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1

Chemical Demilitarization - Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA): Root Cause Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Chemical Demilitarization - Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (ACWA) program is responsible for the destruction of the chemical weapons stored in Pueblo, CO and Blue Grass, KY. In June 2010, the Program Manager (PM) for the ACWA program notified...

C. L. O'Connell J. S. Byun P. F. Bronson

2011-01-01

2

Environmental management of assembled chemical weapons assessment program.  

SciTech Connect

Environmental planning and management was an integral part of the ACWA Program planning process. To ensure that environmental protection issues could be addressed expeditiously and not delay the demonstrations, the PMACWA scaled the technology demonstrations such that simplified regulatory processes and existing research and development facilities could be used. The use of enclosed facilities for the demonstrations prevents any uncontrolled discharges to the environment and made it possible to conduct environmental assessments relatively quickly. The PMACWA also arranged for public briefings to ease any community concerns over the operations with chemical weapons. These steps precluded regulatory and community resistance to the ACWA activities. The cooperation of the regulators and stakeholders has been a key element in enabling the ACWA Program to move with the speed that it has to date. Technology demonstrations are currently underway and are scheduled to be completed in late May 1999. The data collected during these demonstrations will be used to prepare and submit a summary report to Congress by August 1999. The challenge continues for the ACWA management to guide the demonstrations to completion and to plan for possible pilot testing. As the scale of the ACWA facilities increase in size, the ease of reduced regulatory processes and environmental analyses will no longer be possible. However, the PMACWA will continue to explore all paths through the environmental process to speed the ACWA program to its goals while at the same time ensuring adequate protection of public health and safety and of the environment.

Frey, G.; Mohrman, G.; Templin, B. R.

1999-05-07

3

Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 4 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Pueblo Chemical Depot.  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the ''Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001c) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored at Pueblo Chemical Depot (PCD), located outside Pueblo, Colorado. This volume presents technical and process information on each of the destruction technologies applicable to treatment of the specific ACW stored at PCD. The destruction technologies described are those that have been demonstrated during Phase I of the Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) demonstration process (see Volume 1).

Kimmell, T.; Folga, S., Frey, G.; Molberg, J.; Kier, P.; Templin, B.; Goldberg, M.

2001-04-30

4

Chemical Weapons Convention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On April 29, 1997, the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, known as the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), entered into force. At that time, the United States and...

1997-01-01

5

Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 2 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Anniston Army Depot.  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the ''Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD), located outside Anniston, Alabama. This volume presents technical and process information on each of the destruction technologies applicable to treatment of the specific ACW stored at ANAD. The destruction technologies described are those that have been demonstrated as part of the Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) selection process (see Volume 1).

Kimmell, T.; Folga, S., Frey, G.; Molberg, J.; Kier, P.; Templin, B.; Goldberg, M.

2001-05-04

6

An assessment of nondestructive testing technologies for chemical weapons monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE), with the US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC) under the sponsorship of the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA), completed testing of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology on live agent systems. The tests were conducted at Tooele Army Depot during August 1992. The Nondestructive Evaluation systems were tested for potential use in verifying chemical treaty requirements. Five technologies, two neutron and three acoustic, were developed at DOE laboratories. Two systems from the United Kingdom (one neutron and one acoustic) were also included in the field trials. All systems tested showed the ability to distinguish among the VX, GB, and Mustard. Three of the systems (two acoustic and one neutron) were used by On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA) personnel.

Taylor, T.T.

1993-05-01

7

Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 5 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Blue Grass Army Depot.  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the ''Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored in the U.S. Army's unitary chemical stockpile at Blue Grass Army Depot (BGAD), located outside Richmond, Kentucky. This volume presents technical and process information on each of the destruction technologies applicable to treatment of the specific ACW stored at BGAD. The destruction technologies described are those that have been demonstrated as part of the Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) selection process (see Volume 1).

Kimmell, T.; Folga, S., Frey, G.; Molberg, J.; Kier, P.; Templin, B.; Goldberg, M.

2001-05-02

8

Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 3 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Pine Bluff Arsenal.  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the ''Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored in the U.S. Army's unitary chemical stockpile at Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA), located outside Pine Bluff, Arkansas. This volume presents technical and process information on each of the destruction technologies applicable to treatment of the specific ACW stored at PBA. The destruction technologies described are those that have been demonstrated as part of the Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) selection process (see Volume 1).

Kimmell, T.; Folga, S., Frey, G.; Molberg, J.; Kier, P.; Templin, B.; Goldberg, M.

2001-05-04

9

Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment  

SciTech Connect

In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

Janeen Denise Robertson

1999-02-01

10

Biological and Chemical Weapons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the latest in MEDLINEplus' special collections, the Biological and Chemical Weapons page addresses health issues at the forefront of many people's minds these days. As with other MEDLINEplus special collections, this page offers links to news stories, sites providing general information and overviews, information about specific conditions, and relevant organizations. While the sites are not annotated, the page provides a useful introduction to these health issues. The links here are all authoritative and range from the National Center for Infectious Diseases' (NCID) faq on anthrax to Johns Hopkins University's Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies to National Library of Medicine's TOXNET Databases. MEDLINEplus is offered by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and was last mentioned in the April 14, 2000 Scout Report.

2001-01-01

11

Strengthening the link between project planning and environmental impact assessment : the assembled chemical weapons assessment dialogue process.  

SciTech Connect

An approach to stakeholder involvement known as the Dialogue process has been an integral part of the US Department of Defense Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) Program from its inception. It has provided a means of soliciting stakeholder input before key decisions are made. The projects developed under the ACWA Program are characterized as major federal actions and therefore also must meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). One of these is the requirement for public participation in the environmental impact assessment process. This case study describes the ACWA Dialogue and NEPA processes, and examines their relationship in the implementation of the ACWA Program. The examination suggests that involving the public at the beginning of a program through a Dialogue-like process can introduce environmental considerations early in the project development process and contribute to the development of a more informed public. These factors improve the overall efficacy of public participation, strengthening the link between project development and environmental assessment in a manner consistent with the original intent of NEPA.

Goldberg, M. S.; Environmental Assessment

2003-01-01

12

Syria's Chemical Weapons: Issues for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use or loss of control of chemical weapons stocks in Syria could have unpredictable consequences for the Syrian population and neighboring countries as well as U.S. allies and forces in the region. Congress may wish to assess the Administration s plan...

A. Feickert M. B. Nikitin P. K. Kerr

2013-01-01

13

Syria's Chemical Weapons: Issues for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use or loss of control of chemical weapons stocks in Syria could have unpredictable consequences for the Syrian population and neighboring countries as well as U.S. allies and forces in the region. Congress may wish to assess the Administration s plan...

A. Feickert M. B. Nikitin P. K. Kerr

2012-01-01

14

Chemical Weapons Convention: Issues for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

More than 100 years of international efforts to ban chemical weapons culminated January 13, 1993, in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). The Convention entered into force April 29, 1997. One hundred forty-five of the 174 signatories have...

S. R. Bowman

2002-01-01

15

Chemical Weapons Convention: Issues for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

More than 100 years of international efforts to ban chemical weapons culminated January 13, 1993, in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). The Convention entered into force April 29, 1997, and 153 of the 178 signatories have ratified it. O...

S. R. Bowman

2003-01-01

16

Chemical Weapons Convention: Issues for Congress. 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

More than 100 years of international efforts to ban chemical weapons culminated January 13, 1993, in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). The Convention entered into force April 29, 1997. One hundred forty-five of the 174 signatories have...

S. R. Bowman

2002-01-01

17

Syria's Chemical Weapons: Issues for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Syria has produced, stored, and weaponized chemical agents, but it remains dependent on foreign suppliers for chemical precursors. The regime of President Bashar al Asad possesses stocks of nerve (sarin, VX) and blister (mustard gas) agents, possibly weap...

A. Feickert M. B. Nikitin P. K. Kerr

2013-01-01

18

Chemical and Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemical warfare began in prehistoric times with the use of such weapons as poisoned arrows. However, World War I was the beginning of modern-day chemical warfare. The birth of biological warfare evolved during World War II. As a result, mankind has been plagued with chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction. This chapter provides a historical account of chemical and biological warfare, and its detrimental impact on society.

Slesnick, Irwin

2004-01-01

19

Chemical Weapons: The legacy of Operation Desert Storm. Final report  

SciTech Connect

United States and allied forces deploying in the 1991 War in the Persian Gulf region faced a formidable Iraqi offensive chemical weapons capability. This threat immediately challenged U.S. policy and resolve as outlined in the 1990 bilateral chemical weapons treaty with the Soviet Union. The necessity to assess retaliatory options, in the event of Iraqi chemical use, was apparent, and are evaluated in this analysis. The proliferation of chemical weapons worldwide, disarmament efforts, and chemical defense readiness are also reviewed in the context of the 1991 Gulf War. The conclusion that retaliation by conventional means alone as the only acceptable alternative supporting the presidential goal of increased stability in the Middle East is reached. Prospects for revitalized post-war multilateral chemical disarmament efforts, and a reduction in chemical warfare proliferation are also assessed. Recommendations for a post-war national chemical defense policy are made.

Henscheid, M.R.

1991-06-21

20

Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons  

PubMed Central

This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.

Pitschmann, Vladimir

2014-01-01

21

Overall view of chemical and biochemical weapons.  

PubMed

This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist. PMID:24902078

Pitschmann, Vladimír

2014-06-01

22

Technology Resource Document for the Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment Environmental Impact Statement Volume 1: Overview of the ACWA Program and Appendixes A-E.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Notation; Introduction; Descriptions of assembled chemical weapons; Overview of ACWA technology selection process; Baseline and ACWA system technologies; References; Appendix A: Chemical munitions specific information; Appendix B: Chemical weapo...

T. Kimmel S. Folga G. Frey J. Molberg P. Kier B. Templin M. Goldberg

2001-01-01

23

Ending the scourge of chemical weapons  

SciTech Connect

After more than 20 years of arduous negotiations, representatives from 131 countries gathered in Paris in January to sign a treaty banning the development, production, and transfer to other countries of chemical-warfare agents and their means of delivery. The treaty - called the Chemical Weapons Convention, or CWC - complements the more limited Geneva Protocol of 1925, which bans the use of toxic chemicals in warfare. When the CWC enters into force in about two years, it will prohibit the manufacture for military purposes of lethal chemicals such as sulfur mustard, which causes painful skin blistering and lung damage, and nerve agents, which cause rapid death by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses. The goal is to eliminate from the earth this particularly inhumane form of warfare. The paper discusses facets of the treaty, especially the verification challenge with its inspection on demand features. Short accompanying pieces discuss classifying chemicals and the destruction of chemical weapons under the CWC.

Brin, J.

1993-04-01

24

Can an attribution assessment be made for Yellow Rain? Systematic reanalysis in a chemical-and-biological-weapons use investigation.  

PubMed

In intelligence investigations, such as those into reports of chemical- or biological-weapons (CBW) use, evidence may be difficult to assemble and, once assembled, to weigh. We propose a methodology for such investigations and then apply it to a large body of recently declassified evidence to determine the extent to which an attribution can now be made in the Yellow Rain case. Our analysis strongly supports the hypothesis that CBW were used in Southeast Asia and Afghanistan in the late 1970s and early 1980s, although a definitive judgment cannot be made. The proposed methodology, while resource-intensive, allows evidence to be assembled and analyzed in a transparent manner so that assumptions and rationale for decisions can be challenged by external critics. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions, emphasizing the use of evolving information-extraction (IE) technologies, a sub-field of artificial intelligence (AI). PMID:18208344

Katz, Rebecca; Singer, Burton

2007-03-01

25

Banning of Chemical Weapons: Tantalus Revisited.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the mid-nineteenth century, nations have sought to limit the use of chemical weapons with varying degrees of success. On-going negotiations in Geneva by the 40-member Committee on Disarmament seek the elaboration of an international convention banni...

F. M. Durel

1983-01-01

26

Emergency management of chemical weapons injuries.  

PubMed

The potential for chemical weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Classes of chemical weapons include nerve agents, vesicants (blister agents), choking agents, incapacitating agents, riot control agents, blood agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The nerve agents work by blocking the actions of acetylcholinesterase leading to a cholinergic syndrome. Nerve agents include sarin, tabun, VX, cyclosarin, and soman. The vesicants include sulfur mustard and lewisite. The vesicants produce blisters and also damage the upper airways. Choking agents include phosgene and chlorine gas. Choking agents cause pulmonary edema. Incapacitating agents include fentanyl and its derivatives and adamsite. Riot control agents include Mace and pepper spray. Blood agents include cyanide. The mechanism of toxicity for cyanide is blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Toxic industrial chemicals include agents such as formaldehyde, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia. PMID:22080590

Anderson, Peter D

2012-02-01

27

Syria's Chemical Weapons: Issues for Congress, August 20, 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use or loss of control of chemical weapons stocks in Syria could have unpredictable consequences for the Syrian population and neighboring countries as well as U.S. allies and forces in the region. Congress may wish to assess the Administrations plans...

A. Feickert M. B. D. Nikitin P. K. Kerr

2013-01-01

28

Syria's Chemical Weapons: Issues for Congress, May 31, 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use or loss of control of chemical weapons stocks in Syria could have unpredictable consequences for the Syrian population and neighboring countries as well as U.S. allies and forces in the region. Congress may wish to assess the Administrations plans...

A. Feickert M. B. Nikitin P. K. Kerr

2013-01-01

29

78 FR 55326 - Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991...306(a) of the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of...

2013-09-10

30

Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing measures were still under development. Last month, the Web Edition of the Manual was completed. It's internet address, or URL, is http://www.cwc.anl.gov/.

Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

1999-11-05

31

Prospects for International Terrorist Groups Employing Chemical Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There has been much discussion and debate among security analysts, scholars, and politicians about the possible use of weapons of mass destruction. This paper examines the prospects for international terrorist groups employing chemical weapons. Specifical...

D. W. Webb

1999-01-01

32

The Chemical Weapons Convention -- Legal issues  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the US system of constitutional law. Its promise of eliminating what is the most purely genocidal type of weapon from the world`s arsenals as well as of destroying the facilities for producing these weapons, brings with it a set of novel legal issues. The reservations about the CWC expressed by US business people are rooted in concern about safeguarding confidential business information and protecting the constitutional right to privacy. The chief worry is that international verification inspectors will misuse their power to enter commercial property and that trade secrets or other private information will be compromised as a result. It has been charged that the Convention is probably unconstitutional. The author categorically disagrees with that view and is aware of no scholarly writing that supports it. The purpose of this presentation is to show that CWC verification activities can be implemented in the US consistently with the traditional constitutional regard for commercial and individual privacy. First, he very briefly reviews the types of verification inspections that the CWC permits, as well as some of its specific privacy protections. Second, he explains how the Fourth Amendment right to privacy works in the context of CWC verification inspections. Finally, he reviews how verification inspections can be integrated into these constitutional requirements in the SU through a federal implementing statute.

NONE

1997-08-01

33

Chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East. Study project  

SciTech Connect

Since the early 1980s, chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East has been a growing problem. Most recently, the eight year Iran-Iraq War, marked by the repeated use of chemical weapons, has set an alarming precedent in this region that can no longer be ignored. The threat is acute and the implications for the Middle East, an area where animosities are high and relations tense, are significant. The study will address chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East. It will examine why proliferation occurred and look at initiatives and efforts to prevent proliferation. This study will also discuss the chemical weapons capabilities of the Middle East states, the threat to the region posed by chemical weapons, and some of the implications for balance and stability in the region. Finally, this study will examine future prospects for the region in terms of chemical weapons proliferation there.

Schumeyer, G.

1990-04-01

34

Particle beam weapons - A technical assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical feasibility, principles, problems and potential of particle beam weapons are assessed. The mechanisms by which deposition of the energy of a beam of energetic particles leads to target damage and the energy required to inflict such damage are discussed, and effects which impede the propagation of charged particle beams in space are examined; problems with neutral hydrogen beams

G. Bekefi; B. T. Feld; J. Parmentola; K. Tsipis

1980-01-01

35

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 742...Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons Note: Exports and reexports...i) Equipment (for producing chemical weapon precursors and chemical warfare...

2013-01-01

36

2006, REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN THE REMEDIATION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONTAMINATION IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation will document the use of historical imagery, GIS, photogrammetry and hyperspectral remote sensing in locating and removing chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin, and Lewisite from the environment and establishing a risk assessment methodology for...

37

Kemiska Vapen i Vaerlden (Chemical Weapons in the World).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Chemical Weapons Convention entered into force on 29 April 1997. Before the entry into force only the United States and the Russian Federation had declared on their own initiatives, possession of chemical weapons. Many of the states which are believed...

J. Johannesson

1997-01-01

38

76 FR 6087 - Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2011-0017] RIN 3150-AI49 Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and Request for Comment...on a draft guidance document entitled ``Weapons Safety Assessment'' (WSA). This...

2011-02-03

39

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2006-01-01

40

15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2007-01-01

41

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2004-01-01

42

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2008-01-01

43

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2007-01-01

44

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2005-01-01

45

15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention...BASED CONTROLS § 742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention...Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction,...

2009-01-01

46

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section 745...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745.2 ...reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note: The...

2009-01-01

47

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section 745...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745.2 ...reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note: The...

2010-01-01

48

15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2009-01-01

49

77 FR 22559 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Provisions of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Provisions of the Export Administration...INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is a multilateral arms...achieve an international ban on chemical weapons (CW). The CWC prohibits the use,...

2012-04-16

50

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2010-01-01

51

15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2010-01-01

52

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2009-01-01

53

15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). 742...BASED CONTROLS § 742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). ...Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, also...

2013-01-01

54

15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2013-01-01

55

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section 745...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745.2 ...reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note: The...

2013-01-01

56

15 CFR 742.2 - Proliferation of chemical and biological weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Proliferation of chemical and biological weapons. 742.2 Section 742.2 Commerce...Proliferation of chemical and biological weapons. (a) License requirements. ...illegal use of chemical and biological weapons. (See also § 742.18 of this...

2013-01-01

57

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2013-01-01

58

15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. 744... Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. ...stockpiling, or use of chemical or biological weapons in or by any...

2010-01-01

59

15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. 744... Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. ...stockpiling, or use of chemical or biological weapons in or by any...

2009-01-01

60

Overview of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

My subject this morning is a very brief overview of the Chemical Weapons Convention. Much has already been written describing and summarizing the Convention, including several of the Supplementary Papers and the Annex contained within the draft Manual. It is not my goal to restate what many of you already know. Rather, in the short time available, I want to focus on the parts of the Convention that are addressed in the draft Manual, that is, I want to highlight for you those aspects of the CWC that require implementation by individual State Parties. As I do so, I will show you where in the draft Manual each of these matters is addressed so that you can see how our document corresponds to the Convention`s requirements. This will provide a bridge between the plenary sessions and workshops that will consider the implementing measures and the Supplementary Papers in the Manual. In organizing my talk to focus on aspects of the Convention requiring national implementing measures, I necessarily leave out certain of its provisions. Among these intentional omissions are, with all due respect to our hosts, the structure and function of the OPCW, the Annex on Chemicals, and various operational aspects of the Convention such as sanctions, duration and withdrawal, entry into force, reservations, the depository, and the various authentic texts. The provisions that require national implementing measures can be conveniently regarded as creating three different kinds of obligations. First, the Convention obligates the government of each State Party to carry out certain actions, which I will refer to as ``executory obligations.`` Second, each State Party must impose certain requirements on persons over whom it has jurisdiction, which I will call ``enforcement obligations.`` Finally, ``cooperation obligations`` are those requiring State Parties to assist one another and the OPCW to achieve the Convention`s goals.

Tanzman, E.A.

1993-12-02

61

Achieving Better Acquisition Outcomes. GAO's 2008 Assessment of Weapon Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial contents: Achieving Better Acquisition Outcomes,Major Weapon System Portfolio Analysis, DOD Has Increased Its Commitment In Major Defense Acquisitions Programs...,. But DOD Outcomes Are Not Improving, 2008 Weapon System Assessments, Little Evidenc...

2008-01-01

62

Database for chemical weapons detection: first results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quick increase of terrorism and asymmetric war is leading towards new needs involving defense and security. Nowadays we have to fight several kind of threats and use of chemical weapons against civil or military objectives is one of the most dangerous. For this reason it is necessary to find equipment, know-how and information that are useful in order to detect and identify dangerous molecules as quickly and far away as possible, so to minimize damage. Lidar/Dial are some of the most powerful optical technologies. Dial technology use two different wavelengths, in order to measure concentration profile of an investigated molecule. For this reason it is needed a "fingerprint" database which consists of an exhaustive collection of absorption coefficients data so to identify each molecule avoiding confusion with interfering ones. Nowadays there is not such a collection of data in scientific and technical literature. We used an FT-IR spectrometer and a CO2 laser source for absorption spectroscopy measurements using cells filled with the investigated molecules. The CO2 source is the transmitter of our DIAL facility. In this way we can make a proper "fingerprint" database necessary to identify dangerous molecules. The CO2 laser has been chosen because it is eye safe and, mainly, because it covers a spectral band where there is good absorption for this kind of molecules. In this paper IR spectra of mustard will be presented and compared to other substances which may interfere producing a false alarm. Methodology, experimental setup and first results are described.

Bellecci, C.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Martellucci, S.; Richetta, M.; Ventura, P.; Antonucci, A.; Pasquino, F.; Ricci, V.; Sassolini, A.

2008-10-01

63

Model National Implementing Legislation for the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

It is an honor to address this distinguished audience. We are grateful to the Republique Gabonaise for hosting this important gathering and to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for supporting it. This seminar is another excellent opportunity for all of us to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. At this meeting we speak only for ourselves, neither for the government of the United States of America nor for any other institution. This paper discusses model national implementing legislation under the CWC. Every State Party likely must enact implementing legislation - not only the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons programme.

Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kellman, B. [DePaul University, Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-12-31

64

Worldwide governmental efforts to locate and destroy chemical weapons and weapons materials: minimizing risk in transport and destruction.  

PubMed

The article gives an overview on worldwide efforts to eliminate chemical weapons and facilities for their production in the context of the implementation of the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). It highlights the objectives of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the international agency set up in The Hague to implement the CWC, and provides an overview of the present status of implementation of the CWC requirements with respect to chemical weapons (CW) destruction under strict international verification. It addresses new requirements that result from an increased threat that terrorists might attempt to acquire or manufacture CW or related materials. The article provides an overview of risks associated with CW and their elimination, from storage or recovery to destruction. It differentiates between CW in stockpile and old/abandoned CW, and gives an overview on the factors and key processes that risk assessment, management, and communication need to address. This discussion is set in the overall context of the CWC that requires the completion of the destruction of all declared CW stockpiles by 2012 at the latest. PMID:17119230

Trapp, Ralf

2006-09-01

65

Nonproliferation: Delays in Implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention Raise Concerns About Proliferation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) bans chemical weapons and requires their destruction by 2007, with possible extensions to 2012. The CWC also seeks to reduce the proliferation of these weapons by requiring member states to adopt comprehensive nationa...

2004-01-01

66

28 CFR 552.25 - Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. 552...552.25 Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. (a...authorize the use of less-than-lethal weapons, including those containing...

2013-07-01

67

Chemical and biological weapons in the 'new wars'.  

PubMed

The strategic use of disease and poison in warfare has been subject to a longstanding and cross-cultural taboo that condemns the hostile exploitation of poisons and disease as the act of a pariah. In short, biological and chemical weapons are simply not fair game. The normative opprobrium is, however, not fixed, but context dependent and, as a social phenomenon, remains subject to erosion by social (or more specifically, antisocial) actors. The cross cultural understanding that fighting with poisons and disease is reprehensible, that they are taboo, is codified through a web of interconnected measures, principal amongst these are the 1925 Geneva Protocol; the Biological Weapons Convention; and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Whilst these treaties have weathered the storm of international events reasonably well, their continued health is premised on their being 'tended to' in the face of contextual changes, particularly facing changes in science and technology, as well as the changed nature and character of conflict. This article looks at the potential for normative erosion of the norm against chemical and biological weapons in the face of these contextual changes and the creeping legitimization of chemical and biological weapons. PMID:24132385

Ilchmann, Kai; Revill, James

2014-09-01

68

Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation  

SciTech Connect

Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation`s activities and providing an early warning and/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a surprise nuclear attack. However, the deployment of satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; and, neutrons, gamma rays, and X-rays from intentionally detonated fission and fusion weapons. In this paper, the MASH vl.0 code system is used to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized space based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from a thermonuclear weapon detonation in space. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the platform fully loaded, and in several stages representing limited engagement scenarios. The results indicate vulnerabilities to the Command, Control, and Communication (C) bay instruments from radiation damage for a nuclear weapon detonation for certain source/platform orientations. The distance at which damage occurs will depend on the weapon yield (n,{gamma}/kiloton) and size (kilotons).

Perez, C.L. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Johnson, J.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-03-01

69

Options for the destruction of chemical weapons and management of the associated risks.  

PubMed

The destruction of chemical weapons is a hazardous operation. The degree of hazard posed, however, is not uniform and is dependent on the specific chemical agent and the configuration of the weapon or bulk storage vessel in which it is contained. For example, a highly volatile nerve agent in an explosively configured munition, such as a rocket, poses a very different hazard from that of a bulk storage container of viscous mustard gas. Equally the handling of recovered, often highly corroded, World War (WW)I or WWII chemical munitions will pose a very different hazard from that associated with dealing with modern chemical weapons stored under the appropriate conditions. Over the years, a number of technologies have been developed for the destruction of chemical weapons. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. None of them provide a universal solution to the problem. When assessing options for the destruction of these weapons and the management of the associated risks, therefore, it is important to give due consideration and weight to these differences. To ensure that the destruction technology selected takes due account of them and that the resulting overall risk assessment accurately reflects the actual risks involved. PMID:17119231

Manley, Ron G

2006-09-01

70

Numerical Simulation of Chemical Weapon Detonations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Huntsville Engineering and Support Center, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, is currently involved in the location, removal, and demilitarization of stockpiled and non-stockpiled chemical munitions. To support the development of safe, efficient, and cost-...

D. J. Stevens I. J. Serena

1996-01-01

71

Chemical and biological weapons in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dr. Dany Shoham is a researcher at the Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies at Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel, specializing in chemical and biological warfare in Arab countries and around the world. Formerly, he was a senior analyst and lieutenant colonel in Israeli military intelligence. Dr. Shoham received a Ph. D. in medical microbiology from Tel-Aviv University. He has published

Dany Shoham

1998-01-01

72

48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition...Foreign Acquisition 225.7005 Restriction on certain chemical weapons...

2013-10-01

73

78 FR 74218 - Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of...that the Government of Syria used chemical weapons in violation of international law or lethal chemical weapons against its own nationals. Notice of...

2013-12-10

74

15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition...stockpiling, or use of chemical or biological weapons in or by any country or...

2013-01-01

75

Detecting Chemical Weapons: Threats, Requirements, Solutions, and Future Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although chemicals have been reportedly used as weapons for thousands of years, it was not until 1915 at Ypres, France that an industrial chemical, chlorine, was used in World War I as an offensive weapon in significant quantity, causing mass casualties. From that point until today the development, detection, production and protection from chemical weapons has be an organized endeavor of many of the world's armed forces and in more recent times, non-governmental terrorist organizations. The number of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) has steadily increased as research into more toxic substances continued for most of the 20^th century. Today there are over 70 substances including harassing agents like tear gas, incapacitating agents, and lethal agents like blister, blood, chocking, and nerve agents. The requirements for detecting chemical weapons vary depending on the context in which they are encountered and the concept of operation of the organization deploying the detection equipment. The US DoD, for example, has as a requirement, that US forces be able to continue their mission, even in the event of a chemical attack. This places stringent requirements on detection equipment. It must be lightweight (<2 lbs), detect a large array of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals, detect and warn at concentration levels and time duration to prevent acute health effects, meet military ruggedness specifications and work over a wide range of temperature and humidity, and have a very high probability of detection with a similarly low probability of false positives. The current technology of choice to meet these stringent requirements is Ion Mobility Spectrometry. Many technologies are capable of detecting chemicals at the trace levels required and have been extensively developed for this application, including, but not limited to: mass spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, RAMAN spectroscopy, MEMs micro-cantilever sensors, surface acoustic wave sensors, differential mobility spectrometry, and amplifying fluorescence polymers. In the future the requirements for detection equipment will continue to become even more stringent. The continuing increase in the sheer number of threats that will need to be detected, the development of binary agents requiring that even the precursor chemicals be detected, the development of new types of agents unlike any of the current chemistries, and the expansion of the list of toxic industrial chemical will require new techniques with higher specificity and more sensitivity.

Boso, Brian

2011-03-01

76

Model national implementing legislation for the chemical weapons convention  

SciTech Connect

Good day. It is an honor to address this distinguished audience. I am grateful to the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia for hosting this important gathering and to the staff of the Provisional Technical Secretariat of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (PTS) for sponsoring it. I also want to express my gratitude to the DePaul University Human Rights Law Institute, the Merck Foundation, and Argonne National Laboratory for supporting my participation here. This workshop is an another excellent opportunity for all of us to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. At this meeting I speak only for myself, neither for the government of the United States of America nor for any other institution. Today, I shall discuss model national implementing legislation under the CWC. Such implementing legislation is likely to be required in every State Party--not only to the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also to the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons programme. This new need for national measures to implement multilateral arms control agreements has generated unease due to a perception that implementation may be burdensome and at odds with existing national law. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried but.

Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Coll. of Law

1995-12-31

77

Legal aspects of national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses some legal aspects of measures at the national level to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). These implementing measures are universal, applying not only to the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also to the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons program. This new need for national measures to implement multilateral arms control agreements has generated unease due to a perception that implementation may be burdensome and at odds with national law. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to effectuate the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby engendering significant disparities in implementation steps among States Parties. The author discusses progress among several States in actually developing national CWC implementing measures. Implementing measures from Australia, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden were available to him in English through the PTS. He compares them in order to illustrate different approaches to national implementation that are emerging. Of course, it is important to note that this brief survey necessarily omitted examination of the existing ``background`` of other, related domestic laws that these signatories might also have adopted that affect CWC implementation.

Tanzman, E.A.; Zeuli, A.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Coll. of Law

1994-11-28

78

Primary tasks to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law could cause some nations to implement the Convention without regard to what others nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Conventional would be carried out. As a result, the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared. The Manual is designed to assist States Parties by increasing understanding of the Convention and identifying its obligations as well as suggesting methods to meet them, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems. It acknowledges areas of ambiguity that States Parties should address, and it analyzes legal initiatives that may be undertaken to strengthen the Convention`s enforcement. This paper draws from the Manual and briefly addresses the two tasks that every CWC State Party must undertake first in order to effectively fulfill its extensive requirements. First, each State Party must establish a National Authority. Second, each State Party must enact implementing measures to ensure that its government as well as its businesses and citizens comply with the treaty. As this paper generally discusses how States Parties from different legal backgrounds can accomplish these two tasks, it cannot address every detail of how each State Party should proceed.

Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Coll. of Law; Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1997-12-31

79

Tear gas--harassing agent or toxic chemical weapon  

SciTech Connect

Tear gas has gained widespread acceptance as a means of controlling civilian crowds and subduing barricaded criminals. The most widely used forms of tear gas have been o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile and omega-chloroacetophenone. Proponents of their use claim that, if used correctly, the noxious effects of exposure are transient and of no long-term consequences. The use of tear gas in recent situations of civil unrest, however, demonstrates that exposure to the weapon is difficult to control and indiscriminate, and the weapon is often not used correctly. Severe traumatic injury from exploding tear gas bombs as well as lethal toxic injury have been documented. Moreover, available toxicological data are deficient as to the potential of tear gas agents to cause long-term pulmonary, carcinogenic, and reproductive effects. Published and recent unpublished in vitro tests have shown o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile to be both clastogenic and mutagenic. Sadly, the nature of its use renders analytic epidemiologic investigation of exposed persons difficult. In 1969, eighty countries voted to include tear gas agents among chemical weapons banned under the Geneva Protocol. There is an ongoing need for investigation into the full toxicological potential of tear gas chemicals and renewed debate on whether their use can be condoned under any circumstances. 48 references.

Hu, H.; Fine, J.; Epstein, P.; Kelsey, K.; Reynolds, P.; Walker, B.

1989-08-04

80

Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 1 : overview of the ACWA program and appendixes A-E.  

SciTech Connect

This TRD is organized as a five-volume set (Figure 1.1). The five volumes include this overview and one volume for each of the four installations that stockpile ACW. Volume 1 provides programmatic information on the technologies associated with ACW remediation. The four remaining volumes provide details regarding the application of ACWA technology systems to ACW at the four stockpile locations: Anniston Army Depot (ANAD), Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA), Pueblo Chemical Depot (PCD), and Blue Grass Army Depot (BGAD). To adequately assess the ACWA situation at any given U.S. Army facility, Volume 1 and the volume specifically dedicated to the facility of interest should be reviewed. Section 1.2 of this volume provides an overview of the ACW unitary stockpile. The section identifies all stockpile locations, the types of munitions contained in the stockpile at each location, and the chemical agents and energetic materials in the various ACW; it also provides chemical and physical property information for these chemicals. Section 1.3 provides an overview of the DOD's process for selecting the ACWA technologies. As this section indicates, demonstration testing for the Demo I and Demo II technologies has been completed. Section 1.4 identifies and summarizes each of the primary technologies that make up the technology systems. With little or no modification, many of the technologies are interchangeable among systems. Others are stand-alone or unique technologies applicable to only one system. Finally, Section 1.5 provides a list of references that were used in preparing this volume of the TRD. Included are the PMACWA's periodic reports to Congress providing information on the progress of the ACWA program (PMACWA 1997, 1998, 1999b, 2000b, 2001c).

Kimmell, T.; Folga, S., Frey, G.; Molberg, J.; Kier, P.; Templin, B.; Goldberg, M.

2001-04-27

81

Long-term skin damage due to chemical weapon exposure.  

PubMed

Sulfur mustard (2,2-dichlorodiethyl sulfide: SM), the protagonist of vesicant chemical weapons, was first used in July 1917. Despite prohibition of its production and use by international conventions, it has been used in several conflicts. More than 100,000 soldiers and civilians were injured due to SM exposure during Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988). The acute skin lesions consist of erythema, edema, and blisters. Skin xerosis and pruritus, pigmentation disorders, scars, and cherry angiomas are among the most common long-term skin lesions after contact with SM. Although SM is a well-known carcinogenic substance, skin cancers are rarely reported. PMID:21047269

Firooz, Alireza; Sadr, Bardia; Davoudi, Seyed M; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Panahi, Yunes; Dowlati, Yahya

2011-03-01

82

Hyperspectral simulation of chemical weapon dispersal patterns using DIRSIG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fieldable thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometers has made it possible to design and construct new instruments for better detection of battlefield hazards such as chemical weapon clouds. The availability of spectroscopic measurements of these clouds can be used not only for the detection and identification of specific chemical agents but also to potentially quantify the lethality of the cloud. The simulation of chemical weapon dispersal patterns in a synthetic imaging environment offers significant benefits to sensor designers. Such an environment allows designers to easily develop trade spaces to test detection and quantification algorithms without the need for expensive and dangerous field releases. This paper discusses the implementation of a generic gas dispersion model that has been integrated into the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model. The gas cloud model utilizes a 3D Gaussian distribution and first order dynamics (drift and dispersion) to drive the macro-scale cloud development and movement. The model also attempts to account for turbulence by incorporating fractional Brownian motion techniques to reproduce the micro-scale variances within the cloud. The cloud path length concentrations are then processed by the DIRSIG radiometry sub-model to compute the emission and transmission of the cloud body on a per-pixel basis. Example hyperspectral image cubes containing common agents and release amounts will be presented. Time lapse sequences will also be presented to demonstrate the evolution of the cloud over time.

Arnold, Peter S.; Brown, Scott D.; Schott, John R.

