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1

[Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].  

PubMed

Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary. PMID:16296384

Nakamura, Katsumi

2005-10-01

2

An assessment of nondestructive testing technologies for chemical weapons monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE), with the US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC) under the sponsorship of the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA), completed testing of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology on live agent systems. The tests were conducted at Tooele Army Depot during August 1992. The Nondestructive Evaluation systems were tested for potential use in verifying chemical treaty requirements. Five technologies, two neutron and three acoustic, were developed at DOE laboratories. Two systems from the United Kingdom (one neutron and one acoustic) were also included in the field trials. All systems tested showed the ability to distinguish among the VX, GB, and Mustard. Three of the systems (two acoustic and one neutron) were used by On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA) personnel.

Taylor, T.T.

1993-05-01

3

Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 4 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Pueblo Chemical Depot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the ''Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001c) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored at Pueblo Chemical Depot (PCD), located outside Pueblo, Colorado. This

T. Kimmell; S. Folga; G. Frey; J. Molberg; P. Kier; B. Templin; M. Goldberg

2001-01-01

4

Biological and Chemical Weapons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the latest in MEDLINEplus' special collections, the Biological and Chemical Weapons page addresses health issues at the forefront of many people's minds these days. As with other MEDLINEplus special collections, this page offers links to news stories, sites providing general information and overviews, information about specific conditions, and relevant organizations. While the sites are not annotated, the page provides a useful introduction to these health issues. The links here are all authoritative and range from the National Center for Infectious Diseases' (NCID) faq on anthrax to Johns Hopkins University's Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies to National Library of Medicine's TOXNET Databases. MEDLINEplus is offered by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and was last mentioned in the April 14, 2000 Scout Report.

5

Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 3 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Pine Bluff Arsenal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the ''Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored in the U.S. Army's unitary chemical stockpile at Pine Bluff

T. Kimmell; S. Folga; G. Frey; J. Molberg; P. Kier; B. Templin; M. Goldberg

2001-01-01

6

Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 5 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Blue Grass Army Depot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the ''Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored in the U.S. Army's unitary chemical stockpile at Blue Grass

T. Kimmell; S. Folga; G. Frey; J. Molberg; P. Kier; B. Templin; M. Goldberg

2001-01-01

7

Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 2 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Anniston Army Depot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the ''Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD), located outside Anniston, Alabama. This

T. Kimmell; S. Folga; G. Frey; J. Molberg; P. Kier; B. Templin; M. Goldberg

2001-01-01

8

Nuclear weapon system risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is a process for evaluating hazardous operations by considering what can go wrong, the likelihood of these undesired events, and the resultant consequences. Techniques used in PRA originated in the 1960s. Although there were early exploratory applications to nuclear weapons and other technologies, the first major application of these techniques was in the Reactor Safety Study, WASH-1400, {sup 1} in which the risks of nuclear power accidents were thoroughly investigated for the first time. Recently, these techniques have begun to be adapted to nuclear weapon system applications. This report discusses this application to nuclear weapon systems.

Carlson, D.D.

1993-11-01

9

OPEN FORUM ON THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION Challenges to the Chemical Weapons Ban  

E-print Network

at Bradford University PANEL DISCUSSION THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS BAN AND THE USE OF INCAPACITANTS IN WARFARE and the Chemical Weapons Convention Barbara Hatch Rosenberg, Federation of American Scientists Incapacitants

Sussex, University of

10

Chemical and Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemical warfare began in prehistoric times with the use of such weapons as poisoned arrows. However, World War I was the beginning of modern-day chemical warfare. The birth of biological warfare evolved during World War II. As a result, mankind has been plagued with chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction. This chapter provides a historical account of chemical and biological warfare, and its detrimental impact on society.

Irwin Slesnick

2004-01-01

11

Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons  

PubMed Central

This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist. PMID:24902078

Pitschmann, Vladimír

2014-01-01

12

Overall view of chemical and biochemical weapons.  

PubMed

This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist. PMID:24902078

Pitschmann, Vladimír

2014-06-01

13

Implementing the chemical weapons convention  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty implementing issues, showing how various States Parties have enacted measures that are responsive to CWC obligations. It is intended to highlight the issues that States Parties must address and to identify trends among States Parties that might be useful to States that have not yet made crucial decisions as to how to resolve key matters. At various points in the text, country names are listed in parenthesis to identify pieces of national legislation that demonstrate the point in the text. It should not be inferred that nations not listed have not addressed the point or have taken a different position. In some cases, a nation's position is explained in somewhat more depth to give specific detail to an assertion in the text. Attached to this paper is a chart which illustrates how States Parties in the Central European region as well as the United States respond to the issues raised. Obviously, in preparing such a chart, many subtle provisions in national legislation must be simplified. The point of the chart is to portray, on a few pages, the major trends of legislation.

Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

1999-12-07

14

Ending the scourge of chemical weapons  

SciTech Connect

After more than 20 years of arduous negotiations, representatives from 131 countries gathered in Paris in January to sign a treaty banning the development, production, and transfer to other countries of chemical-warfare agents and their means of delivery. The treaty - called the Chemical Weapons Convention, or CWC - complements the more limited Geneva Protocol of 1925, which bans the use of toxic chemicals in warfare. When the CWC enters into force in about two years, it will prohibit the manufacture for military purposes of lethal chemicals such as sulfur mustard, which causes painful skin blistering and lung damage, and nerve agents, which cause rapid death by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses. The goal is to eliminate from the earth this particularly inhumane form of warfare. The paper discusses facets of the treaty, especially the verification challenge with its inspection on demand features. Short accompanying pieces discuss classifying chemicals and the destruction of chemical weapons under the CWC.

Brin, J.

1993-04-01

15

Database for chemical weapons detection: first results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quick increase of terrorism and asymmetric war is leading towards new needs involving defense and security. Nowadays we have to fight several kind of threats and use of chemical weapons against civil or military objectives is one of the most dangerous. For this reason it is necessary to find equipment, know-how and information that are useful in order to

C. Bellecci; P. Gaudio; M. Gelfusa; S. Martellucci; M. Richetta; P. Ventura; A. Antonucci; F. Pasquino; V. Ricci; A. Sassolini

2008-01-01

16

The Control of Chemical and Biological Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is composed of four papers prepared to illuminate the problem areas which might arise if the policies of the 1925 Geneva Protocol and other measures to limit chemical and biological weapons are ratified by the United States Senate. The papers included are: Legal Aspects of the Geneva Protocol of 1925; The Use of Herbicides in War: A…

Alexander, Archibald S.; And Others

17

15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

2010-01-01

18

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

2010-01-01

19

Acoustic weapons ? a prospective assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic weapons are under research and development in a few countries. Advertised as one type of non?lethal weapon, they are said to immediately incapacitate opponents while avoiding permanent physical damage. Reliable information on specifications or effects is scarce, however. The present article sets out to provide basic information in several areas: effects of large?amplitude sound on humans, potential high?power sources,

Jürgen Altmann

2001-01-01

20

(±)Catechin: Chemical Weapon, Antioxidant, or Stress Regulator?  

Microsoft Academic Search

(±)-Catechin is a flavan-3-ol that occurs in the organs of many plant species, especially fruits. Health-beneficial effects\\u000a have been studied extensively, and notable toxic effects have not been found. In contrast, (±)-catechin has been implicated\\u000a as a ‘chemical weapon’ that is exuded by the roots of Centaurea stoebe, an invasive knapweed of northern America. Recently, this hypothesis has been rejected

Vladimir Chobot; Christoph Huber; Guenter Trettenhahn; Franz Hadacek

2009-01-01

21

Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing measures were still under development. Last month, the Web Edition of the Manual was completed. It's internet address, or URL, is http://www.cwc.anl.gov/.

Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

1999-11-05

22

The Chemical Weapons Convention -- Legal issues  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the US system of constitutional law. Its promise of eliminating what is the most purely genocidal type of weapon from the world`s arsenals as well as of destroying the facilities for producing these weapons, brings with it a set of novel legal issues. The reservations about the CWC expressed by US business people are rooted in concern about safeguarding confidential business information and protecting the constitutional right to privacy. The chief worry is that international verification inspectors will misuse their power to enter commercial property and that trade secrets or other private information will be compromised as a result. It has been charged that the Convention is probably unconstitutional. The author categorically disagrees with that view and is aware of no scholarly writing that supports it. The purpose of this presentation is to show that CWC verification activities can be implemented in the US consistently with the traditional constitutional regard for commercial and individual privacy. First, he very briefly reviews the types of verification inspections that the CWC permits, as well as some of its specific privacy protections. Second, he explains how the Fourth Amendment right to privacy works in the context of CWC verification inspections. Finally, he reviews how verification inspections can be integrated into these constitutional requirements in the SU through a federal implementing statute.

NONE

1997-08-01

23

The chemical weapons conventional legal issues  

SciTech Connect

Because the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) contains the best developed verification regime in multilaterial arms control history, some have raised concerns for the chemical industry that have legal implications. Chief among these are safeguarding confidential business information and protecting constitutional rights during inspections. This discussion will show how the CWC and proposed national implementing legislation work together to allay these concerns. Both concerns are legitimate. Confidential business information could be lost to a national government or the CWC governing body accidentially or purposely. The CWC regime of routine and challenge inspections are searches under the constitution and could, if abused, potentially conflict with recognized commercial privacy interests. Neither concern justifies opposition to the convention, but both need to be addressed in national implementing legislation. Proposed US legislation goes far in this direction, but can be improved.

Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1997-12-31

24

2006, REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN THE REMEDIATION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONTAMINATION IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation will document the use of historical imagery, GIS, photogrammetry and hyperspectral remote sensing in locating and removing chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin, and Lewisite from the environment and establishing a risk assessment methodology for...

25

Assessment as a Strategic Weapon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sets forth eight rules for using assessment to allow community colleges to create a distinctive image: create a "brand identity," differentiate the institution from competitors, big picture goals, total institution performance, priority assigned to stakeholders, measuring intangible benefits, continuous customer touch, and urgency for action.…

Alfred, Richard L.

2000-01-01

26

(+/-)-catechin: chemical weapon, antioxidant, or stress regulator?  

PubMed

(+/-)-Catechin is a flavan-3-ol that occurs in the organs of many plant species, especially fruits. Health-beneficial effects have been studied extensively, and notable toxic effects have not been found. In contrast, (+/-)-catechin has been implicated as a 'chemical weapon' that is exuded by the roots of Centaurea stoebe, an invasive knapweed of northern America. Recently, this hypothesis has been rejected based on (+/-)-catechin's low phytotoxicity, instability at pH levels higher than 5, and poor recovery from soil. In the current study, (+/-)-catechin did not inhibit the development of white and black mustard to an extent that was comparable to the highly phytotoxic juglone, a naphthoquinone that is allegedly responsible for the allelopathy of the walnut tree. At high stress levels, caused by sub-lethal methanol concentrations in the medium, and a 12 h photoperiod, (+/-)-catechin even attenuated growth retardation. A similar effect was observed when (+/-)-catechin was assayed for brine shrimp mortality. Higher concentrations reduced the mortality caused by toxic concentrations of methanol. Further, when (+/-)-catechin was tested in variants of the deoxyribose degradation assay, it was an efficient scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) when they were present in higher concentrations. This antioxidant effect was enhanced when iron was chelated directly by (+/-)-catechin. Conversely, if iron was chelated to EDTA, pro-oxidative effects were demonstrated at higher concentrations; in this case (+/-)-catechin reduced molecular oxygen and iron to reagents required by the Fenton reaction to produce hydroxyl radicals. A comparison of cyclic voltammograms of (+/-)-catechin with the phytotoxic naphthoquinone juglone indicated similar redox-cycling properties for both compounds although juglone required lower electrochemical potentials to enter redox reactions. In buffer solutions, (+/-)-catechin remained stable at pH 3.6 (vacuole) and decomposed at pH 7.4 (cytoplasm) after 24 h. The results support the recent rejection of the hypothesis that (+/-)-catechin may serve as a 'chemical weapon' for invasive plants. Instead, accumulation and exudation of (+/-)-catechin may help plants survive periods of stress. PMID:19701725

Chobot, Vladimir; Huber, Christoph; Trettenhahn, Guenter; Hadacek, Franz

2009-08-01

27

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note:...

2011-01-01

28

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note:...

2010-01-01

29

CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION BULLETIN News, Background and Comment on Chemical and Biological Warfare Issues  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION BULLETIN News, Background and Comment on Chemical and Biological Warfare Issues ISSUE NO. 32 JUNE 1996 Quarterly Journal of the Harvard Sussex Program on CBW Armament. Undisclosed weapons pro- grammes have been discovered, chemical and biological weapons production sites have

Sussex, University of

30

History of US nuclear weapon safety assessment: The early years  

SciTech Connect

From the beginnings of the U.S. nuclear weapons program, military and civilian dual- agency judgment has been fundamental to achieving nuclear weapon and weapon system safety. This interaction was initiated by the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, which created the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The principle of using dual-agency judgment has been perpetuated in the design and assessment of the weapon and weapon system acceptance process since that time. This fundamental approach is still used today in all phases of the weapon life. In this paper, an overview of the history and philosophy of the approach is described.

Spray, S.D.

1996-06-01

31

Proposals for chemical weapons during the American Civil War.  

PubMed

Proposals for chemical weapons that arose during the American Civil War are described. Most incendiary and all biological agents are excluded. The described proposals appeared primarily in periodicals or letters to government officials on both sides. The weapons were usually meant to temporarily disable enemy combatants, but some might have been lethal, and Civil War caregivers were ill-prepared to deal with the weapons' effects. Evidently, none of the proposed weapons were used. In only one instance was use against civilians mentioned. Among the agents most commonly proposed were cayenne pepper or other plant-based irritants such as black pepper, snuff, mustard, and veratria. Other suggested agents included chloroform, chlorine, hydrogen cyanide, arsenic compounds, sulfur, and acids. Proponents usually suggested that the chemicals be included in explosive artillery projectiles. Less commonly proposed vehicles of delivery included fire engines, kites, and manned balloons. Some of the proposed weapons have modern counterparts. PMID:18543573

Hasegawa, Guy R

2008-05-01

32

Worldwide governmental efforts to locate and destroy chemical weapons and weapons materials: minimizing risk in transport and destruction.  

PubMed

The article gives an overview on worldwide efforts to eliminate chemical weapons and facilities for their production in the context of the implementation of the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). It highlights the objectives of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the international agency set up in The Hague to implement the CWC, and provides an overview of the present status of implementation of the CWC requirements with respect to chemical weapons (CW) destruction under strict international verification. It addresses new requirements that result from an increased threat that terrorists might attempt to acquire or manufacture CW or related materials. The article provides an overview of risks associated with CW and their elimination, from storage or recovery to destruction. It differentiates between CW in stockpile and old/abandoned CW, and gives an overview on the factors and key processes that risk assessment, management, and communication need to address. This discussion is set in the overall context of the CWC that requires the completion of the destruction of all declared CW stockpiles by 2012 at the latest. PMID:17119230

Trapp, Ralf

2006-09-01

33

Database for chemical weapons detection: first results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quick increase of terrorism and asymmetric war is leading towards new needs involving defense and security. Nowadays we have to fight several kind of threats and use of chemical weapons against civil or military objectives is one of the most dangerous. For this reason it is necessary to find equipment, know-how and information that are useful in order to detect and identify dangerous molecules as quickly and far away as possible, so to minimize damage. Lidar/Dial are some of the most powerful optical technologies. Dial technology use two different wavelengths, in order to measure concentration profile of an investigated molecule. For this reason it is needed a "fingerprint" database which consists of an exhaustive collection of absorption coefficients data so to identify each molecule avoiding confusion with interfering ones. Nowadays there is not such a collection of data in scientific and technical literature. We used an FT-IR spectrometer and a CO2 laser source for absorption spectroscopy measurements using cells filled with the investigated molecules. The CO2 source is the transmitter of our DIAL facility. In this way we can make a proper "fingerprint" database necessary to identify dangerous molecules. The CO2 laser has been chosen because it is eye safe and, mainly, because it covers a spectral band where there is good absorption for this kind of molecules. In this paper IR spectra of mustard will be presented and compared to other substances which may interfere producing a false alarm. Methodology, experimental setup and first results are described.

Bellecci, C.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Martellucci, S.; Richetta, M.; Ventura, P.; Antonucci, A.; Pasquino, F.; Ricci, V.; Sassolini, A.

2008-10-01

34

Model National Implementing Legislation for the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

It is an honor to address this distinguished audience. We are grateful to the Republique Gabonaise for hosting this important gathering and to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for supporting it. This seminar is another excellent opportunity for all of us to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. At this meeting we speak only for ourselves, neither for the government of the United States of America nor for any other institution. This paper discusses model national implementing legislation under the CWC. Every State Party likely must enact implementing legislation - not only the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons programme.

Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kellman, B. [DePaul University, Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-12-31

35

Disposing of the US chemical weapons stockpile. An approaching reality  

SciTech Connect

A congressional mandate to dispose of the current US stockpile of lethal unitary weapons (Public Law 99-145, Department of Defense Authorization Act of 1986) has international implications and is responsible for a recent major assessment of available disposal alternatives. Eight installations in the continental United States currently host aging stockpiles of chemical warfare agents. The stockpiles are described, the toxicology and physical properties of each agent are characterized, disposal options considered by the US Army are identified, and the role of a programmatic health and environmental assessment in the decision-making process is outlined. Critical findings are that existing community emergency planning and preparedness are inadequate and that communication of risk information requires significant improvement. Measures are under way to address these needs. However, timely disposal of the stockpile entails less of a hazard than continued storage.

Carnes, S.A.; Watson, A.P.

1989-08-04

36

Chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East: What is the proper response. Study project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of chemical weapons in the Middle East, Southeast Asia and Africa in recent regional and ethnic conflicts illustrates the proliferation of chemical weapons and use in the Third World. The use of these weapons has been indiscriminate and intentionally directed at noncombatants and combatants. This paper will focus on chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East. This paper

DeShazer

1990-01-01

37

Weapons assessment efficiencies through use of nondestructive laser gas  

E-print Network

and engineers at LANL. The new automated testing technology is called Nondestructive Laser Gas Sampling (NDLGS- 1 - Weapons assessment efficiencies through use of nondestructive laser gas sampling June 8, 2012 New weapons assessment technology engineered: nondestructive laser welding process far less expensive

38

Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation  

SciTech Connect

Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation`s activities and providing an early warning and/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a surprise nuclear attack. However, the deployment of satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; and, neutrons, gamma rays, and X-rays from intentionally detonated fission and fusion weapons. In this paper, the MASH vl.0 code system is used to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized space based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from a thermonuclear weapon detonation in space. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the platform fully loaded, and in several stages representing limited engagement scenarios. The results indicate vulnerabilities to the Command, Control, and Communication (C) bay instruments from radiation damage for a nuclear weapon detonation for certain source/platform orientations. The distance at which damage occurs will depend on the weapon yield (n,{gamma}/kiloton) and size (kilotons).

Perez, C.L. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Johnson, J.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-03-01

39

Chemical and biological weapons in the 'new wars'.  

PubMed

The strategic use of disease and poison in warfare has been subject to a longstanding and cross-cultural taboo that condemns the hostile exploitation of poisons and disease as the act of a pariah. In short, biological and chemical weapons are simply not fair game. The normative opprobrium is, however, not fixed, but context dependent and, as a social phenomenon, remains subject to erosion by social (or more specifically, antisocial) actors. The cross cultural understanding that fighting with poisons and disease is reprehensible, that they are taboo, is codified through a web of interconnected measures, principal amongst these are the 1925 Geneva Protocol; the Biological Weapons Convention; and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Whilst these treaties have weathered the storm of international events reasonably well, their continued health is premised on their being 'tended to' in the face of contextual changes, particularly facing changes in science and technology, as well as the changed nature and character of conflict. This article looks at the potential for normative erosion of the norm against chemical and biological weapons in the face of these contextual changes and the creeping legitimization of chemical and biological weapons. PMID:24132385

Ilchmann, Kai; Revill, James

2014-09-01

40

Laser weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for deploying lasers as an effective antimissile system is assessed. High intensity and precise collimation are noted as essential for lasers as weapons, although size and material properties determine the actual performance. Gas-dynamic, electron, and chemical lasers are reviewed as prime weapons candidates. Space-, ground-, and ship-based uses are considered; each demands precision pointing, involving movable mirrors, target

Kosta Tsipis

1981-01-01

41

Enhanced chemical weapon warning via sensor fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Torch Technologies Inc., is actively involved in chemical sensor networking and data fusion via multi-year efforts with Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The objective of these efforts is to develop innovative concepts and advanced algorithms that enhance our national Chemical Warfare (CW) test and warning capabilities via the fusion of traditional and non-traditional CW sensor data. Under Phase I, II, and III Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contracts with DPG, Torch developed the Advanced Chemical Release Evaluation System (ACRES) software to support non real-time CW sensor data fusion. Under Phase I and II SBIRs with DTRA in conjunction with the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Torch is using the DPG ACRES CW sensor data fuser as a framework from which to develop the Cloud state Estimation in a Networked Sensor Environment (CENSE) data fusion system. Torch is currently developing CENSE to implement and test innovative real-time sensor network based data fusion concepts using CW and non-CW ancillary sensor data to improve CW warning and detection in tactical scenarios.

Flaherty, Michael; Pritchett, Daniel; Cothren, Brian; Schwaiger, James

2011-05-01

42

Ecology. Plant invader may use chemical weapons.  

PubMed

On page 521, plant ecologists offer a novel explanation for the success of invasive plants. By comparing how one species of knapweed, Centaurea diffusa, behaves with its natural neighbors and with foreign plant species that evolved separately, they found that the invader apparently gains an edges in its adopted home not only by ditching its herbivores but by wielding weaponry: chemicals exuded from its roots that hamper its new neighbors' growth. PMID:11183749

Jensen, M N

2000-10-20

43

15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. 744...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. (a...stockpiling, or use of chemical or biological weapons in or by any...

2011-01-01

44

Detecting Chemical Weapons: Threats, Requirements, Solutions, and Future Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although chemicals have been reportedly used as weapons for thousands of years, it was not until 1915 at Ypres, France that an industrial chemical, chlorine, was used in World War I as an offensive weapon in significant quantity, causing mass casualties. From that point until today the development, detection, production and protection from chemical weapons has be an organized endeavor of many of the world's armed forces and in more recent times, non-governmental terrorist organizations. The number of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) has steadily increased as research into more toxic substances continued for most of the 20^th century. Today there are over 70 substances including harassing agents like tear gas, incapacitating agents, and lethal agents like blister, blood, chocking, and nerve agents. The requirements for detecting chemical weapons vary depending on the context in which they are encountered and the concept of operation of the organization deploying the detection equipment. The US DoD, for example, has as a requirement, that US forces be able to continue their mission, even in the event of a chemical attack. This places stringent requirements on detection equipment. It must be lightweight (<2 lbs), detect a large array of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals, detect and warn at concentration levels and time duration to prevent acute health effects, meet military ruggedness specifications and work over a wide range of temperature and humidity, and have a very high probability of detection with a similarly low probability of false positives. The current technology of choice to meet these stringent requirements is Ion Mobility Spectrometry. Many technologies are capable of detecting chemicals at the trace levels required and have been extensively developed for this application, including, but not limited to: mass spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, RAMAN spectroscopy, MEMs micro-cantilever sensors, surface acoustic wave sensors, differential mobility spectrometry, and amplifying fluorescence polymers. In the future the requirements for detection equipment will continue to become even more stringent. The continuing increase in the sheer number of threats that will need to be detected, the development of binary agents requiring that even the precursor chemicals be detected, the development of new types of agents unlike any of the current chemistries, and the expansion of the list of toxic industrial chemical will require new techniques with higher specificity and more sensitivity.

Boso, Brian

2011-03-01

45

Comments on implementation: Contingency options for chemical weapons demilitarization  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the need to formulate contingency options for complying with U.S./U.S.S.R. chemical weapon (C.W.) demilitarization timetables that start in 1992. These timetables could be overly optimistic in the face of emerging environmental concerns and potential political, technical, and operational difficulties. A similar approach may also be relevant to the situation in Iraq, where several years are likely to pass before a suitable C.W. destruction system is available for use.

Aroesty, J.

1991-01-01

46

Model national implementing legislation for the chemical weapons convention  

SciTech Connect

Good day. It is an honor to address this distinguished audience. I am grateful to the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia for hosting this important gathering and to the staff of the Provisional Technical Secretariat of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (PTS) for sponsoring it. I also want to express my gratitude to the DePaul University Human Rights Law Institute, the Merck Foundation, and Argonne National Laboratory for supporting my participation here. This workshop is an another excellent opportunity for all of us to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. At this meeting I speak only for myself, neither for the government of the United States of America nor for any other institution. Today, I shall discuss model national implementing legislation under the CWC. Such implementing legislation is likely to be required in every State Party--not only to the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also to the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons programme. This new need for national measures to implement multilateral arms control agreements has generated unease due to a perception that implementation may be burdensome and at odds with existing national law. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried but.

Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Coll. of Law

1995-12-31

47

Legal aspects of national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses some legal aspects of measures at the national level to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). These implementing measures are universal, applying not only to the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also to the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons program. This new need for national measures to implement multilateral arms control agreements has generated unease due to a perception that implementation may be burdensome and at odds with national law. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to effectuate the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby engendering significant disparities in implementation steps among States Parties. The author discusses progress among several States in actually developing national CWC implementing measures. Implementing measures from Australia, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden were available to him in English through the PTS. He compares them in order to illustrate different approaches to national implementation that are emerging. Of course, it is important to note that this brief survey necessarily omitted examination of the existing ``background`` of other, related domestic laws that these signatories might also have adopted that affect CWC implementation.

Tanzman, E.A.; Zeuli, A.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Coll. of Law

1994-11-28

48

A Poor Man's Nuclear Deterrent: Assessing the Value of Radiological Weapons for State Actors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The threat of weapons of mass destruction is an issue which remains at the forefront on national security. Nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons are all considered very dangerous by both state and non-state actors. Radiological weapons exist in that same category yet are not held in the same regard; the reason that is given is that these types of weapons are not the weapons of mass destruction that the other three are. Instead, radiological weapons are better considered weapons of mass disruption. Accordingly, in the academic and policy literature there has been very little perceived value associated with such weapons for use by state actors. However the historical focus on the military efficacy of radiological weapons has obscured the obvious truth that they may pose significant value for state actors. What this research shows is that the explosion of a radiological weapon could disrupt a target area in ways which could cripple the economy of an adversary state and promote widespread fear concerning exposure to radiation. Any such attack would not only necessitate large scale evacuation, but cleanup, decontamination, demolition, territory exclusion, and relocation. Moreover, the effects of such an attack would be unlikely to remain an isolated event as evacuated and displaced citizens spread across the nation carrying both fear and residual radiation. All of these factors would only be compounded by a state actor's ability to not only develop such weapons, but to manufacture them in such a composition that contemporary examples of such weapons grossly underestimate their impact. Accordingly, radiological weapons could hold great value for any state actor wishing to pursue their development and to threaten their use. Moreover, "while RDDs may not be well suited as "military weapons" in the classic sense, the use of RDDs could be powerfully coercive."1 In that sense, state actors could even acquire radiological weapons for their deterrent value. 1James L. Ford, "Radiological Dispersal Devices: Assessing the Transnational Threat," Strategic Forum, No. 136, (March 1998), March 29, 2012, http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/ndu/forum136.htm.

Donohue, Nathan

49

Tear gas--harassing agent or toxic chemical weapon  

SciTech Connect

Tear gas has gained widespread acceptance as a means of controlling civilian crowds and subduing barricaded criminals. The most widely used forms of tear gas have been o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile and omega-chloroacetophenone. Proponents of their use claim that, if used correctly, the noxious effects of exposure are transient and of no long-term consequences. The use of tear gas in recent situations of civil unrest, however, demonstrates that exposure to the weapon is difficult to control and indiscriminate, and the weapon is often not used correctly. Severe traumatic injury from exploding tear gas bombs as well as lethal toxic injury have been documented. Moreover, available toxicological data are deficient as to the potential of tear gas agents to cause long-term pulmonary, carcinogenic, and reproductive effects. Published and recent unpublished in vitro tests have shown o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile to be both clastogenic and mutagenic. Sadly, the nature of its use renders analytic epidemiologic investigation of exposed persons difficult. In 1969, eighty countries voted to include tear gas agents among chemical weapons banned under the Geneva Protocol. There is an ongoing need for investigation into the full toxicological potential of tear gas chemicals and renewed debate on whether their use can be condoned under any circumstances. 48 references.

Hu, H.; Fine, J.; Epstein, P.; Kelsey, K.; Reynolds, P.; Walker, B.

1989-08-04

50

Manual for national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

The Convention on the Prohibition on the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature, January 13, 1993, in Paris, France (CWC), is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. The CWC has been signed by over 150 nations, and is expected to enter into force in 1995. With its far-reaching system to verify compliance, the CWC presages a new foundation for international security based neither on fear nor on trust, but on the rule of law. A central feature of the CWC is that it requires each State Party to take implementing measures to make the Convention operative. The CWC goes beyond all prior arms control treaties in this regard. For this approach to succeed, and to inspire the eradication of other categories of mass destruction weaponry, coordination and planning are vital to harmonize CWC national implementation among States Parties. This Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention is designed to assist States Parties, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems, in maximizing CWC enforcement consistent with their national legal obligations.

Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Tanzman, E.A.; Gualtieri, D.S.; Grimes, S.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-12-01

51

Primary tasks to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law could cause some nations to implement the Convention without regard to what others nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Conventional would be carried out. As a result, the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared. The Manual is designed to assist States Parties by increasing understanding of the Convention and identifying its obligations as well as suggesting methods to meet them, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems. It acknowledges areas of ambiguity that States Parties should address, and it analyzes legal initiatives that may be undertaken to strengthen the Convention`s enforcement. This paper draws from the Manual and briefly addresses the two tasks that every CWC State Party must undertake first in order to effectively fulfill its extensive requirements. First, each State Party must establish a National Authority. Second, each State Party must enact implementing measures to ensure that its government as well as its businesses and citizens comply with the treaty. As this paper generally discusses how States Parties from different legal backgrounds can accomplish these two tasks, it cannot address every detail of how each State Party should proceed.

Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Coll. of Law; Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1997-12-31

52

CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION BULLETIN News, Background and Comment on Chemical and Biological Warfare Issues  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION BULLETIN News, Background and Comment on Chemical and Biological Warfare Issues ISSUE NO. 26 DECEMBER 1994 Quarterly Journal of the Harvard Sussex Program on CBW Armament Ratifications 30 Recent Publications 31­32 ASIA PACIFIC SEMINAR ON THE NATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CHEMICAL

Sussex, University of

53

Toxic industrial chemicals and chemical weapons: exposure, identification, and management by syndrome.  

PubMed

Toxidromes aid emergency care providers in the context of the patient presenting with suspected poisoning, unexplained altered mental status, unknown hazardous materials or chemical weapons exposure, or the unknown overdose. The ability to capture an adequate chemical exposure history and to recognize toxidromes may reduce dependence on laboratory tests, speed time to delivery of specific antidote therapy, and improve selection of supportive care practices tailored to the etiologic agent. This article highlights elements of the exposure history and presents selected toxidromes that may be caused by toxic industrial chemicals and chemical weapons. Specific antidotes for toxidromes and points regarding their use, and special supportive measures, are presented. PMID:25455660

Tomassoni, Anthony J; French, Robert N E; Walter, Frank G

2015-02-01

54

78 FR 75910 - Impact of the Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Legitimate Commercial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...131122984-3984-01] Impact of the Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Legitimate Commercial Chemical, Biotechnology, and Pharmaceutical Activities Involving ``Schedule 1'' Chemicals (Including Schedule 1 Chemicals Produced...

2013-12-13

55

Legal aspects of national implementation of the chemical weapons convention confidential provisions  

SciTech Connect

Today, I shall discuss legal aspects of implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention`s (CORK) confidentiality provisions. These implementing measures are universal, applying not only to the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also to the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons program. Progress is reported in actually developing implementing measures for the cork`s confidentiality requirements from Australia, Germany, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden.

Tanzman, E.A.; Kellman, B.

1995-05-09

56

76 FR 76935 - Impact of Implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Commercial Activities Involving...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...111130706-1686-01] Impact of Implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Commercial...Activities Involving ``Schedule 1'' Chemicals Through Calendar Year 2011; Impact...Salts of CWC ``Schedule 1'' Chemicals to ``Schedule 1;''...

2011-12-09

57

75 FR 69630 - Impact of Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention on Commercial Activities Involving...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...101103543-0543-02] Impact of Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention on Commercial Activities Involving ``Schedule 1'' Chemicals, Including Production of Schedule 1 Chemicals as Intermediates, Through Calendar Year 2010...

2010-11-15

58

FAQs Regarding the Deliberate Use of Biological Agents and Chemicals as Weapons  

MedlinePLUS

... regarding the deliberate use of biological agents and chemicals as weapons - Which agents or chemicals are most likely to be used to create ... is information available about dealing with a deliberate chemical event? - Would mass vaccination be an option in ...

59

77 FR 75145 - Impact of the Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Commercial Activities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...121114631-2631-01] Impact of the Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Commercial Activities Involving ``Schedule 1'' Chemicals (Including Schedule 1 Chemicals Produced as Intermediates) Through...

2012-12-19

60

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...except for applications to export the following chemicals: 2-chloroethanol, dimethyl methylphosphonate...1991: (i) Equipment (for producing chemical weapon precursors and chemical warfare agents) described in ECCNs 2B350 and...

2013-01-01

61

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...except for applications to export the following chemicals: 2-chloroethanol, dimethyl methylphosphonate...1991: (i) Equipment (for producing chemical weapon precursors and chemical warfare agents) described in ECCNs 2B350 and...

2014-01-01

62

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...except for applications to export the following chemicals: 2-chloroethanol, dimethyl methylphosphonate...1991: (i) Equipment (for producing chemical weapon precursors and chemical warfare agents) described in ECCNs 2B350 and...

2012-01-01

63

Systematic Assessment of Nation-States' Motivations and Capabilities to Produce Biological Weapons  

E-print Network

, remote detection, social influ- ence #12;1 Introduction Biological weapons (BW) are weapons of mass destruction capable of causing massive damage [21]. These weapons have a long history [18, 38, 28Systematic Assessment of Nation-States' Motivations and Capabilities to Produce Biological Weapons

64

Medical experimentation concerning chemical and biological weapons for mass destruction.  

PubMed

This article is the text of a speech originally presented at the Second World Conference on Medical Ethics at Gijon, Spain, on 2 October 2002 under the title "Medical Experimentation Concerning Chemical and Biological Weapons for Mass Destruction: Clinical Design for New Smallpox Vaccines: Ethical and Legal Aspects." Experimentation on vaccines such as smallpox is subject to the usual ethical rules such as the need for informed consent. However, the participants will not often be at risk of catching the disease but expose themselves by taking part in the experimentation. Professor Deutsch explores the implications of this, including the position of vulnerable groups such as children, those with mental handicaps, and those acting under orders such as the miliary, the policy and fire officers. PMID:16211734

Deutsch, Erwin

2003-04-01

65

Detection and treatment of chemical weapons and/or biological pathogens  

DOEpatents

A system for detection and treatment of chemical weapons and/or biological pathogens uses a detector system, an electrostatic precipitator or scrubber, a circulation system, and a control. The precipitator or scrubber is activated in response to a signal from the detector upon the detection of chemical weapons and/or biological pathogens.

Mariella Jr., Raymond P.

2004-09-07

66

15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention...CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR) § 710.6 Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention...and Export Control Classification Numbers 1C350, 1C351, 1C355 and 1C395...

2011-01-01

67

The control of chemical weapons: A strategic analysis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis develops an analytical framework for optimal design of a ban on chemical weapons (CW). The thesis addresses two principal questions: first, could it be in the interest of individual states to adopt a CW ban, even if compliance by adversaries cannot be presupposed Second, how can designers of the treaty maximize incentives to accede and comply, but simultaneously minimize the threat to national sovereignty, including the risk of giving up a deterrent stockpile, and the risk that sensitive information would be revealed during inspections Three problems can plague any disarmament agreement. The first danger is that the agreement will be so minimalist that although all countries may adhere to it, it will have little effect on international behavior. The second danger is that the treaty will have such a weak enforcement mechanism that although nations may accede, they may not comply under conditions of international stress. The third danger is that the terms of the arrangement will be so onerous that few nations will agree to adopt it in the first place. This thesis develops a framework for thinking about how to strike the proper balance between these competing concerns. A salient characteristic of CW is the relative ease with which they can be produced in secret. The dissertation analyzes the effectiveness of inspection procedures of varying intrusiveness, and investigates the risks to sensitive government and industrial facilities. The thesis concludes with an analysis of the extent to which a ban on a single weapon could enhance the stability of the [open quotes]balance of terror.[close quotes] The author makes specific policy recommendations about how to set the optimal level of enforcement so that the ban is likely to succeed, and thus become more than a symbolic gesture.

Stern, J.E.

1992-01-01

68

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS Pt. 742, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 742—Nonproliferation of Chemical and...

2010-01-01

69

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS Pt. 742, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 742—Nonproliferation of Chemical and...

