, on the order of a few percent at pH 4, and ranging from 70-90% at pH 2. In contrast, the fractions of iron partitioning to solution were all less than the minimum detection limits at pH 6, {le} 0.04% at pH 4, and {le} 0.9% at pH 2. A possible explanation for the small magnitude of these fractions (as compared to the fractions observed in the SRAT simulations) was incomplete equilibrium, due to the short duration (30 minutes) of the beaker tests. As demonstrated by the SRAT simulations, the typical partitioning equilibration time was on the order of hours. The Fe:Gd ratio appeared to impact the extent of liquid-phase conditions under certain conditions, although the exact relationship was not clear. Temperature impacts on the liquid-phase gadolinium concentrations were modest, with liquid phase concentrations typically increasing about 25% as temperatures rose from {approx}22 C to {approx}93 C. The presence of high concentrations of oxalate did not appear to change the liquid-phase gadolinium concentrations - however, it did increase the liquid-phase iron concentrations (from being undetectable to being detectable but still minor). Additional gadolinium partitioning testing is recommended. Of greatest usefulness will be SRAT simulations focusing on a wider range of acid addition scenarios and alternate sludge compositions, particularly those specific to future sludge batches where addition of excess plutonium is being considered.

  14. The effects of physical environments in medical wards on medication communication processes affecting patient safety.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie

    2014-03-01

    Physical environments of clinical settings play an important role in health communication processes. Effective medication management requires seamless communication among health professionals of different disciplines. This paper explores how physical environments affect communication processes for managing medications and patient safety in acute care hospital settings. Findings highlighted the impact of environmental interruptions on communication processes about medications. In response to frequent interruptions and limited space within working environments, nurses, doctors and pharmacists developed adaptive practices in the local clinical context. Communication difficulties were associated with the ward physical layout, the controlled drug key and the medication retrieving device. Health professionals should be provided with opportunities to discuss the effects of ward environments on medication communication processes and how this impacts medication safety. Hospital administrators and architects need to consider health professionals' views and experiences when designing hospital spaces. PMID:24486620

  15. Indicators and Metrics for Evaluating the Sustainability of Chemical Processes

    EPA Science Inventory

    A metric-based method, called GREENSCOPE, has been developed for evaluating process sustainability. Using lab-scale information and engineering assumptions the method evaluates full-scale epresentations of processes in environmental, efficiency, energy and economic areas. The m...

  16. Data requirements for the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue developed through the data quality objectives process. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Meacham, J.E.; Cash, R.J.

    1995-04-28

    This document provides the requirements for obtaining tank characterization information to support resolution of the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue at the Hanford Site by applying the data quality objectives (DQO) process. A strategy describing the overall approach to safe storage and disposal of the waste in the ferrocyanide tanks identifies the problems and decisions that require characterization data. The DQO process is applied to each decision or group of related decisions to specify data requirements.

  17. Enhancing patient safety: improving the patient handoff process through appreciative inquiry.

    PubMed

    Shendell-Falik, Nancy; Feinson, Michael; Mohr, Bernard J

    2007-02-01

    Patient transfers from one care giver to another are an area of high safety consequence, as is evident by many studies and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization's Patient Safety Goals. The authors describe how one hospital made measurable improvements in a patient handoff process by using an unconventional approach to change called appreciative inquiry. Rather than identifying the root causes of ineffective handoffs, appreciative inquiry was used to engage staff in identifying and building on their most effective handoff experiences. PMID:17273030

  18. Health hazard control in the chemical process industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lipton, S.; Lynch, J.

    1987-01-01

    This book is intended to be a comprehensive summary of current technology for control of toxic hazards in chemical plants, brought together from government agencies and private industry. The nine chapters range from Occupational Health Hazards to Drains, Sewers, and Wastewater Emissions (is the last term perhaps a euphemism for leaks ). The references at the end of each chapter include many government reports and publications that would otherwise be difficult to identify.

  19. Improved understanding of weed biological control safety and impact with chemical ecology: a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We review chemical ecology literature as it relates to weed biological control and discuss how this means of controlling invasive plants could be enhanced by the consideration of several well established research developments. The interface between chemical ecology and weed biological control presen...

  20. Research on chemical vapor deposition processes for advanced ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Daniel E.

    1993-01-01

    Our interdisciplinary background and fundamentally-oriented studies of the laws governing multi-component chemical vapor deposition (VD), particle deposition (PD), and their interactions, put the Yale University HTCRE Laboratory in a unique position to significantly advance the 'state-of-the-art' of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) R&D. With NASA-Lewis RC financial support, we initiated a program in March of 1988 that has led to the advances described in this report (Section 2) in predicting chemical vapor transport in high temperature systems relevant to the fabrication of refractory ceramic coatings for turbine engine components. This Final Report covers our principal results and activities for the total NASA grant of $190,000. over the 4.67 year period: 1 March 1988-1 November 1992. Since our methods and the technical details are contained in the publications listed (9 Abstracts are given as Appendices) our emphasis here is on broad conclusions/implications and administrative data, including personnel, talks, interactions with industry, and some known applications of our work.

  1. CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID BED FOR SOX CONTROL. VOLUME I. PROCESS EVALUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes selected process evaluation studies supporting the development of an atmospheric-pressure, fluidized-bed, chemically active gasification process, using a regenerative limestone sulfur sorbent to produce low- to intermediate-Btu fuel gas. Limestone sorbent sel...

  2. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM TO ENHANCE AND ENCOURAGE SUSTAINABLE CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an opportunity to minimize the potential environmental impacts (PEIs) of industrial chemical processes by providing process designers with timely data nad models elucidating environmentally favorable design options. The second generation of the Waste Reduction (WAR) algo...

  3. IMPROVING THE ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES THROUGH THE USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts are currently underway at the USEPA to develop information technology applications to improve the environmental performance of the chemical process industry. These efforts include the use of genetic algorithms to optimize different process options for minimal environmenta...

  4. Applications of Neutron Scattering in the Chemical Industry: Proton Dynamics of Highly Dispersed Materials, Characterization of Fuel Cell Catalysts, and Catalysts from Large-Scale Chemical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Peter W.; Parker, Stewart F.

