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1

Chemical process safety management within the Department of Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Department of Energy (DOE) is not well known for its chemical processing activities, the DOE does have a variety of chemical processes covered under OSHA`s Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (the PSM Standard). DOE, like industry, is obligated to comply with the PSM Standard. The shift in the mission of DOE away from defense

Piatt

1995-01-01

2

Guidelines for technical management of chemical process safety  

SciTech Connect

The Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) was formed to provide leadership and coordination to engineering approaches to safety in the chemical process industry. the center focuses its' activities on safety in the manufacturing, handling and storage of toxic flammable or explosive and reactive materials and those scientific and engineering practices that can prevent or mitigate episodic events involving the release of potentially hazardous materials. CCPS recognized, however, that enhancements in chemical process technologies alone would not be good enough to prevent catastrophic events such as Bhopal. Therefore, with the support of its advisory and managing boards, a multifaceted program was established to address the need for management commitment to the technical elements of chemical process safety. Commitment in any company must start at the top level. This paper, therefore, focuses on the importance of leadership, and how management demonstrates importance of leadership, and how management demonstrates leadership through creating a vision of the future and aggressively converts that vision into reality. The paper also discusses efforts within CCPS directed at engineering visions of process safety management. These efforts have been directed by the technical management subcommittee of CCPS who collectively represent centuries of experience in process safety.

Schreiber, S. (Center for Chemical Process Safety, New York, NY (USA))

1991-04-01

3

Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

2005-04-01

4

Safety-oriented Resilience Evaluation in Chemical Processes  

E-print Network

In the area of process safety, many efforts have focused on studying methods to prevent the transition of the state of the system from a normal state to an upset and/or catastrophic state, but many unexpected changes are unavoidable, and even under...

Dinh, Linh Thi Thuy

2012-02-14

5

Practicing chemical process safety: a look at the layers of protection.  

PubMed

This presentation will review a few public perceptions of safety in chemical plants and refineries, and will compare these plant workplace risks to some of the more traditional occupations. The central theme of this paper is to provide a "within-the-fence" view of many of the process safety practices that world class plants perform to pro-actively protect people, property, profits as well as the environment. It behooves each chemical plant and refinery to have their story on an image-rich presentation to stress stewardship and process safety. Such a program can assure the company's employees and help convince the community that many layers of safety protection within our plants are effective, and protect all from harm. PMID:15518976

Sanders, Roy E

2004-11-11

6

Development of a relational chemical process safety database and applications to safety improvements  

E-print Network

Industrial accidents still show a major concern to both the public and the environment. It has been a governmental objective to minimize these accidents. Several rules and regulations have emerged to reduce the impacts of chemical releases...

Al-Qurashi, Fahad

2012-06-07

7

Toxicology and Chemical Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Topics addressed in this discussion of toxicology and chemical safety include routes of exposure, dose/response relationships, action of toxic substances, and effects of exposure to chemicals. Specific examples are used to illustrate the principles discussed. Suggests prudence in handling any chemicals, whether or not toxicity is known. (JN)

Hall, Stephen K.

1983-01-01

8

Crop Protection Chemical Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... use of the chemical; its proper handling, safe storage and first aid information. • Obtain Material Safety Data ... sure to keep a set separate from the storage area. • Have on hand and wear the personal ...

9

CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY AND METHODOLOGY  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY AND METHODOLOGY MANUAL August 2013 #12;ii Emergency Numbers UNBC Prince-Emergency Numbers UNBC Prince George Campus Chemstores 6472 Chemical Safety 6472 Radiation Safety 6472 Biological the safe use, storage, handling, waste and emergency management of chemicals on the University of Northern

Northern British Columbia, University of

10

Laboratory Safety and Chemical Hazards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Toxicology/chemical hazards, safety policy, legal responsibilities, adequacy of ventilation, chemical storage, evaluating experimental hazards, waste disposal, and laws governing chemical safety were among topics discussed in 10 papers presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982). Several topics…

Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

1983-01-01

11

77 FR 66638 - The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for compiling process safety information. II. Special...The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly...Comments on This Notice and Internet Access to Comments and...assistance in using the Internet to locate docket submissions...Labor for Occupational Safety and Health,...

2012-11-06

12

SAFETY IN THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

MONTHLY ARTICLES ON LABORATORY SAFETY THAT APPEARED IN THE "JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION" BETWEEN JANUARY 1964, AND JANUARY 1967, ARE COMBINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE CHEMISTRY TEACHERS. A GENERAL SECTION DEALS WITH (1) RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACCIDENT PREVENTION, (2) SAFETY CONSIDERATION IN RESEARCH PROPOSALS, (3) A SAFETY

STEERE, NORMAN V.

13

Chemical Health and Safety Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These Chemical Health and Safety Data are an excellent resource for reliable, no-frills information from the National Toxicology Program (NTP). Data from "over 2000 chemicals studied by the NTP" are made available here, and users have a couple of different options for retrieving information. They may simply view a list of chemicals or search the Health and Safety database. Information on each chemical includes physical chemical data (like solubilities, solvents, volatility, flammability, and reactivity), toxicity data, handling procedures, emergency procedures, and a bibliographic list of sources for the information collected. Archived data may be downloaded (.sea, .zip).

14

Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (CHSP) is to provide specific guidance to all LBL employees and contractors who use hazardous chemicals. This Plan, when implemented, fulfills the requirements of both the Federal OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) for laboratory workers, and the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for non-laboratory operations (e.g., shops). It sets forth safety procedures and describes how LBL employees are informed about the potential chemical hazards in their work areas so they can avoid harmful exposures and safeguard their health. Generally, communication of this Plan will occur through training and the Plan will serve as a the framework and reference guide for that training.

Berkner, K.

1992-08-01

15

Normalization of Process Safety Metrics  

E-print Network

and organizational risks, there is an emerging need to evaluate the process safety implementation across an organization through measurements. Thus, the process safety metric is applied as a powerful tool that measures safety activities, status, and performance...

Wang, Mengtian

2012-10-19

16

Chemical Process Synthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Process synthesis is the specification of chemical and physical operations and the selection and interconnection of equipment to implement these operations to effect desired chemical processing transformations. Optimization and evolutionary and systematic generation process synthesis approaches are described. (Author/SK)

Siirola, J. J.

1982-01-01

17

Chapter 5 -Agri-Chemicals Pesticide Safety  

E-print Network

117 Chapter 5 - Agri-Chemicals Pesticide Safety Safety with pesticides should be a concern of everyone involved with these chemicals. Although pesticides provide real benefits, they can also be dangerous if mishandled or misused. An accidental death from pesticides is a rarity, but skin disorders

18

[Chemical food safety : National and European aspects].  

PubMed

Chemical food safety deals with the health evaluation of compounds in food with regard to toxicological aspects. In the following, examples of current interest from various categories of compounds in foods, e.g., of naturally occurring substances and of heat-induced or process-related contaminants, are presented and current problems in their toxicological evaluation are described. To guarantee that human intake of such compounds will occur in safe amounts only, an assessment of their health risks based on the present state of science and according to internationally recognized methods has to be provided. This risk assessment is independent and is performed at the national level by the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment and at the European level by the European Food Safety Authority. Results and findings of the risk assessment of toxicologically relevant compounds are the scientific basis for recommendations and strategies for consumer protection. For example, measures like the setting of maximum levels for contaminants in certain food categories can be the result. At the national level, the Federal Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety is responsible for risk management, while at the European level the European Commission and other institutions develop the measures for the member states. PMID:20449551

Appel, K E; Abraham, K

2010-06-01

19

US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board began operations in 1998 with the stated mission to promote the prevention of major chemical accidents at fixed facilities. The independent, scientific investigative agency's Web site contains historical and current data, reports, and other information on chemical accidents from around the nation. For example, on September 13, 2002, a chemical plant explosion occurred in Freeport, Texas, involving an explosion, fire, and release of chemicals to the environment. The entry contains which specific chemicals were involved and a brief report of the incident, as well as injury, containment, and other relevant information.

1998-01-01

20

Chemical process simulation  

SciTech Connect

This book offers a guide to simulation techniques for chemical engineering. It covers flowsheeting, partitioning and tearing a set of equations and networks of process units, maintaining sparsity of matrices, convergence promotion methods, and available data banks of properties. The book reviews background information on model formulation and numerical methods, and applications of graph theory in synthesising networks.

Husain, A.

1986-01-01

21

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses a system for establishing the relative potential of a chemical to release energy suddenly and to indicate release. This system is applicable to chemical storage and transportation. The system is based upon three simple tests requiring a minimum sample (1 go or 1 ml): (1) computation, (2) impact sensitivity, and (3) thermal…

Coffee, Robert D.

1972-01-01

22

Toolbox Safety Talk Chemical Labeling  

E-print Network

effective means of communicating chemical hazards. DEFINITIONS · Pictogram: a symbol plus other graphic in the workplace to be clearly labeled with the appropriate identification and warnings. A label may be affixed to to be taken to minimize or prevent adverse effects resulting from exposure to a hazardous chemical, improper

Pawlowski, Wojtek

23

TIER I CHEMICALS: 2.LABORATORY SAFETY PLAN  

E-print Network

-Butyllithium 109-72-8 Sodium Sulphide 1313-82-2 Phenyllithium 591-51-5 tert-Butyl hypochlorite 507-40-4 Phosphine chemicals, GT requires that each laboratory prepared (i) tailored laboratory safety plan, (ii) chemical-58-6 Dichlorosilane 4109-96-0 Magnesium Diamide 7803-54-5 Diethylaluminum chloride 96-10-6 Maneb 12427

Sherrill, David

24

Chemical Lab Safety Rules Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This learning module - Chemical Lab Safety Rules - covers safety rules for one's personal safety when working with and around chemicals, handling and pouring chemicals properly, the specifics for working with solvents vs. corrosives, spill or leak response, and many other areas. An activity and assessment are including in this learning module along with an observation checklist that you could use to observe participants in a laboratory environment and ensure that the safety rules are being followed. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and login in order to access the full set of resources.

2011-09-23

25

September 2013 Laboratory Safety Manual Section 3 -Chemical Waste Management  

E-print Network

September 2013 Laboratory Safety Manual Section 3 - Chemical Waste Management UW Environmental Health and Safety Page 3-1 Section 3 - Chemical Waste Management Contents A. HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL WASTE 3 - Chemical Waste Management Laboratory Safety Manual UW Environmental Health and Safety Page 3-2 4

Wilcock, William

26

An intelligent data collection tool for chemical safety\\/risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) is the new European chemical legislation which aims to assess risk or safety of tens of thousands of chemicals to improve the protection of human health and the environment. The chemical safety assessment process is of an iterative nature. First, an initial, worst-case assessment is conducted after which refinements are made until

Frederik A. M. Verdonck; Patrick A. Van Sprang; Peter A. Vanrolleghem

2008-01-01

27

Epigenetics and chemical safety assessment.  

PubMed

Epigenetics, as it pertains to biology and toxicology, can be defined as heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve mutations and are propagated without continued stimulus. Although potentially reversible, these heritable changes may be classified as mitotic, meiotic, or transgenerational, implicating the wide-ranging impact of epigenetic control in cellular function. A number of biological responses have been classified as being caused by an "epigenetic alteration," sometimes based on sound scientific evidence and often in lieu of an identified genetic mutation. Complicating the understanding and interpretation of perceived epigenetic alterations is an incomplete understanding of the normal state and dynamic variation of the epigenome, which can differ widely between cell and tissue types and stage of development or age. This emerging field is likely to have a profound impact on the study and practice of toxicology in coming years. This document reviews the current state of the science in epigenetic modifications, techniques used to measure these changes, and evaluates the current toxicology testing battery with respect to strengths and potential weaknesses in the identification of epigenetics changes. In addition, case studies implicating transgenerational effects induced by diethylstilbestrol, vinclozolin, and bisphenol A were reviewed to illustrate the application of epigenetics in safety assessment and the strengths and limitations of the study designs. An assessment of toxicology tests currently used in safety evaluation revealed that these tests are expected to identify any potential adverse outcomes resulting from epigenetic changes. Furthermore, in order to increase our understanding of the science of epigenetics in toxicology, this review has revealed that a solid understanding of the biology and variation in the epigenome is essential to contextualize concerns about possible adverse health effects related to epigenetic changes. Finally, the fundamental principles guiding toxicology studies, including relevant doses, dose-rates, routes of exposure, and experimental models, need to be taken into consideration in the design and interpretation of studies within this emerging area of science. PMID:20399890

LeBaron, Matthew J; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Klapacz, Joanna; Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G; Hollnagel, Heli M; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar

2010-10-01

28

Electrical safety program impact on process safety performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a global science and technology company's experience in optimizing the synergy between a state of the art electrical safety program and process safety management. Process safety management tends to focus on equipment and systems that are directly associated with hazardous manufacturing processes. Electric power, control and data systems may not be directly associated with the process, however

John Aeiker; Daniel R. Doan; H. Landis Floyd; Catherine Irwin; Luiz Tomiyoshi; C. T. Wu

2008-01-01

29

Environmental Health and Safety Chemical Hygiene Laboratory Assessment  

E-print Network

Environmental Health and Safety Chemical Hygiene Laboratory Assessment PI: _________________________________ Date: ______________________________________ Inspection Finding Categories: A. No items of safety or environmental concerns were identified. B. Items of safety or environmental concerns were identified. C

30

Chemical Safety. Part I: Safety in the Handling of Hazardous Chemicals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the importance of considering the hazards, precautions, and emergency procedures pertinent to the safe handling of chemicals before introducing students to the laboratory. Discusses safety hazards depending on the chemical's properties including flammability, corrosivity, toxicity, and reactivity; eye protection; and physical hazards.…

Young, Jay A.

1997-01-01

31

Chemical processing of lunar materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper highlights recent work on the general problem of processing lunar materials. The discussion covers lunar source materials, refined products, motivations for using lunar materials, and general considerations for a lunar or space processing plant. Attention is given to chemical processing through various techniques, including electrolysis of molten silicates, carbothermic/silicothermic reduction, carbo-chlorination process, NaOH basic-leach process, and HF acid-leach process. Several options for chemical processing of lunar materials are well within the state of the art of applied chemistry and chemical engineering to begin development based on the extensive knowledge of lunar materials.

Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.

1979-01-01

32

Updated March 2013 Chemical & Process  

E-print Network

Sandridge ­ Analytical technician (chemical advice) Rayleen Fredericks ­ Biological technician Peter for additional details) 1. Personal Protective Equipment: All researchers in the labs must at all times wear: Safety glasses Covered shoes, no jandals, open-toed shoes or bare feet. Lab jacket Additional personal

Hickman, Mark

33

Food Process Engineering Food Safety and Technology  

E-print Network

Food Process Engineering Food Safety and Technology Food Safety and Technology National Center for Food Safety and Technology IIT Moffett Campus 6502 S. Archer Road Summit-Argo, IL 60501 708 Ravishankar The National Center for Food Safety and Technology (NCFST), with IIT faculty, U.S. Food and Drug

Heller, Barbara

34

Chemical Processes During Shock Compression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A critical examination of material in the literature concerning the occurrence of chemical processes in shock compression has shown that no correct proof has yet appeared showing that endothermic diffusion processes can take place actually during the shor...

A. N. Dremin, E. N. Klopova, G. A. Adadurov, O. N. Breusov, T. V. Bavina

1980-01-01

35

Green Chemical Processing with  

E-print Network

(biologics) · Commodity chemicals production ­ 1,3 propanediol, lysine, succinic acid, more · Specialty Anaplerotic reactions TCA cycle Biosynthesis of serine family amino acids Biosynthesis of alanine family amino acids Biosynthesis of histidine Biosynthesis of aromatic family amino acids ... Catabolism of amino

Su, Xiao

36

Safety and Health Policy and Procedure Manual CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN  

E-print Network

Safety and Health Policy and Procedure Manual CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN Section 0030 Table of Contents Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) promulgated a final rule for occupational exposure to hazardous standard operating procedures for safety and health, criteria for the implementation of control measures

Saidak, Filip

37

Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 3  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 3 consists of eleven appendices containing the following: Field verification reports for Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rocky Flats Plant, Brookhaven National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., and Sandia National Laboratories (NM); Mini-visits to small DOE sites; Working Group meeting, June 7--8, 1994; Commendable practices; Related chemical safety initiatives at DOE; Regulatory framework and industry initiatives related to chemical safety; and Chemical inventory data from field self-evaluation reports.

Not Available

1994-09-01

38

Development of a written comprehensive chemical safety program  

SciTech Connect

It has become increasingly important for occupational safety and health (OSH) professionals to provide clear, definitive guidance to workers and supervisors on chemical safety. Internal OSH professionals find themselves in the role of consultants to their companies, providing {open_quotes}how-to`s{close_quotes} to line personnel. This has resulted in a need to provide information for chemical safety that extends beyond an MSDS, especially where requirements/guidance may be duplicative or conflicting. Requirements are contained in OSHA, DOT and internal documents; guidance includes ANSI, ASTM, and NFPA. OSH personnel, workers and supervisors at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), who must comply with DOE requirements, recognized the difficulty of complying with numerous regulations and guidelines. A document that resulted in {open_quotes}one-stop{close_quotes} shopping for chemical safety was proposed. This presentation describes our approach to simplifying chemical safety requirements and guidelines for LANL.

Sassone, D.M.; Holman, S.H.; Whyte, H.M.; Shinkel, J.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-12-31

39

Chemical Safety and Scientific Ethics in a Sophomore Chemistry Seminar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description of a course on chemical safety and scientific ethics is presented. The goals of this course are to impress upon the students the importance of safety in their professional lives; to empower the students to take charge of their own personal safety when working with chemicals; to illustrate and emphasize the vital importance of honesty and integrity within the scientific enterprise; and to explore issues of honesty and integrity through case studies that allow ethical decisions to be critically examined. The recent approaches and activities used to accomplish these goals are detailed. These include readings from chemical safety textbooks, chemical safety reports from news sources, and group discussions springing from problems in scientific ethics.

Moody, Anne E.; Griffith Freeman, R.

1999-09-01

40

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Safety in the Analytical Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Safety issues specifically related to the analytical laboratory are discussed including hazardous reagents, transferring samples, cleaning apparatus, eye protection, and equipment damage. Special attention is given to techniques which not only endanger the technician but also endanger expensive equipment. (CW)

Ewing, Galen W.

1990-01-01

41

78 FR 48029 - Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...shall consult with the Chemical Safety Board (CSB...determine what, if any, changes are required to existing...shall identify a list of chemicals, including poisons...addition to the CFATS Chemicals of Interest list...i) identify any changes that need to be...

2013-08-07

42

A Chemical Plant Safety and Hazard Analysis Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course for teaching chemical engineering students about safety and hazards. Summarizes the course content including topics for term papers and disciplines related to this course. Lists 18 references. (YP)

Gupta, J. P.

1989-01-01

43

Washington University in St. Louis Institutional Biological & Chemical Safety Committee  

E-print Network

Washington University in St. Louis Institutional Biological & Chemical Safety Committee Written and are instructed to report to Student & Employee Health or Washington University's contracted occupational health will report to Student & Employee Health or Washington University's contracted occupational health provider

Kroll, Kristen L.

44

Environmental and safety obligations of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

Among its many unique and precedent-setting provisions, the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) includes important requirements for States Parties to protect the public safety and the environment in the course of carrying out the treaty. These obligations will apply to the destruction of chemical weapons, of former chemical weapons production facilities, and to other activities under the Convention such as the verification scheme. This morning, I will briefly discuss the Convention`s safety and environmental obligations, concentrating on their effects in this country as the United States chemical weapons stockpile is destroyed.

Tanzman, E.A.

1994-04-07

45

Air Quality: Implementation Plan Department: Chemical and General Safety  

E-print Network

Air Quality: Implementation Plan Department: Chemical and General Safety Program: Air Quality Owner: Program Manager Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 30, Air Quality1 The requirements of Chapter 30, "Air in place 1 SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001), Chapter 30, "Air Quality

Wechsler, Risa H.

46

Support from Afar: Using Chemical Safety Information on the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the major challenges facing people committed to Teaching Safety in High Schools, Colleges, and Universities is keeping up with both the wide range of relevant technical information about potential hazards (ranging from fire protection to chemical hazards to biological issues) and the ever-changing world of safety regulations and standards.…

Stuart, Ralph

47

CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a high-resolution combined physical and chemical model of a protoplanetary disk surrounding a typical T Tauri star. Our aims were to use our model to calculate the chemical structure of disks on small scales (submilliarcsecond in the inner disk for objects at the distance of Taurus, {approx}140 pc) to investigate the various chemical processes thought to be important in disks and to determine potential molecular tracers of each process. Our gas-phase network was extracted from the UMIST Database for Astrochemistry to which we added gas-grain interactions including freezeout and thermal and non-thermal desorption (cosmic-ray-induced desorption, photodesorption, and X-ray desorption), and a grain-surface network. We find that cosmic-ray-induced desorption has the least effect on our disk chemical structure while photodesorption has a significant effect, enhancing the abundances of most gas-phase molecules throughout the disk and affecting the abundances and distribution of HCN, CN, and CS, in particular. In the outer disk, we also see enhancements in the abundances of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}. X-ray desorption is a potentially powerful mechanism in disks, acting to homogenize the fractional abundances of gas-phase species across the depth and increasing the column densities of most molecules, although there remain significant uncertainties in the rates adopted for this process. The addition of grain-surface chemistry enhances the fractional abundances of several small complex organic molecules including CH{sub 3}OH, HCOOCH{sub 3}, and CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} to potentially observable values (i.e., a fractional abundance of {approx}>10{sup -11}).

Walsh, Catherine; Millar, T. J. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, University Road, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Nomura, Hideko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

2010-10-20

48

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Site Development Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) mission is to receive and store spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes for disposition for Department of Energy (DOE) in a cost-effective manner that protects the safety of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) employees, the public, and the environment by: Developing advanced technologies to process spent nuclear fuel for permanent offsite disposition and to achieve waste minimization. Receiving and storing Navy and other DOE assigned spent nuclear fuels. Managing all wastes in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Identifying and conducting site remediation consistent with facility transition activities. Seeking out and implementing private sector technology transfer and cooperative development agreements. Prior to April 1992, the ICPP mission included fuel reprocessing. With the recent phaseout of fuel reprocessing, some parts of the ICPP mission have changed. Others have remained the same or increased in scope.

Ferguson, F.G.

1994-02-01

49

Occupational Hygiene & Chemical Safety Division Department of Environmental Health & Safety  

E-print Network

, the waste anesthetic gas scavenging system. Proper use of chemical fume hoods or other applicable local is a halogenated inhalation general anesthetic. Isoflurane is a non-flammable, clear, colorless liquid with a mild the anesthetic machine or from escape of waste anesthetic gases while administering the anesthetic. Exposure

Machel, Hans

50

Laboratory Safety Survey Chemical Hygiene Plan  

E-print Network

and worn in the laboratory? Is other protective clothing (lab coats, aprons, etc.) or respiratory biohazards, toxins, and campus-regulated carcinogens been given documented special training? 5. Are workers records.) General Safety Y N N/A 10. Are rooms and cabinets containing campus-regulated carcinogens

Ferrara, Katherine W.

51

JICST Factual DatabaseJICST Chemical Substance Safety Regulation Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JICST Chemical Substance Safety Regulation Database is based on the Database of Safety Laws for Chemical Compounds constructed by Japan Chemical Industry Ecology-Toxicology & Information Center (JETOC) sponsored by the Sience and Technology Agency in 1987. JICST has modified JETOC database system, added data and started the online service through JOlS-F (JICST Online Information Service-Factual database) in January 1990. JICST database comprises eighty-three laws and fourteen hundred compounds. The authors outline the database, data items, files and search commands. An example of online session is presented.

Abe, Atsushi; Sohma, Tohru

52

Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

2010-06-01

53

Chemical Process Systems: A Second Course in Chemical Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an undergraduate chemical engineering course which was designed at North Carolina State University to introduce the experimental side of chemical process technology. The course lectures, experiments, objectives, evaluation and information sources are also discussed. (HM)

Felder, Richard M.; Marsland, David B.

1979-01-01

54

Processes for software in safety critical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two complementary standards are compared, both of which are concerned with the production of quality software. One, IEC 61508, is concerned with the safety of software intensive systems and the other, ISO\\/IEC TR 15504, takes a process view of software capability assessment. The standards are independent, though both standards build on ISO\\/IEC 12207. The paper proposes a correspondence between the

Oddur Benediktsson; R. B. Hunter; Andrew D. Mcgettrick

2001-01-01

55

Engineering Medical Processes to Improve Their Safety  

E-print Network

Engineering Medical Processes to Improve Their Safety An ExperienceReport Leon J. Osterweill at Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 {ljo, avrunin, chenbin, clarke, rcobleig} @ cs.umass.edu 2 School of Nursing, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, henneman@nursing.umass.edu 3 Baystate Medical

Avrunin, George S.

56

Scope on Safety: Common sense and chemicals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This month's column features two true stories about the use of chemicals in the middle school science classroom. The lesson of these stories is simple. Certainly, it is prudent to have age-appropriate experiences in science, given the developmental constr

Roy, Ken

2010-01-01

57

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOEpatents

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77389)

1987-01-01

58

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOEpatents

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77379)

1987-01-01

59

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOEpatents

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-11-24

60

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOEpatents

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-06-23

61

OSHA safety requirements for hazardous chemicals in the workplace.  

PubMed

This article outlines the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements set forth by the Hazard Communication Standard, which has been in effect for the healthcare industry since 1987. Administrators who have not taken concrete steps to address employee health and safety issues relating to hazardous chemicals are encouraged to do so to avoid the potential of large fines for cited violations. While some states administer their own occupational safety and health programs, they must adopt standards and enforce requirements that are at least as effective as federal requirements. PMID:10123093

Dohms, J

1992-01-01

62

Obtaining Valid Safety Data for Software Safety Measurement and Process Improvement  

E-print Network

, defense systems and heart monitors, are often safety-critical. A safety-critical system is a system where, safety-critical system of systems: the NASA Constellation program.1 As NASA's next generation spaceflight to system safety; and 2) to identify potential risks due to incorrect application of the safety process

Basili, Victor R.

63

Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

Hentges, Dawn L.

1999-01-01

64

Air Quality: Asbestos Notification Procedure Department: Chemical and General Safety  

E-print Network

Air Quality: Asbestos Notification Procedure Department: Chemical and General Safety Program: Air is mailed. Only work that does not involve asbestos containing material (ACM) may be performed. 1 SLAC://www.baaqmd.gov/enf/forms/1102_demolition_041306.pdf 3 Bay Area Air Quality Management Asbestos Renovation Notification Form

Wechsler, Risa H.

65

Scope on Safety : Chemicals from cradle to grave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

School districts are not immune to fines assessed by the Environmental Protection Agency or of becoming victims of unscrupulous business practices. With this in mind, schools need to consider adopting a protocol for the purchase, storage, use, and disposal of chemicals. This article will address these factors to ensure safety in your lab.

Roy, Ken

2005-01-01

66

Air Quality: Reporting Requirements Department: Chemical and General Safety  

E-print Network

Air Quality: Reporting Requirements Department: Chemical and General Safety Program: Air Quality Owner: Program Manager Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 30, Air Quality1 The air quality program manager requirements. This table summarizes all air quality program elements and reporting requirements. The NESHAPs

Wechsler, Risa H.

67

Air Quality: Acronym List Department: Chemical and General Safety  

E-print Network

Air Quality: Acronym List Department: Chemical and General Safety Program: Air Quality Owner: Program Manager Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 30, Air Quality1 ACM asbestos-containing material AHA area hazard analysis AQPM air quality program manager ARP accidental release prevention ATCM air toxic control

Wechsler, Risa H.

68

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS Pastoor, Timothy1, Barton, Hugh2 1 Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC, USA. 2 EPA, Office of Research and Development-NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. A multi-stakeholder series of discussions d...

69

Food safety. [chemical contaminants and human toxic diseases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Illness induced by unsafe food is a problem of great public health significance. This study relates exclusively to the occurrence of chemical agents which will result in food unsafe for human consumption since the matter of food safety is of paramount importance in the mission and operation of the manned spacecraft program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Pier, S. M.; Valentine, J. L.

1975-01-01

70

Using TOC Thinking Process Tools to Improve Safety Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

TOC thinking process tools are unique in their ability to improve safety performance in enterprises where the heavy economic losses and casualties occur due to a variety of health and safety accidents. Safety management is a very complex system that includes human, machine management, and environmental factors. Therefore, it is challenging to improve safety performance. Thinking Process (TP) is a

Zhang Lin

2009-01-01

71

Chemical Safety: What You Don't Know Can Hurt You!  

E-print Network

Chemical Safety: What You Don't Know Can Hurt You! Laboratory Safety Colloquium Sponsored by Environmental Health & Safety The Office of Research & Graduate Studies #12;This group of chemicals manifests cytochrome oxidase. Chemical Trivia #12;This group of chemicals manifests its toxicity by way of starving

Farritor, Shane

72

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: An Undergraduate Chemical Laboratory Safety Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a two-quarter hour college chemistry course focusing on laboratory safety. Includes lists of topics/assignments, problem sets (toxicology, storage, and energy) and videotapes, films, and slide sets used in the course. (JN)

Nicholls, L. Jewel

1982-01-01

73

Behavior of Mercury during DWPF Chemical Process Cell Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mer...

D. Koopman, J. Zamecnik

2012-01-01

74

Chemical Processing of Electrons and Holes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a synopsis of four lectures given in an elective senior-level electronic material processing course to introduce solid state electronics. Provides comparisons of a large scale chemical processing plant and an integrated circuit. (YP)

Anderson, Timothy J.

1990-01-01

75

Wildlife Services' Safety Review: Chemical Immobilization and Euthanasia of Wildlife: Immobilization and Euthanasia Drugs Safety Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To assess the degree of safety for Wildlie Services in the arena of chemical immobilization and euthanasia of Wildlife (I&eE), It Identified the major risks associated with the WS I&E program, Reviewed agency policies, directives,and supporting documents,...

B. C. West, M. R. Johnson, S. W. Jack

2009-01-01

76

Steam generator cleaning using chemical cleaning processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical cleaning of steam generators (SGs) for the removal of tube deposits and sludge has become a widely accepted practice. Two US utilities have now applied a process developed by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) as part of their SG maintenance program with very positive results. Several European utilities have also chemically cleaned SGs using a process developed by

P. M. Olson; C. A. Swift

1987-01-01

77

Chemical SafetyChemical Safety What you donWhat you don''t know can hurt yout know can hurt you  

E-print Network

11 Chemical SafetyChemical Safety What you donWhat you don''t know can hurt yout know can hurt you #12;22 Introduction 1Introduction 1 Chemicals are all around us.Chemicals are all around us.The vehicles we drive. ·· In the products we use everyday.In the products we use everyday. Chemicals can help

Farritor, Shane

78

Internet Conference on Process Safety http://www.safetynet.de  

E-print Network

The 2nd Internet Conference on Process Safety http://www.safetynet.de 20. -24. March 2000 1 are often measured as #12;The 2nd Internet Conference on Process Safety http://www.safetynet.de 20. -24 is often demanded by the national or local authorities to judge the safety level and thus the acceptability

79

Process for the production of fine chemicals  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a process for the production of fine chemicals in a microorganism, a plant cell, a plant, a plant tissue or parts thereof by increasing or generating the biological activity of a ras-Like GTPase or the homologues thereof and growing the organism under conditions which permit the production of the fine chemicals in the organism. Preferred fine chemicals produced by the present invention include amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, fatty acids, and carotenoids.

2011-08-30

80

49 CFR 1106.4 - The Safety Integration Plan process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD CONSIDERATION OF SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS IN CASES INVOLVING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL § 1106.4 The Safety Integration Plan process. (a) Each applicant in a...

2013-10-01

81

Integrating Chemical Hazard Assessment into the Design of Inherently Safer Processes  

E-print Network

Reactive hazard associated with chemicals is a major safety issue in process industries. This kind of hazard has caused the occurrence of many accidents, leading to fatalities, injuries, property damage and environment pollution. Reactive hazards...

Lu, Yuan

2012-02-14

82

Developing system-based leading indicators for proactive risk management in the chemical processing industry  

E-print Network

The chemical processing industry has faced challenges with achieving improvements in safety performance, and accidents continue to occur. When accidents occur, they usually have a confluence of multiple factors, suggesting ...

Khawaji, Ibrahim A. (Ibrahim Abdullah)

2012-01-01

83

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant failure rate database.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report represents the first major upgrade to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Failure Rate Database. This upgrade incorporates additional site-specific and generic data while improving on the previous data reduction techniques. In addition,...

T. G. Alber, C. R. Hunt, S. P. Fogarty, J. R. Wilson

1995-01-01

84

Molecular Thermodynamics for Chemical Process Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses that aspect of thermodynamics which is particularly important in chemical process design: the calculation of the equilibrium properties of fluid mixtures, especially as required in phase-separation operations. (MLH)

Prausnitz, J. M.

1976-01-01

85

Microwave-enhanced chemical processes  

DOEpatents

A process for disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Effecting intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400.degree. C. in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient to break the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds and provide detoxification values in excess of 80 and further detoxifying the bed followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes.

Varma, Ravi (Hinsdale, IL)

1990-01-01

86

Microwave-enhanced chemical processes  

DOEpatents

A process is disclosed for the disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400 C in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient breaks the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds. Detoxification values in excess of 80 are provided and further detoxification of the bed is followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes. 1 figure.

Varma, R.

1990-06-19

87

Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Safety and Emission Control Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical sensor technology is being developed for leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire safety applications. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS)-based) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Using these technologies, sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed. A description is given of each sensor type and its present stage of development. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.-Y.; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.

1998-01-01

88

Application of Annotated Logic Program to Pipeline Process Safety Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a paraconsistent annotated logic program called Extended Vector Annotated Logic Program with Strong Negation (abbr. EVALPSN), which can deal with defeasible deontic reasoning and contradiction, and we have already applied it to safety verification and control such as railway interlocking safety verification and traffic signal control. In this paper, we introduce process safety verification as an application

Kazumi Nakamatsu

2007-01-01

89

Process/Equipment Co-Simulation on Syngas Chemical Looping Process  

SciTech Connect

The chemical looping strategy for fossil energy applications promises to achieve an efficient energy conversion system for electricity, liquid fuels, hydrogen and/or chemicals generation, while economically separate CO{sub 2} by looping reaction design in the process. Chemical looping particle performance, looping reactor engineering, and process design and applications are the key drivers to the success of chemical looping process development. In order to better understand and further scale up the chemical looping process, issues such as cost, time, measurement, safety, and other uncertainties need to be examined. To address these uncertainties, advanced reaction/reactor modeling and process simulation are highly desired and the modeling efforts can accelerate the chemical looping technology development, reduce the pilot-scale facility design time and operating campaigns, as well as reduce the cost and technical risks. The purpose of this work is thus to conduct multiscale modeling and simulations on the key aspects of chemical looping technology, including particle reaction kinetics, reactor design and operation, and process synthesis and optimization.