2011-01-01

70

Long Wave Infrared Detection of Chemical Weapons Simulants  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of Task 3.b under PL02-OP211I-PD07 (CBW simulant detection) was to demonstrate the applicability of the sensor work developed under this project for chemical and biological weapons detection. To this end, the specific goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of detection of chemical agents via that of simulants (Freons) with similar spectroscopic features. This has been achieved using Freon-125 as a simulant, a tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL), and a Herriott cell-based sensor developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) specifically for this task. The experimentally obtained spectrum of this simulant matches that found in the Northwest Infrared (NWIR) spectral library extremely well, demonstrating the ability of this technique to detect the exact shape of this feature, which in turn indicates the ability to recognize the simulant even in the presence of significant interference. It has also been demonstrated that the detected features of a typical interferent, namely water, are so different in shape and width to the simulant, that they are easily recognized and separated from such a measurement. Judging from the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the experimental data obtained, the noise equivalent absorption sensitivity is estimated to be 0.5 x 10-7 to 1 x 10-6 cm-1. For the particular feature of the simulant examined in this work, this corresponds to a relative concentration of 50 to 25 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv). The corresponding relative concentrations of other chemical targets would differ depending on the particular transition strengths, and would thus have to be scaled accordingly.

Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.; Myers, Tanya L.; Munley, John T.; Cannon, Bret D.

2007-04-27

71

Methadone as a chemical weapon: two fatal cases involving babies.  

PubMed

Methadone is largely used for the substitution management of opiate-dependent individuals but can also be easily found on the black market. The first cases involving repetitive sedation linked to the use of methadone and subsequent death of 2 babies are reported. At the autopsy, no particular morphologic changes were noted except for pulmonary and visceral congestion. There was no evidence of violence, and the pathologist in both cases found no needle marks. Toxicological analyses, as achieved by GC/MS, demonstrated both recent and repetitive methadone exposure. In case 1, a 14-month-old girl was found dead at home. Blood concentrations were 1071 and 148 ng/mL for methadone and EDDP, respectively. Hair (6 cm) tested positive at 1.91 and 0.82 ng/mg for methadone and EDDP, respectively. In case 2, a 5-month-old girl was taken to hospital in a pediatric unit for coma. Antemortem blood analysis demonstrated methadone exposure (142 ng/mL), and the baby was declared dead 12 days after admission. Hair analysis (5 cm) by segmentation was positive for methadone in the range 1.0 (root) to 21.3 ng/mg (end). The death of the babies was attributed to accidental asphyxia ina situation where methadone was considered as a chemical weapon. The mothers, who were the perpetrators in both cases, did not deny the use of methadone as a sedative drug. PMID:16404812

Kintz, Pascal; Villain, Marion; Dumestre-Toulet, Véronique; Capolaghi, Bernard; Cirimele, Vincent

2005-12-01

72

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745.2 End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note: The End-Use Certificate requirement of this section does not relieve the exporter of any requirement to obtain a...

2014-01-01

73

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745.2 End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note: The End-Use Certificate requirement of this section does not relieve the exporter of any requirement to obtain a...

2013-01-01

74

15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744.4 Commerce and Foreign... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.4 Restrictions on certain...

2010-01-01

75

Recovery from a chemical weapons accident or incident: A concept paper on planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency planning for an unintended release of chemical agent from the nation`s chemical weapons stockpile should include preparation for. the period following implementation of immediate emergency response. That period -- the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage -- is the subject of this report. The report provides an overview of the role of recovery, reentry, and restoration planning in the Chemical

C. L. Herzenberg; R. Haffenden; K. Lerner; S. A. Meleski; E. A. Tanzman; L. M. Lewis; R. C. Hemphill; J. D. Adams

1994-01-01

76

Weapons of mass destruction: Overview of the CBRNEs (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives).  

PubMed

The events of September 11, 2001, made citizens of the world acutely aware of disasters consequent to present-day terrorism. This is a war being waged for reasons obscure to many of its potential victims. The term "NBCs" was coined in reference to terrorist weapons of mass destruction, i.e., nuclear, biological and chemical. The currently accepted acronym is "CBRNE" which includes Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive weapons. Non-nuclear explosives are the most common terrorist weapon now in use. Nuclear and radiological weapons are beyond the scope of this publication, which focuses on the "CBEs", i.e. chemical, biological and explosive weapons. Although neurologists will not be the first responders to CBEs, they must know about the neurological effects in order to provide diagnosis and treatment to survivors. Neurological complications of chemical, biological and explosive weapons which have or may be used by terrorists are reviewed by international experts in this publication. Management and treatment profiles are outlined. PMID:16920155

Prockop, Leon D

2006-11-01

77

Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronics system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of reconnaissance/surveillance satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; neutrons, gamma rays, and X-rays from fission and fusion weapons; and directed neutral particle beams and lasers. Electronic equipment, including modem integrated circuits, may undergo permanent or transient changes of the electrical properties of the active components when exposed to these sources of radiation. This report summarizes the results of the Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding code system -- MASH v1.0 calculations designed to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized spaced based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emanating from a thermonuclear weapon detonation. The MASH calculations modeled several source/platform geometry configurations, obtaining results for multiple distances and weapon detonation positions relative to the platform. For certain source/platform orientations, the results indicate vulnerabilities to the C{sup 3} bay critical components box to radiation damage from a nuclear weapon detonation. Neutron protection factors ranged from 0.7 to 3.4 for the three platform configurations analyzed, and gamma-ray protection factors ranged from approximately 1.5 to 9.8. The results further indicate the source has a direct line-of-sight to the critical components box for certain source/platform orientations, regardless of the number of interceptors present. The merits of utilizing the MASH code system for estimating dose and shielding factors for spaced based assets has been demonstrated. The geometry configuration studied here is greatly simplified compared to those that will be encountered in an actual design.

Perez, C.L. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Johnson, J.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-05-01

78

Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by Chemical Weapons Convention inspections  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the United States system of constitutional law. This discussion is about the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by the CWC and about how federal implementing legislation can allow verification inspections to take place in the United States under the Chemical Weapons Convention while remaining in compliance with the Constitution. By implementing legislation, the author means a federal statute that would be enacted separately from Senate approval of the Convention itself. Although implementing legislation is a relatively unusual accompaniment to a treaty, it will be necessary to the CWC, and the Administration has submitted a bill that was under consideration in the last Congress and presumably will be reintroduced early next year. The Fourth and Fifth Amendment problems posed by the CWC arise from the verification inspection scheme embodied in the treaty. The CWC depends heavily on on-site inspections to verify compliance with its key requirements. These include destroying all chemicals weapons stockpiles and bringing potential chemical weapons precursors under international control. The Convention contains four distinct kinds of inspections: systematic inspections of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities, routine inspections of various declared facilities, challenge inspections, and a variant on challenge inspections in cases of alleged use of chemical weapons. All inspections are supposed to be only as intrusive as necessary to carry out the Convention. These inspections will be carried out by inspectors employed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), located in The Hague, which is responsible for enforcing the Convention. Generally, the inspected State Party is permitted to assign observers to accompany the inspectors.

Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Economics and Law Section

1994-10-21

79

Chemical Weapons Convention Requirements Part 745page 1 Export Administration Regulations September 28, 2001  

E-print Network

. If you plan to export any quantity of a Schedule 1 chemical controlled under the EAR and licensed) Planned date of export; (vi) Purpose (end-use) of export; (vii) Name of recipient; (viii) Complete streetChemical Weapons Convention Requirements Part 745­page 1 Export Administration Regulations

Bernstein, Daniel

80

Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable.

Haffenden, R.; Kimmell, T.

2002-02-20

81

[In-hospital management of victims of chemical weapons of mass destruction].  

PubMed

Emergency situations caused by chemical weapons of mass destruction add a new dimension of risk to those handling and treating casualties. The fundamental difference between a hazardous materials incident and conventional emergencies is the potential for risk from contamination to health care professionals, patients, equipment and facilities of the Emergency Department. Accurate and specific guidance is needed to describe the procedures to be followed by emergency medical personnel to safely care for a patient, as well as to protect equipment and people. This review is designed to familiarize readers with the concepts, terminology and key operational considerations that affect the in-hospital management of incidents by chemical weapons. PMID:16037657

Barelli, Alessandro; Gargano, Flavio; Proietti, Rodolfo

2005-01-01

82

An assessment of North Korea's nuclear weapons capabilities  

E-print Network

In February of 2013, North Korea conducted its third nuclear weapons test. Speculations are that this test was conducted to further develop a warhead small enough to fit on an intercontinental ballistic missile. This test ...

Sivels, Ciara (Ciara Brooke)

2013-01-01

83

Hierarchical Linear Models of Factors Associated with Public Participation among Residents Living near the US Army's Chemical Weapons Stockpile Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate public involvement among residents living near the US Army's eight Chemical Weapons Stockpile sites. A cross-sectional study was conducted across 10 states. Primary data were obtained through a random digit dialling population survey. The study sample consisted of 8315 residents living within emergency response zones surrounding the US Army's Chemical Weapons Stockpile

BRYAN L. WILLIAMS; HOI K. SUEN; Sylvia Brown; Roberta Bruhn; Rich De Blaquiere; SARAH E. RZASA

2001-01-01

84

Deployment, toxicity and influence on the environment and other issues connected with sea-dumped chemical weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dumping of chemical warfare in the Baltic Sea after WW II After World War II some 300,000 tons of chemical weapons (CW) were captured on German territory. The largest part of these weapons was dumped in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak Strait on the orders of the British, Soviet, and American Military Administrations in Germany. At least 170,000 tons of

Vadim PAKA

85

REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN THE REMEDIATION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONTAMINATION IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE  

EPA Science Inventory

During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite. After the end of t...

86

15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.4 Restrictions...chemical and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition...specified items to a certain end-user, because there is an...this section, anywhere in the world. Specific notice is to...

2012-01-01

87

15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.4 Restrictions...chemical and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition...specified items to a certain end-user, because there is an...this section, anywhere in the world. Specific notice is to...

2013-01-01

88

15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.4 Restrictions...chemical and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition...specified items to a certain end-user, because there is an...this section, anywhere in the world. Specific notice is to...

2014-01-01

89

Weapons of mass destruction: Overview of the CBRNEs (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The events of September 11, 2001, made citizens of the world acutely aware of disasters consequent to present-day terrorism. This is a war being waged for reasons obscure to many of its potential victims. The term “NBCs” was coined in reference to terrorist weapons of mass destruction, i.e., nuclear, biological and chemical. The currently accepted acronym is “CBRNE” which includes

Leon D. Prockop

2006-01-01

90

A quantitative assessment of nuclear weapons proliferation risk utilizing probabilistic methods  

E-print Network

A comparative quantitative assessment is made of the nuclear weapons proliferation risk between various nuclear reactor/fuel cycle concepts using a probabilistic method. The work presented details quantified proliferation ...

Sentell, Dennis Shannon, 1971-

2002-01-01

91

Plutonium: Aging mechanisms and weapon pit lifetime assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planning for future refurbishment and manufacturing needs of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex critically depends on credible estimates for component lifetimes. One of the most important of these components is the pit, that portion of the weapon that contains the fissile element plutonium. The U.S. government has proposed construction of a new Modern Pit Facility, and a key variable in planning both the size and schedule for this facility is the minimum estimated lifetime for stockpile pits. This article describes the current understanding of aging effects in plutonium, provides a lifetime estimate range, and outlines in some detail methodology that will improve this estimate over the next few years.

Martz, Joseph C.; Schwartz, Adam J.

2003-09-01

92

Non-destructive evaluation techniques for chemical weapons destruction  

SciTech Connect

fThe safe and verifiable disposition, either by incineration or chemical neutralization of chemical warfare (CW) agents requires correct {ital a priori} identification of each munition or container to be processed. A variety of NDE techniques have been used or tested for the examination and characterization of munitions. In the U.S., three widely used techniques are X-ray radiography, acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS), and prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PINS). The technical bases, instrumental implementations, and applications of the U.S. versions of these methods are briefly discussed. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Hartwell, J.K.; Caffrey, A.J.

1996-09-01

93

Recovery following a chemical weapons stockpile disposal program accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conjunction with disposal planning, the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) was developed to improve emergency preparedness at the eight installations involved and for the communities which surround them. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is assisting in the implementation of this program on the basis of a Memorandum of Understanding established with the Office of the Assistant Secretary

T. Hess; C. Herzenberg; E. Tanzman; S. Meleski; R. Hemphill; R. Haffenden; L. Lewis; J. Adams

1991-01-01

94

The decay of chemical weapons agents under environmental conditions  

SciTech Connect

The rate and mechanism of decay of chemical agents in the environment was studied via live agent field trials at the chemical and Biological Defence Establishment, Porton Down, UK. The plan was to deposit the agents GD (Soman), VX, and H (sulfur mustard) on separate l-m{sup 2} plots on three successive days; i.e., Tuesday through Thursday. The depositions were to be made so as to give an areal concentration of 10 g/m{sup 2}. Four felt pads of approximately 25 cm{sup 2} each were placed at the corners of each of the test plots. These were subsequently extracted and analyzed by CBDE to determine the actual agent concentration. Samples for LLNL (two different types of soil, disks of silicone rubber gasket material, and short cylinders of concrete were to be contaminated and analyzed. Results are described.

McGuire, R.R.; Haas, J.S.; Eagle, R.J.

1993-04-09

95

A comparison of national compliance legislation under the chemical weapons convention  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is unique among multilateral arms control agreements in requiring national compliance legislation. This paper discusses the compliance legislation enacted by Australia, Germany, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden in anticipation of this agreement entering into force. It compares how these five nations addressed the requirement for legislation to penalize violations of the Convention, as well as how they have developed legal mechanisms to acquire the information about dual-use chemicals that must be declared to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. This analysis shows that although different options exist to meet these treaty requirements, areas of consistency between nations are emerging that will encourage universal compliance as the regime matures.

Tanzman, E.A.

1995-03-03

96

Effects of a chemical weapons incineration plant on red-tailed tropicbirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1990 to 2000, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) incinerated part of the U.S. stockpile of chemical weapons on Johnston Atoll, central Pacific Ocean, which also is a National Wildlife Refuge and home to approximately a half-million breeding seabirds. The effect on wildlife of incineration of these weapons is unknown. Using a multi-strata mark-recapture analysis, we investigated the effects of JACADS on reproductive success, survival, and movement probabilities of red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda) nesting both downwind and upwind of the incineration site. We found no effect of chemical incineration on these tropicbird demographic parameters over the 8 years of our study. An additional 3 years of monitoring tropicbird demography will take place, post-incineration.

Schreiber, E.A.; Doherty, P.F.; Schenk, G.A.

2001-01-01

97

76 FR 6087 - Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and Request for Comment AGENCY...Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for public comment...weapons as part of a protective strategy for defending NRC-regulated...weapons as part of a protective strategy for defending...

2011-02-03

98

Program of technical assistance to the organization for the prohibition of chemical weapons, informal report  

SciTech Connect

Currently, U.S. organizations provide technical support to the U.S. Delegation for its work as part of the Preparatory Commission (PrepCom) of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in The Hague. The current efforts of the PrepCom are focussed on preparations for the Entry-Into-Force (EIF) of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons (often referred to as the {open_quotes}Chemical Weapons Convention{close_quotes} (CWC)). EIF of the CWC is expected in 1995, and shortly thereafter the PrepCom will cease to exist, with the OPCW taking over responsibilities under the CWC. A U.S. program of technical assistance to the OPCW for its verification responsibilities may be created as part of U.S. policy objectives after EIF of the CWC. In the summary below, comments by participants are presented in Square Brackets Some of the same points arose several times during the discussions; they are grouped together under the most pertinent heading.

Not Available

1995-01-01

99

Assessment of Long Range Laser Weapon Engagements: The Case of the Airborne Laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a method developed to assess laser Directed Energy Weapon engagements. This method applies physics-based models, which have been validated by experiments. It is used to assess the capabilities of the Airborne Laser (ABL), a system for boost phase missile defense purposes, which is in development under supervision of the U.S. missile defense agency. Implications for international security

Jan Stupl; Götz Neuneck

2010-01-01

100

A Methodology for Weapon System Availability Assessment, incorporating Failure, Damage and  

E-print Network

A Methodology for Weapon System Availability Assessment, incorporating Failure, Damage as the possibility of regeneration, into opera- tional availability assessment. This modeling method uses a unified failure/damage approach based on state-space modeling. Key words: Damage, failure, regeneration

Boyer, Edmond

101

Iran, Terrorism, and Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews Iran's past and current use of terrorism and assesses why U.S. attempts to halt Iran's efforts have met with little success. With this assessment in mind, it argues that Iran is not likely transfer chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons to terrorist groups for several reasons. First, providing terrorists with such unconventional weapons offers Iran few tactical advantages

Daniel Byman

2008-01-01

102

National measures under the chemical weapons convention to protect confidential business information and compensate for its loss  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a discussion presented at the Regional Seminar on the National Authority and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Measures to protect confidential business information and compensation for information which has not been sufficiently protected is discussed.

Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ. College of Law, Chicago, IL (United States)

1995-07-01

103

Analytical technique to address terrorist threats by chemical weapons of mass destruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrorism is no longer an issue without effect on the American mind. We now live with the same concerns and fears that have been commonplace in other developed and third world countries for a long time. Citizens of other countries have long lived with the specter of terrorism and now the U.S. needs to be concerned and prepared for terrorist activities.T he terrorist has the ability to cause great destructive effects by focusing their effort on unaware and unprepared civilian populations. Attacks can range from simple explosives to sophisticated nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Intentional chemical releases of hazardous chemicals or chemical warfare agents pose a great threat because of their ready availability and/or ease of production, and their ability to cause widespread damage. As this battlefront changes from defined conflicts and enemies to unnamed terrorists, we must implement the proper analytical tools to provide a fast and efficient response. Each chemical uses in a terrorists weapon leaves behind a chemical signature that can be used to identify the materials involved and possibly lead investigators to the source and to those responsible. New tools to provide fast and accurate detection for battlefield chemical and biological agent attack are emerging. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is one of these tools that has found increasing use by the military to respond to chemical agent attacks. As the technology becomes smaller and more portable, it can be used by law enforcement personnel to identify suspected terrorist releases and to help prepare the response; define contaminated areas for evacuation and safety concerns, identify the proper treatment of exposed or affected civilians, and suggest decontamination and cleanup procedures.

Dempsey, Patrick M.

1997-01-01

104

Hospital preparedness for weapons of mass destruction incidents: An initial assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: We performed an assessment of hospital preparedness for weapons of mass destruction (WMD) incidents in Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Region III. Methods: Interviews of hospital personnel were completed in 30 hospitals. Data collected included level of preparedness, mass decontamination capabilities, training of hospital staff, and facility security capabilities. Results: No respondents believed their sites were fully prepared

Kimberly N. Treat; Janet M. Williams; Paul M. Furbee; William G. Manley; Floyd K. Russell; Clarence D. Stamper

2001-01-01

105

Hospital Preparedness for Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents:An Initial Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate hospital preparedness for weapons of mass destruction (WMD), we performed an initial assessment in the emergency response hospitals in Taipei. Interviews of hospital personnel were performed in 10 hospitals. Data collected included level of preparedness, mass decontamina- tion capabilities, training of hospital staff, and facility security capabilities. No respondents believed their sites were fully prepared to handle a

Tzong-Luen Wang; Huei-Tsair Chen; Hang Chang

106

Implementing the chemical weapons convention: The nuts and bolts of compliance  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a presentation prepared for the American Bar Association in which the author discusses the issue of rights to privacy in the United States in the face of implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention inspections. The author points out that there are no clear precedents in law which deal with all the issues which will result from international inspections for verification which are required by the treaty. In particular as inspections tread on the issue of personal rights or private property there is a fairly ill defined legal area which needs to be developed to allow such inspections in the face of constitutional guarantees.

Tanzman, E.A.

1995-03-01

107

The IAEA system and experience as a model for Information Management under the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

Similarities in the verification aims of the monitoring regimes of the future Organization for the Prohibition of chemical Weapons (OPCW) and of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), make their general data requirements similar: data are needed for planning inspections, for evaluating inspections, and for preparation of reports on compliance with the relevant treaty In this paper we discuss the legal, procedural and administrative structure behind the data system associated with IAEA safeguards, and, after comparing this to the CWC regime, suggest possible improvements for consideration during the development of national implementation programs and of the declaration and inspection data management system for the OPCW.

Bieber, A.M. Jr.; Kempf, C.R.

1992-09-01

108

The IAEA system and experience as a model for Information Management under the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

Similarities in the verification aims of the monitoring regimes of the future Organization for the Prohibition of chemical Weapons (OPCW) and of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), make their general data requirements similar: data are needed for planning inspections, for evaluating inspections, and for preparation of reports on compliance with the relevant treaty In this paper we discuss the legal, procedural and administrative structure behind the data system associated with IAEA safeguards, and, after comparing this to the CWC regime, suggest possible improvements for consideration during the development of national implementation programs and of the declaration and inspection data management system for the OPCW.

Bieber, A.M. Jr.; Kempf, C.R.

1992-01-01

109

[Biological weapons].  

PubMed

Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage. PMID:20717866

Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

2010-08-01

110

Geochemistry of chemical weapon breakdown products on the seafloor: 1,4-thioxane in seawater.  

PubMed

The long-term fate of chemical weapon debris disposed of in the ocean some 50 years ago, now sinking into marine sediments and leaking into the ocean environment, is poorly known. Direct evidence exists showing chemical weapon agents actively being released on the sea floor with detrimental effects including harm to marine life. Thus there is strong interest in determining the fate and lifetime of these materials, their decomposition products, and the affected zones around these sites. Here we study the geochemical properties of a mustard gas breakdown product, 1,4-thioxane (TO), using Raman spectroscopy. We show that TO forms a hydrate with a help-gas (a second guest added to stabilize the hydrate), such as methane or hydrogen sulfide, with the hydrate stability regime some 10 degrees C above pure methane hydrate. The temperature, pressure, and reducing conditions required for hydrate formation commonly occur at known disposal sites. The TO solubility was measured in seawater and found to vary from 0.65 to 0.63 mol/kg water between 4.5 and 25.0 degrees C. Similar to other hydrate systems, the TO solubility decreased in the presence of hydrate. A low solubility in water coupled with its ability to form a hydrate within marine sediments can greatly decrease molecular mobility and increase its lifetime. These results demonstrate how unanticipated reactions with marine sediments can occur, and how little is known of the processes controlling the environmental science of these materials. PMID:19244991

Zhang, Xin; Hester, Keith C; Mancillas, Oscar; Peltzer, Edward T; Walz, Peter M; Brewer, Peter G

2009-02-01

111

A Turkish medical rescue team against nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons.  

PubMed

Medical aid is one of the primary responses given in the deliberate release of weapons of mass destruction for both military and terrorist purposes. From this point of view, a nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) Medical Rescue Team was established in the structure of Gulhane Military Medical Academy. The staff in the team is composed of physicians, nurses, and paramedics who are assigned in Medical Intervention Units, Medical Nursing Units, and Decontamination Units, respectively. The main aim of this team is to give a medical response including first aid, airway, breathing, and circulation resuscitation, decontamination, and triage under any NBC attack. For this purpose, the communication and coordination between the team members were standardized. Moreover, the team was equipped with the required protective clothing, masks, antidotes, and other drugs and agents used for victims exposed to NBC weapons. Within this concept, the personnel in the team were trained with respect to first aid and treatment of NBC casualties in both theoretical and practical scenario. All of this background information was used in a practical operation held in Gulhane Military Medical Academy under a chemical attack scenario given. PMID:15040626

Kenar, Levent; Karayilano?lu, Turan

2004-02-01

112

78 FR 55326 - Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Syria Under the Chemical and Biological...Control and Warfare Elimination...a) of the Chemical and Biological...Control and Warfare Elimination...d) of the Chemical and Biological...Control and Warfare...

2013-09-10

113

Technology diffusion of a different nature: Applications of nuclear safeguards technology to the chemical weapons verification regime  

SciTech Connect

The following discussion focuses on the issue of arms control implementation from the standpoint of technology and technical assistance. Not only are the procedures and techniques for safeguarding nuclear materials undergoing substantial changes, but the implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) will give rise to technical difficulties unprecedented in the implementation of arms control verification. Although these regimes present new challenges, an analysis of the similarities between the nuclear and chemical weapons non-proliferation verification regimes illustrates the overlap in technological solutions. Just as cost-effective and efficient technologies can solve the problems faced by the nuclear safeguards community, these same technologies offer solutions for the CWC safeguards regime. With this in mind, experts at the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), who are responsible for verification implementation, need to devise a CWC verification protocol that considers the technology already available. The functional similarity of IAEA and the OPCW, in conjunction with the technical necessities of both verification regimes, should receive attention with respect to the establishment of a technical assistance program. Lastly, the advanced status of the nuclear and chemical regime vis-a-vis the biological non-proliferation regime can inform our approach to implementation of confidence building measures for biological weapons.

Kadner, S.P. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reisman, A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Turpen, E. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1996-10-01

114

EIGHTH SESSION OF THE CONFERENCE OF STATES PARTIES TO THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION  

E-print Network

Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction adopted by the EU Heads of State and Government at the Thessaloniki European Council on 20 June 2003 which stresses that the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction on the universalisation and reinforcement of multilateral agreements in the field of non proliferation of weapons of mass

Sussex, University of

115

Lifetime Assessments of Weapon Organics and Polymers FY05 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

Non-nuclear organics, while not yet regarded to be at risk, figure in a large percentage of Significant Findings Investigations. Further, early application of advanced lifetime, compatibility, and base-lining assessments for LEP replacement materials and emerging materials for the Reliable Replacement Warhead (RRW) provides data for rational material choices. This task is currently assessing the chemical and mechanical characteristics of a variety of weapon organics prioritized by the risk-consequence of material aging. The majority of effort to date has been dedicated to silicone elastomer components known to lose their load resistance with age, with additional effort dedicated to urethane adhesives. This fiscal year, we have focused on initial aging studies of UNI620-3, a candidate replacement material for DC745U, and Adiprene (LW520). Aging studies of S5455, originally scheduled for testing in FY05, were postponed until FY07. We have initiated aging studies on these materials by employing accelerated aging tests with exposure to Co-60 {gamma}-radiation and elevated temperatures and studying their mechanical properties using a variety of analytical tools including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Additionally, we have investigated aging signatures present in parts returned from surveillance as well as initiated long and short term stress relaxation studies for a thorough understanding of compression set occurring in silicone elastomers components. Additional investigations of aging processes in fluoropolymer binders and the combined effects of radiation and tensile set on silicone pads were performed. Finally, we have used temperature programmed desorption (TPD) studies to significantly improve the accuracy of our H{sub 2}O outgassing model in comparison with last year through the use of the isoconversion technique as well as to measure the equilibrium vapor pressure of hydrogenated DPB pellets. This report satisfies the milestones/deliverables for the L3 task 'Update chemical and mechanical aging models for cushion/pads/adhesives' and all data will be input into the L2 milestone 'Bill's token L2 milestone'.

Chinn, S; Maxwell, R; Sawvel, A; Madabhushi, R; Dinh, L; Solyom, D; Cohenour, R

2006-11-01

116

Recovery from a chemical weapons accident or incident: A concept paper on planning  

SciTech Connect

Emergency planning for an unintended release of chemical agent from the nation`s chemical weapons stockpile should include preparation for. the period following implementation of immediate emergency response. That period -- the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage -- is the subject of this report. The report provides an overview of the role of recovery, reentry, and restoration planning in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), describes the transition from immediate emergency response to restoration, and analyzes the legal framework that would govern restoration activities. Social, economic, and administrative issues, as well as technical ones, need to be considered in the planning effort. Because of possible jurisdictional conflicts, appropriate federal, state, and local agencies need to be included in a coordinated planning process. Advance consideration should be given to the pertinent federal and state statutes and regulations. On the federal level, the principal statutes and regulations to be considered are those associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and the National Environmental Policy Act. This report recommends that extensive preaccident planning be undertaken for the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage and outlines several key issues that should be considered in that planning. The need for interagency cooperation and coordination at all levels of the planning process is emphasized.

Herzenberg, C.L.; Haffenden, R.; Lerner, K.; Meleski, S.A.; Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Lewis, L.M. [US Dept. of Agriculture (United States); Hemphill, R.C. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (United States); Adams, J.D. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

1994-04-01

117

Assessing State Nuclear Weapons Proliferation: Using Bayesian Network Analysis of Social Factors  

SciTech Connect

A Bayesian network (BN) model of social factors can support proliferation assessments by estimating the likelihood that a state will pursue a nuclear weapon. Social factors including political, economic, nuclear capability, security, and national identity and psychology factors may play as important a role in whether a State pursues nuclear weapons as more physical factors. This paper will show how using Bayesian reasoning on a generic case of a would-be proliferator State can be used to combine evidence that supports proliferation assessment. Theories and analysis by political scientists can be leveraged in a quantitative and transparent way to indicate proliferation risk. BN models facilitate diagnosis and inference in a probabilistic environment by using a network of nodes and acyclic directed arcs between the nodes whose connections, or absence of, indicate probabilistic relevance, or independence. We propose a BN model that would use information from both traditional safeguards and the strengthened safeguards associated with the Additional Protocol to indicate countries with a high risk of proliferating nuclear weapons. This model could be used in a variety of applications such a prioritization tool and as a component of state safeguards evaluations. This paper will discuss the benefits of BN reasoning, the development of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) BN state proliferation model and how it could be employed as an analytical tool.

Coles, Garill A.; Brothers, Alan J.; Olson, Jarrod; Whitney, Paul D.

2010-04-16

118

The effect of chemical weapons incineration on the survival rates of Red-tailed Tropicbirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1992, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) began incinerating U.S. chemical weapons stockpiles on Johnston Atoll (Pacific Ocean) where about 500,000 seabirds breed, including Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda). We hypothesized that survival rates of birds were lower in those nesting downwind of the incinerator smokestack compared to those upwind, and that birds might move away from the area. From 1992 - 2000 we monitored survival and movements between areas upwind and downwind from the JACADS facility. We used a multi-strata mark recapture approach to model survival, probability of recapture and movement. Probability of recapture was significantly higher for birds in downwind areas (owing to greater recapture effort) and thus was an important 'nuisance' parameter to take into account in modeling. We found no differences in survival between birds nesting upwind ( 0.8588) and downwind (0.8550). There was no consistent difference in movement rates between upwind or downwind areas from year to year: differences found may be attributed to differing vegetation growth and human activities between the areas. Our results suggest that JACADS has had no documentable influence on the survival and year to year movement of Red-tailed Tropicbirds.

Schreiber, E.A.; Schenk, G.A.; Doherty, P.F., Jr.

2001-01-01

119

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program rapid accident assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report develops a scheme for the rapid assessment of a release of toxic chemicals resulting from an accident in one of the most chemical weapon demilitarization plants or storage areas. The system uses such inputs as chemical and pressure sensors monitoring the plant and reports of accidents radioed to the Emergency Operations Center by work parties or monitoring personnel. A size of release can be estimated from previous calculations done in the risk analysis, from back calculation from an open-air chemical sensor measurement, or from an estimated percentage of the inventory of agent at the location of the release. Potential consequences of the estimated release are calculated from real-time meteorological data, surrounding population data, and properties of the agent. In addition to the estimated casualties, area coverage and no-death contours vs time would be calculated. Accidents are assigned to one of four categories: community emergencies, which are involve a threat to off-site personnel; on-post emergencies, which involve a threat only to on-site personnel; advisory, which involves a potential for threat to on-site personnel; and chemical occurrence, which can produce an abnormal operating condition for the plant but no immediate threat to on-site personnel. 9 refs., 20 tabs.

Chester, C.V.

1990-08-01

120

Autonomous bio-chemical decontaminator (ABCD) against weapons of mass destruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and the use of such elements pose an eminent asymmetric threat with disastrous consequences to the national security of any nation. In particular, the use of biochemical warfare agents against civilians and unprotected troops in international conflicts or by terrorists against civilians is considered as a very peculiar threat. Accordingly, taking a quarantine-before-inhalation approach to biochemical warfare, the author introduces the notion of autonomous biochemical decontamination against WMD. In the unfortunate event of a biochemical attack, the apparatus proposed herein is intended to automatically detect, identify, and more importantly neutralize a biochemical threat. Along with warnings concerning a cyber-WMD nexus, various sections cover discussions on human senses and computer sensors, corroborating evidence related to detection and neutralization of chemical toxins, and cyber-assisted olfaction in stand alone, peer-to-peer, and network settings. In essence, the apparatus can be used in aviation and mass transit security to initiate mass decontamination by dispersing a decontaminant aerosol or to protect the public water supply against a potential bioterrorist attack. Future effort may involve a system-on-chip (SoC) embodiment of this apparatus that allows a safer environment for the emerging phenomenon of cyber-assisted olfaction and morph cell phones into ubiquitous sensors/decontaminators. Although this paper covers mechanisms and protocols to avail a neutralizing substance, further research will need to explore the substance's various pharmacological profiles and potential side effects.

Hyacinthe, Berg P.

2006-05-01

121

Feasibility of Detecting Byproducts of Chemical Weapons Manufacturing in Environmental Media: A Preliminary Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative information on the environmental transport and fate of organophosphorus nerve agents has been limited to studies conducted at high concentration representative of acute doses (Munroe et al. 1999). Nerve agents have relatively rapidly degradation rates at acute levels, and first order degradation pathways and half-lives have been characterized. However, similar knowledge is lacking in the open literature on the long-term environmental persistence of nerve agents, their manufacturing precursors and byproducts, and their degradation products, particularly at sub-acute or chronic health levels. Although many recent publications reflect low-level detection methods for chemical weapons signature compounds extracted from a variety of different media (e.g. D'Agostino et al., 2001; Kataoka et al., 2001), little of this work answers questions regarding their adsorptive character and chemical persistence. However, these questions are a central theme to both the detection of illegal chemical weapons manufacturing, as well as determining long-term cleanup needs and health risks associated with potential terrorist acts using such agents. Adsorption onto environmental surfaces can enhance the persistence of organophosphorus compounds, particularly with strong chelators like phosphonic acids. In particular, organophosphorus compound adsorption can lead to irreversible binding (e.g. Aubin and Smith, 1992), and current methods of chemical extraction and solid-state detection are challenged to detect them. This may be particularly true if the adsorbed compound is of a low initial concentration because it may be that the most preferred adsorption sites form the strongest bonds. This is particularly true in mixed media having various adsorption domains that adsorb at different rates (e.g. Weber and Huang, 1996). For high enough initial concentrations, sorption sites become saturated and solvent extraction has a relatively high efficiency. It is no surprise that many CW fate studies can report findings using traditional extraction or solid-state methods of detection, since release concentration exceed the capacity of environmental media to adsorb or degrade them. This report documents a test using solid-state {sup 31}P-NMR and GC/MS methods to delineate two adsorbed phosphonates on a uniform silica gel substrate at different concentrations. The test sought to determine the sensitivity of {sup 31}P-NMR detection, delineate adsorption character of the phosphonates, quantify their extraction efficiency using different solvents, and test the phosphonate mobility and photodegradability under short-term idealized conditions. The results show that solid-state detection at the experimental conditions can detect individual phosphonate species down to the 100 ppm level. Sensitivity could be further increased using larger samples and longer collection times. Solvent extraction of the phosphonates from the silica gel showed that a chlorinated solvent (methylene chloride) produced poor recovery for phosphonic acids from the silica gel, whereas methanol used as a solvent achieved high extraction efficiency. The phosphonates used showed strong aqueous mobility in a silica gel column experiment, with a small but significant amount left adsorbed to the substrate. A 96 hour photo-degradation experiment showed no degradation of the compounds.

Davisson, L; Reynolds, J G; Koester, C; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; Love, A H; Viani, B E

2003-03-01

122

Risk associated with the demilitarization of the United States chemical weapons stockpile  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with Public Law 99-145 (Title 14, Part B, Section 1412) a programmatic Environmental Impact Statement was prepared to assess the environmental impact of destruction of the continental US (CONUS) stockpile of unitary lethal chemical agent and munitions. The CONUS supply of chemical munitions and agents accounted for 94.4% by weight of the entire US stockpile. The CONUS stockpile is currently stored at the eight sites. The hazards associated with the disposal process included those associated with (1) plant operation, (2) transportation, (3) handling, and (4) external events (pervasive among the other 3 hazard areas). 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Flanagan, G.F.; Fraize, W.; Kartachak, T.

1989-01-01

123

US technical assistance to the IAEA and the chemical weapons convection (CWC) - a review and look to the future  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the Safeguards mandate of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and describes U.S. technical support programs. We also review the mandate of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and speculate on the technical areas where U.S. assistance may prove useful. The IAEA was organized in 1957 in response to President Eisenhower`s {open_quotes}Atoms for Peace{close_quotes} initiative presented to the UN General Assembly on December 8, 1953. The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) has been organized by a Preparatory Commission (PREPCOM) to prepare for the entry-into-force of this new convention which prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons and on their destruction. The safeguards mandate of the IAEA is to carry out verifications of nuclear material pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and other voluntary but legally binding agreements. U.S. technical support programs have provided and continue to provide assistance in the form of Cost-Free Experts (CFE`s), systems studies on new safeguards approaches, training, computerized information systems, and equipment for nuclear materials measurements and containment and surveillance systems. Because the CWC just recently entered into force (April 29, 1997), verification procedures of the OPCW are not yet fully developed. However, it is expected, and can already be seen for many aspects of the technical task, that there are many similarities between the verification activities of the OPCW and those carried out by the IAEA. This paper will discuss potential technical support areas that can help strengthen the OPCW. 9 refs.

Indusi, J.; Parsick, R.J.; Reisman, A.W.

1997-08-01

124

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...into another chemical via a chemical reaction. Unreacted material must be...Means a chemical formed through chemical reaction that is subsequently reacted...formation of a chemical through chemical reaction, including biochemical or...

2014-01-01

125

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...into another chemical via a chemical reaction. Unreacted material must be...Means a chemical formed through chemical reaction that is subsequently reacted...formation of a chemical through chemical reaction, including biochemical or...