    The attractiveness of neutron scattering techniques for the detailed characterization of materials of high degrees of dispersity and structural complexity as encountered in the chemical industry is discussed. Neutron scattering picks up where other analytical methods leave off because of the physico-chemical properties of finely divided products and materials whose absorption behavior toward electromagnetic radiation and electrical conductivity causes serious problems. This is demonstrated by presenting typical applications from large-scale production technology and industrial catalysis. These include the determination of the proton-related surface chemistry of advanced materials that are used as reinforcing fillers in the manufacture of tires, where interrelations between surface chemistry, rheological properties, improved safety, and significant reduction of fuel consumption are the focus of recent developments. Neutron scattering allows surface science studies of the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on nanodispersed, supported precious metal particles of fuel cell catalysts under in situ loading at realistic gas pressures of about 1 bar. Insight into the occupation of catalytically relevant surface sites provides valuable information about the catalyst in the working state and supplies essential scientific input for tailoring better catalysts by technologists. The impact of deactivation phenomena on industrial catalysts by coke deposition, chemical transformation of carbonaceous deposits, and other processes in catalytic hydrogenation processes that result in significant shortening of the time of useful operation in large-scale plants can often be traced back in detail to surface or bulk properties of catalysts or materials of catalytic relevance. A better understanding of avoidable or unavoidable aspects of catalyst deactivation phenomena under certain in-process conditions and the development of effective means for reducing deactivation leads to more energy-efficient and, therefore, environmentally friendly processes and helps to save valuable resources. Even small or gradual improvements in all these fields are of considerable economic impact.

  5. Comprehensive Mass Analysis for Chemical Processes, a Case Study on L-Dopa Manufacture

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate the greenness of chemical processes in route selection and process development, we propose a comprehensive mass analysis to inform the stakeholders from different fields. This is carried out by characterizing the mass intensity for each contributing chemical or wast...

  6. Comprehensive Mass Analysis for Chemical Processes, a Case Study on L-Dopa Manufacture

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate the “greenness” of chemical processes in route selection and process development, we propose a comprehensive mass analysis to inform the stakeholders from different fields. This is carried out by characterizing the mass intensity for each contributing chemical or wast...

  7. Using a Readily Available Commercial Spreadsheet to Teach a Graduate Course on Chemical Process Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Matthew A.; Giraldo, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Chemical process simulation is one of the most fundamental skills that is expected from chemical engineers, yet relatively few graduates have the opportunity to learn, in depth, how a process simulator works, from programming the unit operations to the sequencing. The University of Calgary offers a "hands-on" postgraduate course in Chemical…

  8. Cost-Efficient Methods and Processes for Safety Relevant Embedded Systems (CESAR) - An Objective Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliffe, Graham

    For developing embedded safety critical systems, industrial companies have to face increasing complexity and variety coupled with increasing regulatory constraints, while costs, performances and time to market are constantly challenged. This has led to a profusion of enablers (new processes, methods and tools), which are neither integrated nor interoperable because they have been developed more or less independently (addressing only a part of the complexity: e.g. Safety) in the absence of internationally recognized open standards. CESAR has been established under ARTEMIS, the European Union's Joint Technology Initiative for research in embedded systems, with the aim to improve this situation and this pa-per will explain what CESAR's objectives are, how they are expected to be achieved and, in particular, how current best practice can ensure that safety engineering requirements can be met.

  9. Development of a security vulnerability assessment process for the RAMCAP chemical sector.

    PubMed

    Moore, David A; Fuller, Brad; Hazzan, Michael; Jones, J William

    2007-04-11

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Directorate of Information Analysis & Infrastructure Protection (IAIP), Protective Services Division (PSD), contracted the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Innovative Technologies Institute, LLC (ASME ITI, LLC) to develop guidance on Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection (RAMCAP). AcuTech Consulting Group (AcuTech) has been contracted by ASME ITI, LLC, to provide assistance by facilitating the development of sector-specific guidance on vulnerability analysis and management for critical asset protection for the chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) sectors. This activity involves two key tasks for these three sectors: Development of a screening to supplement DHS understanding of the assets that are important to protect against terrorist attack and to prioritize the activities. Development of a standard security vulnerability analysis (SVA) framework for the analysis of consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats. This project involves the cooperative effort of numerous leading industrial companies, industry trade associations, professional societies, and security and safety consultants representative of those sectors. Since RAMCAP is a voluntary program for ongoing risk management for homeland security, sector coordinating councils are being asked to assist in communicating the goals of the program and in encouraging participation. The RAMCAP project will have a profound and positive impact on all sectors as it is fully developed, rolled-out and implemented. It will help define the facilities and operations of national and regional interest for the threat of terrorism, define standardized methods for analyzing consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats, and describe best security practices of the industry. This paper will describe the results of the security vulnerability analysis process that was developed and field tested for the chemical manufacturing sector. This method was developed through the cooperation of the many organizations and the individuals involved from the chemical sector RAMCAP development activities. The RAMCAP SVA method is intended to provide a common basis for making vulnerability assessments and risk-based decisions for homeland security. Mr. Moore serves as the coordinator for the chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and LNG sectors for the RAMCAP project and Dr. Jones is the chief technology officer for ASME-ITI, LLC for RAMCAP. PMID:16920260

  10. Quality and safety attributes of afghan raisins before and after processing

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Stacy; Chang, Jun Won; McNamara, Kevin T; Oliver, Haley F; Deering, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Raisins are an important export commodity for Afghanistan; however, Afghan packers are unable to export to markets seeking high-quality products due to limited knowledge regarding their quality and safety. To evaluate this, Afghan raisin samples from pre-, semi-, and postprocessed raisins were obtained from a raisin packer in Kabul, Afghanistan. The raisins were analyzed and compared to U.S. standards for processed raisins. The samples tested did not meet U.S. industry standards for embedded sand and pieces of stem, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity. The Afghan raisins did meet or exceed U.S. Grade A standard for the number of cap-stems, percent damaged, crystallization levels, moisture content, and color. Following processing, the number of total aerobic bacteria, yeasts, molds, and total coliforms were within the acceptable limits. Although quality issues are present in the Afghan raisins, the process used to clean the raisins is suitable to maintain food safety standards. PMID:25650241

  11. Quality and safety attributes of afghan raisins before and after processing.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Stacy; Chang, Jun Won; McNamara, Kevin T; Oliver, Haley F; Deering, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Raisins are an important export commodity for Afghanistan; however, Afghan packers are unable to export to markets seeking high-quality products due to limited knowledge regarding their quality and safety. To evaluate this, Afghan raisin samples from pre-, semi-, and postprocessed raisins were obtained from a raisin packer in Kabul, Afghanistan. The raisins were analyzed and compared to U.S. standards for processed raisins. The samples tested did not meet U.S. industry standards for embedded sand and pieces of stem, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity. The Afghan raisins did meet or exceed U.S. Grade A standard for the number of cap-stems, percent damaged, crystallization levels, moisture content, and color. Following processing, the number of total aerobic bacteria, yeasts, molds, and total coliforms were within the acceptable limits. Although quality issues are present in the Afghan raisins, the process used to clean the raisins is suitable to maintain food safety standards. PMID:25650241