Zeng, Liang; Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih

2012-09-30

90

Safety analysis of SISL process module  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an assessment of various postulated accidental occurrences within an experimental process module which is part of a Special Isotope Separation Laboratory (SISL) currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The process module will contain large amounts of molten uranium and various water-cooled structures within a vacuum vessel. Special emphasis is therefore given to potential accidental interactions of molten uranium with water leading to explosive and/or rapid steam formation, as well as uranium oxidation and the potential for combustion. Considerations are also given to the potential for vessel melt-through. Evaluations include mechanical and thermal interactions and design implications both in terms of design basis as well as once-in-a-lifetime accident scenarios. These scenarios include both single- and multiple-failure modes leading to various contact modes and locations within the process module for possible thermal interactions. The evaluations show that a vacuum vessel design based upon nominal operating conditions would appear sufficient to meet safety requirements in connection with both design basis as well as once-in-a-lifetime accidents. Controlled venting requirements for removal of steam and hydrogen in order to avoid possible long-term pressurization events are recommended. Depending upon the resulting accident conditions, the vacuum system (i.e., the roughing system) could also serve this purpose. Finally, based upon accident evaluations of this study, immediate shut-off of all coolant water following an incident leak is not recommended, as such action may have adverse effects in terms of cool-down requirements for the melt crucibles etc. These requirements have not been assessed as part of this study.

Not Available

1983-05-01

91

Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

Burnham, A.K.

1993-07-01

92

The process of magnetization by chemical change  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the well-known processes of magnetization of rocks are discussed and compared and contrasted with the magnetization formed when a ferromagnetic mineral undergoes a chemical change within the influence of an external magnetic field. The thermal stability of the ‘chemical-magnetization’ so produced is examined and compared with the magnetizations produced isothermally and thermo-remanently in iron oxides under similar

G. Haigh

1958-01-01

93

21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19...ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.19 Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed...

2010-04-01

94

21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19...ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.19 Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed...

2011-04-01

95

21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19...ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.19 Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed...

2011-04-01

96

21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19...ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.19 Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed...

2010-04-01

97

Chemically amplified photoresist: Materials and processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in microfabrication technology to construct smaller and faster integrated circuits depend on improving resolution capabilities of patterning thin films of photoresist materials by photolithographic imaging. Positive-tone, chemically amplified photoresists represent one of the most important classes of photoresist materials. These materials function by the generation of a photoacid catalyst from the decomposition of a photoacid generator with exposure that catalyzes chemical reactions that alter the development rate of the exposed resist. Chemical amplification is derived from the fact that a single molecule of photogenerated catalyst may participate in numerous reactions. Photoacid catalyzes the cleavage of acid-labile protecting groups from the backbone of the resin polymer, increasing the dissolution rate of the resist in aqueous base. A pattern is formed in the photoresist film from the difference between dissolution rates of the exposed and unexposed material. The continual improvement of the resolution of chemically amplified resists depends on understanding, controlling, and optimizing the chemical processes that govern pattern formation, namely photoacid generation, resin deprotection, and resist dissolution. To elucidate how the formulation of the resist affects these processes, a systematic methodology was designed, validated and implemented to analyze the materials and processing of chemically amplified photoresist systems. The efficiency of photoacid generation and the concentration of photoacid produced upon exposure were determined for a wide range of resist formulations, processing conditions, and exposure technologies. The chemical structure of photoacid generators and base quenchers were found to affect the processes of acid-base neutralization, resin deprotection, and resist development. The reaction-diffusion process of photoacid to deprotect the resin was identified to depend on the concentration of the photoacid generator. A much greater concentration of photoacid was required to render development for ultra-thin films of chemically amplified photoresist less than 150nm thick than for thicker resist films. These investigations identified that the action of photoacid within the resist film is more complex than previously thought, and provided insight for the design and optimization of photoresist materials and processes.

Pawloski, Adam Richard

2002-01-01

98

Safety assessment of the liquid-fed ceramic melter process  

SciTech Connect

As part of its development program for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste, Pacific Northwest Laboratory assessed the safety issues for a complete liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process. The LFCM process, an adaption of commercial glass-making technology, is being developed to convert high-level liquid waste from the nuclear fuel cycle into glass. This safety assessment uncovered no unresolved or significant safety problems with the LFCM process. Although in this assessment the LFCM process was not directly compared with other solidification processes, the safety hazards of the LFCM process are comparable to those of other processes. The high processing temperatures of the glass in the LFCM pose no additional significant safety concerns, and the dispersible inventory of dried waste (calcine) is small. This safety assessment was based on the nuclear power waste flowsheet, since power waste is more radioactive than defense waste at the time of solidification, and all accident conditions for the power waste would have greater radiological consequences than those for defense waste. An exhaustive list of possible off-standard conditions and equipment failures was compiled. These accidents were then classified according to severity of consequence and type of accident. Radionuclide releases to the stack were calculated for each group of accidents using conservative assumptions regarding the retention and decontamination features of the process and facility. Two recommendations that should be considered by process designers are given in the safety assessment.

Buelt, J.L.; Partain, W.L.

1980-08-01

99

A Novel Chemical Nitrate Destruction Process  

SciTech Connect

Nitrates represent one of the most significant pollutant discharged to the Baltic Sea by the Sliiamae hydrometallurgical plant. This article contains a brief overview of the existing nitrate destruction technologies followed by the description of a new process developed by the authors. The new chemical process for nitrate destruction is cost effective and simple to operate. It converts the nitrate to nitrogen gas which goes to the atmosphere.

Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.

1999-03-01

100

Chemical Processes in Astrophysical Radiation Fields  

SciTech Connect

The effects of stimulated photon emission on chemical processes in a radiation field are considered and their influence on the chemistry of the early universe and other astrophysical environments is investigated. Spontaneous and stimulated radiative attachment rate coefficients for H(-), Li(-) and C(-) are presented.

Stancil, P.C.; Dalgarno, A.

1997-12-31

101

Chemical Pollutants Threatening Food Safety and Security: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Food passing several stages in the long and sophisticated food chain processing (from farm to fork) before being consumed and in each stage can cause morbidity and mortality, and also destruction to food industry. This is\\u000a because food is a vulnerable media for contamination by thousands of biological, chemical and physical agents, and radio nuclear\\u000a materials. Such contamination may occur

Sameeh A. Mansour

102

Statistical safety analysis of maintenance management process of excavator units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within this paper, the process of statistical safety analysis has been presented, which involves the following steps: formulation\\u000a of basic principles of statistical safety analysis, initial events analysis, accident sceneries progress analysis, risk calculation,\\u000a and risk calculation results analysis. On this basis, it has been concluded that the bucket wheel excavator SRs 1200×24\\/4×0(400\\u000a kW)+VR safety criteria is the mechanism for

Ljubisa Papic; Milorad Pantelic; Joseph Aronov; Ajit Kumar Verma

2010-01-01

103

Advanced Process and Chemical Complex Analysis Systems Derya Ozyurtb  

E-print Network

. Also, processing options, i.e., changes in chemistry, chemical reactor configurations, solvents157g Advanced Process and Chemical Complex Analysis Systems Derya Ozyurtb , Aimin Xub , Thomas, Pollution Prevention, Sustainability, Chemical Complex, Prepared for presentation at the 2002 Annual Meeting

Pike, Ralph W.

104

40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...equipment in the process. (b) Information...substances in the process. This information...6) Thermal and chemical stability data...technology of the process. (1) Information... (iv) Relief system design and design...generally accepted good engineering practices....

2010-07-01

105

NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) Payload Safety Review Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Issues addressed by this program: (1) Complicated roles and responsibilities associated with multi-partner projects (2) Working relationships and communications between all organizations involved in the payload safety process (3) Consistent interpretation and implementation of safety requirements from one project to the rest (4) Consistent implementation of the Tailoring Process (5) Clearly defined NASA decision-making-authority (6) Bring Agency-wide perspective to each ElV payload project. Current process requires a Payload Safety Working Group (PSWG) for eac payload with representatives from all involved organizations.

Starbus, Calvert S.; Donovan, Shawn; Dook, Mike; Palo, Tom

2007-01-01

106

METRAC Safety Audit Process Table 1: Committee Members  

E-print Network

METRAC Safety Audit Process Table 1: Committee Members Name Position Livy Visano Chair Student Representative, YFS Alexandra McGregor Associate Professor, School of Nursing, Faculty of Health: Safety Audit Timeline Date Action Taken 18-Mar-08 Request for Proposal posted 24-Mar-08 Keele Town Halls

107

Engineering Medical Processes to Improve Their Safety: An Experience Report  

E-print Network

Engineering Medical Processes to Improve Their Safety: An Experience Report Leon J. Osterweil of Massachusetts at Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 Elizabeth A. Henneman henneman@nursing.umass.edu School of Nursing aimed at finding and correcting defects leading to improvements in patient safety. The work entails

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

108

Fluidic microchemomechanical integrated circuits processing chemical information.  

PubMed

Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technology has blossomed into a major new technology fundamentally influencing the sciences of life and nature. From a systemic point of view however, microfluidics is still in its infancy. Here, we present the concept of a microfluidic central processing unit (CPU) which shows remarkable similarities to early electronic Von Neumann microprocessors. It combines both control and execution units and, moreover, the complete power supply on a single chip and introduces the decision-making ability regarding chemical information into fluidic integrated circuits (ICs). As a consequence of this system concept, the ICs process chemical information completely in a self-controlled manner and energetically self-sustaining. The ICs are fabricated by layer-by-layer deposition of several overlapping layers based on different intrinsically active polymers. As examples we present two microchips carrying out long-term monitoring of critical parameters by around-the-clock sampling. PMID:23038405

Greiner, Rinaldo; Allerdissen, Merle; Voigt, Andreas; Richter, Andreas

2012-12-01

109

Chemical mass transfer in magmatic processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermodynamic and mathematical relations are presented to facilitate the description of an algorithm for the calculation of\\u000a chemical mass transfer in magmatic systems. This algorithm extends the silicate liquid solution model of Ghiorso et al. (1983)\\u000a to allow for the quantitative modelling of natural magmatic processes such as crystal fractionation, equilibrium crystallization,\\u000a magma mixing and solid-phase assimilation. The algorithm incorporates

Mark S. Ghiorso

1985-01-01

110

A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

111

Fast Reactor Spent Fuel Processing: Experience and Criticality Safety. Safety Analysis Working Group 2007 Annual Workshop.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses operational and criticality safety experience associated at the Idaho National Laboratory Fuel Conditioning Facility. The facility uses an engineering scale pyrometallurgical process to treat fast reactor spent fuel from the Experimen...

C. Pope

2007-01-01

112

Role of Process Models in Safety Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management is a type of human activity that establishes and ensures the system functions. The process models and project models are currently used for management support. Main aim of the process model is to describe the possible development tendencies as a consequence of certain phenomenon and to define functions and role of functions. The process models enable to compile procedures

Miroslav Rusko; Dana Procházková

2010-01-01

113

Economic-Oriented Stochastic Optimization in Advanced Process Control of Chemical Processes  

PubMed Central

Finding the optimal operating region of chemical processes is an inevitable step toward improving economic performance. Usually the optimal operating region is situated close to process constraints related to product quality or process safety requirements. Higher profit can be realized only by assuring a relatively low frequency of violation of these constraints. A multilevel stochastic optimization framework is proposed to determine the optimal setpoint values of control loops with respect to predetermined risk levels, uncertainties, and costs of violation of process constraints. The proposed framework is realized as direct search-type optimization of Monte-Carlo simulation of the controlled process. The concept is illustrated throughout by a well-known benchmark problem related to the control of a linear dynamical system and the model predictive control of a more complex nonlinear polymerization process. PMID:23213298

Dobos, Laszlo; Kiraly, Andras; Abonyi, Janos

2012-01-01

114

SAFETY EVALUATION OF RENOVATED WASTEWATER FROM A POULTRY PROCESSING PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

A three-phase evaluation of reclaimed process wastewater for reuse was undertaken at the Sterling Processing Corporation plant in Oakland, Maryland. The main objective was to evaluate the safety for human consumption of poultry exposed during processing to an average 50 percent m...

115

Waste processing of chemical cleaning solutions  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on chemical cleaning solutions containing high concentrations of organic chelating wastes that are difficult to reduce in volume using existing technology. Current methods for evaporating low-level radiative waste solutions often use high maintenance evaporators that can be costly and inefficient. The heat transfer surfaces of these evaporators are easily fouled, and their maintenance requires a significant labor investment. To address the volume reduction of spent, low-level radioactive, chelating-based chemical cleaning solutions, ECOSAFE Liquid Volume Reduction System (LVRS) has been developed. The LVRS is based on submerged combustion evaporator technology that was modified for treatment of low-level radiative liquid wastes. This system was developed in 1988 and was used to process 180,000 gallons of waste at Oconee Nuclear Station.

Peters, G.A. (B and W Nuclear Service Co., Lynchburg, VA (US))

1991-01-01

116

Assessing Chemical Retention Process Controls in Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small ponds are a ubiquitous component of the landscape and have earned a reputation as effective chemical retention devices. The most common characterization of pond chemical retention is the retention coefficient, Ri= ([Ci]inflow-[Ci] outflow)/[Ci]inflow. However, this parameter varies widely in one pond with time and among ponds. We have re-evaluated literature reported (Borden et al., 1998) monthly average retention coefficients for two ponds in North Carolina. Employing a simple first order model that includes water residence time, the first order process responsible for species removal have been separated from the water residence time over which it acts. Assuming the rate constant for species removal is constant within the pond (arguable at least), the annual average rate constant for species removal is generated. Using the annual mean rate constant for species removal and monthly water residence times results in a significantly enhanced predictive capability for Davis Pond during most months of the year. Predictive ability remains poor in Davis Pond during winter/unstratified periods when internal loading of P and N results in low to negative chemical retention. Predictive ability for Piedmont Pond (which has numerous negative chemical retention periods) is improved but not to the same extent as Davis Pond. In Davis Pond, the rate constant for sediment removal (each month) is faster than the rate constant for water and explains the good predictability for sediment retention. However, the removal rate constant for P and N is slower than the removal rate constant for sediment (longer water column residence time for P,N than for sediment). Thus sedimentation is not an overall control on nutrient retention. Additionally, the removal rate constant for P is slower than for TOC (TOC is not the dominate removal process for P) and N is removed slower than P (different in pond controls). For Piedmont Pond, sediment removal rate constants are slower than the removal rate constant for water indicating significant sediment resuspension episodes. It appears that these sediment resuspension events are aperiodic and control the loading and the chemical retention capability of Piedmont Pond for N,P,TOC. These calculated rate constants reflect the differing internal loading processes for each component and suggest means and mechanisms for the use of ponds in water quality management.

Torgersen, T.; Branco, B.; John, B.

2002-05-01

117

Model for multi-strata safety performance measurements in the process industry  

E-print Network

Measuring process safety performance is a challenge, and the wide variations in understanding, compliance, and implementation of process safety programs increase the challenge. Process safety can be measured in three strata: (1) measurement...

Keren, Nir

2004-09-30

118

Scope on Safety: Chemical tracking systems--not your usual global positioning system!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The haphazard storing and tracking of chemicals in the laboratory is a serious safety issue facing science teachers. To get control of your chemicals, try implementing a chemical tracking system. A chemical tracking system (CTS) is a database of chemicals used in the laboratory. If implemented correctly, a CTS will reduce purchasing costs, eliminate overstocking, and reduce disposal costs. It will also allow you to respond more effectively to accidents, fires, and other hazardous situations.

Roy, Ken

2007-04-01

119

Combined dispersion & explosion modeling in process safety  

SciTech Connect

Computer modeling of explosions within process facilities is usually a multistep process. A procedure might be: First, accidental releases of gases are postulated and then modeled with a dispersion code. Flammable materials are analyzed to find the contours within the flammability limits. Next, the amount of material and physical extent is fed to a explosion code, which outputs the overpressure and impulse. Then the damage must be related to pressure and impulse through P-1 diagrams, which are empirically derived. A separate calculation for thermal output is also required to analyze damage from direct radiation and secondary fires. We present a modular computer architecture that can be used to determine the sensitivity of not only the input scenario, but the accuracy of each of the models used in the process. For example, we have combined computer models, which can assess damage from toxic only clouds and/or flammable clouds. The PCBLAST{sup {reg_sign}}methodology and DEGADIS have been combined into an integrated computer architecture that allows the user the ability to see damage levels for any scenario. This approach can be used with any set of dispersion and explosion models. Furthermore, at each step of the procedure, error bars are placed on the model output. These errors propagate and affect the final answer, the damage. In this way a probabilistic assessment of damage can be ascertained either from scenario variation or model inaccuracy. The accuracy of the models, both dispersion and explosion, is of importance. However, the uncertainties in the scenarios may diminish the need for highly accurate models. For example, the PCBLAST{sup {reg_sign}}computer module is based on first principles physics, and as a result is highly accurate. Combining the modeling process into a linked and interactive computer code allows one to quantitatively assess the source of the uncertainties; in the models and/or in the definition of scenarios.

Fry, M.A. [Mark A. Fry & Associates, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ (United States)

1996-08-01

120

Chapter IV - Safety During Payload Ground Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This chapter describes the typical hazards that can be expected to be encountered when processing payloads on the ground. Also described are some of the more common controls for these hazards. Many of these controls are based on hard requirements but they are also based on specific lessons learned. This chapter uses the term Flight Hardware (F/H) for all payloads regardless of size.

Kirkpatrick, Paul; Dollberg, John; Trinchero, Jean-Pierre

2012-01-01

121

Scope on Safety: Yes, you need a Chemical Hygiene Officer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chemical Hygiene Officer's (CHO) role is absolutely critical in fostering and ensuring both chemical hygiene practices and the chemical hygiene plan. OSHA defines the Chemical Hygiene Officer as an "employee who is designated by the employer, and who is qualified by training or experience, to provide technical guidance in the development and implementation of the provisions of the Chemical Hygiene Plan." The CHO position is also essential in helping to facilitate the safeguards put in place as part of the chemical hygiene plan to protect both the teacher and students.

Roy, Ken

2009-04-01

122

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant failure rate database  

SciTech Connect

This report represents the first major upgrade to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Failure Rate Database. This upgrade incorporates additional site-specific and generic data while improving on the previous data reduction techniques. In addition, due to a change in mission at the ICPP, the status of certain equipment items has changed from operating to standby or off-line. A discussion of how this mission change influenced the relevance of failure data also has been included. This report contains two data sources: the ICPP Failure Rate Database and a generic failure rate database. A discussion is presented on the approaches and assumptions used to develop the data in the ICPP Failure Rate Database. The generic database is included along with a short discussion of its application. A brief discussion of future projects recommended to strengthen and lend credibility to the ICPP Failure Rate Database also is included.

Alber, T.G.; Hunt, C.R.; Fogarty, S.P.; Wilson, J.R.

1995-08-01

123

The Acquisition and Application of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Data in Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessments  

SciTech Connect

The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) formed the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee in the year 2000 to design a toxicity testing scheme that would incorporate current understanding of pesticide toxicology and exposure and recognize the specificity of agricultural products. The purpose of and background for the ACSA project are described in detail in the companion paper by Carmichael et al. (2006). As the proposed tiered testing approach for agricultural chemical safety assessment evolved, the ACSA Technical Committee and its task forces (Carmichael et al., 2006; Cooper et al., 2006; Doe et al., 2006) worked toward the following objectives: (1) Provide information that can be applied to a range of relevant human exposure situations. (2) Characterize effects that have the potential to damage human health at exposure levels approximating those that might be encountered in the use of these compounds. (3) Avoid high doses that cause unnecessary public concern (e.g., safety assessments should focus on doses that are relevant to realistic human exposures while maintaining adequate power for the experimental studies to detect toxicity). (4) Use the minimum number of animals necessary to produce a thorough safety assessment of the chemicals of interest. (5) Inflict the minimum amount of distress on animals. (6) Minimize excessive and unnecessary use of resources by regulatory authorities and industry, which could be used to address other issues of concern. (7) Increase both the efficiency and relevance of the current safety assessment process.

Barton, H. A.; Pastoor, Timothy P.; Baetcke, Karl; Chambers, Janice E.; Diliberto, Janet; Doerrer, Nancy G.; Driver, Jeffrey H.; Hastings, Charles E.; Iyengar, Seshadri; Krieger, Robert; Stahl, Bernhard; Timchalk, Chuck

2006-01-01

124

CHEM 5510 Introduction to Laboratory Safety 1 credit course on chemical safety (1 hour course, Friday afternoons, Fall Semester)  

E-print Network

of Ignition, Reactive Hazards, Explosives VIII. Case Study University of Wisconsin � LiAlH4 Explosion and Receiving Chemicals II. Regulatory Compliance � History of Occupational Safety and Environmental Laws III) II. Working with High- ly Reactive or Explosive Substances III. Working with Compressed Gases (Parts

Simons, Jack

125

Occupational safety and health guidelines for chemical hazards. (Publication No. 88-118)  

SciTech Connect

A compilation of 35 occupational safety and health guidelines was developed for the purpose of disseminating the information to workers, employers, and to professionals in the field of occupational safety and health. The guidelines were for individual substances and included the following information: chemical names and synonyms, chemical and physical properties, exposure limits, signs and symptoms of exposure, recommendations for medical monitoring, respiratory and personal protective equipment, and control procedures.

Not Available

1988-01-01

126

Occupational safety and health guidelines for chemical hazards. (Publication No. 89-104)  

SciTech Connect

A compilation of 30 occupational safety and health guidelines was developed for the purpose of disseminating the information to workers, employers, and to professionals in the field of occupational safety and health. The guidelines were for individual substances and included the following information: chemical names and synonyms, chemical and physical properties, exposure limits, signs and symptoms of exposure, recommendations for medical monitoring, respiratory and personal protective equipment, and control procedures.

Not Available

1988-01-01

127

Final Safety Analysis Document for Building 693 Chemical Waste Storage Building at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Safety Analysis Document (SAD) for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Building 693, Chemical Waste Storage Building (desipated as Building 693 Container Storage Unit in the Laboratory`s RCRA Part B permit application), provides the necessary information and analyses to conclude that Building 693 can be operated at low risk without unduly endangering the safety of the building operating personnel

R. J. Salazar

1992-01-01

128

Final Safety Analysis Document for Building 693 Chemical Waste Storage Building at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Safety Analysis Document (SAD) for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Building 693, Chemical Waste Storage Building (desipated as Building 693 Container Storage Unit in the Laboratory's RCRA Part B permit application), provides the necessary information and analyses to conclude that Building 693 can be operated at low risk without unduly endangering the safety of the building operating personnel

R. J. Salazar

1992-01-01

129

Potential use of advanced process control for safety purposes during attack of a process plant.  

PubMed

Many refineries and commodity chemical plants employ advanced process control (APC) systems to improve throughputs and yields. These APC systems utilize empirical process models for control purposes and enable operation closer to constraints than can be achieved with traditional PID regulatory feedback control. Substantial economic benefits are typically realized from the addition of APC systems. This paper considers leveraging the control capabilities of existing APC systems to minimize the potential impact of a terrorist attack on a process plant (e.g., petroleum refinery). Two potential uses of APC are described. The first is a conventional application of APC and involves automatically moving the process to a reduced operating rate when an attack first begins. The second is a non-conventional application and involves reconfiguring the APC system to optimize safety rather than economics. The underlying intent in both cases is to reduce the demands on the operator to allow focus on situation assessment and optimal response planning. An overview of APC is provided along with a brief description of the modifications required for the proposed new applications of the technology. PMID:16298048

Whiteley, James R

2006-03-17

130

Foundations for Excellence in the Chemical Process Industries. Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses the Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers Project and issues of relevance to the education and employment of chemical laboratory technicians (CLTs) and process technicians (PTs). Section 1 consists of the following background information: overview of the chemical process industries,…

Hofstader, Robert; Chapman, Kenneth

131

Film processing investigation. [improved chemical mixing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present operational chemical mixing system for the Photographic Technology Division is evaluated, and the limitations are defined in terms of meeting the present and programmed chemical supply and delivery requirements. A major redesign of the entire chemical mixing, storage, analysis, and supply system is recommended. Other requirements for immediate and future implementations are presented.

Kelly, J. L.

1972-01-01

132

A Virtual Plant Modeler (VPMOD) for Batch Chemical Processes  

E-print Network

and control chemical product flow in a flexible plant subject to unexpected events, such as changes in demandA Virtual Plant Modeler (VPMOD) for Batch Chemical Processes Chell A. Roberts, Arizona State formally characterizes and integrates chemical product designs, batch-chemical equipment (plants), the real

Dessouky, Maged

133

UNREVIEWED SAFETY ISSUE SCREENING AND DETERMINATION PROCESS TRAINING WORKSHEET  

E-print Network

TA-53 UNREVIEWED SAFETY ISSUE SCREENING AND DETERMINATION PROCESS TRAINING WORKSHEET CT-TA53-FRM: This worksheet is used to document completion of the USI Reviewer / Approver requirements, per SBP113" to all of the above-referenced questions, please continue to the back of this worksheet. #12;TA-53

134

'Geo'chemical research: a key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases.  

PubMed

Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland...), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case supporting how radionuclide transfer is represented in the performance assessment model. The objective here is to illustrate how geochemical research contributes to this process and, above all, to identify a certain number of subjects which should be treated in priority. PMID:19008019

Altmann, Scott

2008-12-12

135

Facilities face challenges of process safety and risk management planning rules  

SciTech Connect

Two regulatory programs--The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) process safety management standard and the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed risk management program--were developed to prevent and minimize the consequences of such catastrophic accidents as the toxic gas release in Bhopal, India. The process safety standard, issued as part of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, is designed to protect employees from workplace accidents; the risk management program, proposed under the Clean Air Act, is meant to protect the public from accidents at nearby facilities. OSHA estimates that the process safety standard will save industry $2 billion during the next 10 years by preventing accidents and reducing downtime. However, the agency also predicts that nearly 25,000 facilities in 127 industries, from petroleum and chemical facilities to pulp and paper plants, must comply with the standard at annual costs of $900 million for the first five years and $1.3 billion over 10 years. EPA estimates that about 140,000 facilities would be affected by the proposed risk management rule, which would cover facilities with threshold quantities of 77 toxic substances and 63 flammable substances.

Smith, D.; Heinold, D. (ENSR Consulting Engineering, Boston, MA (United States))

1994-08-01

136

revised 21 May 2013 SUSLICK GROUP CHEMICAL HYGIENE & SAFETY PLAN  

E-print Network

Chemical Waste Disposal 9 Electricity And High Voltages 10 Energetic Materials 11 Fine Particulates 12 Equipment Requiring Special Instruction Before Use: Equipment/technique Trainer Page Energetic materials. ALL Chemicals purchased in the stockroom or by special order MUST BE DATED AND INITIALED by the person

Suslick, Kenneth S.

137

Assuring the Safety of Chemicals through Improved Exposure Science  

EPA Science Inventory

Thousands of chemicals are currently in commercial use and hundreds more are introduced each year. Of these, only a small fraction has been assessed adequately for potential risks. Existing chemical testing and exposure measurement protocols are expensive and time consuming. Fu...

138

Configuration and Data Management Process and the System Safety Professional  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article presents a discussion of the configuration management (CM) and the Data Management (DM) functions and provides a perspective of the importance of configuration and data management processes to the success of system safety activities. The article addresses the basic requirements of configuration and data management generally based on NASA configuration and data management policies and practices, although the concepts are likely to represent processes of any public or private organization's well-designed configuration and data management program.

Shivers, Charles Herbert; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

139

Agricultural Chemical and Pesticide Hazards. Module SH-50. Safety and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student module on agricultural chemical and pesticide hazards is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module contains information concerning the safe handling, use, and storage of many chemicals that are frequently used in the control of pests. Following the introduction, 10 objectives (each keyed to a page in the…

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

140

Applying the Extended Parallel Process Model to workplace safety messages.  

PubMed

The extended parallel process model (EPPM) proposes fear appeals are most effective when they combine threat and efficacy. Three studies conducted in the workplace safety context examine the use of various EPPM factors and their effects, especially multiplicative effects. Study 1 was a content analysis examining the use of EPPM factors in actual workplace safety messages. Study 2 experimentally tested these messages with 212 construction trainees. Study 3 replicated this experiment with 1,802 men across four English-speaking countries-Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The results of these three studies (1) demonstrate the inconsistent use of EPPM components in real-world work safety communications, (2) support the necessity of self-efficacy for the effective use of threat, (3) show a multiplicative effect where communication effectiveness is maximized when all model components are present (severity, susceptibility, and efficacy), and (4) validate these findings with gory appeals across four English-speaking countries. PMID:23330856

Basil, Michael; Basil, Debra; Deshpande, Sameer; Lavack, Anne M

2013-01-01

141

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Cyclohexane as a Cryoscopic Solvent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that cyclohexane be used as a solvent in experiments usually using benzene, which has been placed on the list of chemicals that are confirmed carcinogens. Reasons for selection of cyclohexane and experimental procedures using this solvent are described. (CS)

Steffel, Margaret J.

1981-01-01

142

The Implementation and Maintenance of a Behavioral Safety Process in a Petroleum Refinery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A values-centered and team-based behavioral safety process was implemented in a petroleum oil refinery. Employee teams defined the refinery's safety values and related practices, which were used to guide the process design and implementation. The process included (a) a safety assessment; (b) the clarification of safety-related values and related…

Myers, Wanda V.; McSween, Terry E.; Medina, Rixio E.; Rost, Kristen; Alvero, Alicia M.

2010-01-01

143

Safety Sufficiency for NextGen: Assessment of Selected Existing Safety Methods, Tools, Processes, and Regulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NextGen is a complex socio-technical system and, in many ways, it is expected to be more complex than the current system. It is vital to assess the safety impact of the NextGen elements (technologies, systems, and procedures) in a rigorous and systematic way and to ensure that they do not compromise safety. In this study, the NextGen elements in the form of Operational Improvements (OIs), Enablers, Research Activities, Development Activities, and Policy Issues were identified. The overall hazard situation in NextGen was outlined; a high-level hazard analysis was conducted with respect to multiple elements in a representative NextGen OI known as OI-0349 (Automation Support for Separation Management); and the hazards resulting from the highly dynamic complexity involved in an OI-0349 scenario were illustrated. A selected but representative set of the existing safety methods, tools, processes, and regulations was then reviewed and analyzed regarding whether they are sufficient to assess safety in the elements of that OI and ensure that safety will not be compromised and whether they might incur intolerably high costs.

Xu, Xidong; Ulrey, Mike L.; Brown, John A.; Mast, James; Lapis, Mary B.

2013-01-01

144

Process hazards analysis (PrHA) program, bridging accident analyses and operational safety  

SciTech Connect

Recently the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 55 (TA-55) was revised and submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE). As a part of this effort, over seventy Process Hazards Analyses (PrHAs) were written and/or revised over the six years prior to the FSAR revision. TA-55 is a research, development, and production nuclear facility that primarily supports US. defense and space programs. Nuclear fuels and material research; material recovery, refining and analyses; and the casting, machining and fabrication of plutonium components are some of the activities conducted at TA-35. These operations involve a wide variety of industrial, chemical and nuclear hazards. Operational personnel along with safety analysts work as a team to prepare the PrHA. PrHAs describe the process; identi fy the hazards; and analyze hazards including determining hazard scenarios, their likelihood, and consequences. In addition, the interaction of the process to facility systems, structures and operational specific protective features are part of the PrHA. This information is rolled-up to determine bounding accidents and mitigating systems and structures. Further detailed accident analysis is performed for the bounding accidents and included in the FSAR. The FSAR is part of the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) that defines the safety envelope for all facility operations in order to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. The DSA is in compliance with the US. Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management and is approved by DOE. The DSA sets forth the bounding conditions necessary for the safe operation for the facility and is essentially a 'license to operate.' Safely of day-to-day operations is based on Hazard Control Plans (HCPs). Hazards are initially identified in the PrI-IA for the specific operation and act as input to the HCP. Specific protective features important to worker safety are incorporated so the worker can readily identify the safety parameters of the their work. System safety tools such as Preliminary Hazard Analysis, What-If Analysis, Hazard and Operability Analysis as well as other techniques as necessary provide the groundwork for both determining bounding conditions for facility safety, operational safety, and day-to-clay worker safety.

Richardson, J. A. (Jeanne A.); McKernan, S. A. (Stuart A.); Vigil, M. J. (Michael J.)

2003-01-01

145

Speleothems as Examples of Chemical Equilibrium Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chemical formation of speleothems such as stalactites and stalagmites is poorly understood by introductory geology instructors and misrepresented in most textbooks. Although evaporation may be a controlling factor in some caves, it is necessary to consider chemical precipitation as more important in controlling the diagenesis of calcium…

Wilson, James R.

1984-01-01

146

78 FR 47012 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Software used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants.'' This RG endorses...software used in safety systems in nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please...

2013-08-02

147

Critical processes and performance measures for patient safety systems in healthcare institutions: a Delphi study  

E-print Network

means of evaluating existing patient safety initiatives and guiding the strategic planning of new safety processes. The framework for patient safety systems utilizes a systems approach and will support healthcare senior administrators in achieving...

Akins, Ralitsa B.

2004-11-15

148

Physical and Chemical Changes in the Digestion Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson demonstrates how students can determine the cause and effect relationship in the digestion process. Students will be able to determine where chemical and physical changes occur in the digestion process and support their findings from an informational text. This lesson provides students with an opportunity to apply their knowledge of physical and chemical changes in matter to the process of digestion.

Clark, Monica

2012-09-16

149

No Chemical, Zero Bleed Cooling Tower Water Treatment Process  

E-print Network

NO CHEMICAL, ZERO BLEED COOLING TOWER WATER TREATMENT PROCESS ALDEN L. COKE, CWS IV, PRESIDENT, AQUA-FLO, INC., BALTIMORE, MARYLAND ABSTRACT This paper describes a process to treat cooling tower water by means of a fully automated... and chemical free mechanical water treatment process. This is an alternative to conventional chemical treatment. Beginning with a suction pump to draw water out of the tower sump, water goes through a permanent magnetic descaler to increase the water...

Coke, A. L.

150

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Product Denitrator Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The upgrade and redesign of a fluidized-bed denitrator for production of uranium trioxide from uranyl nitrate solution is discussed. The success of the project in improving process efficiency and personnel safety is also addressed based on subsequent operation.

N /A

1982-05-01

151

UVM chemical use planning form.docx; 2012 Version 4 Page 1 of 6 Risk Management & Safety  

E-print Network

(s) present? Water Reactive Pyrophoric Flammable (flashpoint or Sensitizer Chronic Toxicity Carcinogen, Teratogen, Mutagen Other __________________ III. Chemical Safety: ______________________________________ c) Personal Protective Equipment (check all that apply): Eye protection: goggles safety glasses face

Hayden, Nancy J.

152

Assessing Chemical Retention Process Controls in Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small ponds are a ubiquitous component of the landscape and have earned a reputation as effective chemical retention devices. The most common characterization of pond chemical retention is the retention coefficient, Ri= ([Ci]inflow-[Ci] outflow)\\/[Ci]inflow. However, this parameter varies widely in one pond with time and among ponds. We have re-evaluated literature reported (Borden et al., 1998) monthly average retention coefficients

T. Torgersen; B. Branco; B. John

2002-01-01

153

Chemical and Hazardous Materials Department of Environmental Health and Safety  

E-print Network

issues including engineering controls, laboratory procedures, personal protective equipment, electrical protective equipment, the use of the minimum quantity of material necessary, and/or substitution of less of the chemicals with which you work. For example, perchloric acid is a corrosive, an oxidizer, and a reactive

O'Toole, Alice J.