2011-01-01

126

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...into another chemical via a chemical reaction. Unreacted material must be...Means a chemical formed through chemical reaction that is subsequently reacted...formation of a chemical through chemical reaction, including biochemical or...

2013-01-01

127

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...into another chemical via a chemical reaction. Unreacted material must be...Means a chemical formed through chemical reaction that is subsequently reacted...formation of a chemical through chemical reaction, including biochemical or...

2012-01-01

128

Nuclear Weapon  

MedlinePLUS

http://emergency.cdc.gov/radiation What is a nuclear weapon? A nuclear weapon is a device that uses ... radioactive and can contaminate anything it lands on. NUCLEAR WEAPON What are the main dangers of a nuclear ...

129

Autonomous bio-chemical decontaminator (ABCD) against weapons of mass destruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and the use of such elements pose an eminent asymmetric threat with disastrous consequences to the national security of any nation. In particular, the use of biochemical warfare agents against civilians and unprotected troops in international conflicts or by terrorists against civilians is considered as a very peculiar threat. Accordingly, taking a

Berg P. Hyacinthe

2006-01-01

130

Weapons of mass destruction, WMD  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeSince the invasion into Iraq in 2003, weapons of mass destruction (WMD), have come to general notice; they include today chemical, biological, and atomic\\/nuclear weapons, (CW, BW, and AW). Radiological findings shall be described.

H. Vogel

2007-01-01

131

Physical and Computational Modeling for Chemical and Biological Weapons Airflow Applications  

SciTech Connect

There is a need for information on dispersion and infiltration of chemical and biological agents in complex building environments. A recent collaborative study conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Bechtel Corporation Research and Development had the objective of assessing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for simulation of flow around complicated buildings through a comparison of experimental and numerical results. The test facility used in the experiments was INEEL’s unique large Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) flow system. The CFD code used for modeling was Fluent, a widely available commercial flow simulation package. For the experiment, a building plan was selected to approximately represent an existing facility. It was found that predicted velocity profiles from above the building and in front of the building were in good agreement with the measurements.

McEligot, Donald Marinus; Mc Creery, Glenn Ernest; Pink, Robert John; Barringer, C.; Knight, K. J.

2002-11-01

132

[The forensic medical assessment of injury prevention characteristics of limited-lethality weapons].  

PubMed

The results of analysis of the data presented in the special literature and normative legal documentation indicate that the forensic medical aspects of the injuries inflicted by gunshots of limited-lethality weapons either need to be clarified or remain virtually unexplored. There is the long overdue necessity to consolidate efforts of forensic medical experts and specialists from other agencies and institutions for the comprehensive solution of the problems related to the injury prevention characteristics of limited-lethality weapons and participation in the interdepartmental activities for the improvement of the legislation regulating weapon trafficking. PMID:23272558

Makarov, I Iu; Kovalev, A V; Kutsenko, K I; Evteeva, I A

2012-01-01

133

Adapting Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Methods to Assess Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressor Combinations  

EPA Science Inventory

Presentation based on the following abstract: Chemical mixtures risk assessment methods are routinely used. To address combined chemical and nonchemical stressors, component-based approaches may be applicable, depending on the toxic action among diverse stressors. Such methods a...

134

15 CFR 742.2 - Proliferation of chemical and biological weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...chemicals described in 1C350: (A) Overall plant design; (B) Design, specification...installation, or operation of complete plant or components thereof; (D) Training...submission requirements for chemicals, medicinals, and pharmaceuticals are described...

2011-01-01

135

15 CFR 742.2 - Proliferation of chemical and biological weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...chemicals described in 1C350: (A) Overall plant design; (B) Design, specification...installation, or operation of complete plant or components thereof; (D) Training...submission requirements for chemicals, medicinals, and pharmaceuticals are described...

2013-01-01

136

15 CFR 742.2 - Proliferation of chemical and biological weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...chemicals described in 1C350: (A) Overall plant design; (B) Design, specification...installation, or operation of complete plant or components thereof; (D) Training...submission requirements for chemicals, medicinals, and pharmaceuticals are described...

2014-01-01

137

15 CFR 742.2 - Proliferation of chemical and biological weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...chemicals described in 1C350: (A) Overall plant design; (B) Design, specification...installation, or operation of complete plant or components thereof; (D) Training...submission requirements for chemicals, medicinals, and pharmaceuticals are described...

2012-01-01

138

15 CFR 742.2 - Proliferation of chemical and biological weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...chemicals described in 1C350: (A) Overall plant design; (B) Design, specification...installation, or operation of complete plant or components thereof; (D) Training...submission requirements for chemicals, medicinals, and pharmaceuticals are described...

2010-01-01

139

Instructions for the Completion of the Annual Declarations Under the Chemical Weapons Convention  

E-print Network

): 100 grams of a chemical designated "(*)" in Schedule 2, Part A 10 Kg of any other chemical listed at a refinery, the total production is reportable. -Plant sites that exclusively produce explosives. -Breweries

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

140

Youths Carrying a Weapon or Using a Weapon in a Fight: What Makes the Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to characterize weapon-carrying adolescents and to assess whether weapon carriers differ from weapon users. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional school-based survey of 7548 adolescents aged 16-20 years in Switzerland. Youths carrying a weapon were compared with those who do not. Subsequently, weapon carriers were…

Thurnherr, Judit; Michaud, Pierre-Andre; Berchtold, Andre; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

2009-01-01

141

PRESENTED 03/01/2006: 2006 REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN THE REMEDIATION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONTAMINATION IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE  

EPA Science Inventory

During World War 1, The American University in Washington, DC was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite...

142

Quality of life in chemical warfare survivors with ophthalmologic injuries: the first results form Iran Chemical Warfare Victims Health Assessment Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Iraq used chemical weapons extensively against the Iranians during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988). The aim of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQOL) in people who had ophthalmologic complications due to the sulfur mustard gas exposure during the war. METHODS: The Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF) database indicated that there were 196 patients

Batool Mousavi; Mohammad Reza Soroush; Ali Montazeri

2009-01-01

143

Neutralization of chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction using nuclear methods  

E-print Network

This thesis addresses the threat of chemical and biological armed ballistic missiles and their neutralization by nuclear methods. The objective of this effort is twofold. The first objective is to develop a justification for using nuclear...

McAffrey, Veronica Lynn

2002-01-01

144

Biological and chemical weapons of mass destruction: updated clinical therapeutic countermeasures since 2003.  

PubMed

The objective of this article is to provide updated treatment options for bioterrorism agents. This updated synopsis includes recent clinical cases and treatment recommendations that have arisen in the last 5 years. The decontamination, treatment, and disposition of these biologic and chemical agents are presented alphabetically by agent type: biologic, chemical, and radiologic/nuclear. The information provided outlines only new treatment options since 2003. PMID:22573054

Pettineo, Christopher; Aitchison, Robert; Leikin, Scott M; Vogel, Stephen N; Leikin, Jerrold B

2009-01-01

145

Analysis of chemical weapons decontamination waste from old ton containers from Johnston Atoll using multiple analytical methods  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination waste from chemical weapons (CW) agents has been stored in ton containers on Johnston Atoll since 1971. The waste was recently sampled and analyzed to determine its chemical composition in preparation for future cleanups. Due to the range of products and analytical requirements, multiple chromatographic and spectroscopic methods were necessary, including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), gas chromatography/atomic emission detection (GC/AED), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The samples were screened for residual agents. No residual sarin (GB) or VX was found to detection limits of 20 ng/mL, but 3% of the samples contained residual sulfur mustard (HD) at < 140 ng/mL. Decontamination products of agents were identified. The majority (74%) of the ton containers were documented correctly, in that the observed decontamination products were in agreement with the labeled agent type, but for a number of the containers, the contents were not in agreement with the labels. In addition, arsenic compounds that are decontamination products of the agent lewisite (L) were observed in a few ton containers, suggesting that lewisite was originally present but not documented. This study was a prototype to demonstrate the level of effort required to characterize old bulk CW-related waste.

Creasy, W.R.; Brickhouse, M.D.; Morrisse, K.M. [EAI Corp., Abingdon, MD (United States)] [and others] [EAI Corp., Abingdon, MD (United States); and others

1999-07-01

146

Swept frequency acoustic interferometry technique for chemical weapons verification and monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for rapid on-site verification and monitoring of chemical munitions, such as artillery shells and bulk containers. Present NDE techniques provide only limited characterizations of such munitions. This paper describes the development of a novel noninvasive technique, swept-frequency acoustic interferometry (SFAI), that significantly enhances the capability of munitions characterizations. The SFAI technique allows very accurate and simultaneous determination of sound velocity and attenuation of chemical agents over a large frequency range inside artillery shells, in addition to determining agent density. The frequency-dependent sound velocity and attenuation can, in principle, provide molecular relaxation properties of the chemical agent. The same instrument also enables a direct fill-level measurement in bulk containers. Industrial and other applications of this general-purpose technique are also discussed.

Sinha, D.N.; Anthony, B.W.; Lizon, D.C.

1995-03-01

147

A decontamination system for chemical weapons agents using a liquid solution on a solid sorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decontamination system for chemical warfare agents was developed and tested that combines a liquid decontamination reagent solution with solid sorbent particles. The components have fewer safety and environmental concerns than traditional chlorine bleach-based products or highly caustic solutions. The liquid solution, based on Decon Green™, has hydrogen peroxide and a carbonate buffer as active ingredients. The best solid sorbents

Daniel Waysbort; David J. McGarvey; William R. Creasy; Kevin M. Morrissey; David M. Hendrickson; H. Dupont Durst

2009-01-01

148

Novel Weapons Testing: Are Invasive Plants More Chemically Defended than Native Plants?  

PubMed Central

Background Exotic species have been hypothesized to successfully invade new habitats by virtue of possessing novel biochemistry that repels native enemies. Despite the pivotal long-term consequences of invasion for native food-webs, to date there are no experimental studies examining directly whether exotic plants are any more or less biochemically deterrent than native plants to native herbivores. Methodology/Principal Findings In a direct test of this hypothesis using herbivore feeding assays with chemical extracts from 19 invasive plants and 21 co-occurring native plants, we show that invasive plant biochemistry is no more deterrent (on average) to a native generalist herbivore than extracts from native plants. There was no relationship between extract deterrence and length of time since introduction, suggesting that time has not mitigated putative biochemical novelty. Moreover, the least deterrent plant extracts were from the most abundant species in the field, a pattern that held for both native and exotic plants. Analysis of chemical deterrence in context with morphological defenses and growth-related traits showed that native and exotic plants had similar trade-offs among traits. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our results suggest that particular invasive species may possess deterrent secondary chemistry, but it does not appear to be a general pattern resulting from evolutionary mismatches between exotic plants and native herbivores. Thus, fundamentally similar processes may promote the ecological success of both native and exotic species. PMID:20454658

Lind, Eric M.; Parker, John D.

2010-01-01

149

Neurosciences and research on chemical weapons of mass destruction in Nazi Germany.  

PubMed

As a side-product of industrial research, new chemical nerve agents (Tabun, Sarin, Soman) superior to those available to the Allied Forces were discovered in Nazi Germany. These agents were never used by Germany, even though they were produced at a large scale. This article explores the toxicological and physiological research into the mechanisms of action of these novel nerve agents, and the emergence of military research objectives in neurophysiological and neurotoxicological research. Recently declassified Allied military intelligence files document secret nerve agent research, leading to intensified research on anticholinesterase agents in the peripheral and the central nervous system. The article discusses the involvement of IG Farben scientists, educational, medical and military institutions, and of Nobel Prize laureate Richard Kuhn, director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research. PMID:16887760

Schmaltz, Florian

2006-09-01

150

High Resolution Mapping of an Alleged Chemical Weapons Dump Site in the Santa Cruz Basin, offshore California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nautical charts record seven locations off the coast of California labeled as 'Chemical Munitions Dumping Area, Disused' that together cover some 12,000 km2 of sea floor. However only one such chemical munitions site is officially documented and no record exists of any chemical munitions disposed of at other locations, thus creating confusion. We have executed a one day AUV mapping survey of a corner of one such site in the Santa Cruz Basin, south of Port Hueneme, to examine and investigate the debris field. The region is covered with soft sediment and the overlying water is very low in oxygen at ~10 ?mol/kg. The processed 110 kHz sidescan data revealed some 754 targets in 25.6 km2 for an average of 29 targets per km2. This was followed by two ROV dives to investigate the targets identified. We found but one false positives among the over 40 targets visited, and found items ranging from two distinct lines of unmarked or labeled and now empty barrels, two target drones, and much miscellaneous debris including 4-packs of cat food cans and a large ships mast over 30m in length. There was zero evidence of chemical weapons materiel as expected given the lack of official records. Almost all of the targets were covered in dense and colorful assemblages of invertebrates: sponges, anemones, and crabs. Where barrels were sufficiently open for full visual inspection, the interior sea floor appeared to have become fully anoxic and was covered in white and yellow bacterial mat. The area chosen for our survey (centered at 33.76 deg N 119.56 deg W) was across the north western boundary of the marked site, and represents only ~ 10% percent of the designated area. Our expectation, that human nature would drive the disposal activities to the nearest corner of the chosen area rather than the center of the field appears to have been confirmed. Objects were found both within and outside of the boundary of the dump site. We have not surveyed the full marked area but there appears to be the substantial possibility of a gross error in the labeling of charts. Our results show that simple, rapid, and cost effective surveys of these sites can be made, that the found debris field of rusted barrels and other objects appears to have contained more mundane waste material that long ago dissipated or hydrolyzed. It is likely that the majority of disposed material is far from the center of the charted area and thus a re-drawing of the warning zone following additional surveying of the actual extent of the dump site to reflect this would be a significant improvement.

Brewer, P. G.; Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.

2013-12-01

151

Long-term effects of chemical weapons on respiratory tract in Iraq–Iran war victims living in Babol (North of Iran)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Iraq–Iran war (1981–1989), extensive use of chemical weapons such as mustard gas caused high mortality, morbidity, injuries, and chronic side effects in vital organs, especially the respiratory tract. This study was performed to evaluate the long-term effects on respiratory tract of victims. Two hundred and twenty victims were referred from the Mostazafan and Janbazan Foundation of Babol from

Kh. Bijani; A. A. Moghadamnia

2002-01-01

152

Analysis of macroscopic gunshot residues by Raman spectroscopy to assess the weapon memory effect.  

PubMed

Gunshot residues (GSR) are valuable evidence which provide the forensic analyst with useful information about a crime scene when proper analytical methods are used. Nowadays, the method of choice for analyzing GSR is scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX). However, SEM/EDX presents limitations when the GSR identification of "non-toxic" ammunition types is performed. To overcome this drawback, Raman spectroscopy has been recently proposed as a complementary technique to SEM/EDX. However, for the time being, it can only be used in a limited number of casework (e.g. examining the macroscopic GSR produced at short distance over victim's clothes) and further research to know when this technique could support SEM-EDX results is required. In the present work, the memory effect of the weapon, which plays an important role to link the GSR found and the ammunition fired, is studied. Twenty shots were fired at close distance (~30 cm) at paper targets using the same weapon with two different types of ammunition. The first, third, ninth, and twentieth shots were fired with the first ammunition and the shots among them using the second ammunition. The macroscopic GSR produced by the first ammunition were analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. First, the spectra obtained were visually differentiated by taking into account the band at about 1342 cm(-1). This first approach shown that in the first shot were no GSR particles from the second ammunition, but 1.5-7.5% of analyzed particles corresponded to the second ammunition in the third, ninth, and twentieth shots. Additionally, the same differentiation was then performed by discriminant analysis using the spectral range from 1800 to 800 cm(-1). Although using this second approach only one GSR was identified as the second ammunition, was remarkable that after the shots with different ammunition the GSR obtained shows greater variability. The results obtained suggest that the memory effect of the weapon has not a significant influence when the organic analysis of macroscopic GSR on targets by Raman spectroscopy is performed. PMID:23890609

López-López, María; Delgado, Juan Jose; García-Ruiz, Carmen

2013-09-10

153

Assessment of the fiscal year 1997 Department of Defense budget and program activities for domestic defense against weapons of mass destruction. Master`s thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines Department of Defense involvement in U.S. preparedness to manage the consequences of a nuclear, radiological, biological, or chemical terrorist attack against its cities. It analyzes the establishment and implementation of the Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act of 1996 which directed the Department of Defense to assist in the training of state and local emergency response

1997-01-01

154

3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14...and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2011-01-01

155

3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14...and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2012-01-01

156

75 FR 68671 - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994...and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2010-11-08

157

3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14...and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2010-01-01

158

76 FR 70317 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994...and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2011-11-10

159

3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14...and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2013-01-01

160

77 FR 66513 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994...and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering...the worldwide threat of weapons of mass destruction proliferation...

2012-11-05

161

3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents...to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14...and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2014-01-01

162

Chemical Mixtures: Considering the Evolution of Toxicology and Chemical Assessment  

PubMed Central

The assessment of chemical mixtures is a complex topic for toxicologists, regulators, and the public. In this article the linkage between the science of toxicology and the needs of governmental regulatory agencies in the United States is explored through an overview of environmental regulations enacted over the past century and a brief history of modern toxicology. One of the goals of this overview is to encourage both regulators and scientists to consider the benefits and limitations of this science–regulatory relationship as they tackle existing issues such as chemical mixtures. It is clear that a) over the past 100 years chemical regulation and toxicologic research, have in large part, shared a common emphasis on characterization and regulation of individual chemicals. But chemical mixtures have been, and continue to be, evaluated at hazardous waste sites around the United States. For this reason the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for chemical mixtures assessment are also reviewed. These guidelines highlight the current practice of mixtures assessment, which relies primarily on the existing single-chemical database. It is also clear that b) the science and assessment of chemical mixtures are moving forward through the combined efforts of regulatory agencies and scientists from a broad range of disciplines, including toxicology. Because toxicology is at this exciting crossroads, particular attention should be paid to the forces (e.g., public demands, regulatory needs, funding, academic interests) that both promote and limit the growth of this expanding discipline. PMID:15811826

Monosson, Emily

2005-01-01

163

Chemical or biological terrorist attacks: an analysis of the preparedness of hospitals for managing victims affected by chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction.  

PubMed

The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York's Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11) and the tragic incidents involving twentythree people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be "ready" in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO) nationwide survey, our nation's hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection and analysis. Six hypotheses were tested. Using a questionnaire survey, the availability of functional preparedness plans, specific preparedness education/training, decontamination facilities, surge capacity, pharmaceutical supplies, and laboratory diagnostic capabilities of hospitals were examined. The findings revealed that a majority (89.2%) of hospitals in the State of Mississippi have documented preparedness plans, provided specific preparedness education/training (89.2%), have dedicated facilities for decontamination (75.7%), and pharmaceutical plans and supplies (56.8%) for the treatment of victims in the event of a disaster involving chemical or biological WMD. However, over half (59.5%) of the hospitals could not increase surge capacity (supplies, equipment, staff, patient beds, etc.) and lack appropriate laboratory diagnostic services (91.9%) capable of analyzing and identifying WMD. In general, hospitals in the State of Mississippi, like a number of hospitals throughout the United States, are still not adequately prepared to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD which consequently may result in the loss of hundreds or even thousands of lives. Therefore, hospitals continue to require substantial resources at the local, State, and national levels in order to be "truly" prepared. PMID:16823078

Bennett, Russell L

2006-03-01

164

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: MAJOR BARIUM CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes data on air emissions from the production of major barium chemicals. Compounds studied include barium sulfide, barium carbonate, barium chloride, barium hydroxide, and barium sulfate. In order to evaluate potential environmental effects the source severity,...

165

Exposure Assessment of Chemicals from Packaging Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of chemicals may enter our food supply, by means of intentional or unintentional addition, at different stages of the food chain. These chemicals include food additives, pesticide residues, environmental contaminants, mycotox-ins, flavoring substances, and micronutrients. Packaging systems and other food-contact materials are also a source of chemicals contaminating food products and beverages. Monitoring exposure to these chemicals has become an integral part of ensuring the safety of the food supply. Within the context of the risk analysis approach and more specifically as an integral part of risk assessment procedures, the exercise known as exposure assessment is crucial in providing data to allow sound judgments concerning risks to human health. The exercise of obtaining this data is part of the process of revealing sources of contamination and assessing the effectiveness of strategies for minimizing the risk from chemical contamination in the food supply (Lambe, 2002).

Poças, Maria De Fátima; Hogg, Timothy

166

Differences in Assessing Chemical vs. Nonchemical Stressors  

EPA Science Inventory

Cumulative risk assessment (CRA) addresses the impacts of multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors on real world individuals and communities, resulting in complex exposures for individuals and populations with a variety of vulnerabilities, in applications that range from envir...

167

Soviet nuclear weapons policy  

SciTech Connect

This book assesses both Western and Soviet literature on Soviet nuclear weapons policy. The author discusses the development of the various Western schools of interpretation and their effect on U.S. policy and provides an introduction to Soviet sources (Russian language as well as translated material). Analytical chapters are followed by comprehensive annotated listings of a broad range of civilian and military publications.

Green, W.C.

1987-01-01

168

Modeling Chemical Exposures in Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment is increasingly concerned with assessing risks from environmental exposure pathways beyond those typically\\u000a considered, i.e., direct ingestion, inhalation or dermal exposure to chemicals in air, water, and soil. A number of models\\u000a have been developed to facilitate analysis of these more complex exposure situations. Such models also enhance our ability\\u000a to assess both aggregate and cumulative exposures. Three

Thomas A. Lewandowski

169

Monitoring system and method for nuclear weapons effects detection and damage assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monitoring system is described for detecting the effects of a nuclear explosion so as to assess the damage to personnel and property based on certain known characteristics of predetermined signals to be detected, comprising: a sensor heat for detecting the predetermined signals, the head being spherical in shape; and an electronic signal processor operatively connected to the sensor head

C. L. Christianson; J. S. Hall

1989-01-01

170

78 FR 67289 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994...and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering...the worldwide threat of weapons of mass destruction proliferation...

2013-11-12

171

Assessment of Chemical and Radiological Vulnerabilities  

SciTech Connect

Following the May 14, 1997 chemical explosion at Hanford's Plutonium Reclamation Facility, the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office and its prime contractor, Fluor Hanford, Inc., completed an extensive assessment to identify and address chemical and radiological safety vulnerabilities at all facilities under the Project Hanford Management Contract. This was a challenging undertaking because of the immense size of the problem, unique technical issues, and competing priorities. This paper focuses on the assessment process, including the criteria and methodology for data collection, evaluation, and risk-based scoring. It does not provide details on the facility-specific results and corrective actions, but discusses the approach taken to address the identified vulnerabilities.

SETH, S.S.

2000-05-17

172

78 FR 16694 - Chemical Security Assessment Tool (CSAT)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0058] Chemical Security Assessment Tool (CSAT) AGENCY...extension of Information Collection Request, Chemical Security Assessment Tool for an additional...commercial or financial information, Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability...

2013-03-18

173

78 FR 74218 - Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Syria Under the Chemical and Biological...Control and Warfare Elimination...b) of the Chemical and Biological...Control and Warfare Elimination...b) of the Chemical and Biological...Control and Warfare...

2013-12-10

174

Using chemical tracers to assess ocean models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical tracers can be used to assess the simulated circulation in ocean models. Tracers that have been used in this context include tritium, chlorofluorocarbons, natural and bomb-produced radiocarbon, and to a lesser extent, oxygen, silicate, phosphate, isotopes of organic and inorganic carbon compounds, and certain noble gases (e.g., helium and argon). This paper reviews the use of chemical tracers in assessing the circulation and flow patterns in global and regional ocean models. It will be shown that crucial information can be derived from chemcial tracers that cannot be obtained from temperature-salinity (T-S) alone. In fact, it turns out that a model with a good representation of T-S can have significant errors in simulated circulation, so checking a model's ability to capture chemical tracer patterns is vital. Natural chemical tracers such as isotopes of carbon, argon, and oxygen are useful for examining the model representation of old water masses, such as North Pacific and Circumpolar Deep Water. Anthropogenic or transient tracers, such as tritium, chlorofluorocarbons, and bomb-produced 14C, are best suited for analyzing model circulation over decadal timescales, such as thermocline ventilation, the renewal of Antarctic Intermediate Water, and the ventilation pathways of North Atlantic Deep Water and Antarctic Bottom Water. Tracer model studies have helped to reveal inadequacies in the model representation of certain water mass formation processes, for example, convection, downslope flows, and deep ocean currents. They show how coarse models can chronically exaggerate the spatial scales of open-ocean convection and deep currents while underestimating deep flow rates and diffusing downslope flows with excessive lateral mixing. Higher-resolution models typically only resolve thermocline ventilation because of shorter integration times, and most resort to high-latitude T-S restoring to simulate reasonable interior water mass characteristics. This can be seen to result in spuriously weak chemical tracer uptake at high latitudes due to suppressed convective overturn and vertical motion. Overall, the simulation of chemical tracers is strongly recommended in model assessment studies and as a tool for analyzing water mass mixing and transformation in ocean models. We argue that a cost-effective approach is to simulate natural radiocarbon to assess long-timescale processes, and CFCs for decadal to interdecadal ocean ventilation.

England, Matthew H.; Maier-Reimer, Ernst

2001-02-01

175

Tactical laser weapons and other directed-energy weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper briefly introduces the current development status of three directed-energy weapons: laser weapons, radio frequency/microwave weapons, and charged-particle-beam weapons. Among them, the tactical laser weapon may be the first to find application.

Wang, Rongrui

1993-07-01

176

Tactical laser weapons and other directed-energy weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly introduces the current development status of three directed-energy weapons: laser weapons, radio frequency\\/microwave weapons, and charged-particle-beam weapons. Among them, the tactical laser weapon may be the first to find application.

Rongrui Wang

1993-01-01

177

Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material  

SciTech Connect

The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and pending successful test results, may be incorporated in the various munitions assessment systems in the future. These systems are intended to enhance CWM fill materiel identification, agent air monitoring, agent or agent degradation product detection by surface analysis, and real-time x-ray capabilities.

A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

1999-05-27

178

Assessment of myelotoxicity caused by environmental chemicals.  

PubMed Central

Potential antineoplastic agents must be screened for the delayed toxicity that occurs in many cases of drug-induced bone marrow aplasia. In vitro clonal assays for hematopoietic progenitor cells have been developed to assess the degree of myelotoxicity. This adverse side effect is often the limiting factor in the development of new cancer chemotherapeutics. In addition, many environmental chemicals are cytotoxic to rapidly proliferating cells, but a systematic assessment of their myelotoxicity has not been performed. We have used clonal marrow assays to investigate a panel of chemicals including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, polybrominated biphenyls, diethylstilbestrol, benzo(a)pyrene and indomethacin. All were immunotoxic, some to pleuripotent hemopoetic stem cells and other to granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, and at concentrations below those causing other toxic manifestations. This shows that these bone marrow clonal assays, and hopefully future one for erythroid, B- and T-lymphocytes, and megakaryocytes, will provide the specificity and sensitivity necessary to delineate the myelotoxicity of a broad spectrum of environmental chemicals. PMID:6277616

Boorman, G A; Luster, M I; Dean, J H; Campbell, M L

1982-01-01

179

Development and Application of Computational/In Vitro Toxicological Methods for Chemical Hazard Risk Reduction of New Materials for Advanced Weapon Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is essential for reducing the chemical hazards of new weapon systems. The current collaboration between HEST (toxicology research and testing), MLPJ (computational chemistry) and PRS (computational chemistry, new propellant synthesis) is focusing R&D efforts on basic research goals that will rapidly transition to useful products for propellant development. Computational methods are being investigated that will assist in forecasting cellular toxicological end-points. Models developed from these chemical structure-toxicity relationships are useful for the prediction of the toxicological endpoints of new related compounds. Research is focusing on the evaluation tools to be used for the discovery of such relationships and the development of models of the mechanisms of action. Combinations of computational chemistry techniques, in vitro toxicity methods, and statistical correlations, will be employed to develop and explore potential predictive relationships; results for series of molecular systems that demonstrate the viability of this approach are reported. A number of hydrazine salts have been synthesized for evaluation. Computational chemistry methods are being used to elucidate the mechanism of action of these salts. Toxicity endpoints such as viability (LDH) and changes in enzyme activity (glutahoione peroxidase and catalase) are being experimentally measured as indicators of cellular damage. Extrapolation from computational/in vitro studies to human toxicity, is the ultimate goal. The product of this program will be a predictive tool to assist in the development of new, less toxic propellants.

Frazier, John M.; Mattie, D. R.; Hussain, Saber; Pachter, Ruth; Boatz, Jerry; Hawkins, T. W.

2000-01-01

180

Micro-chemical and micro-structural investigation of archaeological bronze weapons from the Ayanis fortress (lake Van, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bronze weapons (VII cen BC) found during the archaeological excavation of the Ayanis fortress (lake Van, eastern Anatolia, Turkey) are investigated in order to determine their chemical composition and metallurgical features as well as to identify the micro-chemical and micro-structural nature of the corrosion products grown during long-term burial. Small fragments were sampled from the artefacts and analysed by means of the combined use of optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The results show that the bronze artefacts have been manufactured by using alloys with a controlled and refined chemical composition demonstrating the high level metallurgical competence and skill of the Urartian craftsmen and artists. Furthermore, the micro-structural and metallurgical investigations evidence the presence of equiaxed grains in the matrix, indicating that the artefact were produced by repeated cycles of mechanical shaping and thermal annealing treatments to restore the alloy ductility. From the degradation point of view, the results show the structures and the chemical composition of the stratified corrosion layers (i.e. the patina) where the copper or tin depletion phenomenon is commonly observed with the surface enrichment of some elements coming from the burial soil, mainly Cl, which is related to the high concentration of chlorides in the Ayanis soil. The results reveal also that another source of degradation is the inter-granular corrosion phenomenon likely increased by the metallurgical features of the alloys caused by the high temperature manufacturing process that induces crystallisation and segregation phenomena along the grain boundaries.

Faraldi, F.; Çilingir?glu, A.; Angelini, E.; Riccucci, C.; De Caro, T.; Batmaz, A.; Mezzi, A.; Caschera, D.; Cortese, B.

2013-12-01

181

APPROACHES TO RISK ASSESSMENT FOR MULTIPLE CHEMICAL EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office (ECAO) in Cincinnati has developed health risk assessment methods for chronic exposure to single chemical from a single route of exposure. Risk assessments for carcinogens associated an exposure level with a particular incidence of...

182

Pathogens as weapons : the international security implications of biological warfare  

E-print Network

This dissertation assesses the international security implications of biological weapons and the strategic consequences of their proliferation. It examines the impact of biological weapons on four key areas of concern for ...

Koblentz, Gregory D

2004-01-01

183

Environmental Effects of Weapons Technology, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles includes a general account of the environmental effects of modern weapons technology, a selection of news reports demonstrating the peacetime hazards of chemical and biological weapons, data on the physiological effects of the most common chemical weapons, a discussion of the hazards of biological weapons, a report of…

McClintock, Michael; And Others

184

Nuclear weapons modernizations  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

2014-05-09

185

Nuclear weapons modernizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

Kristensen, Hans M.

2014-05-01

186

Combating the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reveals the growing threat posed to all countries by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Discusses the international effort combating this proliferation including the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties, Biological Weapons Convention, and Chemical Weapons Convention. Also considers regional arms…

Jenkins, Bonnie

1997-01-01

187

Weapons of Mass Destruction Transfers in AsiaAn Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weapons of mass destruction are spreading in the Asian region. Five countries in the region have nuclear weapons while some more are in the process of acquiring such capabilities. Several of them either have or are in the process of acquiring capabilities in ballistic missiles, chemical and biological weapons or technologies. Vertical or horizontal transfers to some extent have helped

Srikanth Kondapalli

2008-01-01

188

Assessment of the fiscal year 1997 Department of Defense budget and program activities for domestic defense against weapons of mass destruction. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis examines Department of Defense involvement in U.S. preparedness to manage the consequences of a nuclear, radiological, biological, or chemical terrorist attack against its cities. It analyzes the establishment and implementation of the Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act of 1996 which directed the Department of Defense to assist in the training of state and local emergency response agencies involved in consequence management activities. The historical analysis focuses on the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, major terrorist incidents since 1993, international standards, and legislative and executive efforts undertaken to combat terrorism up to 1996. The $150 million Nunn Lugar Domenici amendment to the FY-97 National Defense Authorization Bill is examined in detail from introduction on the Senate floor to eventual passage and enactment. Problems and policy issues associated with resourcing and implementing the resulting Domestic Preparedness Program are treated. Although the DoD was given responsibility for implementing city training, an interagency effort ensued involving the Public Health Service, Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Energy, and others. Potential weaknesses may materialize due to several characteristics of the Domestic Preparedness Program, including its novelty and uniqueness, the unorthodox legislative process by which it was established, and its complex organizational structure and temporary nature.

Guenther, G.R.

1997-12-01

189

Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT) - an interactive training tool for {open_quotes}challenge inspections{close_quotes} under the chemical weapons convention  

SciTech Connect

The on-site inspection provisions in many current and proposed arms control agreements require extensive preparation and training on the part of both the Inspection Teams and the Inspected Parties. Current training techniques include lectures, table-top inspections, and practice inspections. The Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT), an interactive computer training tool, increases the utility of table-top inspections. Under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) challenge inspections are short-notice inspections that may occur anywhere, anytime, and with no right of refusal. The time interval between notice of intent to inspect a facility and the arrival of inspectors at the facility may be as short as 72 hours. Therefore, advance training is important. ACE-IT is used for training both the Inspection Team (inspector) and the Inspected Party (host) to conduct a hypothetical challenge inspection under the CWC. An exercise moderator controls the exercise. The training covers all of the events in the challenge inspection regime, from initial notification of an inspection through post-inspection activities. But the primary emphasis of the training tool is on conducting the inspection itself, and in particular, the concept of managed access. Managed access is used to assure the inspectors that the facility is in compliance with the CWC, while protecting sensitive information that is not related to the CWC.

Dobranich, P.R.

1997-08-01

190

Blinding laser weapons.  

PubMed

At its October 1995 Review Conference, the Convention on Conventional Weapons added a protocol banning the use and transfer of blinding laser weapons. The background to, and significance and limitations of this ban are discussed. PMID:8925488

Peters, A

1996-01-01

191

Blinding laser weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

At its October 1995 Review Conference, the Convention on Conventional Weapons* added a protocol banning the use and transfer of blinding laser weapons. The background to, and significance and limitations of this ban are discussed.

Ann Peters

1996-01-01

192

Nuclear Weapons as Shields  

Microsoft Academic Search

What security benefits do nuclear weapons provide to their possessors? After accounting for two potential selection effects, the empirical evidence from all international crises from 1945 to 2000 indicates that opponents of nuclear-weapon states demonstrate restraint in turning to violent aggression. Nuclear weapons, however, have little effect on overall crisis occurrence.The authors also explore the behavioral effects of nuclear-weapons programs

Kyle Beardsley; Victor Asal

2009-01-01

193

Natural chemicals, synthetic chemicals, risk assessment, and cancer  

SciTech Connect

The administration of chemicals at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in standard animal cancer tests is postulated to increase cell division (mitogenesis), which in turn increases rates of mutagenesis and thus carcinogenesis. The animal data are consistent with this mechanism, because a high proportion of all chemicals tested are indeed rodent carcinogens. We conclude that at the low doses of most human exposures, where cell killing does not occur, the hazards to humans of rodent carcinogens may be much lower than is commonly assumed. The toxicological significance of exposures to synthetic chemicals is examined in the context of exposures to naturally occurring chemicals. We calculate that 99.99% of the pesticides in the American diet are chemicals that plants produce to defend themselves. Only 52 natural pesticides have been tested in high-dose animal cancer tests, and about half (27) are rodent carcinogens; these 27 are shown to be present in many common foods. We conclude that natural and synthetic chemicals are equally likely to be positive in animal cancer tests. The toxicology of synthetic chemicals is compared to that of natural chemicals, which represent the vast bulk of the chemicals to which humans are exposed. It is argued that animals have a broad array of inducible general defenses to combat the changing array of toxic chemicals in plant food (nature's pesticides) and that these defenses are effective against both natural and synthetic toxins. Synthetic toxins such as dioxin are compared to natural chemicals, such as indole carbinol and ethanol. The finding that in high-dose tests, a high proportion of both natural and synthetic chemicals are carcinogens, mutagens, teratogens, and clastogens (30-50% for each group) undermines current regulatory effects based on these tests to protect public health from low doses of synthetic chemicals.

Ames, B.N.; Gold, L.S. (Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of California, Berkeley (United States))

1990-01-01

194

77 FR 74678 - Chemical Security Assessment Tool (CSAT)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0058] Chemical Security Assessment Tool (CSAT) AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Protection and...

2012-12-17

195

Credible threat: assessing the likelihood of a chemical or biologic attack.  

PubMed

Threat assessment for weapons of mass destruction is a complex task,requiring many assumptions. As a general rule, weapons of mass destruction are expensive, complex, and difficult-to-use weapons. It is not likely that any current terrorist group has the capability to strike the United States with a weapon capable of producing millions of casualties. Smaller-scale attacks with weapons of mass destruction, however. may result in significant disruption from social and psychologic changes. even though actual casualty rates would probably be quite low. It is., however, highly unlikely that any terrorist attack on the United States could completely undermine national security or threaten the survival of the United States as a nation. PMID:15062223

Moores, Lisa K; Moores, Leon E

2004-03-01

196

Nuclear weapon radiation effects on a Space Based Interceptor weapon platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the dose to the various electronic components and sensitive areas (fuel tanks) of a representative Space Based Interceptor (SBI) weapon platform due to an exo-atmospheric nuclear weapon detonation. In particular, the damage resulting from incident neutrons, gamma-rays, and x-rays generated by the weapon detonation was assessed for the critical electronic components and

J. O. Johnson; M. S. Smith; R. T. Santoro

1990-01-01

197

Quality assurance and reliability sub-committee W88-0/Mk5 weapon assessment NSA lab test results (u)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to gather appropriate level of relevant stockpile surveillance data to assess trends in the NEP quality, reliability, performance, and safety over the life of the system. The objectives are to gather relevant stockpile data to assess NEP quality and trends and to develop metrics to assess the suitability of the surveillance sampling regime to meet assessment process requirements.