2000-07-01

83

Constitutional implications of implementing a chemical weapons convention  

SciTech Connect

While the United States Constitution declares treaties to be the supreme Law of the Land,'' most treaties the United States enters into require the Congress to enact legislation to fully implement the treaty's terms in American law. The implementing legislation for the Chemical Weapons Convention will be very detailed and complex. In addition, this legislation must not conflict with any of the provisions of the Constitution. Much discussion has already taken place on the problem of ensuring access to private property during systematic inspections of Schedule 2 facilities and challenge inspections of other facilities. The problem is usually framed in terms of reconciling the Convention with the Fourth Amendment's prohibition on unreasonable searches and seizures.'' Even if the Convention includes a right of refusal for challenge inspections, the political costs of invoking such a right will require the government to seek some means of obtaining access to private property during inspections, so that the right of refusal is used only as a last resort. This document provides a discussion of the legal, constitutional, and political aspects of implementing chemical weapons convention legislation. 32 refs.

Carnahan, B.

1990-04-04

84

Chemical weapons convention: Will it assure the end of chemical warfare. Study project report  

SciTech Connect

After more than a generation of negotiations, the Conference on Disarmament (CD) has completed a draft treaty banning the development, production, stockpiling, transfer, and use of chemical weapons (CW). Unfortunately, despite all the successful work put into the CWC it will not, and cannot assure a permanent halt to chemical warfare. This paper analyzes the merits of having a CWC treaty to thwart chemical weapons proliferation. It will offer a way to strengthen the verification regime. Finally, from this analysis, the paper reaches conclusions concerning what CW policy best supports US national interests.

Cain, E.; Walsh, M.W.

1993-02-22

85

Fighting nerve agent chemical weapons with enzyme technology.  

PubMed

The extreme toxicity of organophosphorous-based compounds has been known since the late 1930s. Starting in the mid-1940s, many nations throughout the world have been producing large quantities of organophosphorous (OP) nerve agents. Huge stockpiles of nerve agents have since developed. There are reportedly more than 200,000 tons of nerve agents in existence worldwide. There is an obvious need for protective clothing capable of guarding an individual from exposure to OP chemical weapons. Also, chemical processes that can effectively demilitarize and detoxify stored nerve agents are in great demand. The new and widely publicized Chemical Weapons Treaty requires such processes to soon be in place throughout the world. Biotechnology may provide the tools necessary to make such processes not only possible, but quite efficient in reducing the nerve agent dilemma. The following paper discusses some of the history in developing enzyme technology against nerve agents. Our laboratory has interest in enhancing the productivity and potential utility of these systems in both demilitarization and decontamination applications. Freeze-dried nerve agent-hydrolyzing enzyme preparations have been shown to be effective in decontaminating gaseous nerve agents. The direct incorporation of nerve agent-hydrolyzing enzymes within cross-linked polyurethane foam matrices during polymer synthesis has been shown to dramatically enhance the productivity of two different enzyme systems. The future goal of such work lies in building a bridge between the clinical application of nerve agent-hydrolyzing enzymes and practical processing techniques that may take advantage of the initial results already achieved in the laboratory. PMID:9928090

LeJeune, K E; Dravis, B C; Yang, F; Hetro, A D; Doctor, B P; Russell, A J

1998-12-13

86

ANALISIS SENJATA KIMIA MELALUI UJI PROFISIENSI ORGANISATION PROHIBITION OF CHEMICAL WEAPON (OPCW)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of some chemicals weapons in the water and organic sample has been carried out during 21th proficiency testing conducted by OPCW (Organisation Prohibition of Chemical Weapon). The samples were prepared and analysed in accordance with the principles describe in the work instructions for the preparation of test samples for OPCW proficiency test. The extract of samples were analysed and

Evita Boes; Harry Budiman

87

The control of chemical weapons: A strategic analysis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis develops an analytical framework for optimal design of a ban on chemical weapons (CW). The thesis addresses two principal questions: first, could it be in the interest of individual states to adopt a CW ban, even if compliance by adversaries cannot be presupposed? Second, how compliance by adverse can designers of the treaty maximize incentives to accede and to national comply, but simultaneously minimize the threat sovereignty, including the risk of giving up a deterrent stockpile, and the risk that sensitive information would be revealed during inspections? Three problems can plague any disarmament agreement will be so minimalist that although all countries may adhere to it, it will have little effect on international behavior. The second danger is that weak enforcement mechanism that the treaty will have such a although nations may accede, they may not comply under conditions of international stress. The third danger is that the terms of the arrangement will be so onerous that few nations will agree to adopt it in the first place. This thesis develops a framework for thinking about how to strike the proper balance between these competing concerns. A salient characteristic of CW is the relative ease with which they can be produced in secret. The dissertation analyzes the effectiveness of inspection procedures of varying intrusiveness, and investigates the risks to sensitive government and industrial facilities. The thesis concludes with an analysis of the extent to which a ban on a single weapon could enhance the stability of the ``balance of terror.`` The author makes specific policy recommendations about how to set the optimal level of enforcement so that the ban is likely to succeed, and thus become more than a symbolic gesture.

Stern, J.E.

1992-05-01

88

Weight-of-evidence environmental risk assessment of dumped chemical weapons after WWII along the Nord-Stream gas pipeline in the Bornholm Deep.  

PubMed

In connection with installation of two natural gas pipelines through the Baltic Sea between Russia and Germany, there has been concern regarding potential re-suspension of historically dumped chemical warfare agents (CWA) in a nearby dump site and the potential environmental risks associated. 192 sediment and 11 porewater samples were analyzed for CWA residues, both parent and metabolites in 2008 and 2010 along the pipeline corridor next to the dump site. Macrozoobenthos and background variables were also collected and compared to the observed CWA levels and predicted potential risks. Detection frequencies and levels of intact CWA found were low, whereas CWA metabolites were more frequently found. Re-suspension of CWA residue-containing sediment from installation of the pipelines contributes marginally to the overall background CWA residue exposure and risk along the pipeline route. The multivariate weight-of-evidence analysis showed that physical and background parameters of the sediment were of higher importance for the biota than observed CWA levels. PMID:22440539

Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Thomsen, Marianne; Larsen, Jørn Bo

2012-05-15

89

Long Wave Infrared Detection of Chemical Weapons Simulants  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of Task 3.b under PL02-OP211I-PD07 (CBW simulant detection) was to demonstrate the applicability of the sensor work developed under this project for chemical and biological weapons detection. To this end, the specific goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of detection of chemical agents via that of simulants (Freons) with similar spectroscopic features. This has been achieved using Freon-125 as a simulant, a tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL), and a Herriott cell-based sensor developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) specifically for this task. The experimentally obtained spectrum of this simulant matches that found in the Northwest Infrared (NWIR) spectral library extremely well, demonstrating the ability of this technique to detect the exact shape of this feature, which in turn indicates the ability to recognize the simulant even in the presence of significant interference. It has also been demonstrated that the detected features of a typical interferent, namely water, are so different in shape and width to the simulant, that they are easily recognized and separated from such a measurement. Judging from the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the experimental data obtained, the noise equivalent absorption sensitivity is estimated to be 0.5 x 10-7 to 1 x 10-6 cm-1. For the particular feature of the simulant examined in this work, this corresponds to a relative concentration of 50 to 25 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv). The corresponding relative concentrations of other chemical targets would differ depending on the particular transition strengths, and would thus have to be scaled accordingly.

Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.; Myers, Tanya L.; Munley, John T.; Cannon, Bret D.

2007-04-27

90

A feasibility study of the destruction of chemical weapons by photocatalytic oxidation  

SciTech Connect

The destruction of existing arsenals or deposits of chemical weapons is an important obstacle on the way to the successful implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention which was opened for signature in 1993. Many approaches have been proposed and none can be seen as panacea. Each has its merits and shortcomings. In this paper we review the different technologies and propose a new one, photocatalytic oxidation, which has the potential to fill an important gap; a cheap, small, mobile facility for chemical warfare agents which are difficult to transport or are deposited in a remote area. We report some relevant experimental results with this technology for the destruction of chemical weapons. After many years of negotiation, a convention banning the production, possession and use of chemical weapons was opened for signature in Paris on January 13, 1993. The convention, once it is ratified, will provide a framework and a program for the destruction of chemical weapons by the nations party to it. The framework will cover such topics as definitions of terminology, general rules of verification and verification measures, level of destruction of chemical weapons, activities not prohibited under the convention, and investigations in cases of alleged use of chemical weapons. The program will require that countries with chemical weapons shall start their destruction not later than one year after they have ratified the convention, and that they shall complete it within a ten year period. For this period involved countries are required to declare their plans for destruction. These plans have to include a time schedule for the destruction process, an inventory of equipment and buildings to be destroyed, proposed measures for verification, safety measures to be observed during destruction, specification of the types of chemical weapons and the type and quantity of chemical fill to be destroyed, and specification of the destruction method. 38 refs.

Hitchman, M.L.; Spackman, A.R.; Yusta, F.J. [Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Morel, B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1997-01-01

91

Chemical weapons convention: Strategic implications for the United States. Final report  

SciTech Connect

On January 13, 1993, in Paris, France, 130 countries signed the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) to ban the entire class of chemical weapons. Debate continues on the strategic implications of the convention, as drafted, and whether it is in the U.S. national security interest. The author explores the historical, moral, and legal aspects of chemical warfare, and the strategic implications of the convention, including operational, policy, Constitutional, and industry impact for the United States.

Vogel, F.J.

1997-01-08

92

The efforts of WHO and Pugwash to eliminate chemical and biological weapons--a memoir.  

PubMed Central

The World Health Organization and the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs (Nobel Peace Prize 1995) have been involved in questions concerning chemical and biological arms since the early 1950s. This memoir reviews a number of milestones in the efforts of these organizations to achieve the elimination of these weapons through international treaties effectively monitored and enforced for adherence to their provisions. It also highlights a number of outstanding personalities who were involved in the efforts to establish and implement the two major treaties now in effect, the Biological Weapons Convention of 1972 and the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993.

Kaplan, M. M.

1999-01-01

93

Risk assessment methodologies for nuclear weapons compared to risk assessment methodologies for nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

There are major differences between the safety principles for nuclear weapons and for nuclear reactors. For example, a principal concern for nuclear weapons is to prevent electrical energy from reaching the nuclear package during accidents produced by crashes, fires, and other hazards, whereas the foremost concern for nuclear reactors is to maintain coolant around the core in the event of certain system failures. Not surprisingly, new methods have had to be developed to assess the risk from nuclear weapons. These include fault tree transformations that accommodate time dependencies, thermal and structural analysis techniques that are fast and unconditionally stable, and Monte-Carlo-based sampling methods that incorporate intelligent searching. This paper provides an overview of the new methods for nuclear weapons, compares them with existing methods for nuclear reactors, identifies some of their dual-use characteristics, and discusses ongoing developmental activities.

Benjamin, A.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Special Risk Assessment Projects Dept.

1994-12-31

94

Reducing health risk assigned to organic emissions from a chemical weapons incinerator.  

PubMed

Organic emissions from a chemical weapons incinerator have been characterized with an improved set of analytical methods to reduce the human health risk assigned to operations of the facility. A gas chromatography/mass selective detection method with substantially reduced detection limits has been used in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared microscopy to improve the speciation of semi-volatile and non-volatile organics emitted from the incinerator. The reduced detection limits have allowed a significant reduction in the assumed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and aminobiphenyl (ABP) emission rates used as inputs to the human health risk assessment for the incinerator. A mean factor of 17 decrease in assigned human health risk is realized for six common local exposure scenarios as a result of the reduced PAH and ABP detection limits. PMID:22773143

Laman, David M; Weiler, B Douglas; Skeen, Rodney S

2013-03-01

95

[Normative and legal aspects of medical support of the persons working with toxic chemicals relating to the chemical weapons].  

PubMed

In article the existing lows and other legislation acts of state regulation in the field of medical maintenance of the works connected to destruction of toxic chemicals concerning to the chemical weapon is analysed. Features of carrying out of medical examinations and expertise of diseases at the soldiers and officers occupied on these works are submitted. The conclusion that the existing legislation acts allows to carry out qualitative medical service of the personnel of objects of storage and destruction of the chemical weapon, the military men occupied on works with toxic chemicals and the inhabitants living in sanitary-protective zones is made. PMID:20731089

Belevitin, A B; Grebeniuk, A N; Musi?chuk, Iu I; Sidorov, D A

2010-06-01

96

Chemical weapons convention: Strategic implications for the United States. Strategy research report  

SciTech Connect

On January 13, 1993, in Paris, 130 countries signed the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), to ban the entire class of Chemical Weapons. Debate continues on the strategic implications of the Convention, as drafted, and whether it is in the U.S. national security interest. This paper explores the historical, moral, and legal aspects of chemical warfare, and the strategic implications of the Convention, including operational, policy, constitutional, and industry impact for the U.S. This paper concludes that, although `imperfect,` the Convention represents a significant contribution to U.S. security objectives, and serves the national interest.

Vogel, F.J.

1996-03-26

97

Proliferation of chemical weapons and ballistic missiles: Risks to NATOs southern region. Individual Study Project  

SciTech Connect

Proliferation of chemical weapons and ballistic missiles in the Middle East and North Africa represents a growing risk to NATOs Southern Region. Several countries in the region possess chemical weapons and other are seeking the capability to develop and employ them. Likewise, ballistic missile trends and emerging capabilities in the region give reason for concern since the not-too-distant future may see missiles tipped with chemical warheads. The region faces explosive population growth, economic difficulties, and political turmoil. When you add the Arab/Israeli animosities and the spread of Islamic fundamentalism to this instability, the region becomes volatile. Thus, the heightened concern over the proliferation of weapons use and negotiations and a discussion of the region's volatility, examines the proliferation of chemical weapons and ballistic missiles in the Middle East and North Africa. The resulting future risks to NATOs Southern Region are discussed with the focus on chemical defense preparedness. Conclusions address the continued proliferation and the risks to NATOs Southern Region. Some brief thoughts for the way ahead are offered on security, confidence-building, and cooperation in the region, as well as, on strengthening the chemical defense posture of the Southern Region.

King, J.R.

1991-07-01

98

Trends in processing and manufacturing that will affect implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several new developments in synthesis science and manufacturing technology may affect the task of implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) constraints on the production of toxic agents for military or terrorist purposes. The combination of auto- mated synthesis methods and high-throughput screening protocols could potentially yield new toxic agents not specifically proscribed by the CWC, but such approaches are unlikely

George W. Parshall

2002-01-01

99

Psychological effects of chemical weapons: a follow-up study of First World War veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Chemical weapons exercise an enduring and often powerful psychological effect. This had been recognized during the First World War when it was shown that the symptoms of stress mimicked those of mild exposure to gas. Debate about long-term effects followed the suggestion that gassing triggered latent tuberculosis. Method. A random sample of 103 First World War servicemen awarded a

E. Jones; B. Everitt; S. Ironside; I. Palmer; S. Wessely

2008-01-01

100

Hierarchical Linear Models of Factors Associated with Public Participation among Residents Living near the US Army's Chemical Weapons Stockpile Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate public involvement among residents living near the US Army's eight Chemical Weapons Stockpile sites. A cross-sectional study was conducted across 10 states. Primary data were obtained through a random digit dialling population survey. The study sample consisted of 8315 residents living within emergency response zones surrounding the US Army's Chemical Weapons Stockpile

BRYAN L. WILLIAMS; HOI K. SUEN; Sylvia Brown; Roberta Bruhn; Rich De Blaquiere; SARAH E. RZASA

2001-01-01

101

The decay of chemical weapons agents under environmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate and mechanism of decay of chemical agents in the environment was studied via live agent field trials at the chemical and Biological Defence Establishment, Porton Down, UK. The plan was to deposit the agents GD (Soman), VX, and H (sulfur mustard) on separate l-m² plots on three successive days; i.e., Tuesday through Thursday. The depositions were to be

R. R. McGuire; J. S. Haas; R. J. Eagle

1993-01-01

102

Non-destructive evaluation techniques for chemical weapons destruction  

SciTech Connect

fThe safe and verifiable disposition, either by incineration or chemical neutralization of chemical warfare (CW) agents requires correct {ital a priori} identification of each munition or container to be processed. A variety of NDE techniques have been used or tested for the examination and characterization of munitions. In the U.S., three widely used techniques are X-ray radiography, acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS), and prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PINS). The technical bases, instrumental implementations, and applications of the U.S. versions of these methods are briefly discussed. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Hartwell, J.K.; Caffrey, A.J.

1996-09-01

103

Plutonium: Aging mechanisms and weapon pit lifetime assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planning for future refurbishment and manufacturing needs of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex critically depends on credible estimates for component lifetimes. One of the most important of these components is the pit, that portion of the weapon that contains the fissile element plutonium. The U.S. government has proposed construction of a new Modern Pit Facility, and a key variable in planning both the size and schedule for this facility is the minimum estimated lifetime for stockpile pits. This article describes the current understanding of aging effects in plutonium, provides a lifetime estimate range, and outlines in some detail methodology that will improve this estimate over the next few years.

Martz, Joseph C.; Schwartz, Adam J.

2003-09-01

104

Effects of a chemical weapons incineration plant on red-tailed tropicbirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1990 to 2000, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) incinerated part of the U.S. stockpile of chemical weapons on Johnston Atoll, central Pacific Ocean, which also is a National Wildlife Refuge and home to approximately a half-million breeding seabirds. The effect on wildlife of incineration of these weapons is unknown. Using a multi-strata mark-recapture analysis, we investigated the effects of JACADS on reproductive success, survival, and movement probabilities of red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda) nesting both downwind and upwind of the incineration site. We found no effect of chemical incineration on these tropicbird demographic parameters over the 8 years of our study. An additional 3 years of monitoring tropicbird demography will take place, post-incineration.

Schreiber, E.A.; Doherty, P. F.; Schenk, G.A.

2001-01-01

105

Chemical weapons detection by fast neutron activation analysis techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A neutron diagnostic experimental apparatus has been tested for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions. Designed to potentially satisfy a significant number of van-mobile requirements, this equipment is based on an easy to use industrial sealed tube neutron generator that interrogates the munitions of interest with 14 MeV neutrons. Gamma ray spectra are detected with a high purity germanium detector, especially shielded from neutrons and gamma ray background. A mobile shell holder has been used. Possible configurations allow the detection, in continuous or in pulsed modes, of gamma rays from neutron inelastic scattering, from thermal neutron capture, and from fast or thermal neutron activation. Tests on full scale sealed munitions with chemical simulants show that those with chlorine (old generation materials) are detectable in a few minutes, and those including phosphorus (new generation materials) in nearly the same time.

Bach, P.; Ma, J. L.; Froment, D.; Jaureguy, J. C.

1993-06-01

106

Portable sequential injection analyzer for onsite screening for chemical weapons degradation compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many circumstances, the ability to perform on-site, point-of-collection analysis can play a pivotal role in the goals or requirements of the inquiry. Toward this end, the use of commercial or customized kits, which require the analyst to manually perform the metering and mixing of reagents with the sample and the subsequent visual, spectrophotometric or other interpretation of the results, has become widespread. Often, these methods can suffer from poor reproducibility and sensitivity in addition to being tedious and time consuming. Flow analysis methods, such as traditional flow injection analysis (FIA) and the more recent sequential injection analysis (SIA), have found widespread use in the automation of sample and reagent handling and subsequent analysis for many important analytes. These methods can be completely automated and offer excellent reproducibility, minimized analysis time, and in certain configurations, very high sensitivity. We have developed a miniaturized, fully portable SIA-based instrument for on-site screening for chemical weapons degradation products during challenge inspections under the Chemical Weapons Convention, as well as for the sensitive analysis of other important environmental analytes. In this paper, we will discuss our portable SIA design, the analytical approaches utilized, and results obtained for the analysis of representative chemical weapons degradation compounds.

Postlethwaite, Timothy A.; Zhang, Peng; Lancaster, Herbert L.; Bacon, Christina P.; Mensch, David

2002-02-01

107

Compliance monitoring for the chemical weapons convention preliminary operational concepts--an adversarial analysis. Technical report, 5 September-12 November 1991  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to assess preliminary operational concepts developed by the U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC). The 'Adversarial Analysis Methodology for the Chemical Weapons Convention,' developed by the JAYCOR Team, provides a conceptual framework and criteria for this assessment. Adversarial analysis (AA) complements the CRDEC methodology by accounting for noncompliance activities and includes risk and vulnerability analyses as well as a politico-strategic assessment of potentially noncompliant nations. CRDEC highlights many difficulties, flaws, and discrepancies in the formal CWC verification regime. AA helps overcome these shortcomings. First, it identifies how an adversary might accomplish cheating, spoofing, and circumvention (CSC), including underlying motivations and objectives. Second, it highlights potential verification system vulnerabilities that would permit CSC. Finally, it assesses the impact of such activities qualitatively and quantitatively. The end product of this approach is a vulnerability assessment report describing the potential effectiveness of various deceptive practices and recommendations for improving the verification regime's resistance to deception.... On-Site Inspections, CRDEC, Adversarial Analysis, Verification, Deception, Chemical Weapons, Convention, Chemical Weapons, Noncompliance.

Evans, D.; Rudney, B.

1993-07-01

108

Official proficiency tests of the organisation for the prohibition of chemical weapons: current status and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) has been organising and conducting Official Proficiency Tests\\u000a (PT) since 1996 in accordance with ILAC-G13 to certify laboratories for the analysis of authentic samples under the provision\\u000a of Chemical Weapons Convention. The tests are part of a mechanism to ensure that there are laboratories that have proven competence\\u000a in the analysis

Vinita Dubey; Sanila Velikeloth; Maciej Sliwakowski; Gary Mallard

2009-01-01

109

Assessment of Long Range Laser Weapon Engagements: The Case of the Airborne Laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a method developed to assess laser Directed Energy Weapon engagements. This method applies physics-based models, which have been validated by experiments. It is used to assess the capabilities of the Airborne Laser (ABL), a system for boost phase missile defense purposes, which is in development under supervision of the U.S. missile defense agency. Implications for international security

Jan Stupl; Götz Neuneck

2010-01-01

110

Analytical technique to address terrorist threats by chemical weapons of mass destruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrorism is no longer an issue without effect on the American mind. We now live with the same concerns and fears that have been commonplace in other developed and third world countries for a long time. Citizens of other countries have long lived with the specter of terrorism and now the U.S. needs to be concerned and prepared for terrorist activities.T he terrorist has the ability to cause great destructive effects by focusing their effort on unaware and unprepared civilian populations. Attacks can range from simple explosives to sophisticated nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Intentional chemical releases of hazardous chemicals or chemical warfare agents pose a great threat because of their ready availability and/or ease of production, and their ability to cause widespread damage. As this battlefront changes from defined conflicts and enemies to unnamed terrorists, we must implement the proper analytical tools to provide a fast and efficient response. Each chemical uses in a terrorists weapon leaves behind a chemical signature that can be used to identify the materials involved and possibly lead investigators to the source and to those responsible. New tools to provide fast and accurate detection for battlefield chemical and biological agent attack are emerging. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is one of these tools that has found increasing use by the military to respond to chemical agent attacks. As the technology becomes smaller and more portable, it can be used by law enforcement personnel to identify suspected terrorist releases and to help prepare the response; define contaminated areas for evacuation and safety concerns, identify the proper treatment of exposed or affected civilians, and suggest decontamination and cleanup procedures.

Dempsey, Patrick M.

1997-01-01

111

Public Health, Law, and Local Control: Destruction of the US Chemical Weapons Stockpile  

PubMed Central

Destruction of US chemical weapons has begun at one of the 8 sites in the continental United States, was completed on Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, and is scheduled to begin in at least 3 other locations during the upcoming year. About 25% of the stockpile and 38% of the munitions had been destroyed as of December 31, 2002. However, the program has become controversial with regard to choice of technology, emergency management, and cost. This controversy is in large part due to efforts by some state and local governments and activist groups to play a more central role in a decisionmaking process that was once fully controlled by the US Army.

Greenberg, Michael R.

2003-01-01

112

United States initiative for chemical weapons arms control. Master`s thesis, 2 August 1995-7 June 1996  

SciTech Connect

This research investigates the US policy initiative renouncing the employment of chemical weapons (CW). The focus of the research is to determine if such an initiative will achieve the national objective for implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). If the initiative does not meet the national objective are there feasible options for the United States Government (USG). In 1993, the USG established a policy banning the use of chemical weapons. This act may have won the battle for the moral high ground, but it will not deter nor eliminate the use of chemical weapons worldwide. The relative ease by which a nation can take various combinations of chemical compounds and produce a lethal chemical agent makes deterrence and/or complete elimination virtually impossible. The US should continue to employ the elements of diplomatic, informational, military, and economic policy regarding nonproliferation inclusive of a proven deterrent-CW. No use of CW or any weapon of mass destruction is best, but until the CWC is ratified a deterrent should be maintained by the US.

Scott, R.D.

1996-06-07

113

Hospital preparedness for weapons of mass destruction incidents: An initial assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: We performed an assessment of hospital preparedness for weapons of mass destruction (WMD) incidents in Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Region III. Methods: Interviews of hospital personnel were completed in 30 hospitals. Data collected included level of preparedness, mass decontamination capabilities, training of hospital staff, and facility security capabilities. Results: No respondents believed their sites were fully prepared

Kimberly N. Treat; Janet M. Williams; Paul M. Furbee; William G. Manley; Floyd K. Russell; Clarence D. Stamper

2001-01-01

114

Geochemistry of chemical weapon breakdown products on the seafloor: 1,4-thioxane in seawater.  

PubMed

The long-term fate of chemical weapon debris disposed of in the ocean some 50 years ago, now sinking into marine sediments and leaking into the ocean environment, is poorly known. Direct evidence exists showing chemical weapon agents actively being released on the sea floor with detrimental effects including harm to marine life. Thus there is strong interest in determining the fate and lifetime of these materials, their decomposition products, and the affected zones around these sites. Here we study the geochemical properties of a mustard gas breakdown product, 1,4-thioxane (TO), using Raman spectroscopy. We show that TO forms a hydrate with a help-gas (a second guest added to stabilize the hydrate), such as methane or hydrogen sulfide, with the hydrate stability regime some 10 degrees C above pure methane hydrate. The temperature, pressure, and reducing conditions required for hydrate formation commonly occur at known disposal sites. The TO solubility was measured in seawater and found to vary from 0.65 to 0.63 mol/kg water between 4.5 and 25.0 degrees C. Similar to other hydrate systems, the TO solubility decreased in the presence of hydrate. A low solubility in water coupled with its ability to form a hydrate within marine sediments can greatly decrease molecular mobility and increase its lifetime. These results demonstrate how unanticipated reactions with marine sediments can occur, and how little is known of the processes controlling the environmental science of these materials. PMID:19244991

Zhang, Xin; Hester, Keith C; Mancillas, Oscar; Peltzer, Edward T; Walz, Peter M; Brewer, Peter G

2009-02-01

115

On-matrix derivatization extraction of chemical weapons convention relevant alcohols from soil.  

PubMed

Present study deals with the on-matrix derivatization-extraction of aminoalcohols and thiodiglycols, which are important precursors and/or degradation products of VX analogues and vesicants class of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). The method involved hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) mediated in situ silylation of analytes on the soil. Subsequent extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of derivatized analytes offered better recoveries in comparison to the procedure recommended by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). Various experimental conditions such as extraction solvent, reagent and catalyst amount, reaction time and temperature were optimized. Best recoveries of analytes ranging from 45% to 103% were obtained with DCM solvent containing 5%, v/v HMDS and 0.01%, w/v iodine as catalyst. The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) with selected analytes ranged from 8 to 277 and 21 to 665ngmL(-1), respectively, in selected ion monitoring mode. PMID:24016719

Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay; Singh, Varoon; Dubey, D K; Pardasani, Deepak

2013-10-11

116

On-matrix derivatisation–extraction of precursors of nitrogen- and sulfur-mustards for verification of chemical weapons convention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development and refinement of sample preparation protocols for retrospective detection and identification of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their markers is of paramount importance from verification point of view of chemical weapons convention (CWC). Precursors of nitrogen- and sulfur-mustards (NMPs and SMPs) are polar adsorptive markers of vesicant class of CWAs. Their detection in a given environmental sample may imply

D. K. Dubey; Deepak Pardasani; Meehir Palit; A. K. Gupta; Rajiv Jain

2005-01-01

117

Technology diffusion of a different nature: Applications of nuclear safeguards technology to the chemical weapons verification regime  

SciTech Connect

The following discussion focuses on the issue of arms control implementation from the standpoint of technology and technical assistance. Not only are the procedures and techniques for safeguarding nuclear materials undergoing substantial changes, but the implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) will give rise to technical difficulties unprecedented in the implementation of arms control verification. Although these regimes present new challenges, an analysis of the similarities between the nuclear and chemical weapons non-proliferation verification regimes illustrates the overlap in technological solutions. Just as cost-effective and efficient technologies can solve the problems faced by the nuclear safeguards community, these same technologies offer solutions for the CWC safeguards regime. With this in mind, experts at the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), who are responsible for verification implementation, need to devise a CWC verification protocol that considers the technology already available. The functional similarity of IAEA and the OPCW, in conjunction with the technical necessities of both verification regimes, should receive attention with respect to the establishment of a technical assistance program. Lastly, the advanced status of the nuclear and chemical regime vis-a-vis the biological non-proliferation regime can inform our approach to implementation of confidence building measures for biological weapons.

Kadner, S.P. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reisman, A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Turpen, E. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1996-10-01

118

Comparison of methodologies for assessing the risks from nuclear weapons and from nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

There are important differences between the safety principles for nuclear weapons and for nuclear reactors. For example, a principal concern for nuclear weapons is to prevent electrical energy from reaching the nuclear package during accidents produced by crashes, fires, and other hazards, whereas the foremost concern for nuclear reactors is to maintain coolant around the core in the event of certain system failures. Not surprisingly, new methods have had to be developed to assess the risk from nuclear weapons. These include fault tree transformations that accommodate time dependencies, thermal and structural analysis techniques that are fast and unconditionally stable, and parameter sampling methods that incorporate intelligent searching. This paper provides an overview of the new methods for nuclear weapons and compares them with existing methods for nuclear reactors. It also presents a new intelligent searching process for identifying potential nuclear detonation vulnerabilities. The new searching technique runs very rapidly on a workstation and shows promise for providing an accurate assessment of potential vulnerabilities with far fewer physical response calculations than would be required using a standard Monte Carlo sampling procedure.

Benjamin, A.S.

1996-08-01

119

Public health, law, and local control: destruction of the US chemical weapons stockpile.  

PubMed

Destruction of US chemical weapons has begun at one of the 8 sites in the continental United States, was completed on Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, and is scheduled to begin in at least 3 other locations during the upcoming year. About 25% of the stockpile and 38% of the munitions had been destroyed as of December 31, 2002. However, the program has become controversial with regard to choice of technology, emergency management, and cost. This controversy is in large part due to efforts by some state and local governments and activist groups to play a more central role in a decision making process that was once fully controlled by the US Army. PMID:12893599

Greenberg, Michael R

2003-08-01

120

Steps towards universality of the Chemical Weapons Convention: How can Africa contribute?  

SciTech Connect

Universality is a fundamental principal of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). It suffuses the fabric of the Convention, found not only in the very first ringing clauses of Article I, but also in the many technical details of its Annexes and Schedules. Consequently, universality is a topic on which commentary is appropriate from all quarters. The author offers his personal views as a lawyer on this important matter in the hope that, this distinguished audience may gain a perspective not available from practitioners of other professions. The views expressed in this paper are those of the author alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US or of any other institution.

Tanzman, E.

1999-11-02

121

Nondestructive control of chemical weapons combining neutron-activation analysis and neutron-radiography techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A project of a transportable neutron system has been designed for nondestructive detection of weapon materials such as chemical agents or explosives. The system combines imaging and identifying techniques, and uses a sealed tube neutron generator GENIE 46. The neutron emitting module is embedded in a moderator/collimator. The resulting mixed 14 MeV and thermal neutron beam allows the user to perform neutron radiography and gamma-ray spectroscopy. Substances to be detected are imaged in a first step and then identified by comparing relative spectral line intensities with those of reference materials. The moderator provides a first level protection against radiation to the operators. This project includes only industrial sub assemblies, transportable by truck to be used in open area.

Bach, Pierre; Cluzeau, S.; Le Tourneur, P.; Jaureguy, J. C.; Guir, F.

1995-03-01

122

Miniaturized sequential injection analyzer for the monitoring and quantitation of chemical weapons degradation compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to monitor and detect chemical warfare agents and their degradation compounds continues to be of utmost importance. Remote on-site field analysis of these compounds is also extremely important as it relates to treaty verification for the Chemical Weapons Convention, as well as the minimization and elimination of human exposure. A portable instrument has been developed and miniaturized that allows for the detection of these compounds in the field with better quantitative results and higher reproducibility than traditional field test kits. All sample and reagent manipulations are conducted in a completely automated fashion. Quantitative results may be determined colorimetrically using the molybdenum blue reaction for the final degradation product of phosphonic acid based chemical warfare agents with a detection limit of 0.05 ppm. The instrument is based on the flow analysis technique of sequential injection analysis (SIA). The benefits of this approach are that the method provides rapid response, high reproducibility of results, high sensitivity and minimal waste production.

Lancaster, Herbert L.; Postlethwaite, Timothy A.; Zhang, Peng; Sorrells, Richard

2002-06-01

123

[Anniversary of the medical department of the Federal Office for Safe Storage and Destruction of Chemical Weapons].  

PubMed

The article is devoted to the process of formation and development of CW destruction management system and medical support of professional activities of personnel. Founders of Medical department of the Federal Directorate for Safe Storage and Destruction of Chemical Weapons are presented. Main principles and ways of working of medical department in specific conditions are covered. PMID:23805632

Kuz'menko, I E

2013-01-01

124

Assessment of the Effectiveness of Engineering Management of the Royal Australian Air Force F/RF-111C Weapon System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research assessed the effectiveness of engineering management of the Royal Australian Air Force (REEF) F/RF-111C Weapon System by Headquarters Support Command (HQSC) Logistics Engineering (LOGENG) Sub-Branch. The research was limited to considering t...

R. R. Black

1990-01-01

125

Public Health Assessment for Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant Bedford, Bedford, Massachusetts, August 19, 2005. EPA Facility ID: MA6170023570.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepared this public health assessment (PHA) to evaluate potential health hazards from past, current, and future exposures to contaminants originating from the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve P...

2005-01-01

126

Historical precedence and technical requirements of biological weapons use : a threat assessment.  

SciTech Connect

The threat from biological weapons is assessed through both a comparative historical analysis of the patterns of biological weapons use and an assessment of the technological hurdles to proliferation and use that must be overcome. The history of biological weapons is studied to learn how agents have been acquired and what types of states and substate actors have used agents. Substate actors have generally been more willing than states to use pathogens and toxins and they have focused on those agents that are more readily available. There has been an increasing trend of bioterrorism incidents over the past century, but states and substate actors have struggled with one or more of the necessary technological steps. These steps include acquisition of a suitable agent, production of an appropriate quantity and form, and effective deployment. The technological hurdles associated with the steps present a real barrier to producing a high consequence event. However, the ever increasing technological sophistication of society continually lowers the barriers, resulting in a low but increasing probability of a high consequence bioterrorism event.

Estes, Daniel P.; Vogel, Kathleen Margaret; Gaudioso, Jennifer Marie; Hickok, Lauren T.; Jung, Danielle F.; Barnett, Natalie Beth; Frerichs, Rebecca L.; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson

2004-05-01

127

Assessing State Nuclear Weapons Proliferation: Using Bayesian Network Analysis of Social Factors  

SciTech Connect

A Bayesian network (BN) model of social factors can support proliferation assessments by estimating the likelihood that a state will pursue a nuclear weapon. Social factors including political, economic, nuclear capability, security, and national identity and psychology factors may play as important a role in whether a State pursues nuclear weapons as more physical factors. This paper will show how using Bayesian reasoning on a generic case of a would-be proliferator State can be used to combine evidence that supports proliferation assessment. Theories and analysis by political scientists can be leveraged in a quantitative and transparent way to indicate proliferation risk. BN models facilitate diagnosis and inference in a probabilistic environment by using a network of nodes and acyclic directed arcs between the nodes whose connections, or absence of, indicate probabilistic relevance, or independence. We propose a BN model that would use information from both traditional safeguards and the strengthened safeguards associated with the Additional Protocol to indicate countries with a high risk of proliferating nuclear weapons. This model could be used in a variety of applications such a prioritization tool and as a component of state safeguards evaluations. This paper will discuss the benefits of BN reasoning, the development of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) BN state proliferation model and how it could be employed as an analytical tool.

Coles, Garill A.; Brothers, Alan J.; Olson, Jarrod; Whitney, Paul D.

