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1

Environmental management of assembled chemical weapons assessment program.  

SciTech Connect

Environmental planning and management was an integral part of the ACWA Program planning process. To ensure that environmental protection issues could be addressed expeditiously and not delay the demonstrations, the PMACWA scaled the technology demonstrations such that simplified regulatory processes and existing research and development facilities could be used. The use of enclosed facilities for the demonstrations prevents any uncontrolled discharges to the environment and made it possible to conduct environmental assessments relatively quickly. The PMACWA also arranged for public briefings to ease any community concerns over the operations with chemical weapons. These steps precluded regulatory and community resistance to the ACWA activities. The cooperation of the regulators and stakeholders has been a key element in enabling the ACWA Program to move with the speed that it has to date. Technology demonstrations are currently underway and are scheduled to be completed in late May 1999. The data collected during these demonstrations will be used to prepare and submit a summary report to Congress by August 1999. The challenge continues for the ACWA management to guide the demonstrations to completion and to plan for possible pilot testing. As the scale of the ACWA facilities increase in size, the ease of reduced regulatory processes and environmental analyses will no longer be possible. However, the PMACWA will continue to explore all paths through the environmental process to speed the ACWA program to its goals while at the same time ensuring adequate protection of public health and safety and of the environment.

Frey, G.; Mohrman, G.; Templin, B. R.

1999-05-07

2

Biological and Chemical Weapons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the latest in MEDLINEplus' special collections, the Biological and Chemical Weapons page addresses health issues at the forefront of many people's minds these days. As with other MEDLINEplus special collections, this page offers links to news stories, sites providing general information and overviews, information about specific conditions, and relevant organizations. While the sites are not annotated, the page provides a useful introduction to these health issues. The links here are all authoritative and range from the National Center for Infectious Diseases' (NCID) faq on anthrax to Johns Hopkins University's Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies to National Library of Medicine's TOXNET Databases. MEDLINEplus is offered by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and was last mentioned in the April 14, 2000 Scout Report.

2001-01-01

3

Chemical and Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemical warfare began in prehistoric times with the use of such weapons as poisoned arrows. However, World War I was the beginning of modern-day chemical warfare. The birth of biological warfare evolved during World War II. As a result, mankind has been plagued with chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction. This chapter provides a historical account of chemical and biological warfare, and its detrimental impact on society.

Slesnick, Irwin

2004-01-01

4

Overall view of chemical and biochemical weapons.  

PubMed

This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist. PMID:24902078

Pitschmann, Vladimír

2014-06-01

5

Implementing the chemical weapons convention  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty implementing issues, showing how various States Parties have enacted measures that are responsive to CWC obligations. It is intended to highlight the issues that States Parties must address and to identify trends among States Parties that might be useful to States that have not yet made crucial decisions as to how to resolve key matters. At various points in the text, country names are listed in parenthesis to identify pieces of national legislation that demonstrate the point in the text. It should not be inferred that nations not listed have not addressed the point or have taken a different position. In some cases, a nation's position is explained in somewhat more depth to give specific detail to an assertion in the text. Attached to this paper is a chart which illustrates how States Parties in the Central European region as well as the United States respond to the issues raised. Obviously, in preparing such a chart, many subtle provisions in national legislation must be simplified. The point of the chart is to portray, on a few pages, the major trends of legislation.

Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

1999-12-07

6

Chemical and Biological Weapons Nonproliferation Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A project of the Henry L. Stimson Center, the Chemical and Biological Weapons Nonproliferation Project was launched by Senior Associate, Amy E. Smithson in 1993. The project aims to serve as an "information clearinghouse, watchdog, and problem-solver regarding chemical and biological weapons issues." As such, the site offers a number of resources including information on how much the government is spending on anti-terrorism, how to protect oneself against chemical and biological terrorism, and nonproliferation efforts internationally. The site offers text of legislation, articles, maps of selected countries (especially the United States, Russia, and Iraq), and much more. This should be a very valuable site for both researchers and general readers looking for background material on chemical and biological weapons, their production, and efforts to reduce their threats.

7

Can an attribution assessment be made for Yellow Rain? Systematic reanalysis in a chemical-and-biological-weapons use investigation.  

PubMed

In intelligence investigations, such as those into reports of chemical- or biological-weapons (CBW) use, evidence may be difficult to assemble and, once assembled, to weigh. We propose a methodology for such investigations and then apply it to a large body of recently declassified evidence to determine the extent to which an attribution can now be made in the Yellow Rain case. Our analysis strongly supports the hypothesis that CBW were used in Southeast Asia and Afghanistan in the late 1970s and early 1980s, although a definitive judgment cannot be made. The proposed methodology, while resource-intensive, allows evidence to be assembled and analyzed in a transparent manner so that assumptions and rationale for decisions can be challenged by external critics. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions, emphasizing the use of evolving information-extraction (IE) technologies, a sub-field of artificial intelligence (AI). PMID:18208344

Katz, Rebecca; Singer, Burton

2007-03-01

8

The Control of Chemical and Biological Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is composed of four papers prepared to illuminate the problem areas which might arise if the policies of the 1925 Geneva Protocol and other measures to limit chemical and biological weapons are ratified by the United States Senate. The papers included are: Legal Aspects of the Geneva Protocol of 1925; The Use of Herbicides in War: A…

Alexander, Archibald S.; And Others

9

Emergency management of chemical weapons injuries.  