Whitney, Earl M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-11-29

198

Fragmentation energy index for universalization of fragmentation energy in ion trap mass spectrometers for the analysis of chemical weapon convention related chemicals by atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.  

PubMed

The use of mass spectra generated at 70 eV in electron ionization (EI) as a universal standard for EI has helped in the generation of searchable library databases and had a profound influence on the analytical applications of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), similarly for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), suggesting a novel method to normalize the collisional energy for the universalization of fragmentation energy for the analysis of Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC)-related chemicals by atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (API-MS(n)) using three-dimensional (3D) ion trap instruments. For normalizing fragmentation energy a "fragmentation energy index" (FEI) is proposed which is an arbitrary scale based on the fact of specific MS/MS fragmentation obtained at different collisional energies for the reference chemicals which are not CWC scheduled compounds. FEI 6 for the generation of an MS(n) library-searchable mass spectral database is recommended. PMID:19331429

Palit, Meehir; Mallard, Gary

2009-04-01

199

Exposure Assessment of Chemicals from Packaging Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of chemicals may enter our food supply, by means of intentional or unintentional addition, at different stages of\\u000a the food chain. These chemicals include food additives, pesticide residues, environmental contaminants, mycotox-ins, flavoring\\u000a substances, and micronutrients. Packaging systems and other food-contact materials are also a source of chemicals contaminating\\u000a food products and beverages. Monitoring exposure to these chemicals has

Maria de Fátima Poças; Timothy Hogg

2009-01-01

200

Using chemical categories to fill data gaps in hazard assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazard assessments of chemicals have been limited by the availability of test data and the time needed to evaluate the test data. While available data may be inadequate for the majority of industrial chemicals, the body of existing knowledge for most hazards is large enough to permit reliable estimates to be made for untested chemicals without additional animal testing. We

K. van Leeuwen; Terry W. Schultz; T. Henry; B. Diderich; G. D. Veith

2009-01-01

201

Assessment and Evaluation of Risks to Health from Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asbestos, thalidomide, and smog in the environment have all given spectacular evidence of the power of man-made chemical substances to harm people. Phenobarbitone, paracetamol, DDT and penicillin are chemicals that have given large benefits for small risk. Epidemiological evidence allows us to consider dose, response and cost for some of these. For new chemicals we try to assess risk before

A. E. M. McLean

1981-01-01

202

New Versus Classic Approaches for Chemical Risk Assessment and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the public has become increasingly aware of the presence of harmful chemicals in our environment. Many people\\u000a express concerns about chemicals and other foreign substances in food, in drinking water, and toxic pollutants in the air.\\u000a Exposure and risk assessment of chemical environmental pollution have been widely studied. Risk assessment provides a systematic\\u000a approach for characterizing the

Mahmoud A. Hassanien

203

Biological weapons--the poor man`s nuke. Research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological warfare is one leg of the triad of weapons of mass destruction (coupled with nuclear and chemical weapons). Biological weapons pose a significant threat to the United States military and public population across the spectrum of conflict. There is, however, little common knowledge of the insidious yet devastating potential of these weapons. This paper is written for the lay

B. R. Schneider; T. N. Mayer

1995-01-01

204

Combating Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available on Senator Arlen Specter's Website, this massive document is the fruit of the Commission to Assess the Organization of the Federal Government to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. In short, it's an assessment of the state of weapons proliferation in places the United States sees as potential national security threats, from insecure Russian stockpiles of nuclear weapons to Saddam Hussein's reputed supplies of Anthrax. While not all readers will agree with either the rather alarmist tone of the document's scenarios or its admittedly less alarmist recommendations, it is a good source for information concerning the intelligence community's assessment of the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) around the globe. The report offers a table of contents sidebar for easy access to portions of the document.

United States. Congress. Commission to Assess the Organization of the Federal Government to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction.

205

Toxicologic evaluation of pepper spray as a possible weapon for the Dutch police force: risk assessment and efficacy.  

PubMed

The efficacy and possible health risks of pepper spray were evaluated. In a number of countries, pepper spray is being used by police forces to aid in arresting aggressive individuals. Pepper spray is commercially available as a canister filled with Capsicum extract, which contains capsaicin as the active component. When applied in the form of a spray, it causes an acute inflammation, and humans involuntarily close their eyes, experience a burning feeling on the skin, and are usually rapidly incapacitated. Use by the U.S. police was successful in subduing aggressive individuals in 90% of cases, and a reduction of injury to both police and arrested individuals was noted. In general, pepper spray appeared to be a relatively safe weapon with small risk of causing acute physical harm. Despite this evidence, a number of fatalities were reported in the United States following the use of pepper spray. However, it was concluded that it was not the pepper spray but rather other factors such as drugs and hog-tying that contributed to the cause of death. In only 1 case, that of an asthmatic man, was it concluded that the use of pepper spray contributed to the cause of death. Much attention has been paid to possible genotoxic effects of Capsicum extract such as mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. It was concluded that the risk of long-term health effects is negligible. Because pepper spray may induce bronchoconstriction, people suffering from chronic obstructive lung disease may be hypersensitive to it. Although the results of one study indicate that asthmatics do not develop additional bronchoconstriction following inhalation of capsaicin, the number of experimental data are too few to draw sound conclusions. PMID:9885922

Busker, R W; van Helden, H P

1998-12-01

206

Relative Importance of Modularity and Other Morphological Attributes on Different Types of Lithic Point Weapons: Assessing Functional Variations  

PubMed Central

The specific using of different prehistoric weapons is mainly determined by its physical properties, which provide a relative advantage or disadvantage to perform a given, particular function. Since these physical properties are integrated to accomplish that function, examining design variables and their pattern of integration or modularity is of interest to estimate the past function of a point. Here we analyze a composite sample of lithic points from southern Patagonia likely formed by arrows, thrown spears and hand-held points to test if they can be viewed as a two-module system formed by the blade and the stem, and to evaluate the degree in which shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle explain the observed variance and differentiation among points supposedly aimed to accomplish different functions. To do so we performed a geometric morphometric analysis on 118 lithic points, departing from 24 two-dimensional landmark and semi landmarks placed on the point's contour. Klingenberg's covariational modularity tests were used to evaluate different modularity hypotheses, and a composite PCA including shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle was used to estimate the importance of each attribute to explaining variation patterns. Results show that the blade and the stem can be seen as “near decomposable units” in the points integrating the studied sample. However, this modular pattern changes after removing the effects of reduction. Indeed, a resharpened point tends to show a tip/rest of the point modular pattern. The composite PCA analyses evidenced three different patterns of morphometric attributes compatible with arrows, thrown spears, and hand-held tools. Interestingly, when analyzed independently, these groups show differences in their modular organization. Our results indicate that stone tools can be approached as flexible designs, characterized by a composite set of interacting morphometric attributes, and evolving on a modular way. PMID:23094104

González-José, Rolando; Charlin, Judith

2012-01-01

207

Relative importance of modularity and other morphological attributes on different types of lithic point weapons: assessing functional variations.  

PubMed

The specific using of different prehistoric weapons is mainly determined by its physical properties, which provide a relative advantage or disadvantage to perform a given, particular function. Since these physical properties are integrated to accomplish that function, examining design variables and their pattern of integration or modularity is of interest to estimate the past function of a point. Here we analyze a composite sample of lithic points from southern Patagonia likely formed by arrows, thrown spears and hand-held points to test if they can be viewed as a two-module system formed by the blade and the stem, and to evaluate the degree in which shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle explain the observed variance and differentiation among points supposedly aimed to accomplish different functions. To do so we performed a geometric morphometric analysis on 118 lithic points, departing from 24 two-dimensional landmark and semi landmarks placed on the point's contour. Klingenberg's covariational modularity tests were used to evaluate different modularity hypotheses, and a composite PCA including shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle was used to estimate the importance of each attribute to explaining variation patterns. Results show that the blade and the stem can be seen as "near decomposable units" in the points integrating the studied sample. However, this modular pattern changes after removing the effects of reduction. Indeed, a resharpened point tends to show a tip/rest of the point modular pattern. The composite PCA analyses evidenced three different patterns of morphometric attributes compatible with arrows, thrown spears, and hand-held tools. Interestingly, when analyzed independently, these groups show differences in their modular organization. Our results indicate that stone tools can be approached as flexible designs, characterized by a composite set of interacting morphometric attributes, and evolving on a modular way. PMID:23094104

González-José, Rolando; Charlin, Judith

2012-01-01

208

Identification of nuclear weapons  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for non-invasively indentifying different types of nuclear weapons is disclosed. A neutron generator is placed against the weapon to generate a stream of neutrons causing fissioning within the weapon. A first detects the generation of the neutrons and produces a signal indicative thereof. A second particle detector located on the opposite side of the weapon detects the fission particles and produces signals indicative thereof. The signals are converted into a detected pattern and a computer compares the detected pattern with known patterns of weapons and indicates which known weapon has a substantially similar pattern. Either a time distribution pattern or noise analysis pattern, or both, is used. Gamma-neutron discrimination and a third particle detector for fission particles adjacent the second particle detector are preferably used. The neutrons are generated by either a decay neutron source or a pulled neutron particle accelerator.

Mihalczo, J.T.; King, W.T.

1987-04-10

209

Chemical risk assessment numbers: What should they mean to engineers?  

SciTech Connect

Chemical risk assessments are frequently used to determine Superfund site clean-up levels and predict possible health consequences. Engineers use the numbers generated by chemical risk assessments to design the clean-up methods for Superfund sites. In addition, engineers frequently participate in the development of chemical risk assessments. Therefore, it is important for engineers to know that the numbers generated by risk assessments, often to two decimal places, should not be viewed as either accurate measures or even predictors of rates of adverse health effects in human populations. The vast majority of risks estimated by chemical risk assessments--for example, a one in a million excess cancer risk in exposed populations--have not been measured or verified in human populations. These numbers should be used only as tools open to interpretation on a site-by-site basis.

Rodenbeck, S.E.; Susten, A.S. [Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States). Div. of Health Assessment and Consultation

1995-11-01

210

The Impact of the 1994 Federal Assault Weapon Ban on Gun Violence Outcomes: An Assessment of Multiple Outcome Measures and Some Lessons for Policy Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 bans a group of military-style semiautomatic firearms (i.e., assault weapons) and ammunition magazines capable of holding more than 10 rounds. Ban advocates argue that these weapons are particularly dangerous because they facilitate the rapid firing of high numbers of shots. Though the banned guns and magazines were used in

Christopher S. Koper; Jeffrey A. Roth

2001-01-01

211

Terrorism, weapons of mass destruction and deterrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weapons of mass destruction emerge as a grim but inevitable topic whenever terrorism is discussed. Yet, the United States has thus far been spared a massive nuclear, chemical or biological attack. The older model of politically motivated, violent, but essentially rational terrorists who used some restraint in propagating their message is now defunct. This paper examines how biological and chemical

David Champion; Ronald Mattis

2003-01-01

212

ASSESSING THE BIODEGRADATION OF SEDIMENT ASSOCIATED CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Investigations of the fate of xenobiotic chemicals in laboratory systems that accommodate the microbial ecology of sediments are described. These systems permit examination of biochemical activities in the sediment bed with particular emphasis at the sediment-water interface. Sed...

213

ASSESSING MATERNAL AND FETAL EXPOSURE TO CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

This data will fill key gaps in our understanding of exposure before birth and capacity to detoxify Bisphenol A (BPA) and could inform and strengthen future studies of the effects of BPA and other environmental chemicals on development. ...

214

RESRAD-CHEM: A computer code for chemical risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

RESRAD-CHEM is a computer code developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate chemically contaminated sites. The code is designed to predict human health risks from multipathway exposure to hazardous chemicals and to derive cleanup criteria for chemically contaminated soils. The method used in RESRAD-CHEM is based on the pathway analysis method in the RESRAD code and follows the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) guidance on chemical risk assessment. RESRAD-CHEM can be used to evaluate a chemically contaminated site and, in conjunction with the use of the RESRAD code, a mixed waste site.

Cheng, J.J.; Yu, C.; Hartmann, H.M.; Jones, L.G.; Biwer, B.M.; Dovel, E.S.

1993-10-01

215

Security with nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent improvements in East-West relations and the process of dramatic political change in Europe may result in unprecedented opportunities to reduce the global arsenal of nuclear weapons. Despite these welcome developments, the prospects for effectively controlling the spread of nuclear capability in the Third World have remained much less encouraging. The possibility of large reductions in nuclear weapons poses fundamental

Karp

1991-01-01

216

Enhanced-Radiation Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enhanced-radiation warhead is a particularly dangerous weapon insofar as it might mislead anyone into believing that its deployment would make it possible for nuclear warfare to be safely limited and tightly controlled; in this sense its very deployment could lower the threshold separating conventional warfare from nuclear warfare. Enhanced-radiation weapons are no more (and perhaps they are less) ''humane''

Fred M. Kaplan

1978-01-01

217

INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENTS FOR FIVE CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhalation exposure-response assessments for five chemicals (acrolein, ethylene oxide, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, hydrogen sulfide, and phosgene) for less-than-lifetime durations are being developed to inform the development of the Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodolog...

218

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRAM ASSESSMENT PLAN Program Learning Objectives  

E-print Network

education necessary to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental20 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRAM ASSESSMENT PLAN Program Learning Objectives needs within realistic constraints such as economic, environmental, social, political, ethical, health

Cantlon, Jessica F.

219

Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Additivity-Based Approaches  

EPA Science Inventory

Powerpoint presentation includes additivity-based chemical mixture risk assessment methods. Basic concepts, theory and example calculations are included. Several slides discuss the use of "common adverse outcomes" in analyzing phthalate mixtures....

220

Layer of protection analysis for reactive chemical risk assessment.  

PubMed

Reactive chemical hazards have been a significant concern for the chemical process industries (CPI). Without sufficient control and mitigation of chemical reaction hazards, reactive incidents have led to severe consequences, such as release of flammable and toxic materials, fires and explosions, and threats to human lives, properties, and the environment. Consequence of reactive hazards can be well understood through calorimetric testing and computational techniques. However, risks of incidents caused by reactive chemicals have not been well addressed due partly to sparse failure frequency data. In this paper, the semi-quantitative layer of protection analysis (LOPA) approach is used to estimate reactive chemical risk, and the probabilities or frequencies of failure scenarios are addressed. Using LOPA, reactive risks can be evaluated with respect to predefined criteria, and the effectiveness of risk reduction measures can be assessed. The hydroxylamine (HA) production system is employed as a case study to demonstrate the application of LOPA to reactive chemical risk assessment. PMID:18692311

Wei, Chunyang; Rogers, William J; Mannan, M Sam

2008-11-15

221

Program of technical assistance to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons - lessons learned from the U.S. program of technical assistance to IAEA safeguards. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Nuclear Agency is sponsoring a technical study of the requirements of a vehicle to meet the OPCW`s future needs for enhanced chemical weapons verification capabilities. This report provides information about the proven mechanisms by which the U.S. provided both short- and long-term assistance to the IAEA to enhance its verification capabilities. Much of the technical assistance has generic application to international organizations verifying compliance with disarmament treaties or conventions. In addition, some of the equipment developed by the U.S. under the existing arrangements can be applied in the verification of other disarmament treaties or conventions. U.S. technical assistance to IAEA safeguards outside of the IAEA`s regular budget proved to be necessary. The U.S. technical assistance was successful in improving the effectiveness of IAEA safeguards for its most urgent responsibilities and in providing the technical elements for increased IAEA {open_quotes}readiness{close_quotes} for the postponed responsibilities deemed important for U.S. policy objectives. Much of the technical assistance was directed to generic subjects and helped to achieve a system of international verification. It is expected that the capabilities of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) to verify a state`s compliance with the {open_quotes}Chemical Weapons Convention{close_quotes} will require improvements. This report presents 18 important lessons learned from the experience of the IAEA and the U.S. Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), organized into three tiers. Each lesson is presented in the report in the context of the difficulty, need and history in which the lesson was learned. Only the most important points are recapitulated in this executive summary.

NONE

1995-06-01

222

Chemical Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

223

Life Cycle Assessment and Sustainability of Chemical Products  

E-print Network

Life Cycle Assessment & Sustainability of Chemical Products Abdelhadi Sahnoune ExxonMobil Chemical Company Industrial Energy Technology Conference (IETC 2014) New Orleans, May 20-23, 2014 ESL-IE-14-05-38 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial...-05-38 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 Sustainability of chemical products • Environment • Reduce resources consumption (energy, materials) • Continue improvement of manufacturing processes...

Sahnoune, A.

2014-01-01

224

Laser weapons. II - Strategic laser weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential strategic missions for laser weapons, particularly those involving space-based lasers, are discussed. The functions of space-based lasers and the history of their conceptual development are summarized, and the problems of implementing such systems, including the building of a suitable laser and power source, and resolving the problem of optics, are discussed. Ongoing development programs are described, and the contrasting

J. Hecht

1982-01-01

225

ASSESSING THE NEUROTOXIC POTENTIAL OF CHEMICALS - A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Since 1981, the development of methodology to assess the neurotoxic potential of chemicals has been a high priority within the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). ollowing the completion of an in-depth review of the scientific principles and methods for the assessm...

226

78 FR 64936 - Dichloromethane and N-Methylpyrrolidone TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Rescheduled...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and N-Methylpyrrolidone TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Rescheduled Public Meetings...Substances Control Act (TSCA) chemical risk assessment, ``TSCA Workplan Chemical Risk Assessment for Dichloromethane and...

2013-10-30

227

78 FR 67141 - Antimony Trioxide (ATO) TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Antimony Trioxide (ATO) TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunity...Substances Control Act (TSCA) chemical risk assessment, ``TSCA Workplan Chemical Risk Assessment for ATO.'' Due to the government...

2013-11-08

228

78 FR 1856 - Availability of Draft Chemical Risk Assessments; Public Comment Opportunity  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FRL-9375-1] Availability of Draft Chemical Risk Assessments; Public Comment Opportunity...public comment period for several draft chemical risk assessments. These draft risk assessments address five of the initial seven chemicals from the Agency's TSCA Work Plan...

2013-01-09

229

DRILLING MUD ASSESSMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSIS REFERENCE VOLUME  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents concentrations of specific metals and hydrocarbons in eleven drilling fluids (muds) taken from operating gas and oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico. Each drilling fluid was analyzed chemically for heavy metal and hydrocarbon content in three distinct phases: (1) ...

230

RISK ASSESSMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The passage of the Safe Drinking Water and Food Quality Protection Acts requires EPA to develop a program for screening and testing of chemicals for their potential to produce adverse effects on the endocrine systems of humans or wildlife. When tests for estrogen, androgen and t...

231

Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical "Chemical" Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security, and way of life. One particular type of CI--that relating to chemicals--constitutes both an important element of our nation's infrastructure and a particularly attractive set of potential targets. This is primarily because of the large quantities of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) it employs in various operations and because of the essential economic functions it serves. This study attempts to minimize some of the ambiguities that presently impede chemical infrastructure threat assessments by providing new insight into the key motivational factors that affect terrorist organizations propensity to attack chemical facilities. Prepared as a companion piece to the Center for Nonproliferation Studies August 2004 study--''Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure''--it investigates three overarching research questions: (1) why do terrorists choose to attack chemical-related infrastructure over other targets; (2) what specific factors influence their target selection decisions concerning chemical facilities; and (3) which, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack chemical infrastructure targets? The study involved a multi-pronged research design, which made use of four discrete investigative techniques to answer the above questions as comprehensively as possible. These include: (1) a review of terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist interest in targeting chemical facilities; (2) the preparation of case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played a significant role in leading some terrorist groups to attack chemical facilities; (3) an examination of data from the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITIC) to further illuminate the nature of terrorist attacks against chemical facilities to date; and (4) the refinement of the DECIDe--the Determinants Effecting Critical Infrastructure Decisions--analytical framework to make the factors and dynamics identified by the study more ''usable'' in future efforts to assess terrorist intentions to target chemical-related infrastructure.

Ackerman, G; Bale, J; Moran, K

2004-12-14

232

Psychophysical assessment of the chemical irritability of human skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal in this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a psychophysical scaling method for the quantitative assessment of cutaneous sensory irritation. We sought both to assess the sensory irritancy of topical chemicals and to quantify individual differences in irritability. Measurements were made of the perceived intensity, time course, and quality of sensations produced by application of methyl salicylate

BARRY G. GREEN; GREGORY S. SHAFFER

1992-01-01

233

Conventional weapons demilitarization: A health and environmental effects data base assessment: Propellants and their co-contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The demilitarization of propellants by open burning results in the deposition of residues on soils. Residues can consist of the main ingredients in propellant formulations, namely, nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, and nitroguanidine. Co-contaminants, consisting of plasticizers and stabilizers present in propellant formulations as well as environmental degradation products of the propellants, represent additional soil contaminants. These substances include nitrosoguanidine, dibutylphthlate, diethylphthlate, dipenylamine, and ethyl centralite. To support studies of the health and environmental risks of such by-products, this report presents assessments of data available on parameters that affect the risks posed by propellants and their principal co-contaminants. Specifically, data-base assessments cover factors that influence the transport and fate of the contaminants in environmental media (e.g., soils, water, etc.) and subsequently, human exposures via different pathways (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, and skin absorption). Importantly, information on dose-response relationships for various toxic effects in humans and laboratory animals is evaluated so that acceptable daily intakes for noncarcinogenic substances and virtually safe dose rates species are also addressed. 284 refs.

Mallon, B.; Layton, D.; Fish, R.; Hsieh, P.; Hall, L.; Perry, L.; Snyder, G.

1988-08-01

234

Risk assessment of chemicals: What about children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In regulatory toxicology there is increased awareness and concern that\\u000achildren and adults may differ in their susceptibility to xenobiotics. \\u000aIn this report a concise overview of the relevant data on the differences\\u000abetween adults and children with respect to the kinetics, dynamics and\\u000aexposure to chemicals is presented and adequacy of currently used\\u000atoxicological tests for regulatory purposes is

Wolterink G; Piersma AH; Engelen JGM van

2007-01-01

235

Titan's Interior Chemical Composition: A Thermochemical Assessment*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the interior composition of Titan using thermal chemical equilibrium calculations that are valid to high pressures and temperatures. The equations of state are based on exponential-6 fluid theory and have been validated against experimental data up to a few Mbars in pressure and approximately 20000K in temperature. In addition to CHNO molecules, we account for multi-phases of carbon, water and a variety of metals such as Al and Fe, and their oxides. With these fluid equations of state, chemical equilibrium is calculated for a set of product species. As the temperature and pressure evolves for increasing depth in the interior, the chemical equilibrium shifts. We assume that Titan is initially composed of comet material, which we assume to be solar, except for hydrogen, which we take to be depleted by a factor 1/690. We find that a significant amount of nitrogen is in the form of n2, rather than nh3. Moreover, above 12 kbars, as is the interior pressure of Titan, a significant amount of the carbon is in the form of graphite, rather than co2 and ch4. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding the atmospheric and surface composition of Titan. • This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

Howard, Michael; Zaug, J. M.; Khare, B. N.; McKay, C. P.

2007-10-01

236

Assessing Chemical Retention Process Controls in Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small ponds are a ubiquitous component of the landscape and have earned a reputation as effective chemical retention devices. The most common characterization of pond chemical retention is the retention coefficient, Ri= ([Ci]inflow-[Ci] outflow)/[Ci]inflow. However, this parameter varies widely in one pond with time and among ponds. We have re-evaluated literature reported (Borden et al., 1998) monthly average retention coefficients for two ponds in North Carolina. Employing a simple first order model that includes water residence time, the first order process responsible for species removal have been separated from the water residence time over which it acts. Assuming the rate constant for species removal is constant within the pond (arguable at least), the annual average rate constant for species removal is generated. Using the annual mean rate constant for species removal and monthly water residence times results in a significantly enhanced predictive capability for Davis Pond during most months of the year. Predictive ability remains poor in Davis Pond during winter/unstratified periods when internal loading of P and N results in low to negative chemical retention. Predictive ability for Piedmont Pond (which has numerous negative chemical retention periods) is improved but not to the same extent as Davis Pond. In Davis Pond, the rate constant for sediment removal (each month) is faster than the rate constant for water and explains the good predictability for sediment retention. However, the removal rate constant for P and N is slower than the removal rate constant for sediment (longer water column residence time for P,N than for sediment). Thus sedimentation is not an overall control on nutrient retention. Additionally, the removal rate constant for P is slower than for TOC (TOC is not the dominate removal process for P) and N is removed slower than P (different in pond controls). For Piedmont Pond, sediment removal rate constants are slower than the removal rate constant for water indicating significant sediment resuspension episodes. It appears that these sediment resuspension events are aperiodic and control the loading and the chemical retention capability of Piedmont Pond for N,P,TOC. These calculated rate constants reflect the differing internal loading processes for each component and suggest means and mechanisms for the use of ponds in water quality management.

Torgersen, T.; Branco, B.; John, B.

2002-05-01

237

Curriculum Assessment as a Direct Tool in ABET Outcomes Assessment in a Chemical Engineering Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chemical engineering programme at the United Arab Emirates University is designed to fulfil the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) (A-K) EC2000 criteria. The Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering has established a well-defined process for outcomes assessment for the chemical engineering programme in order to…

Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Attar, Hazim

2010-01-01

238

Assessing Model Errors Through Chemical Data Assimilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assimilation of satellite observations of chemical constituents results in corrections to forecasts of trace gas fields from a chemical transport model. When these corrections produce significant systematic changes to the field, it is important to determine whether this is the result of bias in either the model or the satellite retrievals. Independent data sets, particularly in situ observations, can often help to point out the source of the bias. We report here on the assimilation of carbon monoxide observations from SCIAMACHY and ozone from OMI and MLS using the the GMAO constituent assimilation system. The model uses analyzed winds from the GEOS-4 meteorological assimilation system and production/loss rates from GEOS-Chem. We focus on analyzed CO and tropospheric O3 fields over the Arabian peninsula during the fall of 2004, when the analysis increments in both fields are consistently positive. Comparisons with MOZAIC in situ data are made in order to determine the source of the systematic difference between the model and observations.

Tangborn, A.; Stajner, I.; Pawson, S.; Buchwitz, M.; Khlystova, I.; Burrows, J.; Hudman, R.

2007-12-01

239

High-energy laser weapons: technology overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy laser (HEL) weapons are ready for some of today"s most challenging military applications. For example, the Airborne Laser (ABL) program is designed to defend against Theater Ballistic Missiles in a tactical war scenario. Similarly, the Tactical High Energy Laser (THEL) program is currently testing a laser to defend against rockets and other tactical weapons. The Space Based Laser (SBL), Advanced Tactical Laser (ATL) and Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures (LAIRCM) programs promise even greater applications for laser weapons. This technology overview addresses both strategic and tactical roles for HEL weapons on the modern battlefield and examines current technology limited performance of weapon systems components, including various laser device types, beam control systems, atmospheric propagation, and target lethality issues. The characteristics, history, basic hardware, and fundamental performance of chemical lasers, solid state lasers and free electron lasers are summarized and compared. The elements of beam control, including the primary aperture, fast steering mirror, deformable mirrors, wavefront sensors, beacons and illuminators will be discussed with an emphasis on typical and required performance parameters. The effects of diffraction, atmospheric absorption, scattering, turbulence and thermal blooming phenomenon on irradiance at the target are described. Finally, lethality criteria and measures of weapon effectiveness are addressed. The primary purpose of the presentation is to define terminology, establish key performance parameters, and summarize technology capabilities.

Perram, Glen P.; Marciniak, Michael A.; Goda, Matthew

2004-09-01

240

Virtual nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

Pilat, J.F.

1997-08-01

241

Deterring weapons of mass destruction terrorism. Master`s thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines terrorist acts involving the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against unsuspecting civilians by the Aum Shinrikyo and Rajneesh cults. The proliferation of WMD (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) has created a concern that terrorists might use WMD. Despite obvious signs, these groups were not identified as terrorists until after they committed terrorist attacks. This

LeHardy

1997-01-01

242

Countering third world weapons of mass destruction: Desert storm as a prototype. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs)--nuclear, biological, and chemical--is occurring throughout the Third World. Desert Storm offers an excellent case study for assessing the various measures and operations which can be employed to protect U.S.. forces against an adversary possessing a WMD capability. The elements of Desert Storm's successful strategy can be categorized in three broad approaches--deterrence, denial,

1993-01-01

243

Assessing workplace chemical exposures: the role of exposure monitoring.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure is the condition of being subjected through employment to a chemical, physical, or biological agent, or to a specific process, practice, behavior, or organization of work. Exposure to a chemical agent is typically the contact of that agent with the outer boundary of a subject, such as the respiratory system, skin, or digestive system. In occupational hygiene we are most concerned with exposure through the respiratory system, although, increasingly we are concerned with the results of dermal exposures, including those exposures to the skin that can be transferred to the mouth and digestive system. This presentation will detail methods available for assessing personal exposures to chemicals through monitoring. The results from monitoring can then be compared to established guidelines and regulations, although this is not the only rationale for making measurements. These monitoring methods are currently used around the world to establish the benchmark hazard from which risk to the worker can be predicted. The presentation will describe the general techniques for assessing exposures to the respiratory system from chemical gases and vapors, chemical dusts, and exposures to the skin from bulk chemicals or chemical contamination of surfaces. For respiratory exposures, direct-reading instruments are available for spot measurements, and for monitoring short-term fluctuations in concentration. However, most standards and regulations are based on time-integrated (time-weighted average) exposures, requiring longer-term integrative methods. Therefore, the specific focus of this review will be the methods available for full work-shift sampling. For gases and vapors this will include taking whole-air samples in canisters or polymer bags, or concentration of chemicals by absorption in liquids or adsorption on solid sorbents, with subsequent chemical analysis. Chemical concentration can take place by pumping air through the sorbing media, or by allowing molecules to diffuse to the sorbent surface. Transfer of the collected chemicals to the analytical instrumentation can be accomplished using solvent displacement and injection, or through the application of heat to bring the collected molecules back into the vapor phase. For particles, the particle size is important as this determines the site of deposition in the lungs, and so time-integrated sampling on filters using various types of size-selective samplers is preferred. Finally, some techniques that have been used to assess the potential for chemical contamination of the skin are presented. Biomonitoring is another tool that can be used to assess exposure, and the results are more relevant to dosimetric considerations than exposure. Biomonitoring is a complex subject worthy of a separate review, and will be considered only briefly here. PMID:15152307

Harper, Martin

2004-05-01

244

Making weapons, talking peace  

SciTech Connect

The memoirs of the author traces his life from his first-year graduate studies in physics at the University of Rochester in 1942 to his present position as Director of the University of California's Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation. The part of his life involved in making weapons extends from 1942 to 1961. During this period, he worked with E.O. Lawrence on the Manhattan Project and served as director of Livermore after it became the Atomic Energy Commission's second nuclear weapons laboratory. He also served on many government advisory boards and commissions dealing with nuclear and other weapons. In 1961, the combination of a heart attack and changes in administration in Washington led York too return to the University of California for the talking peace portion of his life. He has since become a public exponent of arms control and disarmament and the futility of seeking increased security through more and better nuclear weapons. York's explanation of his move from making weapons to talking peace leaves the reader with a puzzle.

York, H.F.

1987-01-01

245

Weapons and hope  

SciTech Connect

The British-born physicist presents a full-blown critique of US weapons policy. His careful evaluation of opposing views leads him to endorse a live-and-let-live concept of arms control, which would reject both assured destruction and first use of nuclear weapons in favor of abolishing them. Dyson's faith in the humane progress of military technology and his tolerance of dangerous conventional weapons will not please dovish readers, while his denunciation of military idolatry and his support of a nuclear freeze will disappoint some hawks. Along with moving personal memories of war and pacifism, the most original sections of the book are the author's insightful comments about the Soviet Union and the issue of verification.

Dyson, F.

1984-01-01

246

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF THE VERTICAL WELL CHEMICAL REACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

This report assesses a promising new technology which utilizes the well known wet combustion process to treat high strength organic wastes. Because of its unique configuration, the technology labeled the vertical well chemical reactor (VWCR) has the potential to oxidize these was...

247

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS Pastoor, Timothy1, Barton, Hugh2 1 Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC, USA. 2 EPA, Office of Research and Development-NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. A multi-stakeholder series of discussions d...

248

ASSESSING TOXICITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS TO ANAEROBIC TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A screening protocol has been developed to provide a rapid but dependable and repeatable assessment of the effect of toxic organic chemicals on anaerobic treatment processes. his protocol provides information on the rate limiting biological reactions and the concentration of toxi...

249

DOE Nuclear Weapon Reliability Definition: History, Description, and Implementation  

SciTech Connect

The overarching goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapon reliability assessment process is to provide a quantitative metric that reflects the ability of the weapons to perform their intended function successfully. This white paper is intended to provide insight into the current and long-standing DOE definition of nuclear weapon reliability, which can be summarized as: The probability of achieving the specified yield, at the target, across the Stockpile-To-Target Sequence of environments, throughout the weapon's lifetime, assuming proper inputs.

Wright, D.L.; Cashen, J.J.; Sjulin, J.M.; Bierbaum, R.L.; Kerschen, T.J.

1999-04-01

250

Structure activity relationships to assess new chemicals under TSCA  

SciTech Connect

Under Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), manufacturers must notify the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 90 days before manufacturing, processing, or importing a new chemical substance. This is referred to as a premanufacture notice (PMN). The PMN must contain certain information including chemical identity, production volume, proposed uses, estimates of exposure and release, and any health or environmental test data that are available to the submitter. Because there is no explicit statutory authority that requires testing of new chemicals prior to their entry into the market, most PMNs are submitted with little or no data. As a result, EPA has developed special techniques for hazard assessment of PMN chemicals. These include (1) evaluation of available data on the chemical itself, (2) evaluation of data on analogues of the PMN, or evaluation of data on metabolites or analogues of metabolites of the PMN, (3) use of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs), and (4) knowledge and judgement of scientific assessors in the interpretation and integration of the information developed in the course of the assessment. This approach to evaluating potential hazards of new chemicals is used to identify those that are most in need of addition review of further testing. It should not be viewed as a replacement for testing. 4 tabs.

Auletta, A.E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1990-12-31

251

Performance calculation and simulation system of high energy laser weapon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy laser weapons are ready for some of today's most challenging military applications. Based on the analysis of the main tactical/technical index and combating process of high energy laser weapon, a performance calculation and simulation system of high energy laser weapon was established. Firstly, the index decomposition and workflow of high energy laser weapon was proposed. The entire system was composed of six parts, including classical target, platform of laser weapon, detect sensor, tracking and pointing control, laser atmosphere propagation and damage assessment module. Then, the index calculation modules were designed. Finally, anti-missile interception simulation was performed. The system can provide reference and basis for the analysis and evaluation of high energy laser weapon efficiency.

Wang, Pei; Liu, Min; Su, Yu; Zhang, Ke

2014-12-01

252

Chemical footprint: a methodological framework for bridging life cycle assessment and planetary boundaries for chemical pollution.  

PubMed

The development and use of footprint methodologies for environmental assessment are increasingly important for both the scientific and political communities. Starting from the ecological footprint, developed at the beginning of the 1990s, several other footprints were defined, e.g., carbon and water footprint. These footprints-even though based on a different meaning of "footprint"-integrate life cycle thinking, and focus on some challenging environmental impacts including resource consumption, CO2 emission leading to climate change, and water consumption. However, they usually neglect relevant sources of impacts, as those related to the production and use of chemicals. This article presents and discusses the need and relevance of developing a methodology for assessing the chemical footprint, coupling a life cycle-based approach with methodologies developed in other contexts, such as ERA and sustainability science. Furthermore, different concepts underpin existing footprint and this could be the case also of chemical footprint. At least 2 different approaches and steps to chemical footprint could be envisaged, applicable at the micro- as well as at the meso- and macroscale. The first step (step 1) is related to the account of chemicals use and emissions along the life cycle of a product, sector, or entire economy, to assess potential impacts on ecosystems and human health. The second step (step 2) aims at assessing to which extent actual emission of chemicals harm the ecosystems above their capability to recover (carrying capacity of the system). The latter step might contribute to the wide discussion on planetary boundaries for chemical pollution: the thresholds that should not be surpassed to guarantee a sustainable use of chemicals from an environmental safety perspective. The definition of what the planetary boundaries for chemical pollution are and how the boundaries should be identified is an on-going scientific challenge for ecotoxicology and ecology. In this article, we present a case study at the macroscale for the European Union, in which the chemical footprint according to step 1 is calculated for the year 2005. A proposal for extending this approach toward step 2 is presented and discussed, complemented by a discussion on the challenges and the use of appropriate methodologies for assessing chemical footprints to stimulate further research and discussion on the topic. PMID:23907984

Sala, Serenella; Goralczyk, Malgorzata

2013-10-01

253

Integration of high energy laser weapons systems aboard all-electric ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

An all-electric ship construct for surface combatants will need to consider the impact of future, electric power based weapons systems. Shipboard environments, driven by war fighting, hoteling, and safety arguments, are already influencing the development of high impulse weapons systems away from chemical or nuclear derived charging mechanism. shipboard high energy laser (HEL) weapons system concepts, for example, are already

M. J. Wardlaw; T. L. Wilson

2002-01-01

254

National policy for deterring the use of weapons of mass destruction. Research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the advent of the nuclear arms race, the US has developed and maintained a policy and associated capabilities to deter offensive use of these weapons against US forces, citizens and allies. With the end of the Cold War and the proliferation of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, the threat posed by weapons of mass destruction has changed dramatically. The

D. A. Blackburn; R. K. Brannum; D. R. Turmelle; G. T. Boyette; W. M. Napolitano

1996-01-01

255

Nuclear Weapons as Obstacles to International Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that nuclear weapons serve no useful purpose in military calculations; moreover, their continued retention invites the dangers of further proliferation and of accidental use. They are thus defined here as obstacles to, rather than as facilitators of, international security. Seven reasons are presented to support this contention, including an assessment of the moral implications and the strategic

Marianne Hanson

2002-01-01

256

US nuclear weapons policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the

1990-01-01

257

US weapons secrets revealed  

SciTech Connect

Extraordinary details have only recently been revealed about the struggle over the control of early U.S. nuclear weapons and their initial deployments abroad. The information comes from a newly declassified top secret report, part of a larger study, The History of the Strategic Arms Competition, 1945-1972, commissioned by Defense Secretary James R. Schlisinger in summer 1974.