  12. Certification process of safety analysis and risk management computer codes at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ades, M.J. ); Toffer, H.; Lewis, C.J.; Crowe, R.D. )

    1992-01-01

    The commitment by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) to bring safety analysis and risk management codes into compliance with national and sitewide quality assurance requirements necessitated a systematic, structured approach. As a part of this effort, WSRC, in cooperation with the Westinghouse Hanford Company, has developed and implemented a certification process for the development and control of computer software. Safety analysis and risk management computer codes pertinent to reactor analyses were selected for inclusion in the certification process. As a first step, documented plans were developed for implementing verification and validation of the codes, and establishing configuration control. User qualification guidelines were determined. The plans were followed with an extensive assessment of the codes with respect to certification status. Detailed schedules and work plans were thus determined for completing certification of the codes considered. Although the software certification process discussed is specific to the application described, it is sufficiently general to provide useful insights and guidance for certification of other software.

  13. Certification process of safety analysis and risk management computer codes at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ades, M.J.; Toffer, H.; Lewis, C.J.; Crowe, R.D.

    1992-05-01

    The commitment by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) to bring safety analysis and risk management codes into compliance with national and sitewide quality assurance requirements necessitated a systematic, structured approach. As a part of this effort, WSRC, in cooperation with the Westinghouse Hanford Company, has developed and implemented a certification process for the development and control of computer software. Safety analysis and risk management computer codes pertinent to reactor analyses were selected for inclusion in the certification process. As a first step, documented plans were developed for implementing verification and validation of the codes, and establishing configuration control. User qualification guidelines were determined. The plans were followed with an extensive assessment of the codes with respect to certification status. Detailed schedules and work plans were thus determined for completing certification of the codes considered. Although the software certification process discussed is specific to the application described, it is sufficiently general to provide useful insights and guidance for certification of other software.

  14. Chemical and microbiological characterization of alheira: A typical Portuguese fermented sausage with particular reference to factors relating to food safety.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vânia; Barbosa, Joana; Vendeiro, Sandra; Mota, Ana; Silva, Fátima; Monteiro, Maria João; Hogg, Tim; Gibbs, Paul; Teixeira, Paula

    2006-08-01

    Alheiras are traditional smoked naturally fermented meat sausages produced in the north of Portugal. They have not previously been characterized as to their chemical and microbiological status. pH and salt levels are insufficient to assure microbiological safety, there is ample opportunity for post-cooking contamination; the products require chill storage and cooking before consumption. Heavy metals and biogenic amines were, in general, within accepted limits for meat products. Lactic acid bacteria comprised the major microflora (ca. 7-8logcfu/g) with substantial counts of micrococci and enterococci (up to 7logcfu/g). Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria spp. were detected in several samples. PMID:22062554

  15. Safety Training for the Developmentally Disabled in Icon Recognition for the Safe Use of Hazardous Chemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoz, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This unique document is a training manual for individuals such as job coaches and janitorial crew supervisors who train and work with Developmentally Disabled (DD) workers in vocational classrooms and on job sites. These workers need to be taught the importance of safety in the workplace using methods appropriate to their developmental needs. The…

  16. Cogeneration handbook for the chemical process industries. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, A.G.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The desision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the chemical industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  17. Outsourcing chemical synthesis in the drug discovery process.

    PubMed

    Festel, Gunter

    2011-03-01

    The positive effects of outsourcing chemical synthesis are enhanced if the provider offers, as the strategic partner, unique expertise and complements the existing internal competencies of pharmaceutical companies. The emerging cooperation model of leased competence offers additional access to high-level specialist knowledge: external service providers are temporarily integrated into internal R&D teams and can support R&D projects flexibly and quickly. Practice examples show that this cooperation model supports the efficient realization of milestones and, in the long-term, helps to build up a high internal competence level, especially in small pharmaceutical companies. PMID:21262378

  18. Chemical Changes in Proteins Produced by Thermal Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutson, T. R.; Orcutt, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses effects of thermal processing on proteins, focusing on (1) the Maillard reaction; (2) heat denaturation of proteins; (3) aggregation, precipitation, gelation, and degradation; and (4) other thermally induced protein reactions. Also discusses effects of thermal processing on muscle foods, egg proteins, fruits and vegetables, and cereal…

  19. Chemical Changes in Proteins Produced by Thermal Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutson, T. R.; Orcutt, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses effects of thermal processing on proteins, focusing on (1) the Maillard reaction; (2) heat denaturation of proteins; (3) aggregation, precipitation, gelation, and degradation; and (4) other thermally induced protein reactions. Also discusses effects of thermal processing on muscle foods, egg proteins, fruits and vegetables, and cereal

  20. EXPOSURE TO CHEMICAL ADDITIVES FROM POLYVINYL CHLORIDE POLYMER EXTRUSION PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a model to predict worker inhalation exposure due to off-gassing of additives during polyvinyl chloride (PVC) extrusion processing. ata on off-gassing of additives were reviewed in the literature, the off-gassing at normal PVC processing temperatures was stud...

  1. Comparison of thermal flow and chemical shrink processes for 193 nm contact hole patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Takanori; Antonio, Charito; Sagan, John; Chakrapani, Srinivasan; Parthasarathy, Deepa; Hong, Sungeun; Thiyagarajan, Muthiah; Cao, Yi; Padmanaban, Munirathna

    2009-03-01

    This paper compares thermal shrink properties of contact holes and chemical shrink performance for 193 nm lithography. Pitch dependence, shrink properties, contact hole circularity, sidewall roughness, and process window are also discussed. Thermal flow process exhibited more pitch dependence than chemical shrink process. Thermal shrink rate increased substantially at higher bake temperatures. Contact holes in defocused area shrunk non-evenly and DOF deteriorated upon heating. In chemical shrink process, shrink rate was hardly influenced by mixing bake temperature, contact holes from center focus to defocus area shrunk evenly preserving effective DOF and MEF became smaller at smaller CD. Chemical shrink has clear advantages over thermal flow process and sub-70 nm contact holes were obtained with iso-dense overlap DOF 0.25 ?m by optimizing resist formulations and process conditions. Application of shrink processes will pave the way for the next generation LSI production.

  2. DOE underground storage tank waste remediation chemical processing hazards. Part I: Technology dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuth, S.F.