PubMed

The potential for chemical weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Classes of chemical weapons include nerve agents, vesicants (blister agents), choking agents, incapacitating agents, riot control agents, blood agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The nerve agents work by blocking the actions of acetylcholinesterase leading to a cholinergic syndrome. Nerve agents include sarin, tabun, VX, cyclosarin, and soman. The vesicants include sulfur mustard and lewisite. The vesicants produce blisters and also damage the upper airways. Choking agents include phosgene and chlorine gas. Choking agents cause pulmonary edema. Incapacitating agents include fentanyl and its derivatives and adamsite. Riot control agents include Mace and pepper spray. Blood agents include cyanide. The mechanism of toxicity for cyanide is blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Toxic industrial chemicals include agents such as formaldehyde, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia. PMID:22080590

Anderson, Peter D

2012-02-01

10

15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

2010-01-01

11

15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

2014-01-01

12

15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

2013-01-01

13

15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

2011-01-01

14

15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

2012-01-01

15

Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing measures were still under development. Last month, the Web Edition of the Manual was completed. It's internet address, or URL, is http://www.cwc.anl.gov/.

Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

1999-11-05

16

The Chemical Weapons Convention -- Legal issues  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the US system of constitutional law. Its promise of eliminating what is the most purely genocidal type of weapon from the world`s arsenals as well as of destroying the facilities for producing these weapons, brings with it a set of novel legal issues. The reservations about the CWC expressed by US business people are rooted in concern about safeguarding confidential business information and protecting the constitutional right to privacy. The chief worry is that international verification inspectors will misuse their power to enter commercial property and that trade secrets or other private information will be compromised as a result. It has been charged that the Convention is probably unconstitutional. The author categorically disagrees with that view and is aware of no scholarly writing that supports it. The purpose of this presentation is to show that CWC verification activities can be implemented in the US consistently with the traditional constitutional regard for commercial and individual privacy. First, he very briefly reviews the types of verification inspections that the CWC permits, as well as some of its specific privacy protections. Second, he explains how the Fourth Amendment right to privacy works in the context of CWC verification inspections. Finally, he reviews how verification inspections can be integrated into these constitutional requirements in the SU through a federal implementing statute.

NONE

1997-08-01

17

2006, REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN THE REMEDIATION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONTAMINATION IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation will document the use of historical imagery, GIS, photogrammetry and hyperspectral remote sensing in locating and removing chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin, and Lewisite from the environment and establishing a risk assessment methodology for...

18

Book Review: New Chemical Weapons Convention: Implementation and Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Review of The New Chemical Weapons Convention: Implementation and Prospects by Michael Bothe, Natalino Ronzitti, and Allan Rosas (1998).\\u000aThis book, a fine-grained, expert-level analysis of several of the most intricate legal and policy issues arising in connection with the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), also serves as a vivid symbol of the \\

David A Koplow

2000-01-01

19

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note:...

2013-01-01

20

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note:...

2012-01-01

21

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note:...

2010-01-01

22

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note:...

2011-01-01

23

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note:...

2014-01-01

24

(+/-)-catechin: chemical weapon, antioxidant, or stress regulator?  

PubMed

(+/-)-Catechin is a flavan-3-ol that occurs in the organs of many plant species, especially fruits. Health-beneficial effects have been studied extensively, and notable toxic effects have not been found. In contrast, (+/-)-catechin has been implicated as a 'chemical weapon' that is exuded by the roots of Centaurea stoebe, an invasive knapweed of northern America. Recently, this hypothesis has been rejected based on (+/-)-catechin's low phytotoxicity, instability at pH levels higher than 5, and poor recovery from soil. In the current study, (+/-)-catechin did not inhibit the development of white and black mustard to an extent that was comparable to the highly phytotoxic juglone, a naphthoquinone that is allegedly responsible for the allelopathy of the walnut tree. At high stress levels, caused by sub-lethal methanol concentrations in the medium, and a 12 h photoperiod, (+/-)-catechin even attenuated growth retardation. A similar effect was observed when (+/-)-catechin was assayed for brine shrimp mortality. Higher concentrations reduced the mortality caused by toxic concentrations of methanol. Further, when (+/-)-catechin was tested in variants of the deoxyribose degradation assay, it was an efficient scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) when they were present in higher concentrations. This antioxidant effect was enhanced when iron was chelated directly by (+/-)-catechin. Conversely, if iron was chelated to EDTA, pro-oxidative effects were demonstrated at higher concentrations; in this case (+/-)-catechin reduced molecular oxygen and iron to reagents required by the Fenton reaction to produce hydroxyl radicals. A comparison of cyclic voltammograms of (+/-)-catechin with the phytotoxic naphthoquinone juglone indicated similar redox-cycling properties for both compounds although juglone required lower electrochemical potentials to enter redox reactions. In buffer solutions, (+/-)-catechin remained stable at pH 3.6 (vacuole) and decomposed at pH 7.4 (cytoplasm) after 24 h. The results support the recent rejection of the hypothesis that (+/-)-catechin may serve as a 'chemical weapon' for invasive plants. Instead, accumulation and exudation of (+/-)-catechin may help plants survive periods of stress. PMID:19701725

Chobot, Vladimir; Huber, Christoph; Trettenhahn, Guenter; Hadacek, Franz

2009-08-01

25

CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION BULLETIN News, Background and Comment on Chemical and Biological Warfare Issues  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION BULLETIN News, Background and Comment on Chemical and Biological Warfare Issues ISSUE NO. 32 JUNE 1996 Quarterly Journal of the Harvard Sussex Program on CBW Armament. Undisclosed weapons pro- grammes have been discovered, chemical and biological weapons production sites have

Sussex, University of

26

Proposals for chemical weapons during the American Civil War.  