Norris, R.S.; Arkin, W.M.

1993-03-01

258

Names and Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the theoretical significance of using names as titles for situations, and applies this analysis to the United States' intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) programs. Argues that the names given to ICBMs preserve their utility as weapons by linking them to the myths of the nineteenth-century western frontier. (MM)

Kauffman, Charles

1989-01-01

259

Medicalized weapons & modern war.  

PubMed

"Medicalized" weapons--those that rely on advances in neuroscience, physiology, and pharmacology--offer the prospect of reducing casualties and protecting civilians. They could be especially useful in modern asymmetric wars in which conventional states are pitted against guerrilla or insurgent forces. But may physicians and other medical workers participate in their development? PMID:20166514

Gross, Michael L

2010-01-01

260

Effects of Nuclear Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

Sartori, Leo

1983-01-01

261

Air weapon fatalities.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To describe characteristics of a series of people accidentally and deliberately killed by air powered weapons. METHODS: Five cases of fatal airgun injury were identified by forensic pathologists and histopathologists. The circumstances surrounding the case, radiological examination, and pathological findings are described. The weapon characteristics are also reported. RESULTS: Three of the victims were adult men, one was a 16 year old boy, and one an eight year old child. Four of the airguns were .22 air rifles, the other a .177 air rifle. Two committed suicide, one person shooting himself in the head, the other in the chest. In both cases the guns were fired at contact range. Three of the cases were classified as accidents: in two the pellet penetrated into the head and in one the chest. CONCLUSIONS: One person each year dies from an air powered weapon injury in the United Kingdom. In addition there is considerable morbidity from airgun injuries. Fatalities and injuries are most commonly accidents, but deliberately inflicted injuries occur. Airguns are dangerous weapons when inappropriately handled and should not be considered as toys. Children should not play with airguns unsupervised. Images PMID:9797730

Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Rooney, N

1998-01-01

262

Holistic Metrics for Assessment of the Greenness of Chemical Reactions in the Context of Chemical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two new semiquantitative green chemistry metrics, the green circle and the green matrix, have been developed for quick assessment of the greenness of a chemical reaction or process, even without performing the experiment from a protocol if enough detail is provided in it. The evaluation is based on the 12 principles of green chemistry. The…

Ribeiro, M. Gabriela T. C.; Machado, Adelio A. S. C.

2013-01-01

263

Nuclear weapon detection categorization analysis  

SciTech Connect

This statement of work is for the Proof of Concept for nuclear weapon categories utility in Arms control. The focus of the project will be to collect, analyze and correlate Intrinsic Radiation (INRAD) calculation results for the purpose of defining measurable signatures that differentiate categories of nuclear weapons. The project will support START III negotiations by identifying categories of nuclear weapons. The categories could be used to clarify sub-limits on the total number of nuclear weapons.

NONE

1997-12-01

264

Army pushes new weapons effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Army is conducting research for a directed energy weapons program which is to provide particle beam and high-energy laser weapons for ballistic missile defense in the late 1980s. A space-based neutral beam weapon and a ground-based charged particle device are being considered. The feasibility of a space-based laser weapon system is also explored. A ground-based technology demonstration program

C. A. Robinson Jr.

1978-01-01

265

Applying Agile MethodstoWeapon/Weapon-Related Software  

SciTech Connect

This white paper provides information and guidance to the Department of Energy (DOE) sites on Agile software development methods and the impact of their application on weapon/weapon-related software development. The purpose of this white paper is to provide an overview of Agile methods, examine the accepted interpretations/uses/practices of these methodologies, and discuss the applicability of Agile methods with respect to Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) Technical Business Practices (TBPs). It also provides recommendations on the application of Agile methods to the development of weapon/weapon-related software.

Adams, D; Armendariz, M; Blackledge, M; Campbell, F; Cloninger, M; Cox, L; Davis, J; Elliott, M; Granger, K; Hans, S; Kuhn, C; Lackner, M; Loo, P; Matthews, S; Morrell, K; Owens, C; Peercy, D; Pope, G; Quirk, R; Schilling, D; Stewart, A; Tran, A; Ward, R; Williamson, M

2007-05-02

266

Nuclear weapons and international law  

SciTech Connect

Using two different perspectives, this collection of essays addresses the central legal question of whether the manufacture, deployment, and potential use of nuclear weapons is lawful. In addition, individual chapters focus on a variety of topical issues, including nuclear weapon free zones, nuclear testing, international law and regulations, nuclear weapons and nonproliferation, anti-ballistic missile systems, and the Strategic Defense Initiative.

Pogany, I.

1987-01-01

267

Nuclear weapons are legal tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responding to an article by Elliot Meyrowitz stating that nuclear weapons are illegal threats, the author observes that international law does not forbid the possession or use of nuclear weapons, whose existence operates as part of the checks and balances process that maintains deterrence. Because nuclear weapons have never been identified among states as illegal, either by treaties or by

Almond; H. H. Jr

1985-01-01

268

Third-Generation Nuclear Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today a third generation of nuclear weapons is technologically feasible. By altering the shape of the nuclear explosive and manipulating other design features, weapons could be built that generate and direct beams of radiation or streams of metallic pellets or droplets at such targets as missile-launch facilities on the ground, missiles in the air and satellites in space. These weapons

Theodore B. Taylor

1987-01-01

269

Application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models in chemical risk assessment.  

PubMed

Post-exposure risk assessment of chemical and environmental stressors is a public health challenge. Linking exposure to health outcomes is a 4-step process: exposure assessment, hazard identification, dose response assessment, and risk characterization. This process is increasingly adopting "in silico" tools such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to fine-tune exposure assessments and determine internal doses in target organs/tissues. Many excellent PBPK models have been developed. But most, because of their scientific sophistication, have found limited field application-health assessors rarely use them. Over the years, government agencies, stakeholders/partners, and the scientific community have attempted to use these models or their underlying principles in combination with other practical procedures. During the past two decades, through cooperative agreements and contracts at several research and higher education institutions, ATSDR funded translational research has encouraged the use of various types of models. Such collaborative efforts have led to the development and use of transparent and user-friendly models. The "human PBPK model toolkit" is one such project. While not necessarily state of the art, this toolkit is sufficiently accurate for screening purposes. Highlighted in this paper are some selected examples of environmental and occupational exposure assessments of chemicals and their mixtures. PMID:22523493

Mumtaz, Moiz; Fisher, Jeffrey; Blount, Benjamin; Ruiz, Patricia

2012-01-01

270

Application of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models in Chemical Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Post-exposure risk assessment of chemical and environmental stressors is a public health challenge. Linking exposure to health outcomes is a 4-step process: exposure assessment, hazard identification, dose response assessment, and risk characterization. This process is increasingly adopting “in silico” tools such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to fine-tune exposure assessments and determine internal doses in target organs/tissues. Many excellent PBPK models have been developed. But most, because of their scientific sophistication, have found limited field application—health assessors rarely use them. Over the years, government agencies, stakeholders/partners, and the scientific community have attempted to use these models or their underlying principles in combination with other practical procedures. During the past two decades, through cooperative agreements and contracts at several research and higher education institutions, ATSDR funded translational research has encouraged the use of various types of models. Such collaborative efforts have led to the development and use of transparent and user-friendly models. The “human PBPK model toolkit” is one such project. While not necessarily state of the art, this toolkit is sufficiently accurate for screening purposes. Highlighted in this paper are some selected examples of environmental and occupational exposure assessments of chemicals and their mixtures. PMID:22523493

Mumtaz, Moiz; Fisher, Jeffrey; Blount, Benjamin; Ruiz, Patricia

2012-01-01

271

Open architecture applied to next-generation weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has postulated a new weapons concept known as Flexible Weapons to define and develop technologies addressing a number of challenges. Initial studies on capability attributes of this concept have been conducted and AFRL plans to continue systems engineering studies to quantify metrics against which the value of capabilities can be assessed. An important aspect of Flexible Weapons is having a modular "plug-n-play" hardware and software solution, supported by an Open Architecture and Universal Armament Interface (UAI) common interfaces. The modular aspect of Flexible Weapons is a means to successfully achieving interoperability and composability at the weapon level. Interoperability allows for vendor competition, timely technology refresh, and avoids costs by ensuring standard interfaces widely supported in industry, rather than an interface unique to a particular vendor. Composability provides for the means to arrange an open end set of useful weapon systems configurations. The openness of Flexible Weapons is important because it broadens the set of computing technologies, software updates, and other technologies to be introduced into the weapon system, providing the warfighter with new capabilities at lower costs across the life cycle. One of the most critical steps in establishing a Modular, Open Systems Architecture (MOSA) for weapons is the validation of compliance with the standard.

Rose, Leo J.; Shaver, Jonathan; Young, Quinn; Christensen, Jacob

2014-06-01

272

Advancing exposure characterization for chemical evaluation and risk assessment.  

PubMed

A new generation of scientific tools has emerged to rapidly measure signals from cells, tissues, and organisms following exposure to chemicals. High-visibility efforts to apply these tools for efficient toxicity testing raise important research questions in exposure science. As vast quantities of data from high-throughput screening (HTS) in vitro toxicity assays become available, this new toxicity information must be translated to assess potential risks to human health from environmental exposures. Exposure information is required to link information on potential toxicity of environmental contaminants to real-world health outcomes. In the immediate term, tools are required to characterize and classify thousands of environmental chemicals in a rapid and efficient manner to prioritize testing and assess potential for risk to human health. Rapid risk assessment requires prioritization based on both hazard and exposure dimensions of the problem. To address these immediate needs within the context of longer term objectives for chemical evaluation and risk management, a translation framework is presented for incorporating toxicity and exposure information to inform public health decisions at both the individual and population levels. Examples of required exposure science contributions are presented with a focus on early advances in tools for modeling important links across the source-to-outcome paradigm. ExpoCast, a new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) program aimed at developing novel approaches and metrics to screen and evaluate chemicals based on the potential for biologically relevant human exposures is introduced. The goal of ExpoCast is to advance characterization of exposure required to translate findings in computational toxicology to information that can be directly used to support exposure and risk assessment for decision making and improved public health. PMID:20574904

Cohen Hubal, Elaine A; Richard, Ann; Aylward, Lesa; Edwards, Steve; Gallagher, Jane; Goldsmith, Michael-Rock; Isukapalli, Sastry; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weber, Eric; Kavlock, Robert

2010-02-01

273

International physical protection self-assessment tool for chemical facilities.  

SciTech Connect

This report is the final report for Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project No.130746, International Physical Protection Self-Assessment Tool for Chemical Facilities. The goal of the project was to develop an exportable, low-cost, computer-based risk assessment tool for small to medium size chemical facilities. The tool would assist facilities in improving their physical protection posture, while protecting their proprietary information. In FY2009, the project team proposed a comprehensive evaluation of safety and security regulations in the target geographical area, Southeast Asia. This approach was later modified and the team worked instead on developing a methodology for identifying potential targets at chemical facilities. Milestones proposed for FY2010 included characterizing the international/regional regulatory framework, finalizing the target identification and consequence analysis methodology, and developing, reviewing, and piloting the software tool. The project team accomplished the initial goal of developing potential target categories for chemical facilities; however, the additional milestones proposed for FY2010 were not pursued and the LDRD funding therefore was redirected.

Tewell, Craig R.; Burdick, Brent A.; Stiles, Linda L.; Lindgren, Eric Richard

2010-09-01

274

Integrating pathway-based transcriptomic data into quantitative chemical risk assessment: a five chemical case study.  

PubMed

The traditional approach for performing a chemical risk assessment is time and resource intensive leading to a limited number of published assessments on which to base human health decisions. In comparison, most contaminated sites contain chemicals without published reference values or cancer slope factors that are not considered quantitatively in the overall hazard index calculation. The integration of transcriptomic technology into the risk assessment process may provide an efficient means to evaluate quantitatively the health risks associated with data poor chemicals. In a previous study, female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to multiple concentrations of five chemicals that were positive for lung and/or liver tumor formation in a two-year rodent cancer bioassay. The mice were exposed for a period of 13 weeks and the target tissues were analyzed for traditional histological and organ weight changes and transcriptional changes using microarrays. In this study, the dose-response changes in gene expression were analyzed using a benchmark dose (BMD) approach and the responses grouped based on pathways. A comparison of the transcriptional BMD values with those for the traditional non-cancer and cancer apical endpoints showed a high degree of correlation for specific pathways. Many of the correlated pathways have been implicated in non-cancer and cancer disease pathogenesis. The results demonstrate that transcriptomic changes in pathways can be used to estimate non-cancer and cancer points-of-departure for use in quantitative risk assessments and have identified potential toxicity pathways involved in chemically induced mouse lung and liver responses. PMID:22305970

Thomas, Russell S; Clewell, Harvey J; Allen, Bruce C; Yang, Longlong; Healy, Eric; Andersen, Melvin E

2012-08-15

275

Early retirement for weaponeers?  

SciTech Connect

Department of Energy`s Lawrence Livermore Laboratory`s once-vital nuclear weapons division is now in dire straits. The laboratory was established in 1952, during the titanic struggle over the hydrogen bomb, has grown steadily from $7 million to its peak of $1.1 billion in 1991. The future for key members of their most experienced weapons design team is uncertain. Over the past two years, Livermore`s operating budget has fallen by 12.5 percent or $127.6 million. Nearly 750 employees, 10 percent of the work force, accepted early retirement offers last year. Further budget cuts will force another 300 to 600 personnel out by the end of 1995. The future resides in the U.S. Congress.

Weisman, J.

1994-07-01

276

Particle-beam weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speed of a particle-beam's destructive energy has been estimated to be 300,000,000 m\\/sec, leading to the suggestion that particle-beam weapons would be ideal as defensive systems against missiles. Three proposed applications are examined: (1) an ABM system based on a satellite orbiting the earth and intended to shoot down offensive missiles as they rise above the atmosphere, (2) a

John Parmentola; Kosta Tsipis

1979-01-01

277

US nuclear weapons policy  

SciTech Connect

We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

May, M.

1990-12-05

278

Weapons and Aggression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Craig Anderson of Iowa State University, this case study addresses the question: "Does the mere presence of a weapon increase the accessibility of aggressive thoughts?" It concerns the following concepts: quantile and box plots, stem and leaf displays, one-sample t test, confidence interval, within-subjects ANOVA, and consequences of violation of normality assumption. This is a great example of a case study that illustrates many different concepts of statistics.

Anderson, Craig

279

METHODOLOGY FOR THE EVALUATION OF CUMULATIVE EPISODIC EXPOSURE TO CHEMICAL STRESSORS IN AQUATIC RISK ASSESSMENT.  

EPA Science Inventory

An ecological risk assessment method was developed to evaluate the magnitude, duration, and episodic nature of chemical stressors on aquatic communities. The percent of an ecosystem's species at risk from a designated chemical exposure scenario is generated. In effects assessment...

280

Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources  

SciTech Connect

This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas and petroleum-derived resources. Results from both parts of the assessment indicate that, in the absence of gas and petroleum, coal undoubtedly would be a major source of chemicals first, followed by biomass. The most attractive biomass resources are wood, agricultural residues, and sugar and starch crops. A reasonable approximation to the current product slate for the petrochemical industry could be manufactured using only renewable resources for feedstocks. Approximately 2.5 quads (10/sup 15/ Btu (1.055 x 10/sup 18/ joules)) per year of oil and gas would be released. Further use of biomass fuels in the industry could release up to an additional 1.5 quads. however, such an industry would be unprofitable under current economic conditions with existing or near-commercial technology. As fossil resources become more expensive and biotechnology becomes more efficient, the economics will be more favorable. Use of the chemicals industry model to evaluate process technologies is demonstrated. Processes are identified which have potential for significant added value to the system if process improvements can be made to improve the economics. Guidelines and recommendations for research and development programs to improve the attractiveness of chemicals from biomass are discussed.

Donaldson, T.L.; Culberson, O.L.

1983-06-01

281

Fourth Generation Nuclear Weapons: Military effectiveness and collateral effects  

E-print Network

The paper begins with a general introduction and update to Fourth Generation Nuclear Weapons (FGNW), and then addresses some particularly important military aspects on which there has been only limited public discussion so far. These aspects concern the unique military characteristics of FGNWs which make them radically different from both nuclear weapons based on previous-generation nuclear-explosives and from conventional weapons based on chemical-explosives: yields in the 1 to 100 tons range, greatly enhanced coupling to targets, possibility to drive powerful shaped charged jets and forged fragments, enhanced prompt radiation effects, reduced collateral damage and residual radioactivity, etc.

Gsponer, A

2005-01-01

282

Environmental assessment for the purchase of Russian low enriched uranium derived from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The United States is proposing to purchase from the Russian Federation low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) resulting from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The purchase would be accomplished through a proposed contract requiring the United States to purchase 15,250 metric tons (tonnes) of LEU (or 22,550 tonnes of UF{sub 6}) derived from blending 500 metric tones uranium (MTU) of HEU from nuclear warheads. The LEU would be in the form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and would be converted from HEU in Russia. The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is the entity proposing to undertake the contract for purchase, sale, and delivery of the LEU from the Russian Federation. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is negotiating the procedure for gaining confidence that the LEU is derived from HEU that is derived from dismantled nuclear weapons (referred to as ``transparency),`` and would administer the transparency measures for the contract. There are six environments that could potentially be affected by the proposed action; marine (ocean); US ports of entry; truck or rail transportation corridors; the Portsmouth GDP; the electric power industry; and the nuclear fuel cycle industry. These environmental impacts are discussed.

Not Available

1994-01-01

283

Assessment of human exposure to chemicals from Superfund sites.  

PubMed Central

Assessing human exposure to chemicals from Superfund sites requires knowledge of basic physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in the environment and specific information about the local environment and population in the vicinity of sites of interest. Although progress is being made in both areas, there is still a tremendous amount to be done. Participants at this meeting have identified several of the areas in need of greater understanding, and they are listed below. Movement of dissolved and volatile organics, especially NAPLs, in the subsurface environment. This includes study of the partitioning of compounds between NAPLs, air, water, and soil. Partitioning of volatilized chemicals between gaseous and aerosol components of the atmosphere. This includes understanding how these components influence both wet and dry deposition. Long-term movement from sediments into biota and how these affect chronic toxicity to sediment biota. Broad validation of PBPK models describing partitioning of compounds from sediment and water into fish. Reactions of chemicals sorbed to atmospheric particles. This includes application of laboratory models to real and varied atmospheric conditions. Interactions between biotic and abiotic transformations in soil and sediment. Applicability of physiological pharmacokinetic models developed in laboratory studies of experimental animals and clinical investigations of humans to environmental chemicals, concentrations, and routes of exposure in humans. Use of human and wildlife behavioral and biomonitoring information to estimate exposure. This includes better understanding of human variability and the applicability of information gathered from particular wildlife species. To successfully address these gaps in our knowledge, much more analytical data must be collected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8187712

Kamrin, M A; Fischer, L J; Suk, W A; Fouts, J R; Pellizzari, E; Thornton, K

1994-01-01

284

Public involvement case study -- The public, the media, and chemical weapons in the front yard: Spring Valley, Washington, D.C. (1993)  

SciTech Connect

On January 5, 1993, a worker digging a utility trench in an upscale Washington neighborhood uncovered some World War I chemical munitions. Once emergency officials heard the words ``poison gas`` and ``munitions,`` District of Columbia emergency equipment and workers streamed into the neighborhood. Reporters descended on the site. Soldiers in chemical suits arrived. Residents were evacuated. With the onslaught of flashing police lights, uniformed soldiers, and omnipresent news cameras, local homeowners began to panic. This one site had all the attributes of a great news story: disaster, panic, conflict, danger, and big government. But you didn`t see this story played out nightly on CNN. In fact, it wasn`t picked up as a major, controversial story. That`s because of the excellent work by those removing the munitions and a strong public involvement program. These turned a potential public relations disaster and media nightmare into a success story. Public involvement changed angry, frightened citizens into firm believers in the project. It turned cynical media into informed news outlets. And it made the munitions removal effort easier. The focus of this paper, however, is on the public relations battle.

Crawford, K. [Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville, AL (United States)

1994-12-31

285

Multi-route exposure assessment of chemically contaminated drinking water  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an example of how a single source of contamination could potentially contribute to all routes of exposure. A modeling approach was used to estimate multiple exposure routes in an attempt to assess the health significance of gasoline-contaminated drinking water supplies. This model consisted of a two-compartment, indoor air quality equation that calculates the contribution made by ambient and indoor air contaminated by a pollutant volatilized from drinking water to that pollutant's inhalation burden. In addition, the model uses the traditional equations for assessing a pollutant's oral and dermal burdens. Benzene, toluene and xylene were used as surrogates for gasoline contamination to determine the contribution of contaminated water to adult and child body burdens from indoor air, oral (drinking water and food) and dermal exposure routes. The contribution thus calculated for each chemical was compared to the EPA's Office of Drinking Water Health Advisories. In terms of acute exposure, the use of chemically contaminated water for showering purposes may generate vapor in the confined area of the bathroom at levels sufficient to cause or contribute to mucous tissue irritation, as commonly reported in affected homes. High temperatures and humidity may also contribute to these effects, especially in the bathroom. In terms of chronic exposure, the use of chemically contaminated water at EPA-recommended guideline amounts in an affected home may result in inhalation, oral and dermal exposures leading to cumulative doses exceeding adult and child total daily body burdens based on EPA's Health Advisories. Thus, this model indicates that the traditional standard/guidelines derivation processes should be reevaluated to consider the pollutant contribution from multiple routes of exposure.

Shehata, A.T.

1985-12-01

286

Risk assessment of endocrine active chemicals: identifying chemicals of regulatory concern.  

PubMed

The European regulation on plant protection products (1107/2009) (EC, 2009a), the revisions to the biocides Directive (COM[2009]267) (EC, 2009b), and the regulation concerning chemicals (Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 'REACH') (EC.2006) only support the marketing and use of chemical products on the basis that they do not induce endocrine disruption in humans or wildlife species. In the absence of agreed guidance on how to identify and evaluate endocrine activity and disruption within these pieces of legislation a European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) task force was formed to provide scientific criteria that may be used within the context of these three legislative documents. The resulting ECETOC technical report (ECETOC, 2009a) and the associated workshop (ECETOC, 2009b) presented a science-based concept on how to identify endocrine activity and disrupting properties of chemicals for both human health and the environment. The synthesis of the technical report and the workshop report was published by the ECETOC task force (Bars et al., 2011a,b). Specific scientific criteria for the determination of endocrine activity and disrupting properties that integrate information from both regulatory (eco)toxicity studies and mechanistic/screening studies were proposed. These criteria combined the nature of the adverse effects detected in studies which give concern for endocrine toxicity with an understanding of the mode of action of toxicity so that adverse effects can be explained scientifically. A key element in the data evaluation is the consideration of all available information in a weight-of-evidence approach. However, to be able to discriminate chemicals with endocrine properties of low concern from those of higher concern (for regulatory purposes), the task force recognised that the concept needed further refinement. Following a discussion of the key factors at a second workshop of invited regulatory, academic and industry scientists (ECETOC, 2011), the task force developed further guidance, which is presented in this paper. For human health assessments these factors include the relevance to humans of the endocrine mechanism of toxicity, the specificity of the endocrine effects with respect to other potential toxic effects, the potency of the chemical to induce endocrine toxicity and consideration of exposure levels. For ecotoxicological assessments the key considerations include specificity and potency, but also extend to the consideration of population relevance and negligible exposure. It is intended that these complement and reinforce the approach originally described and previously published in this journal (Bars et al., 2011a,b). PMID:22735369

Bars, Remi; Fegert, Ivana; Gross, Melanie; Lewis, Dick; Weltje, Lennart; Weyers, Arnd; Wheeler, James R; Galay-Burgos, Malyka

2012-10-01

287

Weapons and Minority Youth Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weapons violence is a major public health problem that especially impacts minority youth. Interventions designed to reduce weapon use by youth are categorized as educational/behavioral change, legal, and technological/environmental. Few educational programs currently exist, but those that do largely concern firearm safety courses, public…

Northrop, Daphne; Hamrick, Kim

288

Nuclear weapons and the law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) is summarized, with a discussion of some of its earlier Advisory Opinions. The Advisory Opinion on the legality of nuclear arms is considered in the light of the principles of international humanitarian law and a review of nuclear weapons effects. The present government's position on nuclear weapons as outlined in the

Ronald King Murray

1999-01-01

289

Air Force emphasizes laser weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of particle beam antisatellite weapons and laser weapons development by the USAF is reviewed. An experimental program was started pertaining to the collective-effect acceleration of positive ions by intense relativistic electron beams. Several types of electron accelerators being used in the experiments are briefly characterized. Another experiment concerns two-stream plasma instability. The kill potential of the particle beam

C. A. Robinson Jr.

1978-01-01

290

Science versus fiction: laser weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In science-fiction stories, ray guns are among the most used weapons. Since high power lasers are now commercially available, it would be interesting to know whether they may be used as weapons. In order to understand this point, the physical principles of laser-material interaction and of laser beam propagation are discussed. The basic equations are given. Then, orders of magnitude

M. Wautelet

1984-01-01

291

Nuclear weapons and regional conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important national defense objective for the US in the post cold-war era -- according to Secretary of Defense, Cheney is to deter regional conflicts. To satisfy this objective there is more or less general agreement that nuclear weapons are not needed, especially against regional powers like Iraq that do not (as yet) have a nuclear capability. Modern conventional weapons

A. L. Latter; E. A. Martinelli

1993-01-01

292

Some facts about “weapon focus”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weapon focus” refers to the concentration of acrime witness's attention on a weapon, and the resultant reduction in ability to remember other details of the crime. We examined this phenomenon by presenting subject-witnesses with a series of slides depicting an event in a fast-food restaurant. Half of the subjects saw a customer point a gun at the cashier; the other

Elizabeth F. Loftus; Geoffrey R. Loftus; Jane Messot

1987-01-01

293

Modeling Exposure to Persistent Chemicals in Hazard and Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Fate and exposure modeling has not thus far been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared to evaluate significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of POP and PBT chemicals in the environment. The goal of this paper is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include: (1) Benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk. (2) Directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota and humans to provide information to complement measurements, or where measurements are not available or are limited. (3) To identify the key processes and chemical and/or environmental parameters that determine the exposure; thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile. (4) Predicting future time trends including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and whether the assumptions and input data are relevant in the context of the application. It is possible to have confidence in the predictions of many of the existing models because of their fundamental physical and chemical mechanistic underpinnings and the extensive work already done to compare model predictions and empirical observations. The working group recommends that modeling tools be applied for benchmarking PBT/POPs according to exposure-to-emissions relationships, and that modeling tools be used to interpret emissions and monitoring data. The further development of models that couple fate, long-range transport, and bioaccumulation should be fostered, especially models that will allow time trends to be scientifically addressed in the risk profile.

Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E.; McLachlan, Michael S.; Arnot, Jon A.; MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Wania, Frank

2008-11-01

294

Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from glasnost in that there now is more open debate about a range of issues in the Soviet Union, including defense issues. Thus, we now have a great deal of published material to draw upon in assessing Soviet views, and experts in the West can talk much more freely to Soviet experts. However, this information explosion makes it more difficult to discriminate signal from noise, particularly as there continues to be both propaganda and deception in Soviet statements about defense issues. Clearly, some Soviet statements about nuclear weapons are designed to influence attitudes and actions in the West. I shall cite some examples in this paper.

Sloss, L. (Sloss (Leon) Associates, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-10-01

295

Toxico-Cheminformatics: New and Expanding Public Resources to Support Chemical Toxicity Assessments  

EPA Science Inventory

High-throughput screening (HTS) technologies, along with efforts to improve public access to chemical toxicity information resources and to systematize older toxicity studies, have the potential to significantly improve information gathering efforts for chemical assessments and p...

296

ASSESSING CHEMICAL RELEASES AND WORKER EXPOSURES FROM A FILTERPRESS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical releases and worker exposures associated with the filtration of an industrial wastewater sludge were characterized. The filter was a recessed chamber filter press with an open filtrate discharge system. Chemical releases and worker exposures for a selected chemical were ...

297

A Novel Approach: Chemical Relational Databases, and the Role of the ISSCAN Database on Assessing Chemical Carcinogenity  

EPA Science Inventory

Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity databases are crucial resources for toxicologists and regulators involved in chemicals risk assessment. Until recently, existing public toxicity databases have been constructed primarily as "look-up-tables" of existing data, and most often did no...

298

The Effect of Non-Lethal Weapons on Police Officer Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1990 and 2000, there was an increase in the use of non-lethal weapons and a decline in the number and severity of attacks on police officers. Using longitudinal data on several hundred U.S. police agencies, I investigate the relationship between police officer safety and the adoption of non-lethal weapons. I find that the adoption of non-lethal chemical weapons had

Alex Yuskavage

299

[Use of threshold of toxicological concern for chemical substances safety assessment].  

PubMed

The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) approach is a risk assessment tool of toxicology. When the exposure dose of human body is below the TTC of chemicals, the likelihood of that chemical causing negative influence on the human health is very low. Earliest, TTC approach was used in the risk assessment of in the respect of the food packing materials. Currently, TTC approach is used for safety assessment in the fields of food packing material, flavoring agents, medicine, industry chemicals, cosmetics, and etc. TTC approach provides useful assessment tool for the safety evaluation for the chemical substances. PMID:21033448

Zheng, Minglan; Zhou, Shaoying; Liu, Xuejun; Zhou, Zhijun

2010-09-01

300

How electroshock weapons kill!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

Lundquist, Marjorie

2010-03-01

301

The Development of Dynamic Operational Risk Assessment in Oil/Gas and Chemical Industries  

E-print Network

Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) is unable to address the time dependent effect in such dynamic processes. In this dissertation, a methodology of Dynamic Operational Risk Assessment (DORA) is developed for operational risk analysis in oil/gas and chemical...

Yang, Xiaole

2011-08-08

302

Incorporating biologically based models into assessments of risk from chemical contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general approach to assessment of risk from chemical contaminants in drinking water involves three steps: hazard identification, exposure assessment, and dose-response assessment. Traditionally, the risks to humans associated with different levels of a chemical have been derived from the toxic responses observed in animals. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that further information is needed if risks to humans are to be assessed accurately. Biologically based models help clarify the dose-response relationship and reduce uncertainty.

Bull, R. J.; Conolly, R. B.; De Marini, D. M.; MacPhail, R. C.; Ohanian, E. V.; Swenberg, J. A.

1993-01-01

303

Risk in the Weapons Stockpile  

SciTech Connect

When it comes to the nuclear weapons stockpile, risk must be as low as possible. Design and care to keep the stockpile healthy involves all aspects of risk management. Design diversity is a method that helps to mitigate risk.

Noone, Bailey C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-14

304

Nuclear weapons and nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

Cassel, C.; McCally, M.; Abraham, H.

1984-01-01

305

Implementation and Student Perceptions of e-Assessment in a Chemical Engineering Module  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes work carried out at the Department of Chemical Engineering at UCL into the use of e-assessment in a second year module and, in particular, the student perceptions of this mode of assessment. Three quizzes were implemented in Moodle, the first two as formative assessment and the final quiz as summative assessment. The results…

Sorensen, Eva

2013-01-01

306

Epidemiological assessment of occupationally related, chemically induced sperm count suppression  

SciTech Connect

Occupationally related, chemically induced sperm count suppression is a recently recognized problem, first brought to light in connection with the manufacture and formulation of dibromochloropropane (DBCP). The authors studied sperm count data from four occupational cohorts - two exposed to DBCP and two exposed to epichlorohydrin (ECH). In both DBCP cohorts there was a significant difference (alpha = 0.05) between sperm count distribution functions of the exposed group and of the non-exposed group. A much higher percentage of exposed men was oligospermic and the median sperm count for each exposed group was substantially lower than that for the respective non-exposed group. In the ECH cohorts there was no significant difference between sperm count data for the exposed group and for the non-exposed group. The authors concluded that exposure to DBCP, but not to ECH, was positively associated with detectable sperm count suppression. It is suggested that the key to identifying and assessing occupationally related sperm count suppression lies in the proper classification and interpretation of group sperm count data.

Milby, T.H.; Whorton, D.

1980-02-01

307

Direct toxicity assessment of toxic chemicals with electrochemical method.  

PubMed

Electrochemical measurement of respiratory chain activity is a rapid and reliable screening for the toxicity on microorganisms. Here, we investigated in-vitro effects of toxin on Escherichia coli (E. coli) that was taken as a model microorganism incubated with ferricyanide. The current signal of ferrocyanide effectively amplified by ultramicroelectrode array (UMEA), which was proven to be directly related to the toxicity. Accordingly, a direct toxicity assessment (DTA) based on chronoamperometry was proposed to detect the effect of toxic chemicals on microorganisms. The electrochemical responses to 3,5-dichlorophenol (DCP) under the incubation times revealed that the toxicity reached a stable level at 60 min, and its 50% inhibiting concentration (IC50) was estimated to be 8.0 mg L(-1). At 60 min incubation, the IC50 values for KCN and As2O3 in water samples were 4.9 mg L(-1) and 18.3 mg L(-1), respectively. But the heavy metal ions, such as Cu2+, Pb2+ and Ni2+, showed no obvious toxicity on E. coli. With the exception of Hg2+, it showed 40.0 mg L(-1) IC50 value when E. coli was exposed to its solution for 60 min. The lower sensitivity of DTA for the heavy metal ions could be attributed to the toxicological endpoint and the experimental conditions used. All results suggest that the DTA is a sensitive, rapid and inexpensive alternative to on-site water and wastewater toxic analysis. PMID:19393367

Liu, Chang; Sun, Ting; Xu, Xiaolong; Dong, Shaojun

2009-05-01

308

Celanese Chemicals Clear Lake Plant Energy Projects Assessment and Implementation  

E-print Network

The Clear Lake Plant of Celanese Chemicals has implemented a strategy to reduce energy consumption. The plant identified, designed, and completed several projects to improve its chemical production processes. These projects reduce steam use, fuel...

Weber, J.

309

Regional perspectives on the causes of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this article is the causes of proliferation of nuclear, biologic, and chemical weapons, and their means of delivery—collectively referred to simply as weapons of mass destruction—in the Middle East. It seeks to explain the quest to proliferate in terms of the motivations of the major regional powers, the interconnectivity of the region, and local perceptions as to

Sami G. Hajjar

2000-01-01

310

76 FR 41371 - Impact of Reducing the Mixture Concentration Threshold for Commercial Schedule 3 Chemical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Concentration Threshold for Commercial Schedule 3 Chemical Activities Under the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations; Proposed Rule...Concentration Threshold for Commercial Schedule 3 Chemical Activities Under the Chemical Weapons...

2011-07-13

311

76 FR 41365 - Impact of Reducing the Mixture Concentration Threshold for Commercial Schedule 2A Chemical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Concentration Threshold for Commercial Schedule 2A Chemical Activities Under the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations; Proposed Rule...Concentration Threshold for Commercial Schedule 2A Chemical Activities Under the Chemical Weapons...

2011-07-13

312

NCCLC: NETWORK FOR RAPID ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL LIFE CYCLE IMPACT  

EPA Science Inventory

The project is expected to provide a platform for chemical and material life-cycle information exchange. A wide use of CLB will enable organically growing LCA database for chemicals and materials. The project is expected to help chemical producers understand potential envir...

313

Biological weapons--the poor man`s nuke. Research report  

SciTech Connect

Biological warfare is one leg of the triad of weapons of mass destruction (coupled with nuclear and chemical weapons). Biological weapons pose a significant threat to the United States military and public population across the spectrum of conflict. There is, however, little common knowledge of the insidious yet devastating potential of these weapons. This paper is written for the lay (that is non-technical) reader, outlining the history, threat, and possible countermeasures related to biological warfare agents. The intent is to heighten the awareness level regarding biological warfare as a military and terrorist threat.

Schneider, B.R.; Mayer, T.N.

1995-04-01

314

Defining food sampling strategies for chemical risk assessment Nathalie Wesolek, Alain-Claude Roudot  

E-print Network

Defining food sampling strategies for chemical risk assessment Nathalie Wesolek, Alain and risk management. For chemical contaminants in food, contamination assessments enable consumer level of a food lot is evaluated, due to the fact that the whole lot can not be analysed, but only

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

315

A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

316

A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFERY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

317

Cardiac fibrillation risk of Taser weapons.  