    1996-10-01

    This document has been prepared to aid in the development of Regulating guidelines for the Privatization of Hanford underground storage tank waste remediation. The document has been prepared it two parts to facilitate their preparation. Part II is the primary focus of this effort in that it describes the technical basis for established and potential chemical processing hazards associated with Underground Storage Tank (UST) nuclear waste remediation across the DOE complex. The established hazards involve those at Sites for which Safety Analysis Reviews (SARs) have already been prepared. Potential hazards are those involving technologies currently being developed for future applications. Part I of this document outlines the scope of Part II by briefly describing the established and potential technologies. In addition to providing the scope, Part I can be used as a technical introduction and bibliography for Regulatory personnel new to the UST waste remediation, and in particular Privatization effort. Part II of this document is not intended to provide examples of a SAR Hazards Analysis, but rather provide an intelligence gathering source for Regulatory personnel who must eventually evaluate the Privatization SAR Hazards Analysis.

  3. Assessment of aircraft impact possibilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant on the INEL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, L.G.; Mines, J.M.; Webb, B.B.

    1993-08-01

    The concern of this study was the possibility of an aircraft collision with facilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Two sets of data were combined in calculating the probability of this event. The first was from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission data is used to check the adequacy of nuclear power plant location relative to aircraft crashes. For neighboring airport scenarios, the accepted rate unit is fatal crashes per square mile. For in-flight crash scenarios, a total loss of control crash rate (where the pilot was completely out of control) is used for evaluating nuclear reactors. Numbers were given per linear mile of flight. The other set of data was obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board`s annual review. These data points show higher crash frequencies because crashes in which the pilot maintained some control have not been excluded. By including this data set, the evaluation gained two advantages. First, the data are separated by type of aircraft, which makes frequencies for specific flight paths more meaningful. Second, the data are given year by year over a ten-year time span. Therefore, it is possible to gain a sense of the variability in crash frequencies from one year to another.

  4. Further evaluation of COMPACT, the molecular orbital approach for the prospective safety evaluation of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D F; Ioannides, C; Parke, D V

    1998-01-13

    The molecular dimensions and electronic structures of the first group of 100 US NCI/NTP miscellaneous chemicals, evaluated for potential carcinogenicity by computer-optimized molecular parametric analysis for chemical toxicity (COMPACT) have been re-determined. Using improved criteria for cytochrome P450 (CYP) substrate specificity, re-defined for CYP1 as having a COMPACT radius [square root of (deltaE - 9.5)2 + (a/d(2) - 7.8)2] of < 6.5, and for CYP2E as having a collision diameter of 6.5 angstroms or less and deltaE < 15.5, the likely substrates of CYP1 and CYP2E, which are regarded as potential carcinogens, have been identified. In addition, log P values have been taken into account; those chemicals with log P < 0 are non-lipophilic substrates unlikely to reach the activating cytochrome enzymes, and have been regarded as non-carcinogens. The second group of 100 US NCI/NTP chemicals have also now been categorized by COMPACT into CYP1 and CYP2E substrates, and their potential carcinogenicities evaluated. Of the 203 chemicals in the 2 groups, those positive in the rodent two-species life-span carcinogenicity study (rodent assay) were 53%, those positive in the Ames test (mutagenicity) were 48%, and those positive in the COMPACT programme (carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, cytotoxicity) were 54%. Concordance between the COMPACT prediction of carcinogenicity/cytotoxicity and rodent two species life-span carcinogenicity data for the 203 chemicals is 69%, and correlation of COMPACT with Ames test data is 61%. The sensitivity of COMPACT for predicting rodent carcinogenicity is 72%, whereas the sensitivity of the Ames test for predicting carcinogenicity for the 203 chemicals was only 57%. The degree (severity) of rodent carcinogenicity also showed correlation with the COMPACT predictive evaluations of the chemicals. PMID:9508363

  5. Using Drawing Technology to Assess Students' Visualizations of Chemical Reaction Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsin-Yi; Quintana, Chris; Krajcik, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we investigated how students used a drawing tool to visualize their ideas of chemical reaction processes. We interviewed 30 students using thinking-aloud and retrospective methods and provided them with a drawing tool. We identified four types of connections the students made as they used the tool: drawing on existing knowledge, incorporating dynamic aspects of chemical processes, linking a visualization to the associated chemical phenomenon, and connecting between the visualization and chemistry concepts. We also compared students who were able to create dynamic visualizations with those who only created static visualizations. The results indicated a relationship between students constructing a dynamic view of chemical reaction processes and their understanding of chemical reactions. This study provides insights into the use of visualizations to support instruction and assessment to facilitate students' integrated understanding of chemical reactions.

  6. The use of computers in the safety evaluation of drugs and other chemicals.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, C; Lewis, D F; Parke, D V

    1994-01-01

    The toxicity and carcinogenicity of drugs and other chemicals is, in most cases, mediated by highly reactive intermediates which are generated following metabolism catalysed by the enzymic apparatus of the exposed organisms. These reactive intermediates readily interact covalently with vital cellular components to provoke toxicity and carcinogenicity. The ubiquitous cytochrome P450-dependent mixed-function oxidases are the most important enzyme system in the activation of chemicals. This enzyme system comprises a number of families, each of which contains one or more subfamilies. The CYPIA and CYP2E subfamilies are the most closely associated with the production of reactive intermediates and, consequently, the manifestation of toxicity and carcinogenicity. A computer based molecular structure procedure (COMPACT) has been developed which, via a calculation of the molecular and electronic structure of the chemical, determines whether the chemical will interact with either of these two cytochrome P450 subfamilies and hence be metabolised to form reactive intermediates that manifest toxicity. As the basal levels of these two subfamilies are generally low, the ability of a chemical to induce them selectively, on repeated administration, is an important determinant of its toxic and carcinogenic potential. This inductive capability may be determined in short-term studies (ENACT) using only a small number of animals. Thus the combination of COMPACT and ENACT provides a rapid and inexpensive means for the preliminary screening of chemicals for toxicity and carcinogenicity before undertaking the long-term and expensive rodent lifetime bioassays. PMID:7867665

  7. FDA'S food ingredient approval process: Safety assurance based on scientific assessment.

    PubMed

    Rulis, Alan M; Levitt, Joseph A

    2009-02-01

    Fifty years ago, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began implementing new provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act aimed at assuring the safety of new food additives before they enter the marketplace. Today, the agency's procedures for premarket evaluation of food additive safety have evolved into a scientifically rigorous, sound and dependable system whose objective and independent evaluations by FDA scientists assure that new food additives are safe for their intended uses before they arrive on the consumer's plate. Although controversy often surrounds food additives in the popular media and culture, and science-based challenges to FDA's decisions do arise, the agency's original safety judgments successfully withstand these challenges time and again. This article reviews the basic components of the FDA's decision-making process for evaluating the safety of new food additives, and identifies characteristics of this process that are central to assuring that FDA's decisions are marked by scientific rigor and high integrity, and can continue to be relied on by consumers. PMID:18983884

  8. Alternative Processes for Water Reclamation and Solid Waste Processing in a Physical/chemical Bioregenerative Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on alternative processes for water reclamation and solid waste processing in a physical/chemical-bioregenerative life support system are presented. The main objective is to focus attention on emerging influences of secondary factors (i.e., waste composition, type and level of chemical contaminants, and effects of microorganisms, primarily bacteria) and to constructively address these issues by discussing approaches which attack them in a direct manner.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Rheological, Chemical and Hydromechanical Processes of Thrombolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khramchenkov, E.; Khramchenkov, M.