PubMed

Proposals for chemical weapons that arose during the American Civil War are described. Most incendiary and all biological agents are excluded. The described proposals appeared primarily in periodicals or letters to government officials on both sides. The weapons were usually meant to temporarily disable enemy combatants, but some might have been lethal, and Civil War caregivers were ill-prepared to deal with the weapons' effects. Evidently, none of the proposed weapons were used. In only one instance was use against civilians mentioned. Among the agents most commonly proposed were cayenne pepper or other plant-based irritants such as black pepper, snuff, mustard, and veratria. Other suggested agents included chloroform, chlorine, hydrogen cyanide, arsenic compounds, sulfur, and acids. Proponents usually suggested that the chemicals be included in explosive artillery projectiles. Less commonly proposed vehicles of delivery included fire engines, kites, and manned balloons. Some of the proposed weapons have modern counterparts. PMID:18543573

Hasegawa, Guy R

2008-05-01

27

Database for chemical weapons detection: first results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quick increase of terrorism and asymmetric war is leading towards new needs involving defense and security. Nowadays we have to fight several kind of threats and use of chemical weapons against civil or military objectives is one of the most dangerous. For this reason it is necessary to find equipment, know-how and information that are useful in order to detect and identify dangerous molecules as quickly and far away as possible, so to minimize damage. Lidar/Dial are some of the most powerful optical technologies. Dial technology use two different wavelengths, in order to measure concentration profile of an investigated molecule. For this reason it is needed a "fingerprint" database which consists of an exhaustive collection of absorption coefficients data so to identify each molecule avoiding confusion with interfering ones. Nowadays there is not such a collection of data in scientific and technical literature. We used an FT-IR spectrometer and a CO2 laser source for absorption spectroscopy measurements using cells filled with the investigated molecules. The CO2 source is the transmitter of our DIAL facility. In this way we can make a proper "fingerprint" database necessary to identify dangerous molecules. The CO2 laser has been chosen because it is eye safe and, mainly, because it covers a spectral band where there is good absorption for this kind of molecules. In this paper IR spectra of mustard will be presented and compared to other substances which may interfere producing a false alarm. Methodology, experimental setup and first results are described.

Bellecci, C.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Martellucci, S.; Richetta, M.; Ventura, P.; Antonucci, A.; Pasquino, F.; Ricci, V.; Sassolini, A.

2008-10-01

28

Weapons assessment efficiencies through use of nondestructive laser gas  

E-print Network

- 1 - Weapons assessment efficiencies through use of nondestructive laser gas sampling June 8, 2012 New weapons assessment technology engineered: nondestructive laser welding process far less expensive and engineers at LANL. The new automated testing technology is called Nondestructive Laser Gas Sampling (NDLGS

29

Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation's activities and providing an early warning and/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a surprise nuclear attack. However, the deployment of satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; and neutrons, gamma rays, and x-rays from intentionally detonated fission and fusion weapons. In this paper, the MASH vl.0 code system is used to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized space based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from a thermonuclear weapon detonation in space. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the platform fully loaded, and in several stages representing limited engagement scenarios. The results indicate vulnerabilities to the Command, Control, and Communication bay instruments from radiation damage for a nuclear weapon detonation for certain source/platform orientations. The distance at which damage occurs will depend on the weapon yield (n,(gamma)/kiloton) and size (kilotons).

Perez, C. L.; Johnson, J. O.

30

Chemical and biological weapons in the 'new wars'.  

PubMed

The strategic use of disease and poison in warfare has been subject to a longstanding and cross-cultural taboo that condemns the hostile exploitation of poisons and disease as the act of a pariah. In short, biological and chemical weapons are simply not fair game. The normative opprobrium is, however, not fixed, but context dependent and, as a social phenomenon, remains subject to erosion by social (or more specifically, antisocial) actors. The cross cultural understanding that fighting with poisons and disease is reprehensible, that they are taboo, is codified through a web of interconnected measures, principal amongst these are the 1925 Geneva Protocol; the Biological Weapons Convention; and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Whilst these treaties have weathered the storm of international events reasonably well, their continued health is premised on their being 'tended to' in the face of contextual changes, particularly facing changes in science and technology, as well as the changed nature and character of conflict. This article looks at the potential for normative erosion of the norm against chemical and biological weapons in the face of these contextual changes and the creeping legitimization of chemical and biological weapons. PMID:24132385

Ilchmann, Kai; Revill, James

2014-09-01

31

Enhanced chemical weapon warning via sensor fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Torch Technologies Inc., is actively involved in chemical sensor networking and data fusion via multi-year efforts with Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The objective of these efforts is to develop innovative concepts and advanced algorithms that enhance our national Chemical Warfare (CW) test and warning capabilities via the fusion of traditional and non-traditional CW sensor data. Under Phase I, II, and III Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contracts with DPG, Torch developed the Advanced Chemical Release Evaluation System (ACRES) software to support non real-time CW sensor data fusion. Under Phase I and II SBIRs with DTRA in conjunction with the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Torch is using the DPG ACRES CW sensor data fuser as a framework from which to develop the Cloud state Estimation in a Networked Sensor Environment (CENSE) data fusion system. Torch is currently developing CENSE to implement and test innovative real-time sensor network based data fusion concepts using CW and non-CW ancillary sensor data to improve CW warning and detection in tactical scenarios.