154

Chemical Models of Advanced Oxidation Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been defined as ambient temperature processes which involve the generation of highly reactive oxyradicals, especially the hydroxyl radical. These processes show promise for the destruction of hazardous organic subs...

W. H. Glaze

1991-01-01

155

Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. To address the facility-specific and site-specific vulnerabilities, responsible DOE and site-contractor line organizations have developed initial site response plans. These plans, presented as Volume 2 of this Management Response Plan, describe the actions needed to mitigate or eliminate the facility- and site-specific vulnerabilities identified by the CSV Working Group field verification teams. Initial site response plans are described for: Brookhaven National Lab., Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Lab., Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., Oak Ridge Reservation, Rocky Flats Plant, Sandia National Laboratories, and Savannah River Site.

Not Available

1994-09-01

156

Safety Evaluation for Hull Waste Treatment Process in JNC  

SciTech Connect

Hull wastes and some scrapped equipment are typical radioactive wastes generated from reprocessing process in Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). Because hulls are the wastes remained in the fuel shearing and dissolution, they contain high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started the project of Hull Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF) to treat these solid wastes using compaction and incineration methods since 1993. It is said that Zircaloy fines generated from compaction process might burn and explode intensely. Therefore explosive conditions of the fines generated in compaction process were measured. As these results, it was concluded that the fines generated from the compaction process were not hazardous material. This paper describes the outline of the treatment process of hulls and results of safety evaluation.

Kojima, H.; Kurakata, K.

2002-02-26

157

Integrated Design of Chemical Processes and Utility Systems  

E-print Network

The pinch concept for integrated heat recovery networks has recently become established in chemical process design. This paper presents an overview of the concept and shows how it has now been extended to total process design (reactors, separators...

Linnhoff, B.

158

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Tested Disposal Methods for Chemical Wastes from Academic Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes procedures for disposing of dichromate cleaning solution, picric acid, organic azides, oxalic acid, chemical spills, and hydroperoxides in ethers and alkenes. These methods have been tested under laboratory conditions and are specific for individual chemicals rather than for groups of chemicals. (JN)

Armour, M. A.; And Others

1985-01-01

159

Stochastic Optimization for Operating Chemical Processes under Uncertainty  

E-print Network

Abstract Mathematical optimization techniques are on their way to becoming a standard tool in chemical industry plays an essential role in the daily life of our society. The purpose of a chemical process]. Distillation is one of the most common separation processes which consumes the largest part of energy

Henrion, René

160

Program Prepares Students for Chemical-Processing Careers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a chemical-processing program at Saginaw Career Complex in Saginaw, Michigan. The program is preparing 42 11th- and 12th-graders to work as chemical-processing operators or technicians by the time they graduate from high school. It was developed in partnership with the Saginaw Career Complex--one of 51 centers in the state…

Jorgensen, Haley

2005-01-01

161

SAFETY STUDIES TO MEASURE EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS OF SPENT PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATION CHEMICALS USING WET AND DRY DECONTAMINATION METHODS  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford site in Eastern Washington is currently being decommissioned by Fluor Hanford. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes in PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions that include acids and sequestering agents. Aggressive chemicals are commonly used to remove transuranic contaminants from process equipment to allow disposal of the equipment as low level waste. Fluor's decontamination procedure involves application of chemical solutions as a spray on the contaminated surfaces, followed by a wipe-down with rags. Alternatively, a process of applying oxidizing Ce IV ions contained in a gel matrix and vacuuming a dry gel material is being evaluated. These processes effectively transfer the transuranic materials to rags or a gel matrix which is then packaged as TRU waste and disposed. Fluor is investigating plutonium decontamination chemicals as a result of concerns regarding the safety of chemical procedures following a fire at Rocky Flats in 2003. The fire at Rocky Flats occurred in a glovebox that had been treated with cerium nitrate, which is one of the decontamination chemicals that Fluor Hanford has proposed to use. Although the investigation of the fire was not conclusive as to cause, the reviewers noted that rags were found in the glovebox, suggesting that the combination of rags and chemicals may have contributed to the fire. Because of this underlying uncertainty, Fluor began an investigation into the potential for fire when using the chemicals and materials using wet disposition and dry disposition of the waste generated in the decontamination process and the storage conditions to which the waste drum would be exposed. The focus of this work has been to develop a disposal strategy that will provide a chemically stable waste form at expected Hanford waste storage temperatures. Hanford waste storage conditions are such that there is added heat to the containers from ambient conditions during storage especially during the summer months. Treatability tests under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) were used to assess the use of certain chemicals and wipes (wet method) and chemical-gel matrices (dry method) during the decontamination process. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes at PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial decontamination agents such as RadPro? , Glygel? and ASPIGEL 100?. As part of the treatability study, Fluor and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) personnel have evaluated the potential for self-heating and exothermic reactions in the residual decontamination materials. From these wet and dry method treatability studies, certain limiting conditions have been defined that will aid in assuring safe operations and waste packaging during the decommissioning and waste disposition process.

Hopkins, Andrea M.; Jackson, George W.; Minette, Michael J.; Ewalt, John R.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Scott, Paul A.; Jones, Susan A.; Scheele, Randall D.; Charboneau, Stacy L.

2005-10-12

162

Neurofuzzy modeling of chemical vapor deposition processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modeling of semiconductor manufacturing processes has been the subject of intensive research efforts for years. Physical-based (first-principle) models have been shown to be difficult to develop for processes such as plasma etching and plasma deposition, which exhibit highly nonlinear and complex multidimensional relationships between input and output process variables. As a result, many researchers have turned to empirical techniques

Joseph P. Geisler; C. S. George Lee; Gary S. May

2000-01-01

163

Task Group report to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health on oversight of chemical safety at the Department of Energy. Volume 2, Appendices  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a preliminary review of chemical safety within the Department of Energy (DOE). The review was conducted by Chemical Safety Oversight Review (CSOR) Teams composed of Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) staff members and contractors. The primary objective of the CSOR was to assess, the safety status of DOE chemical operations and identify any significant deficiencies associated with such operations. Significant was defined as any situation posing unacceptable risk, that is, imminent danger or threat to workers, co-located workers, the general public, or the environment, that requires prompt action by EH or the line organizations. A secondary objective of the CSOR was to gather and analyze technical and programmatic information related to chemical safety to be used in conjunction with the longer-range EH Workplace Chemical Accident Risk Review (WCARR) Program. The WCARR Program is part of the ongoing EH oversight of nonnuclear safety at all DOE facilities. `` The program objective is to analyze DOE and industry chemical safety programs and performance and determine the need for additional or improved safety guidance for DOE. During the period June 6, 1992, through July 31, 1992, EH conducted CSORs at five DOE sites. The sites visited were Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Savannah River Site (SRS), the Y-12 Plant (Y-12), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

Not Available

1992-11-01

164

A framework for chemical plant safety assessment under uncertainty.  

SciTech Connect

We construct a framework for assessing the risk that the uncertainty in the plant feed and physical parameters may mask the loss of a reaction product. To model the plant, we use a nonlinear, quasi-steady-state model with stochastic input and parameters. We compute the probability that more than a certain product amount is diverted, given the statistics of the uncertainty in the plant feed, in the values of the chemical parameters, and in the output measurement. The uncertainty in the physical parameters is based on the one provided by the recently developed concept of thermochemical tables. We use Monte Carlo methods to compute the probabilities, based on a Cauchy-theorem-like approach to avoid making anything but the safest asymptotic assumptions, as well as to avoid the excessive noise in the region of low-probability events.

Zeng, X.; Anitescu, M.; Pereira, C.; Regalbuto, M.

2009-03-01

165

Chemical Sensing for Buried Landmines - Fundamental Processes Influencing Trace Chemical Detection  

SciTech Connect

Mine detection dogs have a demonstrated capability to locate hidden objects by trace chemical detection. Because of this capability, demining activities frequently employ mine detection dogs to locate individual buried landmines or for area reduction. The conditions appropriate for use of mine detection dogs are only beginning to emerge through diligent research that combines dog selection/training, the environmental conditions that impact landmine signature chemical vapors, and vapor sensing performance capability and reliability. This report seeks to address the fundamental soil-chemical interactions, driven by local weather history, that influence the availability of chemical for trace chemical detection. The processes evaluated include: landmine chemical emissions to the soil, chemical distribution in soils, chemical degradation in soils, and weather and chemical transport in soils. Simulation modeling is presented as a method to evaluate the complex interdependencies among these various processes and to establish conditions appropriate for trace chemical detection. Results from chemical analyses on soil samples obtained adjacent to landmines are presented and demonstrate the ultra-trace nature of these residues. Lastly, initial measurements of the vapor sensing performance of mine detection dogs demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of dogs in sensing landmine signature chemicals; however, reliability at these ultra-trace vapor concentrations still needs to be determined. Through this compilation, additional work is suggested that will fill in data gaps to improve the utility of trace chemical detection.

PHELAN, JAMES M.

2002-05-01

166

Quantum Matter-Photonics Framework: Analyses of Chemical Conversion Processes  

E-print Network

A quantum Matter-Photonics framework is adapted to help scrutinize chemical reaction mechanisms and used to explore a process mapped from chemical tree topological model. The chemical concept of bond knitting/breaking is reformulated via partitioned base sets leading to an abstract and general quantum presentation. Pivotal roles are assigned to entanglement, coherence,de-coherence and Feshbach resonance quantum states that permit apprehend gating states in conversion processes. A view from above in the state energy eigenvalue ladder, belonging to full system spectra complement the standard view from ground state. A full quantum physical view supporting chemical change obtains.

Tapia, O

2014-01-01

167

Quantum Matter-Photonics Framework: Analyses of Chemical Conversion Processes  

E-print Network

A quantum Matter-Photonics framework is adapted to help scrutinize chemical reaction mechanisms and used to explore a process mapped from chemical tree topological model. The chemical concept of bond knitting/breaking is reformulated via partitioned base sets leading to an abstract and general quantum presentation. Pivotal roles are assigned to entanglement, coherence,de-coherence and Feshbach resonance quantum states that permit apprehend gating states in conversion processes. A view from above in the state energy eigenvalue ladder, belonging to full system spectra complement the standard view from ground state. A full quantum physical view supporting chemical change obtains.

O. Tapia

2014-10-29

168

Air Quality: Roles, Responsibilities, and Authorities Matrix Department: Chemical and General Safety  

E-print Network

Air Quality: Roles, Responsibilities, and Authorities Matrix Department: Chemical and General Safety Program: Air Quality Owner: Program Manager Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 30, Air Quality1 The following tables summarize major air quality program requirements and map them to the appropriate

Wechsler, Risa H.

169

Air Quality: New Emissions Source Requirements Department: Chemical and General Safety  

E-print Network

Air Quality: New Emissions Source Requirements Department: Chemical and General Safety Program: Air Quality Owner: Program Manager Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 30, Air Quality1 All new sources that involve actual or potential air emissions must be evaluated by the air quality program manager beforehand

Wechsler, Risa H.

170

Air Quality: Emissions Source Inspection Form Department: Chemical and General Safety  

E-print Network

Air Quality: Emissions Source Inspection Form Department: Chemical and General Safety Program: Air Quality Owner: Program Manager Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 30, Air Quality1 This inspection form Quality", http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/environment/air_quality/policies.htm 29 Jul 2007 (updated

Wechsler, Risa H.

171

AIChE -Process Safety Progress Journal Copy of e-mail Notification  

E-print Network

AIChE - Process Safety Progress Journal Copy of e-mail Notification AIChE - Process Safety Progress;AIChE - Process Safety Progress Journal Copy of e-mail Notification Return to: Arthur Baulch John Wiley Internet delivery. These images will appear at higher resolution and sharpness in the printed article

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

172

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant phaseout/deactivation study  

SciTech Connect

The decision to cease all US Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels was made on April 28, 1992. This study provides insight into and a comparison of the management, technical, compliance, and safety strategies for deactivating the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this study is to ensure that lessons-learned and future plans are coordinated between the two facilities.

Patterson, M.W. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, R.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-01-01

173

Controlled versus Automatic Processes: Which Is Dominant to Safety? The Moderating Effect of Inhibitory Control  

PubMed Central

This study explores the precursors of employees' safety behaviors based on a dual-process model, which suggests that human behaviors are determined by both controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Employees' responses to a self-reported survey on safety attitudes capture their controlled cognitive process, while the automatic association concerning safety measured by an Implicit Association Test (IAT) reflects employees' automatic cognitive processes about safety. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effects of inhibition on the relationship between self-reported safety attitude and safety behavior, and that between automatic associations towards safety and safety behavior. The results suggest significant main effects of self-reported safety attitude and automatic association on safety behaviors. Further, the interaction between self-reported safety attitude and inhibition and that between automatic association and inhibition each predict unique variances in safety behavior. Specifically, the safety behaviors of employees with lower level of inhibitory control are influenced more by automatic association, whereas those of employees with higher level of inhibitory control are guided more by self-reported safety attitudes. These results suggest that safety behavior is the joint outcome of both controlled and automatic cognitive processes, and the relative importance of these cognitive processes depends on employees' individual differences in inhibitory control. The implications of these findings for theoretical and practical issues are discussed at the end. PMID:24520338

Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Ding, Weidong; Lu, Fan

2014-01-01

174

Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure: A Safety Program Manual. Participatory Education with Farmworkers in Pesticide Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure among North Carolina Farmworkers (PACE) is a project designed to describe farmworker pesticide exposure and to develop an educational intervention to reduce farmworker pesticide exposure. The PACE project used a community participation framework to ensure that the community played a significant role in…

Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC. Dept. of Family and Community Medicine.

175

Efficient Nonlinear Programming Algorithms for Chemical Process Control and Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimization is applied in numerous areas of chemical engineering including the development of process models from experimental data, design of process flowsheets and equipment, planning and scheduling of chemical process operations, and the analysis of chemical processes under uncertainty and adverse conditions. These off-line tasks require the solution of nonlinear programs (NLPs) with detailed, large-scale process models. Recently, these tasks have been complemented by time-critical, on-line optimization problems with differential-algebraic equation (DAE) process models that describe process behavior over a wide range of operating conditions, and must be solved sufficiently quickly. This paper describes recent advances in this area especially with dynamic models. We outline large-scale NLP formulations and algorithms as well as NLP sensitivity for on-line applications, and illustrate these advances on a commercial-scale low density polyethylene (LDPE) process.

Biegler, Lorenz T.

176

BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly since the Mercury Water Wash Tank was replaced after the seventh batch of Sludge Batch 5. Since this time, essentially no recovery of mercury has been seen. Pertinent literature was reviewed, previous lab-scale data on mercury stripping and recovery was examined, and new lab-scale CPC Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were conducted. For previous lab-scale data, many of the runs with sufficient mercury recovery data were examined to determine what factors affect the stripping and recovery of mercury and to improve closure of the mercury material balance. Ten new lab-scale SRAT runs (HG runs) were performed to examine the effects of acid stoichiometry, sludge solids concentration, antifoam concentration, form of mercury added to simulant, presence of a SRAT heel, operation of the SRAT condenser at higher than prototypic temperature, varying noble metals from none to very high concentrations, and higher agitation rate. Data from simulant runs from SB6, SB7a, glycolic/formic, and the HG tests showed that a significant amount of Hg metal was found on the vessel bottom at the end of tests. Material balance closure improved from 12-71% to 48-93% when this segregated Hg was considered. The amount of Hg segregated as elemental Hg on the vessel bottom was 4-77% of the amount added. The highest recovery of mercury in the offgas system generally correlated with the highest retention of Hg in the slurry. Low retention in the slurry (high segregation on the vessel bottom) resulted in low recovery in the offgas system. High agitation rates appear to result in lower retention of mercury in the slurry. Both recovery of mercury in the offgas system and removal (segregation + recovery) from the slurry correlate with slurry consistency. Higher slurry consistency results in better retention of Hg in the slurry (less segregation) and better recovery in the offgas system, but the relationships of recovery and retention with consistency are sludge dependent. Some correlation with slurry yield stress and acid stoichiometry was also found. Better retention of mercury in the slurry results in better recovery in the offgas system because the mercury in the slurry is stripped more easily than the segregated mercury at the bottom of the vessel. Although better retention gives better recovery, the time to reach a particular slurry mercury content (wt%) is longer than if the retention is poorer because the segregation is faster. The segregation of mercury is generally a faster process than stripping. The stripping factor (mass of water evaporated per mass of mercury stripped) of mercury at the start of boiling were found to be less than 1000 compared to the assumed design basis value of 750 (the theoretical factor is 250). However, within two hours, this value increased to at least 2000 lb water per lb Hg. For runs with higher mercury recovery in the offgas system, the stripping factor remained around 2000, but runs with low recovery had stripping factors of 4000 to 40,000. DWPF data shows similar trends with the stripping factor value increasing during boiling. These high values correspond to high segregation and low retention of mercury in the sludge. The stripping factor for a pure Hg metal bead in water was found to be about 10,000 lb/lb. About 10-36% of the total Hg evaporated in a SRAT cycle was refluxed back to the SRAT during formic acid addition and boiling. Mercury is dissolved as a result of nitric acid formation from absorption of NO{sub x}. The actual solubility of dissolved mercury in the acidic condensate is about 100 times higher than the actual concentrations measured. Mercury metal present in the MWWT from previous batch

Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

2012-04-09

177

Chemical Processing monthly report, April 1985  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the PUREX/UO3 operations, 151 tones of N reactor fuel were charged to the PUREX dissolvers in April 1985, bringing the Fiscal Year-to-Date (FYTD) total to 667, which is now only 61 tones behind the 1200 tone recovery plan. One hundred thirty-nine tonnes of UO3 were shipped to the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), bringing the FYTD total to 644 tones. Twenty-two percent of the PUO2 shipments were achieved, bringing the cumulative shipments to 52%. In the plutonium finishing (PF) plant/nuclear materials management program, 10% of plutonium nitrate was loaded out. Total Operating Efficiency for Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) was 53% for the month, compared to a goal of 70%. Remote Mechanical C (RMC) metal line reactivation activities are 95% complete. Terminal clean out operations are about one month behind schedule, due to diversion of personnel to the RMC reactivation effort. Within the area of decontamination and decommissioning activities, removal of the Sorter/Chopper hood in 232-Z Building was completed. Design on B-339, vault safety and inventory system was completed on schedule.

1985-04-01

178

A sequential-move game for enhancing safety and security cooperation within chemical clusters.  

PubMed

The present paper provides a game theoretic analysis of strategic cooperation on safety and security among chemical companies within a chemical industrial cluster. We suggest a two-stage sequential move game between adjacent chemical plants and the so-called Multi-Plant Council (MPC). The MPC is considered in the game as a leader player who makes the first move, and the individual chemical companies are the followers. The MPC's objective is to achieve full cooperation among players through establishing a subsidy system at minimum expense. The rest of the players rationally react to the subsidies proposed by the MPC and play Nash equilibrium. We show that such a case of conflict between safety and security, and social cooperation, belongs to the 'coordination with assurance' class of games, and we explore the role of cluster governance (fulfilled by the MPC) in achieving a full cooperative outcome in domino effects prevention negotiations. The paper proposes an algorithm that can be used by the MPC to develop the subsidy system. Furthermore, a stepwise plan to improve cross-company safety and security management in a chemical industrial cluster is suggested and an illustrative example is provided. PMID:21146296

Pavlova, Yulia; Reniers, Genserik

2011-02-15

179

Water in Biological and Chemical Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. Bulk Water: 1. Uniqueness of water; 2. Anomalies of water; 3. Dynamics of water: molecular motions and hydrogen bond breaking kinetics; 4. Inherent structures of liquid water; 5. pH of water; Part II. Water in Biology: Dynamical View and Function: 6. Biological water; 7. Explicit role of water in biological functions; 8. Hydration of proteins; 9. Can we understand protein hydration layer: lessons from computer simulations; 10. Water in and around DNA and RNA; 11. Role of water in protein-DNA interaction; 12. Water surrounding lipid bilayers; 13. Water in Darwin's world; Part III. Water in Complex Chemical Systems: 14. Hydrophilic effects; 15. Hydrophobic effects; 16. Aqueous binary mixtures: amphiphilic effect; 17. Water in and around micelles, reverse micelles and microemulsions; 18. Water in carbon nanotubes; Part IV. Bulk Water: Advanced Topics: 19. Entropy of water; 20. Freezing of water into ice; 21. Supercritical water; 22. Microscopic approaches to understand water anomalies.

Bagchi, Biman

2013-11-01

180

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory--Chemical Management: A Method for Waste Reduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses methods for reducing or eliminating waste disposal problems in the chemistry laboratory, considering both economic and environmental aspects of the problems. Proposes inventory control, shared use, solvent recycling, zero effluent, and various means of disposing of chemicals. (JM)

Pine, Stanley H.

1984-01-01

181

Dynamic displays of chemical process flowsheet models  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the algorithms used in constructing dynamic graphical displays of a process flowsheet. Movies are created which portray changes in the process over time using animation in the flowsheet such as individual streams that take on a color keyed to the current flow rate, tank levels that visibly rise and fall and {open_quotes}gauges{close_quotes} that move to display parameter values. Movies of this type can be a valuable tool for visualizing, analyzing, and communicating the behavior of a process model. This paper describes the algorithms used in constructing displays of this kind for dynamic models using the SPEEDUP{trademark} modeling package and the GMS{trademark} graphics package. It also tells how data is exported from the SPEEDUP{trademark} package to GMS{trademark} and describes how a user environment for running movies and editing flowsheets is set up. The algorithms are general enough to be applied to other processes and graphics packages. In fact the techniques described here can be used to create movies of any time-dependent data.

Aull, J.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

1996-11-01

182

Chemical interaction matrix between reagents in a Purex based process  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is the responsible entity for the disposal of the United States excess weapons grade plutonium. DOE selected a PUREX-based process to convert plutonium to low-enriched mixed oxide fuel for use in commercial nuclear power plants. To initiate this process in the United States, a Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) is under construction and will be operated by Shaw AREVA MOX Services at the Savannah River Site. This facility will be licensed and regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A PUREX process, similar to the one used at La Hague, France, will purify plutonium feedstock through solvent extraction. MFFF employs two major process operations to manufacture MOX fuel assemblies: (1) the Aqueous Polishing (AP) process to remove gallium and other impurities from plutonium feedstock and (2) the MOX fuel fabrication process (MP), which processes the oxides into pellets and manufactures the MOX fuel assemblies. The AP process consists of three major steps, dissolution, purification, and conversion, and is the center of the primary chemical processing. A study of process hazards controls has been initiated that will provide knowledge and protection against the chemical risks associated from mixing of reagents over the life time of the process. This paper presents a comprehensive chemical interaction matrix evaluation for the reagents used in the PUREX-based process. Chemical interaction matrix supplements the process conditions by providing a checklist of any potential inadvertent chemical reactions that may take place. It also identifies the chemical compatibility/incompatibility of the reagents if mixed by failure of operations or equipment within the process itself or mixed inadvertently by a technician in the laboratories. (aut0010ho.

Brahman, R.K.; Hennessy, W.P. [Shaw AREVA MOX Services, LLC (United States); Paviet-Hartmann, P. [Idaho State University/Idaho National Laboratory (United States)

2008-07-01

183

EFFECTS OF TOXIC CHEMICAL ON NUTRIENT CYCLING PROCESSES IN SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Assessing the risk of toxic chemicals to soil nutrient cycling processes involves an understanding of the potential for chemical effects on the diversity and the activity of the microbial communities and higher life forms in the natural system. ssessments of risk associated with ...

184

Sustainability Indicators for Chemical Processes: III. Biodiesel Case Study  

EPA Science Inventory

The chemical industry is one of the most important business sectors, not only economically, but also societally; as it allows humanity to attain higher standards and quality of life. Simultaneously, chemical products and processes can be the origin of potential human health and ...

185

64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

186

SCREENING PROTOCOL FOR ASSESSING TOXICITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS TOANAEROBIC PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A screening protocol has been developed to provide a rapid andrepeatable assessment of the effect of toxic organic chemicals onanaerobic treatment processes. his protocol also providesinformation on the rate limiting biological reactions and theconcentrations at which changes in ...

187

Robust model-based fault diagnosis for chemical process systems  

E-print Network

Fault detection and diagnosis have gained central importance in the chemical process industries over the past decade. This is due to several reasons, one of them being that copious amount of data is available from a large number of sensors...

Rajaraman, Srinivasan

2006-08-16

188

Decision support tools for environmentally conscious chemical process design  

E-print Network

The environment has emerged as an important determinant of the performance of the modern chemical industry. Process engineering in the 21st century needs to evolve to include environmental issues as part of the design ...

Cano Ruiz, José Alejandro, 1969-

1999-01-01

189

CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR FUGITIVE VOC EMISSIONS FROM CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

This handbook contains information concerning volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the synthetic organic chemicals manufacturing industry (SOCMI), petroleum refineries, on-shore natural gas processing plants, polymer manufacturing plants, benzene from particular equipme...

190

Chemical processing monthly report, January 1984  

SciTech Connect

During January, the Purex Plant charged 100 metric tons of irradiated N-Reactor fuel in the head end dissolvers, and produced 118 metric tons of uranium product. The Purex solvent extraction section ran for 33 consecutive days prior to shutdown, one of the longest uninterrupted runs in the history of the plant. Processing of hot feed was initiated in the Purex N-Cell, oxide conversion process. Operability test No. 2 was completed at UO/sub 3/ Plant by successfully operating the UNH concentrators. Plant operations were suspended on January 25, 1984 as a result of gross alpha release readings at the main stack in excess of established internal Rockwell limits. Problem assessment and remedial action has been initiated for a plant restart as soon as possible in February. Operation of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility was initiated January 10. The Remote Mechanical C metal line equipment checkout was completed ahead of schedule. Helicopter pilot night flying certification and training for the patrol response fire teams were completed. An unscheduled shipment of 100 kg of PuO/sub 2/ to LANL was accomplished in response to an urgent request from LANL.

Not Available

1984-01-01

191

Microlenses with focal length controlled by chemical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of chemical processing on the optical properties of microlenses formed on a gelatin-sensitized layer was investigated. The gelatin is sensitized with tot'hema and eosin, irradiated with a Gaussian profile laser beam and subsequently chemically processed. Microlenses with a focal length of 400??m were obtained after alcohol processing. Additionally, focal lengths could be controlled by varying the alum concentration, and lenses with focal length up to 1.2?mm were obtained. The microlenses become stable after alum processing. Their optical properties remain unchanged.

Muric, B. D.; Panic, B. M.

2012-05-01

192

Chemical Models for Aqueous Biodynamical Processes  

E-print Network

through a continuum, the processes of self-diffusion and viscous flow are inversely related as shown by equation 9: D = KI/ 6 TTTi r (9) At 298 K, D for H20 is 2.5 x 1(TS cm2see"""1 and for D20 2.0 x 1CT5 cm2sec The deuterium isotope effect on D... xii III-6. Pa£n£-Hydronium Ion as a Catalytic Entity in the Neutral Hydrolysis of Carboxylic Esters. 74 CHAPTER IV I V-l. I V-2. IV-3. IV-4. CHAPTER V V-l. V-2. V-3. V-4. V-5. V-6. Determination of the Isotopic Fractionation Factor...

Mata-Segreda, Julio F.

1975-05-01

193

Chemical and physical processes in Tank 241-SY-101: A preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

Since 1942, chemical and radioactive waste have been stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. In March 1981 one of the double shell tanks, 241-SY-101 (called 101-SY), began venting large quantities of gas, primarily hydrogen and nitrous oxide. Because of the potential for explosion Westinghouse Hanford Company and the US Department of Energy realized the need for knowledge about the processes occurring in this tank that lead to generation of the gases. In June 1990, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory began assembling a Tank Waste Science Panel to develop a better understanding of the processes occurring the Tank 101-SY. This knowledge is necessary to provide a technically defensible basis for the safety analyses, which will allow the tank contents to be sampled, as well as for the future remediation of the tank and its contents. The Panel concluded that the data available on Tank 101-SY are insufficient to allow the critical chemical and physical processes giving rise to gas formation and release to be unambiguously identified. To provide the needed information the Panel recommends that Tank 101-SY by physically and chemically characterized as fully as possible and as expeditiously as safety considerations allow, and laboratory studies and modeling efforts be undertaken the chemical and physical processes involved in gas generation and release. Finally, the Panel recommends that no remediation steps be taken until there is a better understanding of the chemical and physical phenomena occurring in Tank 101-SY. Premature remediation steps may only serve to compound the problem. Furthermore, such steps may change the chemical and physical characteristics of the tank and prevent a true understanding of the phenomena involved. As a consequence, similar problems in other tanks on the site may not be adequately addressed. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1991-02-01

194

Some aspects of mathematical and chemical modeling of complex chemical processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some theoretical questions involved in the mathematical modeling of the kinetics of complex chemical process are discussed. The analysis is carried out for the homogeneous oxidation of ethylbenzene in the liquid phase. Particular attention is given to the determination of the general characteristics of chemical systems from an analysis of mathematical models developed on the basis of linear algebra.

Nemes, I.; Botar, L.; Danoczy, E.; Vidoczy, T.; Gal, D.

1983-01-01

195

Sealed-bladdered chemical processing method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus which enables a complete multi-stepped chemical treatment process to occur within a single, sealed-bladdered vessel 31. The entire chemical process occurs without interruption of the sealed-bladdered vessel 31 such as opening the sealed-bladdered vessel 31 between various steps of the process. The sealed-bladdered vessel 31 is loaded with a batch to be dissolved, treated, decanted, rinsed and/or dried. A pressure filtration step may also occur. The self-contained chemical processing apparatus 32 contains a sealed-bladder 32, a fluid pump 34, a reservoir 20, a compressed gas inlet, a vacuum pump 24, and a cold trap 23 as well as the associated piping 33, numerous valves 21,22,25,26,29,30,35,36 and other controls associated with such an apparatus. The claimed invention allows for dissolution and/or chemical treatment without the operator of the self-contained chemical processing apparatus 38 coming into contact with any of the process materials.

Harless, D. Phillip (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01

196

Establishing the level of safety concern for chemicals in food without the need for toxicity testing.  

PubMed

There is demand for methodologies to establish levels of safety concern associated with dietary exposures to chemicals for which no toxicological data are available. In such situations, the application of in silico methods appears promising. To make safety statement requires quantitative predictions of toxicological reference points such as no observed adverse effect level and carcinogenic potency for DNA-reacting chemicals. A decision tree (DT) has been developed to aid integrating exposure information and predicted toxicological reference points obtained with quantitative structure activity relationship ((Q)SAR) software and read across techniques. The predicted toxicological values are compared with exposure to obtain margins of exposure (MoE). The size of the MoE defines the level of safety concern and should account for a number of uncertainties such as the classical interspecies and inter-individual variability as well as others determined on a case by case basis. An analysis of the uncertainties of in silico approaches together with results from case studies suggest that establishing safety concern based on application of the DT is unlikely to be significantly more uncertain than based on experimental data. The DT makes a full use of all data available, ensuring an adequate degree of conservatism. It can be used when fast decision making is required. PMID:24012706

Schilter, Benoît; Benigni, Romualdo; Boobis, Alan; Chiodini, Alessandro; Cockburn, Andrew; Cronin, Mark T D; Lo Piparo, Elena; Modi, Sandeep; Thiel, Anette; Worth, Andrew

2014-03-01

197

Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

Hoseney, R. Carl

1984-01-01

198

Chemical decontamination of process equipment using recyclable chelating agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Babcock and Wilcox Company is performing research and development in the application of chelating chemicals to dissolve uranium compounds and other actinide species from the surfaces of DOE process equipment. A chelating system specific for the removal of uranium and other actinides will be applied to the component selected for full-scale demonstration of the process. After application of the

1994-01-01

199

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Chemical Process Technical Operators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is intended for workforce preparation program providers, details the Illinois Occupational Skill Standards for programs preparing students for employment as chemical process technical operators. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and credentialing, the process

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

200

Chemical oxygen demand reduction in coffee wastewater through chemical flocculation and advanced oxidation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of the natural organic matter present in coffee processing wastewater through chemical coagulation-flocculation and advanced oxidation processes (AOP) had been studied. The effectiveness of the removal of natural organic matter using commercial flocculants and UV\\/H2O2,UV\\/O3 and UV\\/H2O2\\/O3 processes was determined under acidic conditions. For each of these processes, different operational conditions were explored to optimize the treatment efficiency

Teresa ZAYAS Péerez; Gunther GEISSLER; Fernando HERNANDEZ

2007-01-01

201

CRITICALITY SAFETY LIMIT EVALUATION PROGRAM (CSLEP) & QUICK SCREENS, ANSWERS TO EXPEDITED PROCESSING LEGACY CRITICALITY SAFETY LIMITS & EVALUATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Since the end of the cold war, the need for operating weapons production facilities has faded. Criticality Safety Limits and controls supporting production modes in these facilities became outdated and furthermore lacked the procedure based rigor dictated by present day requirements. In the past, in many instances, the formalism of present day criticality safety evaluations was not applied. Some of the safety evaluations amounted to a paragraph in a notebook with no safety basis and questionable arguments with respect to double contingency criteria. When material stabilization, clean out, and deactivation activities commenced, large numbers of these older criticality safety evaluations were uncovered with limits and controls backed up by tenuous arguments. A dilemma developed: on the one hand, cleanup activities were placed on very aggressive schedules; on the other hand, a highly structured approach to limits development was required and applied to the cleanup operations. Some creative approaches were needed to cope with the limits development process.

TOFFER, H.

2006-02-21

202

An Introduction to Signal Processing in Chemical Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 26-page illustrated introduction to digital signal processing in chemical analysis covers signal arithmetic, signals and noise, smoothing, differentiation, resolution enhancement, harmonic analysis, convolution, deconvolution, Fourier filter, integration and peak area measurement, and curve fitting. It is accompanied by signal processing software for Macintosh with reference manual and tutorial (available for free download), video demonstrations, and Matlab signal processing modules for Mac, PC, and Unix.

O'Haver, Professor T.

203

Aquatic environmental safety assessment and inhibition mechanism of chemicals for targeting Microcystis aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria that produce an array of secondary compounds with selective bioactivity against vertebrates, invertebrates, fungi, bacteria and cell lines. Recently the main methods of controlling cyanobacteria are using chemicals, medicinal plants and microorganism but fewer involved the safety research in hydrophytic ecosystems. In search of an environmentally safe compound, 53 chemicals were screened against the developed heavy cyanobacteria bloom Microcystis aeruginosa using coexistence culture system assay. The results of the coexistence assay showed that 9 chemicals inhibited M. aeruginosa effectively at 20 mg L(-1) after 7 days of exposure. Among them dimethomorph, propineb, and paraquat were identified that they are safe for Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, Carassius auratus (Goldfish) and Bacillus subtilis within half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values 5.2, 4.2 and 0.06 mg L(-1) after 7 days, respectively. Paraquat as the positive control observed to be more efficient than the other compounds with the inhibitory rate (IR) of 92 % at 0.5 mg L(-1). For the potential inhibition mechanism, the chemicals could destroy the cell ultrastructure in different speed. The safety assay proved dimethomorph, propineb and paraquat as harmless formulations or products having potential value in M. aeruginosa controlling, with the advantage of its cell morphology degrading ability. PMID:25139029

Yu, Xiao-Bo; Hao, Kai; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

2014-11-01

204

A Meta-model for Integrating Safety Concerns into Systems Engineering Processes  

E-print Network

difficulty of critical systems development, integrating the safety concerns into Systems Engineering focuses on the normal operation of the system, whereas for critical systems, safety matters too. EffortsA Meta-model for Integrating Safety Concerns into Systems Engineering Processes Pierre-Yves Piriou

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

205

Reduced product yield in chemical processes by second law effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of second law effects in chemical processes, where product yield is explicitly related to the individual irreversibilities within the process to indicate a maximum theoretical yield, is presented. Examples are given that indicate differences between first and second law approaches toward process efficiency and process yield. This analysis also expresses production capacity in terms of the heating value of a product. As a result, it is particularly convenient in analyzing fuel conversion plants and their potential for improvement. Relationships are also given for the effects of irreversibilities on requirements for process heat and for feedstocks.