PubMed

The debate on potential health hazards associated with delivering electric discharges to incapacitated subjects, in particular on whether electric discharge weapons are lethal, less lethal or non-lethal, is still controversial. The cardiac fibrillation risks of Taser weapons X26 and X3 have been investigated by measuring the delivered high-tension pulses in dependence on load impedance. Excitation thresholds and sinus-to-Taser conversion factors have been determined by numerical modeling of endocardial, myocardial, and epicardial cells. Detailed quantitative assessment of cardiac electric exposure has been performed by numerical simulation at the normal-weighted anatomical model NORMAN. The impact of anatomical variation has been quantified at an overweight model (Visible Man), both with a spatial resolution of 2 × 2 × 2 mm voxels. Spacing and location of dart electrodes were systematically varied and the worst-case position determined. Based on volume-weighted cardiac exposure assessment, the fibrillation probability of the worst-case hit was determined to 30% (Taser X26) and 9% (Taser X3). The overall risk assessment of Taser application accounting for realistic spatial hit distributions was derived from training sessions of police officers under realistic scenarios and by accounting for the influence of body (over-)weight as well as gender. The analysis of the results showed that the overall fibrillation risk of Taser use is not negligible. It is higher at Taser X26 than at Taser X3 and amounts to about 1% for Europeans with an about 20% higher risk for Asians. Results demonstrate that enhancement as well as further reduction of fibrillation risk depends on responsible use or abuse of Taser weapons. PMID:24776896

Leitgeb, Norbert

2014-06-01

318

12. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. AFTER SEGREGATION, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. AFTER SEGREGATION, PLUTONIUM MATERIALS WERE EITHER RETURNED TO THE BUILDING 776 FOUNDRY WHERE THEY WERE CAST INTO FEED INGOTS, OR UNDERWENT CHEMICAL RECOVERY FOR PURIFICATION. (8/7/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

319

Integrated Risk Assessment of Hazardous Chemical Installations Using GIS and AHP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is to develop and implement a simple and easy-used method to major industrial chemical hazard risk assessment. Firstly, a new approach for the rapid assessment and relative ranking of the hazardous chemical installations is presented, which employed a multi-criteria decision-making technique (the analytic hierarchy process) for the hazard assessment of the substances and installations. The

Qiansheng Zhao; Quanyi Huang; Jiming Guo; Haiguo Zhu

2008-01-01

320

Assessment of Infrared Remote Chemical Sensing Systems with Numeric Simulations  

SciTech Connect

A general approach to the evaluation of remote chemical sensors is described that can be used to provide evaluation of the chemical detection in a particular chemical scenario. It will be used to make comparisons of a CO{sub 2} laser differential absorption lidar sensor and a passive thermal FTIR sensor. The focus of the study will be to evaluate the advantage of the FTIR sensor's increased spectral coverage and number of frequency channels.

Fry, H.; McVey, B.; Schmitt, M.

1998-11-01

321

Environmental Health and Safety Chemical Hygiene Laboratory Assessment  

E-print Network

of oxidizing gases Excessive amount of toxic gases #12;General Appearances / Housekeeping # Compliance Items of flammable liquid storage cabinet Chemical spills (unattended) Refrigerators: Flammable materials Cluttered

322

Deterring weapons of mass destruction terrorism. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis examines terrorist acts involving the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against unsuspecting civilians by the Aum Shinrikyo and Rajneesh cults. The proliferation of WMD (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) has created a concern that terrorists might use WMD. Despite obvious signs, these groups were not identified as terrorists until after they committed terrorist attacks. This thesis identifies common characteristics of terrorists that have used WMD in the past and generates indicators of non-state actors that might commit WMD terrorism in the future.

LeHardy, F.A.

1997-12-01

323

Military laser weapons: current controversies.  

PubMed

Military laser weapons systems are becoming indispensable in most modern armies. These lasers have undergone many stages of development, and have outpaced research on eye protection measures, which continue to have inherent limitations. Eye injuries caused by military lasers are increasingly reported, leading to speculation that these would become an important cause of blinding in modern conflicts. As part of the effort to ban inhumane weapons, international laws have been passed to restrict the proliferation of such blinding weapons. However, there are controversies concerning the interpretation, implementation and effectiveness of these laws. The ophthalmic community can play a greater role in highlighting ocular morbidity from military lasers, and in preventing their further proliferation. PMID:11471090

Seet, B; Wong, T Y

2001-09-01

324

What Are Nuclear Weapons For?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the decades of the Cold War the prospect of a nuclear holocaust was all too real. With the demise of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, that threat to civilization as we know it had receded. But today we face a grave new danger, the acquisition of nuclear weapons by hostile or unstable governments and terrorists. What can and should we be doing to meet this challenge and prevent the world's most dangerous weapons from falling into very dangerous hands? Are there any reasons for us to still retain thousands of nuclear warheads in our arsenals? What are they for? Can we rekindle the bold vision of a world free of nuclear weapons that President Reagan and General Secretary Gorbachev brought to their remarkable summit meeting at Reykjavik twenty years ago, and define practical steps toward achieving such a goal?

Drell, Sidney

2007-03-01

325

Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector (CWD) has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 25 feet (8 meters). Applications include weapon detection in prison settings, by officers in the field for stand-off frisking of suspects, and as supplemental security at courthouse entrances and other monitored portals. The detector emits an adjustable, audible alarm (with provision for an earphone jack) as well as a visible light-bar indicator when an object has been detected. An aiming light, with momentary switch, allows the user to accurately determine the location of the concealed object. A presentation of the detector's capabilities and limitations will be presented along with probability of detection (PD) data obtained using the latest prototype version.

Wilde, Norbert; Niederhaus, Steve; Lam, Hon; Lum, Chris

2002-08-01

326

Noninvasive detection of weapons of mass destruction using terahertz radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing and immediate threat of biological and chemical weapons has placed urgency on the development of chemical and biological warfare agent (CWA\\/BWA) screening devices. Specifically, the ability to detect CWA\\/BWA prior to deployment is paramount to mitigating the threat without exposing individuals to its effects. SPARTA, Inc. and NIST are currently investigating the feasibility of using far-infrared radiation, or

Matthew B. Campbell; Edwin J. Heilweil

2003-01-01

327

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CHEMICAL AND CLIMATE STRESSORS: A ROLE FOR MECHANISTIC TOXICOLOGY IN ASSESSING CLIMATE CHANGE RISKS  

PubMed Central

Incorporation of global climate change (GCC) effects into assessments of chemical risk and injury requires integrated examinations of chemical and nonchemical stressors. Environmental variables altered by GCC (temperature, precipitation, salinity, pH) can influence the toxicokinetics of chemical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion as well as toxicodynamic interactions between chemicals and target molecules. In addition, GCC challenges processes critical for coping with the external environment (water balance, thermoregulation, nutrition, and the immune, endocrine, and neurological systems), leaving organisms sensitive to even slight perturbations by chemicals when pushed to the limits of their physiological tolerance range. In simplest terms, GCC can make organisms more sensitive to chemical stressors, while alternatively, exposure to chemicals can make organisms more sensitive to GCC stressors. One challenge is to identify potential interactions between nonchemical and chemical stressors affecting key physiological processes in an organism. We employed adverse outcome pathways, constructs depicting linkages between mechanism-based molecular initiating events and impacts on individuals or populations, to assess how chemical- and climate-specific variables interact to lead to adverse outcomes. Case examples are presented for prospective scenarios, hypothesizing potential chemical–GCC interactions, and retrospective scenarios, proposing mechanisms for demonstrated chemical–climate interactions in natural populations. Understanding GCC interactions along adverse outcome pathways facilitates extrapolation between species or other levels of organization, development of hypotheses and focal areas for further research, and improved inputs for risk and resource injury assessments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:32–48. © 2012 SETAC PMID:23136056

Hooper, Michael J; Ankley, Gerald T; Cristol, Daniel A; Maryoung, Lindley A; Noyes, Pamela D; Pinkerton, Kent E

2013-01-01

328

Interactions between chemical and climate stressors: A role for mechanistic toxicology in assessing climate change risks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Incorporation of global climate change (GCC) effects into assessments of chemical risk and injury requires integrated examinations of chemical and nonchemical stressors. Environmental variables altered by GCC (temperature, precipitation, salinity, pH) can influence the toxicokinetics of chemical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion as well as toxicodynamic interactions between chemicals and target molecules. In addition, GCC challenges processes critical for coping with the external environment (water balance, thermoregulation, nutrition, and the immune, endocrine, and neurological systems), leaving organisms sensitive to even slight perturbations by chemicals when pushed to the limits of their physiological tolerance range. In simplest terms, GCC can make organisms more sensitive to chemical stressors, while alternatively, exposure to chemicals can make organisms more sensitive to GCC stressors. One challenge is to identify potential interactions between nonchemical and chemical stressors affecting key physiological processes in an organism. We employed adverse outcome pathways, constructs depicting linkages between mechanism-based molecular initiating events and impacts on individuals or populations, to assess how chemical- and climate-specific variables interact to lead to adverse outcomes. Case examples are presented for prospective scenarios, hypothesizing potential chemical–GCC interactions, and retrospective scenarios, proposing mechanisms for demonstrated chemical–climate interactions in natural populations. Understanding GCC interactions along adverse outcome pathways facilitates extrapolation between species or other levels of organization, development of hypotheses and focal areas for further research, and improved inputs for risk and resource injury assessments.

Hooper, Michael J.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Cristol, Daniel A.; Maryoung, Lindley A.; Noyes, Pamela D.; Pinkerton, Kent E.

2013-01-01

329

Program to develop and codify urban nuclear weapon effects. Final report September 1982June 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program is developed which, if implemented, would assess those effects of a detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon located in a highly built-up urban area which are unique to the environment, and consider possible techniques for damage limitation. It is assumed that the weapon is of low-yield, that its hiding place can be located, and that there is sufficient

J. A. Northrop; B. E. Freeman; R. E. Duff

1983-01-01

330

AN OVERVIEW OF THE USE OF QSARS FOR RANKING AND PRIORITIZING LARGE CHEMICAL INVENTORIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecological risk assessments for chemical stressors are used to establish linkages between likely exposure concentrations and adverse effects to ecological receptors. At times, it is useful to conduct screening risk assessments to assist in prioritizing or ranking chemicals on the...

331

COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY: AN APPROACH FOR PRIORITIZING CHEMICAL RISK ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Characterizing toxic effects for industrial chemicals carries the challenge of focusing resources on the greatest potential risks for human health and the environment. The union of molecular modeling, bioinformatics and simulation of complex systems with emerging technologies suc...

332

DEVELOPMENT OF CHEMICAL COMPATIBILITY CRITERIA FOR ASSESSING FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LINERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory testing was conducted to develop chemical resistance data using immersion tests. Six FML materials (polyvinylchloride, chlorinated polyethylene, chlorosulfonated polyethylene, high density polyethylene, epichlorohydrin and ethylene propylene diene terpolymer) were test...

333

Bridging the gap between academic research and regulatory health risk assessment of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals.  

PubMed

Regulatory risk assessment is traditionally based primarily on toxicity studies conducted according to standardized and internationally validated test guidelines. However, health risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is argued to rely on the efficient integration of findings from academic research. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of current developments to facilitate the use of academic research in regulatory risk assessment of chemicals and how certain aspects of study design and reporting are particularly important for the risk assessment process. By bridging the gap between academic research and regulatory health risk assessment of EDCs, scientific uncertainty in risk assessment conclusions can be reduced, allowing for better targeted policy decisions for chemical risk reduction. PMID:25238457

Beronius, Anna; Hanberg, Annika; Zilliacus, Johanna; Rudén, Christina

2014-12-01

334

Veteran Transfer Students and Concealed Weapons on Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case details the challenges faced by various members of a 4-year university regarding Kathryn, a non-traditional transfer student and military veteran who recently returned from a traumatic deployment in Afghanistan. Precisely, this study identifies ambiguities pertaining to (a) threat assessment, (b) university weapons policies, (c) transfer…

Pesetski, Christine; Ofstein, Jennifer; Outlaw, Stacy; Brooks, Racheal

2014-01-01

335

Weapons of Mass Destruction technology evaluation and training range  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has a long history for providing technology evaluation and training for military and other federal level weapons of mass destruction (WMD) response agencies. Currently there are many federal organizations and commercial companies developing technologies related to detecting, assessing, mitigating and protecting against hazards associated with a WMD event. Unfortunately, very few locations exist within the

Kevin Larry Young

2009-01-01

336

COMPLEX HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS FROM EXPOSURE TO IONIZING RADIATION, CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS AND OTHER SOURCES OF HARM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Needs in practical use of health risk (HR) assessment and analysis in Russia began to rise at the end of the 80s. They came\\u000a from decision making on the radiation and social protection of population on the territories that suffered from Chernobyl\\u000a and other radiation accidents, nuclear weapon tests, etc. The current ecological and public health protection regulation concerning\\u000a the

V. DEMIN

337

Human instability and nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human instability is an obvious concern in the handling of nuclear weapons. Assuming that no rational leader of the US or the Soviet Union would embark on a nuclear adventure by design, nuclear war between the superpowers, if it comes, is far more likely to be based on miscalculation, misunderstanding, or misperception. Some believe that computers are the weak link

Abrams

2009-01-01

338

No Recall of Weapon Discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is possible for police officers to discharge their weapons in the line of duty yet have no memory of having done so. Case histories of such events are presented. Research on perceptual and memory distortions during critical incidents is reviewed, along with the research on involuntary discharges. Both areas of research offer explanations why it is possible for officers

Alexis Artwohl

2003-01-01

339

Weapons engineering tritium facility overview  

SciTech Connect

Materials provide an overview of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) as introductory material for January 2011 visit to SRS. Purpose of the visit is to discuss Safety Basis, Conduct of Engineering, and Conduct of Operations. WETF general description and general GTS program capabilities are presented in an unclassified format.

Najera, Larry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-20

340

Nuclear weapons effects mitigation techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to fight and win on the AirLand battlefield, the US must be able to employ nuclear weapons decisively, and continue to fight effectively after enemy employment. Survival of personnel and equipment and recovery from injury or damage are essential to continued operations in the nuclear environment. Accordingly, the specific vulnerabilities of personnel and equipment must be understood and

Uyesugi

1982-01-01

341

Guidance manual for health risk assessment of chemically contaminated seafood. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report was written to assist in the evaluation and interpretation of the human health risks associated with chemical contaminate levels in seafood. High concentrations of toxic chemicals have been found in sediments and marine organisms in parts of Puget Sound. Since heavy consumption of contaminated seafood may pose a substantial human health risk, it's important that assessments of the risk associated with seafood consumption be conducted in a consistent, acceptable manner. The report provides an overview of risk assessment, and describes hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Guidance is provided on presentation and interpretation of results.

Pastorok, R.A.

1986-06-01

342

ANALYTICAL STRATEGIES FOR ASSESSING CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL AND NONCHEMICAL STRESSORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The project will assess the relative impact of community-level and individual-level stressors – including multiple chemical, social and psychosocial stressors -- on biologic markers of health effects across neighborhoods and vulnerable populations in Texas City, Texas...

343

Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other Environmental Impacts  

EPA Science Inventory

TRACI, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts, has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency?s National Risk Management Research Laboratory to facilitate the characterization of stressors that have potential effects, ...

344

Male Fathead Minnow Urine-Based Metabolomics for Assessing Impacts of Chemical Stressors  

EPA Science Inventory

We have developed the potential for profiling metabolites in urine from male fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas ) to assess chemical exposures, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy was us...

345

Using Secondary Data to Evaluate Diverse Groups of Chemical and Nonchemical Stressors in Cumulative Risk Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

A main impediment of performing cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) is having data for multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors in the same individuals or populations. Therefore, secondary data analysis can be utilized as a screening approach to integrate population characteri...

346

TRACI - THE TOOL FOR THE REDUCTION AND ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

TRACI, The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts, is described along with its history, the underlying research, methodologies, and insights within individual impact categories. TRACI facilitates the characterization of stressors that ma...

347

AN OVERVIEW OF PATHOGEN RESEARCH IN THE MICROBIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Microbiological and Chemical Exposure Assessment Research Division of the EPA Office of Research and Development's National Exposure Research Laboratory has a robust in-house research program aimed at developing better occurrence and exposure methods for waterborne pathogens....

348

AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT: A MULTISECTOR APPROACH TO THE MODERNIZATION OF HUMAN SAFETY REQUIREMENTS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Better understanding of toxicological mechanisms, enhanced testing capabilities, and demands for more sophisticated data for safety and health risk assessment have generated international interest in improving the current testing paradigm for agricultural chemicals. To address th...

349

INTEGRATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY AND TOXICOLOGY IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENTS FOR ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EDCS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Prospective and disgnostic assessments of the ecological risk of toxic chemicals require a thorough integration of aspects of environmental chemistry and toxicology. Failure to successfully achieve this can result in a lack of scientific credibility, as well as missed opportuniti...

350

Chemicals management and the role of the end user in risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summaries  In recent years there has been a noticeable shift in public concern about chemicals. Although there is a wide range of legal\\u000a and voluntary instruments in place for the assessment of risk from chemicals, calls from political and environmental groups\\u000a for more information have become louder. The chemical industry has a responsibility to recognise these concems by addressing\\u000a the questions

JR Kelsey

2000-01-01

351

15 CFR 710.4 - Overview of scheduled chemicals and examples of affected industries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Overview of scheduled chemicals and examples of affected industries...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

2010-01-01

352

Chemical and Toxicologic Assessment of Organic Contaminants in Surface Water Using Passive Samplers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive sampling methodologies were used to conduct a chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in the surface waters of three geographically distinct agricultural watersheds. A selection of current-use agrochemicals and persistent organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides, were targeted using the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and the semipermeable membrane device passive samplers.

David A. Alvarez; Walter L. Cranor; Stephanie D. Perkins; Randal C. Clark; Steven B. Smith

2008-01-01

353

ASSESSMENT OF COCOA FARMERS CHEMICAL USAGE PATTERN IN PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT IN ONDO STATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adeogun S. O. and Agbongiarhuoyi A. E. 2009. Assessment of Cocoa Farmers Chemical Usage Pattern in Pest and Disease Management in Ondo State. J. Innov. Dev. Strategy. 3(2):27-34 Cocoa farmers use a wide range of chemicals to limit losses from pests and diseases in cocoa production. This study was carried out between January and April 2006 in two local government

STEPHEN OLUSEUN ADEOGUN; ANTHONY EGHE AGBONGIARHUOYI

354

Development of an In Silico Metabolic Simulator and Searchable Metabolism Database for Chemical Risk Assessments  

EPA Science Inventory

The US EPA is faced with long lists of chemicals that need to be assessed for hazard, and a gap in evaluating chemical risk is accounting for metabolic activation resulting in increased toxicity. The goals of this project are to develop a capability to predict metabolic maps of x...

355

Toward a nuclear weapons free world?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide

Maaranen

1996-01-01

356

DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPONS (DEWs): A BIBLIOGRAPHY  

E-print Network

, Spring 1988, p. 35-40. ______. "Protection and Countermeasures Against Laser Weapons." Military Monitor, November 18, 1994, v. 9, n. 23. Altmann, Jurgen. "Space Laser Weapons: Problems of Strategic-Held Laser Weapons Are Waiting in the Wings." Armed Forces Journal International, May 1992, v. 129, n. 10, p

357

Operation Desert Shield: Medical aspects of weapons of mass destruction  

SciTech Connect

The authors concern over possible use of weapons of mass destruction against U.S. forces in the Middle East has increased because Iraq has violated the Geneva Protocol of 1925 and the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention, attempted to acquire nuclear capability and delivery systems, and is reported to be developing biological weapons. The Army Medical Department has had no experience, since World War I, in the management and treatment of mass casualties contaminated by chemical agents, and has never treated casualties resulting from the use of nuclear or biological weapons used against our soldiers. Management and diagnosis of casualties will be complicated by their possible exposure to a mixture of chemical warfare and biological warfare agents. Triage is an essential aspect in the management of mass casualties since the number of injured patients will exceed the maximum medical capability to treat each patient on arrival. All levels of medical support must be prepared to protect themselves, their equipment and supplies, and their patients from contamination. In contaminated operations on the integrated battlefield, it will be of utmost importance to incorporate flexibility and innovation to match the medical and tactical situation.

Knudson, G.B. (Department of Pathology, Letterman Army Medical Center, Presidio of San Francisco, CA (USA))

1991-06-01

358

Weapons of Mass Destruction Technology Evaluation and Training Range  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has a long history for providing technology evaluation and training for military and other federal level Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) response agencies. Currently there are many federal organizations and commercial companies developing technologies related to detecting, assessing, mitigating and protecting against hazards associated with a WMD event. Unfortunately, very few locations exist within the United States where WMD response technologies are realistically field tested and evaluated using real chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive materials. This is particularly true with biological and radiological hazards. Related to this lack of adequate WMD, multi-hazard technology testing capability is the shortage of locations where WMD response teams can train using actual chemical, biological, and radiological material or highly realistic simulates. In response to these technology evaluation and training needs, the INL has assembled a consortium of subject matter experts from existing programs and identified dedicated resources for the purpose of establishing an all-hazards, WMD technology evaluation and training range. The author describes the challenges associated with creating the all-hazards WMD technology evaluation and training range and lists the technical, logistical and financial benefits of an all-hazards technology evaluation and training range. Current resources and capabilities for conducting all-hazard technology evaluation and training at the INL are identified. Existing technology evaluation and training programs at the INL related to radiological, biological and chemical hazards are highlighted, including successes and lessons learned. Finally, remaining gaps in WMD technology evaluation and training capabilities are identified along with recommendations for closing those gaps.

Kevin Larry Young

2009-05-01

359

Assessing Risks of Endocrine-disrupting Chemicals: A Scientific Odyssey  

EPA Science Inventory

In the mid-90s there was a marked increase in public awareness of, and concern for, endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). There have been a number of purported impacts of EDCs on both human and wildlife health; however, in some instances it has been challenging to relate observ...

360

Assessment and management of chemical coping in patients with cancer.  

PubMed

Chemical coping is a working definition that describes patients' intake of opioids on a scale that spans the range between normal nonaddictive opioid use for pain all the way to opioid addiction. Most patients will fall somewhere between the two extremes in using opioid analgesics to cope with their psychological or spiritual distress. The degree to which patients use their medications in a maladaptive manner will determine their susceptibility to drug toxicity and harm. When there are no obvious cancer-related causes for increased pain intensity, chemical coping and other patient-related factors such as delirium, somatization, and depression should be considered. As part of the initial evaluation of patients with cancer-related pain, a brief screening tool such as the CAGE questionnaire should be used to identify patients who may be at risk for chemical coping. Identifying patients at risk will allow clinicians to avoid unnecessary opioid toxicity, control pain, and improve quality of life. A structured approach for managing opioid use should be adopted, including standardized documentation, opioid treatment agreements, urine drug screens, frequent visits, and restricted quantities of breakthrough opioids. All patients at risk should receive brief motivational interviewing with an objective, nonjudgmental, and empathic style that includes personalized feedback, particularly about markers of risk or harm. For chemical copers approaching the addiction end of the spectrum, with evidence of compulsive use and destructive behavior, referral should be made to substance abuse specialists. PMID:24799476

Del Fabbro, Egidio

2014-06-01

361

Advancing Exposure Characterization for Chemical Evaluation and Risk Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

A new generation of scientific tools has emerged to rapidly measure signals from cells, tissues, and organisms following exposure to chemicals. High-visibility efforts to apply these tools for efficient toxicity testing raise important research questions in exposure science. As v...

362

NEW METHODS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF IMMUNOTOXICITY OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The immune system is a target of toxic insult following subchronic or chronic exposure to environmental chemicals, therapeutic drugs or abused drugs. nteraction of xenobiotics with the immune system may result in undesirable effects of three principal types; (a) those manifested ...

363

Health risk assessments of DEHP released from chemical protective gloves.  

PubMed

The substance di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in chemical protective gloves to improve their flexibility and workability. However, it is possible that workers using protective gloves to handle various solvents may be exposed to DEHP leached by the solvents. Using an ASTM F739 permeation cell, it was found that BTEX solvents permeating through the glove samples dissolved DEHP from the gloves. Even without continuously contacting the permeant, DEHP was released from the contaminated glove samples during the desorption experiments. The DEHP leaching amounts were found to be inversely correlated to the permeability coefficients of BTEX in the glove samples. This result implied that the larger the amount of DEHP released from the glove samples, the higher the permeation resistance of gloves. Although chemical protective gloves provide adequate skin exposure protection to workers, the dermal exposure model developed herein indicates that leaching of DEHP from the glove samples may pose a potential health risk to the workers who handle BTEX. This study suggests that the selection of protective gloves should not only be concerned with the chemical resistance of the gloves but also the health risk associated with leaching of chemicals, such as DEHP, used in the manufacturing of the gloves. PMID:25261760

Chao, Keh-Ping; Huang, Chan-Sheng; Wei, Chung-Ying

2015-02-11

364

Chemical and Biological Engineering Student Learning Outcome Assessment Report  

E-print Network

and processes, within realistic economic, environment, social, political, ethical, health and safety the knowledge base of chemical engineering through its scholarly pursuits; develops technology to serve societal. an understanding of professional and ethical responsibility. VI. an awareness of national and global contemporary

Missouri-Rolla, University of

365

Disposition of excess weapons plutonium from dismantled weapons  

SciTech Connect

With the end of the Cold War and the implementation of various nuclear arms reduction agreements, US and Russia have been actively dismantling tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. As a result,large quantities of fissile materials, including more than 100 (tonnes?) of weapons-grade Pu, have become excess to both countries` military needs. To meet nonproliferation goals and to ensure the irreversibility of nuclear arms reductions, this excess weapons Pu must be placed in secure storage and then, in timely manner, either used in nuclear reactors as fuel or discarded in geologic repositories as solid waste. This disposition in US and Russia must be accomplished in a safe, secure manner and as quickly as practical. Storage of this Pu is a prerequisite to any disposition process, but the length of storage time is unknown. Whether by use as fuel or discard as solid waste, disposition of that amount of Pu will require decades--and perhaps longer, if disposition operations encounter delays. Neither US nor Russia believes that long-term secure storage is a substitute for timely disposition of excess Pu, but long-term, safe, secure storage is a critical element of all excess Pu disposition activities.

Jardine, L.J.

1997-01-01

366

MANAGING AVOCADO PESTS WITH ROMANCE, INTRIGUE AND WAR - INTEGRATING PHEROMONES, ASSASSINS AND WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Avocado growers continually wage war on pests that ravage their crops. For the last 60 years, crop protection tradition fostered by the generally excellent results achieved, has been to use weapons of mass destruction in the form of chemical pesticides to combat the enemy. Issues of chemical resistance development in target species, chemical residues in fruit and the environment,

Geoff Waite

367

A model for probabilistic health impact assessment of exposure to food chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical model is presented extending the integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model of van der Voet and Slob [van der Voet, H., Slob, W., 2007. Integration of probabilistic exposure assessment and probabilistic hazard characterisation. Risk Analysis, 27, 351–371]. The aim is to characterise the health impact due to one or more chemicals present in food causing one or more

Hilko van der Voet; Gerie W. A. M. van der Heijden; Peter M. J. Bos; Sieto Bosgra; Polly E. Boon; Stefan D. Muri; Beat J. Brüschweiler

2009-01-01

368

Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Learning and Developmental Disorders: Epidemiology and Exposure Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation has two areas of focus: learning and developmental disorders (LDDs) and polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs). Epidemiological and exposure assessment methods are applied to each. The first paper used geographic location as a surrogate for exposure and broadly assesses the effect of the environment, both physical and social, on LDD…

Hoffman, Jennifer Kate

2010-01-01

369

APPROACHES FOR INCORPORATING NON-CHEMICAL STRESSORS INTO CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past twenty years, the risk assessment paradigm has gradually shifted from an individual chemical approach to a community-based model. Inherent in community-based risk assessment is consideration of the totality of stressors affecting a defined population including both ...

370

ADVANCES IN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT FOR SYSTEMIC TOXICANTS AND CHEMICAL MIXTURES: AN INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The symposium focuses on improvement of techniques and evaluation of newly developed techniques in risk assessment of systemic toxicants and toxic mixtures of chemicals. The goal of the symposium is to review the risk assessment procedures for systemic toxicants now in use and to...

371

In ovo exposure quail assay for risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there are in vivo assays using various organisms for the risk assessment of chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties, effective experimental methods for avian species are still under debate. We have developed an in ovo exposure assay using Japanese quail eggs, aimed at assessing disrupting effects on avian reproductive development and function. Hybrid eggs from Brazilian Brown male and White

Ryo Kamata; Shinji Takahashi; Akira Shimizu; Masatoshi Morita; Fujio Shiraishi

2006-01-01

372

Major weapon system environmental life-cycle cost estimating for Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C3P2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Titan 4 Space Launch Vehicle Program is one of many major weapon system programs that have modified acquisition plans and operational procedures to meet new, stringent environmental rules and regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) is just one of the regulatory changes that has affected the program. In the last few years, public environmental awareness, coupled with stricter environmental regulations, has created the need for DOD to produce environmental life-cycle cost estimates (ELCCE) for every major weapon system acquisition program. The environmental impact of the weapon system must be assessed and budgeted, considering all costs, from cradle to grave. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has proposed that organizations consider Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C(sup 3)P(sup 2)) issues associated with each acquisition program to assess life-cycle impacts and costs. The Air Force selected the Titan 4 system as the pilot program for estimating life-cycle environmental costs. The estimating task required participants to develop an ELCCE methodology, collect data to test the methodology and produce a credible cost estimate within the DOD C(sup 3)P(sup 2) definition. The estimating methodology included using the Program Office weapon system description and work breakdown structure together with operational site and manufacturing plant visits to identify environmental cost drivers. The results of the Titan IV ELCCE process are discussed and expanded to demonstrate how they can be applied to satisfy any life-cycle environmental cost estimating requirement.

Hammond, Wesley; Thurston, Marland; Hood, Christopher

1995-01-01

373

Electroshock weapons can be lethal!  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons\\/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a

Marjorie Lundquist

2008-01-01

374

RISK ASSESSMENT IS A DEVELOPING SCIENCE: APPROACHES TO IMPROVE EVALUATION OF SINGLE CHEMICALS AND CHEMICAL MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office of the U.S. EPA is engaged in the development of risk assessment guidelines and methodologies as part of the regulatory program of the Agency. here is an increasing need for methods that address more complex exposure situations, in...

375

Nuclear Weapons Complex reconfiguration study  

SciTech Connect

Shortly after assuming duties as Secretary of Energy, I reviewed the Nuclear Weapons Complex Modernization Report'' submitted to the Congress in January 1989 as required by the National Defense Authorization Act of 1988 and 1989. My review showed that several of the report's assumptions needed to be re-evaluated. During this eighteen-month review, dramatic world changes forced further reassessments of the future Nuclear Weapons Complex. These changes are reflected in the new report. The new report presents a plan to achieve a reconfigured complex, called Complex-21. Complex-21 would be smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operated than the Complex of today. Complex-21 would be able to safely and reliability support nuclear deterrent stockpile objectives set forth by the President and funded by the Congress. It would be consistent with realities of the emerging international security environment and flexible enough to accommodate the likely range of deterrent contingencies. In addition, Complex-21 would be constructed and operated to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and orders. Achieving Complex-21 will require significant resources. This report provides and organized approach toward selecting the most appropriate configuration for Complex-21, satisfying environmental requirements, and minimizing costs. The alternative -- to continue to use piecemeal fixes to run an antiquated complex -- will be more expensive and provide a less reliable Nuclear Weapons Complex. As a consequence, implementation of the Complex-21 plan is considered necessary to ensure continued viability of our nuclear deterrent.

Not Available

1991-01-01

376

Nuclear weapons and regional conflict  

SciTech Connect

An important national defense objective for the US in the post cold-war era -- according to Secretary of Defense, Cheney is to deter regional conflicts. To satisfy this objective there is more or less general agreement that nuclear weapons are not needed, especially against regional powers like Iraq that do not (as yet) have a nuclear capability. Modern conventional weapons (PGMs), it is believed, are adequate when used in the traditional way of fighting: massive ground forces with heavy ground equipment, supported by air and naval forces. Of course, there are arguments against this view. For example, nuclear advocates call attention to deeply buried targets that are unattackable with conventional munitions. But this argument, and others, for US use (or threat of use) of nuclear weapons are presently discounted in favor of the political/moral advantages of a no-first-use policy. We do not wish to take sides in this debate. We believe, however, that the debate win continue as political, military, technical and economic factors undergo inevitable changes. In this brief paper, we want to present another pro-nuclear argument which, to the best of our knowledge, has received little or no attention. This argument, we believe, could become important in weighing the pros and cons of the debate if domestic pressures cause the defense budget to undergo such severe cuts that we must either abandon our political commitments or adopt a non-traditional war-fighting strategy that is effective under a greatly reduced defense budget.

Latter, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Martinelli, E.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States)

1993-05-01

377

Assessing and improving cross-border chemical incident preparedness and response across Europe.  

PubMed

Good practices in emergency preparedness and response for chemical incidents include practices specific to the different functions of exposure assessment (e.g., within the monitoring function, the use of mobile monitoring equipment; within the modelling function, the use of rapid dispersion models with integrated mapping software) and generic practices to engage incident response stakeholders to maximise exposure assessment capabilities (e.g., sharing protocols and pre-prepared information and multi-agency training and exercising). Such practices can optimise cross-border collaboration. A wide range of practices have been implemented across MSs during chemical incident response, particularly during incidents that have cross-border and trans-boundary impacts. This paper proposes a self-assessment methodology to enable MSs, or organisations within MSs, to examine exposure assessment capabilities and communication pathways between exposure assessors and public health risk assessors. Where gaps exist, this methodology provides links to good practices that could improve response, communication and collaboration across local, regional and national borders. A fragmented approach to emergency preparedness for chemical incidents is a major obstacle to improving cross-border exposure assessment. There is no one existing body or structure responsible for all aspects of chemical incident preparedness and response in the European Union. Due to the range of different organisations and networks involved in chemical incident response, emergency preparedness needs to be drawn together. A number of recommendations are proposed, including the use of networks of experts which link public health risk assessors with experts in exposure assessment, in order to coordinate and improve chemical incident emergency preparedness. The EU's recent Decision on serious cross-border threats to health aims to facilitate MSs' compliance with the International Health Regulations, which require reporting and communication regarding significant chemical incidents. This provides a potential route to build on in order to improve chemical incident preparedness and response across Europe. PMID:24768281

Stewart-Evans, James; Hall, Lisbeth; Czerczak, Slawomir; Manley, Kevin; Dobney, Alec; Hoffer, Sally; Pa?aszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Jankowska, Agnieszka

2014-11-01

378

Climate-based archetypes for the environmental fate assessment of chemicals.  

PubMed

Emissions of chemicals have been on the rise for years, and their impacts are greatly influenced by spatial differentiation. Chemicals are usually emitted locally but their impact can be felt both locally and globally, due to their chemical properties and persistence. The variability of environmental parameters in the emission compartment may affect the chemicals' fate and the exposure at different orders of magnitude. The assessment of the environmental fate of chemicals and the inherent spatial differentiation requires the use of multimedia models at various levels of complexity (from a simple box model to complex computational and high-spatial-resolution models). The objective of these models is to support ecological and human health risk assessment, by reducing the uncertainty of chemical impact assessments. The parameterisation of spatially resolved multimedia models is usually based on scenarios of evaluative environments, or on geographical resolutions related to administrative boundaries (e.g. countries/continents) or landscape areas (e.g. watersheds, eco-regions). The choice of the most appropriate scale and scenario is important from a management perspective, as a balance should be reached between a simplified approach and computationally intensive multimedia models. In this paper, which aims to go beyond the more traditional approach based on scale/resolution (cell, country, and basin), we propose and assess climate-based archetypes for the impact assessment of chemicals released in air. We define the archetypes based on the main drivers of spatial variability, which we systematically identify by adopting global sensitivity analysis techniques. A case study that uses the high resolution multimedia model MAPPE (Multimedia Assessment of Pollutant Pathways in the Environment) is presented. Results of the analysis showed that suitable archetypes should be both climate- and chemical-specific, as different chemicals (or groups of them) have different traits that influence their spatial variability. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the variability of the output of MAPPE for four different climatic zones on four different continents for four different chemicals (which represent different combinations of physical and chemical properties). Results showed the high suitability of climate-based archetypes in assessing the impacts of chemicals released in air. However, further research work is still necessary to test these findings. PMID:23999273

Ciuffo, Biagio; Sala, Serenella

2013-11-15

379

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist mall- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

380

Role of Metabolomics in Environmental Chemical Exposure and Risk Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

The increasing demand for the reduction, replacement, and refinement of the use of animal models in exposure assessments has stimulated the pursuit of alternative methods. This has included not only the use of the in vitro systems (e.g., cell cultures) in lieu of in vivo whole an...

381

Prioritizing Chemicals and Data Requirements for Screening-Level Exposure and Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background: Scientists and regulatory agencies strive to identify chemicals that may cause harmful effects to humans and the environment; however, prioritization is challenging because of the large number of chemicals requiring evaluation and limited data and resources. Objectives: We aimed to prioritize chemicals for exposure and exposure potential and obtain a quantitative perspective on research needs to better address uncertainty in screening assessments. Methods: We used a multimedia mass balance model to prioritize > 12,000 organic chemicals using four far-field human exposure metrics. The propagation of variance (uncertainty) in key chemical information used as model input for calculating exposure metrics was quantified. Results: Modeled human concentrations and intake rates span approximately 17 and 15 orders of magnitude, respectively. Estimates of exposure potential using human concentrations and a unit emission rate span approximately 13 orders of magnitude, and intake fractions span 7 orders of magnitude. The actual chemical emission rate contributes the greatest variance (uncertainty) in exposure estimates. The human biotransformation half-life is the second greatest source of uncertainty in estimated concentrations. In general, biotransformation and biodegradation half-lives are greater sources of uncertainty in modeled exposure and exposure potential than chemical partition coefficients. Conclusions: Mechanistic exposure modeling is suitable for screening and prioritizing large numbers of chemicals. By including uncertainty analysis and uncertainty in chemical information in the exposure estimates, these methods can help identify and address the important sources of uncertainty in human exposure and risk assessment in a systematic manner. PMID:23008278

Brown, Trevor N.; Wania, Frank; Breivik, Knut; McLachlan, Michael S.