Flaherty, Michael; Pritchett, Daniel; Cothren, Brian; Schwaiger, James

2011-05-01

32

Ecology. Plant invader may use chemical weapons.  

PubMed

On page 521, plant ecologists offer a novel explanation for the success of invasive plants. By comparing how one species of knapweed, Centaurea diffusa, behaves with its natural neighbors and with foreign plant species that evolved separately, they found that the invader apparently gains an edges in its adopted home not only by ditching its herbivores but by wielding weaponry: chemicals exuded from its roots that hamper its new neighbors' growth. PMID:11183749

Jensen, M N

2000-10-20

33

Chemical and biological weapons in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dr. Dany Shoham is a researcher at the Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies at Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel, specializing in chemical and biological warfare in Arab countries and around the world. Formerly, he was a senior analyst and lieutenant colonel in Israeli military intelligence. Dr. Shoham received a Ph. D. in medical microbiology from Tel-Aviv University. He has published

Dany Shoham

1998-01-01

34

A Poor Man's Nuclear Deterrent: Assessing the Value of Radiological Weapons for State Actors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The threat of weapons of mass destruction is an issue which remains at the forefront on national security. Nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons are all considered very dangerous by both state and non-state actors. Radiological weapons exist in that same category yet are not held in the same regard; the reason that is given is that these types of weapons are not the weapons of mass destruction that the other three are. Instead, radiological weapons are better considered weapons of mass disruption. Accordingly, in the academic and policy literature there has been very little perceived value associated with such weapons for use by state actors. However the historical focus on the military efficacy of radiological weapons has obscured the obvious truth that they may pose significant value for state actors. What this research shows is that the explosion of a radiological weapon could disrupt a target area in ways which could cripple the economy of an adversary state and promote widespread fear concerning exposure to radiation. Any such attack would not only necessitate large scale evacuation, but cleanup, decontamination, demolition, territory exclusion, and relocation. Moreover, the effects of such an attack would be unlikely to remain an isolated event as evacuated and displaced citizens spread across the nation carrying both fear and residual radiation. All of these factors would only be compounded by a state actor's ability to not only develop such weapons, but to manufacture them in such a composition that contemporary examples of such weapons grossly underestimate their impact. Accordingly, radiological weapons could hold great value for any state actor wishing to pursue their development and to threaten their use. Moreover, "while RDDs may not be well suited as "military weapons" in the classic sense, the use of RDDs could be powerfully coercive."1 In that sense, state actors could even acquire radiological weapons for their deterrent value. 1James L. Ford, "Radiological Dispersal Devices: Assessing the Transnational Threat," Strategic Forum, No. 136, (March 1998), March 29, 2012, http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/ndu/forum136.htm.

Donohue, Nathan

35

Detecting Chemical Weapons: Threats, Requirements, Solutions, and Future Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although chemicals have been reportedly used as weapons for thousands of years, it was not until 1915 at Ypres, France that an industrial chemical, chlorine, was used in World War I as an offensive weapon in significant quantity, causing mass casualties. From that point until today the development, detection, production and protection from chemical weapons has be an organized endeavor of many of the world's armed forces and in more recent times, non-governmental terrorist organizations. The number of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) has steadily increased as research into more toxic substances continued for most of the 20^th century. Today there are over 70 substances including harassing agents like tear gas, incapacitating agents, and lethal agents like blister, blood, chocking, and nerve agents. The requirements for detecting chemical weapons vary depending on the context in which they are encountered and the concept of operation of the organization deploying the detection equipment. The US DoD, for example, has as a requirement, that US forces be able to continue their mission, even in the event of a chemical attack. This places stringent requirements on detection equipment. It must be lightweight (<2 lbs), detect a large array of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals, detect and warn at concentration levels and time duration to prevent acute health effects, meet military ruggedness specifications and work over a wide range of temperature and humidity, and have a very high probability of detection with a similarly low probability of false positives. The current technology of choice to meet these stringent requirements is Ion Mobility Spectrometry. Many technologies are capable of detecting chemicals at the trace levels required and have been extensively developed for this application, including, but not limited to: mass spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, RAMAN spectroscopy, MEMs micro-cantilever sensors, surface acoustic wave sensors, differential mobility spectrometry, and amplifying fluorescence polymers. In the future the requirements for detection equipment will continue to become even more stringent. The continuing increase in the sheer number of threats that will need to be detected, the development of binary agents requiring that even the precursor chemicals be detected, the development of new types of agents unlike any of the current chemistries, and the expansion of the list of toxic industrial chemical will require new techniques with higher specificity and more sensitivity.