England, C.; Funk, J. E.

1980-01-01

206

Influence of chemical processing on the imaging properties of microlenses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microlenses are produced by irradiation of a layer of tot'hema and eosin sensitized gelatin (TESG) by using a laser beam (Nd:YAG 2nd harmonic; 532 nm). All the microlenses obtained are concave with a parabolic profile. After the production, the microlenses are chemically processed with various concentrations of alum. The following imaging properties of microlenses were calculated and analyzed: the root mean square (rms) wavefront aberration, the geometric encircled energy and the spot diagram. The microlenses with higher concentrations of alum in solution had a greater effective focal length and better image quality. The microlenses chemically processed with 10% alum solution had near-diffraction-limited performance.

Vasiljevi?, Darko; Muri?, Branka; Panteli?, Dejan; Pani?, Bratimir

2009-07-01

207

Organic chemical aging mechanisms: An annotated bibliography. Waste Tank Safety Program  

SciTech Connect

An annotated bibliography has been compiled of the potential chemical and radiological aging mechanisms of the organic constituents (non-ferrocyanide) that would likely be found in the UST at Hanford. The majority of the work that has been conducted on the aging of organic chemicals used for extraction and processing of nuclear materials has been in conjunction with the acid or PUREX type processes. At Hanford the waste being stored in the UST has been stabilized with caustic. The aging factors that were used in this work were radiolysis, hydrolysis and nitrite/nitrate oxidation. The purpose of this work was two-fold: to determine whether or not research had been or is currently being conducted on the species associated with the Hanford UST waste, either as a mixture or as individual chemicals or chemical functionalities, and to determine what areas of chemical aging need to be addressed by further research.

Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M.; Nelson, D.A.

1993-09-01

208

Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Data requirements for the ferrocyanide safety issue developed through the data quality objectives (DQO) process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document records the data quality objectives (DQO) process applied to the Ferrocyanide Waste Tank Safety Issue at the Hanford Site by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company. Specifically, the major recommendations and findings from this Ferrocyanide DQO process are presented so that decision makers can determine the type, quantity, and quality of data required for addressing tank

J. W. Buck; C. M. Anderson; B. A. Pulsipher; J. J. Toth; P. J. Turner; R. J. Cash; G. T. Dukelow; J. E. Meacham

1993-01-01

209

The Efficacy of a Condensed "Seeking Safety" Intervention for Women in Residential Chemical Dependence Treatment at 30 Days Posttreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the efficacy of a condensed version of the "Seeking Safety" intervention in the reduction of trauma-related symptoms and improved drug abstinence rates among women in residential chemical dependence treatment. One hundred and four women were randomly assigned to treatment including a condensed (six session) "Seeking Safety"…

Cash Ghee, Anna; Bolling, Lanny C.; Johnson, Candace S.

2009-01-01

210

26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT NORTH EDGE FROM DECEMBER 7TH AVENUE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

211

WORKSHOP ON GREEN SYNTHESES AND PROCESSING IN CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING  

EPA Science Inventory

The Workshop on Green Syntheses and Processing in Chemical Manufacturing was held in Cincinnati, Ohio on July 12 and 13, 1994. he purpose of the workshop was to solicit information from industry, academia, and government regarding research related to the advancement of environmen...

212

Secondary cleanup of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant solvent  

SciTech Connect

Solvent from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) (operated by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc.) has been tested to determine the ability of activated alumina to remove secondary degradation products - those degradation products which are not removed by scrubbing with sodium carbonate.

Mailen, J.C.

1985-01-01

213

Portfolio assessment on chemical reactor analysis and process design courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment determines what students regard as important: if a teacher wants to change students' learning, he\\/she should change the methods of assessment. This article describes the use of portfolio assessment on five courses dealing with chemical reactor and process design during the years 1999–2001. Although the use of portfolio was a new assessment method for the students, about half of

Katariina Alha

2004-01-01

214

INCORPORATING INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY INTO HIERARCHICAL CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Incorporating Industrial Ecology into Hierarchical Chemical Process Design: Determining Targets for the Exchange of Waste The exchange of waste to be used as a recycled feed has long been encouraged by practitioners of industrial ecology. Industrial ecology is a field t...

215

Radiation induced physical and chemical processes in zeolite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic processes induced by high energy radiation in zeolites, including electron and hole trapping and related chemical reactions, are reviewed in this paper. Electronic structures of electrons localized in clusters of charge balancing cations and those solvated in zeolite confined water clusters are characterized by a combination of spectroscopic techniques such as ESR and transient UV–visible absorption. Reactivities of these

Guohong Zhang; Xinsheng Liu; J. Kerry Thomas

1997-01-01

216

GREENSCOPE: A Method for Modeling Chemical Process Sustainability  

EPA Science Inventory

Current work within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s National Risk Management Research Laboratory is focused on the development of a method for modeling chemical process sustainability. The GREENSCOPE methodology, defined for the four bases of Environment, Economics, Ef...

217

A POLLUTION REDUCTION METHODOLOGY FOR CHEMICAL PROCESS SIMULATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

A pollution minimization methodology was developed for chemical process design using computer simulation. It is based on a pollution balance that at steady state is used to define a pollution index with units of mass of pollution per mass of products. The pollution balance has be...

218

ASSESSING TOXICITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS TO ANAEROBIC TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A screening protocol has been developed to provide a rapid but dependable and repeatable assessment of the effect of toxic organic chemicals on anaerobic treatment processes. his protocol provides information on the rate limiting biological reactions and the concentration of toxi...

219

MEYERS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT FOR CHEMICAL DESULFURIZATION OF COAL. VOLUME I  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of bench-scale development of the Meyers Process (for chemical removal of sulfur from coal) for desulfurization of both fine and coarse coal. More than 90% of the pyrite was removed from run-of-mine (ROM) fine coal and clean coarse coal, and more than 80%...

220

Portfolio Assessment on Chemical Reactor Analysis and Process Design Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment determines what students regard as important: if a teacher wants to change students' learning, he/she should change the methods of assessment. This article describes the use of portfolio assessment on five courses dealing with chemical reactor and process design during the years 1999-2001. Although the use of portfolio was a new…

Alha, Katariina

2004-01-01

221

Variability in toxic response - relevance to chemical safety and risk assessment at the global level.  

PubMed

The aim of control limits for exposure to chemicals in air, food, water, and consumer products is to protect the whole human population, including the most susceptible individuals and 'at risk' groups. The existence of susceptible individuals is a factor that must be taken into account when quantitative chemical risk assessments are being made, and should be covered in the risk characterization. Classically, when extrapolating data derived from animal experiments using homogeneous, healthy test species for human health risk assessment uncertainty factors are applied. For inter-species extrapolation an uncertainty factor of up to 10 is applied. While it is evident that this procedure provides reasonable protection for the great majority of the population there are outlyers who may not be protected under all conditions. Within a population, individual susceptibility is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. These have regional and national differences. Environmental factors that are important in many countries include 'life-style' (e.g. tobacco and alcohol consumption, diet), nutritional and health status. In the case of environmental protection similar considerations apply but the emphasis is on species rather than individuals. The International Programme on Chemical Safety, as the global programme on identifying and assessing chemical risks to human health and the environment in order to assist countries in effective management, is constantly advancing the basic science and methodology for making chemical risk assessment. PMID:21781706

Smith, E

1996-10-15

222

Influence of surface coverage on the chemical desorption process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In cold astrophysical environments, some molecules are observed in the gas phase whereas they should have been depleted, frozen on dust grains. In order to solve this problem, astrochemists have proposed that a fraction of molecules synthesized on the surface of dust grains could desorb just after their formation. Recently the chemical desorption process has been demonstrated experimentally, but the key parameters at play have not yet been fully understood. In this article, we propose a new procedure to analyze the ratio of di-oxygen and ozone synthesized after O atoms adsorption on oxidized graphite. We demonstrate that the chemical desorption efficiency of the two reaction paths (O+O and O+O2) is different by one order of magnitude. We show the importance of the surface coverage: for the O+O reaction, the chemical desorption efficiency is close to 80% at zero coverage and tends to zero at one monolayer coverage. The coverage dependence of O+O chemical desorption is proved by varying the amount of pre-adsorbed N2 on the substrate from 0 to 1.5 ML. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the different physical parameters that could play a role in the chemical desorption process: binding energy, enthalpy of formation, and energy transfer from the new molecule to the surface or to other adsorbates.

Minissale, M.; Dulieu, F.

2014-07-01

223

Achievements and challenges of Space Station Freedom's safety review process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most complex space vehicle in history, Space Station Freedom, is well underway to completion, and System Safety is a vital part of the program. The purpose is to summarize and illustrate the progress that over one-hundred System Safety engineers have made in identifying, documenting, and controlling the hazards inherent in the space station. To date, Space Station Freedom has been reviewed by NASA's safety panels through the first six assembly flights, when Freedom achieves a configuration known as Man Tended Capability. During the eight weeks of safety reviews spread out over a year and a half, over 200 preliminary hazard reports were presented. Along the way NASA and its contractors faced many challenges, made much progress, and even learned a few lessons.

Robinson, David W.

1993-01-01

224

Automobile safety regulation : technological change and regulatory process  

E-print Network

This report examines the history of automobile safety regulation since 1966, viewed as an attempt to substitute public decisions on the design of new automobiles for private decisions. The focus of the

Lorang, Philip Alphonse

225

Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Data requirements for the ferrocyanide safety issue developed through the data quality objectives (DQO) process  

SciTech Connect

This document records the data quality objectives (DQO) process applied to the Ferrocyanide Waste Tank Safety Issue at the Hanford Site by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company. Specifically, the major recommendations and findings from this Ferrocyanide DQO process are presented so that decision makers can determine the type, quantity, and quality of data required for addressing tank safety issues. The decision logic diagrams and error tolerance equations also are provided. Finally, the document includes the DQO sample-size formulas for determining specific tank sampling requirements.

Buck, J.W.; Anderson, C.M.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Toth, J.J.; Turner, P.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Meacham, J.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-12-01

226

Semi-quantitative fault tree analysis for process plant safety using frequency and probability ranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing concern in process plant safety to assess risk. Two important motives can be identified: on the one hand, the new Seveso directive, which contains a number of risk-related requirements for process plants, and on the other, the advent of the “Safety Integrity Level” SIL classes. These call for methods of analysis, which enable one to obtain

Ulrich Hauptmanns

2004-01-01

227

Food safety management systems performance in African food processing companies: a review of deficiencies and possible improvement strategies.  

PubMed

This study seeks to provide insight into current deficiencies in food safety management systems (FSMS) in African food-processing companies and to identify possible strategies for improvement so as to contribute to African countries' efforts to provide safe food to both local and international markets. This study found that most African food products had high microbiological and chemical contamination levels exceeding the set (legal) limits. Relative to industrialized countries, the study identified various deficiencies at government, sector/branch, retail and company levels which affect performance of FSMS in Africa. For instance, very few companies (except exporting and large companies) have implemented HACCP and ISO 22000:2005. Various measures were proposed to be taken at government (e.g. construction of risk-based legislative frameworks, strengthening of food safety authorities, recommend use of ISO 22000:2005, and consumers' food safety training), branch/sector (e.g. sector-specific guidelines and third-party certification), retail (develop stringent certification standards and impose product specifications) and company levels (improving hygiene, strict raw material control, production process efficacy, and enhancing monitoring systems, assurance activities and supportive administrative structures). By working on those four levels, FSMS of African food-processing companies could be better designed and tailored towards their production processes and specific needs to ensure food safety. PMID:24425418

Kussaga, Jamal B; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Tiisekwa, Bendantunguka Pm; Luning, Pieternel A

2014-08-01

228

Chemical measurements with optical fibers for process control.  

PubMed

Several aspects of remote in situ spectrophotometric measurement by means of optical fibers are considered in the context of chemical process control. The technique makes it possible to measure a species in a particular oxidation state, such as plutonium(VI), sequentially, under the stringent conditions of automated analysis. For the control of several species in solution, measurements at discrete wavelengths on the sides of the absorption peaks serve to increase the dynamic range. Examples are given concerning the isotopic separation of uranium in the Chemex process. The chemical control of complex solutions containing numerous mutually interfering species requires a more elaborate spectral scan and real-time processing to determine the chemical kinetics. Photodiode array spectrophotometers are therefore ideal for analysing the uranium and plutonium solutions of the Purex process. Remote on-line control by ultraviolet monitoring exhibits limitations chiefly due to Rayleigh scattering in the optical fibers. The measurement of pH in acidic (0.8-3.2) and basic media (10-13) has also been attempted. Prior calibration, signal processing and optical spectra modeling are also discussed. PMID:18964472

Boisde, G; Blanc, F; Perez, J J

1988-02-01

229

A Framework to Design and Optimize Chemical Flooding Processes  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

2006-08-31

230

Chemical Safety for Sustainability (CSS): Human in vivobiomonitoring data for complementing results from in vitro toxicology -A Commentary  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has instituted the Chemical Safety for Sustainability (CSS) research program for assessing the health and environmental impact of manufactured chemicals. This is a broad program wherein one of the tasks is to develop high throughput...

231

Health Information in Material Safety Data Sheets for a Chemical Which Causes Asthma  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To assess the quality of health information on material safety data sheets (MSDS) for a workplace chemical that is well known to cause or exacerbate asthma (toluene diisocyanate, TDI). DESIGN We reviewed a random sample of 61 MSDSs for TDI products produced by 30 manufacturers. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Two physicians independently abstracted data from each MSDS onto a standardized audit form. One manufacturer provided no language about any respiratory effects of TDI exposure. Asthma was listed as a potential health effect by only 15 of the 30 manufacturers (50%). Listing asthma in the MSDS was associated with higher toluene diisocyanate concentrations in the product (P < .042). Allergic or sensitizing respiratory reactions were listed by 21 manufacturers (70%). CONCLUSIONS Many MSDSs for toluene diisocyanate do not communicate clearly that exposure can cause or exacerbate asthma. This suggests that physicians should not rely on the MSDS for information about health effects of this chemical. PMID:11251759

Frazier, Linda M; Beasley, Brent W; Sharma, Gyanendra K; Mohyuddin, Aliasghar A

2001-01-01

232

40 CFR 372.20 - Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities. 372.20 Section...COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW...20 Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities. (a) Request...

2012-07-01

233

40 CFR 372.20 - Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities. 372.20 Section...COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW...20 Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities. (a) Request...

2013-07-01

234

Safety evaluation report related to the renewal of the facility license for the research reactor at the Dow Chemical Company  

SciTech Connect

This safety evaluation report for the application filed by the Dow Chemical Company for renewal of facility Operating License R-108 to continue to operate its research reactor at an increased operating power level has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located on the grounds of the Michigan Division of the Dow Chemical Company in Midland, Michigan. The staff concludes that the Dow Chemical Company can continue to operate its reactor without endangering the health and safety of the public.

Not Available

1989-04-01

235

An investigation of the role of politics in the safety recommendation process of the National Transportation Safety Board  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation analyzed the safety recommendations made to the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) by the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) to determine whether there was evidence to support the notion that this safety recommendation process was affected by political motivations. The recommendations associated with the investigations of major aviation accidents occurring from 1 January 1993 to 31 December 1997 were scrutinized in order to find patterns of disagreement between the FAA and NTSB over the intent and relevance of those safety recommendations. A number of current and former influential civil aviation safety officials, both within and outside the U.S. government, were interviewed in order to gauge what consensus existed as to the aviation industry's definition of detrimental political influence and how that influence may have been applied in those accidents explored in this study. The analysis used the interview data, as well as data from NTSB accident reports, NTSB safety recommendations associated with these accidents, and the correspondence between the FAA and NTSB related to those recommendations. While the outcome shows a relationship between higher media visibility accidents and disagreements between the NTSB and FAA, a mechanism that relates higher media visibility to NTSB political influence has not been identified in this study.

Curtis, Aaron Todd

236

Mixtures of Chemical Pollutants at European Legislation Safety Concentrations: How Safe Are They?  

PubMed Central

The risk posed by complex chemical mixtures in the environment to wildlife and humans is increasingly debated, but has been rarely tested under environmentally relevant scenarios. To address this issue, two mixtures of 14 or 19 substances of concern (pesticides, pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, a surfactant, and a plasticizer), each present at its safety limit concentration imposed by the European legislation, were prepared and tested for their toxic effects. The effects of the mixtures were assessed in 35 bioassays, based on 11 organisms representing different trophic levels. A consortium of 16 laboratories was involved in performing the bioassays. The mixtures elicited quantifiable toxic effects on some of the test systems employed, including i) changes in marine microbial composition, ii) microalgae toxicity, iii) immobilization in the crustacean Daphnia magna, iv) fish embryo toxicity, v) impaired frog embryo development, and vi) increased expression on oxidative stress-linked reporter genes. Estrogenic activity close to regulatory safety limit concentrations was uncovered by receptor-binding assays. The results highlight the need of precautionary actions on the assessment of chemical mixtures even in cases where individual toxicants are present at seemingly harmless concentrations. PMID:24958932

Carvalho, Raquel N.; Arukwe, Augustine; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Bado-Nilles, Anne; Balzamo, Stefania; Baun, Anders; Belkin, Shimshon; Blaha, Ludek; Brion, François; Conti, Daniela; Creusot, Nicolas; Essig, Yona; Ferrero, Valentina E. V.; Flander-Putrle, Vesna; Fürhacker, Maria; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina; Hogstrand, Christer; Jonáš, Adam; Kharlyngdoh, Joubert B.; Loos, Robert; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Modig, Carina; Olsson, Per-Erik; Pillai, Smitha; Polak, Natasa; Potalivo, Monica; Sanchez, Wilfried; Schifferli, Andrea; Schirmer, Kristin; Sforzini, Susanna; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R.; Søfteland, Liv; Turk, Valentina; Viarengo, Aldo; Werner, Inge; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Zounková, Radka; Lettieri, Teresa

2014-01-01

237

Material processing of chemically modified graphene: some challenges and solutions.  

PubMed

Graphene-based sheets show promise for a variety of potential applications, and researchers in many scientific disciplines are interested in these materials. Although researchers have developed many ways of generating single atomic layer carbon sheets, chemical exfoliation of graphite powders to graphene oxide (GO) sheets followed by deoxygenation to form chemically modified graphene (CMG) offers a promising route for bulk scale production. The materials processing, which we broadly define as the physical and chemical means to tailor a material's chemical and microstructures, enables us to control the properties in bulk CMG materials. For example, by processing CMG sheets in different solvents, we can make thin films, blend CMG sheets with other materials, and modify them by chemical reactions. Materials processing methods also allow us to control the interactions between CMG sheets for the assembly of large scale two- or three-dimensional structures with desirable microstructures. This Account highlights a few problems associated with large scale production and processing of GO and CMG. First, we briefly discuss the potential fire risk of GO and CMG when alkaline salt byproducts are not completely removed. These impurities can catalyze carbon combustion. We introduce an improved purification procedure that effectively removes the byproducts and speeds up the production. Next, we address the challenges of imaging GO and CMG sheets on common substrates such as glass and plastics using standard microscopy methods. We have introduced a new technique fluorescence quenching microscopy (FQM), which allows us to observe graphene-based sheets with both high throughput and high contrast on arbitrary substrates and even in solution. Then we focus on how to prevent aggregation in CMG. Aggregation greatly reduces the material processability and accessible surface area, which degrades the material properties. We introduce two strategies to reduce aggregation by (i) reducing the lateral dimension of the sheets to nanometer range to enhance their colloidal stability and (ii) crumpling the sheets into paper ball-like, fractal-dimensional particles to make them aggregation-resistant in both solvents and solid state, even after mechanical compression. Solutions to these material processing challenges can pave the way for further research and development. We hope that the tools and strategies presented in this Account can facilitate the processing and property control of this promising material. PMID:23425088

Luo, Jiayan; Kim, Jaemyung; Huang, Jiaxing

2013-10-15

238

Certification Processes for Safety-Critical and Mission-Critical Aerospace Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is a quick reference guide with an overview of the processes required to certify safety-critical and mission-critical flight software at selected NASA centers and the FAA. Researchers and software developers can use this guide to jumpstart their understanding of how to get new or enhanced software onboard an aircraft or spacecraft. The introduction contains aerospace industry definitions of safety and safety-critical software, as well as, the current rationale for certification of safety-critical software. The Standards for Safety-Critical Aerospace Software section lists and describes current standards including NASA standards and RTCA DO-178B. The Mission-Critical versus Safety-Critical software section explains the difference between two important classes of software: safety-critical software involving the potential for loss of life due to software failure and mission-critical software involving the potential for aborting a mission due to software failure. The DO-178B Safety-critical Certification Requirements section describes special processes and methods required to obtain a safety-critical certification for aerospace software flying on vehicles under auspices of the FAA. The final two sections give an overview of the certification process used at Dryden Flight Research Center and the approval process at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL).

Nelson, Stacy

2003-01-01

239

Development of a polysilicon process based on chemical vapor deposition (phase 1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dichlorosilane-based reductive chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process demonstrated is capable of producing, at low cost, high quality polycrystalline silicon. Testing of decomposition reactor heat shields to insure that the shield provides adequate personnel protection assuming a worst case explosion was completed. Minor modifications to a production reactor heat shield provided adequate heat shield integrity. Construction of the redesigned PDU (Process Development Unit) to accommodate all safety related information proceeded on schedule. Structural steel work was completed as is the piping and instrumentation design work. Major pieces of process equipment were received and positioned in the support structure and all transfer piping and conduits to the PDU were installed. Construction was completed on a feed system for supplying DCS to an intermediate sized reactor. The feed system was successfully interfaced with a reactor equipped with a modified heat shield. Reactor checkout was completed.

Mccormick, J.; Arvidson, A.; Sawyer, D.; Plahutnik, F.

1981-01-01

240

Chemical treatment of plutonium with hydrogen peroxide before nitrate anion exchange processing. [Reduction to (IV)  

SciTech Connect

The major aqueous process used to recover and purify plutonium at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility is anion exchange in nitric acid. This process is highly selective for plutonium; however, all plutonium must be as Pu(IV) to form the strongly sorbed anionic nitrato complex. The previous ''full-reduction treatment'' used at Los Alamos to obtain Pu(IV) results in a three- to fourfold increase in the feed solution volume and the introduction of kilogram quantities of extraneous salts immediately before a process whose function is to remove such impurities. That treatment has been successfully replaced by a single reagent, hydrogen peroxide, which converts all plutonium to Pu(IV), minimally increases the feed volume, and introduces no residual impurities. Safety aspects of this revised chemical treatment are addressed.

Marsh, S.F.; Gallegos, T.D.

1987-05-01

241

Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Nanocellulose: Structure and Chemical Process  

PubMed Central

Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate's application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulose crystallinity, which inhibit the digestibility of the biomass for cellulose extraction. This situation offers both challenges and promises for the biomass biorefinery development to utilize the cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass. Thus, multistep biorefinery processes are necessary to ensure the deconstruction of noncellulosic content in lignocellulosic biomass, while maintaining cellulose product for further hydrolysis into nanocellulose material. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance, reengineering process of lignocellulosic biomass into nanocellulose via chemical, and novel catalytic approaches. Furthermore, review on catalyst design to overcome key barriers regarding the natural resistance of biomass will be presented herein.

Lee, H. V.; Hamid, S. B. A.; Zain, S. K.

2014-01-01

242

Information Scanning and Processing at the Nuclear Safety Information Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a detailed manual of the information specialist's duties at the Nuclear Safety Information Center. Information specialists scan the literature for documents to be reviewed, procure the documents (books, journal articles, reports, etc.), keep the document location records, and return the documents to the plant library or other…

Parks, Celia; Julian, Carol

243

Process for converting cellulosic materials into fuels and chemicals  

DOEpatents

A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major constituent of paper, cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. The cellulase is produced from a continuous, columnar, fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing immobilized microorganisms. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. The cellulase is recycled by an adsorption process. The resulting crude sugars are converted to dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing microorganisms. The dilute product is concentrated and purified by utilizing distillation and/or a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor system.

Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faison, Brendlyn D. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

244

Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, Academy of Sciences Environmental Process Engineering Laboratory  

E-print Network

Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, Academy of Sciences Environmental Process Engineering Laboratory Prague, Czech Republic Vladimír Církva #12;MICROWAVE PHOTOCHEMISTRY = combination of UV. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem. in print] #12;Testing of EDL Performance for spectral measurements (Micro

Cirkva, Vladimir

245

An object-oriented framework for modular chemical process simulation with semiconductor processing applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the development of a set of object-oriented modular simulation tools for solving lumped and spatially distributed models generated from chemical process design and simulation problems. Developed in the context of simulating semiconductor manufacture equipment, this framework reduces the software development cycle time associated with designing process systems and it improves the overall efficiency of the simulator development

Jing Chen; Raymond A. Adomaitis

2006-01-01

246

Influence of surface coverage on the chemical desorption process  

E-print Network

In cold astrophysical environments, some molecules are observed in the gas phase whereas they should have been depleted, frozen on dust grains. In order to solve this problem, astrochemists have proposed that a fraction of molecules synthesized on the surface of dust grains could desorb just after their formation. Recently the chemical desorption process has been demonstrated experimentally, but the key parameters at play have not yet been fully understood. In this article we propose a new procedure to analyze the ratio of di-oxygen and ozone synthesized after O atoms adsorption on oxidized graphite. We demonstrate that the chemical desorption efficiency of the two reaction paths (O+O and O+O$_2$) is different by one order of magnitude. We show the importance of the surface coverage: for the O+O reaction, the chemical desorption efficiency is close to 80 $\\%$ at zero coverage and tends to zero at one monolayer coverage. The coverage dependence of O+O chemical desorption is proved by varying the amount of pre-...

Marco, Minissale

2014-01-01

247

Experience Modeling and Analyzing Medical Processes: UMass/Baystate Medical Safety Project Overview  

E-print Network

Experience Modeling and Analyzing Medical Processes: UMass/Baystate Medical Safety Project Overview@cs.umass.edu Elizabeth A. Henneman School of Nursing University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 henneman@nursing/Baystate Medical Safety project, which has been developing and eval- uating tools and technology for modeling

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

248

Health and safety consequences of shift work in the food processing industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both a questionnaire survey and an evaluation of health and safety records were used to characterize the health and safety consequences of day versus afternoon, night and rotating shifts for approximately 1000 food processing workers. Relative to the day workers, the results indicated that those on shift work, particularly rotating and night shifts, showed greater adverse effects. These included poorer

MICHAEL J. SMITH; MICHAEL J. COLLIGAN; DONALD L. TASTO

1982-01-01

249

A Human Performance Modeling System for Process Safety Operations  

E-print Network

with the reduction of alarms. It is about improving plant safety by enabling operators? timely intervention. To be able to implement efficient alarm management, the question: ?What is an alarm?? needs to be answered. Alarms are described in ISA 18.2 as audible... response and response time are done during the rationalization step. During alarm rationalization such questions as below need to be answered 1: ? Does the alarm require a timely operator response in order to avoid pre- defined consequences? ? What...

Harputlu, Emrah 1986-

2013-01-02

250

Incorporation of chemical kinetic models into process control  

SciTech Connect

An important consideration in chemical process control is to determine the precise rationing of reactant streams, particularly when a large time delay exists between the mixing of the reactants and the measurement of the product. In this paper, a method is described for incorporating chemical kinetic models into the control strategy in order to achieve optimum operating conditions. The system is first characterized by determining a reaction rate surface as a function of all input reactant concentrations over a feasible range. A nonlinear constrained optimization program is then used to determine the combination of reactants which produces the specified yield at minimum cost. This operating condition is then used to establish the nominal concentrations of the reactants. The actual operation is determined through a feedback control system employing a Smith predictor. The method is demonstrated on a laboratory bench scale enzyme reactor.

Herget, C.J.; Frazer, J.W.

1981-07-08

251

Physics-based model for electro-chemical process  

SciTech Connect

Considering the kinetics of electrochemical reactions and mass transfer at the surface and near-surface of the electrode, a physics-based separation model for separating actinides from fission products in an electro-refiner is developed. The model, taking into account the physical, chemical and electrochemical processes at the electrode surface, can be applied to study electrorefining kinetics. One of the methods used for validation has been to apply the developed model to the computation of the cyclic voltammetry process of PuCl{sub 3} and UCl{sub 3} at a solid electrode in molten KCl-LiCl. The computed results appear to be similar to experimental measures. The separation model can be applied to predict materials flows under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Parametric studies can be conducted based on the model to identify the most important factors that affect the electrorefining processes.

Zhang, Jinsuo [The Ohio State University, 201 W19th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2013-07-01

252

Regulation and safety implementation of nanotechnology for chemical enterprises in the Central Europe Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As result of the gradually increasing nanotechnology sector there is the necessity of a contemporary analysis of the present regulations used for nanomaterials, to outline the current situation of the nanotechnology sector, to promote international cooperation and research's coordination to overcome disciplinary boundaries, to fill the gap between more and less experienced regions and to turn investments in R&D in industrial innovations. The general objective of the Central Europe project NANOFORCE, which is developed by national and regional chemistry associations and R&D Centres of the Central Europe area, is to foster the innovative nanotechnology-sector networks across Central Europe regions by bringing together public and private organizations to carry out collaborative and interdisciplinary researches on nanomaterials (in the frame of REACH Regulation) and to turn the most promising laboratory results into innovative industrial applications. To build up a legal advisory board for chemical enterprises starting in nanotechnology, a state of the art report on existing safety procedures and nanotech related regulations was produced to give an overview on currently available regulations used by chemical industries and manufacturing companies within the European region to secure their products. The main emphasis was placed on REACH regulation to search for relevant sections concentrating on nanomaterials which are applicable for nanotechnology. In addition, all relevant directives and amendments of REACH were screened with regard to identify gaps where action is still needed and give possible recommendations for the European Commission. Beyond literature research a questionnaire for producers, users, researchers and financiers was developed with the goal to collect information about the nanotechnology sector in the CE region concerning development, financial status, and international cooperation within joint ventures, safety and nanotoxicology.

Falk, A.; Hartl, S.; Sinner, F.

2013-04-01

253

Guidance on health effects of toxic chemicals. Safety Analysis Report Update Program  

SciTech Connect

Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES), and Martin Marietta Utility Services, Inc. (MMUS), are engaged in phased programs to update the safety documentation for the existing US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facilities. The safety analysis of potential toxic hazards requires a methodology for evaluating human health effects of predicted toxic exposures. This report provides a consistent set of health effects and documents toxicity estimates corresponding to these health effects for some of the more important chemicals found within MMES and MMUS. The estimates are based on published toxicity information and apply to acute exposures for an ``average`` individual. The health effects (toxicological endpoints) used in this report are (1) the detection threshold; (2) the no-observed adverse effect level; (3) the onset of irritation/reversible effects; (4) the onset of irreversible effects; and (5) a lethal exposure, defined to be the 50% lethal level. An irreversible effect is defined as a significant effect on a person`s quality of life, e.g., serious injury. Predicted consequences are evaluated on the basis of concentration and exposure time.

Foust, C.B.; Griffin, G.D.; Munro, N.B.; Socolof, M.L.

1994-02-01

254

Shield verification testing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory processes spent nuclear reactor fuels for recovery of usable uranium. The new Fuel Processing Facility (FPF), currently under construction, is a 400 million dollar project that will replace the aging processing facility. A Shield Testing Program is being conducted to verify that shield walls, doors, and windows meet the design criteria for radiation attenuation, and to identify defects in suspect areas that could be unacceptable during processing operations. This document provides a description of this program.

Oswald, A.J.

1991-02-26

255

No Respect: Research in Quality, Safety, and Process Improvement  

PubMed Central

The need for good quality and safety research has never been more imperative, but even as we encourage and promote such work, we seem to suppress it through institutional bias and inertia. Indeed the culture of health care seems to have a love-hate relationship with quality-improvement work as a whole. In this commentary we explore some of the implications of the application of pure science standards at the sharp end of clinical practice, where the down-and-dirty street-level improvement work happens. PMID:20740106

Rubinfeld, Ilan S; Horst, H Mathilda

2009-01-01

256

Fundamental studies of chemical vapor deposition diamond growth processes  

SciTech Connect

We are developing laser spectroscopic techniques to foster a fundamental understanding of diamond film growth by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Several spectroscopic techniques are under investigation to identify intermediate species present in the bulk reactor volume, the thin active volume immediately above the growing film, and the actual growing surface. Such a comprehensive examination of the overall deposition process is necessary because a combination of gas phase and surface chemistry is probably operating. Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) techniques have been emphasized. A growth rector that permits through-the-substrate gas sampling for REMPI/time-of-flight mass spectroscopy has been developed. 7 refs., 2 figs.

Shaw, R.W.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.; Heatherly, L.

1991-01-01

257

Encoding and processing of alphanumeric information by chemical mixtures.  

PubMed

A novel infochemical device that is based on (1)H NMR readout of chemical information is presented. This chemical encoding system utilizes two measurable parameters of homogeneous mixtures, chemical shift and peak integration, for three different applications: 1) a text-encoding device that is based on spectral representation of a sequence of symbols, 2) encoding of 21-digit binary numbers, each represented by an NMR spectrum, and their algebraic manipulations, such as addition and subtraction, and 3) encoding of 21-digit decimal numbers. The first application enables molecular information storage and encryption. The relative concentration of each component, as measured by the relevant peak integration, can represent a symbol. The second application of this system, in addition to its obvious memory capability, enables mathematical operations. The NMR spectrum of a given mixture represents a 21-digit binary number where each of the peaks encodes for a specific digit. In any of the input mixtures (numbers) each compound is either present or absent, representing either 1 or 0, respectively. We used the various binary numbers to carry out addition operations by combining two or more solutions (numbers). Subtraction operations were also preformed by digital processing of the information. The third application is the representation of decimal numbers. As before, each of the peaks encodes for a specific digit. In any of the input mixtures each compound is present in one of 10 different relative concentrations, representing the 10 digits of a decimal number. PMID:19937664

Ratner, Tamar; Reany, Ofer; Keinan, Ehud

2009-12-21

258

An Approach to Help Departments Meet the New ABET Process Safety Requirements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proposed program criteria changes by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc. (ABET), for chemical, biochemical, biomolecular, and similarly named programs includes a fundamental awareness expectation of the hazards involved in chemical processing for a graduating chemical engineer. As of July 2010, these four new words…

Vaughen, Bruce K.