2010-04-16

128

Lifetime Assessments of Weapon Organics and Polymers FY05 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

Non-nuclear organics, while not yet regarded to be at risk, figure in a large percentage of Significant Findings Investigations. Further, early application of advanced lifetime, compatibility, and base-lining assessments for LEP replacement materials and emerging materials for the Reliable Replacement Warhead (RRW) provides data for rational material choices. This task is currently assessing the chemical and mechanical characteristics of a variety of weapon organics prioritized by the risk-consequence of material aging. The majority of effort to date has been dedicated to silicone elastomer components known to lose their load resistance with age, with additional effort dedicated to urethane adhesives. This fiscal year, we have focused on initial aging studies of UNI620-3, a candidate replacement material for DC745U, and Adiprene (LW520). Aging studies of S5455, originally scheduled for testing in FY05, were postponed until FY07. We have initiated aging studies on these materials by employing accelerated aging tests with exposure to Co-60 {gamma}-radiation and elevated temperatures and studying their mechanical properties using a variety of analytical tools including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Additionally, we have investigated aging signatures present in parts returned from surveillance as well as initiated long and short term stress relaxation studies for a thorough understanding of compression set occurring in silicone elastomers components. Additional investigations of aging processes in fluoropolymer binders and the combined effects of radiation and tensile set on silicone pads were performed. Finally, we have used temperature programmed desorption (TPD) studies to significantly improve the accuracy of our H{sub 2}O outgassing model in comparison with last year through the use of the isoconversion technique as well as to measure the equilibrium vapor pressure of hydrogenated DPB pellets. This report satisfies the milestones/deliverables for the L3 task 'Update chemical and mechanical aging models for cushion/pads/adhesives' and all data will be input into the L2 milestone 'Bill's token L2 milestone'.

Chinn, S; Maxwell, R; Sawvel, A; Madabhushi, R; Dinh, L; Solyom, D; Cohenour, R

2006-11-01

129

The effect of chemical weapons incineration on the survival rates of Red-tailed Tropicbirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1992, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) began incinerating U.S. chemical weapons stockpiles on Johnston Atoll (Pacific Ocean) where about 500,000 seabirds breed, including Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda). We hypothesized that survival rates of birds were lower in those nesting downwind of the incinerator smokestack compared to those upwind, and that birds might move away from the area. From 1992 - 2000 we monitored survival and movements between areas upwind and downwind from the JACADS facility. We used a multi-strata mark recapture approach to model survival, probability of recapture and movement. Probability of recapture was significantly higher for birds in downwind areas (owing to greater recapture effort) and thus was an important 'nuisance' parameter to take into account in modeling. We found no differences in survival between birds nesting upwind ( 0.8588) and downwind (0.8550). There was no consistent difference in movement rates between upwind or downwind areas from year to year: differences found may be attributed to differing vegetation growth and human activities between the areas. Our results suggest that JACADS has had no documentable influence on the survival and year to year movement of Red-tailed Tropicbirds.

Schreiber, E.A.; Schenk, G.A.; Doherty, P.F., Jr.

2001-01-01

130

Multiple-technique analytical characterization of a mixture containing chemical-weapons simulant from a munition.  

PubMed

An amber yellow organic liquid was found in a munition shell at Dugway Proving Grounds, UT, USA, that was likely used as a simulant of chemical weapons. The primary analytical techniques to characterize the mixture were gas chromatography-infrared detection-mass spectral detection (GC-IR-MS); liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS); nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using the nuclei 1H, 13C and 31P; and gas chromatography-atomic emission detection (GC-AED). Six major phosphorus-containing components were identified and confirmed by at least three techniques, and several additional phosphorus-containing components of lower concentration have been identified by GC-IR-MS and LC-MS. Five major non-phosphorus components, including ethyl acetate, diethyl sulfide and dibutylamine, have been identified by multiple techniques. The major phosphorus compound (23.9+/-0.4 wt.%) was O,O,O-triethyl phosphorothioate (I) and the second most abundant (14.4+/-0.2 wt.%) was O,O,S-triethyl phosphorothioate (III). No VX, G-agent, or pesticide was observed in the sample, although III may be a cholinesterase inhibitor which produces delayed toxic response. III also produces a false hit for the pesticide cyanthoate when analyzed by GC-MS-EI. The mixture appears to have been formulated as a chemical warfare agent simulant, most likely as a challenge of agent detection techniques. PMID:10910213

Brickhouse, M D; Creasy, W R; Williams, B R; Morrissey, K M; O'Connor, R J; Durst, H D

2000-06-23

131

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program rapid accident assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report develops a scheme for the rapid assessment of a release of toxic chemicals resulting from an accident in one of the most chemical weapon demilitarization plants or storage areas. The system uses such inputs as chemical and pressure sensors monitoring the plant and reports of accidents radioed to the Emergency Operations Center by work parties or monitoring personnel. A size of release can be estimated from previous calculations done in the risk analysis, from back calculation from an open-air chemical sensor measurement, or from an estimated percentage of the inventory of agent at the location of the release. Potential consequences of the estimated release are calculated from real-time meteorological data, surrounding population data, and properties of the agent. In addition to the estimated casualties, area coverage and no-death contours vs time would be calculated. Accidents are assigned to one of four categories: community emergencies, which are involve a threat to off-site personnel; on-post emergencies, which involve a threat only to on-site personnel; advisory, which involves a potential for threat to on-site personnel; and chemical occurrence, which can produce an abnormal operating condition for the plant but no immediate threat to on-site personnel. 9 refs., 20 tabs.

Chester, C.V.

1990-08-01

132

Feasibility of Detecting Byproducts of Chemical Weapons Manufacturing in Environmental Media: A Preliminary Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative information on the environmental transport and fate of organophosphorus nerve agents has been limited to studies conducted at high concentration representative of acute doses (Munroe et al. 1999). Nerve agents have relatively rapidly degradation rates at acute levels, and first order degradation pathways and half-lives have been characterized. However, similar knowledge is lacking in the open literature on the long-term environmental persistence of nerve agents, their manufacturing precursors and byproducts, and their degradation products, particularly at sub-acute or chronic health levels. Although many recent publications reflect low-level detection methods for chemical weapons signature compounds extracted from a variety of different media (e.g. D'Agostino et al., 2001; Kataoka et al., 2001), little of this work answers questions regarding their adsorptive character and chemical persistence. However, these questions are a central theme to both the detection of illegal chemical weapons manufacturing, as well as determining long-term cleanup needs and health risks associated with potential terrorist acts using such agents. Adsorption onto environmental surfaces can enhance the persistence of organophosphorus compounds, particularly with strong chelators like phosphonic acids. In particular, organophosphorus compound adsorption can lead to irreversible binding (e.g. Aubin and Smith, 1992), and current methods of chemical extraction and solid-state detection are challenged to detect them. This may be particularly true if the adsorbed compound is of a low initial concentration because it may be that the most preferred adsorption sites form the strongest bonds. This is particularly true in mixed media having various adsorption domains that adsorb at different rates (e.g. Weber and Huang, 1996). For high enough initial concentrations, sorption sites become saturated and solvent extraction has a relatively high efficiency. It is no surprise that many CW fate studies can report findings using traditional extraction or solid-state methods of detection, since release concentration exceed the capacity of environmental media to adsorb or degrade them. This report documents a test using solid-state {sup 31}P-NMR and GC/MS methods to delineate two adsorbed phosphonates on a uniform silica gel substrate at different concentrations. The test sought to determine the sensitivity of {sup 31}P-NMR detection, delineate adsorption character of the phosphonates, quantify their extraction efficiency using different solvents, and test the phosphonate mobility and photodegradability under short-term idealized conditions. The results show that solid-state detection at the experimental conditions can detect individual phosphonate species down to the 100 ppm level. Sensitivity could be further increased using larger samples and longer collection times. Solvent extraction of the phosphonates from the silica gel showed that a chlorinated solvent (methylene chloride) produced poor recovery for phosphonic acids from the silica gel, whereas methanol used as a solvent achieved high extraction efficiency. The phosphonates used showed strong aqueous mobility in a silica gel column experiment, with a small but significant amount left adsorbed to the substrate. A 96 hour photo-degradation experiment showed no degradation of the compounds.

Davisson, L; Reynolds, J G; Koester, C; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; Love, A H; Viani, B E

2003-03-01

133

Packaging and Delivery of Chemical Weapons: A Defensive Trojan Horse Stratagem in Chromodorid Nudibranchs  

PubMed Central

Background Storage of secondary metabolites with a putative defensive role occurs in the so-called mantle dermal formations (MDFs) that are located in the more exposed parts of the body of most and very likely all members of an entire family of marine mollusks, the chromodorid nudibranchs (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia). Given that these structures usually lack a duct system, the mechanism for exudation of their contents remains unclear, as does their adaptive significance. One possible explanation could be that they are adapted so as to be preferentially attacked by predators. The nudibranchs might offer packages containing highly repugnant chemicals along with parts of their bodies to the predators, as a defensive variant of the strategic theme of the Trojan horse. Methodology and Principal Findings We detected, by quantitative 1H-NMR, extremely high local concentrations of secondary metabolites in the MDFs of six species belonging to five chromodorid genera. The compounds were purified by chromatographic methods and subsequently evaluated for their feeding deterrent properties, obtaining dose-response curves. We found that only distasteful compounds are accumulated in the reservoirs at concentrations that far exceed the values corresponding to maximum deterrent activity in the feeding assays. Other basic evidence, both field and experimental, has been acquired to elucidate the kind of damage that the predators can produce on both the nudibranchs' mantles and the MDFs. Significance As a result of a long evolutionary process that has progressively led to the accumulation of defensive chemical weapons in localized anatomical structures, the extant chromodorid nudibranchs remain in place when molested, retracting respiratory and chemosensory organs, but offering readily accessible parts of their body to predators. When these parts are masticated or wounded by predators, breakage of the MDFs results in the release of distasteful compounds at extremely high concentration in a way that maximizes their repugnant impact.

Carbone, Marianna; Gavagnin, Margherita; Haber, Markus; Guo, Yue-Wei; Fontana, Angelo; Manzo, Emiliano; Genta-Jouve, Gregory; Tsoukatou, Maria; Rudman, William B.; Cimino, Guido; Ghiselin, Michael T.; Mollo, Ernesto

2013-01-01

134

Nuclear weapon radiation effects on a Space Based Interceptor weapon platform  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the dose to the various electronic components and sensitive areas (fuel tanks) of a representative Space Based Interceptor (SBI) weapon platform due to an exo-atmospheric nuclear weapon detonation. In particular, the damage resulting from incident neutrons, gamma-rays, and x-rays generated by the weapon detonation was assessed for the critical electronic components and for materials whose chemical/physical properties might degrade. To perform this analysis, a three dimensional ORNL computer model of a SBI weapon platform was devised to estimate the effects of natural and nuclear weapon radiation on the external surfaces and materials and on the internal components. It should be noted that the SBI weapon platform used in this study represents the author's concept of such a system. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Johnson, J.O.; Smith, M.S.; Santoro, R.T.

1990-01-01

135

From shape to threat: exploiting the convergence between visual and conceptual organization for weapon identification and threat assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work is a part of a larger project on recognizing and identifying weapons from a single image and assessing threats in public places. Methods of populating the weapon ontology have been shown. A clustering-based approach of constructing visual hierarchies on the base of extracted geometric features of weapons has been proposed. The convergence of a sequence of visual hierarchy trees to a conceptual hierarchy tree has been discussed. For illustrative purposes, from the growing conceptual ontology, a conceptual hierarchy tree has been chosen as a point of convergence for a sequence of visual hierarchy trees. A new approach is defined, on the base of the Gonzalez' algorithm, to generate the visual hierarchies. The closest visual hierarchy tree is selected as the search environment for a query weapon. A method of threat assessment is proposed. This method uses the attribute-rich conceptual hierarchy tree to evaluate the results from the visual hierarchy tree search. The two trees are linked at the leaf-level, because the visual hierarchy closest to the conceptual has the same distribution of the leaf nodes. A set of experimental results are reported to validate the theoretical concepts. A portion of the existing weapon ontology is used for this purpose.

Arslan, Abdullah N.; Hempelmann, Christian F.; Di Ferrante, Carlo; Attardo, Salvatore; Sirakov, Nikolay M.

2013-05-01

136

Biological Weapons--The Poor Man's Nuke.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biological warfare is one leg of the triad of weapons of mass destruction (coupled with nuclear and chemical weapons). Biological weapons pose a significant threat to the United States military and public population across the spectrum of conflict. There ...

B. R. Schneider T. N. Mayer

1995-01-01

137

Physical and Computational Modeling for Chemical and Biological Weapons Airflow Applications  

SciTech Connect

There is a need for information on dispersion and infiltration of chemical and biological agents in complex building environments. A recent collaborative study conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Bechtel Corporation Research and Development had the objective of assessing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for simulation of flow around complicated buildings through a comparison of experimental and numerical results. The test facility used in the experiments was INEEL’s unique large Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) flow system. The CFD code used for modeling was Fluent, a widely available commercial flow simulation package. For the experiment, a building plan was selected to approximately represent an existing facility. It was found that predicted velocity profiles from above the building and in front of the building were in good agreement with the measurements.

McEligot, Donald Marinus; Mc Creery, Glenn Ernest; Pink, Robert John; Barringer, C.; Knight, K. J.

2002-11-01

138

Nonnuclear Consolidation Environmental Assessment. Executive summary, Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a proposal, known as Complex 21, to reconfigure the Nation's Nuclear Weapons Complex (Complex). The complex is a set of interrelated facilities that design, manufacture, test, and maintain this country's nuclea...

1993-01-01

139

Inmate-made weapons in prison facilities: assessing the injury risk.  

PubMed

More than 2400 correctional workers in the United States required medical attention in 1999 following assaults by inmates, often with unconventional "homemade" weapons. Little information is available about these weapons. The authors surveyed 101 state prisons for a 12 month period within 2002-03, and 70 responded. A total of 1326 weapons were either confiscated (1086) or used to injure inmates (203) or staff (37). Staff were most often attacked with clubs. The prison store was the most common source of materials used to make confiscated weapons. Issued items were the most common source of materials used to make weapons to injure staff. The injury rate for staff was 1.0/1000 workers per year. The annual cost of injuries for time lost and medical care for staff was estimated at $1,125,000 in these 70 prisons. Results identify materials that should be redesigned to prevent modifications to make weapons. Prison stores and issued items deserve special attention. PMID:16751452

Lincoln, J M; Chen, L-H; Mair, J S; Biermann, P J; Baker, S P

2006-06-01

140

Weapons, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weapons, used defensively or offensively, have provided humankind the tools to accomplish political objectives by other means since the dawn of humans. Weapons evolved from stone to club, long bow, cannon, machine gun, dumb bomb, precision guided munition...

2006-01-01

141

Assessment of the safety of US nuclear weapons and related nuclear test requirements: A post-Bush Initiative update  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Weapons Reduction Initiative announced by President Bush on September 27, 1991, is described herein as set forth in Defense Secretary Cheney`s Nuclear Arsenal Reduction Order issued September 28, 1991. The implications of the Bush Initiative for improved nuclear weapons safety are assessed in response to a request by US Senators Harkin, Kennedy, and Wirth to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that the author prepare such an assessment. The author provides an estimate of the number of nuclear tests needed to accomplish a variety of specified warhead safety upgrades, then uses the results of this estimate to answer three questions posed by the Senators. These questions concern pit reuse and the number of nuclear tests needed for specified safety upgrades of those ballistic missiles not scheduled for retirement, namely the Minuteman III, C4, and D5 missiles.

Kidder, R.E.

1991-12-10

142

Of owl or ostrich. The U.S. policy of calculated ambiguity to deter the use of chemical and biological weapons  

SciTech Connect

The United States has adopted a policy of calculated ambiguity regarding the role of nuclear weapons in response to a potential chemical or biological weapons (CBW) attack. Many factors affect decisions about the role nuclear weapons play in US counterproliferation strategy. This thesis describes the policy of calculated ambiguity and offers some observations about its prospects and pitfalls. The thesis presents evidence that suggests nuclear weapons could play a positive role in the US counterproliferation strategy, at least in some circumstances. It also explains how such a role could conflict with the US nonproliferation strategy. Such a role would also violate the nuclear taboo and be seen by a majority of countries as illegal and immoral. The United States has chosen a policy of calculated ambiguity in an attempt to retain the deterrent value of nuclear weapons without paying the political, legal, and moral costs of explicit reliance on nuclear weapons to deter the use of CBW. This may have short-term benefits, but ultimately may damage the national interest.

Lakamp, M.A.

1998-12-01

143

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...intermediate . Means any chemical which is produced in a chemical process but, because it is in a transition state in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics, exists only for a very short period of time, and cannot be isolated, even by modifying or dismantling...

2011-01-01

144

Mass spectral analysis of N-oxides of Chemical Weapons Convention related aminoethanols under electrospray ionization conditions.  

PubMed

N,N'-Dialkylaminoethanols are the hydrolyzed products or precursors of chemical warfare agents such as V-agents and nitrogen mustards, and they are prone to undergo oxidation in environmental matrices or during decontamination processes. Consequently, screening of the oxidized products of aminoethanols in aqueous samples is an important task in the verification of chemical weapons convention-related chemicals. Here we report the successful characterization of the N-oxides of N,N'-dialkylaminoethanols, alkyl diethanolamines, and triethanolamine using positive ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra of the [M+H](+) and [M+Na](+) ions show diagnostic product ions that enable the unambiguous identification of the studied N-oxides, including those of isomeric compounds. The proposed fragmentation pathways are supported by high-resolution mass spectrometry data and product/precursor ion spectra. The CID spectra of [M+H](+) ions included [MH-CH(4)O(2)](+) as the key product ion, in addition to a distinctive alkene loss that allowed us to recognize the alkyl group attached to the nitrogen. The [M+Na](+) ions show characteristic product ions due to the loss of groups (R) attached to nitrogen either as a radical (R) or as a molecule [R+H or (R-H)] after hydrogen migration. PMID:21259362

Sridhar, L; Karthikraj, R; Murty, M R V S; Raju, N Prasada; Vairamani, M; Prabhakar, S

2011-02-28

145

PRESENTED 03/01/2006: 2006 REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN THE REMEDIATION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONTAMINATION IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE  

EPA Science Inventory

During World War 1, The American University in Washington, DC was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite...

146

Youths Carrying a Weapon or Using a Weapon in a Fight: What Makes the Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to characterize weapon-carrying adolescents and to assess whether weapon carriers differ from weapon users. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional school-based survey of 7548 adolescents aged 16-20 years in Switzerland. Youths carrying a weapon were compared with those who do not. Subsequently, weapon carriers were…

Thurnherr, Judit; Michaud, Pierre-Andre; Berchtold, Andre; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

2009-01-01

147

The assessment of radiation exposures in native American communities from nuclear weapons testing in Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native Americans residing in a broad region downwind from the Nevada Test Site during the 1950s and 1960s received significant radiation exposures from nuclear weapons testing. Because of differences in diet, activities, and housing, their radiation exposures are only very imperfectly represented in the Department of Energy dose reconstructions. There are important missing pathways, including exposures to radioactive iodine from

Eric Frohmberg; Robert Goble; Virginia Sanchez; Dianne Quigley

2000-01-01

148

On-matrix derivatisation-extraction of precursors of nitrogen- and sulfur-mustards for verification of chemical weapons convention.  

PubMed

Development and refinement of sample preparation protocols for retrospective detection and identification of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their markers is of paramount importance from verification point of view of chemical weapons convention (CWC). Precursors of nitrogen- and sulfur-mustards (NMPs and SMPs) are polar adsorptive markers of vesicant class of CWAs. Their detection in a given environmental sample may imply past contamination with mustards. For the efficient extraction of NMPs and SMPs from soil, on-matrix derivatisation-extraction (OMDEX) method was developed and optimized. The method involved trifluoroacetylation of analytes on soil itself, followed by extraction with suitable solvent. The extracted samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This virtually single-step sample preparation offered better recoveries of NMPs and SMPs in comparison to conventionally used extraction, evaporation and derivatisation. The best recoveries of analytes were obtained with acetonitrile by OMDEX method. Dynamic linearity range of trifluoroacetylated (TFA) derivatives of NMPs and SMPs was 1-12 microg/L in GC-MS analysis in SIM mode. Repeatability and reproducibility of this technique containing 5 and 10 microg analytes/gm soil was <3.3% and <4.6%, respectively. OMDEX technique was finally applied for the detection of TFA derivatives of NMPs in the soil sample supplied in 16th official proficiency test conducted by OPCW in October 2004. PMID:15974066

Dubey, D K; Pardasania, Deepak; Palita, Meehir; Gupta, A K; Jain, Rajiv

2005-05-27

149

Carol Anne Bond v the United States of America: how a woman scorned threatened the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

PubMed

The case of Carol Anne Bond v the United States of America stemmed from a domestic dispute when Ms. Bond attempted to retaliate against her best friend by attacking her with chemical agents. What has emerged is a much greater issue--a test of standing on whether a private citizen can challenge the Tenth Amendment. Instead of being prosecuted in state court for assault, Ms. Bond was charged and tried in district court under a federal criminal statute passed as part of implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Ms. Bond's argument rests on the claim that the statute exceeded the federal government's enumerated powers in criminalizing her behavior and violated the Constitution, while the government contends legislation implementing treaty obligations is well within its purview. This question remains unanswered because there is dispute among the lower courts as to whether Ms. Bond, as a citizen, even has the right to challenge an amendment guaranteeing states rights when a state is not a party to the action. The Supreme Court heard the case on February 22, 2011, and, if it decides to grant Ms. Bond standing to challenge her conviction, the case will be returned to the lower courts. Should the court decide Ms. Bond has the standing to challenge her conviction and further questions the constitutionality of the law, it would be a significant blow to implementation of the CWC in the U.S. and the effort of the federal government to ensure we are meeting our international obligations. PMID:21819227

Muldoon, Anna; Kornblet, Sarah; Katz, Rebecca

2011-09-01

150

Analysis of chemical weapons decontamination waste from old ton containers from Johnston Atoll using multiple analytical methods  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination waste from chemical weapons (CW) agents has been stored in ton containers on Johnston Atoll since 1971. The waste was recently sampled and analyzed to determine its chemical composition in preparation for future cleanups. Due to the range of products and analytical requirements, multiple chromatographic and spectroscopic methods were necessary, including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), gas chromatography/atomic emission detection (GC/AED), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The samples were screened for residual agents. No residual sarin (GB) or VX was found to detection limits of 20 ng/mL, but 3% of the samples contained residual sulfur mustard (HD) at < 140 ng/mL. Decontamination products of agents were identified. The majority (74%) of the ton containers were documented correctly, in that the observed decontamination products were in agreement with the labeled agent type, but for a number of the containers, the contents were not in agreement with the labels. In addition, arsenic compounds that are decontamination products of the agent lewisite (L) were observed in a few ton containers, suggesting that lewisite was originally present but not documented. This study was a prototype to demonstrate the level of effort required to characterize old bulk CW-related waste.

Creasy, W.R.; Brickhouse, M.D.; Morrisse, K.M. [EAI Corp., Abingdon, MD (United States)] [and others] [EAI Corp., Abingdon, MD (United States); and others

1999-07-01

151

Destruction of Chemical Weapons: Evaluation of the Donovan Contained Detonation Chamber (CDC) Poelkapelle, Belgium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Royal Military Academy (RMA) of Belgium was requested by the Belgium Minister of Defense to study alternatives to destroy WWI chemical munitions in an environmentally safe manner (RMA Study F0016). The RMA arranged for DeMil International to ship one ...

H. C. DeBisschop T. A. Blades

2002-01-01

152

76 FR 76935 - Impact of Implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Commercial Activities Involving...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Comments Concerning the Impact of Adding Salts of Certain...would become subject to any impact that implementation of the...Annex on Chemicals, this could impact commercial activities in the...public comments on the BIS Freedom of Information Act...

2011-12-09

153

Deadly weapon–related open-globe injuries: outcome assessment by the Ocular Trauma Classification System  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE:To describe mechanisms and injury characteristics influencing visual outcomes in eyes with open-globe injuries caused by deadly weapons and to apply the classification system introduced by the Ocular Trauma Classification Group.METHODS:Two-hundred-twenty-eight eyes of 212 consecutive patients, who were mostly injured in military confrontation, were analyzed. Mechanism and injury characteristics were evaluated for predicting visual outcome according to the recently studied

Gümgör Sobaci; F. Mehmet Mutlu; Atilla Bayer; Suat KaragÜl; Erol Yildirim

2000-01-01

154

Fragmentation pathways of O-alkyl methylphosphonothionocyanidates in the gas phase: toward unambiguous structural characterization of chemicals in the Chemical Weapons Convention framework.  

PubMed

The electron-impact (EI) mass spectra of a series of O-alkyl methylphosphonothionocyanidates were studied for Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) purposes. General EI fragmentation pathways were constructed and discussed, and collision-induced dissociation studies of the major EI ions were performed to confirm proposed fragment structures by analyzing fragment ions of deuterated analogs and by use of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Thiono-thiolo rearrangement, McLafferty-type rearrangement, and a previously unknown intramolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction were observed and confirmed. The study also focused on differentiation of isomeric compounds. Retention indices for all compounds, and an electrophilicity index for several compounds, are reported and interpreted. PMID:23793396

Saeidian, Hamid; Babri, Mehran; Ashrafi, Davood; Sarabadani, Mansour; Naseri, Mohammad Taghi

2013-08-01

155

77 FR 75145 - Impact of the Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Commercial Activities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 121114631-2631-01] Impact of the Implementation of the...seeking public comments on the impact that implementation of the...qualitative assessment of the impact of the CWC on such activities...public comments on the BIS Freedom of Information Act...

2012-12-19

156

78 FR 75910 - Impact of the Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Legitimate Commercial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 131122984-3984-01] Impact of the Implementation of the...seeking public comments on the impact that implementation of the...qualitative assessment of the impact of the CWC on such activities...public comments on the BIS Freedom of Information Act...

2013-12-13

157

75 FR 69630 - Impact of Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention on Commercial Activities Involving...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...seeking public comments on the impact that implementation of the...CWCIA, or CWCR have potential impacts on commercial activities whenever...qualitative assessment of the impact of the CWC on such activities...public comments on the BIS Freedom of Information Act...

2010-11-15

158

Novel Weapons Testing: Are Invasive Plants More Chemically Defended than Native Plants?  

PubMed Central

Background Exotic species have been hypothesized to successfully invade new habitats by virtue of possessing novel biochemistry that repels native enemies. Despite the pivotal long-term consequences of invasion for native food-webs, to date there are no experimental studies examining directly whether exotic plants are any more or less biochemically deterrent than native plants to native herbivores. Methodology/Principal Findings In a direct test of this hypothesis using herbivore feeding assays with chemical extracts from 19 invasive plants and 21 co-occurring native plants, we show that invasive plant biochemistry is no more deterrent (on average) to a native generalist herbivore than extracts from native plants. There was no relationship between extract deterrence and length of time since introduction, suggesting that time has not mitigated putative biochemical novelty. Moreover, the least deterrent plant extracts were from the most abundant species in the field, a pattern that held for both native and exotic plants. Analysis of chemical deterrence in context with morphological defenses and growth-related traits showed that native and exotic plants had similar trade-offs among traits. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our results suggest that particular invasive species may possess deterrent secondary chemistry, but it does not appear to be a general pattern resulting from evolutionary mismatches between exotic plants and native herbivores. Thus, fundamentally similar processes may promote the ecological success of both native and exotic species.

Lind, Eric M.; Parker, John D.

2010-01-01

159

Chemical Protective Clothing for Law Enforcement Patrol Officers and Emergency Medical Services when Responding to Terrorism with Chemical Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers Man In Simulant Testing (MIST) of the following commercially available, Level C chemical protective suits: the Tyvec(trade name) Protective Wear(trade mark) suit (garage-type, for mechanics), the Kappler CPF(trade name) suit (model numb...

V. J. Arca S. M. Marshall W. A. Lake P. D. Fedele

2001-01-01

160

AAAS Assessment of the Role of the Reliable Replacement Warhead in the US Nuclear Weapons Complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Association for the Advancement of Science sponsored a study of the role of the Reliable Replacement Warhead (RRW) in the US Nuclear Weapons Complex during the latter part of 2006. As the Chair of that study I will report our principal findings and recommendations. Our conclusions are based on the experience and knowledge of the committee members, the information available in numerous reports and related analyses, and on presentations and discussions with DOE/NNSA officials, staff members from the Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, and Sandia National Laboratories, and others with special expertise and perspectives.

Tarter, C. Bruce

2007-03-01

161

High Resolution Mapping of an Alleged Chemical Weapons Dump Site in the Santa Cruz Basin, offshore California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nautical charts record seven locations off the coast of California labeled as 'Chemical Munitions Dumping Area, Disused' that together cover some 12,000 km2 of sea floor. However only one such chemical munitions site is officially documented and no record exists of any chemical munitions disposed of at other locations, thus creating confusion. We have executed a one day AUV mapping survey of a corner of one such site in the Santa Cruz Basin, south of Port Hueneme, to examine and investigate the debris field. The region is covered with soft sediment and the overlying water is very low in oxygen at ~10 ?mol/kg. The processed 110 kHz sidescan data revealed some 754 targets in 25.6 km2 for an average of 29 targets per km2. This was followed by two ROV dives to investigate the targets identified. We found but one false positives among the over 40 targets visited, and found items ranging from two distinct lines of unmarked or labeled and now empty barrels, two target drones, and much miscellaneous debris including 4-packs of cat food cans and a large ships mast over 30m in length. There was zero evidence of chemical weapons materiel as expected given the lack of official records. Almost all of the targets were covered in dense and colorful assemblages of invertebrates: sponges, anemones, and crabs. Where barrels were sufficiently open for full visual inspection, the interior sea floor appeared to have become fully anoxic and was covered in white and yellow bacterial mat. The area chosen for our survey (centered at 33.76 deg N 119.56 deg W) was across the north western boundary of the marked site, and represents only ~ 10% percent of the designated area. Our expectation, that human nature would drive the disposal activities to the nearest corner of the chosen area rather than the center of the field appears to have been confirmed. Objects were found both within and outside of the boundary of the dump site. We have not surveyed the full marked area but there appears to be the substantial possibility of a gross error in the labeling of charts. Our results show that simple, rapid, and cost effective surveys of these sites can be made, that the found debris field of rusted barrels and other objects appears to have contained more mundane waste material that long ago dissipated or hydrolyzed. It is likely that the majority of disposed material is far from the center of the charted area and thus a re-drawing of the warning zone following additional surveying of the actual extent of the dump site to reflect this would be a significant improvement.

Brewer, P. G.; Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.

2013-12-01

162

Basics of Electric Weapons and Pulsed-Power Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most conventional weapons rely on chemical energy (explosives) as their destruction mechanism, either to explode on target, like bombs, or to create kinetic energy, like a bullet. Electric weapons are different. Electric weapons use stored electrical ener...

S. Moran

2012-01-01

163

Long-term effects of chemical weapons on respiratory tract in Iraq–Iran war victims living in Babol (North of Iran)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Iraq–Iran war (1981–1989), extensive use of chemical weapons such as mustard gas caused high mortality, morbidity, injuries, and chronic side effects in vital organs, especially the respiratory tract. This study was performed to evaluate the long-term effects on respiratory tract of victims. Two hundred and twenty victims were referred from the Mostazafan and Janbazan Foundation of Babol from

Kh. Bijani; A. A. Moghadamnia

2002-01-01

164

76 FR 70317 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents...the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994...of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and...

2011-11-10

165

75 FR 68671 - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents...Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994...of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and...

2010-11-08

166

3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents...the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November...of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and...

2013-01-01

167

Health risk assessment of chemical mixtures  

SciTech Connect

This overview has briefly reviews the complexity of chemical mixtures, their sources, the relevance of exposure, the various interactions of chemical components, and new approaches for measuring exposure. Current quantitative risk assessment by linear extrapolation is inadequate in estimating risks. The new emerging methodology offers a scientific and realistic alternative in assessment of risks from various exposures to both natural and man-made chemical mixtures.

Witz, G.; Mehlman, M.A.

1987-07-01

168

Gas chromatography-electron ionization-mass spectrometry analysis of O,O'- dialkyl methylphosphonites for verification analysis of the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

PubMed

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of O,O'-dialkyl methylphosphonites (DAMPs) was carried out with a view to developing a database and understanding the mechanism of fragmentation. DAMPs are included in the list of schedule 2B4 chemicals of the Chemical Weapons Convention. GC-MS analysis of DAMPs and their deuterated analogs revealed that their fragmentations were dominated by ?-cleavages, alkenyl radical loss and hydrogen rearrangements. Based on fragment ions of deuterated analogs and density functional theory calculations, the fragmentation routes were rationalized. PMID:21625030

Pardasani, Deepak; Tak, Vijay; Purohit, Ajay K; Kanaujia, Pankaj K; Dubey, Devendra K

2011-01-01

169

Cyber Weapons Convention  

Microsoft Academic Search

World leaders are beginning to look beyond temporary fixes to the challenge of securing the Internet. One possible solution may be an international arms control treaty for cyberspace. The 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) provides national security planners with a useful model. CWC has been ratified by 98% of the world’s governments, and encompasses 95% of the world’s population. It

Kenneth Geers

2010-01-01

170

Reactor options for disposition of excess weapon plutonium: Selection criteria and decision process for assessment  

SciTech Connect

DOE is currently considering a wide range of alternatives for disposition of excess weapon plutonium, including using plutonium in mixed oxide fuel for light water reactors (LWRs). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been tasked to assist DOE in its efforts to develop a decision process and criteria for evaluating the technologies and reactor designs that have been proposed for the fission disposition alternative. This report outlines an approach for establishing such a decision process and selection criteria. The approach includes the capability to address multiple, sometimes conflicting, objectives, and to incorporate the impact of uncertainty. The approach has a firm theoretical foundation and similar approaches have been used successfully by private industry, DOE, and other government agencies to support and document complex, high impact technology choice decisions. Because of their similarity and relatively simple technology, this report focuses on three light water reactors studied in Phase 1 of the DOE Plutonium Disposition Study. The decision process can be extended to allow evaluation of other reactor technologies and disposition options such as direct disposal and retrievable storage.

Edmunds, T.; Buonpane, L.; Sicherman, A.; Sutcliffe, W.; Walter, C.; Holman, G.

1994-01-01

171

Bioterrorism: toxins as weapons.  

PubMed

The potential for biological weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Biological weapons include infectious agents and toxins. Toxins are poisons produced by living organisms. Toxins relevant to bioterrorism include ricin, botulinum, Clostridium perfrigens epsilson toxin, conotoxins, shigatoxins, saxitoxins, tetrodotoxins, mycotoxins, and nicotine. Toxins have properties of biological and chemical weapons. Unlike pathogens, toxins do not produce an infection. Ricin causes multiorgan toxicity by blocking protein synthesis. Botulinum blocks acetylcholine in the peripheral nervous system leading to muscle paralysis. Epsilon toxin damages cell membranes. Conotoxins block potassium and sodium channels in neurons. Shigatoxins inhibit protein synthesis and induce apoptosis. Saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin inhibit sodium channels in neurons. Mycotoxins include aflatoxins and trichothecenes. Aflatoxins are carcinogens. Trichothecenes inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis. Nicotine produces numerous nicotinic effects in the nervous system. PMID:22523138

Anderson, Peter D

2012-04-01

172

Exposure Assessment of Chemicals from Packaging Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of chemicals may enter our food supply, by means of intentional or unintentional addition, at different stages of the food chain. These chemicals include food additives, pesticide residues, environmental contaminants, mycotox-ins, flavoring substances, and micronutrients. Packaging systems and other food-contact materials are also a source of chemicals contaminating food products and beverages. Monitoring exposure to these chemicals has become an integral part of ensuring the safety of the food supply. Within the context of the risk analysis approach and more specifically as an integral part of risk assessment procedures, the exercise known as exposure assessment is crucial in providing data to allow sound judgments concerning risks to human health. The exercise of obtaining this data is part of the process of revealing sources of contamination and assessing the effectiveness of strategies for minimizing the risk from chemical contamination in the food supply (Lambe, 2002).