Boso, Brian

2011-03-01

36

Legal aspects of national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses some legal aspects of measures at the national level to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). These implementing measures are universal, applying not only to the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also to the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons program. This new need for national measures to implement multilateral arms control agreements has generated unease due to a perception that implementation may be burdensome and at odds with national law. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to effectuate the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby engendering significant disparities in implementation steps among States Parties. The author discusses progress among several States in actually developing national CWC implementing measures. Implementing measures from Australia, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden were available to him in English through the PTS. He compares them in order to illustrate different approaches to national implementation that are emerging. Of course, it is important to note that this brief survey necessarily omitted examination of the existing ``background`` of other, related domestic laws that these signatories might also have adopted that affect CWC implementation.

Tanzman, E.A.; Zeuli, A.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Coll. of Law

1994-11-28

37

Manual for national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

The Convention on the Prohibition on the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature, January 13, 1993, in Paris, France (CWC), is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. The CWC has been signed by over 150 nations, and is expected to enter into force in 1995. With its far-reaching system to verify compliance, the CWC presages a new foundation for international security based neither on fear nor on trust, but on the rule of law. A central feature of the CWC is that it requires each State Party to take implementing measures to make the Convention operative. The CWC goes beyond all prior arms control treaties in this regard. For this approach to succeed, and to inspire the eradication of other categories of mass destruction weaponry, coordination and planning are vital to harmonize CWC national implementation among States Parties. This Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention is designed to assist States Parties, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems, in maximizing CWC enforcement consistent with their national legal obligations.

Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Tanzman, E.A.; Gualtieri, D.S.; Grimes, S.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-12-01

38

Primary tasks to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law could cause some nations to implement the Convention without regard to what others nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Conventional would be carried out. As a result, the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared. The Manual is designed to assist States Parties by increasing understanding of the Convention and identifying its obligations as well as suggesting methods to meet them, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems. It acknowledges areas of ambiguity that States Parties should address, and it analyzes legal initiatives that may be undertaken to strengthen the Convention`s enforcement. This paper draws from the Manual and briefly addresses the two tasks that every CWC State Party must undertake first in order to effectively fulfill its extensive requirements. First, each State Party must establish a National Authority. Second, each State Party must enact implementing measures to ensure that its government as well as its businesses and citizens comply with the treaty. As this paper generally discusses how States Parties from different legal backgrounds can accomplish these two tasks, it cannot address every detail of how each State Party should proceed.

Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Coll. of Law; Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1997-12-31

39

Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction: Assessing the risks  

SciTech Connect

The report describes what nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons can do, analyzes the consequences of their spread for the United States and the world, and summarizes technical aspects of monitoring and controlling their production. The report also explains the array of policy tools that can be used to combat proliferation, identifying tradeoffs and choices that confront policymakers.

Not Available

1993-08-01

40

Elimination of chemical weapons: is agreement in sight  

SciTech Connect

During the past year, negotiators laboring under the auspices of the little publicized 40-nation Conference on Disarmament (CD) in Geneva have succeeded in resolving or narrowing differences on many of the military-technical issues which but a short time ago seemed to present insuperable obstacles to the conclusion of a world-wide convention. Significant strides have been made in elaborating a rolling text, that is, the text of an agreement that from session to session is being expanded, refined, and improved upon. As a consequence of the development of supertoxic chemical agents and improved means of delivery, there is heightened concern about the chemical warfare (CW) threat in future conflicts. The existence of a major Soviet CW capability is of particular concern to the population of Western Europe, but the relative ease and modest cost of developing a chemical-warfare capability has widened the scope of the threat to world-wide dimensions. Reportedly at least 15 countries now possess these weapons of mass destruction. Most informed observers believe completion of a convention, as now being negotiated, would take on the order of two years, and would be something of a minor miracle. Still, the accomplishments of the past year make a world-wide ban on chemical weapons look a good deal less like an impossible dream.

Flowerree, C.C.

1988-04-01

41

CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION BULLETIN News, Background and Comment on Chemical and Biological Warfare Issues  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION BULLETIN News, Background and Comment on Chemical and Biological Warfare Issues ISSUE NO. 26 DECEMBER 1994 Quarterly Journal of the Harvard Sussex Program on CBW Armament Ratifications 30 Recent Publications 31­32 ASIA PACIFIC SEMINAR ON THE NATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CHEMICAL

Sussex, University of

42

Legal aspects of national implementation of the chemical weapons convention confidential provisions  

SciTech Connect

Today, I shall discuss legal aspects of implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention`s (CORK) confidentiality provisions. These implementing measures are universal, applying not only to the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also to the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons program. Progress is reported in actually developing implementing measures for the cork`s confidentiality requirements from Australia, Germany, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden.

Tanzman, E.A.; Kellman, B.