2012-01-01

259

Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

Education in Science, 1996

1996-01-01

260

Process for converting cellulosic materials into fuels and chemicals  

DOEpatents

A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major constituent of paper, cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. The cellulase is produced from a continuous, columnar, fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing immobilized microorganisms. An attrition mill and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. The cellulase is recycled by an adsorption process. The resulting crude sugars are converted to dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing microorganisms. The dilute product is concentrated and purified by utilizing distillation and/or a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor system. 1 fig.

Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

1994-09-20

261

Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to nanocellulose: structure and chemical process.  

PubMed

Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate's application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulose crystallinity, which inhibit the digestibility of the biomass for cellulose extraction. This situation offers both challenges and promises for the biomass biorefinery development to utilize the cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass. Thus, multistep biorefinery processes are necessary to ensure the deconstruction of noncellulosic content in lignocellulosic biomass, while maintaining cellulose product for further hydrolysis into nanocellulose material. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance, reengineering process of lignocellulosic biomass into nanocellulose via chemical, and novel catalytic approaches. Furthermore, review on catalyst design to overcome key barriers regarding the natural resistance of biomass will be presented herein. PMID:25247208

Lee, H V; Hamid, S B A; Zain, S K

2014-01-01

262

Role of pyro-chemical processes in advanced fuel cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) of Minor Actinides (MAs) and Long-Lived Fission Products (LLFP) arising out of the back-end of the fuel cycle would be one of the key-steps in any future sustainable nuclear fuel cycle. Pyro-chemical separation methods would form a critical stage of P&T by recovering long-lived elements and thus reducing the environmental impact by the back-end of the fuel-cycle. This paper attempts to overview global developments of pyro-chemical process that are envisaged in advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Research and development needs for molten-salt electro-refining as well as molten salt extraction process that are foreseen as partitioning methods for spent nuclear fuels such as oxide, metal and nitride fuels from thermal or fast reactors; high level liquid waste from back-end fuel cycle as well as targets from sub-critical Accelerator Driven Sub-critical reactors would be addressed. The role of high temperature thermodynamic data of minor actinides in defining efficiency of recovery or separation of minor actinides from other fission products such as lanthanides will also be illustrated. In addition, the necessity for determination of accurate high temperature thermodynamic data of minor actinides would be discussed.

Nawada, Hosadu Parameswara; Fukuda, Kosaku

2005-02-01

263

WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL NUCLEAR SAFETY RELATED R AND D REPORT FOR CY2008  

SciTech Connect

The Engineering and Technology Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks associated with key waste processing project decisions. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment (TDD). The Office of Waste Processing TDD program prioritizes and approves research and development scopes of work that address nuclear safety related to processing of highly radioactive nuclear wastes. Thirteen of the thirty-five R&D approved work scopes in FY2009 relate directly to nuclear safety, and are presented in this report.

Fellinger, A.

2009-10-15

264

Modular microcomponents for a flexible chemical process technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different types of modular micro components such as pumps, values, reactors, separators, residence structures, extractors have been developed. Silicon was used as basic material. Most external dimensions of all different modules are equal. The components contain deep micro structures like channels or groves produced in dry or in wet chemical etching procedures. Different types of bonding technologies were applied to cover the flow structures. Openings positioned at the surface allow the connection with external standard tubes. These openings are arranged on each module at the same position. Due to this basic design a highly flexible combination of the micro modules is possible. Specific process conditions of chemical reactions can be adapted very easily and cost effective by means of module combinations. Holders for the modules contain the fluidic/electric connectors and allow their flexible combination. They are made of PEEK or PTFE. Fixing and sealing of external tubes to the modules can be realised by simple screwing procedures of standard tubes into the holders. Due to this simple screwing procedure all modules can be exchanged on demand. Operating pressures up to the limitation values of the external tubes can be applied to the modules. Electrical contacts arranged inside the holders allow the electrical connection of the modules to an external power supply, as well as a read out of electrical signals delivered from possibly integrated specific sensors. Stand alone examinations of single modules as well as specific chemical reactions in modular combinations were carried out to verify the performance of the micro devices. Successful and hopeful results were found in all cases.

Schwesinger, Norbert

2000-08-01

265

Experience of Hot Cell Renovation Work in CPF (Chemical Processing Facility)  

SciTech Connect

Renovation work for operation room A of the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF) was carried out. Cell renovation work involved disassembly, removal and installation of new equipment for the CA-3 cell of operation room A and the crane renovation work involved the repair of the in-cell crane for the CA-5 cell of operation room A. There were not many examples of renovation work performed on cells under high radiation environment and alpha contamination in Japan. Lessons learnt: With respect to the cell renovation work and crane repair work, a method that gave full consideration to safety was employed and the work was performed without accidents or disaster. Moreover, through improvement of the method, reduction of radioactive exposure of the workers was achieved and a melt reduction device was designed to deal with the radioactive waste material that was generated in the renovation work to achieve significant melt reduction of waste material.

Toyonobu Nabemoto; Fujio Katahira; Tadatsugu Sakaya [IHI Corporation: Isogo-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa pref, 235-8501 (Japan); Shinichi Aose; Takafumi Kitajima; Kouji Ogasawara; Kazunori Nomura; Shigehiko Miyachi; Yoshiaki Ichige; Tadahiro Shinozaki; Shinichi Ohuchi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency: Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki pref, 319-1194 (Japan)

2008-01-15

266

Hydrogeochemical processes and chemical characteristics around Sahand Mountain, NW Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical analysis of 21 water wells in Sahand area, NW of Iran has been evaluated to determine the hydrogeochemical processes and ion, heavy and trace metal concentration background in the region. The dominated hydrochemical types are Ca-Mg-HCO3, Ca-SO4 and Na-Cl that vary in different group sample. The pH and Eh of the groundwater in the study area indicating an acidic to alkaline nature of the samples in group II, acidic nature in group I and neutral in group III. Also in Group III than Group I and II, the oxidizing condition is dominant, while in the other groups relative reducing conditions prevail. Due to Cu and other metal mineralization in I and II site, Cu, As, Au and other metal concentration in this water groups is higher than group III.

Pazand, Kaveh; Hezarkhani, Ardeshir

2013-06-01

267

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SAFETY CONSIDERATION OF ELECTROSTATIC SPRAYING PROCESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Etectrostatic coating processes apply high voltages of the order of 100 kV to electrically charge the spraying material which is then precipitated on the surface of the work piece to be coated, making use of the resulting electrostatic attractive forces. A variety of electrostatic spraying equipment is in use, ranging from the hand-held electrostatic spray guns to the large electrostatic

H. KRAMER

1998-01-01

268

Data requirements for the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue developed through the data quality objectives process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document records the data quality objectives (DQO) process applied to the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue at the Hanford Site. Specifically, the major recommendations and findings from this Ferrocyanide DQO process are presented. The decision logic diagrams and decision error tolerances also are provided. The document includes the DQO sample-size formulas for determining specific tank sampling requirements, and many of the

J. E. Meacham; R. J. Cash; G. T. Dukelow; H. Babad; J. W. Buck; C. M. Anderson; B. A. Pulsipher; J. J. Toth; P. J. Turner

1994-01-01

269

Hardware Design of Foundation Fieldbus Intrinsic Safety Communication Protocol Processing Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the key technology of hardware design on the communication protocol processing unit is given from the views of the system function, resource requirement, power consumption limit, signal transmission, processing speed and power supply mode according to foundation fieldbus (FF) communication protocol and demands on the intrinsic safety. System architecture, communication controller usage, single-chip selection, medium attachment unit

Wang Ying; Wang Hong; Cui Shu-ping

2006-01-01

270

75 FR 29754 - Claims of Confidentiality of Certain Chemical Identities Contained in Health and Safety Studies...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Safety Studies Submitted Under the Toxic Substances Control Act AGENCY: Environmental...and safety studies, submitted under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) in accordance...Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT), Environmental Protection...

2010-05-27

271

Chapter 2 Quantum Linear Superposition Theory for Chemical Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complete basis states (BSs), in abstract configuration space-projected quantum mechanics (QM), permit representations of any physical and chemical process elicited by quantum states changes. For a material 1-system, defined by n-electrons and m-nuclei, BSs including relevant fragments cover a representation of chemical species identifiable by spectral response toward electromagnetic (EM) radiations. Reactants, products, and intermediate species are expressed as specific linear superpositions where the amplitude in square modulus at a given BS controls the relative intensity to the spectrum rooted at the corresponding energy eigenstate. Moreover, there is no trace that quantum numbers characterizing BSs would be changed as a function of particular regions of nuclear or electronic configuration space. The exact Coulomb Hamiltonian generates BSs. However, in this basis set, this operator does not generate evolution measured by changes of amplitudes in time, only time phases change. This operator in semiclassical models cannot drive effective time evolution via changes of amplitudes for the electronic quantum states either. The presence of a driving external field, for example, EM fields, is a sufficient condition to produce evolution standing for the physical process. It is a matter of logics that if the exact operator and the semiclassical one do not generate time evolution, then approximate models - such as computational Born-Oppenheimer (BO) - should not do it as well. However, standard (s-)BO scheme does change basis quantum numbers as a function of nuclear configuration space leading to chemical reaction representation. This apparent contradiction and possible solutions are examined here. By introducing the concept of abstract generalized electronic diabatic (a-GED) and a-BO models, electronuclear separability models are examined. Sets of noninteracting many-I-frame fragments leading to asymptotic states descriptions are included together with sets of quantum states for the one-I-frame system providing BSs to describe dissociation/association processes in chemistry. The theory takes on a clear semiclassical flavor. This approach permits introducing nuclear fixed configuration concept and relate theoretical states to laboratory ones in a natural manner. The approach leads to a generalization of the many-state reactivity models. General semiclassic schemes are introduced in Section 6, which permit integration of one-I-frame to many-I-frames states. Planting one-electron functions at nuclear positions is the origin of the parametric dependence of s-BO wave functions, and it explains why the method displays chemical behavior. This atomic-orbital algorithm permits connecting one-I-frame semiclassic electronic states to asymptotic ones in a continuous way. A ghost atomic-orbital model is introduced to facilitate diabatic studies and reinstate the linear superposition model. As indicated in the "Contents," some other subjects are examined from the present perspective. This includes the Jahn-Teller effect defined in this new diabatic framework and the nature of the BO scheme.

Tapia, O.

272

Report of the oversight assessment of the operational readiness review of the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility Cold Chemical Runs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of an oversight assessment (OA) conducted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) of the operational readiness review (ORR) activities for the Cold Chemical Runs (CCRs) at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) located at Savannah River Site (SRS). The EH OA of this facility took place concurrently

1993-01-01

273

Report of the oversight assessment of the operational readiness review of the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility Cold Chemical Runs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of an oversight assessment (OA) conducted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) of the operational readiness review (ORR) activities for the Cold Chemical Runs (CCRs) at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) located at Savannah River Site (SRS). The EH OA of this facility took place concurrently

1993-01-01

274

Chemical compositional, biological, and safety studies of a novel maple syrup derived extract for nutraceutical applications.  

PubMed

Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789

Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Li, Liya; Nahar, Pragati; Slitt, Angela; Seeram, Navindra P

2014-07-16

275

[Substantiation of both safety indices for control over the use of chemicals for water disinfection and need to harmonize them with international requirements].  

PubMed

The domestic and also foreign indices applied for control over the safety of chemical disinfecting of water are considered. The data confirming need of extension of the list of legislatively approved indices are provided of water, efficiency and safety indicators, harmful impurity, transformation products. On the basis of the performed analysis of literature data and own investigations the following indices for inclusion in the processed. Sanitary standards and rules on drinking water are suggested: the total content of THM, the total content of haloacetic acids, the total maintenance of up to AHC index (adsorbed halogen-containing organic compounds) in water chlorination; chlorite- and chlorate ions in application of dioxide of chlorine; control over efficiency of water disinfection up to the steadiest microorganisms depending on an applied method. Introduction of settlement about necessity of control over the content of dangerous monomers and impurities in a commodity products in application of polymeric reagents and means of water disinfection is proved. PMID:23458009

Tul'skaia, E A; Rakhmanin, Iu A; Zholdakova, Z I

2012-01-01

276

77 FR 76419 - Health and Safety Data Reporting; Addition of Certain Chemicals; Withdrawal of Final Rule  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...issued a health and safety data reporting rule that would...final health and safety data reporting rule that it issued...withdraw the health and safety data reporting rule that it issued on December 3, 2012. EPA finds that there is ``good...

2012-12-28

277

77 FR 32146 - Safety Evaluation Report, International Isotopes Fluorine Products, Inc., Fluorine Extraction...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fluorine Extraction Process and Depleted Uranium...Fluorine Extraction Process and Depleted Uranium...and Management System (ADAMS): You...INFORMATION: I. Introduction By letter dated...criticality safety, chemical process safety, fire...

2012-05-31

278

Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Correlation Spectroscopy: Probing Dynamical Processes with Chemical Selectivity  

E-print Network

dynamical changes in living cells and tissues with chemical selectivity, complementary to multiphoton with Chemical Selectivity Ji-xin Cheng, Eric O. Potma, and Sunney X. Xie* Department of Chemistry and Chemical. This method probes dynamical processes with chemical selectivity based on vibration spectroscopy. High

Heller, Eric

279

Current concepts on integrative safety assessment of active substances of botanical, mineral or chemical origin in homeopathic medicinal products within the European regulatory framework.  

PubMed

For active substances of botanical, mineral or chemical origin processed in homeopathic medicinal products for human use, the adequate safety principles as with other human medicinal products are applied in line with the European regulatory framework. In homeopathy, nonclinical safety assessment is facing a particular challenge because of a multitude and diversity of source materials used and due to rarely available toxicological data. Thus, current concepts applied by the national regulatory authority in Germany (BfArM) on integrative safety assessment of raw materials used in homeopathic medicinal products involve several evaluation approaches like the use of the Lowest Human Recommended Dose (LHRD), toxicological limit values, Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC), data from food regulation or the consideration of unavoidable environmental or dietary background exposure. This publication is intended to further develop and clarify the practical use of these assessment routes by exemplary application on selected homeopathic preparations. In conclusion, the different approaches are considered a very useful scientific and simultaneously pragmatic procedure in differentiated risk assessment of homeopathic medicinal products. Overall, this paper aims to increase the visibility of the safety issues in homeopathy and to stimulate scientific discussion of worldwide existing regulatory concepts on homeopathic medicinal products. PMID:24384395

Buchholzer, Marie-Luise; Werner, Christine; Knoess, Werner

2014-03-01

280

Data requirements for the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue developed through the data quality objectives process  

SciTech Connect

This document records the data quality objectives (DQO) process applied to the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue at the Hanford Site. Specifically, the major recommendations and findings from this Ferrocyanide DQO process are presented. The decision logic diagrams and decision error tolerances also are provided. The document includes the DQO sample-size formulas for determining specific tank sampling requirements, and many of the justifications for decision thresholds and decision error tolerances are briefly described. More detailed descriptions are presented in other Ferrocyanide Safety Program companion documents referenced in this report. This is a living document, and the assumptions contained within will be refined as more data from sampling and characterization become available.

Meacham, J.E.; Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Babad, H. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States); Buck, J.W.; Anderson, C.M.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Toth, J.J.; Turner, P.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-08-01

281

Criticality safety of project W-151, 241-AZ-101 retrieval system process test  

SciTech Connect

This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) documents a review of the criticality safety implications of a process test to be performed in tank 241-AZ-101 (101-AZ). The process test will determine the effectiveness of the retrieval system for mobilization of solids and the practicality of the system for future use in the underground storage tanks at Hanford. The scope of the CSER extends only to the testing and operation of the mixer pumps and does not include the transfer of waste from the tank. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality is extremely unlikely, if not impossible, in this tank.

Vail, T.S., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-16

282

Chemical inhibition of PCDD/F formation in incineration processes.  

PubMed

This review summarises results of our pilot-scale experiments to find suitable inhibitors for preventing the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) during waste incineration and to specify the role of the main factors affecting the inhibition process, and is based on doctoral dissertation of Ruokojaärvi (2002). Results of previous experiments reported by other researchers are also presented and compared with ours. The detailed aims of our experiments were (1) to compare the effects of different inhibitors on PCDD/F formation during incineration in a pilot plant, (2) to investigate the role of the particle size distribution of the flue gas on the inhibition of PCDD/Fs, and (3) to find the main parameters affecting PCDD/F inhibition in waste incineration. Prevention of the formation of PCDD/Fs with chemical inhibitors and the effects of different supply points, feed temperatures and process parameters were studied in a pilot scale incinerator (50 kW) using light heating oil and refuse-derived fuel as test fuels. Various concentrations of the gaseous inhibitors (sulfur dioxide, ammonia, dimethylamine and methyl mercaptan) were sprayed into the flue gases after the furnace, in addition to which urea was dissolved in water and injected in at different concentrations. The residence time of the flue gas between the furnace and the PCDD/F sampling point was varied in the tests. In another set of urea tests, urea-water solutions at three concentrations were mixed with the RDF prior to incineration. PCDD/F and chlorophenol concentrations, together with other flue gas parameters (e.g. temperature, O2, CO, CO2 and NO), were analysed in the cooling flue gases. The gaseous and liquid inhibitors both notably reduced PCDD/F concentrations in the flue gas, the reductions achieved with the gaseous inhibitors varying from 50 to 78%, with dimethyl amine the most effective, while that produced with urea was up to 90%. The PCDD/F reductions were greater at increased inhibitor concentrations and with increased residence time of the flue gas between the furnace and the sampling point. PCDD/F concentrations in the particle phase decreased much more markedly than those in the gas phase. The urea inhibitor did not alter the particle size distribution of the PCDD/Fs when the amount of inhibitor was adequate. Chemical inhibitors seem to offer a very promising technique for preventing the formation of PCDD/Fs in waste incineration. The addition of urea to the fuel before combustion proved to be very effective approach and could be a useful technique even in the full-scale incinerators. PMID:15144780

Ruokojärvi, Päivi H; Asikainen, Arja H; Tuppurainen, Kari A; Ruuskanen, Juhani

2004-06-01

283

Hydrophobic hydration processes thermal and chemical denaturation of proteins.  

PubMed

The hydrophobic hydration processes have been analysed under the light of a mixture model of water that is assumed to be composed by clusters (W(5))(I), clusters (W(4))(II) and free water molecules W(III). The hydrophobic hydration processes can be subdivided into two Classes A and B. In the processes of Class A, the transformation A(-?(w)W(I)??(w)W(II)+?(w)W(III)+cavity) takes place, with expulsion from the bulk of ?(w) water molecules W(III), whereas in the processes of Class B the opposite transformation B(-?(w)W(III)-?(w)W(II)??(w)W(I)-cavity) takes place, with condensation into the bulk of ?(w) water molecules W(III). The thermal equivalent dilution (TED) principle is exploited to determine the number ?(w). The denaturation (unfolding) process belongs to Class A whereas folding (or renaturation) belongs to Class B. The enthalpy ?H(den) and entropy ?S(den) functions can be disaggregated in thermal and motive components, ?H(den)=?H(therm)+?H(mot), and ?S(den)=?S(therm)+?S(mot), respectively. The terms ?H(therm) and ?S(therm) are related to phase change of water molecules W(III), and give no contribution to free energy (?G(therm)=0). The motive functions refer to the process of cavity formation (Class A) or cavity reduction (Class B), respectively and are the only contributors to free energy ?G(mot). The folded native protein is thermodynamically favoured (?G(fold)??G(mot)<0) because of the outstanding contribution of the positive entropy term for cavity reduction, ?S(red)?0. The native protein can be brought to a stable denatured state (?G(den)??G(mot)<0) by coupled reactions. Processes of protonation coupled to denaturation have been identified. In thermal denaturation by calorimetry, however, is the heat gradually supplied to the system that yields a change of phase of water W(III), with creation of cavity and negative entropy production, ?S(for)?0. The negative entropy change reduces and at last neutralises the positive entropy of folding. In molecular terms, this means the gradual disruption by cavity formation of the entropy-driven hydrophobic bonds that had been keeping the chains folded in the native protein. The action of the chemical denaturants is similar to that of heat, by modulating the equilibrium between W(I), W(II), and W(III) toward cavity formation and negative entropy production. The salting-in effect produced by denaturants has been recognised as a hydrophobic hydration process belonging to Class A with cavity formation, whereas the salting-out effect produced by stabilisers belongs to Class B with cavity reduction. Some algorithms of denaturation thermodynamics are presented in the Appendices. PMID:21482019

Fisicaro, E; Compari, C; Braibanti, A

2011-06-01

284

Fundamental Chemical Kinetic And Thermodynamic Data For Purex Process Models  

SciTech Connect

To support either the continued operations of current reprocessing plants or the development of future fuel processing using hydrometallurgical processes, such as Advanced Purex or UREX type flowsheets, the accurate simulation of Purex solvent extraction is required. In recent years we have developed advanced process modeling capabilities that utilize modern software platforms such as Aspen Custom Modeler and can be run in steady state and dynamic simulations. However, such advanced models of the Purex process require a wide range of fundamental data including all relevant basic chemical kinetic and thermodynamic data for the major species present in the process. This paper will summarize some of these recent process chemistry studies that underpin our simulation, design and testing of Purex solvent extraction flowsheets. Whilst much kinetic data for actinide redox reactions in nitric acid exists in the literature, the data on reactions in the diluted TBP solvent phase is much rarer. This inhibits the accurate modelization of the Purex process particularly when species show a significant extractability in to the solvent phase or when cycling between solvent and aqueous phases occurs, for example in the reductive stripping of Pu(IV) by ferrous sulfamate in the Magnox reprocessing plant. To support current oxide reprocessing, we have investigated a range of solvent phase reactions: - U(IV)+HNO{sub 3}; - U(IV)+HNO{sub 2}; - U(IV)+HNO{sub 3} (Pu catalysis); - U(IV)+HNO{sub 3} (Tc catalysis); - U(IV)+ Np(VI); - U(IV)+Np(V); - Np(IV)+HNO{sub 3}; - Np(V)+Np(V); Rate equations have been determined for all these reactions and kinetic rate constants and activation energies are now available. Specific features of these reactions in the TBP phase include the roles of water and hydrolyzed intermediates in the reaction mechanisms. In reactions involving Np(V), cation-cation complex formation, which is much more favourable in TBP than in HNO{sub 3}, also occurs and complicates the redox chemistry. Whilst some features of the redox chemistry in TBP appear similar to the corresponding reactions in aqueous HNO{sub 3}, there are notable differences in rates, the forms of the rate equations and mechanisms. Secondly, to underpin the development of advanced single cycle flowsheets using the complexant aceto-hydroxamic acid, we have also characterised in some detail its redox chemistry and solvent extraction behaviour with both Np and Pu ions. We find that simple hydroxamic acids are remarkably rapid reducing agents for Np(VI). They also reduce Pu(VI) and cause a much slower reduction of Pu(IV) through a complex mechanism involving acid hydrolysis of the ligand. AHA is a strong hydrophilic and selective complexant for the tetravalent actinide ions as evidenced by stability constant and solvent extraction data for An(IV), M(III) and U(VI) ions. This has allowed the successful design of U/Pu+Np separation flowsheets suitable for advanced fuel cycles. (authors)

Taylor, R.J.; Fox, O.D.; Sarsfield, M.J.; Carrott, M.J.; Mason, C.; Woodhead, D.A.; Maher, C.J. [British Technology Centre, Nexia Solutions, Sellafield, Seascale, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Steele, H. [Nexia Solutions, inton House, Risley, Warrington, WA3 6AS (United Kingdom); Koltunov, V.S. [A.A. Bochvar All-Russia Institute of Inorganic Materials, VNIINM, PO Box 369, Moscow 123060 (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01

285

University of California, Irvine Environmental Health and Safety www.ehs.uci.edu Questions Call: (949) 824-6200 Version 3.0 Hazardous Chemical Waste Training  

E-print Network

Category 4/11/06 Chemical Name Methanol Acetone Hexane Water Hazardous Waste University of CaliforniaUniversity of California, Irvine Environmental Health and Safety www.ehs.uci.edu Questions Call: (949) 824-6200 Version 3.0 Hazardous Chemical Waste Training: · All hazardous chemical waste generators

George, Steven C.

286

In vitro Perturbations of Targets in Cancer Hallmark Processes Predict Rodent Chemical Carcinogenesis  

EPA Science Inventory

Thousands of untested chemicals in the environment require efficient characterization of carcinogenic potential in humans. A proposed solution is rapid testing of chemicals using in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) assays for targets in pathways linked to disease processes ...

287

Overview of tritium safety technology at the Tritium Process Laboratory of JAERI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tritium Process Laboratory of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is the only laboratory in Japan where grams of tritium can be handled to carry out R&D on tritium processing and tritium safety handling technologies for fusion reactors. The tritium inventory is approximately 13 grams. Since 1988, basic research has been performed using gram-level tritium quantities. During the past 5 years, approximately 1 kilogram of tritium has been handled in experimental apparatus. The total amount of tritium released through the stack of TPL was controlled to less than 1 Ci without any accidents. In order to establish more complete tritium safety for DT fusion reactors, main R&D areas on tritium safety technology at TPL were focused on a new compact tritium confinement system, reliable tritium accounting and inventory control, new tritium waste treatments, and tritium release behavior into a room.

Hayashi, Takumi; Okuno, Kenji

1993-06-01

288

Overview of tritium safety technology at the tritium process laboratory of JAERI  

SciTech Connect

The Tritium Process Laboratory of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is the only laboratory in Japan where grams of tritium can be handled to carry out R D on tritium processing and tritium safety handling technologies for fusion reactors. The tritium inventory is approximately 13 grams. Since 1988, basic research has been performed using gram-level tritium quantities. During the past 5 years, approximately 1 kilogram of tritium has been handled in experimental apparatus. The total amount of tritium released through the stack of TPL was controlled to less than 1 Ci without any accidents. In order to establish more complete tritium safety for DT fusion reactors, main R D areas on tritium safety technology at TPL were focused on a new compact tritium confinement system, reliable tritium accounting and inventory control, new tritium waste treatments, and tritium release behavior into a room.

Hayashi, Takumi; Okuno, Kenji (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan))

1993-06-01

289

Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents  

SciTech Connect

This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

1992-09-01

290

An Analysis of Trainers' Perspectives within an Ecological Framework: Factors that Influence Mine Safety Training Processes  

PubMed Central

Background Satisfactory completion of mine safety training is a prerequisite for being hired and for continued employment in the coal industry. Although training includes content to develop skills in a variety of mineworker competencies, research and recommendations continue to specify that specific limitations in the self-escape portion of training still exist and that mineworkers need to be better prepared to respond to emergencies that could occur in their mine. Ecological models are often used to inform the development of health promotion programs but have not been widely applied to occupational health and safety training programs. Methods Nine mine safety trainers participated in in-depth semi-structured interviews. A theoretical analysis of the interviews was completed via an ecological lens. Each level of the social ecological model was used to examine factors that could be addressed both during and after mine safety training. Results The analysis suggests that problems surrounding communication and collaboration, leadership development, and responsibility and accountability at different levels within the mining industry contribute to deficiencies in mineworkers' mastery and maintenance of skills. Conclusion This study offers a new technique to identify limitations in safety training systems and processes. The analysis suggests that training should be developed and disseminated with consideration of various levels—individual, interpersonal, organizational, and community—to promote skills. If factors identified within and between levels are addressed, it may be easier to sustain mineworker competencies that are established during safety training. PMID:25379324

Haas, Emily J.; Hoebbel, Cassandra L.; Rost, Kristen A.

2014-01-01

291

An external domino effects investment approach to improve cross-plant safety within chemical clusters.  

PubMed

Every company situated within a chemical cluster faces the risk of being struck by an escalating accident at one of its neighbouring plants (the so-called external domino effect risks). These cross-plant risks can be reduced or eliminated if neighbouring companies are willing to invest in systems and measures to prevent them. However, since reducing such multi-plant risks does not lead to direct economic benefits, enterprises tend to be reluctant to invest more than needed for meeting minimal legal requirements and they tend to invest without collaborating. The suggested approach in this article indicates what information is required to evaluate the available investment options in external domino effects prevention. To this end, game theory is used as a promising scientific technique to investigate the decision-making process on investments in prevention measures simultaneously involving several plants. The game between two neighbouring chemical plants and their strategic investment behaviour regarding the prevention of external domino effects is described and an illustrative example is provided. Recommendations are formulated to advance cross-plant prevention investments in a two-company cluster. PMID:20044206

Reniers, Genserik

2010-05-15

292

Effects of chemical additives on microbial enhanced oil recovery processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive laboratory study has been conducted to determine (1) the role of the microbial cells and products in oil displacement, (2) the relative rates of transport of microbial cells and chemical products from the metabolism of nutrient in porous media, and (3) the effects of chemical additives on the oil recovery efficiency of microbial formulations. This report describes experiments

R. S. Bryant; K. L. Chase; K. M. Bertus; A. K. Stepp

1989-01-01

293

Sustainability Indicators for Chemical Processes : II. Data Needs  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to begin repair of the environmental quality of the planet, there is a need to embrace sustainable development at many levels of the chemical industry and society. One way that the chemical industry is responding to this need is through sustainability evaluations, retrof...

294

Risk Assessment for Food Safety: Application and Evaluation of HACCP in Hog Slaughter and Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under new regulations issued in July 1996, the federal government requires meat processors to put hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems in place, to conduct periodic tests for microbial pathogens, and to reduce the incidence of pathogens. The new regulations shift greater responsibility for deciding how to improve food safety in the processing sector to processors themselves. The

Helen H. Jensen; Laurian J. Unnevehr

1998-01-01

295

Process Programming to Support Medical Safety: A Case Study on Blood Transfusion  

E-print Network

Process Programming to Support Medical Safety: A Case Study on Blood Transfusion Lori A. Clarke1 01003 USA {clarke, yaoc, avrunin, chenbin, rcobleig, kfrederi, ljo}@cs.umass.edu 2 School of Nursing University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 USA henneman@nursing.umass.edu Abstract. Medical errors are now

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

296

HOW LABELING OF SAFETY AND PROCESS ATTRIBUTES AFFECTS MARKETS FOR FOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers are increasingly considering information on the safety and process (how foods are produced) attributes of food in making their buying decisions. Producers, processors, and retailers may choose voluntary labeling of these attributes, may be required to label by government regulations, or may use a combination of these approaches. The market effects depend on consumer perceptions of the attributes, the

Julie A. Caswell

1998-01-01

297

A Case Study of Measuring Process Risk for Early Insights into Software Safety  

E-print Network

and Fraunhofer CESE College Park, MD {basili,mvz}@cs.umd.edu Karen L. Fisher NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center flight hardware systems in NASA's Constellation spaceflight program. We applied our Technical and Process Constellation spaceflight program at NASA. Software safety risk is a form of technical risk, where flaws

Basili, Victor R.

298

Data requirements for the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue developed through the data quality objectives process. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the requirements for obtaining tank characterization information to support resolution of the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue at the Hanford Site by applying the data quality objectives (DQO) process. A strategy describing the overall approach to safe storage and disposal of the waste in the ferrocyanide tanks identifies the problems and decisions that require characterization data. The DQO process is applied to each decision or group of related decisions to specify data requirements.

Meacham, J.E.; Cash, R.J.

1995-04-28

299

Drinking water biotic safety of particles and bacteria attached to fines in activated carbon process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the drinking water biotic safety of particles and bacteria attached to fines in activated carbon process was\\u000a investigated by actual treatment process and advanced treatment pilot trial with granular activated carbon. In the experiment,\\u000a the particles were detected by IBR particle calculating instrument, the activated carbon fines were counted on the basis of\\u000a the most probable number

Wei Chen; Tao Lin; Leilei Wang

2007-01-01

300

Applicability of Chemical Cleaning Process to Steam Generator Secondary Side, (III)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of the chemical cleaning process to dissolve and remove scales and sludge by chemicals is being planned at the Japanese pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant in order to maintain a designed heat transfer condition and to prevent the steam generator (SG) tube degradation. In this paper, the affects of the EPRI process and the KWU process on the

Hirotaka KAWAMURA; Kazutoshi FUJIWARA; Hiromi KANBE; Hideo HIRANO; Hideki TAKIGUCHI; Kouji YOSHINO; Shuuichi YAMAMOTO; Toshio SHIBATA; Kenkichi ISHIGURE

2006-01-01

301

ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING TECHNOLOGY: AN EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL COAL CLEANING PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report assembles and assesses technical and economic information on chemical coal cleaning processes. Sufficient data was located to evaluate 11 processes in detail. It was found that chemical coal cleaning processes can remove up to 99% of the pyritic sulfur and 40% of the o...

302

National toxicology program chemical nomination and selection process  

SciTech Connect

The National Toxicology Program (NTP) was organized to support national public health programs by initiating research designed to understand the physiological, metabolic, and genetic basis for chemical toxicity. The primary mandated responsibilities of NTP were in vivo and vitro toxicity testing of potentially hazardous chemicals; broadening the spectrum of toxicological information on known hazardous chemicals; validating current toxicological assay systems as well as developing new and innovative toxicity testing technology; and rapidly communicating test results to government agencies with regulatory responsibilities and to the medical and scientific communities. 2 figs.

Selkirk, J.K. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1990-12-31

303

An Alternative Treatment of Trace Chemical Constituents in Calculated Chemical Source Terms for Hanford Tank Farms Safety Analsyes  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tank accident analyses require chemical waste toxicity source terms to assess potential accident consequences. Recent reviews of the current methodology used to generate source terms and the need to periodically update the sources terms has brought scrutiny to the manner in which trace waste constituents are included in the source terms. This report examines the importance of trace constituents to the chemical waste source terms, which are calculated as sums of fractions (SOFs), and recommends three changes to the manner in which trace constituents are included in the calculation SOFs.

Huckaby, James L.

2006-09-26

304

Chemical and biological safety: Biosensors and nanotechnological methods for the detection and monitoring of chemical and biological agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elaboration of highly sensitive and express methods for quantitative and qual- itative detection and monitoring of chemical warfare agents (CWA), organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, compounds with delayed neurotoxicity, and pathogenic microorgan- isms and viruses is discussed. The application of potentiometric and amperometric biosen- sors, automatic biosensors discriminating the neurotoxins of different classes, is performed. The information about biosensors detecting

S. Varfolomeyev; I. Kurochkin; A. Eremenko; E. Efremenko

2002-01-01

305

Risk Measures Constituting Risk Metrics for Decision Making in the Chemical Process Industry  

E-print Network

study could serve as leading indicators for safety related decisions to avoid major accidents. Khan, Sadiq and Husain (2002) consider process operations to be the most hazardous activity after transportation and drilling operations in an offshore oil... and gas facility. Khan, Sadiq and Husain state that oil and gas platform operational eventualities can be avoided by incorporating proper control measures in the early design stages. The 13 authors describe a methodology or risk based process safety...

Prem, Katherine

2012-02-14

306

High-lift chemical heat pump technologies for industrial processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally industrial heat pumps (IHPs) have found applications on a process specific basis with reject heat from a process being upgraded and returned to the process. The IHP must be carefully integrated into a process since improper placement may result in an uneconomic application. Industry has emphasized a process integration approach to the design and operation of their plants. Heat

M. Olszewski; A. Zaltash

1995-01-01

307

The use of ferric chloride and anionic polymer in the chemically assisted primary sedimentation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment (CEPT) or Chemically Assisted Primary Sedimentation Process (CAPS) involves the use of chemical coagulants to enhance the coagulation or flocculation of wastewater particles. The effect of a metal salt, ferric chloride (FeCl3) and an anionic polymer on the removal of suspended solids (SS) of wastewater collected from two sewage treatment plants was studied by jar test

C. S. Poon; C. W. Chu

1999-01-01

308

Chemical effects head-loss research in support of generic safety issue 191.  