    2015-04-01

    Mathematical model of clot lysis in blood vessels is developed on the basis of equations of convection-diffusion. Fibrin of the clot is considered stationary solid phase, and plasminogen, plasmin and plasminogen-activators - as dissolved fluid phases. As a result of numerical solution of the model predictions of lysis process are gained. Important influence of clot swelling on the process of lysis is revealed.

  10. 77 FR 50724 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Developing Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of... comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1210, ``Developing Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital Computer Software used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants.'' The DG-1210 is proposed Revision 1...

  11. 75 FR 73014 - Notice of Public Meeting: Updating the Flight Instructor Renewal Process To Enhance Safety of Flight

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Renewal Process To Enhance Safety of Flight AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... to improve the Certificated Flight Instructor (CFI) biennial renewal process to enhance the safety of... information transfer and retention. The FAA has been reviewing indicators that suggest that the...

  12. EVALUATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS, ECONOMICS, AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES: HEAT INTEGRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. In this work diff...

  13. Going beyond exposure to local news media: an information-processing examination of public perceptions of food safety.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Kenneth; Thorson, Esther; Zhang, Yuyan

    2006-12-01

    The relationship between local news media and public perceptions of food safety was examined in a statewide telephone survey (n = 524). The theoretical framework of the study was based on a review of the social and psychological factors that affect public concerns about food safety, the relationship between mass communication and risk perception, and the thesis of information-processing strategies and its impact on learning from the news. The results show that information-processing strategies substantially mediated the relationship between local news media and public perceptions of food safety, with elaborative processing being more influential than active reflection in people's learning from the news media. Attention to local television had an independent effect, after demographics, awareness of food safety problems, and perceived safety of local food supply were statistically controlled. Other important predictors included gender, education, ethnicity, and perceived safety of local food supply. PMID:17190783

  14. Nuclear heat source safety study for HTGR process heat plant concept

    SciTech Connect

    Landoni, J.A.; Houghten, W.J.

    1982-08-01

    The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor process heat (HTGRPH) supplies heat to a reforming process to produce synthesis gas from methane and steam. An indirect cycle with a secondary helium heat transfer loop between the reactor and reformers is used. A safety question arises due to combustible synthesis gas and methane in the reformer and associated piping and equipment at the reactor site. Postulated accidental releases of combustible gases from the reformer area were analyzed. The important release and travel modes were found with event tree analysis encompassing the initial gas leak (compressor failure and reformer train) to potential fission product release. Risk to the public due to vapor clouds that may explode as they drift toward the nuclear safety related structure and installations, leading to core heatup and eventual fission product release to the environment, was determined. This risk is not significantly greater than those low risks already associated with an HTGR-Steam Cycle plant.

  15. Prediction of the safety level to an installation of the tritium process through predictive maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Anghel, V.

    2008-07-15

    The safety level for personnel and environment to a nuclear installation is given in generally by the technological process quality of operation and maintenance and in particular by a lot of technical, technological, economic and human factors. The maintenance role is fundamental because it has to quantify all the technical, economic and human elements as an integrated system for it creates an important feedback for activities concerning the life cycle of the nuclear installation. In maintenance activities as in any dynamic area, new elements appear continuously which, sometimes require new approaches. The theory of fuzzy logic and the software LabVIEW supplied to the Nuclear Detritiation Plant (NDP) is part of National Research and Development Inst. for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies-ICIT, Rm.Valcea, used for predictive maintenance to assure safety operation. The final aim is to achieve the best practices for maintenance of the Plant that processes tritium. (authors)

  16. Recent advances in chemical imaging technology for the detection of contaminants for food safety and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priore, Ryan J.; Olkhovyk, Oksana; Drauch, Amy; Treado, Patrick; Kim, Moon; Chao, Kaunglin

    2009-05-01

    The need for routine, non-destructive chemical screening of agricultural products is increasing due to the health hazards to animals and humans associated with intentional and unintentional contamination of foods. Melamine, an industrial additive used to increase flame retardation in the resin industry, has recently been used to increase the apparent protein content of animal feed, of infant formula, as well as powdered and liquid milk in the dairy industry. Such contaminants, even at regulated levels, pose serious health risks. Chemical imaging technology provides the ability to evaluate large volumes of agricultural products before reaching the consumer. In this presentation, recent advances in chemical imaging technology that exploit Raman, fluorescence and near-infrared (NIR) are presented for the detection of contaminants in agricultural products.

  17. On Chemical Modeling an Alchemical Process: The Use of Combined Chemical Methods in a Historical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodygin, Mikhail Yu.; Rodygin, Irene V.

    1997-08-01

    Laboratory work is an important component of a course in the History of Chemistry and Alchemy, though it can only be illustrative and not comprehensive. The course should exercise both the cognitive and research abilities of an university student. Therefore methods of modeling are of prime importance at this stage of instruction. Modeling can be both a priori and experimental. The experiment can use the alchemist's materials, or it can reproduce the procedure with modern reagents. A good example for the use of this method is a recipe for the preparation of the Philosopher's Stone attributed to Lullius and cited by J. Ripley in Liber Duodecium Portarum. Thus, the Ripley's recipe is not only considered to be the first indication of the existence of acetone, but it may also indicate the formation of acetyl acetone and its derivatives. Thus, as far as the history of alchemy is concerned, the use of an experimental model not only allows us to solve a number of specific problems such as recipe interpretation and product identification, but it allows also to probe the essence of alchemical work. The combination of empirical and speculative modelings leads to the interaction of the exact methods of chemistry with the broad historico-chemical generalizations, thus introducing some additional dimensions to the definition of historico-chemical practice.

  18. DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Approximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use this infor...