1995-05-09

43

Chemical Weapons Convention Requirements Part 745page 1 Export Administration Regulations September 28, 2001  

E-print Network

Chemical Weapons Convention Requirements Part 745­page 1 Export Administration Regulations September 28, 2001 §745.1 ADVANCE NOTIFICATION AND ANNUAL REPORT OF ALL EXPORTS OF SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) not less than 30 days in advance of every export

Bernstein, Daniel

44

The control of chemical weapons: A strategic analysis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis develops an analytical framework for optimal design of a ban on chemical weapons (CW). The thesis addresses two principal questions: first, could it be in the interest of individual states to adopt a CW ban, even if compliance by adversaries cannot be presupposed Second, how can designers of the treaty maximize incentives to accede and comply, but simultaneously minimize the threat to national sovereignty, including the risk of giving up a deterrent stockpile, and the risk that sensitive information would be revealed during inspections Three problems can plague any disarmament agreement. The first danger is that the agreement will be so minimalist that although all countries may adhere to it, it will have little effect on international behavior. The second danger is that the treaty will have such a weak enforcement mechanism that although nations may accede, they may not comply under conditions of international stress. The third danger is that the terms of the arrangement will be so onerous that few nations will agree to adopt it in the first place. This thesis develops a framework for thinking about how to strike the proper balance between these competing concerns. A salient characteristic of CW is the relative ease with which they can be produced in secret. The dissertation analyzes the effectiveness of inspection procedures of varying intrusiveness, and investigates the risks to sensitive government and industrial facilities. The thesis concludes with an analysis of the extent to which a ban on a single weapon could enhance the stability of the [open quotes]balance of terror.[close quotes] The author makes specific policy recommendations about how to set the optimal level of enforcement so that the ban is likely to succeed, and thus become more than a symbolic gesture.

Stern, J.E.

1992-01-01

45

Long Wave Infrared Detection of Chemical Weapons Simulants  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of Task 3.b under PL02-OP211I-PD07 (CBW simulant detection) was to demonstrate the applicability of the sensor work developed under this project for chemical and biological weapons detection. To this end, the specific goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of detection of chemical agents via that of simulants (Freons) with similar spectroscopic features. This has been achieved using Freon-125 as a simulant, a tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL), and a Herriott cell-based sensor developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) specifically for this task. The experimentally obtained spectrum of this simulant matches that found in the Northwest Infrared (NWIR) spectral library extremely well, demonstrating the ability of this technique to detect the exact shape of this feature, which in turn indicates the ability to recognize the simulant even in the presence of significant interference. It has also been demonstrated that the detected features of a typical interferent, namely water, are so different in shape and width to the simulant, that they are easily recognized and separated from such a measurement. Judging from the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the experimental data obtained, the noise equivalent absorption sensitivity is estimated to be 0.5 x 10-7 to 1 x 10-6 cm-1. For the particular feature of the simulant examined in this work, this corresponds to a relative concentration of 50 to 25 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv). The corresponding relative concentrations of other chemical targets would differ depending on the particular transition strengths, and would thus have to be scaled accordingly.

Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.; Myers, Tanya L.; Munley, John T.; Cannon, Bret D.

2007-04-27

46

Recovery following a chemical weapons stockpile disposal program accident  

SciTech Connect

In conjunction with disposal planning, the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) was developed to improve emergency preparedness at the eight installations involved and for the communities which surround them. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is assisting in the implementation of this program on the basis of a Memorandum of Understanding established with the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army, for Installations, Logistics and the Environment (OASA, IL E). A steering committee and six subcommittees, co-chaired by DA and FEMA, were created, and representatives from state and local governments, as well as other federal agencies, were invited to observe and participate in meetings of these subcommittees. Recognizing the need for a coordinated recovery effort in the event of a chemical incident or accident, the Army and FEMA established one of these subcommittees to guide and coordinate recovery planning. The Army has tasked Argonne National Laboratory to conduct research for offpost procedural planning for the recovery phase, in coordination with this subcommittee. The draft paper Reentry, Restoration and Recovery from a Chemical Weapons Accident: offpost Procedural Planning and Preparedness, A Concept Paper, is a result of efforts by Mr. Tom Hess and Mr. Denzel Fisher of the Army, OASA IL E, by Dr. Caroline Herzenberg and other members of the Emergency Systems Section at Argonne National Laboratory, and by Dr. James D. Adams of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Concept Paper was written to provide an overview of the role of recovery planning in the CSEP Program and discusses various technical and social aspects which should be considered by offpost planners. This conference paper presents a brief summary of that work, and hopes to emphasize the importance of recovery planning. 15 refs., 2 figs.

Hess, T. (Department of the Army, Washington, DC (USA)); Herzenberg, C.; Tanzman, E.; Meleski, S.; Hemphill, R.; Haffenden, R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Lewis, L. (Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (USA)); Adams, J. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA))

1991-01-01

47

Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation's activities and providing an early warning and\\/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a

C. L. Perez; J. O. Johnson

1994-01-01

48

78 FR 38782 - Lifting of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Lifting of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION...Security determined and certified to Congress that lifting sanctions on the following Chinese entities, their sub-units...

2013-06-27

49

15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744.4 Commerce and Foreign... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.4 Restrictions on certain...

2010-01-01

50

15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744.4 Commerce and Foreign... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.4 Restrictions on certain...