Poças, Maria De Fátima; Hogg, Timothy

173

Risk Assessment for Noncarcinogenic Chemical Effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Risk assessment for toxic chemicals that do not induce carcinogenic or mutagenic effects has traditionally been based on the fundamental assumption that there are levels of exposure for such agents below which adverse health effects will not occur, even i...

R. L. Kodell

1993-01-01

174

Differences in Assessing Chemical vs. Nonchemical Stressors  

EPA Science Inventory

Cumulative risk assessment (CRA) addresses the impacts of multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors on real world individuals and communities, resulting in complex exposures for individuals and populations with a variety of vulnerabilities, in applications that range from envir...

175

Modeling Chemical Exposures in Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment is increasingly concerned with assessing risks from environmental exposure pathways beyond those typically\\u000a considered, i.e., direct ingestion, inhalation or dermal exposure to chemicals in air, water, and soil. A number of models\\u000a have been developed to facilitate analysis of these more complex exposure situations. Such models also enhance our ability\\u000a to assess both aggregate and cumulative exposures. Three

Thomas A. Lewandowski

176

Epigenetics and chemical safety assessment.  

PubMed

Epigenetics, as it pertains to biology and toxicology, can be defined as heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve mutations and are propagated without continued stimulus. Although potentially reversible, these heritable changes may be classified as mitotic, meiotic, or transgenerational, implicating the wide-ranging impact of epigenetic control in cellular function. A number of biological responses have been classified as being caused by an "epigenetic alteration," sometimes based on sound scientific evidence and often in lieu of an identified genetic mutation. Complicating the understanding and interpretation of perceived epigenetic alterations is an incomplete understanding of the normal state and dynamic variation of the epigenome, which can differ widely between cell and tissue types and stage of development or age. This emerging field is likely to have a profound impact on the study and practice of toxicology in coming years. This document reviews the current state of the science in epigenetic modifications, techniques used to measure these changes, and evaluates the current toxicology testing battery with respect to strengths and potential weaknesses in the identification of epigenetics changes. In addition, case studies implicating transgenerational effects induced by diethylstilbestrol, vinclozolin, and bisphenol A were reviewed to illustrate the application of epigenetics in safety assessment and the strengths and limitations of the study designs. An assessment of toxicology tests currently used in safety evaluation revealed that these tests are expected to identify any potential adverse outcomes resulting from epigenetic changes. Furthermore, in order to increase our understanding of the science of epigenetics in toxicology, this review has revealed that a solid understanding of the biology and variation in the epigenome is essential to contextualize concerns about possible adverse health effects related to epigenetic changes. Finally, the fundamental principles guiding toxicology studies, including relevant doses, dose-rates, routes of exposure, and experimental models, need to be taken into consideration in the design and interpretation of studies within this emerging area of science. PMID:20399890

LeBaron, Matthew J; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Klapacz, Joanna; Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G; Hollnagel, Heli M; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar

2010-10-01

177

36 CFR 13.30 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 13.30 Section 13.30 Parks...Provisions § 13.30 Weapons, traps and nets. (a) Irritant chemical devices... (1) Possessing a weapon, trap, or net; (2) Carrying a weapon, trap,...

2010-07-01

178

36 CFR 13.30 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 13.30 Section 13.30 Parks...Provisions § 13.30 Weapons, traps and nets. (a) Irritant chemical devices... (1) Possessing a weapon, trap, or net; (2) Carrying a weapon, trap,...

2012-07-01

179

36 CFR 13.30 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 13.30 Section 13.30 Parks...Provisions § 13.30 Weapons, traps and nets. (a) Irritant chemical devices... (1) Possessing a weapon, trap, or net; (2) Carrying a weapon, trap,...

2011-07-01

180

Conventional weapons demilitarization: A health and environmental effects data-base assessment  

SciTech Connect

To support studies of the health and environmental risks of such by-products, this report presents assessments of data available on parameters that affect the risks posed by explosives and their principal co-contaminants. Specifically, data-base assessments cover factors that influence the transport and fate of the contaminants in environmental media (e.g., soils, water, etc.) and subsequently, human exposures via different pathways (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, and skin absorption). Information on dose-response relationships for various toxic effects in humans and laboratory animals is evaluated so that acceptable daily intakes for noncarcinogenic substances and virtually safe dose rates for carcinogenic substances can be defined. Toxic effects on plant and aquatic species are also addressed. The explosives and co-contaminants considered include TNT (co-contaminants: 2,4-dinitrotoluene; 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene, and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene); RDX (co-contaminant: HMX); tetryl (co-contaminant: picric acid); PETN; and ammonium picrate (co-contaminant: picric acid). 358 refs., 12 figs., 92 tabs.

Layton, D.; Mallon, B.; Mitchell, W.; Hall, L.; Fish, R.; Perry, L.; Snyder, G.; Bogen, K.; Malloch, W.; Ham, C.; Dowd, P.

1987-12-01

181

In silico assessment of chemical biodegradability.  

PubMed

Biodegradation is the principal environmental dissipation process. Due to a lack of comprehensive experimental data, high study cost and time-consuming, in silico approaches for assessing the biodegradable profiles of chemicals are encouraged and is an active current research topic. Here we developed in silico methods to estimate chemical biodegradability in the environment. At first 1440 diverse compounds tested under the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) protocol were used. Four different methods, namely support vector machine, k-nearest neighbor, naïve Bayes, and C4.5 decision tree, were used to build the combinatorial classification probability models of ready versus not ready biodegradability using physicochemical descriptors and fingerprints separately. The overall predictive accuracies of the best models were more than 80% for the external test set of 164 diverse compounds. Some privileged substructures were further identified for ready or not ready biodegradable chemicals by combining information gain and substructure fragment analysis. Moreover, 27 new predicted chemicals were selected for experimental assay through the Japanese MITI test protocols, which validated that all 27 compounds were predicted correctly. The predictive accuracies of our models outperform the commonly used software of the EPI Suite. Our study provided critical tools for early assessment of biodegradability of new organic chemicals in environmental hazard assessment. PMID:22332973

Cheng, Feixiong; Ikenaga, Yutaka; Zhou, Yadi; Yu, Yue; Li, Weihua; Shen, Jie; Du, Zheng; Chen, Lei; Xu, Congying; Liu, Guixia; Lee, Philip W; Tang, Yun

2012-03-26

182

77 FR 66513 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive...proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering...

2012-11-05

183

Tactical laser weapons and other directed-energy weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly introduces the current development status of three directed-energy weapons: laser weapons, radio frequency\\/microwave weapons, and charged-particle-beam weapons. Among them, the tactical laser weapon may be the first to find application.

Rongrui Wang

1993-01-01

184

Tactical laser weapons and other directed-energy weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper briefly introduces the current development status of three directed-energy weapons: laser weapons, radio frequency/microwave weapons, and charged-particle-beam weapons. Among them, the tactical laser weapon may be the first to find application.

Wang, Rongrui

1993-07-01

185

Reentry, recovery, and restoration following a chemical weapons stockpile disposal program accident: Offpost planning and preparedness aspects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is a need for pre-disaster recovery planning. The Department of Defense has recognized that need by strongly emphasizing recovery planning and coordination in its CSEP program. CSEPP is the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program. It was d...

L. Lewis C. Herzenberg E. Tanzman K. Lerner R. Haffenden

1991-01-01

186

Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material  

SciTech Connect

The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and pending successful test results, may be incorporated in the various munitions assessment systems in the future. These systems are intended to enhance CWM fill materiel identification, agent air monitoring, agent or agent degradation product detection by surface analysis, and real-time x-ray capabilities.

A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

1999-05-27

187

Development and Application of Computational/In Vitro Toxicological Methods for Chemical Hazard Risk Reduction of New Materials for Advanced Weapon Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is essential for reducing the chemical hazards of new weapon systems. The current collaboration between HEST (toxicology research and testing), MLPJ (computational chemistry) and PRS (computational chemistry, new propellant synthesis) is focusing R&D efforts on basic research goals that will rapidly transition to useful products for propellant development. Computational methods are being investigated that will assist in forecasting cellular toxicological end-points. Models developed from these chemical structure-toxicity relationships are useful for the prediction of the toxicological endpoints of new related compounds. Research is focusing on the evaluation tools to be used for the discovery of such relationships and the development of models of the mechanisms of action. Combinations of computational chemistry techniques, in vitro toxicity methods, and statistical correlations, will be employed to develop and explore potential predictive relationships; results for series of molecular systems that demonstrate the viability of this approach are reported. A number of hydrazine salts have been synthesized for evaluation. Computational chemistry methods are being used to elucidate the mechanism of action of these salts. Toxicity endpoints such as viability (LDH) and changes in enzyme activity (glutahoione peroxidase and catalase) are being experimentally measured as indicators of cellular damage. Extrapolation from computational/in vitro studies to human toxicity, is the ultimate goal. The product of this program will be a predictive tool to assist in the development of new, less toxic propellants.

Frazier, John M.; Mattie, D. R.; Hussain, Saber; Pachter, Ruth; Boatz, Jerry; Hawkins, T. W.

2000-01-01

188

Design Assessment Using Multizone Simulation to Protect Critical Infrastructure From Internal Chemical and Biological Threats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previous attacks in Tokyo and Washington, DC, have demonstrated the capability to weaponize and use chemical and biological (CB) agents against critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure includes the defense industrial base whose primary mission is ...

D. M. Abraham J. W. Croisant V. M. Nakano

2006-01-01

189

Trace level detection of compounds related to the chemical weapons convention by 1H-detected 13C NMR spectroscopy executed with a sensitivity-enhanced, cryogenic probehead.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional 1H-13C HSQC (heteronuclear single quantum correlation) and fast-HMQC (heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation) pulse sequences were implemented using a sensitivity-enhanced, cryogenic probehead for detecting compounds relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention present in complex mixtures. The resulting methods demonstrated exceptional sensitivity for detecting the analytes at trace level concentrations. 1H-13C correlations of target analytes at < or = 25 microg/mL were easily detected in a sample where the 1H solvent signal was approximately 58,000-fold more intense than the analyte 1H signals. The problem of overlapping signals typically observed in conventional 1H spectroscopy was essentially eliminated, while 1H and 13C chemical shift information could be derived quickly and simultaneously from the resulting spectra. The fast-HMQC pulse sequences generated magnitude mode spectra suitable for detailed analysis in approximately 4.5 h and can be used in experiments to efficiently screen a large number of samples. The HSQC pulse sequences, on the other hand, required roughly twice the data acquisition time to produce suitable spectra. These spectra, however, were phase-sensitive, contained considerably more resolution in both dimensions, and proved to be superior for detecting analyte 1H-13C correlations. Furthermore, a HSQC spectrum collected with a multiplicity-edited pulse sequence provided additional structural information valuable for identifying target analytes. The HSQC pulse sequences are ideal for collecting high-quality data sets with overnight acquisitions and logically follow the use of fast-HMQC pulse sequences to rapidly screen samples for potential target analytes. Use of the pulse sequences considerably improves the performance of NMR spectroscopy as a complimentary technique for the screening, identification, and validation of chemical warfare agents and other small-molecule analytes present in complex mixtures and environmental samples. PMID:18345646

Cullinan, David B; Hondrogiannis, George; Henderson, Terry J

2008-04-15

190

Nuclear weapons modernizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

Kristensen, Hans M.

2014-05-01

191

APPROACHES TO RISK ASSESSMENT FOR MULTIPLE CHEMICAL EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office (ECAO) in Cincinnati has developed health risk assessment methods for chronic exposure to single chemical from a single route of exposure. Risk assessments for carcinogens associated an exposure level with a particular incidence of...

192

Thermally assisted methylation and subsequent silylation of scheduled acids of chemical weapon convention for on-site analysis and its comparison with the other methods of methylation.  

PubMed

On-site verification of the chemical weapon convention (CWC) requires provision for the detection and identification of alkyl phosphonic acids as well as some organic acids that are amenable to GC-MS only after derivatisation. Various derivatisation methods have been used for the identification of these acids and for many cases the methyl derivatives are less prone to artifacts possibly leading to false positive identification. Methylation with diazomethane is widely used but, especially for on-site analysis it has limitation due to the potential explosive and health hazards. Other methylation procedures like trimethylsilyldiazomethane (TMSD), thermally assisted methylation (TAM) by trimethylphenylammonium hydroxide (TMPAH) and trimethylsulfonium hydroxide (TMSH) are evaluated. Data for methylation for the alkyl alkylphosphonic acids, alkylphosphonic acids and benzilic acid are reported. In addition, TAM followed by the silylation in the same sample without any additional sample preparation is also reported. Several parameters such as solvent, temperature, amount of reagents, time, etc. were studied. The two commercially available reagents namely, TMPAH and TMSH for TAM and subsequent silylation were evaluated. The LOD with TMPAH was below 0.5 ng per injection since all of the acids were detected by GC-MS with the S/N of >3 in full scan mode by AMDIS and their inter day relative standard deviation was from 4.7% to 10.8%. PMID:21215410

Amphaisri, Kanchanavadee; Palit, Meehir; Mallard, Gary

2011-02-18

193

Combating the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reveals the growing threat posed to all countries by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Discusses the international effort combating this proliferation including the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties, Biological Weapons Convention, and Chemical Weapons Convention. Also considers regional arms…

Jenkins, Bonnie

1997-01-01

194

Non-Lethal Weapons Effectiveness Assessment Development and Verification Study (Etude d'evaluation, de developpement et de verification de l'efficacite des armes non letales).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Whether you're in the operating forces making decisions about weapon selection and employment, a planner addressing capability requirements, a modeller analyzing systems or tactics, a system developer working on new weapons, or an acquisition official mak...

2009-01-01

195

Assessment of the fiscal year 1997 Department of Defense budget and program activities for domestic defense against weapons of mass destruction. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis examines Department of Defense involvement in U.S. preparedness to manage the consequences of a nuclear, radiological, biological, or chemical terrorist attack against its cities. It analyzes the establishment and implementation of the Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act of 1996 which directed the Department of Defense to assist in the training of state and local emergency response agencies involved in consequence management activities. The historical analysis focuses on the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, major terrorist incidents since 1993, international standards, and legislative and executive efforts undertaken to combat terrorism up to 1996. The $150 million Nunn Lugar Domenici amendment to the FY-97 National Defense Authorization Bill is examined in detail from introduction on the Senate floor to eventual passage and enactment. Problems and policy issues associated with resourcing and implementing the resulting Domestic Preparedness Program are treated. Although the DoD was given responsibility for implementing city training, an interagency effort ensued involving the Public Health Service, Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Energy, and others. Potential weaknesses may materialize due to several characteristics of the Domestic Preparedness Program, including its novelty and uniqueness, the unorthodox legislative process by which it was established, and its complex organizational structure and temporary nature.

Guenther, G.R.

1997-12-01

196

Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from

Sloss

1990-01-01

197

Process improvement to the inspection readiness plan in chemical weapons convention challenge inspections. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis identified current Information Technology initiatives to help improve the Navy`s Inspection Readiness Plan for Chemical Warfare Convention (CWC) Challenge Inspection. The CWC is an intensive inspection. The Challenge Inspection allows for a team of international inspectors to inspect a naval facility suspected of violating the CWC on very short notice. This thesis begins with a review of the CWC Challenge Inspection timeline. It then describes the Navy`s Inspection Readiness Plan for CWC Challenge Inspections as well as the Navy Tiger Team that is sent to naval facilities to assist the Commanding Officer and base personnel during inspections. One of the initiatives evaluated by this analysis is the use of videoconferencing. To ascertain the feasibility of using videoconferencing in the CWC Challenge Inspection process, this thesis reviews the current videoconferencing systems and standards, and the results of a questionnaire that was sent to various naval commands. This thesis concludes with recommendations for inclusion of videoconferencing and various other Information Technology initiatives in the CWC Challenge Inspection process.

Triplett, W.M.

1997-09-01

198

Clinical Considerations in the Assessment of Adolescent Chemical Dependency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses relevant research findings of clinical assessment of adolescent chemical dependency so that service providers can better address these concerns. Three major issues are discussed: the definition of adolescent chemical dependency, clinical domains of assessment (chemical use problem severity, precipitating and perpetuating risk factors,…

Winters, Ken

1990-01-01

199

Enhanced detectability of fluorinated derivatives of N, N-dialkylamino alcohols and precursors of nitrogen mustards by gas chromatography coupled to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis for verification of chemical weapons convention  

Microsoft Academic Search

N,N-Dialkylamino alcohols, N-methyldiethanolamine, N-ethyldiethanolamine and triethanolamine are the precursors of VX type nerve agents and three different nitrogen mustards respectively. Their detection and identification is of paramount importance for verification analysis of chemical weapons convention. GC–FTIR is used as complimentary technique to GC–MS analysis for identification of these analytes. One constraint of GC–FTIR, its low sensitivity, was overcome by converting

Prabhat Garg; Ajay Purohit; Vijay K. Tak; D. K. Dubey

2009-01-01

200

78 FR 67289 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive...proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering...

2013-11-12

201

Preliminary Chemical Aging and Lifetime Assessment for High Density S5370  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary lifetime assessment of S5370 stress cushions has been performed. Data from three sources were obtained and reviewed to perform this assessment. The sources were the following: (1) the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Honeywell FM&T Kansas City Plant's 2-year and 9-year accelerated aging studies; (2) a large selection of weapon surveillance return data; (3) laboratory experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Honeywell FM&T Kansas City Plant on artificially aged material. The general conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) There is an inherently large degree of structural and chemical heterogeneity in S5370 cushions that complicates lifetime assessments; (2) Current surveillance testing procedures are inadequate for providing insight into aging trends; (3) LANL PMAP data suggests a 60 year load retention of greater than 40%; however, this is for low density versions and extrapolation to high density must be performed with caution and a new set of testing is recommended; (4) Results of chemical aging assessments suggest that radiation damage is minimal at stockpile relevant doses, thermal degradation leads to compression set due to disentanglement of the network structure over time and a negligible amount of chain scissioning at relevant temperatures. The compression set is accelerated by exposure to radiation; (5) In the absence of further testing, a 60-year load retention of greater than 40% is estimated.

Maxwell, R S; Chinn, S

2003-11-24

202

Quality assurance and reliability sub-committee W88-0/Mk5 weapon assessment NSA lab test results (u)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to gather appropriate level of relevant stockpile surveillance data to assess trends in the NEP quality, reliability, performance, and safety over the life of the system. The objectives are to gather relevant stockpile data to assess NEP quality and trends and to develop metrics to assess the suitability of the surveillance sampling regime to meet assessment process requirements.

Whitney, Earl M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-11-29

203

Biological weapons--the poor man`s nuke. Research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological warfare is one leg of the triad of weapons of mass destruction (coupled with nuclear and chemical weapons). Biological weapons pose a significant threat to the United States military and public population across the spectrum of conflict. There is, however, little common knowledge of the insidious yet devastating potential of these weapons. This paper is written for the lay

B. R. Schneider; T. N. Mayer

1995-01-01

204

Using chemical categories to fill data gaps in hazard assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazard assessments of chemicals have been limited by the availability of test data and the time needed to evaluate the test data. While available data may be inadequate for the majority of industrial chemicals, the body of existing knowledge for most hazards is large enough to permit reliable estimates to be made for untested chemicals without additional animal testing. We

K. van Leeuwen; Terry W. Schultz; T. Henry; B. Diderich; G. D. Veith

2009-01-01

205

Identification of nuclear weapons  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for non-invasively indentifying different types of nuclear weapons is disclosed. A neutron generator is placed against the weapon to generate a stream of neutrons causing fissioning within the weapon. A first detects the generation of the neutrons and produces a signal indicative thereof. A second particle detector located on the opposite side of the weapon detects the fission particles and produces signals indicative thereof. The signals are converted into a detected pattern and a computer compares the detected pattern with known patterns of weapons and indicates which known weapon has a substantially similar pattern. Either a time distribution pattern or noise analysis pattern, or both, is used. Gamma-neutron discrimination and a third particle detector for fission particles adjacent the second particle detector are preferably used. The neutrons are generated by either a decay neutron source or a pulled neutron particle accelerator.

Mihalczo, J.T.; King, W.T.

1987-04-10

206

Relative Importance of Modularity and Other Morphological Attributes on Different Types of Lithic Point Weapons: Assessing Functional Variations  

PubMed Central

The specific using of different prehistoric weapons is mainly determined by its physical properties, which provide a relative advantage or disadvantage to perform a given, particular function. Since these physical properties are integrated to accomplish that function, examining design variables and their pattern of integration or modularity is of interest to estimate the past function of a point. Here we analyze a composite sample of lithic points from southern Patagonia likely formed by arrows, thrown spears and hand-held points to test if they can be viewed as a two-module system formed by the blade and the stem, and to evaluate the degree in which shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle explain the observed variance and differentiation among points supposedly aimed to accomplish different functions. To do so we performed a geometric morphometric analysis on 118 lithic points, departing from 24 two-dimensional landmark and semi landmarks placed on the point's contour. Klingenberg's covariational modularity tests were used to evaluate different modularity hypotheses, and a composite PCA including shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle was used to estimate the importance of each attribute to explaining variation patterns. Results show that the blade and the stem can be seen as “near decomposable units” in the points integrating the studied sample. However, this modular pattern changes after removing the effects of reduction. Indeed, a resharpened point tends to show a tip/rest of the point modular pattern. The composite PCA analyses evidenced three different patterns of morphometric attributes compatible with arrows, thrown spears, and hand-held tools. Interestingly, when analyzed independently, these groups show differences in their modular organization. Our results indicate that stone tools can be approached as flexible designs, characterized by a composite set of interacting morphometric attributes, and evolving on a modular way.

Gonzalez-Jose, Rolando; Charlin, Judith

2012-01-01

207

Pantex: safety in nuclear weapons processing.  

PubMed

The Pantex Plant, located in the Texas panhandle near Amarillo, is a major Department of Energy (DOE) participant in maintaining the safety of the nation's nuclear weapons resources and protecting the employees, public, and environment. With more than 168,000 person-years of operations involving nuclear materials, explosives, and hazardous chemicals, Pantex has maintained a notable safety record. This article overviews the nuclear weapon activities at Pantex and describes their safety culture. PMID:11045518

Johannesen, R E; Farrell, L M

2000-11-01

208

Combating Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available on Senator Arlen Specter's Website, this massive document is the fruit of the Commission to Assess the Organization of the Federal Government to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. In short, it's an assessment of the state of weapons proliferation in places the United States sees as potential national security threats, from insecure Russian stockpiles of nuclear weapons to Saddam Hussein's reputed supplies of Anthrax. While not all readers will agree with either the rather alarmist tone of the document's scenarios or its admittedly less alarmist recommendations, it is a good source for information concerning the intelligence community's assessment of the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) around the globe. The report offers a table of contents sidebar for easy access to portions of the document.

Destruction., United S.

209

Chemical Dependency Regional Needs Assessment: Northeastern Minnesota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Minnesota Model of Chemical Dependency Treatment, which evolved from a combination of the grassroots Alcoholics Anonymous movement and the State Mental Health Services in the 1960s has made Minnesota an international leader in chemical dependency treatment efforts. Northeastern Minnesota has shared this reputation with the state. In spite of…

Stone, Marylee

210

76 FR 30280 - Public Meeting To Discuss the Proposed Rule on Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discuss the Proposed Rule on Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks, and Security...public to discuss the proposed enhanced weapons rule, the two draft regulatory guides, and the draft weapons safety assessment documents....

2011-05-25

211

[Medical aspects of common non-lethal weapons].  

PubMed

The development and provision of non-lethal weapons (NLW) allow military and law enforcement personnel to exploit gradual engagement in countering potentially hazardous threats. Chemical, kinetic and electrical weapons systems are used to curb violence in civilian crowds. With inappropriate usage, these technologies can cause potentially fatal injuries that are not only of clinical, but also of legal relevance. In this context, the practicing physician is faced with treatment as well as assessment issues of new forms of injuries. In order to assure medical care and to be able to draw competent expert's conclusions, a detailed knowledge of the medical effects of these NLW is necessary. The review at hand presents today's most popular NLW and gives an overview of their possible injury potential and required treatments. PMID:24254129

Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Grove, Christina; Monticelli, Fabio

2014-03-01

212

ASSESSING MATERNAL AND FETAL EXPOSURE TO CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

This data will fill key gaps in our understanding of exposure before birth and capacity to detoxify Bisphenol A (BPA) and could inform and strengthen future studies of the effects of BPA and other environmental chemicals on development. ...

213

ASSESSING THE BIODEGRADATION OF SEDIMENT ASSOCIATED CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Investigations of the fate of xenobiotic chemicals in laboratory systems that accommodate the microbial ecology of sediments are described. These systems permit examination of biochemical activities in the sediment bed with particular emphasis at the sediment-water interface. Sed...

214

Portfolio Assessment on Chemical Reactor Analysis and Process Design Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment determines what students regard as important: if a teacher wants to change students' learning, he/she should change the methods of assessment. This article describes the use of portfolio assessment on five courses dealing with chemical reactor and process design during the years 1999-2001. Although the use of portfolio was a new…

Alha, Katariina

2004-01-01

215

Introduction to Health Risk Assessment of Chemicals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report the identification of hazardous substances is discussed as well as principles in dose-response assessment. The aim of the report is to give a general idea about the principles and methodologies applied and problems encountered in the assess...

M. H. Groenlund

1995-01-01

216

RISK ASSESSMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The passage of the Safe Drinking Water and Food Quality Protection Acts requires EPA to develop a program for screening and testing of chemicals for their potential to produce adverse effects on the endocrine systems of humans or wildlife. When tests for estrogen, androgen and t...

217

DRILLING MUD ASSESSMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSIS REFERENCE VOLUME  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents concentrations of specific metals and hydrocarbons in eleven drilling fluids (muds) taken from operating gas and oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico. Each drilling fluid was analyzed chemically for heavy metal and hydrocarbon content in three distinct phases: (1) ...

218

GUIDELINES FOR THE HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

The 1986 Guidelines for the Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures represent the Agency's science policy and are a procedural guide for evaluating data on the health risks from exposures to chemical mixtures. The emphasis is on dose response and risk characterization. ...

219

SUPPLEMENTARY GUIDANCE FOR CONDUCTING HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is a supplement to the EPA Guidelines for the Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures of 1986. The 1986 Guidelines represent the Agency's science policy and are a procedural guide for evaluating data on the health risks from exposures to chemical mixt...

220

CONCEPT OF PROGNOSTIC MODEL ASSESSMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICAL FATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Prognostic assessment provides information on environmental behavior of chemicals when no direct information exists. The utility of this method of analysis depends on the way in which the prognostic modeling tools are used. When the environment and the properties of the chemical ...

221

Risk assessment of chemicals: What about children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In regulatory toxicology there is increased awareness and concern that\\u000achildren and adults may differ in their susceptibility to xenobiotics. \\u000aIn this report a concise overview of the relevant data on the differences\\u000abetween adults and children with respect to the kinetics, dynamics and\\u000aexposure to chemicals is presented and adequacy of currently used\\u000atoxicological tests for regulatory purposes is

Wolterink G; Piersma AH; Engelen JGM van

2007-01-01

222

Assessing Chemical Retention Process Controls in Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small ponds are a ubiquitous component of the landscape and have earned a reputation as effective chemical retention devices. The most common characterization of pond chemical retention is the retention coefficient, Ri= ([Ci]inflow-[Ci] outflow)/[Ci]inflow. However, this parameter varies widely in one pond with time and among ponds. We have re-evaluated literature reported (Borden et al., 1998) monthly average retention coefficients for two ponds in North Carolina. Employing a simple first order model that includes water residence time, the first order process responsible for species removal have been separated from the water residence time over which it acts. Assuming the rate constant for species removal is constant within the pond (arguable at least), the annual average rate constant for species removal is generated. Using the annual mean rate constant for species removal and monthly water residence times results in a significantly enhanced predictive capability for Davis Pond during most months of the year. Predictive ability remains poor in Davis Pond during winter/unstratified periods when internal loading of P and N results in low to negative chemical retention. Predictive ability for Piedmont Pond (which has numerous negative chemical retention periods) is improved but not to the same extent as Davis Pond. In Davis Pond, the rate constant for sediment removal (each month) is faster than the rate constant for water and explains the good predictability for sediment retention. However, the removal rate constant for P and N is slower than the removal rate constant for sediment (longer water column residence time for P,N than for sediment). Thus sedimentation is not an overall control on nutrient retention. Additionally, the removal rate constant for P is slower than for TOC (TOC is not the dominate removal process for P) and N is removed slower than P (different in pond controls). For Piedmont Pond, sediment removal rate constants are slower than the removal rate constant for water indicating significant sediment resuspension episodes. It appears that these sediment resuspension events are aperiodic and control the loading and the chemical retention capability of Piedmont Pond for N,P,TOC. These calculated rate constants reflect the differing internal loading processes for each component and suggest means and mechanisms for the use of ponds in water quality management.

Torgersen, T.; Branco, B.; John, B.

2002-05-01

223

Weapons of Mass Destruction and Terrorism: Proliferation by Non-State Actors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Executive Order No. 1298 signed by President Clinton on November 14,1994 declared a national emergency with resect to the unusual and extraordinary threat that proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (those weapons categorized as nuclear, chemical or...

J. K. Campbell

1996-01-01

224

Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical "Chemical" Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security, and way of life. One particular type of CI--that relating to chemicals--constitutes both an important element of our nation's infrastructure and a particularly attractive set of potential targets. This is primarily because of the large quantities of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) it employs in various operations and because of the essential economic functions it serves. This study attempts to minimize some of the ambiguities that presently impede chemical infrastructure threat assessments by providing new insight into the key motivational factors that affect terrorist organizations propensity to attack chemical facilities. Prepared as a companion piece to the Center for Nonproliferation Studies August 2004 study--''Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure''--it investigates three overarching research questions: (1) why do terrorists choose to attack chemical-related infrastructure over other targets; (2) what specific factors influence their target selection decisions concerning chemical facilities; and (3) which, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack chemical infrastructure targets? The study involved a multi-pronged research design, which made use of four discrete investigative techniques to answer the above questions as comprehensively as possible. These include: (1) a review of terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist interest in targeting chemical facilities; (2) the preparation of case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played a significant role in leading some terrorist groups to attack chemical facilities; (3) an examination of data from the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITIC) to further illuminate the nature of terrorist attacks against chemical facilities to date; and (4) the refinement of the DECIDe--the Determinants Effecting Critical Infrastructure Decisions--analytical framework to make the factors and dynamics identified by the study more ''usable'' in future efforts to assess terrorist intentions to target chemical-related infrastructure.

Ackerman, G; Bale, J; Moran, K

2004-12-14

225

Conventional weapons demilitarization: A health and environmental effects data base assessment: Propellants and their co-contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The demilitarization of propellants by open burning results in the deposition of residues on soils. Residues can consist of the main ingredients in propellant formulations, namely, nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, and nitroguanidine. Co-contaminants, consisting of plasticizers and stabilizers present in propellant formulations as well as environmental degradation products of the propellants, represent additional soil contaminants. These substances include nitrosoguanidine, dibutylphthlate, diethylphthlate, dipenylamine, and ethyl centralite. To support studies of the health and environmental risks of such by-products, this report presents assessments of data available on parameters that affect the risks posed by propellants and their principal co-contaminants. Specifically, data-base assessments cover factors that influence the transport and fate of the contaminants in environmental media (e.g., soils, water, etc.) and subsequently, human exposures via different pathways (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, and skin absorption). Importantly, information on dose-response relationships for various toxic effects in humans and laboratory animals is evaluated so that acceptable daily intakes for noncarcinogenic substances and virtually safe dose rates species are also addressed. 284 refs.

Mallon, B.; Layton, D.; Fish, R.; Hsieh, P.; Hall, L.; Perry, L.; Snyder, G.

1988-08-01

226

Chemical Mixtures: Cancer Risk Assessment Approaches  

EPA Science Inventory

Presentation will describe how EPA uses linear and nonlinear methods to derive cancer slope factors and reference doses,respectively, for single carcinogens, as described in EPA's 2005 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. Then, the presentation will show how these toxicity ...

227

Nonproliferation and arms control assessment of weapons-usable fissile material storage and excess plutonium disposition alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (DOE-NN) with support from the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD). Its purpose is to analyze the nonproliferation and arms reduction implications of the alternatives for storage of plutonium and HEU, and disposition of excess plutonium, to aid policymakers and the public in making final decisions. While this assessment describes the benefits and risks associated with each option, it does not attempt to rank order the options or choose which ones are best. It does, however, identify steps which could maximize the benefits and mitigate any vulnerabilities of the various alternatives under consideration.

NONE

1997-01-01

228

Concealed Weapon Detection Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses various Concealed Weapon Detection (CWD) efforts and technologies which have evolved over the past few years. Information provided in this final technical report summarized programs being pursued based on National Institute of Justic...

D. R. Rauscher M. P. Hartnett

1998-01-01

229

Virtual nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

Pilat, J.F.

1997-08-01

230

Curriculum Assessment as a Direct Tool in ABET Outcomes Assessment in a Chemical Engineering Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chemical engineering programme at the United Arab Emirates University is designed to fulfil the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) (A-K) EC2000 criteria. The Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering has established a well-defined process for outcomes assessment for the chemical engineering programme in order to…

Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Attar, Hazim

2010-01-01

231

75 FR 4833 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Assessment Questionnaire-Voluntary Chemical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Voluntary Chemical Assessment Tool (VCAT) AGENCY: National...Voluntary Chemical Assessment Tool (VCAT). DHS previously...forms of information technology, e.g., permitting...automated assessment tool for voluntary use by...assessments, response planning, and risk...

2010-01-29

232

Chemical Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by military ... there are no guarantees of safety during a chemical emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. You ...

233

A robustness screen for the rapid assessment of chemical reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In contrast to the rapidity with which scientific information is published, the application of new knowledge often remains slow, and we believe this to be particularly true of newly developed synthetic organic chemistry methodology. Consequently, methods to assess and identify robust chemical reactions are desirable, and would directly facilitate the application of newly reported synthetic methodology to complex synthetic problems. Here, we describe a simple process for assessing the likely scope and limitations of a chemical reaction beyond the idealized reaction conditions initially reported. Using simple methods and common analytical techniques we demonstrate a rapid assessment of an established chemical reaction, and also propose a simplified analysis that may be reported alongside new synthetic methodology.

Collins, Karl D.; Glorius, Frank

2013-07-01

234

Making weapons, talking peace  

SciTech Connect

The memoirs of the author traces his life from his first-year graduate studies in physics at the University of Rochester in 1942 to his present position as Director of the University of California's Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation. The part of his life involved in making weapons extends from 1942 to 1961. During this period, he worked with E.O. Lawrence on the Manhattan Project and served as director of Livermore after it became the Atomic Energy Commission's second nuclear weapons laboratory. He also served on many government advisory boards and commissions dealing with nuclear and other weapons. In 1961, the combination of a heart attack and changes in administration in Washington led York too return to the University of California for the talking peace portion of his life. He has since become a public exponent of arms control and disarmament and the futility of seeking increased security through more and better nuclear weapons. York's explanation of his move from making weapons to talking peace leaves the reader with a puzzle.

York, H.F.

1987-01-01

235

New blast weapons.  

PubMed

Over the last decade a large number of weapon systems have appeared that use blast as their primary damage mechanism. This is a notable trend; until recently very few warheads relied on blast as their primary output. Most warheads in service use explosives to drive metal such as fragments and shaped charge jets to engage targets. New technologies are now being integrated into warheads that claim to have enhanced blast performance. Blast weapons could have been designed to fill a gap in capability; they are generally used for the attack of 'soft' targets including personnel, both in the open and within protective structures. With the increased number and range of these weapons, it is likely that UK forces will have to face them in future conflicts. This paper briefly describes fuel-air explosive blast weapons and reviews a range of enhanced blast weapons that have been developed recently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the reasons why enhanced blast technologies may be proliferating and how this could affect the Defence Medical Services. PMID:11307681

Dearden, P

2001-02-01

236

Weapons and hope  

SciTech Connect

The British-born physicist presents a full-blown critique of US weapons policy. His careful evaluation of opposing views leads him to endorse a live-and-let-live concept of arms control, which would reject both assured destruction and first use of nuclear weapons in favor of abolishing them. Dyson's faith in the humane progress of military technology and his tolerance of dangerous conventional weapons will not please dovish readers, while his denunciation of military idolatry and his support of a nuclear freeze will disappoint some hawks. Along with moving personal memories of war and pacifism, the most original sections of the book are the author's insightful comments about the Soviet Union and the issue of verification.