SciTech Connect

This summary report describes studies conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on the potential for chemical effects on head loss across sump screens. Three different buffering solutions were used for these tests: trisodium phosphate (TSP), sodium hydroxide, and sodium tetraborate. These pH control agents used following a LOCA at a nuclear power plant show various degrees of interaction with the insulating materials Cal-Sil and NUKON. Results for Cal-Sil dissolution tests in TSP solutions, settling rate tests of calcium phosphate precipitates, and benchmark tests in chemically inactive environments are also presented. The dissolution tests were intended to identify important environmental variables governing both calcium dissolution and subsequent calcium phosphate formation over a range of simulated sump pool conditions. The results from the dissolution testing were used to inform both the head loss and settling test series. The objective of the head loss tests was to assess the head loss produced by debris beds created by Cal-Sil, fibrous debris, and calcium phosphate precipitates. The effects of both the relative arrival time of the precipitates and insulation debris and the calcium phosphate formation process were specifically evaluated. The debris loadings, test loop flow rates, and test temperature were chosen to be reasonably representative of those expected in plants with updated sump screen configurations, although the approach velocity of 0.1 ft/s used for most of the tests is 3-10 times that expected in plants with large screens . Other variables were selected with the intent to reasonably bound the head loss variability due to arrival time and calcium phosphate formation uncertainty. Settling tests were conducted to measure the settling rates of calcium phosphate precipitates (formed by adding dissolved Ca to boric acid and TSP solutions) in water columns having no bulk directional flow. For PWRs where NaOH and sodium tetraborate are used to control sump pH and fiberglass insulation is prevalent, relatively high concentrations of soluble aluminum can be expected. Tests in which the dissolved aluminum (Al) resulted from aluminum nitrate additions were used to investigate potential chemical effects that may lead to high head loss. Dissolved Al concentrations of 100 ppm were shown to lead to large pressure drops for the screen area to sump volume ratio and fiber debris bed studied. No chemical effects on head loss were observed in sodium tetraborate buffered solutions even for environments with high ratios of submerged Al area to sump volume. However, in tests with much higher concentrations of dissolved Al than expected in plants, large pressure drops did occur. Interaction with NUKON/Cal-Sil debris mixtures produced much lower head losses than observed in corresponding tests with TSP, although tests were not performed over the full range of Cal-Sil that might be of interest.

Park, J. H.; Kasza, K.; Fisher, B.; Oras, J.; Natesan, K.; Shack, W. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2006-10-31

309

Going beyond exposure to local news media: an information-processing examination of public perceptions of food safety.  

PubMed

The relationship between local news media and public perceptions of food safety was examined in a statewide telephone survey (n = 524). The theoretical framework of the study was based on a review of the social and psychological factors that affect public concerns about food safety, the relationship between mass communication and risk perception, and the thesis of information-processing strategies and its impact on learning from the news. The results show that information-processing strategies substantially mediated the relationship between local news media and public perceptions of food safety, with elaborative processing being more influential than active reflection in people's learning from the news media. Attention to local television had an independent effect, after demographics, awareness of food safety problems, and perceived safety of local food supply were statistically controlled. Other important predictors included gender, education, ethnicity, and perceived safety of local food supply. PMID:17190783

Fleming, Kenneth; Thorson, Esther; Zhang, Yuyan

2006-12-01

310

Laser studies of chemical reaction and collision processes  

SciTech Connect

This work has concentrated on several interrelated projects in the area of laser photochemistry and photophysics which impinge on a variety of questions in combustion chemistry and general chemical kinetics. Infrared diode laser probes of the quenching of molecules with {open_quotes}chemically significant{close_quotes} amounts of energy in which the energy transferred to the quencher has, for the first time, been separated into its vibrational, rotational, and translational components. Probes of quantum state distributions and velocity profiles for atomic fragments produced in photodissociation reactions have been explored for iodine chloride.

Flynn, G. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

1993-12-01

311

Rapid neutron capture process in supernovae and chemical element formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid neutron capture process (r-process) is one of the major nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the synthesis\\u000a of heavy nuclei beyond iron. Isotopes beyond Fe are most exclusively formed in neutron capture processes and more heavier\\u000a ones are produced by the r-process. Approximately half of the heavy elements with mass number A > 70 and all of the actinides in

Rulee Baruah; Kalpana Duorah; H. L. Duorah

2009-01-01

312

Applications of Neutron Scattering in the Chemical Industry: Proton Dynamics of Highly Dispersed Materials, Characterization of Fuel Cell Catalysts, and Catalysts from Large-Scale Chemical Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attractiveness of neutron scattering techniques for the detailed characterization of materials of high degrees of dispersity and structural complexity as encountered in the chemical industry is discussed. Neutron scattering picks up where other analytical methods leave off because of the physico-chemical properties of finely divided products and materials whose absorption behavior toward electromagnetic radiation and electrical conductivity causes serious problems. This is demonstrated by presenting typical applications from large-scale production technology and industrial catalysis. These include the determination of the proton-related surface chemistry of advanced materials that are used as reinforcing fillers in the manufacture of tires, where interrelations between surface chemistry, rheological properties, improved safety, and significant reduction of fuel consumption are the focus of recent developments. Neutron scattering allows surface science studies of the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on nanodispersed, supported precious metal particles of fuel cell catalysts under in situ loading at realistic gas pressures of about 1 bar. Insight into the occupation of catalytically relevant surface sites provides valuable information about the catalyst in the working state and supplies essential scientific input for tailoring better catalysts by technologists. The impact of deactivation phenomena on industrial catalysts by coke deposition, chemical transformation of carbonaceous deposits, and other processes in catalytic hydrogenation processes that result in significant shortening of the time of useful operation in large-scale plants can often be traced back in detail to surface or bulk properties of catalysts or materials of catalytic relevance. A better understanding of avoidable or unavoidable aspects of catalyst deactivation phenomena under certain in-process conditions and the development of effective means for reducing deactivation leads to more energy-efficient and, therefore, environmentally friendly processes and helps to save valuable resources. Even small or gradual improvements in all these fields are of considerable economic impact.

Albers, Peter W.; Parker, Stewart F.

313

Developing and Integrating Sustainable Chemical Processes into Existing Petro-Chemical Plant Complexes  

E-print Network

for integration into the chemical complex superstructure: ­ Fermentation ­ Anaerobic digestion of vegetable oil with an alcohol and a catalyst to produce esters and glycerol. ­ Methanol or ethanol is used

Pike, Ralph W.

314

Chemical and Physical Properties, Safety and Application of Partially Hydrolized Guar Gum as Dietary Fiber  

PubMed Central

The ideal water-soluble dietary fiber for the fiber-enrichment of foods must be very low in viscosity, tasteless, odorless, and should produce clear solutions in beverages. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) produced from guar gum by enzymatic process has the same chemical structure with intact guar gum but less than one-tenth the original molecular length of guar gum, which make available to be used as film former, foam stabilizer and swelling agent. The viscosity of PHGG is about 10 mPa·s in 5% aqueous solution, whereas 1% solution of guar gum shows range from 2,000 to 3,000 mPa·s. In addition, PHGG is greatly stable against low pH, heat, acid and digestive enzyme. For these reasons, PHGG seems to be one of the most beneficial dietary fiber materials. It also showed that interesting physiological functions still fully exert the nutritional function of a dietary fiber. PHGG has, therefore, been used primarily for a nutritional purpose and became fully integrated food material without altering the rheology, taste, texture and color of final products. PHGG named as Benefiber® in USA has self-affirmation on GRAS status of standard grade PHGG. PHGG named as Sunfiber® is now being used in various beverages, food products and medicinal foods as a safe, natural and functional dietary fiber in all over the world. PMID:18231623

Yoon, Seon-Joo; Chu, Djong-Chi; Raj Juneja, Lekh

2008-01-01

315

P33455 MODELING CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROCESSES IN LEACHING SOLIDIFIED WASTES zq#n?2k=  

E-print Network

Solidification is an important treatment process in hazardous waste management and will continue to be so until waste minimization and waste recycle processes are perfected for all hazardous wastes. It is generally recognized that immobilization of contaminants in solidified wastes occurs through both physical and chemical mechanisms. Standard techniques for analyzing contaminant leaching measure only an observed diffusivity that does not separate chemical and physical factors. The suitability of the standard data analysis procedure is reviewed and alternative models developed that describe the separate effects of chemical and physical processes. These models describe physical transport through a solidified waste matrix according to Fick's law. Chemical reactions of sorption/desorption and precipitation/ dissolution are described. The observed diffusivity that would be calculated by ignoring chemical processes is shown to depend on the true effective diffusivity and coefficients that describe the chemical phenomena.

Bill Batchelor

316

Thermodynamics and the other chemical engineering sciences: old models for new chemical products and processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much recent academic research in molecular thermodynamics has been directed toward ever-more-complex theories without adequate attention to how such theories may be used in contemporary chemical technology; too often, researchers develop theories for their own sake, delegating to others (who?) to figure out how to use them. For new chemical product design, it is typically necessary to inter-relate thermodynamics with

J. M Prausnitz

1999-01-01

317

Thermodynamics and the other chemical engineering sciences: oldmodels for new chemical processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much recent academic research in molecular thermodynamics has been directed toward ever-more-complex theories without adequate attention to how such theories may be used in contemporary chemical technology; too often, researchers develop theories for their own sake, delegating to others (who?) to figure out how to use them. For new chemical product design, it is typically necessary to inter-relate thermodynamics with

Prausnitz

1998-01-01

318

EFFECTIVE RISK MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS USING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The conventional drinking water treamtent processes of coagulation, flocculation, and filtration as well as specialized treatment processes have been examined for their capacity to remove endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). A groupf od EDCs including 4-nonylphenol, diethylphth...

319

Mechanics,Mechanisms and Modeling of the Chemical Mechanical Polishing Process  

E-print Network

The Chemical Mechanical polishing (CMP) process is now widely employed in the Integrated Circuit Fabrication. However, due to the complexity of process parameters on the material removal rate (MRR), mechanism of material ...

Noh, Kyungyoon

320

Effect of chemical mechanical planarization processing conditions on polyurethane pad properties  

E-print Network

Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) is a vital process used in the semiconductor industry to isolate and connect individual transistors on a chip. However, many of the fundamental mechanisms of the process are yet to ...

Ng, Grace Siu-Yee, 1980-

2003-01-01

321

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM TO ENHANCE AND ENCOURAGE SUSTAINABLE CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an opportunity to minimize the potential environmental impacts (PEIs) of industrial chemical processes by providing process designers with timely data nad models elucidating environmentally favorable design options. The second generation of the Waste Reduction (WAR) algo...

322

Chemically coupled hydroxyapatite-polyethylene composites: processing and characterisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxyapatite (HA)-reinforced polyethylene was developed as a bone replacement material. In order to improve bonding between HA and polyethylene, and hence to increase mechanical properties of the composite, chemical treatments of HA and polyethylene were investigated and new composites manufactured. Two approaches were employed in this investigation: the use of silane-treated HA as the filler, and the application of polymer

M Wang; S Deb; W Bonfield

2000-01-01

323

WATER AS A REACTION MEDIUM FOR CLEAN CHEMICAL PROCESSES.  

EPA Science Inventory

Green chemistry is a rapid developing new field that provides us a pro-active avenue for the sustainable development of future science and technologies. When designed properly, clean chemical technology can be developed in water as a reaction media. The technologies generated f...

324

Hydrothermal Soft Chemical Process for Synthesis of Manganese Oxides with Tunnel Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soft chemical process is used for the synthesis of manganese oxides with tunnel structures. This process comprises two steps: the first step is the preparation of a precursor with layered structure and insertion of templates (structure-directing agents) into its interlayer space by a soft chemical reaction [1], and the second step is the transformation of the template-inserted precursor into

Qi Feng; Kazumichi Yanagisawa; Nakamichi Yamasaki

1998-01-01

325

Control of vital chemical processes in the preparation of lead-acid battery active materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical reactions occurring during the processing of positive and negative active material of lead-acid batteries have a significant impact on the performance and life of the product. Understanding and control of these chemical and electrochemical processes will result in batteries which consistently meet vehicle requirements.

J. R. Pierson

2006-01-01

326

Prediction of the safety level to an installation of the tritium process through predictive maintenance  

SciTech Connect

The safety level for personnel and environment to a nuclear installation is given in generally by the technological process quality of operation and maintenance and in particular by a lot of technical, technological, economic and human factors. The maintenance role is fundamental because it has to quantify all the technical, economic and human elements as an integrated system for it creates an important feedback for activities concerning the life cycle of the nuclear installation. In maintenance activities as in any dynamic area, new elements appear continuously which, sometimes require new approaches. The theory of fuzzy logic and the software LabVIEW supplied to the Nuclear Detritiation Plant (NDP) is part of National Research and Development Inst. for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies-ICIT, Rm.Valcea, used for predictive maintenance to assure safety operation. The final aim is to achieve the best practices for maintenance of the Plant that processes tritium. (authors)

Anghel, V. [National Research and Development Inst. for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICIT, Rm. Valcea Uzinei Street no.4, 240050 (Romania)

2008-07-15

327

The Radiance Process: Water and Chemical Free Cleaning  

E-print Network

Radiance Services Company manages a new technology called the Radiance Process®, a dry non-toxic technology for surface cleaning. The Radiance Process received the National Pollution Prevention Roundtable's 1997 Most Valuable Pollution Prevention...

Robison, J. H.

328

Indicators and Metrics for Evaluating the Sustainability of Chemical Processes  

EPA Science Inventory

A metric-based method, called GREENSCOPE, has been developed for evaluating process sustainability. Using lab-scale information and engineering assumptions the method evaluates full-scale epresentations of processes in environmental, efficiency, energy and economic areas. The m...

329

21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.  

...residues occur in processed foods due to the use of raw...the Act, the processed food will not be regarded as adulterated so long as good manufacturing practice has been followed...residue in the processed food when ready to eat is...

2014-04-01

330

Coupling physical processes in simulations of chemically reactive flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exact way the processes are coupled depends on the individual properties of the different algorithms used and the regimes in which the competing physical processes interact. In particular, we have found that the best form of the coupling to use varies according to whether the convection is treated by an implicit or explicit approach. Other processes may be done

E. Oran; J. Boris; K. Kailasanath; G. Patnaik

331

Coupling physical processes in simulations of chemically reactive flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exact way the processes are coupled depends on the individual properties of the different algorithms used and the regimes in which the competing physical processes interact. In particular, we have found that the best form of the coupling to use varies according to whether the convection is treated by an implicit or explicit approach. Other processes may be done

E. S. Oran; J. P. Boris; K. Kailasanath; G. Patnaik

1989-01-01

332

Fundamental Chemical Kinetic And Thermodynamic Data For Purex Process Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

To support either the continued operations of current reprocessing plants or the development of future fuel processing using hydrometallurgical processes, such as Advanced Purex or UREX type flowsheets, the accurate simulation of Purex solvent extraction is required. In recent years we have developed advanced process modeling capabilities that utilize modern software platforms such as Aspen Custom Modeler and can be

R. J. Taylor; O. D. Fox; M. J. Sarsfield; M. J. Carrott; C. Mason; D. A. Woodhead; C. J. Maher; H. Steele; V. S. Koltunov

2007-01-01

333

Monitoring the Long-Term Effectiveness of Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Implementation Through Use of a Performance Dashboard Process  

SciTech Connect

This session will examine a method developed by Federal and Contractor personnel at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) to examine long-term maintenance of DOE Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) criteria, including safety culture attributes, as well as identification of process improvement opportunities. This process was initially developed in the summer of 2000 and has since been expanded to recognize the importance of safety culture attributes, and associated safety culture elements, as defined in DOE M 450.4-1, “Integrated Safety Management System Manual.” This process has proven to significantly enhance collective awareness of the importance of long-term ISMS implementation as well as support commitments by NNSA/NSO personnel to examine the continued effectiveness of ISMS processes.

Michael D. Kinney and William D. Barrick

2008-09-01

334

Testing REACH draft technical guidance notes for conducting chemical safety assessments—The experience of a downstream user of a preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of REACH is the safe use of chemicals. This study examines the efficiency and usefulness of two draft technical guidance notes in the REACH Interim Project 3.2-2 for the development of the chemical safety report and exposure scenarios. A case study was carried out for a paint system for protection of structural steel. The focuses of the study

Anne Lill Gade; Steinar Øvrebø; Ketil Hylland

2008-01-01

335

Health hazard control in the chemical process industry  

SciTech Connect

This book is intended to be a comprehensive summary of current technology for control of toxic hazards in chemical plants, brought together from government agencies and private industry. The nine chapters range from Occupational Health Hazards to Drains, Sewers, and Wastewater Emissions (is the last term perhaps a euphemism for leaks ). The references at the end of each chapter include many government reports and publications that would otherwise be difficult to identify.

Lipton, S.; Lynch, J.

1987-01-01

336

SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR TANK 241-AZ-101 MIXER PUMP PROCESS TEST  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the completed safety analysis which establishes the safety envelope for performing the mixer pump process test in Tank 241-AZ-101. This process test is described in TF-210-OTP-001. All equipment necessary for the mixer pump test has been installed by Project W-151. The purpose of this document is to describe and analyze the mixer pump test for Aging Waste Facility (AWF) Tank 241-AZ-101 and to address the 'yes/maybe' responses marked for evaluation questions identified in Unreviewed Safety Question Evaluation (USQE) TF-94-0266. The scope of this document is limited to the performance of the mixer pump test for Tank 241-AZ-101. Unreviewed Safety Question Determination (USQD) TF-96-0018 verified that the installation of two mixer pumps into Tank 241-AZ-101 was within the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Authorization Basis. USQDs TF-96-0461, TF-96-0448, and TF-96-0805 verified that the installation of the in-tank video camera, thermocouples, and Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzer (URSILLA), respectively, were within the current TWRS Authorization Basis. USQD TF-96-1041 verified that the checkout testing of the installed equipment was within the current TWRS Authorization Basis. Installation of the pumps and equipment has been completed. An evaluation of safety considerations associated with operation of the mixer pumps for the mixer pump test is provided in this document. This document augments the existing AWF authorization basis as defined in the Interim Safety Basis (Stahl 1997), and as such, will use the existing Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSRs) of Heubach 1996 to adequately control the mixer pump test. The hazard and accident analysis is limited to the scope and impact of the mixer pump test, and therefore does not address hazards already addressed by the current AWF authorization basis. This document does not evaluate removal of the mixer pumps. Safety considerations for removal of the pumps will be addressed by separate safety documentation once that portion of the mission is defined. The mixer pump test has been evaluated to cover the use of either the existing ventilation system (241-A-702) or the ventilation system upgrade provided by Project W-030. Analysis of Project W-030 is outside of the scope of this document and is addressed in HNF-SD-WM-SARR-039 (Draft) which, should the W-030 system be in service at the time of the mixer pump test, will have been approved and made a part of the TWRS authorization basis. The test will use two high-capacity mixer pumps in various configurations and modes to demonstrate solids mobilization of waste in Tank 241-AZ-101. The information and experience gained during the test will provide data for comparison with sludge mobilization prediction models; provide data to estimate the number, location, and cycle times of the mixer pumps; and provide indication of the effects of mixer pump operation on the AWF tank systems and components. The slurry produced will be evaluated for future pretreatment processing. This process test does not transfer waste from the tank; the waste is mixed and confined within the existing system. At the completion of the mixer pump test, the mixer pumps will be stopped and normal tank operations, maintenance, and surveillance will continue. Periodic rotation of the mixer pumps and motor shafts, along with bearing greasing, is required to maintain the pumps following the mixer pump test.

HAMMOND DM; HARRIS JP; MOUETTE P

1997-06-09

337

Enhanced Chemical Cleaning: A New Process for Chemically Cleaning Savannah River Waste Tanks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the Savannah River Site (SRS) there are 49 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks that eventually must be emptied, cleaned, and closed. The current method of chemically cleaning SRS HLW tanks, commonly referred to as Bulk Oxalic Acid Cleaning (BOAC), requires ab...

E. Ketusky, N. Davis, R. Spires

2009-01-01

338

EVALUATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS, ECONOMICS, AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES: HEAT INTEGRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. In this work diff...

339

EXPOSURE TO CHEMICAL ADDITIVES FROM POLYVINYL CHLORIDE POLYMER EXTRUSION PROCESSING  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents a model to predict worker inhalation exposure due to off-gassing of additives during polyvinyl chloride (PVC) extrusion processing. ata on off-gassing of additives were reviewed in the literature, the off-gassing at normal PVC processing temperatures was stud...

340

NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) pocket guide to chemical hazards. Second edition  

SciTech Connect

Information on chemical hazards was provided in tabular form in the pocket guide for use as a quick reference source relating to general industrial hygiene and medical surveillance practices. The guide was intended for use by workers, employers, and occupational health professionals. Minor technical changes were included in the second printing (February, 1987). Chemical names and synonyms, exposure limits and recommendations, chemical and physical properties, incompatibilities of one substance with another, analytical methods, respiratory and personal protective equipment recommendations, toxicological route that the hazardous material takes in humans (inhalation, skin absorption, ingestion, skin or eye contact), signs and symptoms of exposure, target organs, and procedures for emergency treatment were provided for various substances deemed to be chemical hazards in the workplace. Potentially hazardous substances or conditions evaluated by NIOSH through July of 1986 were tabulated. A section was included on the best use of the pocket guide.

Not Available

1987-02-01

341

Safety Tips: Safe Disposal of Unwanted School Chemicals--A Proven Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a plan used in Iowa to remove stockpiled, unwanted chemicals from storeroom shelves. Points out that the plan takes 12-15 months to complete. Notes the average cost per district was $575. (MVL)

Gerlovich, Jack A.; Miller, Jim

1989-01-01

342

Cogeneration handbook for the chemical process industries. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

The desision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the chemical industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

Fassbender, A.G.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

1984-03-01

343

Heat and Mass Transport in Processing of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Fuels and Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Lignocellulosic biomass, a major feedstock for renewable biofuels and chemicals, is processed by various thermochemical and\\/or\\u000a biochemical means. This multi-step processing often involves reactive transformations limited by heat and mass transport.\\u000a These limitations are dictated by restrictions including (1) plant anatomy, (2) complex ultra-structure and chemical composition\\u000a of plant cell walls, (3) process engineering requirements or, (4) a combination of

Sridhar Viamajala; Bryon S. Donohoe; Stephen R. Decker; Todd B. Vinzant; Michael J. Selig; Michael E. Himmel; Melvin P. Tucker

344

Chemical process research and development in the 21st century: challenges, strategies, and solutions from a pharmaceutical industry perspective.  

PubMed

In process research and development (PR&D), the generation and manipulation of small-molecule drugs ranges from bench-scale (laboratory) chemistry to pilot plant manufacture to commercial production. A broad range of disciplines, including process chemistry (organic synthesis), analytical chemistry, process engineering (mass and heat transfer, unit operations), process safety (chemical risk assessment), regulatory compliance, and plant operation, must be effectively applied. In the critical handover between medicinal chemistry and PR&D, compound production is typically scaled up from a few hundred grams to several kilograms. Can the methodologies applied to the former also satisfy the technical, safety, and scalability aspects that come into play in the latter? Occasionally, the transition might occur smoothly, but more often the situation is the opposite: much work and resources must be invested to design a process that is feasible for manufacturing on pilot scale and, eventually, for commercial production. Authentic examples provide enlightening illustrations of dos and don'ts for developing syntheses designed for round-flask operation into production-scale processes. Factors that are easily underestimated or even neglected in the laboratory, such as method robustness, chemical hazards, safety concerns, environmental impact, availability of starting materials and building blocks in bulk quantities, intellectual property (IP) issues, and the final cost of the product, will come into play and need to be addressed appropriately. The decision on which route will be the best for further development is a crucial event and should come into focus early on the R&D timeline. In addition to scientific and technical concerns, the parameter of speed has come to the forefront in the pharmaceutical arena. Although historically the drug industry has tolerated a total time investment of far more than 10 years from idea to market, the current worldwide paradigm requires a reduction to under 10 years for the specific segment covering preclinical development through launch. This change puts enormous pressure on the entire organization, and the implication for PR&D is that the time allowed for conducting route design and scale-up has shrunk accordingly. Furthermore, molecular complexity has become extremely challenging in many instances, and demand steadily grows for process understanding and knowledge generation about low-level byproduct, which often must be controlled even at trace concentrations to meet regulatory specifications (especially in the case of potentially genotoxic impurities). In this Account, we paint a broad picture of the technical challenges the PR&D community is grappling with today, focusing on what measures have been taken over the years to create more efficiency and effectiveness. PMID:19338294

Federsel, Hans-Jürgen

2009-05-19

345

Health and safety consequences of medical isotope processing at the Hanford Site 325 building  

SciTech Connect

Potential activities associated with medical isotope processing at the Hanford Site 325 Building laboratory and hot cell facilities are evaluated to assess the health and safety consequences if these activities are to be implemented as part of a combined tritium and medical isotope production mission for the Fast Flux Text Facility (FFTF). The types of activities included in this analysis are unloading irradiated isotope production assemblies at the 325 Building, recovery and dissolution of the target materials, separation of the product isotopes as required, and preparation of the isotopes for shipment to commercial distributors who supply isotopes to the medical conunuriity. Possible consequences to members of the public and to workers from both radiological and non-radiological hazards are considered in this evaluation. Section 2 of this docinnent describes the assumptions and methods used for the health and safety consequences analysis, section 3 presents the results of the analysis, and section 4 summarizes the results and conclusions from the analysis.

Nielsen, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford, Richland, WA

1997-11-19

346

Improving the Highway Safety Process: An Update and Enhancement to the Oregon DOT's Crash Reduction Factors List  

E-print Network

Improving the Highway Safety Process: An Update and Enhancement to the Oregon DOT's Crash Reduction Appropriate selection of cost-effective countermeasures for highway safety improvement projects requires of traffic-related fatalities and injuries on United States highways--upwards of 42,000 fatalities and almost

Bertini, Robert L.

347

Rockwell Hanford Operations. Chemical processing monthly report, February 1984  

SciTech Connect

During February, the PUREX Plant charged 42 metric tonnes of N-Reactor Fuel in the head-end dissolvers, and produced 44 metric tonnes of uranium product. The PUREX solvent extraction process was restarted on February 19, 1984, and continued through the month. The PUREX Oxide Line completed processing of all feed material to date. All UO/sub 3/ Plant process equipment repairs and modifications were completed. The UO/sub 3/ Plant third operational test was completed. Training for all UO/sub 3/ Plant operating personnel was completed. Full patrol helicopter operations commenced at the new Hangar Support Facility. Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) operation continued to improve during February. Processing of appropriate 224-T Vault material in the PRF continued on schedule. Front-end engineering for RADTU Phase I D and D was completed.

Not Available

1984-01-01

348

Using design of experiments to improve a batch chemical process  

E-print Network

Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics has made a strong commitment to manufacturing seasonal influenza vaccines through their cell culture technology called Optaflu®. The goal of this project is to improve overall process yield ...

Hill, Andrew, S.M. (Andrew James). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

349

Improved Acquisition Processes for Safety-Critical Systems in the Australian Department of Defence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes recently developed policy and procedures for safety management during system acquisition within the Australian government's Defence Materiel Organisation (DMO). The thrust of the safety policy is that: all systems are considered safety-critical until shown otherwise; and any project acquiring or upgrading a system involving safety-critical elements is required to establish a System Safety Program during acquisition, and

Peter A. Lindsay

2001-01-01

350

Laser ablation of maskant used in chemical milling process for aerospace applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical etching is a non-traditional machining process where a chemical solution is used to remove unwanted material by dissolution. To shape the etched area, before the process, a chemical inert paint (maskant) is applied on the surface. Then the maskant is trimmed away and the uncovered area is subject to the etching. The maskant cut could be obtained mechanically or by laser ablation. In this work, the effect of process parameters, cutting speed and beam power, on interaction phenomena and defect formation in laser cutting of polymeric maskant is studied, using a 30W CO2 laser source.

Leone, C.; Lopresto, V.; Memola Capece Minutolo, F.; de Iorio, I.; Rinaldi, N.

2010-09-01

351

Benchmarking safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

All of general industry in the United States, represented by the participants in the IEEE\\/IAS Petroleum and Chemical Industry Committee Technical Conference (PCIC), is regulated by the federal government to have an electrical safety program. The Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) documents that drive the electrical safety of employees in the workplace is written in performance

L. B. McClung

2003-01-01

352

Recent advances in chemical imaging technology for the detection of contaminants for food safety and security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for routine, non-destructive chemical screening of agricultural products is increasing due to the health hazards to animals and humans associated with intentional and unintentional contamination of foods. Melamine, an industrial additive used to increase flame retardation in the resin industry, has recently been used to increase the apparent protein content of animal feed, of infant formula, as well as powdered and liquid milk in the dairy industry. Such contaminants, even at regulated levels, pose serious health risks. Chemical imaging technology provides the ability to evaluate large volumes of agricultural products before reaching the consumer. In this presentation, recent advances in chemical imaging technology that exploit Raman, fluorescence and near-infrared (NIR) are presented for the detection of contaminants in agricultural products.

Priore, Ryan J.; Olkhovyk, Oksana; Drauch, Amy; Treado, Patrick; Kim, Moon; Chao, Kaunglin

2009-05-01

353

Influence of process parameters on the surface and chemical properties of activated carbon obtained from biochar by chemical activation.  

PubMed

Activated carbons were produced from biochar obtained through pyrolysis of safflower seed press cake by chemical activation with zinc chloride. The influences of process variables such as the activation temperature and the impregnation ratio on textural and chemical-surface properties of the activated carbons were investigated. Also, the adsorptive properties of activated carbons were tested using methylene blue dye as the targeted adsorbate. The experimental data indicated that the adsorption isotherms are well described by the Langmuir equilibrium isotherm equation. The optimum conditions resulted in activated carbon with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 128.21 mg g(-1) and carbon content 76.29%, while the BET surface area and total pore volume corresponded to 801.5m(2)g(-1) and 0.393 cm(3)g(-1), respectively. This study demonstrated that high surface area activated carbons can be prepared from the chemical activation of biochar with zinc chloride as activating agents. PMID:24080293

Ang?n, Dilek; Altintig, Esra; Köse, Tijen Ennil

2013-11-01

354

Electrical, chemical and mechanical processes in water treeing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water treeing is a complex phenomenon involving several processes with many synergistic effects. Although a huge number of papers on the subject have been published over the last 25 years, there is no comprehensive theory able to describe the often contradictory experimental results. However, there are some tendencies that are always observed, whatever the experimental conditions. A critical review of

Jean-Pierre Crine

1998-01-01

355

Apparatus for combustion, pollution and chemical process control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is a system for regulating the efficiency of a combustion process by detecting radiant energy emitted from ash particles entrained in the gas stream exiting the combustion chamber of a boiler or incinerator. The intensity of selected wavelengths of light emitted from the particles is indicative of the temperature of the particles. The change in the intensities of the

M. B. Frish; J. Morency; S. A. Johnson; A. A. Boni

1994-01-01

356

DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Aproximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use tis inform...

357

DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Approximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use this infor...

358

METHODS FOR INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS INTO CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN DECISIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this cooperative agreement was to postulate a means by which an engineer could routinely include environmental considerations in day-to-day conceptual design problems; a means that could easily integrate with existing design processes, and thus avoid massive retr...

359

Encyclopedia of chemical processing and design. Volume 19  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains contributions from chemists and engineers from academia and industry, and covers the environmental impact of energy, epoxy resins, essential oils, and ethanol among other subjects beginning with the letter ''e''. Contents, abridged are: conversion to SI units; energy, low heat sources; engineering contractors; enhanced oil recovery costs; enzyme processing; equipment, used; essential oils; and esterification.

Maiketta, J.J.; Cunningham, W.A

1983-01-01

360

Nuclear Technology Series. Course 23: Nuclear Chemical Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

361

Data acquisition-reduction system for chemical cleaning processes for nuclear steam generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A software package has been developed for use in conjunction with the MINC computer system to handle data acquisition, on-line evaluation, and off-line reduction for chemical cleaning demonstration tests. Such tests are being conducted as part of an overall effort to develop a process to effectively use chemical cleaning to remove corrosion products from the secondary side of nuclear steam

R. J. Cartwright; J. M. Jevec

1984-01-01

362

Application of solar technology to fuel production chemical processing, and thermochemical energy transport: Status and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The status of investigations into the application of solar thermal technology to fuel production, chemical processes, and thermochemical energy transport and storage in several countries around the world is discussed. In addition, the concept of a direct catalytic absorption receiver (DCAR) and the potential role this concept may play in the future of solar fuels and chemicals are presented.

Fish, J. D.

363

Study casts doubts about chemical process thought to support subterranean microbial life  

E-print Network

other planets was fasci- nating and was accepted by most microbiologists," Lovley says. "UnfortunatelyStudy casts doubts about chemical process thought to support subterranean microbial life) have a c discovered that a critical chemical reaction previously thought to support microbial life deep

Lovley, Derek

364

SIMULATION OF ECOLOGICALLY CONSCIOUS CHEMICAL PROCESSES: FUGITIVE EMISSIONS VERSUS OPERATING CONDITIONS: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-CIN-1531A Mata, T.M., Smith*, R.L., Young*, D., and Costa, C.A.V. "Simulation of Ecologically Conscious Chemical Processes: Fugitive Emissions versus Operating Conditions." Paper published in: CHEMPOR' 2001, 8th International Chemical Engineering Conference, Aveiro, Portu...

365

Impressions of Chemical Process Control Education and Research in the USA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the state of the art and speculates about future trends in chemical process control research and education in the United States. Most chemical engineering departments will continue to offer only basic courses, while the industry is likely to go its own way. (WB)

Waller, Kurt V.

1981-01-01

366

Disaster management plan for chemical process industries. Case study: investigation of release of chlorine to atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first step in preparing a disaster management plan for any chemical process industry (CPI) is to identify and mitigate the conditions that might cause them. In practice, such a plan should start early in the design phase of the chemical facility, and continue throughout its life. The objective is to prevent emergencies by eliminating hazards wherever possible. In-spite of

Boppana V. Ramabrahmam; G. Swaminathan

2000-01-01

367

Computer-Aided Process Engineering Center Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering  

E-print Network

Computer-Aided Process Engineering Center Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering-Product Engineering Center (CAPEC) of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is committed to research work in close/Simulation, Synthesis, Design, Analysis and Control/Operation for Chemical, Petrochemical, Pharmaceutical, Agrochemical

Mosegaard, Klaus

368

Chemical Waste Disposal-Chemicals Identified in Terrestrial and Aquatic Waste Disposal Processes: A Selected Bibliography with Abstracts 1964-1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical Waste Disposal - Chemicals Identified in Terrestrial and Aquatic Waste Disposal Processes contains 150 bibliographic references to the published literature from 1964 to 1979. Each bibliographic listing contains a citation (in alphabetical order b...