2011-01-01

51

Risk assessment methodologies for nuclear weapons compared to risk assessment methodologies for nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

There are major differences between the safety principles for nuclear weapons and for nuclear reactors. For example, a principal concern for nuclear weapons is to prevent electrical energy from reaching the nuclear package during accidents produced by crashes, fires, and other hazards, whereas the foremost concern for nuclear reactors is to maintain coolant around the core in the event of certain system failures. Not surprisingly, new methods have had to be developed to assess the risk from nuclear weapons. These include fault tree transformations that accommodate time dependencies, thermal and structural analysis techniques that are fast and unconditionally stable, and Monte-Carlo-based sampling methods that incorporate intelligent searching. This paper provides an overview of the new methods for nuclear weapons, compares them with existing methods for nuclear reactors, identifies some of their dual-use characteristics, and discusses ongoing developmental activities.

Benjamin, A.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Special Risk Assessment Projects Dept.

1994-12-31

52

Instructions for the Completion of the Annual Declarations Under the Chemical Weapons Convention  

E-print Network

1 Instructions for the Completion of the Annual Declarations Under the Chemical Weapons Convention TO THE TOTAL ACTIVITY OF THE UNIVERSITY** Schedule 1 Chemicals Indicate all production, consumption, storage for Schedule 1 declarations. Schedule 2 Chemicals Canadian Companies or institutions must declare if they have

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

53

Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by Chemical Weapons Convention inspections  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the United States system of constitutional law. This discussion is about the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by the CWC and about how federal implementing legislation can allow verification inspections to take place in the United States under the Chemical Weapons Convention while remaining in compliance with the Constitution. By implementing legislation, the author means a federal statute that would be enacted separately from Senate approval of the Convention itself. Although implementing legislation is a relatively unusual accompaniment to a treaty, it will be necessary to the CWC, and the Administration has submitted a bill that was under consideration in the last Congress and presumably will be reintroduced early next year. The Fourth and Fifth Amendment problems posed by the CWC arise from the verification inspection scheme embodied in the treaty. The CWC depends heavily on on-site inspections to verify compliance with its key requirements. These include destroying all chemicals weapons stockpiles and bringing potential chemical weapons precursors under international control. The Convention contains four distinct kinds of inspections: systematic inspections of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities, routine inspections of various declared facilities, challenge inspections, and a variant on challenge inspections in cases of alleged use of chemical weapons. All inspections are supposed to be only as intrusive as necessary to carry out the Convention. These inspections will be carried out by inspectors employed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), located in The Hague, which is responsible for enforcing the Convention. Generally, the inspected State Party is permitted to assign observers to accompany the inspectors.

Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Economics and Law Section

1994-10-21

54

Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable.

Haffenden, R.; Kimmell, T.

2002-02-20

55

Proliferation of chemical weapons: putting the genie back in the bottle. Study project  

SciTech Connect

Following the introduction of gas warfare in World War I, there developed a set of restraints which were effective in preventing the use of toxic chemical agents in World War II. The prolonged Korean and Vietnam conflicts were fought, again without resort to toxic chemical weapons. Recently, however, there has been a breakdown of the traditional restraints which were effective for fifty years in preventing chemical warfare. This study examines the traditional restraint system that evolved after World War I and extrapolates that framework into the modern era to determine what has changed to render the traditional restraints ineffective today. From this analysis, a model is derived for an effective chemical weapons protocol, and a strategy is proposed for worldwide chemical disarmament.

Weekly, T.M.

1989-02-24

56

A quantitative assessment of nuclear weapons proliferation risk utilizing probabilistic methods  

E-print Network

A comparative quantitative assessment is made of the nuclear weapons proliferation risk between various nuclear reactor/fuel cycle concepts using a probabilistic method. The work presented details quantified proliferation ...

Sentell, Dennis Shannon, 1971-

2002-01-01

57

Assessing the risk from the depleted uranium weapons used in Operation Allied Force  

E-print Network

The conflict in Yugoslavia has been a source of great concern for the neighboring countries, about the radiological and toxic hazard posed by the alleged presence of depleted uranium in NATO weapons. In the present study a worst-case scenario is assumed mainly to assess the risk for Greece and other neighboring countries of Yugoslavia at similar distances . The risk of the weapons currently in use is proved to be negligible at distances greater than 100 Km. For shorter distances classified data of weapons composition are needed to obtain a reliable assessment.

Liolios, T E

1999-01-01

58

Laser weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential for deploying lasers as an effective antimissile system is assessed. High intensity and precise collimation are noted as essential for lasers as weapons, although size and material properties determine the actual performance. Gas-dynamic, electron, and chemical lasers are reviewed as prime weapons candidates. Space-, ground-, and ship-based uses are considered; each demands precision pointing, involving movable mirrors, target tracking and condition sensors, and central processing for target choice, along with large capacity power generation and storage. Laser propagation in the atmosphere is degraded by absorption, scattering, thermal blooming, turbulence (causes diffraction), and plasma formation ahead of the beam. Different modes of damaging missiles are reviewed, and it is found that mirrored surfaces, ablative coatings, and fluid layers have significant abilities to protect a missile in-flight. Destroying an ICBM in the boost phase is calculated to require a one million MW generator, far beyond current power engineering capabilities. Conventional weapons are viewed as more effective than lasers, although high energy laser research may have definite applications in areas such as chemical engineering

Tsipis, K.

1981-12-01

59

REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN THE REMEDIATION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONTAMINATION IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE  

EPA Science Inventory

During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite. After the end of t...