Dyson, F.

1984-01-01

237

Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts  

SciTech Connect

This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

Senglaub, M.

1996-06-01

238

Weaponeering the Future: Direct Energy Weapons Effectiveness Now and Tomorrow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Direct Energy weapons can exist on the battlefield of today, and the warfighter needs to know what Probability of Damage these weapons can attain. Currently, the Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manual calculates a Single Sortie Probability of Damage for con...

C. F. Fager

2007-01-01

239

Toxicity assessment of unintentional exposure to multiple chemicals  

SciTech Connect

Typically exposure to environmental chemicals is unintentional, and often the exposure is to chemical mixtures, either simultaneously or sequentially. When exposure occurs, in public health practice, it is prudent to ascertain if thresholds for harmful health effects are exceeded, whether by individual chemicals or by chemicals in combination. Three alternative approaches are available for assessing the toxicity of chemical mixtures. Each approach, however, has shortcomings. As the procedures of each approach are described in this paper, at various steps research needs are identified. Recently, reliance has increased on computational toxicology methods for predicting toxicological effects when data are limited. Advances in molecular biology, identification of biomarkers, and availability of accurate and sensitive methods allow us to more precisely define the relationships between multiple chemical exposures and health effects, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Key research needs are best fulfilled through collaborative research. It is through such collaborations that resources are most effectively leveraged to further develop and apply toxicity assessment methods that advance public health practices in vulnerable communities.

Mumtaz, M.M. [Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States)], E-mail: mgm4@cdc.gov; Ruiz, P. [Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); De Rosa, C.T. [Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States)

2007-09-01

240

Pandora's Box Opened Wide: UAVs Carrying Genetic Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A recent Rand report on chemical and biological weapons (CBW) identifies unmanned aerial vehicles(UAVs) as a feasible CBW delivery means by potential adversaries like North Korea. With significant concern regarding the ability to defend against a delivery...

D. J. Hauck

2005-01-01

241

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS Pastoor, Timothy1, Barton, Hugh2 1 Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC, USA. 2 EPA, Office of Research and Development-NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. A multi-stakeholder series of discussions d...

242

TECHNICAL SUPPORT DOCUMENT ON RISK ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

This document was recommended by the U.S. EPA's Science Advisory Board as a means of providing the broad technical background for the principles and procedures described in the "Guidelines for Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures". nique sections include an overview of ava...

243

Use of mechanistic information in risk assessment for toxic chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment (RA) for toxic chemicals is assumed to be a scientific activity providing a framework of principles for the compilation and evaluation of all available scientific information and the rational extrapolation to human health effects in as quantitative terms as possible and with a high degree of certainty. Sensible public health decisions are made more certain through the use

George C. Becking

1995-01-01

244

ASSESSING TOXICITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS TO ANAEROBIC TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A screening protocol has been developed to provide a rapid but dependable and repeatable assessment of the effect of toxic organic chemicals on anaerobic treatment processes. his protocol provides information on the rate limiting biological reactions and the concentration of toxi...

245

Air weapon fatalities.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To describe characteristics of a series of people accidentally and deliberately killed by air powered weapons. METHODS: Five cases of fatal airgun injury were identified by forensic pathologists and histopathologists. The circumstances surrounding the case, radiological examination, and pathological findings are described. The weapon characteristics are also reported. RESULTS: Three of the victims were adult men, one was a 16 year old boy, and one an eight year old child. Four of the airguns were .22 air rifles, the other a .177 air rifle. Two committed suicide, one person shooting himself in the head, the other in the chest. In both cases the guns were fired at contact range. Three of the cases were classified as accidents: in two the pellet penetrated into the head and in one the chest. CONCLUSIONS: One person each year dies from an air powered weapon injury in the United Kingdom. In addition there is considerable morbidity from airgun injuries. Fatalities and injuries are most commonly accidents, but deliberately inflicted injuries occur. Airguns are dangerous weapons when inappropriately handled and should not be considered as toys. Children should not play with airguns unsupervised. Images

Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Rooney, N

1998-01-01

246

US weapons secrets revealed  

SciTech Connect

Extraordinary details have only recently been revealed about the struggle over the control of early U.S. nuclear weapons and their initial deployments abroad. The information comes from a newly declassified top secret report, part of a larger study, The History of the Strategic Arms Competition, 1945-1972, commissioned by Defense Secretary James R. Schlisinger in summer 1974.

Norris, R.S.; Arkin, W.M.

1993-03-01

247

Weapon Storage Technology Demonstration Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goals of the Weapon Storage Technology Demonstration Facility is to (1) improve monitoring of weapons storage facility security status, (2) to improve detection of unauthorized access into the storage facilities, and (3) enhance inventory accounting o...

G. A. Mann A. Sviridov K. Zimovets

2000-01-01

248

Hazard and risk assessment of teratogenic chemicals under REACH.  

PubMed

In 2007, a new European chemicals legislation was implemented: Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006, also known as "REACH." It obliges companies to take the main responsibility for the valid information on the safe use of the chemicals they manufacture and/or place on the European market. So they must, for example, register their chemicals at the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and submit extensive substance-related registration dossiers containing information on the substances' intrinsic hazardous properties and documentation of their risk assessment. REACH regulates the registration and evaluation process as well as the authorization and restriction procedure. In addition, classification, labeling, and packaging of chemicals apply in accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 ("CLP Regulation"). It implements almost completely the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS) into European legislation and will fully replace the Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC) and the Dangerous Preparations Directive (1999/45/EC) by 2015. According to both the old and the new classification system, teratogenic chemicals are classified as developmental toxicants, with developmental toxicity falling within the hazard class of reproductive toxicity. REACH as well as the CLP Regulation provide several procedures in which reproductive toxicants take a special position because their harmful effects are considered particularly serious. Teratogenic substances are not explicitly named by these legal texts but, as they constitute as developmental toxicants a hazard differentiation of reproductive toxicity, they are implicitly always included by the provisions. PMID:23138924

Prutner, Wiebke

2013-01-01

249

Responding to chemical attack. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In view of Iraq's stated intention of using chemical weapons in the Persian Gulf War, the Coalition forces must be prepared to respond. Iraq is capable of conducting such an attack. While the use of chemical weapons may not be militarily significant, the political effect of the use and the response to it may be very significant. Responses including the use of chemical and nuclear weapons are assessed in terms of their legality, political cost, and military effectiveness and found unacceptable. Reliance on diplomatic protests and on post-war criminal sanctions are judged ineffective. A response in the form of increased conventional attack on the Iraqi chemical infrastructure is recommended because that response will preserve the present Coalition, effectively counter the chemical attack, contribute to regional stability, and enhance the reputation of the United States for lawfulness and dependability.

Bagley, R.W.

1991-02-11

250

INCORPORATING BIOLOGICALLY BASED MODELS INTO ASSESSMENTS OF RISK FROM CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The general approach to assessment of risk from chemical contaminants in drinking water involves three steps: hazard identification, exposure assessment, and dose-response assessment. raditionally, the risks to humans associated with different levels of a chemical have been deriv...

251

Uncertainty and precaution in European environmental risk assessment of chemicals.  

PubMed

It is recognised that there is a need for a proper treatment and transparency of uncertainty in risk assessment and management, especially in view of the upcoming proposed new chemical policy REACH, which delegates the responsibility for conducting risk assessments to industry. The current EU risk assessment for new and existing substances is largely deterministic and prudential measures are implicitly embedded in calculation schemes and rules. In this paper, a more probabilistic approach to risk assessment is advocated. The advantage is twofold: 1) inherent variability and other uncertainty pertaining to exposure and effects are transparently taken into account, while at the same time 2) issues of caution are explicitly transferred to the risk management phase. The result of a probabilistic risk assessment as suggested is improved transparency with quantitative and qualitative uncertainty estimates. Such uncertainty information can be used to discuss precautionary measures in the context of risk management. PMID:16315366

Verdonck, F A M; Van Sprang, P A; Vanrolleghem, P A

2005-01-01

252

Nuclear weapon detection categorization analysis  

SciTech Connect

This statement of work is for the Proof of Concept for nuclear weapon categories utility in Arms control. The focus of the project will be to collect, analyze and correlate Intrinsic Radiation (INRAD) calculation results for the purpose of defining measurable signatures that differentiate categories of nuclear weapons. The project will support START III negotiations by identifying categories of nuclear weapons. The categories could be used to clarify sub-limits on the total number of nuclear weapons.

NONE

1997-12-01

253

Ethics and nuclear weapons research  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear weapons are the ultimate weapons. Hence, many believe that in the realm of military research and development, research on nuclear weapons represents the ultimate. Those of us involved in nuclear weapon research are frequently asked why we do what we do, rather than get involved in the more ''peaceful'' endeavors open to scientists and engineers. There is a variety of answers to this question. 15 refs.

Brown, P.S.

1989-01-20

254

Army pushes new weapons effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Army is conducting research for a directed energy weapons program which is to provide particle beam and high-energy laser weapons for ballistic missile defense in the late 1980s. A space-based neutral beam weapon and a ground-based charged particle device are being considered. The feasibility of a space-based laser weapon system is also explored. A ground-based technology demonstration program

C. A. Robinson Jr.

1978-01-01

255

Methods for Assessing Exposure to Chemical Substances. Volume 7. Methods for Assessing Consumer Exposure to Chemical Substances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is one of a series of volumes, developed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Toxic Substances (DrS), that provides methods and information useful for assessing exposure to chemical substances. The methods described ...

D. A. Dixon K. A. Hammerstrom L. C. Adkins P. D. Jennings T. Chambers

1987-01-01

256

Applying Agile MethodstoWeapon/Weapon-Related Software  

SciTech Connect

This white paper provides information and guidance to the Department of Energy (DOE) sites on Agile software development methods and the impact of their application on weapon/weapon-related software development. The purpose of this white paper is to provide an overview of Agile methods, examine the accepted interpretations/uses/practices of these methodologies, and discuss the applicability of Agile methods with respect to Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) Technical Business Practices (TBPs). It also provides recommendations on the application of Agile methods to the development of weapon/weapon-related software.

Adams, D; Armendariz, M; Blackledge, M; Campbell, F; Cloninger, M; Cox, L; Davis, J; Elliott, M; Granger, K; Hans, S; Kuhn, C; Lackner, M; Loo, P; Matthews, S; Morrell, K; Owens, C; Peercy, D; Pope, G; Quirk, R; Schilling, D; Stewart, A; Tran, A; Ward, R; Williamson, M

2007-05-02

257

Informational uncertainties of risk assessment about accidents of chemicals.  

PubMed

An analysis system of informational uncertainties for accidental risk assessment of chemicals is introduced. Statistical test methods and fuzzy sets method can do the quantitative analysis of the input parameters. The uncertainties of the model can be used by quantitative compared method for the leakage accidents of chemicals. The estimation of the leaking time is important for discussing accidental source term. The uncertain analyses of the release accident for pipeline gas (CO) liquid chlorine and liquid propane gas (LPG) have been discussed. PMID:11590722

Zhang, Y X

2001-01-01

258

15 CFR 710.4 - Overview of scheduled chemicals and examples of affected industries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR) ...useful in the production of chemical weapons, they also have legitimate uses...

2013-01-01

259

Application of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models in Chemical Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Post-exposure risk assessment of chemical and environmental stressors is a public health challenge. Linking exposure to health outcomes is a 4-step process: exposure assessment, hazard identification, dose response assessment, and risk characterization. This process is increasingly adopting “in silico” tools such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to fine-tune exposure assessments and determine internal doses in target organs/tissues. Many excellent PBPK models have been developed. But most, because of their scientific sophistication, have found limited field application—health assessors rarely use them. Over the years, government agencies, stakeholders/partners, and the scientific community have attempted to use these models or their underlying principles in combination with other practical procedures. During the past two decades, through cooperative agreements and contracts at several research and higher education institutions, ATSDR funded translational research has encouraged the use of various types of models. Such collaborative efforts have led to the development and use of transparent and user-friendly models. The “human PBPK model toolkit” is one such project. While not necessarily state of the art, this toolkit is sufficiently accurate for screening purposes. Highlighted in this paper are some selected examples of environmental and occupational exposure assessments of chemicals and their mixtures.

Mumtaz, Moiz; Fisher, Jeffrey; Blount, Benjamin; Ruiz, Patricia

2012-01-01

260

Application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models in chemical risk assessment.  

PubMed

Post-exposure risk assessment of chemical and environmental stressors is a public health challenge. Linking exposure to health outcomes is a 4-step process: exposure assessment, hazard identification, dose response assessment, and risk characterization. This process is increasingly adopting "in silico" tools such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to fine-tune exposure assessments and determine internal doses in target organs/tissues. Many excellent PBPK models have been developed. But most, because of their scientific sophistication, have found limited field application-health assessors rarely use them. Over the years, government agencies, stakeholders/partners, and the scientific community have attempted to use these models or their underlying principles in combination with other practical procedures. During the past two decades, through cooperative agreements and contracts at several research and higher education institutions, ATSDR funded translational research has encouraged the use of various types of models. Such collaborative efforts have led to the development and use of transparent and user-friendly models. The "human PBPK model toolkit" is one such project. While not necessarily state of the art, this toolkit is sufficiently accurate for screening purposes. Highlighted in this paper are some selected examples of environmental and occupational exposure assessments of chemicals and their mixtures. PMID:22523493

Mumtaz, Moiz; Fisher, Jeffrey; Blount, Benjamin; Ruiz, Patricia

2012-01-01

261

Modular weapon control unit  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Modular Weapon Control Unit (MWCU) program was to design and develop a reconfigurable weapon controller (programmer/sequencer) that can be adapted to different weapon systems based on the particular requirements for that system. Programmers from previous systems are conceptually the same and perform similar tasks. Because of this commonality and the amount of re-engineering necessary with the advent of every new design, the idea of a modular, adaptable system has emerged. Also, the controller can be used in more than one application for a specific weapon system. Functionality has been divided into a Processor Module (PM) and an Input/Output Module (IOM). The PM will handle all operations that require calculations, memory, and timing. The IOM will handle interfaces to the rest of the system, input level shifting, output drive capability, and detection of interrupt conditions. Configuration flexibility is achieved in two ways. First, the operation of the PM is determined by a surface mount Read-Only Memory (ROM). Other surface-mount components can be added or neglected as necessary for functionality. Second, IOMs consist of configurable input buffers, configurable output drivers, and configurable interrupt generation. Further, these modules can be added singly or in groups to a Processor Module to achieve the required I/O configuration. The culmination of this LDRD was the building of both Processor Module and Input/Output Module. The MWCU was chosen as a test system to evaluate Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology, desirable for high component density and good thermal characteristics.

Boccabella, M.F.; McGovney, G.N.

1997-01-01

262

US nuclear weapons policy  

SciTech Connect

We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

May, M.

1990-12-05

263

Weapons and Aggression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Craig Anderson of Iowa State University, this case study addresses the question: "Does the mere presence of a weapon increase the accessibility of aggressive thoughts?" It concerns the following concepts: quantile and box plots, stem and leaf displays, one-sample t test, confidence interval, within-subjects ANOVA, and consequences of violation of normality assumption. This is a great example of a case study that illustrates many different concepts of statistics.

Anderson, Craig; Lane, David M.

2009-03-06

264

The GARD assay for assessment of chemical skin sensitizers.  

PubMed

Allergic contact dermatitis is a skin disease caused by an immunologic reaction to low molecular weight compounds, so called haptens. These substances are commonly present in products used by humans in daily life, such as in cosmetics and fragrances, as well as within chemical industry and in pharmaceuticals. The frequent usage of these compounds in different applications has led to increasing incidences of allergic contact dermatitis, which has become a substantial economic burden for society. As a consequence, chemicals are routinely tested for their ability to induce skin sensitization, using animal models such as the murine Local Lymph Node Assay. However, recent legislations regulate the use of animal models within chemical testing. Thus, there is an urgent need for in vitro alternatives to replace these assays for safety assessment of chemicals. Recently, we identified a signature of predictive genes, which are differentially regulated in the human myeloid cell-line MUTZ-3 when stimulated with sensitizing compounds compared to non-sensitizing compounds. Based on these findings, we have formulated a test strategy for assessment of sensitizing compounds, called Genomic Allergen Rapid Detection, GARD. In this paper, we present a detailed method description of how the assay should be performed. PMID:23032079

Johansson, Henrik; Albrekt, Ann-Sofie; Borrebaeck, Carl A K; Lindstedt, Malin

2013-04-01

265

Assessment of impacts at the advanced test reactor as a result of chemical releases at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an assessment of potential impacts at the Advanced Test Reactor Facility (ATR) resulting from accidental chemical spill at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Spills postulated to occur at the Lincoln Blvd turnoff to ICPP were...

A. S. Rood

1991-01-01

266

76 FR 23515 - Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks, and Security Event Notifications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2011-0017] RIN 3150-AI49 Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks, and Security...requirements on the theft or loss of enhanced weapons. Concurrent with the amendments described...NRC published for comment the draft ``Weapons Safety Assessment'' (76 FR...

2011-04-27

267

Characterization and Detection of Biological Weapons with Atomic Force Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Critical gaps exist in our capabilities to rapidly characterize threat agents which could be used in attacks on facilities and military forces. DNA-based PCR and immunoassay-based techniques provide unique identification of species, strains and protein signatures of pathogens. However, differentiation between naturally occurring and weaponized bioagents and the identification of formulation signatures are beyond current technologies. One of the most effective and often the only definitive means to identify a threat agent is by its direct visualization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a rapid imaging technique that covers the size range of most biothreat agents (several nanometers to tens of microns), is capable of resolving pathogen morphology and structure, and could be developed into a portable device for biological weapons (BW) field characterization. AFM can detect pathogens in aerosol, liquid, surface and soil samples while concomitantly acquiring their weaponization and threat agent digital signatures. BW morphological and structural signatures, including modifications to pathogen microstructural architecture and topology that occur during formulation and weaponization, provide the means for their differentiation from crude or purified unformulated agent, processing signatures, as well as assessment of their potential for dispersion, inhalation and environmental persistence. AFM visualization of pathogen morphology and architecture often provides valuable digital signatures and allows direct detection and identification of threat agents. We have demonstrated that pathogens, spanning the size range from several nanometers for small agricultural satellite viruses to almost half micron for pox viruses, and to several microns for bacteria and bacterial spores, can be visualized by AFM under physiological conditions to a resolution of {approx}20-30 {angstrom}. We have also demonstrated that viruses from closely related families could be differentiated by AFM on the basis of their structural attributes. Similarly, we have shown3-5 that bacterial spore coat structures are phylogenetically and growth medium determined. These findings validate that AFM can identify species/formulation-specific signatures that could used to reconstruct production conditions. In addition, we showed that internal structures of pathogens could be revealed by chemical and enzymatic dissection, thus providing additional AFM threat agent signatures. We have developed AFM-based immunochemical labeling procedures for threat-specific epitope visualization, which extend the specificity of structural information that AFM can provide. AFM enables sensitive detection/identification/detection of threat agents (e.g Sterne. B. anthracis spore sample having a concentration of {approx}10{sup 6} spores/ml) and allows their identification in environmental cluttered samples. AFM analysis has the capacity for accessing forensically important data and rapid BW identification and weaponization characterization.

Malkin, A J; Plomp, M; Leighton, T J; McPherson, A

2006-09-25

268

[Managerial, scientific, and practical measures for health protection of the population living and working in the protective actions zone of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities].  

PubMed

The results of health assessment of the population living and working in the protective actions zone by the evidence obtained during general and special meadical examinations are summarized. PMID:22568025

Filippov, V L; Rembovski?, V R; Krinitsyn, N V; Filippova, Iu V; Kiselev, D B; Nechaeva, E N; Kas'ianenko, E S; Kolzukova, O N; Kiselev, A D; Sharshakova, O V

2012-01-01

269

Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources  

SciTech Connect

This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas and petroleum-derived resources. Results from both parts of the assessment indicate that, in the absence of gas and petroleum, coal undoubtedly would be a major source of chemicals first, followed by biomass. The most attractive biomass resources are wood, agricultural residues, and sugar and starch crops. A reasonable approximation to the current product slate for the petrochemical industry could be manufactured using only renewable resources for feedstocks. Approximately 2.5 quads (10/sup 15/ Btu (1.055 x 10/sup 18/ joules)) per year of oil and gas would be released. Further use of biomass fuels in the industry could release up to an additional 1.5 quads. however, such an industry would be unprofitable under current economic conditions with existing or near-commercial technology. As fossil resources become more expensive and biotechnology becomes more efficient, the economics will be more favorable. Use of the chemicals industry model to evaluate process technologies is demonstrated. Processes are identified which have potential for significant added value to the system if process improvements can be made to improve the economics. Guidelines and recommendations for research and development programs to improve the attractiveness of chemicals from biomass are discussed.

Donaldson, T.L.; Culberson, O.L.

1983-06-01

270

Toxicogenomic profiling of chemically exposed humans in risk assessment  

PubMed Central

Gene-environment interactions contribute to complex disease development. The environmental contribution, in particular low-level and prevalent environmental exposures, may constitute much of the risk and contribute substantially to disease. Systematic risk evaluation of the majority of human chemical exposures, has not been conducted and is a goal of regulatory agencies in the U.S. and worldwide. With the recent recognition that toxicological approaches more predictive of effects in humans are required for risk assessment, in vitro human cell line data as well as animal data are being used to identify toxicity mechanisms that can be translated into biomarkers relevant to human exposure studies. In this review, we discuss how data from toxicogenomic studies of exposed human populations can inform risk assessment, by generating biomarkers of exposure, early effect, and/or susceptibility, elucidating mechanisms of action underlying exposure-related disease, and detecting response at low doses. Good experimental design incorporating precise, individual exposure measurements, phenotypic anchors (pre-disease or traditional toxicological markers), and a range of relevant exposure levels, is necessary. Further, toxicogenomic studies need to be designed with sufficient power to detect true effects of the exposure. As more studies are performed and incorporated into databases such as the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) and Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS), data can be mined for classification of newly tested chemicals (hazard identification), and, for investigating the dose-response, inter-relationship among, genes, environment and disease in a systems biology approach (risk characterization).

McHale, Cliona M.; Zhang, Luoping; Hubbard, Alan E.; Smith, Martyn T.

2010-01-01

271

Assessing culturally competent chemical dependence treatment services for Mexican Americans.  

PubMed

Mexican Americans struggling with chemical dependence are greatly underserved. Barriers to treatment include language, lack of culturally relevant services, lack of trust in programs, uninviting environments, and limited use and linkage with cultural resources in the community. This project aimed to develop a tool for assessing and planning culturally competent/relevant chemical dependence treatment services for Mexican Americans. Focus groups were conducted with experts in Mexican-American culture and chemical dependence from six substance abuse programs serving adult and adolescent Mexican Americans and their families. Sixty-two statements were developed describing characteristics of culturally competent/relevant organizations. Concept mapping was used to produce a conceptual map displaying dimensions of culturally competent/relevant organizations and Cronbach's alpha was calculated to assess the internal consistency of each dimension. Analysis resulted in seven reliable subscales: Spanish language (alpha = 0.84), counselor characteristics (alpha = 0.82), environment (alpha = 0.88), family (alpha = 0.84), linkage (alpha = 0.92), community (alpha = 0.86), and culture (alpha = 0.89). The resulting instrument based on these items and dimensions enable agencies to evaluate culturally competent/relevant services, set goals, and identify resources needed to implement desired services for both individual organizations and networks of regional services. PMID:18528760

Shorkey, Clayton; Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Spence, Richard

2009-01-01

272

75 FR 62916 - Re-Delegation by the Under Secretary of State to the Director, Office of Chemical and Biological...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Director, Office of Chemical and Biological Weapons Affairs, of the Functions and Authorities...including by Section 101 of the Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act of 1998...Director, Office of Chemical and Biological Weapons Affairs, Bureau of Arms...

2010-10-13

273

Third-generation nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

Today a third generation of nuclear weapons is technologically feasible. By altering the shape of the nuclear explosive and manipulating other design features, weapons could be built that generate and direct beams of radiation or streams of metallic pellets or droplets at such targets as missile-launch facilities on the ground, missiles in the air and satellites in space. These weapons would be as removed from current nuclear weapons in terms of military effectiveness as a rifle is technologically distant from gunpowder. It would be logical for a weapon designer to build on the legacy of the first- and second-generation nuclear weapons, all of which transform mass into an abundance of energy that is then uniformly dissipated in a roughly spherical pattern. Such a new generation of nuclear weapons might selectively enhance or suppress certain types of energy from the vast energy source provided by a nuclear explosion. Moreover, the lethal effects of a selected energy carrier (such as electromagnetic radiation, subatomic particles or expelled material) might be increased by distorting its normal pattern of emission into a highly asymmetrical one - in essence concentrating the energy in a certain direction. Indeed, nuclear weapons that deliver 1000 or more times the energy per unit area on a target than does a conventional nuclear weapon are entirely plausible. 9 figures.

Taylor, T.B.)

1987-04-01

274

Assessment of human exposure to chemicals from Superfund sites.  

PubMed Central

Assessing human exposure to chemicals from Superfund sites requires knowledge of basic physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in the environment and specific information about the local environment and population in the vicinity of sites of interest. Although progress is being made in both areas, there is still a tremendous amount to be done. Participants at this meeting have identified several of the areas in need of greater understanding, and they are listed below. Movement of dissolved and volatile organics, especially NAPLs, in the subsurface environment. This includes study of the partitioning of compounds between NAPLs, air, water, and soil. Partitioning of volatilized chemicals between gaseous and aerosol components of the atmosphere. This includes understanding how these components influence both wet and dry deposition. Long-term movement from sediments into biota and how these affect chronic toxicity to sediment biota. Broad validation of PBPK models describing partitioning of compounds from sediment and water into fish. Reactions of chemicals sorbed to atmospheric particles. This includes application of laboratory models to real and varied atmospheric conditions. Interactions between biotic and abiotic transformations in soil and sediment. Applicability of physiological pharmacokinetic models developed in laboratory studies of experimental animals and clinical investigations of humans to environmental chemicals, concentrations, and routes of exposure in humans. Use of human and wildlife behavioral and biomonitoring information to estimate exposure. This includes better understanding of human variability and the applicability of information gathered from particular wildlife species. To successfully address these gaps in our knowledge, much more analytical data must be collected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Kamrin, M A; Fischer, L J; Suk, W A; Fouts, J R; Pellizzari, E; Thornton, K

1994-01-01

275

Concepts of the International Programme on Chemical Safety in the Assessment of Risks to Human Health from Exposure to Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) is a cooperative program of the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, and the United Nations Environment Programme. The main objectives of its risk assessment work are to provide, on a global basis, consensus assessments of priority chemicals (including pesticides) and to promote the development, validation, use, and harmonization of sound methodologies

Maged Younes; Cynthia Sonich-Mullin

1997-01-01

276

Application of nonselective 1D (1)H-(31)P inverse NMR spectroscopy to the screening of solutions for the presence of organophosphorus compounds related to the chemical weapons convention.  

PubMed

1D nonselective (1)H-(31)P HSQMBC, HSQC, and (31)P decoupled HSQC NMR experiments were applied to the screening of original OPCW proficiency test samples for the presence of organophosphorus (OP) compounds related to the Chemical Weapons Convention. The HSQC and HSQMBC spectra are compared to 1D (1)H NMR spectra with WET solvent suppression and (31)P[(1)H] spectra of the same samples. The 1D nonselective HSQC and HSQMBC experiments are shown to be the most sensitive NMR experiments to selectively screen samples for the presence of organophosphorus(OP) compounds. These experiments are at least three times more sensitive than the (31)P[(1)H] NMR experiment and allow the determination of the number of OP compounds present in the sample and their alkyl group bound to the phosphorus atom. Samples spiked at the 5-10 ppm level can be screened within an hour for the presence of OP compounds, whereas for the (31)P[(1)H] experiments, an overnight acquisition is necessary. The sensitivity of the experiments decreases in the order (31)P decoupled HSQC, HSQMBC, and HSQC. For the different alkyl groups, the sensitivity of these experiments decreases in the order methyl approximately isopropyl > ethyl > propyl. PMID:14719888

Meier, Urs C

2004-01-15

277

The Effects of Nuclear Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When 'The Effects of Atomic Weapons' was published in 1950, the explosive energy yields of the fission bombs available at that time were equivalent to some thousands of tons (i.e., kilotons) of TNT. With the development of thermonuclear (fusion) weapons, ...

P. J. Dolan S. Glasstone

1977-01-01

278

Nuclear tests mean new weapons  

SciTech Connect

Stockpile maintenance does not require nuclear testing. With the consensus that there is not technical substitute for developmental nuclear weapons testing, there appears to be an unambiguous opportunity for a secure and meaningful comprehensive test ban. From a national security standpoint, nuclear innovations and nuclear tests are entirely dispensable. The prospects of nuclear retaliation are severe enough that no country could assume the ability to conduct a nuclear strike with impunity. The precise combination of yield, accuracy, and radiation effects from a nuclear weapon is insignificant, compared to the overall consequences of a nuclear attack. Deterrence, independent as it is of the details of nuclear warhead design, will persist whether or not nuclear tests are conducted. An abrupt adoption of a comprehensive test ban would interrupt the US nuclear weapons development program without harming the nation's ability to maintain a safe and reliable deterrent. But the nuclear weapons design laboratories have a long history of influential opposition to a test ban. In part, this is because the large-scale nuclear weapons research and development program gives the weapons laboratories not only a license but a mandate to continue introducing new weapons into the stockpile. A comprehensive test ban, accompanied by restructuring of the nuclear weapons program as a maintenance operation, would safeguard the nuclear deterrent while bringing the qualitative arms race to a halt. 5 references, 3 figures.

Stein, J.A.

1986-11-01

279

Future of Nuclear Weapon Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The next few years will bring decisions that are critical for the future of the nation's nuclear weapons program and for the role of the national weapons laboratories. To meet this challenge, the United States needs to develop both a clear, cohesive, nati...

G. H. Miller P. S. Brown P. T. Herman R. D. Neifert P. L. Chrzanowski

1988-01-01

280

Investigating Concurrency in Weapons Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concurrency in a weapons program -- the actual production of the weapons system while some portions of the design are still being completed -- has been a topic of debate for decades. While there have been some investigations into certain programs that poi...

D. Birchler E. Groo G. Christle

2010-01-01

281

Risk assessment of endocrine active chemicals: identifying chemicals of regulatory concern.  

PubMed

The European regulation on plant protection products (1107/2009) (EC, 2009a), the revisions to the biocides Directive (COM[2009]267) (EC, 2009b), and the regulation concerning chemicals (Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 'REACH') (EC.2006) only support the marketing and use of chemical products on the basis that they do not induce endocrine disruption in humans or wildlife species. In the absence of agreed guidance on how to identify and evaluate endocrine activity and disruption within these pieces of legislation a European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) task force was formed to provide scientific criteria that may be used within the context of these three legislative documents. The resulting ECETOC technical report (ECETOC, 2009a) and the associated workshop (ECETOC, 2009b) presented a science-based concept on how to identify endocrine activity and disrupting properties of chemicals for both human health and the environment. The synthesis of the technical report and the workshop report was published by the ECETOC task force (Bars et al., 2011a,b). Specific scientific criteria for the determination of endocrine activity and disrupting properties that integrate information from both regulatory (eco)toxicity studies and mechanistic/screening studies were proposed. These criteria combined the nature of the adverse effects detected in studies which give concern for endocrine toxicity with an understanding of the mode of action of toxicity so that adverse effects can be explained scientifically. A key element in the data evaluation is the consideration of all available information in a weight-of-evidence approach. However, to be able to discriminate chemicals with endocrine properties of low concern from those of higher concern (for regulatory purposes), the task force recognised that the concept needed further refinement. Following a discussion of the key factors at a second workshop of invited regulatory, academic and industry scientists (ECETOC, 2011), the task force developed further guidance, which is presented in this paper. For human health assessments these factors include the relevance to humans of the endocrine mechanism of toxicity, the specificity of the endocrine effects with respect to other potential toxic effects, the potency of the chemical to induce endocrine toxicity and consideration of exposure levels. For ecotoxicological assessments the key considerations include specificity and potency, but also extend to the consideration of population relevance and negligible exposure. It is intended that these complement and reinforce the approach originally described and previously published in this journal (Bars et al., 2011a,b). PMID:22735369

Bars, Remi; Fegert, Ivana; Gross, Melanie; Lewis, Dick; Weltje, Lennart; Weyers, Arnd; Wheeler, James R; Galay-Burgos, Malyka

2012-10-01

282

Toxicokinetic modeling and its applications in chemical risk assessment.  

PubMed

In recent years physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling has found frequent application in risk assessments where PBPK models serve as important adjuncts to studies on modes of action of xenobiotics. In this regard, studies on mode of action provide insight into both the sites/mechanisms of action and the form of the xenobiotic associated with toxic responses. Validated PBPK models permit calculation of tissue doses of xenobiotics and metabolites for a variety of conditions, i.e. at low-doses, in different animal species, and in different members of a human population. In this manner, these PBPK models support the low-dose and interspecies extrapolations that are important components of current risk assessment methodologies. PBPK models are sometimes referred to as physiological toxicokinetic (PT) models to emphasize their application with compounds causing toxic responses. Pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling in general has a rich history. Data-based PK compartmental models were developed in the 1930's when only primitive tools were available for solving sets of differential equations. These models were expanded in the 1960's and 1970's to accommodate new observations on dose-dependent elimination and flow-limited metabolism. The application of clearance concepts brought many new insights about the disposition of drugs in the body. In the 1970's PBPK/PT models were developed to evaluate metabolism of volatile compounds of occupational importance, and, for the first time, dose-dependent processes in toxicology were included in PBPK models in order to assess the conditions under which saturation of metabolic and elimination processes lead to non-linear dose response relationships. In the 1980's insights from chemical engineers and occupational toxicology were combined to develop PBPK/PT models to support risk assessment with methylene chloride and other solvents. The 1990's witnessed explosive growth in risk assessment applications of PBPK/PT models and in applying sensitivity and variability methods to evaluate model performance. Some of the compounds examined in detail include butadiene, styrene, glycol ethers, dioxins and organic esters/aids. This paper outlines the history of PBPK/PT modeling, emphasizes more recent applications of PBPK/TK models in health risk assessment, and discusses the risk assessment perspective provided by modern uses of these modeling approaches. PMID:12559690

Andersen, Melvin E

2003-02-18

283

Modeling Exposure to Persistent Chemicals in Hazard and Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Fate and exposure modeling has not thus far been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared to evaluate significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of POP and PBT chemicals in the environment. The goal of this paper is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include: (1) Benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk. (2) Directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota and humans to provide information to complement measurements, or where measurements are not available or are limited. (3) To identify the key processes and chemical and/or environmental parameters that determine the exposure; thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile. (4) Predicting future time trends including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and whether the assumptions and input data are relevant in the context of the application. It is possible to have confidence in the predictions of many of the existing models because of their fundamental physical and chemical mechanistic underpinnings and the extensive work already done to compare model predictions and empirical observations. The working group recommends that modeling tools be applied for benchmarking PBT/POPs according to exposure-to-emissions relationships, and that modeling tools be used to interpret emissions and monitoring data. The further development of models that couple fate, long-range transport, and bioaccumulation should be fostered, especially models that will allow time trends to be scientifically addressed in the risk profile.

Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E.; McLachlan, Michael S.; Arnot, Jon A.; MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Wania, Frank

2008-11-01

284

A framework for chemical plant safety assessment under uncertainty.  

SciTech Connect

We construct a framework for assessing the risk that the uncertainty in the plant feed and physical parameters may mask the loss of a reaction product. To model the plant, we use a nonlinear, quasi-steady-state model with stochastic input and parameters. We compute the probability that more than a certain product amount is diverted, given the statistics of the uncertainty in the plant feed, in the values of the chemical parameters, and in the output measurement. The uncertainty in the physical parameters is based on the one provided by the recently developed concept of thermochemical tables. We use Monte Carlo methods to compute the probabilities, based on a Cauchy-theorem-like approach to avoid making anything but the safest asymptotic assumptions, as well as to avoid the excessive noise in the region of low-probability events.

Zeng, X.; Anitescu, M.; Pereira, C.; Regalbuto, M.