2012-01-01

382

Broad target chemical screening approach used as tool for rapid assessment of groundwater quality.  

PubMed

The chemical water quality is often assessed by screening for a limited set of target chemicals. This 'conventional' target analysis approach inevitably misses chemicals present in the samples. In this study a 'broad' target screening approach for water quality assessment using high resolution and accurate mass spectrometry (HR MS) was applied to detect a wide variety of organic chemicals in 42 groundwater samples. In this approach, both known and unidentified chemicals observed in previous samples define the training set for the analysis of future samples and, additionally, new samples can be used to extend the training set. Nearly 400 chemicals were observed in the samples, of which 82 were known and more than 313 are of unknown identity. The obtained results were interpreted in relation to the source characteristics and land use. Groundwater that was affected by landfills showed the highest total MS response (ion counts) and most individual chemicals and was therefore considered most contaminated. Furthermore, river bank filtrated water was generally more contaminated than phreatic groundwater and groundwater from (semi)confined aquifers was most pristine. Additionally, industrial chemicals were more frequently observed in river bank filtrated water and pesticides were more frequently observed in water originating from rural areas. The 'broad' target screening approach for both known and unidentified chemicals does provide more information on the over-all water quality than 'conventional' target analysis. PMID:22551937

ter Laak, Thomas L; Puijker, Leo M; van Leerdam, Jan A; Raat, Klaasjan J; Kolkman, Annemieke; de Voogt, Pim; van Wezel, Annemarie P

2012-06-15

383

Assessing the Robustness of Chemical Prioritizations Based on ToxCast Chemical Profiling  

EPA Science Inventory

A central goal of the U.S. EPA?s ToxCast? program is to provide empirical, scientific evidence to aid in prioritizing the toxicity testing of thousands of chemicals. The agency has developed a prioritization approach, the Toxicological Prioritization Index (ToxPi?), that calculat...

384

Assessment of genetic and chemical variability in Thymus caramanicus.  

PubMed

Thymus caramanicus is an endemic species grown in Iran with interesting pharmacological and biological properties. In the present work, essential oil compositions and inter-simple sequences repeat (ISSR) markers were used to estimate the relationships among and within seven populations of T. caramanicus, belonging to three provinces in Iran. The studied individuals were distinguished on the basis of ISSR markers and constituents of essential oil. A total of 127 band positions were produced by 12 ISSR primers, of which 105 were found polymorphic with 82.68% polymorphism. Genetic similarity values among individuals ranged between 0.15 and 0.82 which was indicative of a high level of genetic variation. On the basis of their genetic similarities, ISSR analysis allowed to group the samples into two main clusters. One of these included populations originated from Kerman and Isfahan provinces, and the other cluster consists of populations from Semnan province. Chemical compounds of essential oils were found variable in the various individuals and all samples were principally composed of phenolic constituents (carvacrol and/or thymol). As a consequence, the plants were classified into two major chemotypes including carvacrol and thymol/carvacrol. A relationship between genetic and chemical variability and geographic distribution has been observed in studied populations of T. caramanicus. PMID:24469732

Hadian, Javad; Bigdeloo, Mahdi; Nazeri, Vahideh; Khadivi-Khub, Abdollah

2014-05-01

385

Antibacterial activity and biodegradability assessment of chemically grafted nanofibrillated cellulose.  

PubMed

Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and their derivatives were prepared using three chemical surface modification strategies. All grafting was characterized by FTIR and contact angle measurements in order to evaluate the efficiency of grafting. Antibacterial activities of neat and grafted samples were investigated against two kinds of bacteria (i.e. Gram+ (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram- (Klebsiella pneumoniae)). All the grafted samples displayed promising results with at least bacteriostatic effect or bactericidal properties. They also strongly enhanced the photo-catalytic antimicrobial effect of TiO2. This study proves that it is better to use grafted NFC either alone or for functionalization with TiO2 if anti-bacterial properties are desired. The cellulose backbone is known to be easily biodegradable in different biodegradation conditions and environments. The chemical surface modifications applied on NFC in the present work did not negatively influence this valuable property of cellulose but help for monitoring this property, which could be very useful for paper, packaging and composites. PMID:25491853

Missoum, Karim; Sadocco, Patrizia; Causio, Jessica; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur; Bras, Julien

2014-12-01

386

Life cycle assessment of biomass conversion to feedstock chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was applied to the comparative analysis of two processes for producing 1,4-butanediol. The first process is the conventional hydrocarbon feedstock-based approach, utilizing methane to produce formaldehyde, and acetylene with synthesis under conditions of heat and pressure. The second is a biomass-based feedstock approach where glucose derived from corn is fermented. When evaluated from the standpoint

Bruce W. Vigon; Duane A. Tolle; David P. Evers; Scott L. Freeman; Kenneth K. Humphreys; Christopher F. Wend; Ronald Landucci

1996-01-01

387

The Navy's high-energy laser weapon system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 25 years, in an attempt to develop a speed-of- light hard-kill weapon system, the U.S. Navy has successfully reduced megawatt-class chemical laser and high power beam control technologies to engineering practice. This Navy program was established during the cold war era when defending naval battle group was the primary concern of the U.S. Navy. Since the collapse

Joung R. Cook; John R. Albertine

1997-01-01

388

A multidisciplinary approach to teach responses to weapons of mass destruction and terrorism using combined simulation modalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objectiveTo reinforce concepts presented in the lectures; understand the complexity and speed of casualty and information generation during a Weapons of Mass Destruction and Terrorism (WMD\\/T) event; experience the novelty of combined weapons' effects; recognize the time course of the various chemical, biological, and radiation agents; and make challenging decisions with incomplete and conflicting information.

Richard R Kyle; Darin K Via; R. Joel Lowy; James M Madsen; Aileen M Marty; Paul D Mongan

2004-01-01

389

The evolving science of chemical risk assessment for land-applied biosolids.  

PubMed

Biosolids, effluents, and manures are widely applied to agricultural land and other land with varying degrees of pretreatment or control. Regulations governing land application of biosolids take several broad forms in different countries, including limitations based on rates that do not lead to increases in background chemical concentrations or risk assessment approaches such as those used in the United States. Risk assessment is a process that is inherently limited by currently available information and practices, and consequently, risk-based land application limits must be reevaluated periodically. For complex mixtures such as biosolids, three principal categories of information will be affected by changing practices and scientific advances: (i) chemical constituents present in the material, (ii) the nature of expected exposures, and (iii) toxicity of the chemical constituents. New analytical methods and lower detection limits will affect chemical identification in wastes. Approaches to exposure assessment, such as increasing emphasis on probabilistic analyses, will continue to evolve, and exposure assumptions will change as new studies provide better data on factors such as soil ingestion, plant uptake of chemicals, and bioavailability of chemicals in soil. Similarly, toxicity assessments will be updated as new studies are conducted. The evolving science over the past decade is illustrated by comparing approaches used by the USEPA to assess human health and ecological risks for the Part 503 rule compared with the more recent evaluation of dioxins and related compounds in biosolids. While risks of chemicals in land-applied biosolids and other residuals need to be periodically re-evaluated, such re-evaluations may take forms other than full risk assessments. PMID:15647540

Schoof, Rosalind A; Houkal, Dana

2005-01-01

390

Assessing and Managing Risks Arising from Exposure to Endocrine-Active Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing risks to human health and the environment produced by endocrine-active chemicals (EAC) is dependent on sound principles of risk assessment and risk management, which need to be adapted to address the uncertainties in the state of the science of EAC. Quantifying EAC hazard identification, mechanisms of action, and dose-response curves is complicated by a range of chemical structure\\/toxicology classes,

Karen P. Phillips; Warren G. Foster; William Leiss; Vanita Sahni; Nataliya Karyakina; Michelle C. Turner; Sam Kacew; Daniel Krewski

2008-01-01

391

Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences  

SciTech Connect

Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants in residences in the United States and in countries with similar lifestyles. These data were used to calculate representative mid-range and upper bound concentrations relevant to chronic exposures for 267 pollutants and representative peak concentrations relevant to acute exposures for 5 activity-associated pollutants. Representative concentrations are compared to available chronic and acute health standards for 97 pollutants. Fifteen pollutants appear to exceed chronic health standards in a large fraction of homes. Nine other pollutants are identified as potential chronic health hazards in a substantial minority of homes and an additional nine are identified as potential hazards in a very small percentage of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as priority hazards based on the robustness of measured concentration data and the fraction of residences that appear to be impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; formaldehyde; naphthalene; nitrogen dioxide; and PM{sub 2.5}. Activity-based emissions are shown to pose potential acute health hazards for PM{sub 2.5}, formaldehyde, CO, chloroform, and NO{sub 2}.

Logue, J.M.; McKone, T.E.; Sherman, M. H.; Singer, B.C.

2010-05-10

392

Use of chemical genomics in assessment of the UPR.  

PubMed

Glucose deprivation, one of the major physiological conditions in solid tumor, leads to activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cancer cells. The UPR occurs through the transcriptional and translational regulatory mechanisms that improve the capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to fold and traffic proteins and allows the cell to survive under stress conditions. We previously reported that the macrocyclic compound versipelostatin and the antidiabetic biguanides metformin, buformin, and phenformin could inhibit the UPR during glucose deprivation as well as induce the UPR by treatment of cells with 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG), a glycolysis inhibitor. Versipelostatin and biguanides show highly selective cytotoxicity to glucose-deprived tumor cells and exert in vivo antitumor activity; thus, these compounds would be interesting anticancer agent candidates. By microarray analysis, we demonstrated that cancer cells under glucose deprivation conditions caused activation of the UPR transcription program, which was suppressed broadly by versipelostatin and biguanides. We also identified the drug-driven gene signatures that can be used to discover pharmacologic UPR modulators. Indeed, we found several bioactive drugs, such as pyrvinium pamoate, valinomycin, and rottlerin, that selectively suppressed 2DG-induced GRP78 promoter activity as versipelostatin and biguanide did. Together with growing bioinformatics databases and analytical tools, our approach could provide a chemical genomic basis for developing UPR-targeting drugs against solid tumors. PMID:21329808

Saito, Sakae; Tomida, Akihiro

2011-01-01

393

76 FR 56807 - Proposed Adjustment of the Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals Ephedrine...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of net disposal, and changes in the rate of net disposal...import quotas for the chemical; (2) whether any increased demand or changes in the national and...2011 assessment List I chemicals needs of annual needs...No Change....

2011-09-14

394

Evaluation of Biomonitoring Data from the CDC National Exposure Report in a Risk Assessment Context: Perspectives across Chemicals  

EPA Science Inventory

BACKGROUND: Biomonitoring data reported in the National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (NER) provide information on the presence and concentrations of more than 400 chemicals in human blood and urine. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) and other risk assessment...

395

Systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios.  

SciTech Connect

Throughout history, as new chemical threats arose, strategies for the defense against chemical attacks have also evolved. As a part of an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, a systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios was performed to understand how the chemical threats and attack strategies change over time. For the analysis, the difficulty in executing chemical attack was evaluated within a framework of three major scenario elements. First, historical examples of chemical terrorism were examined to determine how the use of chemical threats, versus other weapons, contributed to the successful execution of the attack. Using the same framework, the future of chemical terrorism was assessed with respect to the impact of globalization and new technologies. Finally, the efficacy of the current defenses against contemporary chemical terrorism was considered briefly. The results of this analysis justify the need for continued diligence in chemical defense.

Hoette, Trisha Marie

2012-03-01

396

Utilizing toxicogenomic data to understand chemical mechanism of action in risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The predominant role of toxicogenomic data in risk assessment, thus far, has been one of augmentation of more traditional in vitro and in vivo toxicology data. This article focuses on the current available examples of instances where toxicogenomic data has been evaluated in human health risk assessment (e.g., acetochlor and arsenicals) which have been limited to the application of toxicogenomic data to inform mechanism of action. This article reviews the regulatory policy backdrop and highlights important efforts to ultimately achieve regulatory acceptance. A number of research efforts on specific chemicals that were designed for risk assessment purposes have employed mechanism or mode of action hypothesis testing and generating strategies. The strides made by large scale efforts to utilize toxicogenomic data in screening, testing, and risk assessment are also discussed. These efforts include both the refinement of methodologies for performing toxicogenomics studies and analysis of the resultant data sets. The current issues limiting the application of toxicogenomics to define mode or mechanism of action in risk assessment are discussed together with interrelated research needs. In summary, as chemical risk assessment moves away from a single mechanism of action approach toward a toxicity pathway-based paradigm, we envision that toxicogenomic data from multiple technologies (e.g., proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, supportive RT-PCR studies) can be used in conjunction with one another to understand the complexities of multiple, and possibly interacting, pathways affected by chemicals which will impact human health risk assessment.

Wilson, Vickie S., E-mail: wilson.vickie@epa.gov [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Keshava, Nagalakshmi [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Hester, Susan [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Segal, Deborah; Chiu, Weihsueh [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Thompson, Chad M. [ToxStrategies, Inc., 23501 Cinco Ranch Blvd., Suite G265, Katy, TX 77494 (United States); Euling, Susan Y. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States)

2013-09-15

397

Ecological Risk Assessment of Chemicals Migrated from a Recycled Plastic Product  

PubMed Central

Objectives Potential environmental risks caused by chemicals that could be released from a recycled plastic product were assessed using a screening risk assessment procedure for chemicals in recycled products. Methods Plastic slope protection blocks manufactured from recycled plastics were chosen as model recycled products. Ecological risks caused by four model chemicals -di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb)- were assessed. Two exposure models were built for soil below the block and a hypothetic stream receiving runoff water. Based on the predicted no-effect concentrations for the selected chemicals and exposure scenarios, the allowable leaching rates from and the allowable contents in the recycled plastic blocks were also derived. Results Environmental risks posed by slope protection blocks were much higher in the soil compartment than in the hypothetic stream. The allowable concentrations in leachate were 1.0×10-4, 1.2×10-5, 9.5×10-3, and 5.3×10-3 mg/L for DEHP, DINP, Cd, and Pb, respectively. The allowable contents in the recycled products were 5.2×10-3, 6.0×10-4, 5.0×10-1, and 2.7×10-1 mg/kg for DEHP, DINP, Cd, and Pb, respectively. Conclusions A systematic ecological risk assessment approach for slope protection blocks would be useful for regulatory decisions for setting the allowable emission rates of chemical contaminants, although the method needs refinement. PMID:24303349

Roh, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Min-Hyuck; Kim, Woo Il; Kang, Young-Yeul; Shin, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Jong-Guk

2013-01-01

398

Nuclear Weapons Enterprise Transformation - A Sustainable Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear weapons play an essential role in United States (U.S.) National Security Policy and a succession of official reviews has concluded that nuclear weapons will continue to have a role for the foreseeable future. Under the evolving U.S. government policy, it is clear that role will be quite different from what it was during the Cold War. The nuclear-weapons stockpile

OBrien

2005-01-01

399

Laser weapons come down to earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Star Wars debate seldom mentions the fact that low-powered lasers are already widely used as adjuncts to conventional weaponry and tactical laser weapons will soon be ready for military arsenals. The superpowers will both have mass-produced directed-energy weapons available soon. Other directed-energy weapons, such as particle beams, atmospheric compression waves, microwaves, and radio-frequency waves are in various stages of

1985-01-01

400

New Weapons and the Arms Race  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In speaking about technologies that could further animate the weapons competition between the United States and the U.S.S.R., it would be useful to distinguish between technologies that have already been incorporated into specific weapons systems, and new technologies that are of a generic nature, can be used in a variety of applications, adn can best be described by the tasks that they can perform rather than any specific weapons application. Let me begin with the latter class.

Tsipis, Kosta

1983-10-01

401

Chemical warfare agents  

PubMed Central

Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

2010-01-01

402

Chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

Ganesan, K; Raza, S K; Vijayaraghavan, R

2010-07-01

403

Chemical analysis of human blood for assessment of environmental exposure to semivolatile organochlorine chemical contaminants.  

PubMed

A chemical method for the quantitative analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues present in human blood was scaled-up to provide increased sensitivity and extended to include organochlorine industrial chemicals. Whole blood samples were extracted with hexane, concentrated, and analyzed without further cleanup by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The methodology used was validated by conducting recovery studies at 1 and 10 ng/g (ppb) levels. Screening and confirmational analyses were performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry on samples collected from potentially exposed residents of the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York and from volunteers in the Research Triangle Park area of North Carolina for 25 specific semivolatile organochlorine contaminants including chlorobenzene and chlorotoluene congeners, hexachloro-1,3-butadiene, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls as Aroclor 1260. Dichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane residues fell in the range of 0.1 to 26 ppb in a high percentage of both the field and volunteer blood samples analyzed. Levels of other organochlorine compounds were either non-detectable or present in sub-ppb ranges. PMID:6819409

Bristol, D W; Crist, H L; Lewis, R G; MacLeod, K E; Sovocool, G W

1982-01-01

404

Proceedings of the Tungsten Workshop for Hard Target Weapons Program  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this meeting was to review and exchange information and provide technical input for improving technologies relevant to the Hard Target Weapons Program. This workshop was attended by representatives from 17 organizations, including 4 Department of Defense (DoD) agencies, 8 industrial companies, and 5 laboratories within DOE. Hard targets are defined as reinforced underground structures that house enemy forces, weapon systems, and support equipment. DOE-ORO and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) have been involved in advanced materials research and development (R&D) for several DOE and DoD programs. These programs are conducted in close collaboration with Eglin AFB, Department of the Army`s Picatinny Arsenal, and other DoD agencies. As part of this ongoing collaboration, Eglin AFB and Oak Ridge National Laboratory planned and conducted this workshop to support the Hard Target Weapons Program. The objectives of this workshop were to (1) review and identify the technology base that exists (primarily due to anti-armor applications) and assess the applicability of this technology to the Hard Target Weapons Program requirements; (2) determine future directions to establish the W materials, processing, and manufacturing technologies suitable for use in fixed, hard target penetrators; and (3) identify and prioritize the potential areas for technical collaboration among the participants.

Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Hayden, H.W.; Davis, R.M.

1995-06-01

405

Coupling biological measurement endpoints used in ecological risk assessment with chemical measurements  

SciTech Connect

Collections of surface water, sediments, and the benthic community were made in support of an ecological risk assessment for a stream on a US Air Force base in Oklahoma. Over 250 chemicals were detected within water and sediments, of which over 30 of those screened were classified as chemicals of potential ecological concern (COPEC) based on available toxicity benchmarks. Many of the chemicals detected were clustered in specific samples and in various concentration combinations, To address the complexity of this mixture of chemicals and chemical concentrations, the results of 28-day chronic Hyalella azteca bulk sediment toxicity tests, early life-stage, 7-day fathead minnow toxicity tests, 7-day survival and reproduction results with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and benthic community indices (i.e. biotic index(ices), number of taxa, number of individuals) were evaluated for correlations and associations with the chemicals detected. The resultant evaluation was useful in discriminating those COPEC`s within the various samples that were associated and predictive of the observed ecological measurement endpoints. Additional parameters such as, sulfide analysis of the overlying water from the sediment samples, was enlightening especially regarding an apparent reversal of the correlation between metal concentrations and toxicity. Benthic community indices were also useful in evaluating relationships between chemical concentrations, toxicological effects and aquatic hazard quotients. The approach presented is believed to be superior to the triad approach based on its ability to address mixtures of chemicals and variable chemical concentrations in combination. The results of this evaluation were able to more concisely identify the COPEC`s as well as, establish a priority system and clarify the risk assessment in the context of the complexity of chemical mixtures.

Goodrich, M.; Mahato, M. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Franklin, TN (United States). Aquatic Toxicology Lab.

1995-12-31

406

Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 12 feet (4 meters). The detector can be used in prison settings, by officers in the field to allow for stand-off frisking of suspects, and to supplement security at courthouse entrances and other monitored portals. The detector emits an audible alarm (with provision for an earphone jack) as well as a visible light-bar indicator when an object is detected. A high intensity aiming light, with momentary switch, allows the user to accurately determine the location of the concealed object. Current efforts are aimed at increasing the probability of detection, reducing the false-alarm rate, and extending the range of detectability out to 20 feet. Plans for accomplishing these tasks will be presented together with data showing the effective range and probability of detection for the present system.

Wild, Norbert C.; Doft, Frank; Breuner, Dennis; Felber, Franklin S.

2001-02-01

407

Undisclosed chemicals--implications for risk assessment: a case study from the mining industry.  

PubMed

Many of the chemicals used in industry can be hazardous to human health and the environment, and some formulations can have undisclosed ingredients and hazards, increasing the uncertainty of the risks posed by their use. The need for a better understanding of the extent of undisclosed information in chemicals arose from collecting data on the hazards and exposures of chemicals used in typical mining operations (copper, platinum and coal). Four main categories of undisclosed chemicals were defined (incomplete disclosure; chemicals with unspecific identities; relative quantities of ingredients not stated; and trade secret ingredients) by reviewing material safety data sheet (MSDS) omissions in previous studies. A significant number of chemicals (20% of 957 different chemicals) across the three sites had a range of undisclosed information, with majority of the chemicals (39%) having unspecific identities. The majority of undisclosed information was found in commercially available motor oils followed by cleaning products and mechanical maintenance products, as opposed to reagents critical to the main mining processes. All three types of chemicals had trade secrets, unspecific chemical identities and incomplete disclosures. These types of undisclosed information pose a hindrance to a full understanding of the hazards, which is made worse when combined with additional MSDS omissions such as acute toxicity endpoints (LD50) and/or acute aquatic toxicity endpoints (LC50), as well as inadequate hazard classifications of ingredients. The communication of the hazard information in the MSDSs varied according to the chemical type, the manufacturer and the regulations governing the MSDSs. Undisclosed information can undermine occupational health protection, compromise the safety of workers in industry, hinder risk assessment procedures and cause uncertainty about future health. It comes down to the duty of care that industries have towards their employees. With a wide range of chemicals increasingly used, there is a balance that needs to be reached between disclosure requirements, trade secret provisions and definitions of hazardous ingredients for market needs, and the information required to protect the health of their workers. PMID:24685487

Singh, Khareen; Oates, Christopher; Plant, Jane; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

2014-07-01

408

Degradation of chemical alarm cues and assessment of risk throughout the day  

PubMed Central

The use of chemical information in assessment of predation risk is pervasive across animal taxa. However, by its very nature, chemical information can be temporally unreliable. Chemical cues persist for some period of time after they are released into the environment. Yet, we know surprisingly little about the rate of degradation of chemical cues under natural conditions and hence little about how they function in temporal risk assessment under natural conditions. Here, we conducted an experiment to identify a concentration of fresh alarm cues that evoke a strong antipredator response in coral reef damselfish, Pomacentrus ambonensis. We then tested the rate at which these alarm cues degraded under natural conditions in ocean water, paying attention to whether the rate of degradation varied throughout the day and whether the temporal pattern correlated with physicochemical factors that could influence the rate of degradation. Fresh alarm cues released into ocean water evoke strong avoidance responses in juvenile fish, while those aged for 30 min no longer evoke antipredator responses. Fish exposed to cues aged for 10 or 20 min show intermediate avoidance responses. We found a marked temporal pattern of response throughout the day, with much faster degradation in early to mid-afternoon, the time of day when solar radiation, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH are nearing their peak. Ecologists have spent considerable effort elucidating the role of chemical information in mediating predator–prey interactions, yet we know almost nothing about the temporal dynamics of risk assessment using chemical information. We are in dire need of additional comparative field experiments on the rate of breakdown of chemical cues, particularly given that global change in UV radiation, temperature, and water chemistry could be altering the rates of degradation and the potential use of this information in risk assessment. PMID:24198950

Chivers, Douglas P; Dixson, Danielle L; White, James R; McCormick, Mark I; Ferrari, Maud C O

2013-01-01

409

The US nuclear weapon infrastructure and a stable global nuclear weapon regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

US nuclear weapons capabilities -- extant force structure and nuclear weapons infrastructure as well as declared policy -- influence other nations' nuclear weapons postures, at least to some extent. This influence can be desirable or undesirable, and is, of course, a mixture of both. How strong the influence is, and its nature, are complicated, controversial, and -- in our view

John D Immele; Richard L Wagner

2009-01-01

410

Learning from the application of nuclear probabilistic safety assessment to the chemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the new approach of risk analysis established by the French Ministry of the Environment and develops the benefits of applying nuclear probabilistic safety assessment approaches to the chemical industry.In the aftermath of the AZF disaster in Toulouse on 21 September 2001, a new law was proposed by the French government asking for the investigation of all representative

Cyril Charvet; Jean-Luc Chambon; François Corenwinder; Jérôme Taveau

2011-01-01

411

LIFE CYCLE BIOASSAY FOR ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF TOXIC CHEMICALS USING RAPID CYCLING OF BRASSICA  

EPA Science Inventory

Initial evaluation of a new plant life cycle bioassay for the assessment of the effects of toxic chemicals is presented. he bioassay features a rapid cycling Brassica species that can complete its life cycle in as little as 36 days. he herbicide dalapon (2,2 dichloropropionic aci...

412

Estimating Toxicity Pathway Activating Doses for High Throughput Chemical Risk Assessments  

EPA Science Inventory

Estimating a Toxicity Pathway Activating Dose (TPAD) from in vitro assays as an analog to a reference dose (RfD) derived from in vivo toxicity tests would facilitate high throughput risk assessments of thousands of data-poor environmental chemicals. Estimating a TPAD requires def...

413

ASSESSING ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICAL EXPOSURE IN INDIGENOUS AQUATIC POPULATIONS IN THE OHIO RIVER  

EPA Science Inventory

The NERL has launched a collaborative study with the ORSANCO to determine the degree of ecologically relevant endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) exposure in the New Cumberland Pool of the Ohio River under the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program - Great Rivers Project...

414

METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBLE HUMAN EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES AND INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The determination of chlorinated phenols in urine can be used as a means for assessing exposure to pesticides and industrial chemicals in the human population. A method was developed for the analysis of chlorinated phenols which involves the derivatization of metabolites from the...

415

Athena SWAN Notes of School of Biological and Chemical Sciences Self-Assessment Group  

E-print Network

1 Athena SWAN Notes of School of Biological and Chemical Sciences Self-Assessment Group meeting Athena SWAN activities. 1.1 Regular update at Staff Meeting It was agreed that there would be a regular item in the Head of School's report in the Academic Committee meetings to update staff on Athena SWAN

Chittka, Lars

416

ASSESSMENT OF RISK CAUSED BY REMEDIAL ACTIONS CONSIDERED FOR VERTAC CHEMICAL CORPORATION SITE, JACKSONVILLE, ARKANSAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the study is to assess the risk caused by dust emissions associated with proposed remedial actions considered for the Vertac Chemical Corporation site in Jacksonville, Arkansas. Much of the site is contaminated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD as a result of the materials handlin...

417

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WORLD TRADE CENTER FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FOR USE IN TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical Analysis of World Trade Center Fine Particulate Matter for Use in Toxicological Assessment John K. McGee1, Lung Chi Chen2, Mitchell D. Cohen2, Glen R. Chee2, Colette M. Prophete2, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Shirley J. Wasson3, Teri L. Conner4, Daniel L. Costa1, and Steph...

418

STRESS PATHWAY-BASED REPORTER ASSAYS TO ASSESS TOXICITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS.  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an increasing need for assays for the rapid and efficient assessment of toxicities of large numbers of environmental chemicals. To meet this need, we are developing cell-based reporter assays that measure the activation of key molecular stress pathways. We are using pro...

419

Incorporating Risk Assessment and Inherently Safer Design Practices into Chemical Engineering Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces, via case study example, the benefit of including risk assessment methodology and inherently safer design practices into the curriculum for chemical engineering students. This work illustrates how these tools can be applied during the earliest stages of conceptual process design. The impacts of decisions made during…

Seay, Jeffrey R.; Eden, Mario R.

2008-01-01

420

REMOTE SENSING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL PLANTS AND REFINERIES FOLLOWING HURRICANES KATRINA AND RITA  

EPA Science Inventory

The massive destruction brought by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita also impacted the many chemical plants and refineries in the region. The achievement of this rapid analysis capability highlights the advancement of this technology for air quality assessment and monitoring. Case st...

421

BYSTANDER EFFECTS, GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIATION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an increased interest in utilizing mechanistic data in support of the cancer risk assessment process for ionizing radiation and environmental chemical exposures. In this regard the use of biologically based dose-response models is particularly advocated. The aim is to pr...

422

Chemical Engineering and Processing xxx (2004) xxxxxx Assessing the homogeneity of powder mixtures  

E-print Network

Chemical Engineering and Processing xxx (2004) xxx­xxx Assessing the homogeneity of powder mixtures from industry (pharmaceutical, agro-food, cement, plastics, . . . ), particulate processes in general engineering had become a major engineering science producing its own tools both at the re- search

Aussillous, Pascale

423

The Role of Ecotoxicology in the Assessment of Human Exposure to Chemical Substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late 1970s new legislation was established in many industrialized countries in order to protect the environment. This has led to the definition of a new branch of science: ecotoxicology. The development of predictive approaches for the hazard assessment of chemical substances has given increased relevance to exposure evaluation. This paper discusses the problems related to the environmental distribution

D. Calamari

1992-01-01

424

DEVELOPMENT OF MOLECULAR MARKERS OF RESPONSE TO ASSESS THE SENSITIVITY OF CHILDREN TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Development of Molecular Markers of Response to Assess the Sensitivity of Children to Environmental Chemicals J.Allen, C. Blackman, M. Blaze, D. Delker, D. DeMarini, C. Doerr, R. Grindstaff, S. Hester, C. Jones, A. Kligerman, G. Knapp, M. Kohan, C. Nelson, R. Owen, J. P...

425

Sensory assessment and chemical measurement of astringency of Greek wines: Correlations with analytical polyphenolic composition.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to measure the astringency of selected Greek red wines and to assess the relationship between sensory and chemical data. Nine red wines produced by three native Greek grape varieties (agiorgitiko, xinomavro and mavrodafni) were used and their astringency and bitterness was assessed by a trained panel. In addition, their astringency was estimated chemically employing the ovalbumin precipitation method. Their polyphenolic composition was also determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The sensory data showed that mandilaria was the most astringent variety whereas agiorgitiko was the least. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that the chemical data obtained for astringency significantly correlated with the sensory determinations. In addition, significant correlations were obtained between the sensory data and the wine polyphenolic composition. PMID:25213982

Kallithraka, S; Kim, D; Tsakiris, A; Paraskevopoulos, I; Soleas, G

2011-06-15

426

[The urgency of the application of the medical sanitary passport in the system for chemical safety in the areas of location of high-risk chemical facilities in the Russian Federation].  

PubMed

The main provisions concerning the need for a creation of medical and sanitary passport for territories in the protective measures zones (PMZ) of storage facilities and facilities for the destruction of chemical weapons (FDCW) are presented in the article. The assessment of results of certification of the territory of PMZ and FDCW in "Maradykovsky" in the Kirov region has been done. PMID:23457992

Kombarova, M Iu; Radilov, A S; Dulov, S A

2012-01-01

427

Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

Watson, A.P.

2003-07-24

428

Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

Bing, G.F.

1991-08-20

429

Nuclear Weapons, Psychology, and International Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fear of nuclear energy, nuclear weapons, and nuclear was is widespread among the peoples of the world. However, to what extent do the fears (both rational and irrational) of policy-making elites and political masses produce actual effects upon the behavior of governments (who, after all, control the use of nuclear weapons)? (Author/RK)

Dougherty, James E.

1976-01-01

430

Propulsion technology effect on weapon system reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for estimating the reliability of weapon systems early in development, even before system testing, has been applied to four types of advanced gun propulsion (advanced solids, liquid propellant, electromagnetic, and electrothermal) for three different weapon system types (artillery, armor, and air defense). The goals were to determine the feasibility of developing a methodology by which the reliability of

1990-01-01

431

Effects of nuclear weapons. Third edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the last edition of ''The Effects of Nuclear Weapons'' in 1962 much new information has become available concerning nuclear weapon effects. This has come in part from the series of atmospheric tests, including several at very high altitudes, conducted in the Pacific Ocean area in 1962. In addition, laboratory studies, theoretical calculations, and computer simulations have provided a better

S. Glasstone; P. J. Dolan

1977-01-01

432

The Extended Deterrent Value of Nuclear Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three questions are addressed in this study: (1) Does a nuclear retaliatory capability contribute to extended deterrence against a nonnuclear power? (2) If so, is the deterrent value of nuclear weapons contingent upon the prior credible threat of conventional armed engagement by the defender? (3) Or, is the deterrent impact of nuclear weapons so potent that the conventional balance of

Paul K. Huth

1990-01-01

433

Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

1991-01-01

434

Fire control apparatus for a laser weapon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent application discloses a laser weapon fire control computer apparatus for responding in real time to the escort\\/threat scenario that confronts the weapon. The fire control computer apparatus compares the threat data with stored predicted scenarios to develop a firing strategy menu which takes into account the fact that the laser energy is instantaneously propagated to the target but

R. H. Worsham

1985-01-01

435

US Nuclear Weapon Safety and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

To appreciate the public's fascination with nuclear weapon safety, one must look no further than the cinema. In Kubrick's classic Dr. Strangelove or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb, a deranged US o- cer succeeds in launching a nuclear attack on the Soviet Union without authorization. Countless other films place stolen nuclear weapons in the hands

Grant Elliott

436

Nuclear weapons, nuclear strategy, and law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fried (Denver J Int. Law and Policy, V. 14, p 97 (1985)) asserted that international law establishes the illegality of nuclear weapons as illegal per se; i.e., that nuclear weapons are not permissible regardless of use. The author responds to Fried's essay by making the following argument. First, an analysis of international law and specifically, the law of war, shows

Almond; H. H. Jr

2009-01-01

437

Nuclear Weapon Personnel-Reliability Program. Directive  

SciTech Connect

The Directive reissues DoD Directive 5210.42, April 23, 1981, to update policy governing the Nuclear Weapon Personnel Reliability Program. The program is designed to ensure the highest possible standards of individual reliability in personnel performing duties associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear components.

Pike, R.

1985-12-06

438

Weapons of mass destruction. Research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The policy of mutual destruction limited the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) during the Cold War but has much less significance in today`s global environment not only because of multiple regional instability and motivation to acquire, but also increased availability of resources and technologies to build WMD. Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a preeminent security threat

Ryan

1997-01-01

439

Combined exposures to anti-androgenic chemicals: steps towards cumulative risk assessment.  

PubMed

There is widespread exposure to anti-androgens, a group of chemicals able to disrupt androgen action in foetal life, with irreversible de-masculinizing consequences. Substances of concern include certain phthalates, pesticides and chemicals used in cosmetics and personal care products. Although people come into contact with several anti-androgens, chemicals risk assessment normally does not take account of the effects of combined exposures. However, a disregard for combination effects may lead to underestimations of risks and for this reason, we have assessed the feasibility of conducting cumulative risk assessment, where the focus is on considering the effects of exposure to multiple chemicals, via multiple routes and pathways. Following recent recommendations by the US National Research Council, we have, for the first time, included phthalates and other anti-androgenic chemicals, a total of 15 substances. On the basis of exposure estimates for the individual chemicals and reference doses for anti-androgenicity, we have used the hazard index approach. We show that the cumulative risks from anti-androgen exposures exceed acceptable levels for people on the upper end of exposure levels. The value obtained for median exposures to the 15 substances can be judged tolerable. However, significant knowledge gaps exist that prevent us from arriving at definitive conclusions. Of greatest concern is an absence of appropriate in vivo toxicity data about large numbers of in vitro androgen receptor antagonists. Knowledge about the effect profiles of these chemicals will lead to higher risk estimates. Our analysis suggests that risk reductions can be achieved by limiting exposures to the plasticizer diethyl hexyl phthalate, the cosmetic ingredients butyl- and propyl paraben, the pesticides vinclozolin, prochloraz and procymidone and bisphenol A. PMID:20487045

Kortenkamp, A; Faust, M

2010-04-01

440

Iraq's secret nuclear weapons program  

SciTech Connect

UN inspectors discovered an electromagnetic isotope separation factory that put Iraq just 18-30 months away from having enough material for a bomb. They also found European centrifuge technology and plans for an implosion device. The inspections of Iraq mandated by the United Nations as a cease-fire condition at the end of the Gulf War in February 1991 have revealed a clandestine nuclear materials production and weapons design program of unexpected size and sophistication. The total value of that program, in terms of equipment and personnel deployed between 1981 and 1991, may be on the order of $5-10 billion. The program employed an estimated 7000 scientist and 20,000 workers. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Davis, J.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Kay, D.A. (Uranium Institute, London (United Kingdom))

1992-07-01

441

Weapons-usable material disposition  

SciTech Connect

With the end of the Cold War, significant quantities and forms of nuclear materials are now in excess of national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. Underscoring the concern about risk of theft or diversion of these materials contributing to proliferation or their reuse to reconstitute a large arsenal and resume the nuclear arms race, the President has directed an interagency working group to initiate a comprehensive review of long-term options for plutonium disposition (and by implication other weapons-usable material such as highly enriched uranium). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the agency with responsibility for production and management of these materials, has the technical expertise and resources needed for this review, and is a member of the interagency working group. This report discusses the topic of plutonium disposition.