  19. CHEMICAL CONTROL IN MILLING, PROCESSING, AND WAREHOUSE FACILITIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insecticides that are used in milling, processing, and warehouse facilities are classified into general groups and categories according to the method of application. Whole-plant treatments are generally accomplished through the use of fumigants and modified atmospheres, which are in the gaseous pha...

  20. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 23: Nuclear Chemical Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control

  1. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 23: Nuclear Chemical Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  2. METHODS FOR INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS INTO CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN DECISIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this cooperative agreement was to postulate a means by which an engineer could routinely include environmental considerations in day-to-day conceptual design problems; a means that could easily integrate with existing design processes, and thus avoid massive retr...

  3. Microlithographic wet chemical processing in a capillary space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Russell

    1994-05-01

    The patented device and procedure described provide a method of processing the flat, thin-film coated surfaces encountered in the ultraclean manufacture of integrated circuit wafers, photomasks, panel displays or other similar substrates. The device provides a means of delivering liquids and vapors to those surfaces while temperature, evaporation and particulate contamination are controlled as a natural consequent of its physical configuration. The essential mechanism exploits the surface tension of liquids and the differences in the wettability of surfaces. By juxtaposing the target surface with a prepared surface on the processing device and maintaining a separation of a few millimeters, the gap formed provides a reaction space into which liquids are easily distributed exploiting so-called capillary behavior. While placing the liquid reagent on the hydrophobic, horizontal surface of the processor, the hydrophilic substrate surface suspended above it is transported laterally. The substrate surface then engages the liquid edge which, driven by its own surface tension, quickly fills the gap. The ending of the reaction and removal of the liquid is effected by further transporting the substrate with its captive liquid reactants to a trench provided in the processor surface where the liquid flows down and away. Thus, the processor surface is seen as a series of 'mesas' allowing a sequence of wet process, rinse and vapor treatments, all with the simple lateral movement of the substrate. The effects of improved reaction kinetics on process precision as well as the benefits mentioned above are discussed and compared to previous immersion and spin methods. Critical dimension measurement data are presented from large photomask substrates processed by the instrument.

  4. Settling velocities of multifractal flocs formed in chemical coagulation process.

    PubMed

    Vahedi, Arman; Gorczyca, Beata

    2014-04-15

    A number of different flocculation mechanisms are involved in the formation of chemical coagulation flocs. Consequently, two flocs with the same size may have been formed by different mechanisms of aggregation and therefore have different arrangement of primary particles. As a result, two flocs with the same size may have different masses or mass distributions and therefore, different settling velocities. Although the correct estimation of the floc mass and density is critical for the development of the floc settling model, none of the suggested floc settling models incorporate the information on mass distribution and variable density of flocs. A probability-based method is used to determine the floc fractal dimensions on floc images. The results demonstrated that flocs formed in lime softening coagulation are multifractal. The multifractal spectra indicated the existence of a multiple fractal dimensions as opposed to the unique box-counting dimension which is a morphology-based fractal dimensions typically introduced into the Stokes' Law. These fractal dimensions may provide information on the flocs' aggregation mechanism, floc's structure, and the distribution of mass inside the floc. More research is required to investigate how to utilize the information obtained from the multifractal spectra to incorporate the variable floc density and nonhomogeneous mass distribution of flocs into the floc settling models. PMID:24530551

  5. Radical formation, chemical processing, and explosion of interstellar grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The ultraviolet radiation in interstellar space is shown to create a sufficient steady-state density of free radicals in the grain mantle material consisting of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen to satisfy the critical condition for initiation of chain reactions. The criterion for minimum critical particle size for maintaining the chain reaction is of the order of the larger grain sizes in a distribution satisfying the average extinction and polarization measures. The triggering of the explosion of interstellar grains leading to the ejection of complex interstellar molecules is shown to be most probable where the grains are largest and where radiation is suddenly introduced; i.e., in regions of new star formation. Similar conditions prevail at the boundaries between very dark clouds and H II regions. When the energy released by the chemical activity of the free radicals is inadequate to explode the grain, the resulting mantle material must consist of extremely large organic molecules which are much more resistant to the hostile environment of H II regions than the classical dirty-ice mantles made up of water, methane, and ammonia.

  6. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Basilio, C.I.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan.

    1991-01-01

    The continuous testing of the Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) bench-scale unit (Task 6) was completed successfully in this quarter using Middle Wyodak and Elkhorn No. 3 coal samples. The CECC unit was run under the optimum conditions established for these coal samples in Task 4. For the Middle Wyodak coal, the ash content was reduced from 6.96% to as low 1.61%, corresponding to an ash rejection (by weight) of about 83%. The ash and sulfur contents of the Elkhorn No. 3 coal were reduced to as low as 1.8% and 0.9%. The average ash and sulfur rejections were calculated to be around 84% and 47%. The CECC continuous unit was used to treat -325 mesh Elkhorn No. 3 coal samples and gave ash and sulfur rejection values of as high as 77% and 66%. In these test, the clean -325 mesh coal particles were separated from the liberated mineral matter through microbubble column flotation, instead of wet-screening.

  7. Evaluating the safety of microbial enzyme preparations used in food processing: update for a new century.

    PubMed

    Pariza, M W; Johnson, E A

    2001-04-01

    Microbial enzymes used in food processing are typically sold as enzyme preparations that contain not only a desired enzyme activity but also other metabolites of the production strain, as well as added materials such as preservatives and stabilizers. The added materials must be food grade and meet applicable regulatory standards. The purpose of this report is to present guidelines that can be used to evaluate the safety of the metabolites of the production strain that are also present in the enzyme preparation, including of course, but not limited to, the desired enzyme activity itself. This discussion builds on previously published decision tree mechanisms and includes consideration of new genetic modification technologies, for example, modifying the primary structure of enzymes to enhance specific properties that are commercially useful. The safety of the production strain remains the primary consideration in evaluating enzyme safety, in particular, the toxigenic potential of the production strain. Thoroughly characterized nonpathogenic, nontoxigenic microbial strains, particularly those with a history of safe use in food enzyme manufacture, are logical candidates for generating a safe strain lineage, through which improved strains may be derived via genetic modification by using either traditional/classical or rDNA strain improvement strategies. The elements needed to establish a safe strain lineage include thoroughly characterizing the host organism, determining the safety of all new DNA that has been introduced into the host organism, and ensuring that the procedure(s) that have been used to modify the host organism are appropriate for food use. Enzyme function may be changed by intentionally altering the amino acid sequence (e.g., protein engineering). It may be asked if such modifications might also affect the safety of an otherwise safe enzyme. We consider this question in light of what is known about the natural variation in enzyme structure and function and conclude that it is unlikely that changes which improve upon desired enzyme function will result in the creation of a toxic protein. It is prudent to assess such very small theoretical risks by conducting limited toxicological tests on engineered enzymes. The centerpiece of this report is a decision tree mechanism that updates previous enzyme safety evaluation mechanisms to accommodate advances in enzymology. We have concluded that separate mutagenicity testing is not needed if this decision tree is used to evaluate enzyme safety. Under the criteria of the decision tree, no new food enzyme can enter the market without critical evaluation of its safety. PMID:11350200