2009-03-01

285

ASSESSING CHEMICAL RELEASES AND WORKER EXPOSURES FROM A FILTERPRESS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical releases and worker exposures associated with the filtration of an industrial wastewater sludge were characterized. The filter was a recessed chamber filter press with an open filtrate discharge system. Chemical releases and worker exposures for a selected chemical were ...

286

Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from glasnost in that there now is more open debate about a range of issues in the Soviet Union, including defense issues. Thus, we now have a great deal of published material to draw upon in assessing Soviet views, and experts in the West can talk much more freely to Soviet experts. However, this information explosion makes it more difficult to discriminate signal from noise, particularly as there continues to be both propaganda and deception in Soviet statements about defense issues. Clearly, some Soviet statements about nuclear weapons are designed to influence attitudes and actions in the West. I shall cite some examples in this paper.

Sloss, L. (Sloss (Leon) Associates, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-10-01

287

The Effect of Non-Lethal Weapons on Police Officer Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1990 and 2000, there was an increase in the use of non-lethal weapons and a decline in the number and severity of attacks on police officers. Using longitudinal data on several hundred U.S. police agencies, I investigate the relationship between police officer safety and the adoption of non-lethal weapons. I find that the adoption of non-lethal chemical weapons had

Alex Yuskavage

288

How electroshock weapons kill!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

Lundquist, Marjorie

2010-03-01

289

An approach for assessing human exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment  

SciTech Connect

Humans are exposed daily to multiple chemicals, including incidental exposures to complex chemical mixtures released into the environment and to combinations of chemicals that already co-exist in the environment because of previous releases from various sources. Exposures to chemical mixtures can occur through multiple pathways and across multiple routes. In this paper, we propose an iterative approach for assessing exposures to environmental chemical mixtures; it is similar to single-chemical approaches. Our approach encompasses two elements of the Risk Assessment Paradigm: Problem Formulation and Exposure Assessment. Multiple phases of the assessment occur in each element of the paradigm. During Problem Formulation, analysts identify and characterize the source(s) of the chemical mixture, ensure that dose-response and exposure assessment measures are concordant, and develop a preliminary evaluation of the mixture's fate. During Exposure Assessment, analysts evaluate the fate of the chemicals comprising the mixture using appropriate models and measurement data, characterize the exposure scenario, and estimate human exposure to the mixture. We also describe the utility of grouping the chemicals to be analyzed based on both physical-chemical properties and an understanding of environmental fate. In the article, we also highlight the need for understanding of changes in the mixture composition in the environment due to differential transport, differential degradation, and differential partitioning to other media. The section describes the application of the method to various chemical mixtures, highlighting issues associated with assessing exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment.

Rice, Glenn [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), National Center for Environmental Assessment, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)], E-mail: rice.glenn@epa.gov; MacDonell, Margaret [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division (United States); Hertzberg, Richard C. [Emory University, Rollins School of Public Health (United States); Teuschler, Linda [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), National Center for Environmental Assessment, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Picel, Kurt; Butler, Jim; Chang, Young-Soo; Hartmann, Heidi [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division (United States)

2008-11-15

290

Realism and Relevance of Ecological Models Used in Chemical Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological models have been developed and used in management of renewable natural resources, conservation biology, and assessments of ecological risks posed by toxic chemicals and other stressors. Because few models have been developed specifically for use in assessing chemical risks, this study examines the realism and relevance of a wide range of ecological models from the perspective of assessing toxicological

Steven M. Bartell; Robert A. Pastorok; H. Resit Akçakaya; Helen Regan; Scott Ferson; Christopher Mackay

2003-01-01

291

Evaluating human variability in chemical risk assessment: hazard identification and dose-response assessment for noncancer oral toxicity of trichloroethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human variability can be addressed during each stage in the risk assessment of chemicals causing noncancer toxicities. Noncancer toxicities arising from oral exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) are used in this paper as a case study for exploring strategies for identifying and incorporating information about human variability in the chemical specific hazard identification and dose-response assessment steps. Toxicity testing in laboratory

H. A. Barton; C. D. Flemming; J. C. Lipscomb

1996-01-01

292

JPRS report: Proliferation issues. Russian federation: Foreign intelligence service report. A new challenge after the cold war: Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction  

SciTech Connect

This report contains foreign media information on issues related to worldwide proliferation and transfer activities in nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, including delivery systems and the transfer of weapons-relevant technologies.

NONE

1993-03-05

293

Toxico-Cheminformatics: New and Expanding Public Resources to Support Chemical Toxicity Assessments  

EPA Science Inventory

High-throughput screening (HTS) technologies, along with efforts to improve public access to chemical toxicity information resources and to systematize older toxicity studies, have the potential to significantly improve information gathering efforts for chemical assessments and p...

294

Generalized Weapon Target Assignment Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dynamic command and control and battle management functions require fast and effective decision aids to provide optimal allocation of resources (object/sensor pairing, weapon/target assignment) for effective engagement and real-time battle damage assessme...

A. Yucel H. S. Hwang J. M. Rosenberger R. L. Wilson R. P. Pallerla

2005-01-01

295

Risk in the Weapons Stockpile  

SciTech Connect

When it comes to the nuclear weapons stockpile, risk must be as low as possible. Design and care to keep the stockpile healthy involves all aspects of risk management. Design diversity is a method that helps to mitigate risk.

Noone, Bailey C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-14

296

Nuclear weapon reliability evaluation methodology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides an overview of those activities that are normally performed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide nuclear weapon reliability evaluations for the Department of Energy. These reliability evaluations are first provided as a predic...

D. L. Wright

1993-01-01

297

Theoretical Principles of Torpedo Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the theoretical fundamentals of present-day torpedo weapons: dynamics, destructive effect, proximity fuzes, gas-steam energy sources and engines, electric energy sources and motors, guidance control and homing systems.

A. I. Nosov G. M. Podobrii V. S. Beloborodyi V. V. Khalimonov

1976-01-01

298

Provisioning an Aircraft Weapons System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research reviews the elements and stages of the provisioning cycle and describes the provisioning model used by the United States Navy Aviation Supply Office to select a repair parts inventory for an operational site supporting a new aircraft weapons ...

R. B. Renner

1975-01-01

299

Nuclear weapons are legal tools  

SciTech Connect

Responding to an article by Elliot Meyrowitz stating that nuclear weapons are illegal threats, the author observes that international law does not forbid the possession or use of nuclear weapons, whose existence operates as part of the checks and balances process that maintains deterrence. Because nuclear weapons have never been identified among states as illegal, either by treaties or by customary international law, attempts by opposing states to establish illegality through declarations fall short of an effectively shared strategy. The author concludes that we must use the time that deterrence permits to forcefully promote policies optimizing the claims of people for human dignity rather than focusing on the fruitless search to make nuclear weapons illegal.

Almond, H.H. Jr.

1985-05-01

300

32 CFR 234.10 - Weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weapons. 234.10 Section 234.10 National...THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.10 Weapons. (a) Except as otherwise authorized...are prohibited: (1) Possessing a weapon. (2) Carrying a weapon....

2013-07-01

301

[Quantitative methods of cancer risk assessment in exposure to chemicals].  

PubMed

This is a methodology paper--it contains a review of different quantitative risk assessment methods and their comparison. There are two aspects of cancer risk modeling discussed here: 1. When there is one effective dose only. There were compared two models in this evaluation: one proposed by the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards and the other--a classical two-stage model. It was taken into account that in both models the animals were exposed for less than two years. An exposure period and a study period of animals were considered in the Dutch methodology. If we use as an exposure measure average lifespan dose estimated with different coefficients of exposure time in an experiment, we get two different dose-response models. And each of them will create different human risk models. There is no criterion that would let us assess which of them is better. 2. There are many models used in the BenchMark Dose (BMD) method. But there is no criterion that allows us to choose the best model objectively. In this paper a two-stage classical model and three BMD models (two-stage, Weibull and linear) were fit for particular data. Very small differences between all the models were noticed. The differences were insignificant because of uncertainties in the risk modeling. The possibility of choice of one model from a bigger set of models is the greatest benefit of this comparison. If the examined chemical is a genotoxic carcinogen, nothing more is needed than to estimate the threshold value. PMID:19746890

Szymczak, Wies?aw

2009-01-01

302

Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) Police Station. Hilla, Iraq.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We are providing this project assessment report for your information and use. We assessed the in-process construction work being performed at the Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) Police Station in Hilla, Iraq, to determine its status and whether intende...

A. Johnston M. Stanka

2006-01-01

303

NCCLC: NETWORK FOR RAPID ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL LIFE CYCLE IMPACT  

EPA Science Inventory

The project is expected to provide a platform for chemical and material life-cycle information exchange. A wide use of CLB will enable organically growing LCA database for chemicals and materials. The project is expected to help chemical producers understand potential envir...

304

Biological weapons--the poor man`s nuke. Research report  

SciTech Connect

Biological warfare is one leg of the triad of weapons of mass destruction (coupled with nuclear and chemical weapons). Biological weapons pose a significant threat to the United States military and public population across the spectrum of conflict. There is, however, little common knowledge of the insidious yet devastating potential of these weapons. This paper is written for the lay (that is non-technical) reader, outlining the history, threat, and possible countermeasures related to biological warfare agents. The intent is to heighten the awareness level regarding biological warfare as a military and terrorist threat.

Schneider, B.R.; Mayer, T.N.

1995-04-01

305

Incorporating biologically based models into assessments of risk from chemical contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general approach to assessment of risk from chemical contaminants in drinking water involves three steps: hazard identification, exposure assessment, and dose-response assessment. Traditionally, the risks to humans associated with different levels of a chemical have been derived from the toxic responses observed in animals. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that further information is needed if risks to humans are to be assessed accurately. Biologically based models help clarify the dose-response relationship and reduce uncertainty.

Bull, R. J.; Conolly, R. B.; De Marini, D. M.; MacPhail, R. C.; Ohanian, E. V.; Swenberg, J. A.

1993-01-01

306

A Review of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants for the Study of Environmental Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is renewed interest in the environmental fate of chemical warfare agents attributable to the intensified threat of chemical weapons use in a terrorist attack. Knowledge of processes that influence the fate of agents such as distilled mustard, lewisite, tabun, sarin, soman, and VX in the environment is important for development of disposal strategies and for risk and exposure assessments.

Shannon L. Bartelt-Hunt; Detlef R. U. Knappe; Morton A. Barlaz

2008-01-01

307

Cardiac fibrillation risk of taser weapons.  

PubMed

The debate on potential health hazards associated with delivering electric discharges to incapacitated subjects, in particular on whether electric discharge weapons are lethal, less lethal or non-lethal, is still controversial. The cardiac fibrillation risks of Taser weapons X26 and X3 have been investigated by measuring the delivered high-tension pulses in dependence on load impedance. Excitation thresholds and sinus-to-Taser conversion factors have been determined by numerical modeling of endocardial, myocardial, and epicardial cells. Detailed quantitative assessment of cardiac electric exposure has been performed by numerical simulation at the normal-weighted anatomical model NORMAN. The impact of anatomical variation has been quantified at an overweight model (Visible Man), both with a spatial resolution of 2 × 2 × 2 mm voxels. Spacing and location of dart electrodes were systematically varied and the worst-case position determined. Based on volume-weighted cardiac exposure assessment, the fibrillation probability of the worst-case hit was determined to 30% (Taser X26) and 9% (Taser X3). The overall risk assessment of Taser application accounting for realistic spatial hit distributions was derived from training sessions of police officers under realistic scenarios and by accounting for the influence of body (over-)weight as well as gender. The analysis of the results showed that the overall fibrillation risk of Taser use is not negligible. It is higher at Taser X26 than at Taser X3 and amounts to about 1% for Europeans with an about 20% higher risk for Asians. Results demonstrate that enhancement as well as further reduction of fibrillation risk depends on responsible use or abuse of Taser weapons. PMID:24776896

Leitgeb, Norbert

2014-06-01

308

Counterproliferation of biological weapons. Master`s thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first chapter evaluates the utility of biological warfare in a tactical battlefield scenario: a strategic scenario; and a special forces or terrorist scenario. The second chapter examines the stages in the development of an offensive program and how the biotechnology revolution has facilitated them. Chapter three examines the decision to use biological and chemical weapons and what can be

1995-01-01

309

12. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. AFTER SEGREGATION, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. AFTER SEGREGATION, PLUTONIUM MATERIALS WERE EITHER RETURNED TO THE BUILDING 776 FOUNDRY WHERE THEY WERE CAST INTO FEED INGOTS, OR UNDERWENT CHEMICAL RECOVERY FOR PURIFICATION. (8/7/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

310

Biological weapons agent defeat using directed microwave energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. A synergistic, molecularly targeted microwave approach has demonstrated unprecedented kill of a broad range of biological weapons agents (BWA) using directed microwave energy in conjunction with a specially designed chemical compound called a TPAC. The BWAs are first treated with the TPAC compound, a process that only takes a few moments, and then exposed to the

M. D. McFarland; A. J. Bixler; M. Krishnan; R. V. Hanwehr

2001-01-01

311

Implementation and Student Perceptions of e-Assessment in a Chemical Engineering Module  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes work carried out at the Department of Chemical Engineering at UCL into the use of e-assessment in a second year module and, in particular, the student perceptions of this mode of assessment. Three quizzes were implemented in Moodle, the first two as formative assessment and the final quiz as summative assessment. The results…

Sorensen, Eva

2013-01-01

312

Application of a fugacity model for assessing chemical fate in ecodistricts of southern Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fugacity model that was developed to assess the chemical fate of organic chemicals in regions of Canada has been incorporated into the RAISON (Regional Analysis by Intelligent Systems ON a microcomputer) expert system and has been modified and applied to ecodistricts of southern Ontario, Canada. The model is used to estimate a selected chemical's distribution between four bulk compartments

W. G. Booty; I. W. S. Wong

1996-01-01

313

Challenges of exposure assessment for health studies in the aftermath of chemical incidents and disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure assessment during and after acute chemical incidents and disasters is essential for health studies that may follow. During chemical incidents, the focus usually lies on risk assessment and afterward attention shifts toward possible (long-term) health effects. This may lead to insufficient available data on exposure to study the association between exposure and health outcome, and collection of additional exposure

Sim Bongers; Nicole A H Janssen; B Reiss; L Grievink; E Lebret; H Kromhout

2008-01-01

314

A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

315

A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFERY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

316

Assessment of Infrared Remote Chemical Sensing Systems with Numeric Simulations  

SciTech Connect

A general approach to the evaluation of remote chemical sensors is described that can be used to provide evaluation of the chemical detection in a particular chemical scenario. It will be used to make comparisons of a CO{sub 2} laser differential absorption lidar sensor and a passive thermal FTIR sensor. The focus of the study will be to evaluate the advantage of the FTIR sensor's increased spectral coverage and number of frequency channels.

Fry, H.; McVey, B.; Schmitt, M.

1998-11-01

317

What Are Nuclear Weapons For?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the decades of the Cold War the prospect of a nuclear holocaust was all too real. With the demise of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, that threat to civilization as we know it had receded. But today we face a grave new danger, the acquisition of nuclear weapons by hostile or unstable governments and terrorists. What can and should we be doing to meet this challenge and prevent the world's most dangerous weapons from falling into very dangerous hands? Are there any reasons for us to still retain thousands of nuclear warheads in our arsenals? What are they for? Can we rekindle the bold vision of a world free of nuclear weapons that President Reagan and General Secretary Gorbachev brought to their remarkable summit meeting at Reykjavik twenty years ago, and define practical steps toward achieving such a goal?

Drell, Sidney

2007-03-01

318

Seismic vulnerability assessment of chemical plants through probabilistic neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemical industrial plant represents a sensitive presence in a region and, in case of severe damage due to earthquake actions, its impact on social life and environment can be devastating. From the structural point of view, chemical plants count a number of recurrent elements, which are classifiable in a discrete set of typological families (towers, chimneys, cylindrical or spherical

T. Aoki; R. Ceravolo; A. De Stefano; C. Genovese; D. Sabia

2002-01-01

319

Deciding which chemical mixtures risk assessment methods work best for what mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The most commonly used chemical mixtures risk assessment methods involve simple notions of additivity and toxicological similarity. Newer methods are emerging in response to the complexities of chemical mixture exposures and effects. Factors based on both science and policy drive decisions regarding whether to conduct a chemical mixtures risk assessment and, if so, which methods to employ. Scientific considerations are based on positive evidence of joint toxic action, elevated human exposure conditions or the potential for significant impacts on human health. Policy issues include legislative drivers that may mandate action even though adequate toxicity data on a specific mixture may not be available and risk assessment goals that impact the choice of risk assessment method to obtain the amount of health protection desired. This paper discusses three important concepts used to choose among available approaches for conducting a chemical mixtures risk assessment: (1) additive joint toxic action of mixture components; (2) toxicological interactions of mixture components; and (3) chemical composition of complex mixtures. It is proposed that scientific support for basic assumptions used in chemical mixtures risk assessment should be developed by expert panels, risk assessment methods experts, and laboratory toxicologists. This is imperative to further develop and refine quantitative methods and provide guidance on their appropriate applications. Risk assessors need scientific support for chemical mixtures risk assessment methods in the form of toxicological data on joint toxic action for high priority mixtures, statistical methods for analyzing dose-response for mixtures, and toxicological and statistical criteria for determining sufficient similarity of complex mixtures.

Teuschler, Linda K. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment, 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr. (MS-A110), Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)], E-mail: teuschler.linda@epa.gov

2007-09-01

320

The Navy's high-energy laser weapon system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 25 years, in an attempt to develop a speed-of- light hard-kill weapon system, the U.S. Navy has successfully reduced megawatt-class chemical laser and high power beam control technologies to engineering practice. This Navy program was established during the cold war era when defending naval battle group was the primary concern of the U.S. Navy. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, however, an urgent and challenging issue facing the U.S. Navy is the self-defense against cruise missile in a littoral battlefield environment against threats originating from shore and/or scattered low- value platforms. This fundamental shift in the battlefield environment and engagement configuration profoundly affected the basic performance requirements placed on potential shipboard high energy laser weapon systems (HELWS). In a littoral maritime environment, thermal blooming limits atmospheric propagation of an HEL beam, and thus limits the weapon's effectiveness. This paper identifies and discusses the technical issues associated with HELWS requirements in this new environment. It also discuses the collateral capabilities that enhance and complement the performance of other weapon and sensor systems onboard ship. This paper concludes that the HELWS using a free electron laser (FEL) offers a unique weapon option for our warships in facing the new defense challenges of the future.

Cook, Joung R.; Albertine, John R.

1997-05-01

321

Shoulder-Fired Weapons with High Recoil Energy: Quantifying Injury and Shooting Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sufficient information is not available to determine health hazards associated with weapon recoil. This study assessed the injury response in U.S. Army soldiers after firing a shoulder-fired weapon producing recoil energy at the upper limit authorized. Ad...

K. Blankenship R. Evans S. Allison M. Murphy H. Isome

2004-01-01

322

Soviet military thinking and nuclear weapons issues. Report for Period July 1989May 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the Soviet Unions's changing outlook on nuclear weapons and the role they play. To assess these changes, this paper first surveys and analyzes the Soviet open-source literature dedicated to security issues, paying particular attention to the treatment of nuclear weapons issues. The notions of changing military doctrine, strategic parity and stability, sufficiency, arms control, and the use

S. L. Clark; R. F. Laird

1990-01-01

323

New Methods for the Assessment of Immunotoxicity of Chemical Substances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The immune system is a target of toxic insult following subchronic or chronic exposure to environmental chemicals, therapeutic drugs or abused drugs. Interaction of xenobiotics with the immune system may result in undesirable effects of three principal ty...

M. Pallardy H. Lebrec C. Blot G. R. Burleson C. Bohuon

1992-01-01

324

Immunogenicity of Acrylate Chemicals as Assessed by Antibody Induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunogenicities of two acrylate chemicals, trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) and methyl acrylate (MeAc), and one related vinyl compound, 4-vinyl pyridine (4VP), were investigated by determining the in vivo induction of IgG antibodies in guinea pigs. The injection of the chemicals emulsified in Freund’s complete adjuvant resulted in the induction of serum antibody responses against MeAc and 4VP but not TMPTA.

J. E. Bull; D. C. Henderson; J. L. Turk

1987-01-01

325

Retrospective assessment of exposure to chemicals for a microelectronics and business machine manufacturing facility.  

PubMed

A retrospective exposure assessment was performed for use in a health outcomes study of a facility manufacturing circuit boards, business machines, and other equipment during the years 1969-2002. A matrix was developed identifying chemical use by department-year based on company-provided information. Use of six chemical agents (fiberglass, lead, methylene chloride, methyl chloroform, perchloroethylene, and trichloroethylene) and six chemical classes (acid-base, aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, other hydrocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, and metals), and general (including unspecified) chemicals was identified. The matrix also contained an assignment for each department-year categorizing the potential for use of chemicals as negligible, intermittent/incidental, or routine. These department-based exposure matrix data were combined with work history data to provide duration of potential chemical use for workers. Negligible, intermittent/incidental or routine extent-of-chemical-use categories comprised 42.6%, 39.4%, and 17.9%, respectively, of total person-years of employment. Cumulative exposure scores were also developed, representing a relative measure of the cumulative extent of potential exposure to the six chemical agents, six chemical classes, and general (including unspecified) chemicals. Additionally, the study period was divided into manufacturing eras showing trends in chemical use, and showing that process use of trichloroethylene and methylene chloride ended in the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, respectively. This approach may be useful in other assessments addressing a variety of chemicals, and with data constraints common to retrospective chemical exposure studies. PMID:24224613

Fleming, Donald A; Woskie, Susan R; Jones, James H; Silver, Sharon R; Luo, Lian; Bertke, Stephen J

2014-05-01

326

Weapons plutonium: Just can it  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dilemma plaguing the U.S. Energy Department (DOE) in dealing with 50 years of manufacturing nuclear weapons is choosing a way to dispose of surplus warhead plutonium. The Clinton administration pledged in March 1995 to dispose of approximately 200 metric tons of highly enriched uranium and plutonium. It was later disclosed that this included 38.2 tons of plutonium, of which

Lyman

1996-01-01

327

Weapons engineering tritium facility overview  

SciTech Connect

Materials provide an overview of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) as introductory material for January 2011 visit to SRS. Purpose of the visit is to discuss Safety Basis, Conduct of Engineering, and Conduct of Operations. WETF general description and general GTS program capabilities are presented in an unclassified format.

Najera, Larry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-20

328

Nonlethal Weapons: Terms and References.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to promote an understanding of and research into a new category of weapons, designated nonlethal by military services, and less than lethal or less lethal by law enforcement agencies. The intent is to create an initial term an...

R. J. Bunker

1997-01-01

329

The Soviet Market for Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military market places display obvious inefficiencies under most arrangements, but that of the Soviet Union was unusual for its degree of monopoly and exclusive relationships between buyer and seller. This presented a particular problem for the quality of weapons. The present chapter analyses the problem of quality in terms of an issue that is well-known in market economies, the hold-up

Mark Harrison; Andrei Markevich

330

No Recall of Weapon Discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is possible for police officers to discharge their weapons in the line of duty yet have no memory of having done so. Case histories of such events are presented. Research on perceptual and memory distortions during critical incidents is reviewed, along with the research on involuntary discharges. Both areas of research offer explanations why it is possible for officers

Alexis Artwohl

2003-01-01

331

Safety risk assessment technology of Chemical Industrial Park based on grid partition and information diffusion theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the analysis to the research actuality and its problems to regional safety risk assessment at home and abroad, a method of regional safety risk assessment for Urban Chemical Industrial Park with multi-danger source is put forward. Firstly, the assessed region is carved up into series of two dimensional square grids in equal Stride length mesh based on grid partition

Hongde Wang; Yundong Ma

2009-01-01

332

Interactions between chemical and climate stressors: a role for mechanistic toxicology in assessing climate change risks.  

PubMed

Incorporation of global climate change (GCC) effects into assessments of chemical risk and injury requires integrated examinations of chemical and nonchemical stressors. Environmental variables altered by GCC (temperature, precipitation, salinity, pH) can influence the toxicokinetics of chemical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion as well as toxicodynamic interactions between chemicals and target molecules. In addition, GCC challenges processes critical for coping with the external environment (water balance, thermoregulation, nutrition, and the immune, endocrine, and neurological systems), leaving organisms sensitive to even slight perturbations by chemicals when pushed to the limits of their physiological tolerance range. In simplest terms, GCC can make organisms more sensitive to chemical stressors, while alternatively, exposure to chemicals can make organisms more sensitive to GCC stressors. One challenge is to identify potential interactions between nonchemical and chemical stressors affecting key physiological processes in an organism. We employed adverse outcome pathways, constructs depicting linkages between mechanism-based molecular initiating events and impacts on individuals or populations, to assess how chemical- and climate-specific variables interact to lead to adverse outcomes. Case examples are presented for prospective scenarios, hypothesizing potential chemical-GCC interactions, and retrospective scenarios, proposing mechanisms for demonstrated chemical-climate interactions in natural populations. Understanding GCC interactions along adverse outcome pathways facilitates extrapolation between species or other levels of organization, development of hypotheses and focal areas for further research, and improved inputs for risk and resource injury assessments. PMID:23136056

Hooper, Michael J; Ankley, Gerald T; Cristol, Daniel A; Maryoung, Lindley A; Noyes, Pamela D; Pinkerton, Kent E

2013-01-01

333

Weapons: A Report on the Industry 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The weapons industry provides critical support directly to the military element and indirectly to other (e.g., diplomatic, informational, and economic) elements of national power. The industry, with products ranging from nuclear weapons to non-lethal arms...

S. Maybaumwisniewski W. Kreitler L. Kerr J. Laurence

2004-01-01

334

Fire Control Apparatus for a Laser Weapon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application discloses a laser weapon fire control computer apparatus for responding in real time to the escort/threat scenario that confronts the weapon. The fire control computer apparatus compares the threat data with stored predicted scenar...

R. H. Worsham

1985-01-01

335

Risk Assessment of Mixtures of Chemical Pollutants in the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contamination problems are complex issues with worldwide implications. Risks to human and ecological health\\u000a as a result of toxic compounds and their introduction into the environment is a matter of great interest to modern society.\\u000a Ecological risk assessment and the human health risk assessment are the two related activities of which the environmental\\u000a risk assessment is comprised. Mixtures of

Elisabeta Chirila; Camelia Draghici

336

Significance of single particle effects in neutral beam weapon lethality  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a rationale for assessing the response of microelectronics to single event effects caused by directed energy weapons utilizing beams of neutral particles. The current understanding of single particle vulnerabilities is summarized, and an extrapolation of these vulnerabilities outside of the experimental domain is presented.

Steverding, B.; Browning, J.S.

1985-01-01

337

Significance of single particle effects in neutral beam weapon lethality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides a rationale for assessing the response of microelectronics to single event effects caused by directed energy weapons utilizing beams of neutral particles. The current understanding of single particle vulnerabilities is summarized, and an extrapolation of these vulnerabilities outside of the experimental domain is presented.

Steverding, B.; Browning, J. S.

338

Experimental assessment of the performance of a proposed lead slowing-down spectrometer at WNR/PSR (Weapons Neutron Research/Proton Storage Ring)  

SciTech Connect

In November 1989, we carried out a measurement of the fission cross section of {sup 247}Cm, {sup 250}Cf, and {sup 254}Es on the Rensselaer Intense Neutron Source (RINS) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). In July 1990, we carried out a second measurement, using the same fission chamber and electronics, in beam geometry at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) facility. Using the relative count rates observed in the two experiments, and the flux-enhancement factors determined by the RPI group for a lead slowing-down spectrometer compared to beam geometry, we can assess the performance of a spectrometer similar to RINS, driven by the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. With such a spectrometer, we find that is is feasible to make measurements with samples of 1 ng for fission 1 {mu}g for capture, and of isotopes with half-lives of tens of minutes. It is important to note that, while a significant amount of information can be obtained from the low resolution RINS measurement, a definitive determination of average properties, including the level density, requires that the resonance structure be resolved. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Moore, M.S.; Koehler, P.E.; Michaudon, A.; Schelberg, A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Danon, Y.; Block, R.C.; Slovacek, R.E. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (USA)); Hoff, R.W.; Lougheed, R.W. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1990-01-01

339

University Management of Weapons Labs? No.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University-based weapons laboratories are often assumed to be objective, scientific organizations with no direct financial stake in a particular weapons system, but they are in fact dependent on weapons systems for their continued funding and existence, sometimes lobbying in violation of federal policy. (MSE)

Archer, Dane

1987-01-01

340

32 CFR 1903.10 - Weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weapons. 1903.10 Section 1903.10 National...ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.10 Weapons. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...knowingly possessing or causing to be present a weapon on an Agency installation, or...

2013-07-01

341

48 CFR 25.301-3 - Weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weapons. 25.301-3 Section 25.301-3...Outside the United States 25.301-3 Weapons. The contracting officer shall follow agency procedures and the weapons policy established by the...

2013-10-01

342

Weapons in an Affluent Suburban School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the self-reported violence and weapon carrying behaviors of largely affluent, suburban adolescents in San Francisco, California. Survey data indicated that weapons carrying was a significant issue for these high school students. Predictors of weapon carrying did not differ in comparison to predictors among inner city youth. Distinct…

Hawkins, Stephanie R.; Campanaro, Amy; Pitts, Traci Bice; Steiner, Hans

2002-01-01

343

Overview of directed energy weapon developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In future defence scenarios directed energy weapons are of increasing interest. Therefore national and international R&D programs are increasing their activities on laser and high power microwave technologies in the defence and anti terror areas. The paper gives an overview of the German R&D programmes on directed energy weapons. A solid state medium energy weapon laser (MEL) is investigated at

Th. H. G. G. Weise; M. Jung; D. Langhans; M. Gowin

2004-01-01

344

Eyewitness identification: Simulating the “Weapon effect”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experiment investigates the effect of weapons on eyewitness recall and recognition using a new experimental paradigm in which a syringe serves as weapon simulation. Contrary to previous weapon manipulations using slides or films of armed targets, the syringe paradigm is personally threatening to the subject. In a 2×2 design, 86 nonpsychology students were approached by an experimenter who

Anne Maass; Günther Köhnken

1989-01-01

345

Immunogenicity of acrylate chemicals as assessed by antibody induction.  

PubMed

The immunogenicities of two acrylate chemicals, trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) and methyl acrylate (MeAc), and one related vinyl compound, 4-vinyl pyridine (4VP), were investigated by determining the in vivo induction of IgG antibodies in guinea pigs. The injection of the chemicals emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant resulted in the induction of serum antibody responses against MeAc and 4VP but not TMPTA. However, antibody with anti-TMPTA activity was produced following immunization of guinea pigs with TMPTA conjugated to protein, which allowed comparisons to be made of the immunogenic structural features of the compounds. PMID:3596820

Bull, J E; Henderson, D C; Turk, J L

1987-01-01

346

Disposition of excess weapons plutonium from dismantled weapons  

SciTech Connect

With the end of the Cold War and the implementation of various nuclear arms reduction agreements, US and Russia have been actively dismantling tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. As a result,large quantities of fissile materials, including more than 100 (tonnes?) of weapons-grade Pu, have become excess to both countries` military needs. To meet nonproliferation goals and to ensure the irreversibility of nuclear arms reductions, this excess weapons Pu must be placed in secure storage and then, in timely manner, either used in nuclear reactors as fuel or discarded in geologic repositories as solid waste. This disposition in US and Russia must be accomplished in a safe, secure manner and as quickly as practical. Storage of this Pu is a prerequisite to any disposition process, but the length of storage time is unknown. Whether by use as fuel or discard as solid waste, disposition of that amount of Pu will require decades--and perhaps longer, if disposition operations encounter delays. Neither US nor Russia believes that long-term secure storage is a substitute for timely disposition of excess Pu, but long-term, safe, secure storage is a critical element of all excess Pu disposition activities.

Jardine, L.J.

1997-01-01

347

Assessment and management of chemical coping in patients with cancer.  

PubMed

Chemical coping is a working definition that describes patients' intake of opioids on a scale that spans the range between normal nonaddictive opioid use for pain all the way to opioid addiction. Most patients will fall somewhere between the two extremes in using opioid analgesics to cope with their psychological or spiritual distress. The degree to which patients use their medications in a maladaptive manner will determine their susceptibility to drug toxicity and harm. When there are no obvious cancer-related causes for increased pain intensity, chemical coping and other patient-related factors such as delirium, somatization, and depression should be considered. As part of the initial evaluation of patients with cancer-related pain, a brief screening tool such as the CAGE questionnaire should be used to identify patients who may be at risk for chemical coping. Identifying patients at risk will allow clinicians to avoid unnecessary opioid toxicity, control pain, and improve quality of life. A structured approach for managing opioid use should be adopted, including standardized documentation, opioid treatment agreements, urine drug screens, frequent visits, and restricted quantities of breakthrough opioids. All patients at risk should receive brief motivational interviewing with an objective, nonjudgmental, and empathic style that includes personalized feedback, particularly about markers of risk or harm. For chemical copers approaching the addiction end of the spectrum, with evidence of compulsive use and destructive behavior, referral should be made to substance abuse specialists. PMID:24799476

Del Fabbro, Egidio

2014-06-01

348

Advancing Exposure Characterization for Chemical Evaluation and Risk Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

A new generation of scientific tools has emerged to rapidly measure signals from cells, tissues, and organisms following exposure to chemicals. High-visibility efforts to apply these tools for efficient toxicity testing raise important research questions in exposure science. As v...

349

Assessment of a Library Science Program Specializing in Chemical Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a survey of Indiana University Master in Library Science (M.L.S.)-Chemical Information Specialist program graduates. Information includes graduates' educational background; the nature of first jobs and current positions held; and databases most frequently used. Graduates generally favored more training in computer skills, patent…

Wiggins, Gary; Monnier, Cynthia

1994-01-01

350

Not With Impunity: Assessing U.S. Policy for Retaliating to a Chemical or Biological Attack.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

How should the United States determine its response to a chemical or biological attack against American personnel or interests. This paper assesses the current U,S reprisal policy known as 'calculated ambiguity' and concludes that today's policy does not ...

H. W. Conley

2001-01-01

351

CHEMICAL MUTAGENESIS AND CARCINOGENESIS: INCORPORATION OF MECHANISTIC DATA INTO RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

CHEMICAL MUTAGENESIS AND CARCINOGENESIS: INCORPORATION OF MECHANISTIC DATA INTO RISK ASSESSMENT The current understanding of cancer as a genetic disease, requiring a specific set of genomic alterations for a normal cell to form a metastatic tumor, has provided the oppor...

352

In-Depth Survey Report: Assessment of Nanoparticle Emissions from a Chemical Laboratory using Carbon Nanotubes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Engineering and Physical Hazards Branch (EPHB) and the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UMass Lowell) Environmental Health and Safety Team assessed nanoparticle emissions in a chemical l...

C. S. J. Tsai K. H. Dunn L. M. Lo M. Ellenbecker W. A. Heitbrink

2013-01-01

353

Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other Environmental Impacts  

EPA Science Inventory

TRACI, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts, has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency?s National Risk Management Research Laboratory to facilitate the characterization of stressors that have potential effects, ...

354

Assessment of Solar Central Receiver Systems for Fuels and Chemicals Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report assesses the results of studies conducted to date for solar central receiver fuels and chemicals applications. Conceptual system designs using central receivers have been completed for ammonia/nitric acid, ammonia, and activated carbon product...

L. G. Radosevich C. W. Pretzel E. H. Carrell C. E. Tyner

1986-01-01

355

INTEGRATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY AND TOXICOLOGY IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENTS FOR ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EDCS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Prospective and disgnostic assessments of the ecological risk of toxic chemicals require a thorough integration of aspects of environmental chemistry and toxicology. Failure to successfully achieve this can result in a lack of scientific credibility, as well as missed opportuniti...

356

Manipulation of wood chemical traits for energy: An assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comparative assessment of the biological potential to modify wood for improved conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels identifies specific gravity, lignin and hemicellulose qualities, bark quantity, and hemicellulose content as priority research targets....