J. G. Pruett, S. G. Winslow

1980-01-01

369

Development of engineering and safety evaluations for steam generator chemical cleaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, chemical cleaning of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) Units 2 and 3 steam generators was successfully completed during the units cycle 9 refueling outages. The SONGS site is located on the Pacific Ocean coast in northern San Diego County and is operated by Southern California Edison Company (SCE). Units 2 and 3 are dual-reactor, coolant-loop, pressurized water

B. J. Olech; C. E. Kramer; K. Yhip

1997-01-01

370

Exposure to Hazardous Chemical Substances--A Major Campus Environmental Health & Safety Concern.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A broad spectrum of potentially hazardous chemicals offers serious exposure risks to members of college and university communities. A formal program is needed to minimize exposure to these substances and maintain a prevention oriented protective program. The University of Massachusetts has developed such a program. (JN)

Robinson, Donald A.; Sorensen, Alfred J.

1980-01-01

371

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Is Thioacetamide a Serious Health Hazard in Inorganic Chemistry Laboratories?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the potential health hazards of using thioacetamide in introductory courses where students are involved in qualitative inorganic analysis. Describes the chemical as possessing carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, and mutagenic properties. Cautions that thioacetamide has caused various biochemical changes in the liver, and recommends limited uses…

Elo, Hannu

1987-01-01

372

NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH (NIOSH) POCKET GUIDE TO CHEMICAL HAZARDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The NPG is intended as a source of general industrial hygiene information on several hundred chemicals/classes for workers, employers, and occupational health professionals. The NPG does not contain an analysis of all pertinent data, rather it presents key information and data in...

373

Materials testing for solar-thermal chemical process heat  

SciTech Connect

Considerable interest has arisen recently in the production of hydrogen from water using solar thermal energy. The most advanced chemical cycles being developed in the United States and abroad all have the decomposition of sulfuric acid at elevated temperatures as the final step in the cycle. Materials required in the production of hydrogen have been tested. The materials tested included ..cap alpha..-SiC, siliconized SiC, MgO, ZrO/sub 2/(Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ stabilized), ZrO/sub 2/(MgO stabilized), and silicon aluminum oxynitride (or sialon). Ring specimens of these materials were exposed for varying periods of time in a simulated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ decomposition environment at 1000 and 1225/sup 0/C. The specimens were examined visually, metallographically, by x-ray diffraction, and with a scanning electron microscope. In addition, the specimens were tested for changes in their fracture stress and weight. The silicon carbide materials, both alpha and siliconized, were the best performers. The other materials tested showed V)-iron(II) oxides was 10 kcal/mol, and the amount of analytical solution. (MHR)

Tiegs, T.N.

1981-10-01

374

Review of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared to fulfill the Phase I deliverable for HLW/DWPF/TTR-98-0018, Rev. 2, ''Hydrogen Generation in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell'', 6/4/2001. The primary objective for the preliminary phase of the hydrogen generation study was to complete a review of past data on hydrogen generation and to prepare a summary of the findings. The understanding was that the focus should be on catalytic hydrogen generation, not on hydrogen generation by radiolysis. The secondary objective was to develop scope for follow-up experimental and analytical work. The majority of this report provides a summary of past hydrogen generation work with radioactive and simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste sludges. The report also includes some work done with Hanford waste sludges and simulants. The review extends to idealized systems containing no sludge, such as solutions of sodium formate and formic acid doped with a noble metal catalyst. This includes general information from the literature, as well as the focused study done by the University of Georgia for the SRS. The various studies had a number of points of universal agreement. For example, noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, catalyze hydrogen generation from formic acid and formate ions, and more acid leads to more hydrogen generation. There were also some points of disagreement between different sources on a few topics such as the impact of mercury on the noble metal catalysts and the identity of the most active catalyst species. Finally, there were some issues of potential interest to SRS that apparently have not been systematically studied, e.g. the role of nitrite ion in catalyst activation and reactivity. The review includes studies covering the period from about 1924-2002, or from before the discovery of hydrogen generation during simulant sludge processing in 1988 through the Shielded Cells qualification testing for Sludge Batch 2. The review of prior studies is followed by a discussion of proposed experimental work, additional data analysis, and future modeling programs. These proposals have led to recent investigations into the mercury issue and the effect of co-precipitating noble metals which will be documented in two separate reports. SRS hydrogen generation work since 2002 will also be collected and summarized in a future report on the effect of noble metal-sludge matrix interactions on hydrogen generation. Other potential factors for experimental investigation include sludge composition variations related to both the washing process and to the insoluble species with particular attention given to the role of silver and to improving the understanding of the interaction of nitrite ion with the noble metals.

Koopman, D. C.

2004-12-31

375

A Comparison between GAs and PSO in Training ANN to Model the TE Chemical Process Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the adaptation of network weights using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) was proposed as a mechanism to improve the performance of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in modeling a chemical process. This is particularly useful for cases involving changing operating conditions as well as highly nonlin- ear processes. As a case study, a Tennessee Eastman (TE) chemi- cal process

Malik Braik; Alaa Sheta; Amani Arieqat

376

Computer-based monitoring and fault diagnosis: a chemical process case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principal component analysis (PCA) for process modeling and multivariate statistical techniques for monitoring, fault detection, and diagnosis are becoming more common in published research, but are still underutilized in practice. This paper summarizes an in-depth case study on a chemical process with 20 monitored process variables, one of which reflects product quality. Data from intervals of “good” operation times are

Patricia Ralston; Gail DePuy; James H. Graham

2001-01-01

377

Aluminum surface treatment using three different plasma-assisted dry chemical processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum plate surfaces having hydrophilic and corrosion-resistant properties are often required for various mechanical parts or systems. The conventional process for treating aluminum surfaces employs a series of wet processes: grease or organic compounds removal followed by drying, chromate process followed by drying, and finally chemical treatment to achieve hydrophilic property. However, the use of chromium (Cr+6) in the chromate

Toshiaki Yamamoto; Atsuhito Yoshizaki; Tomoyuki Kuroki; Masaaki Okubo

2004-01-01

378

Energy 32 (2007) 335343 Minimizing the entropy production in a chemical process  

E-print Network

Energy 32 (2007) 335­343 Minimizing the entropy production in a chemical process Ranheim, Norway Received 2 November 2005 Abstract We minimize the total entropy production of a process of selected units, which minimized the total entropy production of the process, were found. The most important

Kjelstrup, Signe

379

Use of electric fields to enhance industrial chemical processing. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the use of electric fields applied to chemical processing. In particular, the application was made to a ROHM & HAAS polymer suspension for the removal of organic compounds utilizing solvent extraction. Results are described.

Scott, T.C.; Bowe, M.D.

1995-10-01

380

Organic Rankine Cycle Systems for Waste Heat Recovery in Refineries and Chemical Process Plants  

E-print Network

The design of a low temperature Rankine cycle system using R-113 working fluid for recovery and conversion of process waste heat is described for typical applications in oil refineries and chemical plants. The system is designed to produce electric...

Meacher, J. S.

1981-01-01

381

Chemical Analysis and Process Classification of Constituents of Effluents (Organic Nitrogen in Activated Carbon Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the research discussed in this report was to characterize by process response and chemical analysis the residual organic constituents in waters, especially the nitrogen-bearing components of wastewater treatment effluents following biologic...

T. B. Helfgott

1975-01-01

382

Chip-scale modeling of pattern dependencies in copper chemical mechanical polishing processes  

E-print Network

Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has become a necessary processing step in the fabrication of copper interconnects. Copper CMP is recognized to suffer from pattern dependent problems such as dishing and erosion, which ...

Gbondo-Tugbawa, Tamba Edward

2002-01-01

383

GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ARE REVEALED USING THE WASTE REDUCTION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (WAR DSS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Waste Reduction Decision Support System (WAR DSS) is a Java-based software product providing comprehensive modeling of potential adverse environmental impacts (PEI) predicted to result from newly designed or redesigned chemical manufacturing processes. The purpose of this so...

384

Development of a Fast and Detailed Model of Urban-Scale Chemical and Physical Processing  

E-print Network

A reduced form metamodel has been produced to simulate the effects of physical, chemical, and meteorological processing of highly reactive trace species in hypothetical urban areas, which is capable of efficiently simulating ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

385

Farm Health and Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

386

Thermal–hydrologic–mechanical–chemical processes in the evolution of engineered geothermal reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a companion paper [Taron J, Elsworth D, Min K-B. Numerical simulation of thermal–hydrologic–mechanical–chemical processes in deformable, fractured porous media. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 2009; doi:10.1016\\/j.ijrmms.2009.01.008] we introduced a new methodology and numerical simulator for the modeling of thermal–hydrologic–mechanical–chemical processes in dual-porosity media. In this paper we utilize the model to examine some of the dominant behaviors and

Joshua Taron; Derek Elsworth

2009-01-01

387

Relationship between physical, chemical and processing properties of rice  

E-print Network

were -0. 973 for the batch process and -0, 971 for the individual sample techn1que. Biuret absorbance values were highly correlated with protein content as measured by the Kjeldahl method. To compare the accuracy of dye-binding techniques, biuret.... ); and dry matter loss (Loss) (Table 2). Since water uptake and alkali spreading concern the absorption of aqueous solutions by the intact endosperm, these relat1onsh1ps may be a function of the surface area of the kernel in addition to other physicochem1...

Parial, Lucila Beatrice Calupitan

2012-06-07

388

Safety evaluation of chemicals in food: toxicological data profiles for pesticides  

PubMed Central

The sources of the scientific information used over the past several years by the Joint FAO/WHO Meetings on Pesticide Residues in carrying out toxicological evaluations are classified systematically according to compound and subject for the first time in this paper. It is hoped that those engaged in the toxicological assessment of pesticide chemicals, for the purpose of standardizing pesticide tolerances or for developing criteria of acceptability, will profit from this classification. PMID:779805

Vettorazzi, G.; Miles-Vettorazzi, P.

1975-01-01

389

Safety and reliability analysis in a polyvinyl chloride batch process using dynamic simulator-case study: Loss of containment incident.  

PubMed

In this paper, a novel methodology in batch plant safety and reliability analysis is proposed using a dynamic simulator. A batch process involving several safety objects (e.g. sensors, controller, valves, etc.) is activated during the operational stage. The performance of the safety objects is evaluated by the dynamic simulation and a fault propagation model is generated. By using the fault propagation model, an improved fault tree analysis (FTA) method using switching signal mode (SSM) is developed for estimating the probability of failures. The timely dependent failures can be considered as unavailability of safety objects that can cause the accidents in a plant. Finally, the rank of safety object is formulated as performance index (PI) and can be estimated using the importance measures. PI shows the prioritization of safety objects that should be investigated for safety improvement program in the plants. The output of this method can be used for optimal policy in safety object improvement and maintenance. The dynamic simulator was constructed using Visual Modeler (VM, the plant simulator, developed by Omega Simulation Corp., Japan). A case study is focused on the loss of containment (LOC) incident at polyvinyl chloride (PVC) batch process which is consumed the hazardous material, vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). PMID:16777320

Rizal, Datu; Tani, Shinichi; Nishiyama, Kimitoshi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko

2006-10-11

390

SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 40 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Phase III simulant flowsheet testing was completed using the latest composition estimates for SB6/Tank 40 feed to DWPF. The goals of the testing were to determine reasonable operating conditions and assumptions for the startup of SB6 processing in the DWPF. Testing covered the region from 102-159% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. Nitrite ion concentration was reduced to 90 mg/kg in the SRAT product of the lowest acid run. The 159% acid run reached 60% of the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) limit of 0.65 lb H2/hr, and then sporadically exceeded the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) limit of 0.223 lb H2/hr. Hydrogen generation rates peaked at 112% of the SME limit, but higher than targeted wt% total solids levels may have been partially responsible for rates seen. A stoichiometric factor of 120% met both objectives. A processing window for SB6 exists from 102% to something close to 159% based on the simulant results. An initial recommendation for SB6 processing is at 115-120% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. The addition of simulated Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) streams to the SRAT cycle had no apparent impact on the preferred stoichiometric factor. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 120%, 118.4% with ARP/MCU, and 159% stoichiometry were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 36 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 120% acid run reached 23% of the SRAT limit and 37% of the SME limit. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 29 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two processing issues, identified during SB6 Phase II flowsheet testing and qualification simulant testing, were monitored during Phase III. Mercury material balance closure was impacted by acid stoichiometry, and significant mercury was not accounted for in the highest acid run. Coalescence of elemental mercury droplets in the mercury water wash tank (MWWT) appeared to degrade with increasing stoichiometry. Observations were made of mercury scale formation in the SRAT condenser and MWWT. A tacky mercury amalgam with Rh, Pd, and Cu, plus some Ru and Ca formed on the impeller at 159% acid. It contained a significant fraction of the available Pd, Cu, and Rh as well as about 25% of the total mercury charged. Free (elemental) mercury was found in all of the SME products. Ammonia scrubbers were used during the tests to capture off-gas ammonia for material balance purposes. Significant ammonium ion formation was again observed during the SRAT cycle, and ammonia gas entered the off-gas as the pH rose during boiling. Ammonium ion production was lower than in the SB6 Phase II and the qualification simulant testing. Similar ammonium ion formation was seen in the ARP/MCU simulation as in the 120% flowsheet run. A slightly higher pH caused most of the ammonium to vaporize and collect in the ammonia scrubber reflux solution. Two periods of foaminess were noted. Neither required additional antifoam to control the foam growth. A steady foam layer formed during reflux in the 120% acid run. It was about an inch thick, but was 2-3 times more volume of bubbles than is typically seen during reflux. A similar foam layer also was seen during caustic boiling of the simulant during the ARP addition. While frequently seen with the radioactive sludge, foaminess during caustic boiling with simulants has been relatively rare. Two further flowsheet tests were performed and will be documented separately. One test was to evaluate the impact of process conditions that match current DWPF operation (lower rates). The second test was to evaluate the impact of SRAT/SME processing on the rheology of a modified Phase III simulant that had been made five times more viscous using ultrasonication.

Koopman, David

2010-04-28

391

12th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals: susceptibility to environmental hazards.  

PubMed Central

The 12th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC) considered the topic of methodologies for determining human and ecosystem susceptibility to environmental hazards. The report prepared at the meeting describes measurement of susceptibility through the use of biological markers of exposure, biological markers of effect, and biomarkers directly indicative of susceptibility of humans or of ecosystems. The utility and validity of these biological markers for the study of susceptibility are evaluated, as are opportunities for developing newer approaches for the study of humans or of ecosystems. For the first time a SGOMSEC workshop also formally considered the issue of ethics in relation to methodology, an issue of particular concern for studies of susceptibility. PMID:9255554

Barrett, J C; Vainio, H; Peakall, D; Goldstein, B D

1997-01-01

392

Computerized Aid Improves Safety Decision Process for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computerized safety decision aid was developed and tested with Spanish or English-speaking abused women in shelters or domestic violence (DV) support groups (n = 90). The decision aid provides feedback about risk for lethal violence, options for safety, assistance with setting priorities for safety, and a safety plan personalized to the user.…

Glass, Nancy; Eden, Karen B.; Bloom, Tina; Perrin, Nancy

2010-01-01

393

Hydrogen Safety Project chemical analysis support task: Window ``C`` volatile organic analysis  

SciTech Connect

This data package contains the results obtained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff in the characterization of samples for the 101-SY Hydrogen Safety Project. The samples were submitted for analysis by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the Technical Project Plan (TPP) 17667 and the Quality Assurance Plan MCS-027. They came from a core taken during Window ``C`` after the May 1991 gas release event. The analytical procedures required for analysis were defined in the Test Instructions (TI) prepared by the PNL 101-SY Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) Project Management Office in accordance with the TPP and the QA Plan. The requested analysis for these samples was volatile organic analysis. The quality control (QC) requirements for each sample are defined in the Test Instructions for each sample. The QC requirements outlined in the procedures and requested in the WHC statement of work were followed.

Gillespie, B.M.; Stromatt, R.W.; Ross, G.A.; Hoope, E.A.

1992-01-01

394

Hydrogen Safety Project chemical analysis support task: Window C'' volatile organic analysis  

SciTech Connect

This data package contains the results obtained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff in the characterization of samples for the 101-SY Hydrogen Safety Project. The samples were submitted for analysis by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the Technical Project Plan (TPP) 17667 and the Quality Assurance Plan MCS-027. They came from a core taken during Window C'' after the May 1991 gas release event. The analytical procedures required for analysis were defined in the Test Instructions (TI) prepared by the PNL 101-SY Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) Project Management Office in accordance with the TPP and the QA Plan. The requested analysis for these samples was volatile organic analysis. The quality control (QC) requirements for each sample are defined in the Test Instructions for each sample. The QC requirements outlined in the procedures and requested in the WHC statement of work were followed.

Gillespie, B.M.; Stromatt, R.W.; Ross, G.A.; Hoope, E.A.

1992-01-01

395

Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Hydrogen Storage Program is focused on identifying and developing viable hydrogen storage systems for onboard vehicular applications. The program funds exploratory research directed at identifying new materials and concepts for storage of hydrogen having high gravimetric and volumetric capacities that have the potential to meet long term technical targets for onboard storage. Approaches currently being examined are reversible metal hydride storage materials, reversible hydrogen sorption systems, and chemical hydrogen storage systems. The latter approach concerns materials that release hydrogen in endothermic or exothermic chemical bond-breaking processes. To regenerate the spent fuels arising from hydrogen release from such materials, chemical processes must be employed. These chemical regeneration processes are envisioned to occur offboard the vehicle.

Ott, Kevin; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Aardahl, Christopher L.

2008-08-24

396

SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 51 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Qualification simulant testing was completed to determine appropriate processing conditions and assumptions for the Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) Shielded Cells demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet using the qualification sample from Tank 51 for SB6 after SRNL washing. It was found that an acid addition window of 105-139% of the DWPF acid equation (100-133% of the Koopman minimum acid equation) gave acceptable Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) results for nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 117%, 133%, and 150% stoichiometry (Koopman) were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 42 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 150% acid run reached 110% of the DWPF SRAT limit of 0.65 lb H{sub 2}/hr, and the 133% acid run reached 75% of the DWPF SME limit of 0.223 lb H{sub 2}/hr. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 25 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two other processing issues were noted. First, incomplete mercury suspension impacted mercury stripping from the SRAT slurry. This led to higher SRAT product mercury concentrations than targeted (>0.45 wt% in the total solids). Associated with this issue was a general difficulty in quantifying the mass of mercury in the SRAT vessel as a function of time, especially as acid stoichiometry increased. About ten times more mercury was found after drying the 150% acid SME product to powder than was indicated by the SME product sample results. Significantly more mercury was also found in the 133% acid SME product samples than was found during the SRAT cycle sampling. It appears that mercury is segregating from the bulk slurry in the SRAT vessel, as mercury amalgam deposits for example, and is not being resuspended by the agitators. The second processing issue was significant ammonium ion formation as the acid stoichiometry was increased due to the high noble metal-high mercury feed conditions. Ammonium ion was found partitioned between the SRAT product slurry and the condensate from the lab-scale off-gas chiller downstream of the SRAT condenser. The ammonium ion was produced from nitrate ion by formic acid. Formate losses increased with increasing acid stoichiometry reaching 40% at the highest stoichiometry tested. About a third of the formate loss at higher acid stoichiometries appeared to be due to ammonia formation. The full extent of ammonia formation was not determined in these tests, since uncondensed ammonia vapor was not quantified; but total formation was bounded by the combined loss of nitrite and nitrate. Nitrate losses during ammonia formation led to nitrite-to-nitrate conversion values that were negative in three of the four tests. The negative results were an artifact of the calculation that assumes negligible SRAT nitrate losses. The sample data after acid addition indicated that some of the initial nitrite was converted to nitrate, so the amount of nitrate destroyed included nitrite converted to nitrate plus some of the added nitrate from the sludge and nitric acid. It is recommended that DWPF investigate the impact of SME product ammonium salts on melter performance (hydrogen, redox). It was recommended that the SB6 Shielded Cells qualification run be performed at 115% acid stoichiometry and allow about 35 hours of boiling for mercury stripping at the equivalent of a 5,000 lb/hr boil-up rate.

Koopman, David; Best, David

2010-04-28

397

Dynamic control and information processing in chemical reaction systems by tuning self-organization behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specific external control of chemical reaction systems and both dynamic control and signal processing as central functions in biochemical reaction systems are important issues of modern nonlinear science. For example nonlinear input-output behavior and its regulation are crucial for the maintainance of the life process that requires extensive communication between cells and their environment. An important question is how the dynamical behavior of biochemical systems is controlled and how they process information transmitted by incoming signals. But also from a general point of view external forcing of complex chemical reaction processes is important in many application areas ranging from chemical engineering to biomedicine. In order to study such control issues numerically, here, we choose a well characterized chemical system, the CO oxidation on Pt(110), which is interesting per se as an externally forced chemical oscillator model. We show numerically that tuning of temporal self-organization by input signals in this simple nonlinear chemical reaction exhibiting oscillatory behavior can in principle be exploited for both specific external control of dynamical system behavior and processing of complex information.

Lebiedz, Dirk; Brandt-Pollmann, Ulrich

2004-09-01

398

Data processing strategy of Raman chemical maps: data characteristics and behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman maps, when acquired and processed successfully, produce Raman chemical images, which provide detailed information on the spatial distribution and morphology of individual chemical species in samples. The advantages of Raman chemical images are most significant when the sample is chemically and structurally complicated. In pharmaceutical applications, these Raman chemical images can be used to understand and develop drug formulations, drug delivery mechanisms, and drug-cellular interactions. Studies using Raman hyperspectral imaging - the term that encompasses the entire procedure from data measurement to processing and interpretation - is increasing and gaining a wider acceptance due to recent improvements in Raman instrumentation and software. Since Raman maps are a collection of numerous Raman spectra of different chemical species, within a single data set, spectral characteristics such as the scattering strength, fluorescence level, and baselines vary a great deal. To acquire and process a Raman map successfully, this heterogeneity must be taken into the consideration. This paper will show the impact of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) on data processing strategies and their results. It will be demonstrated that the S/N of original data is critical for good classification and scientifically meaningful results regardless of the processing strategies.

Lee, Eunah

2007-09-01

399

40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63...Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes...pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements...

2011-07-01

400

40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section...at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a) The...pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to...the primary fuel or into the flame zone; or (ii) A...

2012-07-01

401

40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section...at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a) The...pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to...the primary fuel or into the flame zone; or (ii) A...

2013-07-01

402

Venus - Chemical and dynamical processes in the stratosphere and mesosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photochemical models for the Venus clouds are presented and discussed. We illustrate models for sulfuric acid density as a function of altitude based on a proposed photochemical scheme. Emphasis is placed on two competing removal mechanisms for sulfur atoms above the visible clouds: S + O2 yields SO + O, and S + COS yields S2 + CO. The first reaction (which forms the major oxygen sink in the visible cloud region) requires reasonable O2 concentrations and leads to sulfuric acid production. The second reaction occurs in regions where O2 is severely depleted and leads to elemental sulfur production. Quantitative estimates of the balance between these two competing processes are presented together with a discussion of the complete sulfur and oxygen cycles on the planet. We propose that the dark regions in the ultraviolet of Venus are oxygen-depleted regions where a significant amount of ultraviolet-absorbing sulfur is being produced. We also discuss observations of particle densities on Venus and their implications for vertical mixing rates.

Prinn, R. G.

1975-01-01

403

Enhanced Productivity of Chemical Processes Using Dense Fluidized Beds  

SciTech Connect

The work detailed in this report addresses Enabling Technologies within Computational Technology by integrating a “breakthrough” particle-fluid computational technology into traditional Process Science and Engineering Technology. The work completed under this DOE project addresses five major development areas 1) gas chemistry in dense fluidized beds 2) thermal cracking of liquid film on solids producing gas products 3) liquid injection in a fluidized bed with particle-to-particle liquid film transport 4) solid-gas chemistry and 5) first level validation of models. Because of the nature of the research using tightly coupled solids and fluid phases with a Lagrangian description of the solids and continuum description of fluid, the work provides ground-breaking advances in reactor prediction capability. This capability has been tested against experimental data where available. The commercial product arising out of this work is called Barracuda and is suitable for a wide (dense-to-dilute) range of industrial scale gas-solid flows with and without reactions. Commercial applications include dense gas-solid beds, gasifiers, riser reactors and cyclones.

Sibashis Banerjee; Alvin Chen; Rutton Patel; Dale Snider; Ken Williams; Timothy O'Hern; Paul Tortora

2008-02-29

404

An environmental, health and safety performance assessment process designed for continuous improvement  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a process that refocuses traditional environmental, health and safety audits. Most audit tools used today are designed to identify findings of non-compliance with regulatory requirements. Such tools tend to be binary--they identify only two conditions: compliance or non-compliance. This design is reflective of the focus of audits toward identification of compliance issues and less toward how the organization can improve their performance in terms of risk reduction. The premises embodied in this paper are that improvement in performance is always incremental and that the assessment tool should provide a path to continuous improvement. The assessment tool described is based on questions that have five graded responses that describe levels of performance. The assessor makes a judgment of the current performance level based on evidence gathered during the site visit. Questions are designed based on interviews with facility personnel, review of documents and observations of conditions and practices. Each question is assigned to a management category, allowing analysis of results by categories such as hazardous waste, air quality, health and safety, etc. The process is implemented using a computerized database management program that provides a means to develop questions and response levels, provide documentation of assessment comments and findings, and establish action plans. In the most advanced implementation of the process, the assessor works with the site to identify priorities based on EHS risk assessment and develops action plans during the assessment to achieve continuous improvement. Reports of the assessment are produced at the completion of the site visit, based on agreement on the findings and the action plan. This process implies that the negotiated improvement contract has to reflect local conditions and priorities, not simply black and white compliance requirements.

Downs, D.E.

1999-07-01

405

Method of manipulating the chemical properties of water to improve the effectiveness of a desired chemical process  

SciTech Connect

The method of the present invention is adapted to manipulate the chemical properties of water in order to improve the effectiveness of a desired chemical process. The method involves heating the water in the vessel to subcritical temperatures between 100 to 374 C while maintaining sufficient pressure to the water to maintain the water in the liquid state. Various physiochemical properties of the water can be manipulated including polarity, solute solubility, surface tension, viscosity, and the disassociation constant. The method of the present invention has various uses including extracting organics from solids and semisolids such as soil, selectively extracting desired organics from nonaqueous liquids, selectively separating organics using sorbent phases, enhancing reactions by controlling the disassociation constant of water, cleaning waste water, and removing organics from water using activated carbon or other suitable sorbents.

Hawthorne, S.B.; Miller, D.J.; Yang, Y.; Lagadec, A.J.M.

1999-12-14

406

Method of manipulating the chemical properties of water to improve the effectiveness of a desired chemical process  

DOEpatents

The method of the present invention is adapted to manipulate the chemical properties of water in order to improve the effectiveness of a desired chemical process. The method involves heating the water in the vessel to subcritical temperatures between 100.degree. to 374.degree. C. while maintaining sufficient pressure to the water to maintain the water in the liquid state. Various physiochemical properties of the water can be manipulated including polarity, solute solubility, surface tension, viscosity, and the disassociation constant. The method of the present invention has various uses including extracting organics from solids and semisolids such as soil, selectively extracting desired organics from nonaqueous liquids, selectively separating organics using sorbent phases, enhancing reactions by controlling the disassociation constant of water, cleaning waste water, and removing organics from water using activated carbon or other suitable sorbents.

Hawthorne, Steven B. (Grand Forks, ND); Miller, David J. (Grand Forks, ND); Yang, Yu (Greenville, NC); Lagadec, Arnaud Jean-Marie (Grand Forks, ND)

1999-01-01

407

CHEMICAL PROCESS SIMULATION FOR WASTE REDUCTION: WAR ALGORITHM (SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

In traditional chemical process design, attention is focused primarily upon minimizing cost while the environmental impact of a process is often overlooked. This may in many instances lead to the production of large quantities of waste materials. It is possible to reduce the gene...

408

EVALUATING THE ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS OF NEWLY DESIGNED OR RETROFITTED CHEMICAL PROCESSES: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-CIN-1646 Smith*, R.L. Evaluating the Economics and Environmental Friendliness of Newly Designed or Retrofitted Chemical Processes. Clean Products and Processes (Springer-Verlag) 3:383-391 (2002). 10/22/2001 This work describes a method for using spreadsheet analyses of ...

409

Syngas chemical looping gasification process: oxygen carrier particle selection and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The syngas chemical looping (SCL) process coproduces hydrogen and electricity. The process involves reducing metal oxides with syngas followed by regeneration of reduced metal oxides with steam and air in a cyclic manner. Iron oxide is determined to be a desired oxygen carrier for hydrogen production considering overall properties including oxygen carrying capacity, thermodynamic properties, reaction kinetics, physical strength, melting

Fanxing Li; Hyung Ray Kim; Deepak Sridhar; Fei Wang; Liang Zeng; Joseph Chen; L.-S. Fan

2009-01-01

410

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROCESSING OF PRESOLAR MATERIALS IN THE SOLAR NEBULA AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROCESSING OF PRESOLAR MATERIALS IN THE SOLAR NEBULA AND THE IMPLICATIONS and physical processes in the outer solar nebula are reviewed. It is argued that the outer nebula of presolar versus nebular dominance in the outer solar nebula and of how to distinguish interstellar

Fegley Jr., Bruce

411

APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS - THE REACTOR SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

This report details the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation of Eco Logic International's gas-phase chemical reduction process, with an emphasis on their Reactor System. he Eco Logic process employees a high temperature reactor filled with hydrogen gas as the means to destr...

412

The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) Earth's initial atmosphere; (2) continuous degassing; (3) impact processes and the Earth's protoatmosphere; and (4) the evolution of an impact-generated atmosphere.

Mukhin, Lev M.; Gerasimov, M. V.

1991-01-01

413

Design of sustainable chemical processes: Systematic retrofit analysis generation and evaluation of alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to present a generic and systematic methodology for identifying the feasible retrofit design alternatives of any chemical process. The methodology determines a set of mass and energy indicators from steady-state process data, establishes the operational and design targets, and through a sensitivity-based analysis, identifies the design alternatives that can match a set of design

Ana Carvalho; Rafiqul Gani; Henrique Matos

2008-01-01

414

Real-time growth rate metrology for a tungsten chemical vapor deposition process by acoustic sensing  

E-print Network

Real-time growth rate metrology for a tungsten chemical vapor deposition process by acoustic from 300 to 350 °C. Despite WF6 depletion rates as low as 3%­5%, in situ wafer-state metrology was achieved with an error less than 6% over 17 processed wafers. This in situ metrology capability combined

Rubloff, Gary W.

415

Chemical Engineering and Processing xxx (2004) xxxxxx Assessing the homogeneity of powder mixtures  

E-print Network

Chemical Engineering and Processing xxx (2004) xxx­xxx Assessing the homogeneity of powder mixtures from industry (pharmaceutical, agro-food, cement, plastics, . . . ), particulate processes in general engineering had become a major engineering science producing its own tools both at the re- search

Aussillous, Pascale

416

Deposition of silicon carbide using the chemical vapor composites process: Process characterization and comparison with RASSPVDN model predictions  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we explore the use of the chemical vapor composites (CVC) process to increase the rates of silicon carbide (SiC) growth on graphite substrates. Large SiC seed particles are used that deposit by gravity-driven sedimentation. The results show that addition of large ([ital d][sub [ital p

Allendorf, M.D.; Hurt, R.H.; Yang, N. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551-0969 (United States)); Reagan, P.; Robbins, M. (ThermoTrex Corporation, 85 First Avenue, P.O. Box 9046, Waltham, Massachusetts 02254-9046 (United States))

1993-07-01

417

Extended Characterization of Chemical Processes in Hot Cells Using Environmental Swipe Samples  

SciTech Connect

Environmental sampling is used extensively by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for verification of information from State declarations or a facility’s design regarding nuclear activities occurring within the country or a specific facility. Environmental sampling of hot cells within a facility under safeguards is conducted using 10.2 cm x 10.2 cm cotton swipe material or cellulose swipes. Traditional target analytes used by the IAEA to verify operations within a facility include a select list of gamma-emitting radionuclides and total and isotopic U and Pu. Analysis of environmental swipe samples collected within a hot-cell facility where chemical processing occurs may also provide information regarding specific chemicals used in fuel processing. However, using swipe material to elucidate what specific chemical processes were/are being used within a hot cell has not been previously evaluated. Staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) teamed to evaluate the potential use of environmental swipe samples as collection media for volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. This evaluation was initiated with sample collection during a series of Coupled End-to-End (CETE) reprocessing runs at ORNL. The study included measurement of gamma emitting radionuclides, total and isotopic U and Pu, and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. These results allowed us to elucidate what chemical processes used in the hot cells during reprocessing of power reactor and identify other legacy chemicals used in hot cell operations which predate the CETE process.

Olsen, Khris B.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Thomas, M-L; Lepel, Elwood A.; Brunson, Ronald R.; Ladd-Lively, Jennifer

2012-09-15

418

Chemical input and I-V output: stepwise chemical information processing in dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

As a complex system, a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) exhibits emergent photovoltaics not obvious from the properties of the individual components. The chemical input of 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) into DSC improves the open circuit voltage (V(oc)) and reduces the short circuit current (I(sc)) in I-V output through multiple interactions with the components, yet it has been difficult to distinguish the multiple interactions and correlate the interactions with the influences on I-V output due to the complexity of the system. To deal with the multiple interactions, we have adapted a conceptual framework and methodology from coordination chemistry. First, we titrated the photovoltaic interface and electrolyte with TBP to identify the stepwise chemical interaction processes. An isopotential point observed in I-V output indicates that most of the inputted chemicals interact with the electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetric titration of the electrolyte demonstrates asymmetric redox peaks and two different isopotential points, indicating that the two-step coordination-decoordination process inhibits the reduction current of the electrolyte. Second, we set an interaction model bridging the hierarchical gaps between the multiple interactions and the I-V output to address the influences on outputs from the amount of the inputs. From the viewpoint of the interaction model and interactions observed, we are able to comprehend the processes of the complex system and suggest a direction to improve V(oc) without sacrificing I(sc) in DSCs. We conclude that the conceptual framework and methodology adapted from coordination chemistry is beneficial to enhance the emergent outputs of complex systems. PMID:23104104

Satoh, Norifusa; Han, Liyuan

2012-12-14

419

Development and integration of new processes consuming carbon dioxide in multi-plant chemical production complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen new energy-efficient and environmentally acceptable catalytic processes have been identified that can use excess high-purity carbon dioxide as a raw material available in a chemical production complex. The complex in the lower Mississippi River Corridor was used to show how these new plants could be integrated into this existing infrastructure using the chemical complex analysis system. Eighty-six published articles

Aimin Xu; Sudheer Indala; Thomas A. Hertwig; Ralph W. Pike; F. Carl Knopf; Carl L. Yaws; Jack R. Hopper

2005-01-01

420

Numerical simulation of thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes in deformable, fractured porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is introduced to couple the thermal (T), hydrologic (H), and chemical precipitation\\/dissolution (C) capabilities of TOUGHREACT with the mechanical (M) framework of FLAC3D to examine THMC processes in deformable, fractured porous media. The combined influence of stress-driven asperity dissolution, thermal-hydro-mechanical asperity compaction\\/dilation, and mineral precipitation\\/dissolution alter the permeability of fractures during thermal, hydraulic, and chemical stimulation. Fracture and

Joshua Taron; Derek Elsworth; Ki-Bok Min

2009-01-01

421

Preparation of fine nickel powders in aqueous solution under wet chemical process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafine nickel powders have been prepared by chemical reduction of aqueous NiCl2 with hydrazine at various reaction conditions as wet chemical process. The reductive atmosphere was produced by the dissolution of hydrazine hydrate in basic solution. The nickel powders were characterized by the means of an X-ray diffractometry, a scanning electron microscopy, BET method, a thermo-gravimetry and an X-ray photoelectron

Kwang Ho Kim; Yoon Bok Lee; Sang Geun Lee; Seong Soo Park

2004-01-01

422

Model of the process of two-solution chemical stabilization of porous soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a A mathematical model describing the process of mixing of stabilizing solutions in a porous medium with simultaneous chemical\\u000a reaction between components of the injected chemical solutions is proposed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a An approximate solution of the problem of the distribution of the sediment being deposited in a circular formation as a result\\u000a of mixing of the chemical solutions is given.