  8. Nuclear fuel reprocessing deactivation plan for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, M.W.

    1994-10-01

    The decision was announced on April 28, 1992 to cease all United States Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels. This decision leads to the deactivation of all fuels dissolution, solvent extraction, krypton gas recovery operations, and product denitration at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The reprocessing facilities will be converted to a safe and stable shutdown condition awaiting future alternate uses or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). This ICPP Deactivation Plan includes the scope of work, schedule, costs, and associated staffing levels necessary to achieve a safe and orderly deactivation of reprocessing activities and the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF). Deactivation activities primarily involve shutdown of operating systems and buildings, fissile and hazardous material removal, and related activities. A minimum required level of continued surveillance and maintenance is planned for each facility/process system to ensure necessary environmental, health, and safety margins are maintained and to support ongoing operations for ICPP facilities that are not being deactivated. Management of the ICPP was transferred from Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) to Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) on October 1, 1994 as part of the INEL consolidated contract. This revision of the deactivation plan (formerly the Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Phaseout Plan for the ICPP) is being published during the consolidation of the INEL site-wide contract and the information presented here is current as of October 31, 1994. LITCO has adopted the existing plans for the deactivation of ICPP reprocessing facilities and the plans developed under WINCO are still being actively pursued, although the change in management may result in changes which have not yet been identified. Accordingly, the contents of this plan are subject to revision.

  9. Best Practices for Chemotherapy Administration in Pediatric Oncology: Quality and Safety Process Improvements (2015).

    PubMed

    Looper, Karen; Winchester, Kari; Robinson, Deborah; Price, Andrea; Langley, Rachel; Martin, Gina; Jones, Sally; Holloway, Jodi; Rosenberg, Susanne; Flake, Susan

    2016-05-01

    The administration of chemotherapy to children with cancer is a high-risk process that must be performed in a safe and consistent manner with high reliability. Clinical trials play a major role in the treatment of children with cancer; conformance to chemotherapy protocol requirements and accurate documentation in the medical record are critical. Inconsistencies in the administration and documentation of chemotherapy were identified as opportunities for errors to occur. A major process improvement was initiated to establish best practices for nurses who administer chemotherapy to children. An interdisciplinary team was formed to evaluate the current process and to develop best practices based on current evidence, protocol requirements, available resources, and safety requirements. The process improvement focused on the establishment of standardized and safe administration techniques, exact administration times, and consistent electronic documentation that could easily be retrieved in medical record audits. Quality improvement tools including SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation), process mapping, PDSA (Plan, Do. Study, Act) cycles, and quality metrics were used with this process improvement. The team established best practices in chemotherapy administration to children that have proven to be safe and reliable. Follow-up data have demonstrated that the project was highly successful and improved accuracy, patient and nurse safety, and effectiveness of chemotherapy administration. PMID:26668214

  10. Recent advances in chemical imaging technology for the detection of contaminants for food safety and security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need for routine, non-destructive chemical screening of agricultural products is increasing due to the health hazards to animals and humans associated with intentional and unintentional contamination of foods. Melamine, an industrial additive used to increase flame retardation in the resin indus...

  11. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Is Thioacetamide a Serious Health Hazard in Inorganic Chemistry Laboratories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elo, Hannu

    1987-01-01

    Describes the potential health hazards of using thioacetamide in introductory courses where students are involved in qualitative inorganic analysis. Describes the chemical as possessing carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, and mutagenic properties. Cautions that thioacetamide has caused various biochemical changes in the liver, and recommends limited uses…

  12. High-throughput Raman chemical imaging for evaluating food safety and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A line-scan hyperspectral system was developed to enable Raman chemical imaging for large sample areas. A custom-designed 785 nm line-laser based on a scanning mirror serves as an excitation source. A 45° dichroic beamsplitter reflects the laser light to form a 24 cm × 1 mm excitation line normally ...

  13. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Is Thioacetamide a Serious Health Hazard in Inorganic Chemistry Laboratories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elo, Hannu

    1987-01-01

    Describes the potential health hazards of using thioacetamide in introductory courses where students are involved in qualitative inorganic analysis. Describes the chemical as possessing carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, and mutagenic properties. Cautions that thioacetamide has caused various biochemical changes in the liver, and recommends limited uses

  14. High-throughput Raman chemical imaging for rapid evaluation of food safety and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-throughput macro-scale Raman chemical imaging was realized on a newly developed line-scan hyperspectral system. The system utilizes a custom-designed 785 nm line laser with maximum power of 5 W as an excitation source. A 24 cm × 1 mm excitation line is normally projected on the sample surface u...

  15. NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH (NIOSH) POCKET GUIDE TO CHEMICAL HAZARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NPG is intended as a source of general industrial hygiene information on several hundred chemicals/classes for workers, employers, and occupational health professionals. The NPG does not contain an analysis of all pertinent data, rather it presents key information and data in...

  16. Quantifying solute transport processes: are chemically "conservative" tracers electrically conservative?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singha, Kamini; Li, Li; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Regberg, Aaron B.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a nonreactive or conservative tracer, commonly invoked in investigations of solute transport, requires additional study in the context of electrical geophysical monitoring. Tracers that are commonly considered conservative may undergo reactive processes, such as ion exchange, thus changing the aqueous composition of the system. As a result, the measured electrical conductivity may reflect not only solute transport but also reactive processes. We have evaluated the impacts of ion exchange reactions, rate-limited mass transfer, and surface conduction on quantifying tracer mass, mean arrival time, and temporal variance in laboratory-scale column experiments. Numerical examples showed that (1) ion exchange can lead to resistivity-estimated tracer mass, velocity, and dispersivity that may be inaccurate; (2) mass transfer leads to an overestimate in the mobile tracer mass and an underestimate in velocity when using electrical methods; and (3) surface conductance does not notably affect estimated moments when high-concentration tracers are used, although this phenomenon may be important at low concentrations or in sediments with high and/or spatially variable cation-exchange capacity. In all cases, colocated groundwater concentration measurements are of high importance for interpreting geophysical data with respect to the controlling transport processes of interest.

  17. Standardization of process parameters for a chemical reaction using neutron activation analysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokhale, P. A.; Bhoraskar, V. N.