J. W. Ranney A. F. Turhollow R. J. Dinus

1989-01-01

357

Weapons of Mass Destruction Technology Evaluation and Training Range  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has a long history for providing technology evaluation and training for military and other federal level Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) response agencies. Currently there are many federal organizations and commercial companies developing technologies related to detecting, assessing, mitigating and protecting against hazards associated with a WMD event. Unfortunately, very few locations exist within the United States where WMD response technologies are realistically field tested and evaluated using real chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive materials. This is particularly true with biological and radiological hazards. Related to this lack of adequate WMD, multi-hazard technology testing capability is the shortage of locations where WMD response teams can train using actual chemical, biological, and radiological material or highly realistic simulates. In response to these technology evaluation and training needs, the INL has assembled a consortium of subject matter experts from existing programs and identified dedicated resources for the purpose of establishing an all-hazards, WMD technology evaluation and training range. The author describes the challenges associated with creating the all-hazards WMD technology evaluation and training range and lists the technical, logistical and financial benefits of an all-hazards technology evaluation and training range. Current resources and capabilities for conducting all-hazard technology evaluation and training at the INL are identified. Existing technology evaluation and training programs at the INL related to radiological, biological and chemical hazards are highlighted, including successes and lessons learned. Finally, remaining gaps in WMD technology evaluation and training capabilities are identified along with recommendations for closing those gaps.

Kevin Larry Young

2009-05-01

358

Chemical hazard identification and assessment tool for evaluation of stormwater priority pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of chemical hazards is a critical issue, which have to be dealt with when evaluating different strategies for sustainable handling of stormwater. In the present study, a methodology for identifying the most critical and representative chemical pollutants was developed. A list of selected stormwater priority pollutants (SSPP-list) is the out-put from the procedure. Two different strategies for handling of

E. Eriksson; A. Baun; P. S. Mikkelsen; A. Ledin

359

Surfactant Effects on Skin Absorption of Model Organic Chemicals: Implications for Dermal Risk Assessment Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational and environmental exposures to chemicals are major potential routes of exposure for direct skin toxicity and for systemic absorption. The majority of these exposures are to complex mixtures, yet most experimental studies to assess topical chemical absorption are conducted neat or in simple aqueous vehicles. A component of many industrial mixtures is surfactants that solubilize ingredients and stabilize mixtures

Jim E. Riviere; James D. Brooks; James L. Yeatts; Elisha L. Koivisto

2010-01-01

360

Toxicity assessment of 255 chemicals to pure cultured nitrifying bacteria using biosensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioassay has been attracting attention as a method of toxicity assessments of micropollutants in the environment. In this study, we report the characteristics (selectivity and sensitivity) of the nitrifying bacteria biosensor for 255 kinds of chemicals as a model of chemical contaminant in the environment and the results of evaluation of mixed samples of several substances. In the nitrifying

Y. Tanaka; K. Taguchi; H. Utsumi

361

Assessment of Programme Outcomes Through Exit Survey of Chemical\\/Biochemical Engineering Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questionnaire of prospective university graduates have been identified as one of the effective methods for the strength and weakness assessment of the program curriculum. It is based on student feedbacks regarding on their performance and satisfaction in Department of Chemical & Process Engineering (JKKP) in order to determine the effectiveness of the Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Program at Faculty of

Nur Tantiyani Ali Othman; Rahaiza Misnon; Siti Rozaimah Sheikh Abdullah; Noorhisham Tan Kofli; Siti Kartom Kamarudin; Abu Bakar Mohamad

2011-01-01

362

Development of an In Silico Metabolic Simulator and Searchable Metabolism Database for Chemical Risk Assessments  

EPA Science Inventory

The US EPA is faced with long lists of chemicals that need to be assessed for hazard, and a gap in evaluating chemical risk is accounting for metabolic activation resulting in increased toxicity. The goals of this project are to develop a capability to predict metabolic maps of x...

363

Historical Nuclear Weapons Test Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the product of a recent joint effort between the US Department of Energy and Department of Defense to declassify films on the nuclear weapons program, place them on videotape, and make them publicly available. Taken as a whole, the films document the history of nuclear weapon development in the US, beginning with the first bomb tested at Trinity Site in southeastern New Mexico in July 1945. As the site notes, while portions of these films were previously released, this is the first time the films have ever been edited for declassification and public release. The films are grouped in five sections, with listings giving operation name date, length of film, and format (color or black and white). Clicking on an individual entry for a film brings up a two-paragraph description and short clips in .mpeg and RealPlayer format, the latter offering four connection speed choices. Video purchase information is provided at the site.

364

RADIOCARBON FROM NUCLEAR WEAPONS TESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution in time and space of C 1 from the 196.1-1962 nuclear weapons tests of the U.S. and the USSR is used as a tracer for atmospheric mixing phenomena and exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the sea. The mean residence time of Cinjected into the stratosphere by the tests or produced by cosmic rays is about

James A. Young; A. W. Fairhall

1968-01-01

365

Nuclear weapons and regional conflict  

SciTech Connect

An important national defense objective for the US in the post cold-war era -- according to Secretary of Defense, Cheney is to deter regional conflicts. To satisfy this objective there is more or less general agreement that nuclear weapons are not needed, especially against regional powers like Iraq that do not (as yet) have a nuclear capability. Modern conventional weapons (PGMs), it is believed, are adequate when used in the traditional way of fighting: massive ground forces with heavy ground equipment, supported by air and naval forces. Of course, there are arguments against this view. For example, nuclear advocates call attention to deeply buried targets that are unattackable with conventional munitions. But this argument, and others, for US use (or threat of use) of nuclear weapons are presently discounted in favor of the political/moral advantages of a no-first-use policy. We do not wish to take sides in this debate. We believe, however, that the debate win continue as political, military, technical and economic factors undergo inevitable changes. In this brief paper, we want to present another pro-nuclear argument which, to the best of our knowledge, has received little or no attention. This argument, we believe, could become important in weighing the pros and cons of the debate if domestic pressures cause the defense budget to undergo such severe cuts that we must either abandon our political commitments or adopt a non-traditional war-fighting strategy that is effective under a greatly reduced defense budget.

Latter, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Martinelli, E.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States)

1993-05-01

366

Nuclear Weapons Complex reconfiguration study  

SciTech Connect

Shortly after assuming duties as Secretary of Energy, I reviewed the Nuclear Weapons Complex Modernization Report'' submitted to the Congress in January 1989 as required by the National Defense Authorization Act of 1988 and 1989. My review showed that several of the report's assumptions needed to be re-evaluated. During this eighteen-month review, dramatic world changes forced further reassessments of the future Nuclear Weapons Complex. These changes are reflected in the new report. The new report presents a plan to achieve a reconfigured complex, called Complex-21. Complex-21 would be smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operated than the Complex of today. Complex-21 would be able to safely and reliability support nuclear deterrent stockpile objectives set forth by the President and funded by the Congress. It would be consistent with realities of the emerging international security environment and flexible enough to accommodate the likely range of deterrent contingencies. In addition, Complex-21 would be constructed and operated to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and orders. Achieving Complex-21 will require significant resources. This report provides and organized approach toward selecting the most appropriate configuration for Complex-21, satisfying environmental requirements, and minimizing costs. The alternative -- to continue to use piecemeal fixes to run an antiquated complex -- will be more expensive and provide a less reliable Nuclear Weapons Complex. As a consequence, implementation of the Complex-21 plan is considered necessary to ensure continued viability of our nuclear deterrent.

Not Available

1991-01-01

367

A framework for chemical plant safety assessment under uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct a framework for assessing the risk that the uncertainty in the plant feed and physical parameters may mask the loss of a reaction product. To model the plant, we use a nonlinear, quasi-steady-state model with stochastic input and parameters. We compute the probability that more than a certain product amount is diverted, given the statistics of the uncertainty

X. Zeng; M. Anitescu; C. Pereira; M. Regalbuto

2009-01-01

368

Role of Metabolomics in Environmental Chemical Exposure and Risk Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

The increasing demand for the reduction, replacement, and refinement of the use of animal models in exposure assessments has stimulated the pursuit of alternative methods. This has included not only the use of the in vitro systems (e.g., cell cultures) in lieu of in vivo whole an...

369

VALIDATION METHODS FOR CHEMICAL EXPOSURE AND HAZARD ASSESSMENT MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Mathematical models and computer simulation codes designed to aid in hazard assessment for environmental protection must be verified and validated before they can be used with confidence in a decision-making or priority-setting context. Operational validation, or full-scale testi...

370

A new sampler for stratified lagoon chemical and microbiological assessments.  

PubMed

A sampler was needed for a spatial and temporal study of microbial and chemical stratification in a large swine manure lagoon that was known to contain zoonotic bacteria. Conventional samplers were limited to collections of surface water samples near the bank or required a manned boat. A new sampler was developed to allow simultaneous collection of multiple samples at different depths, up to 2.3 m, without a manned boat. The sampler was tethered for stability, used remote control (RC) for sample collection, and accommodated rapid replacement of sterile tubing modules and sample containers. The sampler comprised a PVC pontoon with acrylic deck and watertight enclosures, for a 12 VDC gearmotor, to operate the collection module, and vacuum system, to draw samples into reusable autoclavable tubing and 250-mL bottles. Although designed primarily for water samples, the sampler was easily modified to collect sludge. The sampler held a stable position during deployment, created minimal disturbance in the water column, and was readily cleaned and sanitized for transport. The sampler was field tested initially in a shallow fresh water lake and subsequently in a swine manure treatment lagoon. Analyses of water samples from the lagoon tests showed that chemical and bacterial levels, pH, and EC did not differ between 0.04, 0.47, and 1.0 m depths, but some chemical and bacterial levels differed between winter and spring collections. These results demonstrated the utility of the sampler and suggested that future manure lagoon studies employ fewer or different depths and more sampling dates. PMID:24549945

McLaughlin, M R; Brooks, J P; Adeli, A

2014-07-01

371

Assessing the Robustness of Chemical Prioritizations Based on ToxCast Chemical Profiling  

EPA Science Inventory

A central goal of the U.S. EPA?s ToxCast? program is to provide empirical, scientific evidence to aid in prioritizing the toxicity testing of thousands of chemicals. The agency has developed a prioritization approach, the Toxicological Prioritization Index (ToxPi?), that calculat...

372

Developing Computer Model-Based Assessment of Chemical Reasoning: A Feasibility Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports a feasibility study on developing computer model-based assessments of chemical reasoning at the high school level. Computer models are flash and NetLogo environments to make simultaneously available three domains in chemistry: macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic. Students interact with computer models to answer assessment

Liu, Xiufeng; Waight, Noemi; Gregorius, Roberto; Smith, Erica; Park, Mihwa

2012-01-01

373

ADVANCES IN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT FOR SYSTEMIC TOXICANTS AND CHEMICAL MIXTURES: AN INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The symposium focuses on improvement of techniques and evaluation of newly developed techniques in risk assessment of systemic toxicants and toxic mixtures of chemicals. The goal of the symposium is to review the risk assessment procedures for systemic toxicants now in use and to...

374

APPROACHES FOR INCORPORATING NON-CHEMICAL STRESSORS INTO CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past twenty years, the risk assessment paradigm has gradually shifted from an individual chemical approach to a community-based model. Inherent in community-based risk assessment is consideration of the totality of stressors affecting a defined population including both ...

375

78 FR 34377 - Trichloroethylene TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunity to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TSCA Workplan Chemical Risk Assessment for Trichloroethylene: Degreaser...unless you provide it in the body of your comment. If you send...contact information in the body of your comment and with any...Stan Barone, Jr., Risk Assessment Division (7403M),...

2013-06-07

376

78 FR 59679 - Antimony Trioxide TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunity To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TSCA Workplan Chemical Risk Assessment for Antimony Trioxide...unless you provide it in the body of your comment. If you send...contact information in the body of your comment and with any...Stan Barone, Jr., Risk Assessment Division (7403M),...

2013-09-27

377

Assessment of genetic and chemical variability in Thymus caramanicus.  

PubMed

Thymus caramanicus is an endemic species grown in Iran with interesting pharmacological and biological properties. In the present work, essential oil compositions and inter-simple sequences repeat (ISSR) markers were used to estimate the relationships among and within seven populations of T. caramanicus, belonging to three provinces in Iran. The studied individuals were distinguished on the basis of ISSR markers and constituents of essential oil. A total of 127 band positions were produced by 12 ISSR primers, of which 105 were found polymorphic with 82.68% polymorphism. Genetic similarity values among individuals ranged between 0.15 and 0.82 which was indicative of a high level of genetic variation. On the basis of their genetic similarities, ISSR analysis allowed to group the samples into two main clusters. One of these included populations originated from Kerman and Isfahan provinces, and the other cluster consists of populations from Semnan province. Chemical compounds of essential oils were found variable in the various individuals and all samples were principally composed of phenolic constituents (carvacrol and/or thymol). As a consequence, the plants were classified into two major chemotypes including carvacrol and thymol/carvacrol. A relationship between genetic and chemical variability and geographic distribution has been observed in studied populations of T. caramanicus. PMID:24469732

Hadian, Javad; Bigdeloo, Mahdi; Nazeri, Vahideh; Khadivi-Khub, Abdollah

2014-05-01

378

Nonnuclear consolidation weapons production support project for the Kansas City Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) to assist the agency in complying with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 as it applies to a Nonnuclear Consolidation Weapons Production Support Project (t...

1995-01-01

379

Climate-based archetypes for the environmental fate assessment of chemicals.  

PubMed

Emissions of chemicals have been on the rise for years, and their impacts are greatly influenced by spatial differentiation. Chemicals are usually emitted locally but their impact can be felt both locally and globally, due to their chemical properties and persistence. The variability of environmental parameters in the emission compartment may affect the chemicals' fate and the exposure at different orders of magnitude. The assessment of the environmental fate of chemicals and the inherent spatial differentiation requires the use of multimedia models at various levels of complexity (from a simple box model to complex computational and high-spatial-resolution models). The objective of these models is to support ecological and human health risk assessment, by reducing the uncertainty of chemical impact assessments. The parameterisation of spatially resolved multimedia models is usually based on scenarios of evaluative environments, or on geographical resolutions related to administrative boundaries (e.g. countries/continents) or landscape areas (e.g. watersheds, eco-regions). The choice of the most appropriate scale and scenario is important from a management perspective, as a balance should be reached between a simplified approach and computationally intensive multimedia models. In this paper, which aims to go beyond the more traditional approach based on scale/resolution (cell, country, and basin), we propose and assess climate-based archetypes for the impact assessment of chemicals released in air. We define the archetypes based on the main drivers of spatial variability, which we systematically identify by adopting global sensitivity analysis techniques. A case study that uses the high resolution multimedia model MAPPE (Multimedia Assessment of Pollutant Pathways in the Environment) is presented. Results of the analysis showed that suitable archetypes should be both climate- and chemical-specific, as different chemicals (or groups of them) have different traits that influence their spatial variability. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the variability of the output of MAPPE for four different climatic zones on four different continents for four different chemicals (which represent different combinations of physical and chemical properties). Results showed the high suitability of climate-based archetypes in assessing the impacts of chemicals released in air. However, further research work is still necessary to test these findings. PMID:23999273

Ciuffo, Biagio; Sala, Serenella

2013-11-15

380

Using Drawing Technology to Assess Students' Visualizations of Chemical Reaction Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigated how students used a drawing tool to visualize their ideas of chemical reaction processes. We interviewed 30 students using thinking-aloud and retrospective methods and provided them with a drawing tool. We identified four types of connections the students made as they used the tool: drawing on existing knowledge, incorporating dynamic aspects of chemical processes, linking a visualization to the associated chemical phenomenon, and connecting between the visualization and chemistry concepts. We also compared students who were able to create dynamic visualizations with those who only created static visualizations. The results indicated a relationship between students constructing a dynamic view of chemical reaction processes and their understanding of chemical reactions. This study provides insights into the use of visualizations to support instruction and assessment to facilitate students' integrated understanding of chemical reactions.

Chang, Hsin-Yi; Quintana, Chris; Krajcik, Joseph

2014-06-01

381

Chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

Ganesan, K; Raza, S K; Vijayaraghavan, R

2010-07-01

382

Laser weapons come down to earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Star Wars debate seldom mentions the fact that low-powered lasers are already widely used as adjuncts to conventional weaponry and tactical laser weapons will soon be ready for military arsenals. The superpowers will both have mass-produced directed-energy weapons available soon. Other directed-energy weapons, such as particle beams, atmospheric compression waves, microwaves, and radio-frequency waves are in various stages of

1985-01-01

383

Chemical analysis of human blood for assessment of environmental exposure to semivolatile organochlorine chemical contaminants.  

PubMed

A chemical method for the quantitative analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues present in human blood was scaled-up to provide increased sensitivity and extended to include organochlorine industrial chemicals. Whole blood samples were extracted with hexane, concentrated, and analyzed without further cleanup by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The methodology used was validated by conducting recovery studies at 1 and 10 ng/g (ppb) levels. Screening and confirmational analyses were performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry on samples collected from potentially exposed residents of the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York and from volunteers in the Research Triangle Park area of North Carolina for 25 specific semivolatile organochlorine contaminants including chlorobenzene and chlorotoluene congeners, hexachloro-1,3-butadiene, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls as Aroclor 1260. Dichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane residues fell in the range of 0.1 to 26 ppb in a high percentage of both the field and volunteer blood samples analyzed. Levels of other organochlorine compounds were either non-detectable or present in sub-ppb ranges. PMID:6819409

Bristol, D W; Crist, H L; Lewis, R G; MacLeod, K E; Sovocool, G W

1982-01-01

384

Chemical characterization of a commercial Commiphora wightii resin sample and chemical profiling to assess for authenticity.  

PubMed

The gum resin of Commiphora wightii [(Hook. ex Stocks) Engl.] is an ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of arthritis, inflammation, obesity, lipid disorders, and cardiovascular diseases and is known as guggul. Morphologically, it is not easy to distinguish guggul from closely related gum resins of other plants. Reliability of the commercially available guggul is critical due to the high risk of adulteration. To check authenticity, a commercial guggul sample was investigated for its chemical markers and 17 metabolites were identified, including three new, 20(S),21-epoxy-3-oxocholest-4-ene (1), 8 ?-hydroxy-3,20-dioxopregn-4,6-diene (2), and 5-(13' Z-nonadecenyl)resorcinol (17) from the ethyl acetate soluble part. During the current study, compounds 14- 17 were identified as constituents of Mangifera indica gum, as an adulterant in the commercial guggul sample. This discovery highlighted the common malpractices in the trade of medicinal raw material in the developing world. The structures of the compounds were deduced by the spectroscopic technique and chemical methods, as well as by comparison with the reported data. The structure of 20(S),21-epoxy-3-oxocholest-4-ene (1) was also unambiguously deduced by single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique. PMID:21240842

Ahmed, Rida; Ali, Zulfiqar; Wu, Yunshan; Kulkarni, Swapnil; Avery, Mitchell A; Choudhary, Muhammed Iqbal; Khan, Ikhlas A

2011-06-01

385

Proceedings of the Tungsten Workshop for Hard Target Weapons Program  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this meeting was to review and exchange information and provide technical input for improving technologies relevant to the Hard Target Weapons Program. This workshop was attended by representatives from 17 organizations, including 4 Department of Defense (DoD) agencies, 8 industrial companies, and 5 laboratories within DOE. Hard targets are defined as reinforced underground structures that house enemy forces, weapon systems, and support equipment. DOE-ORO and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) have been involved in advanced materials research and development (R&D) for several DOE and DoD programs. These programs are conducted in close collaboration with Eglin AFB, Department of the Army`s Picatinny Arsenal, and other DoD agencies. As part of this ongoing collaboration, Eglin AFB and Oak Ridge National Laboratory planned and conducted this workshop to support the Hard Target Weapons Program. The objectives of this workshop were to (1) review and identify the technology base that exists (primarily due to anti-armor applications) and assess the applicability of this technology to the Hard Target Weapons Program requirements; (2) determine future directions to establish the W materials, processing, and manufacturing technologies suitable for use in fixed, hard target penetrators; and (3) identify and prioritize the potential areas for technical collaboration among the participants.

Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Hayden, H.W.; Davis, R.M.

1995-06-01

386

Assessing and Managing Risks Arising from Exposure to Endocrine-Active Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing risks to human health and the environment produced by endocrine-active chemicals (EAC) is dependent on sound principles of risk assessment and risk management, which need to be adapted to address the uncertainties in the state of the science of EAC. Quantifying EAC hazard identification, mechanisms of action, and dose-response curves is complicated by a range of chemical structure\\/toxicology classes,

Karen P. Phillips; Warren G. Foster; William Leiss; Vanita Sahni; Nataliya Karyakina; Michelle C. Turner; Sam Kacew; Daniel Krewski

2008-01-01

387

Assessment of chemical effects on aromatase activity using the H295R cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  In response to concerns about chemical substances that can alter the function of endocrine systems and may result in adverse\\u000a effects on human and ecosystem health, a number of in vitro tests have been developed to identify and assess the endocrine\\u000a disrupting potential of chemicals and environmental samples. One endpoint that is frequently used in in vitro

Eric B. Higley; John L. Newsted; Xiaowei Zhang; John P. Giesy; Markus Hecker

2010-01-01

388

Spatial differentiation of chemical removal rates from air in life cycle impact assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Spatial differentiation is a topic of increasing interest within life cycle assessment (LCA). For chemical-related impacts,\\u000a in this paper, we evaluate the relative influence of substance properties and of environmental characteristics on the variability\\u000a in the environmental fate of chemicals using an advanced, spatially resolved model. The goal of this study is to explore spatial\\u000a distribution and spatial variability of

Serenella Sala; Dimitar Marinov; David Pennington

389

An intelligent data collection tool for chemical safety/risk assessment.  

PubMed

REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) is the new European chemical legislation which aims to assess risk or safety of tens of thousands of chemicals to improve the protection of human health and the environment. The chemical safety assessment process is of an iterative nature. First, an initial, worst-case assessment is conducted after which refinements are made until no risk has been estimated or the risk is adequately controlled. Wasting time and resources on additional testing and implementing risk management measures with low effect on risk conclusions should be avoided as much as possible. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of an intelligent data collection strategy based on a sensitivity (and uncertainty) analysis on the risk assessment model EUSES to identify and order the most important "within-EU-TGD-reducible" input parameters influencing the local and regional risk characterisation ratios. The ordering can be adjusted for the costs involved in additional testing (e.g. ecotoxicity, physico-chemical properties, emission estimates, etc.). The risk refinement tool therefore reduces the resources needed to obtain a realistic risk estimate (both less conservative and less uncertain) as efficient as possible. PMID:17959222

Verdonck, Frederik A M; Van Sprang, Patrick A; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

2008-02-01

390

Does the Gun Pull the Trigger? Automatic Priming Effects of Weapon Pictures and Weapon Names  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 30 years ago, Berkowitz and LePage (1967) published the first study demonstrating that the mere presence of a weapon increases aggressive behavior. These results have been repli- cated in several contexts by several research teams. The standard explanation of this weapons effect on aggressive behavior involves priming; identification of a weapon is believed to automatically increase the accessibility

Craig A. Anderson; Arlin J. Benjamin; Bruce D. Bartholow

1998-01-01

391

Utilizing toxicogenomic data to understand chemical mechanism of action in risk assessment.  

PubMed

The predominant role of toxicogenomic data in risk assessment, thus far, has been one of augmentation of more traditional in vitro and in vivo toxicology data. This article focuses on the current available examples of instances where toxicogenomic data has been evaluated in human health risk assessment (e.g., acetochlor and arsenicals) which have been limited to the application of toxicogenomic data to inform mechanism of action. This article reviews the regulatory policy backdrop and highlights important efforts to ultimately achieve regulatory acceptance. A number of research efforts on specific chemicals that were designed for risk assessment purposes have employed mechanism or mode of action hypothesis testing and generating strategies. The strides made by large scale efforts to utilize toxicogenomic data in screening, testing, and risk assessment are also discussed. These efforts include both the refinement of methodologies for performing toxicogenomics studies and analysis of the resultant data sets. The current issues limiting the application of toxicogenomics to define mode or mechanism of action in risk assessment are discussed together with interrelated research needs. In summary, as chemical risk assessment moves away from a single mechanism of action approach toward a toxicity pathway-based paradigm, we envision that toxicogenomic data from multiple technologies (e.g., proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, supportive RT-PCR studies) can be used in conjunction with one another to understand the complexities of multiple, and possibly interacting, pathways affected by chemicals which will impact human health risk assessment. PMID:21295051

Wilson, Vickie S; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Hester, Susan; Segal, Deborah; Chiu, Weihsueh; Thompson, Chad M; Euling, Susan Y

2013-09-15

392

Requirements for the development of advanced nuclear weapon concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, requirements for the development of advanced nuclear weapon concepts are discussed. This paper addresses third generation nuclear weapons, and the advance workshop literature describes third generation nuclear weapons as including earth penetrating warheads (EPWs) and maneuvering reentry vehicles (MARVs), as well as nuclear directed energy weapons (NDEWs). A historical context for the evolution of advanced nuclear weapon

1990-01-01

393

Evaluation of Biomonitoring Data from the CDC National Exposure Report in a Risk Assessment Context: Perspectives across Chemicals  

EPA Science Inventory

BACKGROUND: Biomonitoring data reported in the National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (NER) provide information on the presence and concentrations of more than 400 chemicals in human blood and urine. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) and other risk assessment...

394

Undisclosed chemicals--implications for risk assessment: a case study from the mining industry.  

PubMed

Many of the chemicals used in industry can be hazardous to human health and the environment, and some formulations can have undisclosed ingredients and hazards, increasing the uncertainty of the risks posed by their use. The need for a better understanding of the extent of undisclosed information in chemicals arose from collecting data on the hazards and exposures of chemicals used in typical mining operations (copper, platinum and coal). Four main categories of undisclosed chemicals were defined (incomplete disclosure; chemicals with unspecific identities; relative quantities of ingredients not stated; and trade secret ingredients) by reviewing material safety data sheet (MSDS) omissions in previous studies. A significant number of chemicals (20% of 957 different chemicals) across the three sites had a range of undisclosed information, with majority of the chemicals (39%) having unspecific identities. The majority of undisclosed information was found in commercially available motor oils followed by cleaning products and mechanical maintenance products, as opposed to reagents critical to the main mining processes. All three types of chemicals had trade secrets, unspecific chemical identities and incomplete disclosures. These types of undisclosed information pose a hindrance to a full understanding of the hazards, which is made worse when combined with additional MSDS omissions such as acute toxicity endpoints (LD50) and/or acute aquatic toxicity endpoints (LC50), as well as inadequate hazard classifications of ingredients. The communication of the hazard information in the MSDSs varied according to the chemical type, the manufacturer and the regulations governing the MSDSs. Undisclosed information can undermine occupational health protection, compromise the safety of workers in industry, hinder risk assessment procedures and cause uncertainty about future health. It comes down to the duty of care that industries have towards their employees. With a wide range of chemicals increasingly used, there is a balance that needs to be reached between disclosure requirements, trade secret provisions and definitions of hazardous ingredients for market needs, and the information required to protect the health of their workers. PMID:24685487

Singh, Khareen; Oates, Christopher; Plant, Jane; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

2014-07-01

395

76 FR 68809 - Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation; Termination of Chemical and Biological...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Nonproliferation; Termination of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against a Foreign Person AGENCY...or entity in its efforts to acquire chemical or biological weapons capability: Gerhard Merz This determination and...

2011-11-07

396

Degradation of chemical alarm cues and assessment of risk throughout the day.  

PubMed

The use of chemical information in assessment of predation risk is pervasive across animal taxa. However, by its very nature, chemical information can be temporally unreliable. Chemical cues persist for some period of time after they are released into the environment. Yet, we know surprisingly little about the rate of degradation of chemical cues under natural conditions and hence little about how they function in temporal risk assessment under natural conditions. Here, we conducted an experiment to identify a concentration of fresh alarm cues that evoke a strong antipredator response in coral reef damselfish, Pomacentrus ambonensis. We then tested the rate at which these alarm cues degraded under natural conditions in ocean water, paying attention to whether the rate of degradation varied throughout the day and whether the temporal pattern correlated with physicochemical factors that could influence the rate of degradation. Fresh alarm cues released into ocean water evoke strong avoidance responses in juvenile fish, while those aged for 30 min no longer evoke antipredator responses. Fish exposed to cues aged for 10 or 20 min show intermediate avoidance responses. We found a marked temporal pattern of response throughout the day, with much faster degradation in early to mid-afternoon, the time of day when solar radiation, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH are nearing their peak. Ecologists have spent considerable effort elucidating the role of chemical information in mediating predator-prey interactions, yet we know almost nothing about the temporal dynamics of risk assessment using chemical information. We are in dire need of additional comparative field experiments on the rate of breakdown of chemical cues, particularly given that global change in UV radiation, temperature, and water chemistry could be altering the rates of degradation and the potential use of this information in risk assessment. PMID:24198950

Chivers, Douglas P; Dixson, Danielle L; White, James R; McCormick, Mark I; Ferrari, Maud C O

2013-10-01

397

Freshness assessment of European eel ( Anguilla anguilla) by sensory, chemical and microbiological methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshness assessment of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) stored in ice and in boxes without ice at 3±1 °C was assessed by sensory, chemical (total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric values (TBA), peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), and pH) and microbiological (total viable counts, TVC) methods. The limit for sensory acceptability of eel stored in ice was ?12–14 days,

Yesim Özogul; Gulsun Özyurt; Fatih Özogul; Esmeray Kuley; Abdurrahman Polat

2005-01-01

398

Breaking the fuel\\/weapons connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of weapons-usable material for both military and civilian purposes must be constrained to the maximum extent possible if efforts to reduce nuclear arsenals and to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to additional countries and to terrorist groups are to succeed. To this end, the authors propose the following: (1) separation of plutonium from spent reactor fuel and

H. A. Feiveson; F. von Hippel; D. Albright

1986-01-01

399

Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons. Updated August 10, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analysts have identified a number of issues with the continued deployment of U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons. These include questions about the safety and security of Russia's weapons and the possibility that some might be lost, stolen, or s...

A. F. Woolf

2009-01-01

400

Evaluating weapon systems using fuzzy arithmetic operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new method to deal with the performance evaluation of weapon systems using fuzzy arithmetic operations. An example of tactical missile systems selection is used to illustrate the performance evaluation process of weapon systems. Because the proposed methods uses simplified fuzzy arithmetic operations of fuzzy numbers rather than the complicated entropy weight calculations mentioned in

Shyi-Ming Chen

1996-01-01

401

Directed-Energy Weapons: Invisible and Invincible.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A military weapon is any tool used to increase the reach or power of a nation. Simply, it can be said that each era witnesses the deployment of new and powerful mass destruction weaponry. What will this century's most powerful weapon be. Directed-energy w...

B. M. Deveci

2007-01-01

402

Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

Bing, G.F.

1991-08-20

403

Russian/Soviet weapons secrets revealed  

SciTech Connect

Russia's Ministry of Atomic Energy has opened a museum at the Arzamas-16 nuclear weapon design laboratory with an exhibit on some early weapons. This exhibit and recent articles in the Russian press provide previously unknown details on the early Soviet nuclear program. This article compiles some of this information to provide a refined record of the development of the H-bomb.

Norris, R.S.

1993-04-01

404

Nuclear Weapons, Psychology, and International Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fear of nuclear energy, nuclear weapons, and nuclear was is widespread among the peoples of the world. However, to what extent do the fears (both rational and irrational) of policy-making elites and political masses produce actual effects upon the behavior of governments (who, after all, control the use of nuclear weapons)? (Author/RK)

Dougherty, James E.

1976-01-01

405

Squeeze Casting of Steel Weapon Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project was initiated to study the feasibility of applying the squeeze casting process to produce two specific steel weapon components - the receiver base and the barrel support of the M85 weapon. Dies were designed and fabricated for both components ...

D. A. Stawarz K. M. Kulkarni K. R. Iyer R. B. Miclot

1974-01-01

406

Challenges to developing countries after joining WTO: risk assessment of chemicals in food.  

PubMed

FAO/WHO encourages member countries to develop national food control measures based on risk assessment in order to assure proper protection level to consumers and facilitate fair trade. This is particularly important for developing countries as WTO members because it is clearly stated in the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Agreement that: (a) SPS measures should be based on risk assessment techniques developed by relevant international organizations; and (b) Codex standards which is based on risk assessment are regarded as the international norm in trade dispute settlement. When conducting risk assessment on food chemicals (including additives and contaminants) in developing countries, in most cases it is not necessary to conduct their own hazard characterization because the ADIs or PTWIs of food chemicals developed by international expert groups (e.g. JECFA) are universally applicable and also developing countries do not have the resources to repeat those expensive toxicological studies. On the other hand, it is necessary to conduct exposure assessment in developing countries because exposure to food chemicals varies from country to country. This is not only crucial in setting national standards, but also very important for developing countries to participate in the process of developing Codex standards. In addition to food standard development, risk assessment is also useful in setting up priorities in imported food inspection and evaluating the success of various food safety control measures. PMID:15138023

Chen, Junshi

2004-05-20

407

Soviet military thinking and nuclear weapons issues. Report for Period July 1989-May 1990  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the Soviet Unions's changing outlook on nuclear weapons and the role they play. To assess these changes, this paper first surveys and analyzes the Soviet open-source literature dedicated to security issues, paying particular attention to the treatment of nuclear weapons issues. The notions of changing military doctrine, strategic parity and stability, sufficiency, arms control, and the use of nuclear weapons are all addressed. The second half of the paper makes a speculative assessment of what today's changes taking place in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union might mean for future thinking about nuclear weapons issues. Finally, the impact of future Soviet defense spending and the Soviet political leadership are examined as factors that will also influence Soviet security policy.

Clark, S.L.; Laird, R.F.

1990-05-01

408

22 CFR 103.11 - Payment of final assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS REGULATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION AND THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION IMPLEMENTATION ACT OF 1998 ON THE TAKING OF SAMPLES AND ON ENFORCEMENT OF REQUIREMENTS...

2013-04-01

409

22 CFR 103.11 - Payment of final assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... REGULATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION AND THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION IMPLEMENTATION ACT OF 1998 ON THE TAKING OF SAMPLES AND ON ENFORCEMENT OF REQUIREMENTS CONCERNING RECORDKEEPING AND INSPECTIONS Recordkeeping and...

2010-04-01

410

Incorporating Risk Assessment and Inherently Safer Design Practices into Chemical Engineering Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces, via case study example, the benefit of including risk assessment methodology and inherently safer design practices into the curriculum for chemical engineering students. This work illustrates how these tools can be applied during the earliest stages of conceptual process design. The impacts of decisions made during…

Seay, Jeffrey R.; Eden, Mario R.

2008-01-01

411

REMOTE SENSING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL PLANTS AND REFINERIES FOLLOWING HURRICANES KATRINA AND RITA  

EPA Science Inventory

The massive destruction brought by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita also impacted the many chemical plants and refineries in the region. The achievement of this rapid analysis capability highlights the advancement of this technology for air quality assessment and monitoring. Case st...

412

Learning from the application of nuclear probabilistic safety assessment to the chemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the new approach of risk analysis established by the French Ministry of the Environment and develops the benefits of applying nuclear probabilistic safety assessment approaches to the chemical industry.In the aftermath of the AZF disaster in Toulouse on 21 September 2001, a new law was proposed by the French government asking for the investigation of all representative

Cyril Charvet; Jean-Luc Chambon; François Corenwinder; Jérôme Taveau

2011-01-01

413

APPLICABILITY OF U.S. EPA RISK ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES FOR CHEMICAL MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA published Guidelines for the health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures in September, 1986. To facilitate the application of Guidelines procedures the Agency has developed a data base on known toxicological interactions (synergism, etc.). This unique resource allos ...

414

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WORLD TRADE CENTER FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FOR USE IN TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical Analysis of World Trade Center Fine Particulate Matter for Use in Toxicological Assessment John K. McGee1, Lung Chi Chen2, Mitchell D. Cohen2, Glen R. Chee2, Colette M. Prophete2, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Shirley J. Wasson3, Teri L. Conner4, Daniel L. Costa1, and Steph...

415

DEVELOPMENT OF MOLECULAR MARKERS OF RESPONSE TO ASSESS THE SENSITIVITY OF CHILDREN TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Development of Molecular Markers of Response to Assess the Sensitivity of Children to Environmental Chemicals J.Allen, C. Blackman, M. Blaze, D. Delker, D. DeMarini, C. Doerr, R. Grindstaff, S. Hester, C. Jones, A. Kligerman, G. Knapp, M. Kohan, C. Nelson, R. Owen, J. P...