Canter, H.R.

1994-12-31

442

Virtual enterprise model for the electronic components business in the Nuclear Weapons Complex  

SciTech Connect

The electronic components business within the Nuclear Weapons Complex spans organizational and Department of Energy contractor boundaries. An assessment of the current processes indicates a need for fundamentally changing the way electronic components are developed, procured, and manufactured. A model is provided based on a virtual enterprise that recognizes distinctive competencies within the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at the vendors. The model incorporates changes that reduce component delivery cycle time and improve cost effectiveness while delivering components of the appropriate quality.

Ferguson, T.J.; Long, K.S.; Sayre, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hull, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Carey, D.A.; Sim, J.R.; Smith, M.G. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Div.

1994-08-01

443

Access and use of information resources in assessing health risks from chemical exposure: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Health risk assessment is based on access to comprehensive information about potentially hazardous agents in question. Relevant information is scattered throughout the literature, and often is not readily accessible. To be useful in assessment efforts, emerging scientific findings, risk assess parameters, and associated data must be compiled and evaluated systemically. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are among the federal agencies heavily involved in this effort. This symposium was a direct response by EPA and ORNL to the expressed needs of individuals involved in assessing risks from chemical exposure. In an effort to examine the state of the risk assessment process, the availability of toxicological information, and the future development and transfer of this information, the symposium provided an excellent cadre of speakers and participants from state and federal agencies, academia and research laboratories to address these topics. This stimulating and productive gathering discussed concerns associated with (1) environmental contamination by chemicals; (2) laws regulating chemicals; (3) information needs and resources; (4) applications; (5) challenges and priorities; and (6)future issues. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

Not Available

1990-12-31

444

Assessing the effects of adsorptive polymeric resin additions on fungal secondary metabolite chemical diversity.  

PubMed

Adsorptive polymeric resins have been occasionally described to enhance the production of specific secondary metabolites (SMs) of interest. Methods that induce the expression of new chemical entities in fungal fermentations may lead to the discovery of new bioactive molecules and should be addressed as possible tools for the creation of new microbial chemical libraries for drug lead discovery. Herein, we apply both biological activity and chemical evaluations to assess the use of adsorptive resins as tools for the differential expression of SMs in fungal strain sets. Data automation approaches were applied to ultra high performance liquid chromatography analysis of extracts to evaluate the general influence in generating new chemical entities or in changing the production of specific SMs by fungi grown in the presence of resins and different base media. PMID:25379340

González-Menéndez, Víctor; Asensio, Francisco; Moreno, Catalina; de Pedro, Nuria; Monteiro, Maria Candida; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Vicente, Francisca; Bills, Gerald F; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Tormo, José R

2014-07-01

445

Assessing the effects of adsorptive polymeric resin additions on fungal secondary metabolite chemical diversity  

PubMed Central

Adsorptive polymeric resins have been occasionally described to enhance the production of specific secondary metabolites (SMs) of interest. Methods that induce the expression of new chemical entities in fungal fermentations may lead to the discovery of new bioactive molecules and should be addressed as possible tools for the creation of new microbial chemical libraries for drug lead discovery. Herein, we apply both biological activity and chemical evaluations to assess the use of adsorptive resins as tools for the differential expression of SMs in fungal strain sets. Data automation approaches were applied to ultra high performance liquid chromatography analysis of extracts to evaluate the general influence in generating new chemical entities or in changing the production of specific SMs by fungi grown in the presence of resins and different base media. PMID:25379340

González-Menéndez, Víctor; Asensio, Francisco; Moreno, Catalina; de Pedro, Nuria; Monteiro, Maria Candida; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Vicente, Francisca; Bills, Gerald F.; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Tormo, José R.

2014-01-01

446

[Modern pneumatic weapons and injuries they cause].  

PubMed

The data on the history of development and further improvement of pneumatic weapons are presented with special reference to specific features of different types and varieties of these weapons, cartridges for them, and the sphere of their application. Investigations into peculiarities of damages caused by high-capacity pneumatic weapons to the objects of forensic medical expertise affected from different distances are reviewed. Results of forensic medical expertise and clinical studies on the structure of body injuries inflicted by gunshots from pneumatic weapons to the human body are discussed. The author emphasizes the necessity of developing up-to-date terminology and classification of gunshot injuries caused by shooting from pneumatic weapons. PMID:23802298

Kozachenko, I N

2013-01-01

447

Cumulative Risk Assessment for Combined Health Effects From Chemical and Nonchemical Stressors  

PubMed Central

Cumulative risk assessment is a science policy tool for organizing and analyzing information to examine, characterize, and possibly quantify combined threats from multiple environmental stressors. We briefly survey the state of the art regarding cumulative risk assessment, emphasizing challenges and complexities of moving beyond the current focus on chemical mixtures to incorporate nonchemical stressors, such as poverty and discrimination, into the assessment paradigm. Theoretical frameworks for integrating nonchemical stressors into cumulative risk assessments are discussed, the impact of geospatial issues on interpreting results of statistical analyses is described, and four assessment methods are used to illustrate the diversity of current approaches. Prospects for future progress depend on adequate research support as well as development and verification of appropriate analytic frameworks. PMID:21551386

Linder, Stephen H.

2011-01-01

448

Construction of a risk assessment system for chemical residues in agricultural products  

PubMed Central

Objectives Continuous monitoring of chemical residues in agricultural and food products has been performed by various government bodies in South Korea. These bodies have made attempts to systematically manage this information by creating a monitoring database system as well as a system based on these data with which to assess the health risk of chemical residues in agricultural products. Methods Meanwhile, a database system is being constructed consisting of information about monitoring and, following this, a demand for convenience has led to the need for an evaluation tool to be constructed with the data processing system. Results Also, in order to create a systematic and effective tool for the risk assessment of chemical residues in foods and agricultural products, various evaluation models are being developed, both domestically and abroad. Overseas, systems such as Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model: Food Commodity Intake Database and Cumulative and Aggregate Risk Evaluation System are being used; these use the US Environmental Protection Agency as a focus, while the EU has developed Pesticide Residue Intake Model for assessments of pesticide exposure through food intake. Following this, the National Academy of Agricultural Science (NAAS) created the Agricultural Products Risk Assessment System (APRAS) which supports the use and storage of monitoring information and risk assessments. APRAS efficiently manages the monitoring data produced by NAAS and creates an extraction feature included in the database system. Also, the database system in APRAS consists of a monitoring database system held by the NAAS and food consumption database system. Food consumption data is based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Conclusions This system is aimed at exposure and risk assessments for chemical residues in agricultural products with regards to different exposure scenarios. PMID:25622642

Choi, Shinai; Hong, Jiyeon; Lee, Dayeon; Paik, Minkyoung

2014-01-01

449

History of chemical and biological warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when

L. Szinicz

2005-01-01

450

A Proposal for Assessing Study Quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument  

EPA Science Inventory

The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals...

451

Introduction to Pits and Weapons Systems (U)  

SciTech Connect

A Nuclear Explosive Package includes the Primary, Secondary, Radiation Case and related components. This is the part of the weapon that produces nuclear yield and it converts mechanical energy into nuclear energy. The pit is composed of materials that allow mechanical energy to be converted to electromagnetic energy. Fabrication processes used are typical of any metal fabrication facility: casting, forming, machining and welding. Some of the materials used in pits include: Plutonium, Uranium, Stainless Steel, Beryllium, Titanium, and Aluminum. Gloveboxes are used for three reasons: (1) Protect workers and public from easily transported, finely divided plutonium oxides - (a) Plutonium is very reactive and produces very fine particulate oxides, (b) While not the 'Most dangerous material in the world' of Manhattan Project lore, plutonium is hazardous to health of workers if not properly controlled; (2) Protect plutonium from reactive materials - (a) Plutonium is extremely reactive at ambient conditions with several components found in air: oxygen, water, hydrogen, (b) As with most reactive metals, reactions with these materials may be violent and difficult to control, (c) As with most fabricated metal products, corrosion may significantly affect the mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of the product; and (3) Provide shielding from radioactive decay products: {alpha}, {gamma}, and {eta} are commonly associated with plutonium decay, as well as highly radioactive materials such as {sup 241}Am and {sup 238}Pu.

Kautz, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-02

452

Finally, Proof of Weapons of Mass Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Allelopathy (one species' use of chemicals to harm other species) may be a key ingredient in successful invasions of alien plants into established communities. Bais et al. show that in response to elicitation by common soil fungi, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) launches an ineffective defense against the fungi that results in extensive collateral damage to neighboring plants. Specifically, the flavonoid (–)-catechin, released from the roots of knapweed, produces a massive reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative burst, Ca2+ signaling, and rapid cell death in those unadapted native species whose habitats the plant regularly invades. The roots release both (+) and (–) enantiomers, but only the (–) enantiomer functions as a weapon of mass destruction; the (+) enantiomer inhibits the growth of numerous common soil-borne bacterial pathogens. Eliciting apoptotic response for a competitive advantage is an example of signal cross-talk between the genomes of interacting organisms and highlights how the internal signaling of one organism can be used by others to adjust their phenotypes in an adaptive manner. The study provides strong circumstantial evidence for an allelopathic interaction, but the genetic manipulation of (–)-catechin release would allow researchers to determine if these responses occur in nature. Precise genetic control over the release of secondary metabolites from plants would benefit ecological research.

Ian T. Baldwin (Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology; Department of Molecular Ecology REV)

2003-10-07

453

Finally, proof of weapons of mass destruction.  

PubMed

Allelopathy (one species' use of chemicals to harm other species) may be a key ingredient in successful invasions of alien plants into established communities. Bais et al. show that in response to elicitation by common soil fungi, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) launches an ineffective defense against the fungi that results in extensive collateral damage to neighboring plants. Specifically, the flavonoid (-)-catechin, released from the roots of knapweed, produces a massive reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative burst, Ca2+ signaling, and rapid cell death in those unadapted native species whose habitats the plant regularly invades. The roots release both (+) and (-) enantiomers, but only the (-) enantiomer functions as a weapon of mass destruction; the (+) enantiomer inhibits the growth of numerous common soil-borne bacterial pathogens. Eliciting apoptotic response for a competitive advantage is an example of signal cross-talk between the genomes of interacting organisms and highlights how the internal signaling of one organism can be used by others to adjust their phenotypes in an adaptive manner. The study provides strong circumstantial evidence for an allelopathic interaction, but the genetic manipulation of (-)-catechin release would allow researchers to determine if these responses occur in nature. Precise genetic control over the release of secondary metabolites from plants would benefit ecological research. PMID:14534326

Baldwin, Ian T

2003-10-01

454

Mapping and interpreting soil textural layers to assess agri-chemical movement at several scales along the eastern seaboard (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite numerous cases of groundwater contamination with agricultural chemicals on layered sandy soils, monitoring and prediction of the fate of these chemicals in the vadose zone has eluded researchers and bureaucrats alike so far. To aid in a better understanding of this phenomena, the movement and fate of agricultural chemicals were assessed at different scales for the (sandy and layered)

Tammo Steenhuis; Kathy Vandenheuvel; Kirk W. Weiler; Jan Boll; Jayaram Daliparthy; Stephen Herbert; K.-J. Samuel Kung

1998-01-01

455

Risk Assessment and Hierarchical Risk Management of Enterprises in Chemical Industrial Parks Based on Catastrophe Theory  

PubMed Central

According to risk systems theory and the characteristics of the chemical industry, an index system was established for risk assessment of enterprises in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) based on the inherent risk of the source, effectiveness of the prevention and control mechanism, and vulnerability of the receptor. A comprehensive risk assessment method based on catastrophe theory was then proposed and used to analyze the risk levels of ten major chemical enterprises in the Songmu Island CIP, China. According to the principle of equal distribution function, the chemical enterprise risk level was divided into the following five levels: 1.0 (very safe), 0.8 (safe), 0.6 (generally recognized as safe, GRAS), 0.4 (unsafe), 0.2 (very unsafe). The results revealed five enterprises (50%) with an unsafe risk level, and another five enterprises (50%) at the generally recognized as safe risk level. This method solves the multi-objective evaluation and decision-making problem. Additionally, this method involves simple calculations and provides an effective technique for risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in CIPs. PMID:23208298

Chen, Yu; Song, Guobao; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Zhenyu

2012-01-01

456

Hydrogen production from coal using coal direct chemical looping and syngas chemical looping combustion systems: Assessment of system operation and resource requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal direct chemical looping (CDCL) substitutes the gasification process in syngas chemical looping (SCL), thus eliminating the need for higher oxygen consumption. In this study, operating conditions are assessed for CDCL and SCL, directed towards hydrogen production from coal. The main objective is to increase the overall H2\\/CO2 ratio for a given amount of coal, based on the various conditions.

N. V. Gnanapragasam; B. V. Reddy; M. A. Rosen

2009-01-01

457

Chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in surface water using passive samplers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Passive sampling methodologies were used to conduct a chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in the surface waters of three geographically distinct agricultural watersheds. A selection of current-use agrochemicals and persistent organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides, were targeted using the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and the semipermeable membrane device passive samplers. In addition to the chemical analysis, the Microtox assay for acute toxicity and the yeast estrogen screen (YES) were conducted as potential assessment tools in combination with the passive samplers. During the spring of 2004, the passive samplers were deployed for 29 to 65 d at Leary Weber Ditch, IN; Morgan Creek, MD; and DR2 Drain, WA. Chemical analysis of the sampler extracts identified the agrochemicals predominantly used in those areas, including atrazine, simazine, acetochlor, and metolachlor. Other chemicals identified included deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine, trifluralin, fluoranthene, pyrene, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and pentachloroanisole. Screening using Microtox resulted in no acutely toxic samples. POCIS samples screened by the YES assay failed to elicit a positive estrogenic response. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

Alvarez, D.A.; Cranor, W.L.; Perkins, S.D.; Clark, R.C.; Smith, S.B.

2008-01-01

458

Chemical warfare: Implications for Operation Desert Storm and beyond. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the potential for use of lethal and incapacitating chemical agents in the Persian Gulf. Insight from past chemical warfare case studies, current international law, and U.S. and Soviet policy, strategy and tactics provide a basis for examination of Iraq's chemical warfare potential and operational strategy. In addition, a survey of Naval War College students assesses the current U.S. Armed Forces level of chemical warfare readiness. This analysis combined with the U.S. experience and current war with Iraq as well as proposing a more viable operational capability to meet stated national policy in response to chemical weapons.

Trummer, F.G.; Twining, B.L.

1991-02-11

459

Addressing Human Variability in Next-Generation Human Health Risk Assessments of Environmental Chemicals  

PubMed Central

Background: Characterizing variability in the extent and nature of responses to environmental exposures is a critical aspect of human health risk assessment. Objective: Our goal was to explore how next-generation human health risk assessments may better characterize variability in the context of the conceptual framework for the source-to-outcome continuum. Methods: This review was informed by a National Research Council workshop titled “Biological Factors that Underlie Individual Susceptibility to Environmental Stressors and Their Implications for Decision-Making.” We considered current experimental and in silico approaches, and emerging data streams (such as genetically defined human cells lines, genetically diverse rodent models, human omic profiling, and genome-wide association studies) that are providing new types of information and models relevant for assessing interindividual variability for application to human health risk assessments of environmental chemicals. Discussion: One challenge for characterizing variability is the wide range of sources of inherent biological variability (e.g., genetic and epigenetic variants) among individuals. A second challenge is that each particular pair of health outcomes and chemical exposures involves combinations of these sources, which may be further compounded by extrinsic factors (e.g., diet, psychosocial stressors, other exogenous chemical exposures). A third challenge is that different decision contexts present distinct needs regarding the identification—and extent of characterization—of interindividual variability in the human population. Conclusions: Despite these inherent challenges, opportunities exist to incorporate evidence from emerging data streams for addressing interindividual variability in a range of decision-making contexts. PMID:23086705

Bois, Frederic Y.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Hattis, Dale; Rusyn, Ivan; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

2012-01-01

460

Prospective life cycle assessment of graphene production by ultrasonication and chemical reduction.  

PubMed

One promising future bulk application of graphene is as composite additive. Therefore, we compare two production routes for in-solution graphene using a cradle-to-gate lifecycle assessment focusing on potential differences in energy use, blue water footprint, human toxicity, and ecotoxicity. The data used for the assessment is based on information in scientific papers and patents. Considering the prospective nature of this study, environmental impacts from background systems such as energy production were not included. The production routes are either based on ultrasonication or chemical reduction. The results show that the ultrasonication route has lower energy and water use, but higher human and ecotoxicity impacts, compared to the chemical reduction route. However, a sensitivity analysis showed that solvent recovery in the ultrasonication process gives lower impacts for all included impact categories. The sensitivity analysis also showed that solvent recovery is important to lower the blue water footprint of the chemical reduction route as well. The results demonstrate the possibility to conduct a life cycle assessment study based mainly on information from patents and scientific articles, enabling prospective life cycle assessment studies of products at early stages of technological development. PMID:24646298

Arvidsson, Rickard; Kushnir, Duncan; Sandén, Björn A; Molander, Sverker

2014-04-15

461

ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS THROUGH FOOD CHAIN IN RIVER BASIN UNDER CHEMICAL EXPOSURE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the traditional river basin assessment has not been employed from the ecological viewpoint, the sound river basin management was not completed. In this paper, introducing the concepts of food chain, benthic organisms, and fishes for ecological system, the river basin simulation model based on physical dynamics of discharge and toxic-chemical is proposed. The sustainability of aquatic organisms and the accumulation impacts of toxic-chemicals in fish bodies are considered through CASM and PBPK. Finally, the Kamo River in Kyoto, Japan, is applied for verification.

Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Suzuki, Atsunori; Kojiri, Toshiharu

462

Temporal concordance between apical and transcriptional points of departure for chemical risk assessment.  

PubMed

The number of legacy chemicals without toxicity reference values combined with the rate of new chemical development is overwhelming the capacity of the traditional risk assessment paradigm. More efficient approaches are needed to quantitatively estimate chemical risks. In this study, rats were dosed orally with multiple doses of six chemicals for 5 days and 2, 4, and 13 weeks. Target organs were analyzed for traditional histological and organ weight changes and transcriptional changes using microarrays. Histological and organ weight changes in this study and the tumor incidences in the original cancer bioassays were analyzed using benchmark dose (BMD) methods to identify noncancer and cancer points of departure. The dose-response changes in gene expression were also analyzed using BMD methods and the responses grouped based on signaling pathways. A comparison of transcriptional BMD values for the most sensitive pathway with BMD values for the noncancer and cancer apical endpoints showed a high degree of correlation at all time points. When the analysis included data from an earlier study with eight additional chemicals, transcriptional BMD values for the most sensitive pathway were significantly correlated with noncancer (r = 0.827, p = 0.0031) and cancer-related (r = 0.940, p = 0.0002) BMD values at 13 weeks. The average ratio of apical-to-transcriptional BMD values was less than two, suggesting that for the current chemicals, transcriptional perturbation did not occur at significantly lower doses than apical responses. Based on our results, we propose a practical framework for application of transcriptomic data to chemical risk assessment. PMID:23596260

Thomas, Russell S; Wesselkamper, Scott C; Wang, Nina Ching Y; Zhao, Q Jay; Petersen, Dan D; Lambert, Jason C; Cote, Ila; Yang, Longlong; Healy, Eric; Black, Michael B; Clewell, Harvey J; Allen, Bruce C; Andersen, Melvin E

2013-07-01

463

Toward a nuclear weapons free world?  

SciTech Connect

Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide any enduring improvement in security; rather, it was seen as creating ever greater risks and dangers. Arms control negotiations and limitations, adopted as a means to regulate the technical competition, may also have relieved some of the political pressures and dangers. But the balance of terror, and the fears of it, continued. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) under President Reagan was a very different approach to escaping from the precarious protection of nuclear weapons, in that it sought a way to continue to defend the US and the West, but without the catastrophic risks of mutual deterrence. As such, SDI connoted unhappiness with the precarious nuclear balance and, for many, with nuclear weapons in general. The disappearance of the Warsaw Pact, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the sudden end of the Cold War seemed to offer a unique opportunity to fashion a new, more peaceful world order that might allow for fading away of nuclear weapons. Scholars have foreseen two different paths to a nuclear free world. The first is a fundamental improvement in the relationships between states such that nuclear weapons are no longer needed. The second path is through technological development, e.g., missile defenses which could provide effective protection against nuclear attacks. The paper discusses nuclear weapon policy in the US, views of other nuclear states, the future of nuclear weapons, and issues in a less-nuclear world.

Maaranen, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

1996-09-01

464

Techniques to evaluate the importance of common cause degradation on reliability and safety of nuclear weapons.  

SciTech Connect

As the nuclear weapon stockpile ages, there is increased concern about common degradation ultimately leading to common cause failure of multiple weapons that could significantly impact reliability or safety. Current acceptable limits for the reliability and safety of a weapon are based on upper limits on the probability of failure of an individual item, assuming that failures among items are independent. We expanded the current acceptable limits to apply to situations with common cause failure. Then, we developed a simple screening process to quickly assess the importance of observed common degradation for both reliability and safety to determine if further action is necessary. The screening process conservatively assumes that common degradation is common cause failure. For a population with between 100 and 5000 items we applied the screening process and conclude the following. In general, for a reliability requirement specified in the Military Characteristics (MCs) for a specific weapon system, common degradation is of concern if more than 100(1-x)% of the weapons are susceptible to common degradation, where x is the required reliability expressed as a fraction. Common degradation is of concern for the safety of a weapon subsystem if more than 0.1% of the population is susceptible to common degradation. Common degradation is of concern for the safety of a weapon component or overall weapon system if two or more components/weapons in the population are susceptible to degradation. Finally, we developed a technique for detailed evaluation of common degradation leading to common cause failure for situations that are determined to be of concern using the screening process. The detailed evaluation requires that best estimates of common cause and independent failure probabilities be produced. Using these techniques, observed common degradation can be evaluated for effects on reliability and safety.

Darby, John L.

2011-05-01

465

Weapon container catalog. Volumes 1 & 2  

SciTech Connect

The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required for loading) used for weapon programs and for special use containers. When completed, the catalog will contain five volumes. Volume 1 for enduring stockpile programs (B53, B61, B83, W62, W76, W78, W80, W84, W87, and W88) and Volume 2, Special Use Containers, are being released. The catalog is intended as a source of information for weapon program engineers and also provides historical information. The catalog also will be published on the SNL Internal Web and will undergo periodic updates.

Brown, L.A.; Higuera, M.C.

1998-02-01

466

[New challenges in the biological weapons convention].  

PubMed

Microbes and their toxins are biological weapons that can cause disease in humans, animals or plants, and which can be used with hostile intent in warfare and terrorism. Biological agents can be used as weapons of mass destruction and therefore, immense human and social and major economical damage can be caused. Rapid development of life sciences and technologies during the recent decades has posed new challenges to the Biological Weapons Convention. The Convention states that the States Parties to the BWC strive to ensure that the Convention remains relevant and effective, despite changes in science, technology or politics. PMID:22428382

Sissonen, Susanna; Raijas, Tiina; Haikala, Olli; Hietala, Heikki; Virri, Markku; Nikkari, Simo

2012-01-01

467

[Predictive models for the assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals: a new challenge for employers].  

PubMed

Employers are obliged to carry out and document the risk associated with the use of chemical substances. The best but the most expensive method is to measure workplace concentrations of chemicals. At present no "measureless" method for risk assessment is available in Poland, but predictive models for such assessments have been developed in some countries. The purpose of this work is to review and evaluate the applicability of selected predictive methods for assessing occupational inhalation exposure and related risk to check the compliance with Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs), as well as the compliance with REACH obligations. Based on the literature data HSE COSHH Essentials, EASE, ECETOC TRA, Stoffenmanager, and EMKG-Expo-Tool were evaluated. The data on validation of predictive models were also examined. It seems that predictive models may be used as a useful method for Tier 1 assessment of occupational exposure by inhalation. Since the levels of exposure are frequently overestimated, they should be considered as "rational worst cases" for selection of proper control measures. Bearing in mind that the number of available exposure scenarios and PROC categories is limited, further validation by field surveys is highly recommended. Predictive models may serve as a good tool for preliminary risk assessment and selection of the most appropriate risk control measures in Polish small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) providing that they are available in the Polish language. This also requires an extensive training of their future users. PMID:24502133

Gromiec, Jan Piotr; Kupczewska-Dobecka, Ma?gorzata; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Czerczak, S?awomir

2013-01-01

468

Weapons workers: Ruin or revival?  

SciTech Connect

The formidable task of restructuring the former Soviet Union`s economic system depends largely on it success in converting a defense industry that once employed 11 million Soviet workers to peaceful pursuits, says Artiom Ustinov, a researcher in the U.S. and Canada Institute in Moscow. {open_quotes}Governments could convert defense facilities into those that develop and manufacture products that people desperately need and want,{close_quotes} says Ustinov. Unfortunately, such a transformation cannot happen quickly because the former Soviet Union lacks a high-tech sector into which former weapons workers can migrate. An even more serious problem stems from a traditional isolation from world markets. Civilian manufacturing in the former Soviet Union, which was never forced to meet international standards for quality and performance, has been marked by inferior products. {open_quotes}With financial support, a well-defined program, incentives, and retraining, the military research labs could find themselves in a better position to release their huge potential for creative rather than destructive purposes,{close_quotes} Ustinov concludes.

Ustinov, A. [U.S. and Canada Studies Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-10-01

469

Electroshock weapons can be lethal!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a heterogeneous mix of both sexes, ages 6-92, in a wide variety of health conditions! An EW operates by disrupting normal physiological processes, producing transient effects in healthy people. But if a person's health is sufficiently compromised, the margin of safety can be lost, resulting in death or permanent health problems. 325 people have died after EW shock since 1980. Did the EW cause these deaths? Evidence indicates that EWs do play a causal role in most such deaths. EWs can be lethal for people in diabetic shock^1 (hypoglycemia), which may be why Robert Dziekanski-a Polish immigrant to Canada-died so quickly after he was tasered at Vancouver Airport: not having eaten for over 10 hours, he likely was severely hypoglycemic. The EW death rate in North America is 30 times higher than need be, because EW users have not been properly trained to use EWs on a heterogeneous population safely! ^1J. Clinical Engineering 30(3):111(2005).

Lundquist, Marjorie

2008-03-01

470

Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area habitability study. Volume 2. Air assessment: indicator chemicals. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Environmental studies were conducted to provide data that could be used by the Commissioner of Health for the State of New York in determining whether the Emergency Declaration Area (EDA) surrounding the Love Canal hazardous-waste site is habitable. An air assessment was conducted for Love Canal Indicator Chemicals. Homes throughout the EDA were sampled using the Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer Model 6000E.

Not Available

1988-02-01

471

University of Benin water supply system: Microbiological and physico-chemical assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbiological and physico-chemical characteristics of the drinking water supplied by the Central Borehole at the University\\u000a of Benin, Ugbowo Campus were investigated. The investigation entailed assessment of the pH, turbidity, total suspended solids,\\u000a total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, conductivity, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, sulphate, chloride,\\u000a N-nitroso compounds, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, zinc, manganese, iron, coliform count, BOD5 and

Christian Agatemor; Patrick O. Okolo

2007-01-01

472

Chemical Extraction Methods to Assess Bioavailable Arsenic in Soil and Solid Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

children as a health issue has been reported by numer- ous researchers and fully illustrates the importance of Soil ingestion by children is an important pathway in assessing this pathway in terms of subsequent chemical exposure public health risks associated with exposure to arsenic-contaminated chloride (51.7%) phosphate (10.5%), acetate (7.16%) water and solid wastes at hazardous waste sites for remedial

R. R. Rodriguez; N. T. Basta; S. W. Casteel; F. P. Armstrong; D. C. Ward

2003-01-01

473

National Certification Methodology for the Nuclear Weapons Stockpile  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories have developed a common framework and key elements of a national certification methodology called Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties (QMU). A spectrum from senior managers to weapons designers has been engaged in this activity at the two laboratories for on the order of a year to codify this methodology in an overarching and integrated paper. Following is the certification paper that has evolved. In the process of writing this paper, an important outcome has been the realization that a joint Livermore/Los Alamos workshop on QMU, focusing on clearly identifying and quantifying differences between approaches between the two labs plus developing an even stronger technical foundation on methodology, will be valuable. Later in FY03, such a joint laboratory workshop will be held. One of the outcomes of this workshop will be a new version of this certification paper. A comprehensive approach to certification must include specification of problem scope, development of system baseline models, formulation of standards of performance assessment, and effective procedures for peer review and documentation. This document concentrates on the assessment and peer review aspects of the problem. In addressing these points, a central role is played by a 'watch list' for weapons derived from credible failure modes and performance gate analyses. The watch list must reflect our best assessment of factors that are critical to weapons performance. High fidelity experiments and calculations as well as full exploitation of archival test data are essential to this process. Peer review, advisory groups and red teams play an important role in confirming the validity of the watch list. The framework for certification developed by the Laboratories has many basic features in common, but some significant differences in the detailed technical implementation of the overall methodology remain. Joint certification workshops held in June and December of 2001 and continued in 2002 have proven useful in developing the methodology, and future workshops should prove useful in further refining this framework. Each laboratory developed an approach to certification with some differences in detailed implementation. The general methodology introduces specific quantitative indicators for assessing confidence in our nuclear weapon stockpile. The quantitative indicators are based upon performance margins for key operating characteristics and components of the system, and these are compared to uncertainties in these factors. These criteria can be summarized in a quantitative metric (for each such characteristic) expressed as: (i.e., confidence in warhead performance depends upon CR significantly exceeding unity for all these characteristics). These Confidence Ratios are proposed as a basis for guiding technical and programmatic decisions on stockpile actions. This methodology already has been deployed in certifying weapons undergoing current life extension programs or component remanufacture. The overall approach is an adaptation of standard engineering practice and lends itself to rigorous, quantitative, and explicit criteria for judging the robustness of weapon system and component performance at a detailed level. There are, of course, a number of approaches for assessing these Confidence Ratios. The general certification methodology was publicly presented for the first time to a meeting of Strategic Command SAG in January 2002 and met with general approval. At that meeting, the Laboratories committed to further refine and develop the methodology through the implementation process. This paper reflects the refinement and additional development to date. There will be even further refinement at a joint laboratory workshop later in FY03. A common certification methodology enables us to engage in peer reviews and evaluate nuclear weapon systems on the basis of explicit and objective metrics. The clarity provided by such metrics enables each laboratory and our common customers to understand the meaning and logic

Goodwin, B T; Juzaitis, R J

2006-08-07

474

Science based guidance for the assessment of endocrine disrupting properties of chemicals.  

PubMed

The European legislation on plant protection products (Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009) and biocides (Directive 98/8/EC), as well as the regulation concerning chemicals (Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 'REACH') only support the marketing and use of chemical products on the basis that they do not induce endocrine disruption in humans or non-target species. However, there is currently no agreed guidance on how to identify and evaluate endocrine activity and disruption. Consequently, an ECETOC task force was formed to provide scientific criteria that may be used within the context of these three legislative documents. Specific scientific criteria for the determination of endocrine disrupting properties that integrate information from both regulatory (eco)toxicity studies and mechanistic/screening studies are proposed. These criteria combine the nature of the adverse effects detected in studies which give concern for endocrine toxicity with an understanding of the mode of action of toxicity so that adverse effects can be explained scientifically. The criteria developed are presented in the form of flow charts for assessing relevant effects for both humans and wildlife species. In addition, since not all chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties are of equal hazard, assessment of potency is also proposed to discriminate chemicals of high concern from those of lower concern. The guidance presented in this paper includes refinements made to an initial proposal following discussion of the criteria at a workshop of invited regulatory, academic and industry scientists. PMID:20858523

Bars, Remi; Broeckaert, Fabrice; Fegert, Ivana; Gross, Melanie; Hallmark, Nina; Kedwards, Tim; Lewis, Dick; O'Hagan, Sue; Panter, Grace H; Weltje, Lennart; Weyers, Arnd; Wheeler, James R; Galay-Burgos, Malyka

2011-02-01

475

admetSAR: a comprehensive source and free tool for assessment of chemical ADMET properties.  

PubMed

Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) properties play key roles in the discovery/development of drugs, pesticides, food additives, consumer products, and industrial chemicals. This information is especially useful when to conduct environmental and human hazard assessment. The most critical rate limiting step in the chemical safety assessment workflow is the availability of high quality data. This paper describes an ADMET structure-activity relationship database, abbreviated as admetSAR. It is an open source, text and structure searchable, and continually updated database that collects, curates, and manages available ADMET-associated properties data from the published literature. In admetSAR, over 210,000 ADMET annotated data points for more than 96,000 unique compounds with 45 kinds of ADMET-associated properties, proteins, species, or organisms have been carefully curated from a large number of diverse literatures. The database provides a user-friendly interface to query a specific chemical profile, using either CAS registry number, common name, or structure similarity. In addition, the database includes 22 qualitative classification and 5 quantitative regression models with highly predictive accuracy, allowing to estimate ecological/mammalian ADMET properties for novel chemicals. AdmetSAR is accessible free of charge at http://www.admetexp.org. PMID:23092397

Cheng, Feixiong; Li, Weihua; Zhou, Yadi; Shen, Jie; Wu, Zengrui; Liu, Guixia; Lee, Philip W; Tang, Yun

2012-11-26

476

The Insecticide Synergist Piperonyl Butoxide Inhibits Hedgehog Signaling: Assessing Chemical Risks  

PubMed Central

The spread of chemicals, including insecticides, into the environment often raises public health concerns, as exemplified by a recent epidemiologic study associating in utero piperonyl butoxide (PBO) exposure with delayed mental development. The insecticide synergist PBO is listed among the top 10 chemicals detected in indoor dust; a systematic assessment of risks from PBO exposure, as for many toxicants unfortunately, may be underdeveloped when important biological targets that can cause toxicity are unknown. Hedgehog/Smoothened signaling is critical in neurological development. This study was designed to use novel high-throughput in vitro drug screening technology to identify modulators of Hedgehog signaling in environmental chemicals to assist the assessment of their potential risks. A directed library of 1408 environmental toxicants was screened for Hedgehog/Smoothened antagonist activity using a high-content assay that evaluated the interaction between Smoothened and ?arrestin2 green fluorescent protein. PBO was identified as a Hedgehog/Smoothened antagonist capable of inhibiting Hedgehog signaling. We found that PBO bound Smoothened and blocked Smoothened overexpression–induced Gli-luciferase reporter activity but had no effect on Gli-1 downstream transcriptional factor–induced Gli activity. PBO inhibited Sonic Hedgehog ligand–induced Gli signaling and mouse cerebellar granular precursor cell proliferation. Moreover, PBO disrupted zebrafish development. Our findings demonstrate the value of high-throughput target-based screening strategies that can successfully evaluate large numbers of environmental toxicants and identify key targets and unknown biological activity that is helpful in properly assessing potential risks. PMID:22552772

Chen, Wei

2012-01-01

477

Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks  

PubMed Central

Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on. PMID:23603866

Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

2013-01-01

478

Noninvasive detection of weapons of mass destruction using terahertz radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing and immediate threat of biological and chemical weapons has placed urgency on the development of chemical and biological warfare agent (CWA/BWA) screening devices. Specifically, the ability to detect CWA/BWA prior to deployment is paramount to mitigating the threat without exposing individuals to its effects. SPARTA, Inc. and NIST are currently investigating the feasibility of using far-infrared radiation, or terahertz (THz, 1 THz = 1012 Hz) radiation, to non-invasively detect biological and chemical agents, explosives and drugs/narcotics inside sealed containers. Small-to-medium sized molecules (3-100 atoms) in gas, liquid and solid phases consistently exhibit identifiable spectral features in the far-IR portion of the spectrum. Many compounds associated with weapons of mass destruction are made up of molecules of this size. The THz portion of the spectrum lies between visible light and radio waves, allowing for partial transmission of 0.3-10.0 THz (30-1000 ?m, 10-330 cm-1) light through most common materials. Therefore, transmission measurements of THz light can potentially be used to non-invasively detect the presence of CWA/BWA, explosives and drugs in the pathway of a THz radiation beam.

Campbell, Matthew B.; Heilweil, Edwin J.

2003-08-01

479

Micromachining technology for advanced weapon systems  

SciTech Connect

An overview of planned uses for polysilicon surface-micromachining technology in advanced weapon systems is presented. Specifically, this technology may allow consideration of fundamentally new architectures for realization of surety component functions.

Sniegowski, J.J.

1996-12-31

480

Weapons dismantlement issues in independent Ukraine  

SciTech Connect

The American Association for the Advancement of Science sponsored a seminar during September 1993, in Kiev, Ukraine, entitled ``Toward a Nuclear Free Future -- Barriers and Problems.`` It brought together Ukrainians, Belarusians, and Americans to discuss the legal, political, safeguards and security, economic, and technical dimensions of nuclear weapons dismantlement and destruction. US representatives initiated discussions on legal and treaty requirements and constraints, safeguards and security issues surrounding dismantlement, storage and disposition of nuclear materials, warhead transportation, and economic considerations. Ukrainians gave presentations on arguments for and against the Ukraine keeping nuclear weapons, Ukrainian Parliament non-approval of START I, alternative strategies for dismantling silos and launchers, and economic and security implications of nuclear weapons removal from the Ukraine. Participants from Belarus discussed proliferation and control regime issues, This paper will highlight and detail the issues, concerns, and possible impacts of the Ukraine`s dismantlement of its nuclear weapons.

Zack, N.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kirk, E.J. [American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-07-01