A. N. Antonov

1998-01-01

423

Specific environmental release categories--A tool for improving chemical safety assessment in the EC--report of a multi-stakeholder workshop.  

PubMed

In April 2011, experts from industry and authorities met for a workshop to discuss experience and future developments regarding the use of specific environmental release categories (SPERCs) in chemicals safety assessment (CSA) under the European Chemicals Regulation Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH). This article provides a summary of the workshop. It briefly explains what a SPERC is, why SPERCs are needed, where the challenges of the concept are, and what improvements are needed to make SPERCs a useful tool for assessments under REACH. PMID:22447453

Sättler, Daniel; Schnöder, Frank; Aust, Nannett; Ahrens, Andreas; Bögi, Christian; Traas, Theo; Tolls, Johannes

2012-10-01

424

The System Safety Assessment by the Use of Programming Tools during the Licensing Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programming tools for a software safety assessment support during licensing of digital systems are addressed. Expediency and necessity of the use of such tools, its functions, and methodology of the software safety assessment are considered. The paper is based on the experience with the ExpertPro tool, developed by Ukrainian State Scientific and Technical Center on Nuclear and Radiation Safety for

Sergiy A. Vilkomir; Vjacheslav S. Kharchenko; Alexander S. Ponomaryev; A. L. Gorda

1999-01-01

425

Treatment of effluents arising from a material characterization laboratory, using chemical precipitation and reverse osmosis processes  

SciTech Connect

Owing to the restrictions imposed by the Regulations, mainly in the field of effluent release into a water body, it`s necessary to use a set of technologies that will help meeting the standards established by these regulations. Taking into account what was exposed above, a process for treating the effluents arising from a Material Characterization Laboratory, that will characterize nuclear materials is proposed in this paper. The process proposed uses chemical precipitation for removing chemicals which can be removed by this means (Chromium, Calcium and Sulfate for instance), and reverse osmosis process to purify the filtrate from precipitation process. The reverse osmosis process is used to remove dissolved chemicals (Nitrates and Chlorides). A synthetic solution with a COD of 8000 mg/l was used to simulate the treatment process. After treatment was finished, a purified stream, which represents 90 % of the intake stream have presented a COD of less then 10 mg/l, showing that this process can be utilized to minimize the impact caused to the environment. The characterization of all streams involved in the treatment process as well as the process description is presented in this paper.

Bello, S.M.G.; Mierzwa, J.C. [Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1995-11-01

426

Chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the EDS coal liquefaction process: a status report  

SciTech Connect

Representative process materials were obtained from the EDS pilot plant for chemical and biological analyses. These materials were characterized for biological activity and chemical composition using a microbial mutagenicity assay and chromatographic and mass spectrometric analytical techniques. The two highest boiling distillation cuts, as well as process solvent (PS) obtained from the bottoms recycle mode operation, were tested for initiation of mouse skin tumorigenicity. All three materials were active; the crude 800/sup 0 +/F cut was substantially more potent than the crude bottoms recycle PS or 750 to 800/sup 0/F distillate cut. Results from chemical analyses showed the EDS materials, in general, to be more highly alkylated and have higher hydroaromatic content than analogous SRC II process materials (no in-line process hydrogenation) used for comparison. In the microbial mutagenicity assays the N-PAC fractions showed greater activity than did the aliphatic hydrocarbon, hydroxy-PAH, or PAH fractions, although mutagenicity was detected in certain PAH fractions by a modified version of the standard microbial mutagenicity assay. Mutagenic activities for the EDS materials were lower, overall, than those for the corresponding materials from the SRC II process. The EDS materials produced under different operational modes had distinguishable differences in both their chemical constituency and biological activity. The primary differences between the EDS materials studied here and their SRC II counterparts used for comparison are most likely attributable to the incorporation of catalytic hydrogenation in the EDS process. 27 references, 28 figures, 27 tables.

Later, D.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

1984-05-01

427

Build your working knowledge of process compressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of compressors in the chemical process industries (CPI) is critical since they are used to circulate gas through a process, enhance conditions for chemical reactions, provide inert gas for safety or control systems, recover and recompress process gas, and maintain correct pressure levels by either adding and removing gas or vapors from a process system. The chemical engineer

1993-01-01

428

Dynamic processes of conceptual change: Analysis of constructing mental models of chemical equilibrium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate students' mental models of chemical equilibrium using dynamic science assessments. Research in chemical education has shown that students at various levels have misconceptions about chemical equilibrium. According to Chi's theory of conceptual change, the concept of chemical equilibrium has constraint-based features (e.g., random, simultaneous, uniform activities) that might prevent students from deeply understanding the nature of the concept of chemical equilibrium. In this study, we examined how students learned and constructed their mental models of chemical equilibrium in a cognitive apprenticeship context. Thirty 10th-grade students participated in the study: 10 in a control group and 20 in a treatment group. Both groups were presented with a series of hands-on chemical experiments. The students in the treatment group were instructed based on the main features of cognitive apprenticeship (CA), such as coaching, modeling, scaffolding, articulation, reflection, and exploration. However, the students in the control group (non-CA group) learned from the tutor without explicit CA support. The results revealed that the CA group significantly outperformed the non-CA group. The students in the CA group were capable of constructing the mental models of chemical equilibrium - including dynamic, random activities of molecules and interactions between molecules in the microworld - whereas the students in the non-CA group failed to construct similar correct mental models of chemical equilibrium. The study focuses on the process of constructing mental models, on dynamic changes, and on the actions of students (such as self-monitoring/self-correction) who are learning the concept of chemical equilibrium. Also, we discuss the implications for science education.

Chiu, Mei-Hung; Chou, Chin-Cheng; Liu, Chia-Ju

2002-10-01

429

Toolbox Safety Talk Confined Spaces  

E-print Network

Toolbox Safety Talk Confined Spaces Environmental Health & Safety Facilities Safety & Health to Environmental Health & Safety for recordkeeping. Many Cornell University facilities and utilities Hazards Other hazards may include electrical hazards, mechanical hazards, chemical hazards, steam hazards

Pawlowski, Wojtek

430

Physical Processes and Real-Time Chemical Measurement of the Insect Olfactory Environment  

PubMed Central

Odor-mediated insect navigation in airborne chemical plumes is vital to many ecological interactions, including mate finding, flower nectaring, and host locating (where disease transmission or herbivory may begin). After emission, volatile chemicals become rapidly mixed and diluted through physical processes that create a dynamic olfactory environment. This review examines those physical processes and some of the analytical technologies available to characterize those behavior-inducing chemical signals at temporal scales equivalent to the olfactory processing in insects. In particular, we focus on two areas of research that together may further our understanding of olfactory signal dynamics and its processing and perception by insects. First, measurement of physical atmospheric processes in the field can provide insight into the spatiotemporal dynamics of the odor signal available to insects. Field measurements in turn permit aspects of the physical environment to be simulated in the laboratory, thereby allowing careful investigation into the links between odor signal dynamics and insect behavior. Second, emerging analytical technologies with high recording frequencies and field-friendly inlet systems may offer new opportunities to characterize natural odors at spatiotemporal scales relevant to insect perception and behavior. Characterization of the chemical signal environment allows the determination of when and where olfactory-mediated behaviors may control ecological interactions. Finally, we argue that coupling of these two research areas will foster increased understanding of the physicochemical environment and enable researchers to determine how olfactory environments shape insect behaviors and sensory systems. PMID:18548311

Abrell, Leif; Hildebrand, John G.

2009-01-01

431

40 CFR 723.175 - Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION...Exemptions § 723.175 Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or...

2011-07-01

432

40 CFR 723.175 - Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION...Exemptions § 723.175 Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or...

2010-07-01

433

40 CFR 723.175 - Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION...Exemptions § 723.175 Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or...

2012-07-01

434

40 CFR 723.175 - Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION...Exemptions § 723.175 Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or...

2013-07-01

435

CSER 96-014: criticality safety of project W-151, 241-AZ-101 retrieval system process test  

SciTech Connect

This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) documents a review of the criticality safety implications of a process test to be performed in tank 241-AZ-101 (101-AZ). The process test will determine the effectiveness of the retrieval system for mobilization of solids and the practicality of the system for future use in the underground storage tanks at Hanford. The scope of the CSER extends only to the testing and operation of the mixer pumps and does not include the transfer of waste from the tank. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality is extremely unlikely, if not impossible, in this tank.

Vail, T.S., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-06

436

Magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process: Preparation and optimization of particles for removal of transuranic elements  

SciTech Connect

The Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process combines the selectivity afforded by solvent extractants with magnetic separation by using specially coated magnetic particles to provide a more efficient chemical separation of transuranic (TRU) elements, other radionuclides, and heavy metals from waste streams. Development of the MACS process uses chemical and physical techniques to elucidate the properties of particle coatings and the extent of radiolytic and chemical damage to the particles, and to optimize the stages of loading, extraction, and particle regeneration. This report describes the development of a separation process for TRU elements from various high-level waste streams. Polymer-coated ferromagnetic particles with an adsorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted with tributyl phosphate (TBP) were evaluated for use in the separation and recovery of americium and plutonium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles, which can then be recovered from the solution by using a magnet. The partition coefficients were larger than those expected based on liquid[liquid extractions, and the extraction proceeded with rapid kinetics. Extractants were stripped from the particles with alcohols and 400-fold volume reductions were achieved. Particles were more sensitive to acid hydrolysis than to radiolysis. Overall, the optimization of a suitable NMCS particle for TRU separation was achieved under simulant conditions, and a MACS unit is currently being designed for an in-lab demonstration.

Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Bradley, C.; Buchholz, B.A.; Aase, S.B.; Tuazon, H.E.; Vandegrift, G.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Landsberger, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1995-05-01

437

78 FR 73756 - Process Safety Management and Prevention of Major Chemical Accidents  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...concerns about the proposed language. These included comments...at elevated risk of death and serious injury...mechanism and corresponding language to incorporate such...form pure hydroxylamine crystals, which can rapidly...with the regulatory language and that addresses...

2013-12-09

438

29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...they provide to their employees. The learning goals or objectives should be written...senses beyond listening, will enhance learning. For example, operating...example, the audit team will review all aspects of the training program as...

2010-07-01

439

29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...they provide to their employees. The learning goals or objectives should be written...senses beyond listening, will enhance learning. For example, operating...example, the audit team will review all aspects of the training program as...

2011-07-01

440

29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...they provide to their employees. The learning goals or objectives should be written...senses beyond listening, will enhance learning. For example, operating...example, the audit team will review all aspects of the training program as...

2012-07-01

441

29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...they provide to their employees. The learning goals or objectives should be written...senses beyond listening, will enhance learning. For example, operating...example, the audit team will review all aspects of the training program as...

2012-07-01

442

29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...they provide to their employees. The learning goals or objectives should be written...senses beyond listening, will enhance learning. For example, operating...example, the audit team will review all aspects of the training program as...

2011-07-01

443

29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...they provide to their employees. The learning goals or objectives should be written...senses beyond listening, will enhance learning. For example, operating...example, the audit team will review all aspects of the training program as...

2013-07-01

444

29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...they provide to their employees. The learning goals or objectives should be written...senses beyond listening, will enhance learning. For example, operating...example, the audit team will review all aspects of the training program as...

2013-07-01

445

29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.  

...they provide to their employees. The learning goals or objectives should be written...senses beyond listening, will enhance learning. For example, operating...example, the audit team will review all aspects of the training program as...

2014-07-01

446

29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...they provide to their employees. The learning goals or objectives should be written...senses beyond listening, will enhance learning. For example, operating...example, the audit team will review all aspects of the training program as...

2010-07-01

447

29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.  

...they provide to their employees. The learning goals or objectives should be written...senses beyond listening, will enhance learning. For example, operating...example, the audit team will review all aspects of the training program as...

2014-07-01

448

Chemical-vapor deposition of complex oxides: materials and process development  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a six-month, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) part of the Advanced Materials Laboratory (AML). The demand for higher performance and lower cost in electronics is driving the need for advanced materials and consequent process integration. Ceramic thin-film technology is becoming more important in the manufacture of microelectronic devices, photovoltaics, optoelectronics, magneto-optics, sensors, microwave, and radio frequency communication devices, and high-Tc superconducting tapes. A flexible processing approach for potential large-scale manufacturing of novel electronic ceramic thin films is desirable. Current thin- film deposition technologies based on physical vapor-deposition techniques are limited in scale potential and have limited control of processing parameters. The lack of control over multiple process parameters inhibits the versatility and reproducibility of the physical vapor deposition processes applied to complex oxides. Chemical vapor deposition is emerging as a viable approach for large- scale manufacturing of electronic materials. Specifically, the ability to control more processing parameters with chemical vapor deposition than with other processing techniques provides the reliability and material property reproducibility required by manufacturing. This project sought to investigate the chemical vapor deposition of complex oxides.

Muenchausen, R.

1996-11-01

449

A cross-sectional study to identify organisational processes associated with nurse-reported quality and patient safety  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify organisational processes and structures that are associated with nurse-reported patient safety and quality of nursing. Design This is an observational cross-sectional study using survey methods. Setting Respondents from 31 Norwegian hospitals with more than 85 beds were included in the survey. Participants All registered nurses working in direct patient care in a position of 20% or more were invited to answer the survey. In this study, 3618 nurses from surgical and medical wards responded (response rate 58.9). Nurses' practice environment was defined as organisational processes and measured by the Nursing Work Index Revised and items from Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Outcome measures Nurses' assessments of patient safety, quality of nursing, confidence in how their patients manage after discharge and frequency of adverse events were used as outcome measures. Results Quality system, nurse–physician relation, patient safety management and staff adequacy were process measures associated with nurse-reported work-related and patient-related outcomes, but we found no associations with nurse participation, education and career and ward leadership. Most organisational structures were non-significant in the multilevel model except for nurses’ affiliations to medical department and hospital type. Conclusions Organisational structures may have minor impact on how nurses perceive work-related and patient-related outcomes, but the findings in this study indicate that there is a considerable potential to address organisational design in improvement of patient safety and quality of care. PMID:23263021

Tvedt, Christine; Sjetne, Ingeborg Str?mseng; Helgeland, Jon; Bukholm, Geir

2012-01-01

450

A Comparison of the Safety Analysis Process and the Generation IV Proliferation Resistance/Physical Protection Assessment Methodology  

SciTech Connect

The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a vehicle for the cooperative international development of future nuclear energy systems. The Generation IV program has established primary objectives in the areas of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability, and Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP). In order to help meet the latter objective a program was launched in December 2002 to develop a rigorous means to assess nuclear energy systems with respect to PR&PP. The study of Physical Protection of a facility is a relatively well established methodology, but an approach to evaluate the Proliferation Resistance of a nuclear fuel cycle is not. This paper will examine the Proliferation Resistance (PR) evaluation methodology being developed by the PR group, which is largely a new approach and compare it to generally accepted nuclear facility safety evaluation methodologies. Safety evaluation methods have been the subjects of decades of development and use. Further, safety design and analysis is fairly broadly understood, as well as being the subject of federally mandated procedures and requirements. It is therefore extremely instructive to compare and contrast the proposed new PR evaluation methodology process with that used in safety analysis. By so doing, instructive and useful conclusions can be derived from the comparison that will help to strengthen the PR methodological approach as it is developed further. From the comparison made in this paper it is evident that there are very strong parallels between the two processes. Most importantly, it is clear that the proliferation resistance aspects of nuclear energy systems are best considered beginning at the very outset of the design process. Only in this way can the designer identify and cost effectively incorporate intrinsic features that might be difficult to implement at some later stage. Also, just like safety, the process to implement proliferation resistance should be a dynamic, iterative process that continually evolves with the design.

T. A. Bjornard; M. D. Zentner

2006-05-01

451

Decontamination of radioactive-contaminated soils: Evaluation of chemical extraction/selective dissolution processes  

SciTech Connect

Rust Federal Services, Inc.`s Clemson Technical Center (CTC) has investigated the remediation of several radioactive-contaminated soils, from various DOE-FUSRAP sites, via soil washing/chemical extraction of the radioactive contaminants. The second phase of this work, which is the subject of this presentation, focused on chemical extraction via selective dissolution of radioactive contaminants. In those instances where simple physical separation processes are not practicable, e.g., when there are relatively high proportions of silt and/or clay particles, chemical extraction and the selective dissolution of target contaminants is required. Soil-decontamination processes frequently employ chelating agents which are meant to selectively enhance the dissolution of target contaminants while minimizing the dissolution of benign soil constituents. This paper will present the dissolution kinetics results from the bench-scale soil-decontamination studies.

Diel, B.N.; North, J.R.; Widner, D.G. [Rust-Clemson Technical Center, Anderson, SC (United States)

1995-12-31

452

Chemical-cleaning process evaluation: Westinghouse steam generators. Final report. [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG)\\/Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Steam Generator Secondary Side Chemical Cleaning Program, under develpment since 1978, has resulted in a generic process for the removal of accumulated corrosion products and tube deposits in the tube support plate crevices. The SGOG\\/EPRI Project S150-3 was established to obtain an evaluation of the generic process in regard to

W. F. Cleary; G. B. Gockley

1983-01-01

453

Dilute chemical cleaning of PWR steam generators off-line cleaning process evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project evaluated the feasibility of using a low-concentration (approx. 0.5 wt %) chemical cleaning process to remove corrosion product deposits from steam generator surfaces and magnetite from tube-to-support plate crevices of PWR steam generators. The primary objective was to develop a dilute process that could be safely applied at scheduled intervals, such as during normal refueling outages, to maintain

G. P. Simon; D. E. Smoot; D. Schneidmiller

1983-01-01

454

Steam-generator chemical-cleaning process development. Final report. [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of work sponsored by the Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG) and managed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), a process for chemical removal of iron- and copper-bearing sludges and tube-to-support plate crevice corrosion product deposits from the secondary side of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators has been developed. The process has undergone extensive pilot-scale testing

D. Schneidmiller; D. Stiteler

1983-01-01

455

Cohesive and frictional strengthening of fault zones by chemical and mechanical processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault-zones in saw-cut experiments may display significant strengthening when subjected to long periods of holding. Two groups of mechanisms control the strengthening: (1) chemical processes (pressure solution, Ostwald's ripening, grain growth, crack and void filling) that are more effective under long-term, hot and water-saturated conditions, and (2) mechanical processes (grain crushing, compaction, plastic flow) that are more effective under short-term,

Z. Reches; T. A. Dewers

2002-01-01

456

Chemical effects of DCCA to the sol-gel reaction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of drying control chemical additives (DCCA) on the growth of silica particles, gelation time and physical properties of the dry gel were examined in a two-step silica sol-gel process.N,N-dimethylformamide,N,N-dimethylacetamide and ethylene glycol (EG) were applied as DCCAs. The shapes of growing silica particles were distorted spheres on addition of DCCA. EG accelerated the gelation process. Despite the use

N. Uchida; N. Ishiyama; Z. Kato; K. Uematsu

1994-01-01

457

Analysis of physical-chemical processes governing SSME internal fluid flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic issues concerning the physical chemical processes of the Space Shuttle Main Engine are discussed. The objectives being to supply the general purpose CFD code PHOENICS and the associated interactive graphics package - GRAFFIC; to demonstrate code usage on SSME related problems; to perform computations and analyses of problems relevant to current and future SSME's; and to participate in the development of new physical models of various processes present in SSME components. These objectives are discussed in detail.

Singhal, A. K.; Owens, S. F.; Mukerjee, T.; Prakash, C.; Przekwas, A. J.; Kannapel, M.

1985-01-01

458

Preparation of low radioactivity spherical silicon oxide powders via chemical-flame spheroidizing process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a chemical-flame spheroidizing method was proposed to facilely prepare low radioactivity spherical silicon oxide powders. Firstly, the rice husks, composed of silicon oxide frame, were employed as the raw materials to prepare high-purity colloidal silica nanoparticles with the size 24nm via a simple “pyrolyzation–ashing–dissolvation” process. Then, the silica colloid was further treated by a spraying–drying process to

Hongyun Jin; Ning Song; Ning Wang; Yongqian Wang; Jun Zhou; Jieyu Chen; Shuen Hou

2011-01-01

459

Micro and Nano Machining by Electro-Physical and Chemical Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for micro-features, components and products is rapidly increasing in diverse industries such as electronics, medical and aviation. Product miniaturization demands innovative manufacturing methods. Various existing macro-manufacturing processes are being modified to perform micro-scale manufacturing. Electro-physical and chemical micromachining processes play important role in this field due to their special material removal mechanisms. This paper reports the worldwide technical

K. P. Rajurkar; G. Levy; A. Malshe; M. M. Sundaram; J. McGeough; X. Hu; R. Resnick; A. DeSilva

2006-01-01

460

Applicability of Chemical Cleaning Process to Steam Generator Secondary Side, (IV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of chemical cleaning for dissolving and removing scale and sludge is being planned in the Japanese pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant in order to maintain high heat transfer performance and to prevent steam generator (SG) tube degradation. In this paper, the effectiveness of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and German Kraftwerk Union (KWU) processes on the integrity

Kazutoshi FUJIWARA; Hirotaka KAWAMURA; Hiromi KANBE; Hideo HIRANO; Hideki TAKIGUCHI; Kouji YOSHINO; Shuuichi YAMAMOTO; Toshio SHIBATA; Kenkichi ISHIGURE

2006-01-01

461

Exploiting legacy dynamic simulators to accelerate steady state determination for chemical process plants  

E-print Network

plants Kavouras, A 1 , Kevrekidis, IG 1;#3; , Georgakis, C 2 , Kelley, CT 3 #3; corresponding author model of an open-loop unstable chemical process plant we construct a computational \\wrapper and enhancing computational eÃ?ciency. This approach enables legacy dy- namic simulators to calculate a multitude

462

Chemical Engineering Science 54 (1999) 999--1013 Analysis of nonisothermal screw extrusion processing of  

E-print Network

Abstract Analytical solutions are developed for the flow and heat transfer in nonisothermal screw extrusionChemical Engineering Science 54 (1999) 999--1013 Analysis of nonisothermal screw extrusion processing of viscoplastic fluids with significant back flow Adeniyi Lawal *, Dilhan M. Kalyon Department

463

Flow Tube Studies of Gas Phase Chemical Processes of Atmospheric Importance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project is to conduct measurements of elementary reaction rate constants and photochemistry parameters for processes of importance in the atmosphere. These measurements are being carried out under temperature and pressure conditions covering those applicable to the stratosphere and upper troposphere, using the chemical ionization mass spectrometry turbulent flow technique developed in our laboratory.

Molina, Mario J.

1997-01-01

464

Graphene Films with Large Domain Size by a Two-Step Chemical Vapor Deposition Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental properties of graphene are making it an attractive material for a wide variety of applications. Various techniques have been developed to produce graphene and recently we discovered the synthesis of large area graphene by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of methane on Cu foils. We also showed that graphene growth on Cu is a surface-mediated process and the films

Xuesong Li; Carl W. Magnuson; Archana Venugopal; Jinho An; Ji Won Suk; Boyang Han; Mark Borysiak; Weiwei Cai; Aruna Velamakanni; Yanwu Zhu; Lianfeng Fu; Eric M. Vogel; Edgar Voelkl; Luigi Colombo; Rodney S. Ruoff

2010-01-01

465

Tribological, thermal and kinetic characterization of dielectric and metal chemical mechanical planarization processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation presents a series of studies that describe the impacts of, among other things, temperature and kinematics on inter-level dielectric (ILD) and metal chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) processes. The performance of CMP is often evaluated in terms of removal rate, uniformity, planarization length, step height, defects and resulting topography such as erosion and dishing. The assessment of these parameters

Jamshid Sorooshian

2005-01-01

466

REBURNING THERMAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN A TWO-DIMENSIONAL PILOT-SCALE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes an experimental investigation of the thermal and chemical processes influencing NOx reduction by natural gas reburning in a two-dimensional pilot-scale combustion system. Reburning effectiveness for initial NOx levels of 50-500 ppm and reburn stoichiometric ra...

467

Antarctic glaciers and rock weathering: Exploring chemical and mineralogy processes within the blue ice fields  

E-print Network

Antarctic glaciers and rock weathering: Exploring chemical and mineralogy processes within the blue, and precipitation of weathering products (e.g. magnesium carbonates and iron oxyhydroxides, or `rust'), is highly into a virtue by using weathering products to unlock the information that contain regarding the mechanisms

Guo, Zaoyang

468

Using Drawing Technology to Assess Students' Visualizations of Chemical Reaction Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we investigated how students used a drawing tool to visualize their ideas of chemical reaction processes. We interviewed 30 students using thinking-aloud and retrospective methods and provided them with a drawing tool. We identified four types of connections the students made as they used the tool: drawing on existing knowledge,…

Chang, Hsin-Yi; Quintana, Chris; Krajcik, Joseph

2014-01-01

469

Graphene Films with Large Domain Size by a Two-Step Chemical Vapor Deposition Process  

E-print Network

reported to date, such as mechanical exfoliation of graphite,3,4 reduc- tion of graphene oxide,5Graphene Films with Large Domain Size by a Two-Step Chemical Vapor Deposition Process Xuesong Li 75243, United States ABSTRACT The fundamental properties of graphene are making it an attractive

470

A MIXED CHEMICAL REDUCTANT FOR TREATING HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN A CHROMITE ORE PROCESSING SOLID WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

We evaluated a method for delivering ferrous iron into the subsurface to enhance chemical reduction of Cr(VI) in a chromite ore processing solid waste (COPSW). The COPSW is characterized by high pH (8.5 -11.5), high Cr(VI) concentrations in the solid phase (up to 550 mg kg-1) and...

471

Advanced Biocatalytic Processing of Heterogeneous Lignocellulosic Feedstocks to a Platform Chemical Intermediate (Lactic acid Ester)  

SciTech Connect

The development of commercial boi-based processes and products derived from agricultural waste biomass has the potential for significant impact on the economy and security of our nation. Adding value, rather than disposing of the waste of agriculture, can solve an environmental problem and reduce our dependence on foreign sources of fossil fuel for production of chemicals, materials and fuels.

Dr. Sharon Shoemaker

2004-09-03

472

Coupled mechanical and chemical processes in engineered geothermal reservoirs with dynamic permeability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is developed to represent mechanical strain, stress-enhanced dissolution, and shear dilation as innately hysteretic and interlinked processes in rough contacting fractures. The model is incorporated into a numerical simulator designed to examine permeability change and thermal exchange in chemically active and deformable fractured reservoirs. A candidate engineered geothermal reservoir system (EGS) is targeted. The mechanistic model is able

Joshua Taron; Derek Elsworth

2010-01-01

473

Synthesis of nanosized tungsten carbide powder by the chemical vapor condensation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical vapor condensation (CVC) process was applied to produce nanosized tungsten carbide powders. Characteristics of the synthesized powders with variations in the CVC parameters were studied. Loosely agglomerated WC1?x powders could be obtained. The size of the CVCed powders decreased with increasing CVC reaction temperature.

J. C. Kim; B. K. Kim

2004-01-01

474

MultiCriteria Decision Making for Sustainability-Oriented Chemical Process Design  

E-print Network

MultiCriteria Decision Making for Sustainability-Oriented Chemical Process Design Xun Jin and Karen Decision-making for sustainability essentially constitutes a MultiCriteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem in characterizing sustainability oriented decision-making contexts are also highlighted. A case study

High, Karen

475

ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS - THE THERMAL DESORPTION UNIT - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

ELI ECO Logic International, Inc.'s Thermal Desorption Unit (TDU) is specifically designed for use with Eco Logic's Gas Phase Chemical Reduction Process. The technology uses an externally heated bath of molten tin in a hydrogen atmosphere to desorb hazardous organic compounds fro...

476

An integrated computer aided system for integrated design of chemical processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an Integrated Computer Aided System (ICAS), which is particularly suitable for solving problems related to integrated design of chemical processes, is presented. ICAS features include a model generator (generation of problem specific models including model simplification and model reduction), a simulator (use of problem specific simulation strategies for steady state and dynamic simulation), toolboxes (thermodynamic toolbox, synthesis

Rafiqul Gani; Glen Hytoft; Cecilia Jaksland; Anne K. Jensen

1997-01-01

477

Photoconductive CdS films by a chemical bath deposition process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique for the preparation of CdS thin films by chemical bath deposition is described. The CdS films prepared by this method have many of the advantages of those made by the spray deposition method, such as the ease of coating large areas and simplicity of the process. The stoichiometry is easy to maintain in both these methods. The

N. R. Pavaskar; C. A. Menezes; A. P. B. Sinha

1977-01-01

478

ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS - THE REACTOR SYSTEM - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The ELI Eco Logic International Inc. (Eco Logic) process thermally separates organics, then chemically reduces them in a hydrogen atmosphere, converting them to a reformed gas that consists of light hydrocarbons and water. A scrubber treats the reformed gas to remove hydrogen chl...

479

Biochemistry Biochemistry is the study of the chemical structures and processes of  

E-print Network

Biochemistry Biochemistry is the study of the chemical structures and processes of living organisms, disease and aging. A Distinctive Program The biochemistry program at Stetson is distinctive website: stetson.edu/chemistry/biochemistry.php This department prepares students for professional studies

Miles, Will

480

Teaching Science: Lab Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Before entering the world of pipettes and Geiger counters, budding scientists will need to know about lab safety. Science educators will benefit from this laboratory safety site, developed by Professor Norman Herr, who teaches at California State University, Northridge. On his site, Professor Herr provides topically organized links that fall into the areas of safety standards, chemical hazards, chemical storage, and five other relevant topics. Within each section, visitors will find links to state safety standards, sample laboratory safety contracts, and fact sheets on chemical hazards. One potentially delightful classroom activity is the laboratory safety "scavenger hunt". Through this activity, students will learn about storage requirements, chemical risks, and other potential delicate matters.

481

Detoxifying of high strength textile effluent through chemical and bio-oxidation processes.  

PubMed

Small-scale textile industries (SSTIs) in India struggled for the economic and environmental race. A full-scale common treatment plant (CETP) working on the principle of destabilising negative charge colloidal particles and bio-oxidation of dissolved organic failed to comply with Inland Surface Waters (ISW) standards. Thus, presence of intense colour and organics with elevated temperature inhibited the process stability. Bench scale treatability studies were conducted on chemical and biological processes for its full-scale apps to detoxify a high strength textile process effluent. Colour, SS and COD removals from the optimised chemical process were 88%, 70% and 40%, respectively. Heterotrophic bacteria oxidised COD and BOD more than 84% and 90% at a loading rate 0.0108kgm(-3)d(-1) at 3h HRT. The combined chemical and bio-oxidation processes showed a great promise for detoxifying the toxic process effluent, and implemented in full-scale CETP. The post-assessment of the CETP resulted in detoxify the toxic effluent. PMID:24531146

Manekar, Pravin; Patkar, Guarav; Aswale, Pawan; Mahure, Manisha; Nandy, Tapas

2014-04-01

482

Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks  

PubMed Central

Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on. PMID:23603866

Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

2013-01-01

483

Preliminary Safety Analysis of the Gorleben Site: Safety Concept and Application to Scenario Development Based on a Site-Specific Features, Events and Processes (FEP) Database - 13304  

SciTech Connect

Based upon the German safety criteria, released in 2010 by the Federal Ministry of the Environment (BMU), a safety concept and a safety assessment concept for the disposal of heat-generating high-level waste have both been developed in the framework of the preliminary safety case for the Gorleben site (Project VSG). The main objective of the disposal is to contain the radioactive waste inside a defined rock zone, which is called containment-providing rock zone. The radionuclides shall remain essentially at the emplacement site, and at the most, a small defined quantity of material shall be able to leave this rock zone. This shall be accomplished by the geological barrier and a technical barrier system, which is required to seal the inevitable penetration of the geological barrier by the construction of the mine. The safe containment has to be demonstrated for probable and less probable evolutions of the site, while evolutions with very low probability (less than 1 % over the demonstration period of 1 million years) need not to be considered. Owing to the uncertainty in predicting the real evolution of the site, plausible scenarios have been derived in a systematic manner. Therefore, a comprehensive site-specific features, events and processes (FEP) data base for the Gorleben site has been developed. The safety concept was directly taken into account, e.g. by identification of FEP with direct influence on the barriers that provide the containment. No effort was spared to identify the interactions of the FEP, their probabilities of occurrence, and their characteristics (values). The information stored in the data base provided the basis for the development of scenarios. The scenario development methodology is based on FEP related to an impairment of the functionality of a subset of barriers, called initial barriers. By taking these FEP into account in their probable characteristics the reference scenario is derived. Thus, the reference scenario describes a comprehensive set of probable future evolutions of the repository site. By stepwise consideration of less probable FEP or less probable characteristics of FEP within this process, alternative scenarios are also developed, which are characterized by a lower probability of occurrence. An important methodological aspect is that some assumptions had to be made for the scenario development. They allow, on the one hand, to deal systematically with incomplete knowledge regarding the geological situation below ground owing to restricted site investigations, and, on the other hand, to structure the scenario development process. The consideration of alternative assumptions may result in additional alternative scenarios. (authors)

Moenig, Joerg; Beuth, Thomas; Wolf, Jens [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Theodor-Heuss-Str. 4, D-38122 Braunschweig (Germany)] [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Theodor-Heuss-Str. 4, D-38122 Braunschweig (Germany); Lommerzheim, Andre [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Eschenstr. 55, D-31224 Peine (Germany)] [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Eschenstr. 55, D-31224 Peine (Germany); Mrugalla, Sabine [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover (Germany)] [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover (Germany)

2013-07-01

484

Challenges in performance of food safety management systems: a case of fish processing companies in Tanzania.  

PubMed

This study provides insight for food safety (FS) performance in light of the current performance of core FS management system (FSMS) activities and context riskiness of these systems to identify the opportunities for improvement of the FSMS. A FSMS diagnostic instrument was applied to assess the performance levels of FSMS activities regarding context riskiness and FS performance in 14 fish processing companies in Tanzania. Two clusters (cluster I and II) with average FSMS (level 2) operating under moderate-risk context (score 2) were identified. Overall, cluster I had better (score 3) FS performance than cluster II (score 2 to 3). However, a majority of the fish companies need further improvement of their FSMS and reduction of context riskiness