416

Hazard identification and risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals with regard to developmental effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDC) may affect mammalian development either indirectly (by affecting implantation, placenta, lactation, etc.) or directly, altering the maturation of target tissues. Studies on reproductive and developmental effects are likely to provide the critical information for risk assessment of most EDC, when proper endpoints are investigated. Toxicity testing guidelines, and especially the two-generation test, are currently being updated

Alberto Mantovani

2002-01-01

417

Impacts of a clay plaster on indoor air quality assessed using chemical and sensory measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive removal materials (PRMs) are building materials or furnishings that effectively control indoor pollution without substantial formation of chemical byproducts and without an energy penalty. Recent studies have suggested that clay might be an effective PRM for ozone. To assess clay wall plaster as a PRM for improving air quality by controlling ozone, perceived air quality (PAQ) was determined in

E. K. a Darling; C. J. a Cros; P. b Wargocki; J. b Kolarik; G.C.c Morrison; R. L. a Corsi

2012-01-01

418

Evaluating quantitative formulas for dose-response assessment of chemical mixtures.  

PubMed Central

Risk assessment formulas are often distinguished from dose-response models by being rough but necessary. The evaluation of these rough formulas is described here, using the example of mixture risk assessment. Two conditions make the dose-response part of mixture risk assessment difficult, lack of data on mixture dose-response relationships, and the need to address risk from combinations of chemicals because of public demands and statutory requirements. Consequently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed methods for carrying out quantitative dose-response assessment for chemical mixtures that require information only on the toxicity of single chemicals and of chemical pair interactions. These formulas are based on plausible ideas and default parameters but minimal supporting data on whole mixtures. Because of this lack of mixture data, the usual evaluation of accuracy (predicted vs. observed) cannot be performed. Two approaches to the evaluation of such formulas are to consider fundamental biological concepts that support the quantitative formulas (e.g., toxicologic similarity) and to determine how well the proposed method performs under simplifying constraints (e.g., as the toxicologic interactions disappear). These ideas are illustrated using dose addition and two weight-of-evidence formulas for incorporating toxicologic interactions.

Hertzberg, Richard C; Teuschler, Linda K

2002-01-01

419

Review of the Mouse Lung Tumor Workshop: Applying Knowledge to Chemical-Specific Health Risk Assessments   

EPA Science Inventory

EPA conducted a State-of-the-Science Workshop in January 2014 on Chemically-induced Mouse Lung Tumors: Applications to Human Health Assessments. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss the available data and interpretation of results from studies of mouse bronchiolar-alveolar...

420

Estimating Toxicity Pathway Activating Doses for High Throughput Chemical Risk Assessments  

EPA Science Inventory

Estimating a Toxicity Pathway Activating Dose (TPAD) from in vitro assays as an analog to a reference dose (RfD) derived from in vivo toxicity tests would facilitate high throughput risk assessments of thousands of data-poor environmental chemicals. Estimating a TPAD requires def...

421

Visual-Olfactory Habitat Mimic for Assessment of Fruit Fly Response to Behavior-Modifying Chemicals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to and has among its objects the provision of a novel method and apparatus for providing in combination visual and olfactory stimuli to fruit flies to rapidly assess behavioral responses of the flies to sample test chemicals. Tephri...

D. L. Williamson

1984-01-01

422

ASSESSING ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICAL EXPOSURE IN INDIGENOUS AQUATIC POPULATIONS IN THE OHIO RIVER  

EPA Science Inventory

The NERL has launched a collaborative study with the ORSANCO to determine the degree of ecologically relevant endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) exposure in the New Cumberland Pool of the Ohio River under the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program - Great Rivers Project...

423

STRESS PATHWAY-BASED REPORTER ASSAYS TO ASSESS TOXICITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS.  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an increasing need for assays for the rapid and efficient assessment of toxicities of large numbers of environmental chemicals. To meet this need, we are developing cell-based reporter assays that measure the activation of key molecular stress pathways. We are using pro...

424

Assessment of heavy metal removal technologies for biowaste by physico?chemical fractionation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Netherlands, the heavy metal content of biowaste?compost frequently exceeds the legal standards for heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metal removal technologies, a physico?chemical fractionation scheme was developed to gain insight into the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) over the physical entities of biowaste and to determine the binding strength of heavy metals

A. H. M. Veeken; B. Hamelers

2003-01-01

425

METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBLE HUMAN EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES AND INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The determination of chlorinated phenols in urine can be used as a means for assessing exposure to pesticides and industrial chemicals in the human population. A method was developed for the analysis of chlorinated phenols which involves the derivatization of metabolites from the...

426

48 CFR 217.173 - Multiyear contracts for weapon systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...multiyear contract forâ (a) A weapon system and associated items, services, and logistics support for a weapon system; and (b) Advance procurement...parts, and materials necessary to manufacture a weapon system, including advance...

2010-10-01

427

48 CFR 217.173 - Multiyear contracts for weapon systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...multiyear contract forâ (a) A weapon system and associated items, services, and logistics support for a weapon system; and (b) Advance procurement...parts, and materials necessary to manufacture a weapon system, including advance...

2009-10-01

428

76 FR 1136 - Electroshock Weapons Test and Measurement Workshop  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards and Technology Electroshock Weapons Test and Measurement Workshop AGENCY...manufacturers, etc.) of electroshock weapons that provide stand-off delivery of an...performance requirements for electroshock weapons, the Law Enforcement Standards...

2011-01-07

429

32 CFR 552.125 - Disposition of confiscated weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Disposition of confiscated weapons. 552.125 Section 552.125 National... § 552.125 Disposition of confiscated weapons. Commanders will maintain confiscated weapons in the unit arms room pending final...

2013-07-01

430

Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions.

Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

1994-09-01

431

Virtual enterprise model for the electronic components business in the Nuclear Weapons Complex  

SciTech Connect

The electronic components business within the Nuclear Weapons Complex spans organizational and Department of Energy contractor boundaries. An assessment of the current processes indicates a need for fundamentally changing the way electronic components are developed, procured, and manufactured. A model is provided based on a virtual enterprise that recognizes distinctive competencies within the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at the vendors. The model incorporates changes that reduce component delivery cycle time and improve cost effectiveness while delivering components of the appropriate quality.

Ferguson, T.J.; Long, K.S.; Sayre, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hull, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Carey, D.A.; Sim, J.R.; Smith, M.G. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Div.

1994-08-01

432

The detection and assessment of the aneugenic potential of environmental chemicals: the European Community Aneuploidy Project.  

PubMed

Within the framework of its' Environment Research and Development Programme, the European Communities (EC) Directorate General (DG) XII has supported a research project aimed at developing and validating assay systems for the detection and evaluation of chemicals capable of inducing numerical chromosome changes such as aneuploidy and polyploidy. A range of test chemicals were selected, which include a core set comprising; colchicine, econazole nitrate, chloral hydrate, hydroquinone, diazepam, thiabendazole, cadmium chloride, thimerosol, pyrimethamine and vinblastine sulphate. These test chemicals were used to evaluate the ability of test systems ranging from tubulin polymerisation, fungal cultures, cultured mammalian cells and intact rodents to detect chemical aneugens and to assess the significance of such activity to exposed human populations. PMID:7683383

Parry, J M; Sors, A

1993-05-01

433

Introduction to Pits and Weapons Systems (U)  

SciTech Connect

A Nuclear Explosive Package includes the Primary, Secondary, Radiation Case and related components. This is the part of the weapon that produces nuclear yield and it converts mechanical energy into nuclear energy. The pit is composed of materials that allow mechanical energy to be converted to electromagnetic energy. Fabrication processes used are typical of any metal fabrication facility: casting, forming, machining and welding. Some of the materials used in pits include: Plutonium, Uranium, Stainless Steel, Beryllium, Titanium, and Aluminum. Gloveboxes are used for three reasons: (1) Protect workers and public from easily transported, finely divided plutonium oxides - (a) Plutonium is very reactive and produces very fine particulate oxides, (b) While not the 'Most dangerous material in the world' of Manhattan Project lore, plutonium is hazardous to health of workers if not properly controlled; (2) Protect plutonium from reactive materials - (a) Plutonium is extremely reactive at ambient conditions with several components found in air: oxygen, water, hydrogen, (b) As with most reactive metals, reactions with these materials may be violent and difficult to control, (c) As with most fabricated metal products, corrosion may significantly affect the mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of the product; and (3) Provide shielding from radioactive decay products: {alpha}, {gamma}, and {eta} are commonly associated with plutonium decay, as well as highly radioactive materials such as {sup 241}Am and {sup 238}Pu.

Kautz, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-02

434

Finally, Proof of Weapons of Mass Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Allelopathy (one species' use of chemicals to harm other species) may be a key ingredient in successful invasions of alien plants into established communities. Bais et al. show that in response to elicitation by common soil fungi, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) launches an ineffective defense against the fungi that results in extensive collateral damage to neighboring plants. Specifically, the flavonoid (–)-catechin, released from the roots of knapweed, produces a massive reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative burst, Ca2+ signaling, and rapid cell death in those unadapted native species whose habitats the plant regularly invades. The roots release both (+) and (–) enantiomers, but only the (–) enantiomer functions as a weapon of mass destruction; the (+) enantiomer inhibits the growth of numerous common soil-borne bacterial pathogens. Eliciting apoptotic response for a competitive advantage is an example of signal cross-talk between the genomes of interacting organisms and highlights how the internal signaling of one organism can be used by others to adjust their phenotypes in an adaptive manner. The study provides strong circumstantial evidence for an allelopathic interaction, but the genetic manipulation of (–)-catechin release would allow researchers to determine if these responses occur in nature. Precise genetic control over the release of secondary metabolites from plants would benefit ecological research.

Ian T. Baldwin (Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology;Department of Molecular Ecology REV)

2003-10-07

435

[The urgency of the application of the medical sanitary passport in the system for chemical safety in the areas of location of high-risk chemical facilities in the Russian Federation].  

PubMed

The main provisions concerning the need for a creation of medical and sanitary passport for territories in the protective measures zones (PMZ) of storage facilities and facilities for the destruction of chemical weapons (FDCW) are presented in the article. The assessment of results of certification of the territory of PMZ and FDCW in "Maradykovsky" in the Kirov region has been done. PMID:23457992

Kombarova, M Iu; Radilov, A S; Dulov, S A

2012-01-01

436

United States Chemical Policy: Response Considerations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical weapons have been a controversial subject for years. Even before the Germans introduced modern chemical warfare on 22 April 1915 during World War I, issues concerning use of asphyxiating gases and other chemical agents surfaced. Discussions often...

L. L. VanDyke

1991-01-01

437

Reducing aquatic hazards of industrial chemicals: Probabilistic assessment of sustainable molecular design guidelines.  

PubMed

Basic toxicological information is lacking for the majority of industrial chemicals. In addition to increasing empirical toxicity data through additional testing, prospective computational approaches to drug development aim to serve as a rational basis for the design of chemicals with reduced toxicity. Recent work has resulted in the derivation of a "rule of 2," wherein chemicals with an octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) less than 2 and a difference between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital (?E) greater than 9 (log P??9?eV) are predicted to be 4 to 5 times less likely to elicit acute or chronic toxicity to model aquatic organisms. The present study examines potential reduction of aquatic toxicity hazards from industrial chemicals if these 2 molecular design guidelines were employed. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches were used to model the likelihood of encountering industrial chemicals exceeding toxicological categories of concern both with and without the rule of 2. Modeling predicted that utilization of these molecular design guidelines for log P and ?E would appreciably decrease the number of chemicals that would be designated to be of "high" and "very high" concern for acute and chronic toxicity to standard model aquatic organisms and end points as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. For example, 14.5% of chemicals were categorized as having high and very high acute toxicity to the fathead minnow model, whereas only 3.3% of chemicals conforming to the design guidelines were predicted to be in these categories. Considerations of specific chemical classes (e.g., aldehydes), chemical attributes (e.g., ionization), and adverse outcome pathways in representative species (e.g., receptor-mediated responses) could be used to derive future property guidelines for broader classes of contaminants. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:1894-1902. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:24839109

Connors, Kristin A; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina M; Kostal, Jakub; Anastas, Paul; Zimmerman, Julie B; Brooks, Bryan W

2014-08-01

438

Chemical and toxicological assessment of a full-scale biosolid compost.  

PubMed

The impact of a full-scale biosolid composting plant on the fate of a broad range of priority organic pollutants was investigated. Chemical analysis was performed at different steps of the process during two seasons. Simultaneously, the toxicological quality was assessed using estrogen ?-, dioxin-, and pregnane X-receptor reporter cell lines. Mass-balance calculation highlighted the removal of easily degradable pollutants during composting. The important variations observed for each compound and for the two seasons might be explained by pollutant-fate dependency on process parameters like temperature. The final compost displayed low pregnane X activity but high estrogenic activity. The dioxin-like activity stayed constant through the process. The chemical and toxicological results highlight the importance of combining both approaches to accurately assess the compost quality. Such compilation of data on full-scale processes may be also very helpful for the environmental risk assessment of new organic waste disposal practices. PMID:22949087

Patureau, Dominique; Delgenes, Nadine; Muller, Mathieu; Dagnino, Sonia; Lhoutellier, Claire; Delgenes, Jean-Philippe; Balaguer, Patrick; Hernandez-Raquet, Guillermina

2012-12-01

439

Toward a nuclear weapons free world?  

SciTech Connect

Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide any enduring improvement in security; rather, it was seen as creating ever greater risks and dangers. Arms control negotiations and limitations, adopted as a means to regulate the technical competition, may also have relieved some of the political pressures and dangers. But the balance of terror, and the fears of it, continued. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) under President Reagan was a very different approach to escaping from the precarious protection of nuclear weapons, in that it sought a way to continue to defend the US and the West, but without the catastrophic risks of mutual deterrence. As such, SDI connoted unhappiness with the precarious nuclear balance and, for many, with nuclear weapons in general. The disappearance of the Warsaw Pact, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the sudden end of the Cold War seemed to offer a unique opportunity to fashion a new, more peaceful world order that might allow for fading away of nuclear weapons. Scholars have foreseen two different paths to a nuclear free world. The first is a fundamental improvement in the relationships between states such that nuclear weapons are no longer needed. The second path is through technological development, e.g., missile defenses which could provide effective protection against nuclear attacks. The paper discusses nuclear weapon policy in the US, views of other nuclear states, the future of nuclear weapons, and issues in a less-nuclear world.

Maaranen, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

1996-09-01

440

Risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in chemical industrial parks based on catastrophe theory.  

PubMed

According to risk systems theory and the characteristics of the chemical industry, an index system was established for risk assessment of enterprises in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) based on the inherent risk of the source, effectiveness of the prevention and control mechanism, and vulnerability of the receptor. A comprehensive risk assessment method based on catastrophe theory was then proposed and used to analyze the risk levels of ten major chemical enterprises in the Songmu Island CIP, China. According to the principle of equal distribution function, the chemical enterprise risk level was divided into the following five levels: 1.0 (very safe), 0.8 (safe), 0.6 (generally recognized as safe, GRAS), 0.4 (unsafe), 0.2 (very unsafe). The results revealed five enterprises (50%) with an unsafe risk level, and another five enterprises (50%) at the generally recognized as safe risk level. This method solves the multi-objective evaluation and decision-making problem. Additionally, this method involves simple calculations and provides an effective technique for risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in CIPs. PMID:23208298

Chen, Yu; Song, Guobao; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Zhenyu

2012-12-01

441

Prohibition of nuclear weapons: a critical analysis of the relevance of international law and the failure of the Baruch Plan  

SciTech Connect

This study develops a better historical understanding of the prohibitions in international law restraining the use of nuclear weapons and the reasons for the failure of the first and only effort at nuclear disarmament, the Baruch Plan. Such an inquiry may be useful in formulating new proposals to deal with the problem of nuclear weapons. While the doctrine of deterrence has been the subject of extensive study over the years, there has been a scarcity of detailed examinations of the legal implications of the use of nuclear weapons. In recent years, as public confidence in the continued viability of nuclear deterrence as the primary means to avert nuclear war has eroded, the normative discussion of the legal status of nuclear weapons under international law has assumed a new level of importance, not only for critics of existing nuclear weapons policies, but also for policy-makers. Initially, the author considers whether the laws of war, the traditional legal restraints on the conduct of war, are relevant in making an assessment of the legal status of nuclear weapons. Since the United States, the only nation to use nuclear weapons in warfare, contends that the use of nuclear weapons is lawful, the author investigates that claim as a prelude to a more extensive inquiry into the opinions of legal scholars on the legal status of nuclear weapons under international law.

Meyrowitz, E.L.

1986-01-01

442

Chemical and biological assessment for Egyptian surface freshwater environment with reference to human activities.  

PubMed

The Egyptian freshwater was assessed in the River Nile, branches, main canals and certain drainages in eight Governorates, over eight successive seasons starting from spring 2008. Chemical assessment was made through ten parameters and the biological one was made through macro-invertebrates information. Results showed that means of Cd, Pb, Cu, Hg, Mn, Fe, Ni, Na, K & Ca varied in watercourses seasonally within somewhat narrow ranges, which may exceed the level of concern but with some elevations in branches, Rayahs and canals during certain seasons. Sites showed chemical levels over the permissible one or those gain total points < or = 6.3 according to the biological assessment indicate that very poor habitat or those of Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) equal to 7-10 indicate that organic pollution were observed in all the studied watercourses reflecting hazard non point source pollution. Damietta branch in the region of Damietta city characterized with elevations in the concentration of most chemicals examined. The percentages of sites that showed chemical level over the permissible one were 70.56% for K, 54.08% for Cu, 50.08% for Na, 22.08% for Cd, 11.36% for Fe, 5.6% for Pb, 1.92% for Ni, 1.12% for Mn, 0.16% for Ca and at last 0.0736% for Hg. The biological assessment was more able to define more polluted sites than did the chemical one. Human activity data revealed that each of the drains, Giza and Qalyubia canals showed the highest item conduction (animal or plant waste, macroscopic pollution and presence of bridges or barriers) and this was co parallel with their highest pollution recordation. PMID:22435163

El-Khayat, Hanaa M M; Mostafa, Bayomy B; El-Deeb, Fatma A; Ragab, Fawzy M; Tantawy, Ahmed A; Ismail, Nahed M M; El-Said, Khalil M; Mahmoud, Kadria M A

2011-12-01

443

Techniques to evaluate the importance of common cause degradation on reliability and safety of nuclear weapons.  

SciTech Connect

As the nuclear weapon stockpile ages, there is increased concern about common degradation ultimately leading to common cause failure of multiple weapons that could significantly impact reliability or safety. Current acceptable limits for the reliability and safety of a weapon are based on upper limits on the probability of failure of an individual item, assuming that failures among items are independent. We expanded the current acceptable limits to apply to situations with common cause failure. Then, we developed a simple screening process to quickly assess the importance of observed common degradation for both reliability and safety to determine if further action is necessary. The screening process conservatively assumes that common degradation is common cause failure. For a population with between 100 and 5000 items we applied the screening process and conclude the following. In general, for a reliability requirement specified in the Military Characteristics (MCs) for a specific weapon system, common degradation is of concern if more than 100(1-x)% of the weapons are susceptible to common degradation, where x is the required reliability expressed as a fraction. Common degradation is of concern for the safety of a weapon subsystem if more than 0.1% of the population is susceptible to common degradation. Common degradation is of concern for the safety of a weapon component or overall weapon system if two or more components/weapons in the population are susceptible to degradation. Finally, we developed a technique for detailed evaluation of common degradation leading to common cause failure for situations that are determined to be of concern using the screening process. The detailed evaluation requires that best estimates of common cause and independent failure probabilities be produced. Using these techniques, observed common degradation can be evaluated for effects on reliability and safety.

Darby, John L.

2011-05-01

444

A Management of change approach for assessing and Evaluating operational Staffing Levels (MocESL) in chemical plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical enterprises are often challenged with efficiently assessing their operational staffing levels. Unbalanced and inadequate manning levels might be financially adversarial and may even lead to (minor and major) accidents. This paper provides a framework and a roadmap to assist chemical plants in assessing and evaluating their operational staffing levels. The approach can be implemented within the entire organization or

G. L. L. Reniers

2010-01-01

445

Health risk assessment of long-term exposure to non-genotoxic chemicals: application of biological indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

For chemical pollutants, health risk assessment of long-term exposure is usually best realized through an epidemiologic approach which attempts to link cumulative levels of exposure to the potential for occurrence of early adverse effects. For some chemicals, however, the frequency of peak exposures may be more relevant for assessing the health risk than the integrated dose. In very few circumstances,

Robert R. Lauwerys; Alfred Bernard; Harry Roels; Jean-Pierre Buchet

1995-01-01

446

Prospective life cycle assessment of graphene production by ultrasonication and chemical reduction.  

PubMed

One promising future bulk application of graphene is as composite additive. Therefore, we compare two production routes for in-solution graphene using a cradle-to-gate lifecycle assessment focusing on potential differences in energy use, blue water footprint, human toxicity, and ecotoxicity. The data used for the assessment is based on information in scientific papers and patents. Considering the prospective nature of this study, environmental impacts from background systems such as energy production were not included. The production routes are either based on ultrasonication or chemical reduction. The results show that the ultrasonication route has lower energy and water use, but higher human and ecotoxicity impacts, compared to the chemical reduction route. However, a sensitivity analysis showed that solvent recovery in the ultrasonication process gives lower impacts for all included impact categories. The sensitivity analysis also showed that solvent recovery is important to lower the blue water footprint of the chemical reduction route as well. The results demonstrate the possibility to conduct a life cycle assessment study based mainly on information from patents and scientific articles, enabling prospective life cycle assessment studies of products at early stages of technological development. PMID:24646298

Arvidsson, Rickard; Kushnir, Duncan; Sandén, Björn A; Molander, Sverker

2014-04-15

447

Weapons workers: Ruin or revival?  

SciTech Connect

The formidable task of restructuring the former Soviet Union`s economic system depends largely on it success in converting a defense industry that once employed 11 million Soviet workers to peaceful pursuits, says Artiom Ustinov, a researcher in the U.S. and Canada Institute in Moscow. {open_quotes}Governments could convert defense facilities into those that develop and manufacture products that people desperately need and want,{close_quotes} says Ustinov. Unfortunately, such a transformation cannot happen quickly because the former Soviet Union lacks a high-tech sector into which former weapons workers can migrate. An even more serious problem stems from a traditional isolation from world markets. Civilian manufacturing in the former Soviet Union, which was never forced to meet international standards for quality and performance, has been marked by inferior products. {open_quotes}With financial support, a well-defined program, incentives, and retraining, the military research labs could find themselves in a better position to release their huge potential for creative rather than destructive purposes,{close_quotes} Ustinov concludes.

Ustinov, A. [U.S. and Canada Studies Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-10-01

448

Chemical warfare: Implications for Operation Desert Storm and beyond. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the potential for use of lethal and incapacitating chemical agents in the Persian Gulf. Insight from past chemical warfare case studies, current international law, and U.S. and Soviet policy, strategy and tactics provide a basis for examination of Iraq's chemical warfare potential and operational strategy. In addition, a survey of Naval War College students assesses the current U.S. Armed Forces level of chemical warfare readiness. This analysis combined with the U.S. experience and current war with Iraq as well as proposing a more viable operational capability to meet stated national policy in response to chemical weapons.

Trummer, F.G.; Twining, B.L.

1991-02-11

449

Experimental Assessment of the Sensitiveness of an Electrochemical Oscillator towards Chemical Perturbations  

PubMed Central

In this study we address the problem of the response of a (electro)chemical oscillator towards chemical perturbations of different magnitudes. The chemical perturbation was achieved by addition of distinct amounts of trifluoromethanesulfonate (TFMSA), a rather stable and non-specifically adsorbing anion, and the system under investigation was the methanol electro-oxidation reaction under both stationary and oscillatory regimes. Increasing the anion concentration resulted in a decrease in the reaction rates of methanol oxidation and a general decrease in the parameter window where oscillations occurred. Furthermore, the addition of TFMSA was found to decrease the induction period and the total duration of oscillations. The mechanism underlying these observations was derived mathematically and revealed that inhibition in the methanol oxidation through blockage of active sites was found to further accelerate the intrinsic non-stationarity of the unperturbed system. Altogether, the presented results are among the few concerning the experimental assessment of the sensitiveness of an oscillator towards chemical perturbations. The universal nature of the complex chemical oscillator investigated here might be used for reference when studying the dynamics of other less accessible perturbed networks of (bio)chemical reactions.

Ferreira, Graziela C. A.; Batista, Bruno C.; Varela, Hamilton

2012-01-01

450

Preliminary hazards assessment--temporary chemical storage for Building 600 construction project  

SciTech Connect

A construction project is planned to upgrade the Chemical Storage Building to meet product specifications, provide environmental enhancements, and comply with OSHA requirements. This Preliminary Hazards Assessment will examine the hazards associated with the temporary storage of chemicals during the project, along with an analysis of the credible accidents. The Chemical Storage Building is used for storage of production and general stockroom chemicals. It is divided into six storage rooms, with each room separated from the others by a concrete block, two-hour fire wall. Each room contains a different class of chemicals: flammables, acids, alkalies, heat paper/powder, oxidizers, and toxics. The construction project will add: an HVAC system; individual containment dikes and holding sumps for each room, eliminating the existing underground drain and sump system; a new temperature-controlled flammables room; and a separate flammables pouring room. The Heat Paper/Powder Storage room and office area will also be modified to make room for the new flammables storage room. The project will be performed in two phases. For each phase, it will be necessary to temporarily relocate the chemicals from the areas being renovated. 2 refs., 3 figs.

NONE

1991-10-01

451

Assessing homeland chemical hazards outside the military gates: industrial hazard threat assessments for department of defense installations.  

PubMed

As part of comprehensive joint medical surveillance measures outlined by the Department of Defense, the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM) is beginning to assess environmental health threats to continental US military installations. A common theme in comprehensive joint medical surveillance, in support of Force Health Protection, is the identification and assessment of potential environmental health hazards, and the evaluation and documentation of actual exposures in both a continental US and outside a continental US setting. For the continental US assessments, the USACHPPM has utilized the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) database for risk management plans in accordance with Public Law 106-40, and the toxic release inventory database, in a state-of the art geographic information systems based program, termed the Consequence Assessment and Management Tool Set, or CATS, for assessing homeland industrial chemical hazards outside the military gates. As an example, the US EPA toxic release inventory and risk management plans databases are queried to determine the types and locations of industries surrounding a continental US military installation. Contaminants of concern are then ranked with respect to known toxicological and physical hazards, where they are then subject to applicable downwind hazard simulations using applicable meteorological and climatological data sets. The composite downwind hazard areas are mapped in relation to emergency response planning guidelines (ERPG), which were developed by the American Industrial Hygiene Association to assist emergency response personnel planning for catastrophic chemical releases. In addition, other geographic referenced data such as transportation routes, satellite imagery and population data are included in the operational, equipment, and morale risk assessment and management process. These techniques have been developed to assist military medical planners and operations personnel in determining the industrial hazards, vulnerability assessments and health risk assessments to continental United States military installations. These techniques and procedures support the Department of Defense Force Protection measures, which provides awareness of a terrorism threat, appropriate measures to prevent terrorist attacks and mitigate terrorism's effects in the event that preventive measures are ineffective. PMID:12013538

Kirkpatrick, Jeffrey S; Howard, Jacqueline M; Reed, David A

2002-04-01

452

Analysis of Weapon System Cost Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cost growth in weapon system development, one result of the inherent risk of developing advanced systems, has been a prevalent problem for many years. A systematic bias in cost estimates can undermine the basis of resource allocation decisions, an importa...

J. A. Drezner J. M. Jarvaise R. W. Hess P. G. Hough D. Norton

1993-01-01

453

Disarming Libya: Weapons of Mass Destruction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On December 19, 2003, Libya announced it would dismantle its weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and ballistic missile programs. Since then, U.S., British, and international officials have inspected and removed or destroyed key components of those programs,...

S. Squassoni

2006-01-01

454

Controlling Weapons-Grade Fissile Material  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the problems of controlling weapons-grade fissionable material. Projections of the growth of fission nuclear reactors indicates sufficient materials will be available to construct 300,000 atomic bombs each containing 10 kilograms of plutonium by 1990. (SL)

Rotblat, J.

1977-01-01

455

Weapons Industry. Industry Study, Spring 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Weapons Industry includes products that span from munitions, delivery systems, uninhabited vehicles, to sensors. The U.S. government procures these products, which are produced by both government organizations, such as depots, and commercial firms acr...

B. Cottrell C. Bailey G. Goshorn M. Danehy S. Altizer

2007-01-01

456

Sensitivity Analysis of a Weapon Effectiveness Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several publications have been issued by the Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manual/Surface-to-Surface (JMEM/SS) Methodology and Evaluation Working Group presenting the effectiveness of various US Army mortar and artillery weapons systems against personnel ...

G. M. Gaydos

1973-01-01

457

The physic and employment of neutron weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well known physical relationships make it possible to estimate the military effects of low yield nuclear weapons. Since weapons effects tables already exist for fission explosives, it is possible to calculate approximately the impact of thermonuclear and enhanced radiation weapons (ERWs) on a tactical situation. The principal physical problem is the calculation of the ratio of neutron production in an ERW explosion to that in a fission explosion. Our calculation indicate that the ERW is less effective against tanks than is widely believed. The collateral damage for an ERW with a reasonable ratio of fission to fusion yield is shown to extend to a distance of about 75% of that of a fission weapon with the same energy release.

Zimmerman, Peter D.

1983-10-01

458

Physics and employment of neutron weapons  

SciTech Connect

Well known physical relationships make it possible to estimate the military effects of low yield nuclear weapons. Since weapons effects tables already exist for fission explosives, it is possible to calculate approximately the impact of thermonuclear and enhanced radiation weapons (ERWs) on a tactical situation. The principal physical problem is the calculation of the ratio of neutron production in an ERW explosion to that in a fission explosion. The author's calculations indicate that the ERW is less effective against tanks than is widely believed. The collateral damage for an ERW with a reasonable ratio of fission to fusion yield is shown to extend to a distance of about 75% of that of a fission weapon with the same energy release. 15 references, 5 figures.

Zimmerman, P.D.

1983-01-01

459

Armored Vehicle Vulnerability to Conventional Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The engineering test procedure describes test techniques for determining the effectiveness of combat vehicle armor in protecting crew, vehicle and components from attack by conventional (non-CBR) weapons. (Author)

1970-01-01

460

Nuclear weapons issues in South Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses how the US can play a productive mediating role in South Asia by engaging India and Pakistan in an international forum to manage nuclear weapons, as Edward Teller advocated. India and Pakistan have developed their nuclear capabilitie...

N. Joeck

1993-01-01

461

Sandia Human Factors Program for Weapon Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Sandia Laboratories human factors program for weapon development is based primarily on Man-Machine Systems Analysis (including Task Analysis) and the Sandia human reliability model (THERP-Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction). Application of thes...

A. D. Swain

1976-01-01

462

Acquisition of the Sensor Fuzed Weapon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The audit objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the SFW acquisition management to decide whether the weapon was being cost-effectively prepared for production and deployment. We reviewed requirements' evolution and affordability, acquisition plan...

D. E. Reed R. K. West J. E. Meling M. H. Claypool J. A. Hoyt

1995-01-01

463

Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas.  

PubMed Central

The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. These developments have raised new ethical dilemmas for those in health professions. If there is any risk of use of weapons of mass destruction, then support for deterrence with these weapons as a policy for national or global security appears to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate in attempts to prevent nuclear war.

Haines, A; de B White, C; Gleisner, J

1983-01-01

464

Weather Modification as a Weapon of War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic question addressed in this paper is whether or not weather modification can be used as a weapon of war. Possible tactical and strategic uses of weather modification were examined. The national security implications and arguments for and against ...

P. L. Blackburn

1975-01-01

465

[Predictive models for the assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals: a new challenge for employers].  

PubMed

Employers are obliged to carry out and document the risk associated with the use of chemical substances. The best but the most expensive method is to measure workplace concentrations of chemicals. At present no "measureless" method for risk assessment is available in Poland, but predictive models for such assessments have been developed in some countries. The purpose of this work is to review and evaluate the applicability of selected predictive methods for assessing occupational inhalation exposure and related risk to check the compliance with Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs), as well as the compliance with REACH obligations. Based on the literature data HSE COSHH Essentials, EASE, ECETOC TRA, Stoffenmanager, and EMKG-Expo-Tool were evaluated. The data on validation of predictive models were also examined. It seems that predictive models may be used as a useful method for Tier 1 assessment of occupational exposure by inhalation. Since the levels of exposure are frequently overestimated, they should be considered as "rational worst cases" for selection of proper control measures. Bearing in mind that the number of available exposure scenarios and PROC categories is limited, further validation by field surveys is highly recommended. Predictive models may serve as a good tool for preliminary risk assessment and selection of the most appropriate risk control measures in Polish small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) providing that they are available in the Polish language. This also requires an extensive training of their future users. PMID:24502133

Gromiec, Jan Piotr; Kupczewska-Dobecka, Ma?gorzata; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Czerczak, S?awomir

2013-01-01

466

Noninvasive detection of weapons of mass destruction using terahertz radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing and immediate threat of biological and chemical weapons has placed urgency on the development of chemical and biological warfare agent (CWA/BWA) screening devices. Specifically, the ability to detect CWA/BWA prior to deployment is paramount to mitigating the threat without exposing individuals to its effects. SPARTA, Inc. and NIST are currently investigating the feasibility of using far-infrared radiation, or terahertz (THz, 1 THz = 1012 Hz) radiation, to non-invasively detect biological and chemical agents, explosives and drugs/narcotics inside sealed containers. Small-to-medium sized molecules (3-100 atoms) in gas, liquid and solid phases consistently exhibit identifiable spectral features in the far-IR portion of the spectrum. Many compounds associated with weapons of mass destruction are made up of molecules of this size. The THz portion of the spectrum lies between visible light and radio waves, allowing for partial transmission of 0.3-10.0 THz (30-1000 ?m, 10-330 cm-1) light through most common materials. Therefore, transmission measurements of THz light can potentially be used to non-invasively detect the presence of CWA/BWA, explosives and drugs in the pathway of a THz radiation beam.

Campbell, Matthew B.; Heilweil, Edwin J.

2003-08-01

467

Directed-energy weapons: a juridical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superpower development of directed-energy laser or particle-beam weapons has strategic and legal implications. The rapid development of these weapons and the classified nature of the research make it difficult to evaluate these implications on a factual basis. International laws dealing with treaties and strategic-arms control and with armed conflict are applied to this issue to determine the permissibility of directed-energy

Fessler

1979-01-01

468

Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area habitability study. Volume 2. Air assessment: indicator chemicals. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Environmental studies were conducted to provide data that could be used by the Commissioner of Health for the State of New York in determining whether the Emergency Declaration Area (EDA) surrounding the Love Canal hazardous-waste site is habitable. An air assessment was conducted for Love Canal Indicator Chemicals. Homes throughout the EDA were sampled using the Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer Model 6000E.

Not Available

1988-02-01

469

Simplifying the assessment of building vulnerability to chemical,biological and radiological releases  

SciTech Connect

The intentional or accidental release of airborne chemical, biological, or radiological materials can pose a significant threat to the health of building occupants. Pre-planning and emergency response measures, such as HVAC system manipulation and sheltering during an event, can significantly reduce the exposure of building occupants. A straightforward and comprehensive vulnerability assessment methodology is an essential tool for assisting building managers and operators in preparing for airborne hazards.

Thatcher, T.L.; Wood, E.E.; Edelson, E.C.; Sextro, R.G.

2005-01-01

470

Comparative assessment of chemical and ?-irradiation procedures for implantable glucose enzyme electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and ?-irradiation sterilisation were examined in this study for implantable needle electrodes. Exposure to isopropyl alcohol (IPA) led to response elevation, but time-dependent exposures up to 30 min variously to chlorhexidine, H2O2, HCl, HCl\\/IPA, and alcoholic iodine\\/potassium iodide, all caused substantial time-dependent response degradation. Sterility was not assessed for such electrodes. High dose (30 KGy) ?-irradiation also compromised sensor

S Ahmed; G. P Rigby; P Crump; P. M Vadgama

2000-01-01