    1996-08-01

    The chemical process to convert polyepichlorohydrin (PECH) into a glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) has been standardized by measuring the relative concentrations of nitrogen, chlorine and oxygen with the fast neutron activation analysis technique. For comparison PECH and GAP samples were also analysed by IR spectroscopy. The results indicate that, for standardization of the present chemical process, the fast neutron activation analysis technique is superior to IR spectroscopy. In this paper the techniques used to analyse the samples are described in detail but the information on the actual chemical process adopted is provided in brief.

  18. Urban street canyons: Coupling dynamics, chemistry and within-canyon chemical processing of emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, Vivien Bianca; Bloss, William James; Cai, Xiaoming

    2013-04-01

    Street canyons, formed by rows of buildings in urban environments, are associated with high levels of atmospheric pollutants emitted primarily from vehicles, and substantial human exposure. The street canyon forms a semi-enclosed environment, within which emissions may be entrained in a re-circulatory system; chemical processing of emitted compounds alters the composition of the air vented to the overlying boundary layer, compared with the primary emissions. As the prevailing atmospheric chemistry is highly non-linear, and the canyon mixing and predominant chemical reaction timescales are comparable, the combined impacts of dynamics and chemistry must be considered to quantify these effects. Here we report a model study of the coupled impacts of dynamical and chemical processing upon the atmospheric composition in a street canyon environment, to assess the impacts upon air pollutant levels within the canyon, and to quantify the extent to which within-canyon chemical processing alters the composition of canyon outflow, in comparison to the primary emissions within the canyon. A new model for the simulation of street canyon atmospheric chemical processing has been developed, by integrating an existing Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) dynamical model of canyon atmospheric motion with a detailed chemical reaction mechanism, a Reduced Chemical Scheme (RCS) comprising 51 chemical species and 136 reactions, based upon a subset of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). The combined LES-RCS model is used to investigate the combined effects of mixing and chemical processing upon air quality within an idealised street canyon. The effect of the combination of dynamical (segregation) and chemical effects is determined by comparing the outputs of the full LES-RCS canyon model with those obtained when representing the canyon as a zero-dimensional box model (i.e. assuming mixing is complete and instantaneous). The LES-RCS approach predicts lower (canyon-averaged) levels of NOx, OH and HO2, but higher levels of O3, compared with the box model run under identical chemical and emissions conditions. When considering the level of chemical detail implemented, segregation effects were found to reduce the error introduced by simplifying the reaction mechanism. Chemical processing of emissions within the canyon leads to a significant increase in the Ox flux from the canyon into the overlying boundary layer, relative to primary emissions, for the idealised case considered here. These results demonstrate that within-canyon atmospheric chemical processing can substantially alter the concentrations of pollutants injected into the urban canopy layer, compared with the raw emission rates within the street canyon. The extent to which these effects occur is likely to be dependent upon the nature of the domain (canyon aspect ratio), prevailing meteorology and emission/pollution scenario considered.

  19. SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR TANK 241-AZ-101 MIXER PUMP PROCESS TEST

    SciTech Connect

    HAMMOND DM; HARRIS JP; MOUETTE P

    1997-06-09

    This document contains the completed safety analysis which establishes the safety envelope for performing the mixer pump process test in Tank 241-AZ-101. This process test is described in TF-210-OTP-001. All equipment necessary for the mixer pump test has been installed by Project W-151. The purpose of this document is to describe and analyze the mixer pump test for Aging Waste Facility (AWF) Tank 241-AZ-101 and to address the 'yes/maybe' responses marked for evaluation questions identified in Unreviewed Safety Question Evaluation (USQE) TF-94-0266. The scope of this document is limited to the performance of the mixer pump test for Tank 241-AZ-101. Unreviewed Safety Question Determination (USQD) TF-96-0018 verified that the installation of two mixer pumps into Tank 241-AZ-101 was within the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Authorization Basis. USQDs TF-96-0461, TF-96-0448, and TF-96-0805 verified that the installation of the in-tank video camera, thermocouples, and Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzer (URSILLA), respectively, were within the current TWRS Authorization Basis. USQD TF-96-1041 verified that the checkout testing of the installed equipment was within the current TWRS Authorization Basis. Installation of the pumps and equipment has been completed. An evaluation of safety considerations associated with operation of the mixer pumps for the mixer pump test is provided in this document. This document augments the existing AWF authorization basis as defined in the Interim Safety Basis (Stahl 1997), and as such, will use the existing Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSRs) of Heubach 1996 to adequately control the mixer pump test. The hazard and accident analysis is limited to the scope and impact of the mixer pump test, and therefore does not address hazards already addressed by the current AWF authorization basis. This document does not evaluate removal of the mixer pumps. Safety considerations for removal of the pumps will be addressed by separate safety documentation once that portion of the mission is defined. The mixer pump test has been evaluated to cover the use of either the existing ventilation system (241-A-702) or the ventilation system upgrade provided by Project W-030. Analysis of Project W-030 is outside of the scope of this document and is addressed in HNF-SD-WM-SARR-039 (Draft) which, should the W-030 system be in service at the time of the mixer pump test, will have been approved and made a part of the TWRS authorization basis. The test will use two high-capacity mixer pumps in various configurations and modes to demonstrate solids mobilization of waste in Tank 241-AZ-101. The information and experience gained during the test will provide data for comparison with sludge mobilization prediction models; provide data to estimate the number, location, and cycle times of the mixer pumps; and provide indication of the effects of mixer pump operation on the AWF tank systems and components. The slurry produced will be evaluated for future pretreatment processing. This process test does not transfer waste from the tank; the waste is mixed and confined within the existing system. At the completion of the mixer pump test, the mixer pumps will be stopped and normal tank operations, maintenance, and surveillance will continue. Periodic rotation of the mixer pumps and motor shafts, along with bearing greasing, is required to maintain the pumps following the mixer pump test.

  20. Monitoring the Long-Term Effectiveness of Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Implementation Through Use of a Performance Dashboard Process

    SciTech Connect

    Michael D. Kinney and William D. Barrick

    2008-09-01

    This session will examine a method developed by Federal and Contractor personnel at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) to examine long-term maintenance of DOE Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) criteria, including safety culture attributes, as well as identification of process improvement opportunities. This process was initially developed in the summer of 2000 and has since been expanded to recognize the importance of safety culture attributes, and associated safety culture elements, as defined in DOE M 450.4-1, “Integrated Safety Management System Manual.” This process has proven to significantly enhance collective awareness of the importance of long-term ISMS implementation as well as support commitments by NNSA/NSO personnel to examine the continued effectiveness of ISMS processes.