60

Chemical Weapons on the Sea Floor: A Plea for Complete Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean scientists have so far paid scant attention to the numerous sites and large quantities of chemical weapons (CW) disposed of on the sea floor, but the time for this inattention may now be past. In recent work we have shown that these sites are not well mapped, that there are no standards for marking or identification, and that unplanned

Peter G. Brewer; Keith C. Hester; N. Nakayama

2008-01-01

61

Methods for the rapid detection of biological and chemical weapons  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This work undertook the development of technology for the detection of chemical and biological agents. The project consisted of three tasks: (1) modifying a transportable mass spectrometer for the detection of chemical gents; (2) demonstrating the detection of a specific bacterial DNA sequence using a fluorescence-based single- copy gene detector; and (3) upgrading a surface acoustic wave measurement station.

Castro, A.; Hemberger, P.H.; Swanson, B.I.

1997-08-01

62

The decay of chemical weapons agents under environmental conditions  

SciTech Connect

The rate and mechanism of decay of chemical agents in the environment was studied via live agent field trials at the chemical and Biological Defence Establishment, Porton Down, UK. The plan was to deposit the agents GD (Soman), VX, and H (sulfur mustard) on separate l-m{sup 2} plots on three successive days; i.e., Tuesday through Thursday. The depositions were to be made so as to give an areal concentration of 10 g/m{sup 2}. Four felt pads of approximately 25 cm{sup 2} each were placed at the corners of each of the test plots. These were subsequently extracted and analyzed by CBDE to determine the actual agent concentration. Samples for LLNL (two different types of soil, disks of silicone rubber gasket material, and short cylinders of concrete were to be contaminated and analyzed. Results are described.

McGuire, R.R.; Haas, J.S.; Eagle, R.J.

1993-04-09

63

Compliance monitoring for the chemical weapons convention preliminary operational concepts--an adversarial analysis. Technical report, 5 September-12 November 1991  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to assess preliminary operational concepts developed by the U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC). The 'Adversarial Analysis Methodology for the Chemical Weapons Convention,' developed by the JAYCOR Team, provides a conceptual framework and criteria for this assessment. Adversarial analysis (AA) complements the CRDEC methodology by accounting for noncompliance activities and includes risk and vulnerability analyses as well as a politico-strategic assessment of potentially noncompliant nations. CRDEC highlights many difficulties, flaws, and discrepancies in the formal CWC verification regime. AA helps overcome these shortcomings. First, it identifies how an adversary might accomplish cheating, spoofing, and circumvention (CSC), including underlying motivations and objectives. Second, it highlights potential verification system vulnerabilities that would permit CSC. Finally, it assesses the impact of such activities qualitatively and quantitatively. The end product of this approach is a vulnerability assessment report describing the potential effectiveness of various deceptive practices and recommendations for improving the verification regime's resistance to deception.... On-Site Inspections, CRDEC, Adversarial Analysis, Verification, Deception, Chemical Weapons, Convention, Chemical Weapons, Noncompliance.

Evans, D.; Rudney, B.

1993-07-01

64

Microscale Synthesis and In-Situ Spectroscopic Characterization of Some Chemical Weapons Related Organophosphonate Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspection protocols for the Chemical Weapons Treaty, which went into effect on April 29, 1997 require on-site analytical procedures which include a comprehensive mass spectral database of hundreds of scheduled compounds. A number of these compounds were prepared on a nanogram scale via a micro-scale synthetic approach using GC-IRD\\/MSD analytical instrumentation to purify and identify the resulting products. The collected

H. Dupont Durst; Jeffrey R. Mays; Jill L. Ruth; Barry R. Williams; Robert V. Duevel

1998-01-01

65

Multiple-technique analytical characterization of a mixture containing chemical-weapons simulant from a munition  

Microsoft Academic Search

An amber yellow organic liquid was found in a munition shell at Dugway Proving Grounds, UT, USA, that was likely used as a simulant of chemical weapons. The primary analytical techniques to characterize the mixture were gas chromatography–infrared detection–mass spectral detection (GC–IR–MS); liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS); nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using the nuclei 1H, 13C and 31P; and gas chromatography–atomic

William R Creasy; Barry R Williams; Kevin M Morrissey; Richard J O’Connor; H Dupont Durst

2000-01-01

66

Portable sequential injection analyzer for onsite screening for chemical weapons degradation compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many circumstances, the ability to perform on-site, point-of-collection analysis can play a pivotal role in the goals or requirements of the inquiry. Toward this end, the use of commercial or customized kits, which require the analyst to manually perform the metering and mixing of reagents with the sample and the subsequent visual, spectrophotometric or other interpretation of the results, has become widespread. Often, these methods can suffer from poor reproducibility and sensitivity in addition to being tedious and time consuming. Flow analysis methods, such as traditional flow injection analysis (FIA) and the more recent sequential injection analysis (SIA), have found widespread use in the automation of sample and reagent handling and subsequent analysis for many important analytes. These methods can be completely automated and offer excellent reproducibility, minimized analysis time, and in certain configurations, very high sensitivity. We have developed a miniaturized, fully portable SIA-based instrument for on-site screening for chemical weapons degradation products during challenge inspections under the Chemical Weapons Convention, as well as for the sensitive analysis of other important environmental analytes. In this paper, we will discuss our portable SIA design, the analytical approaches utilized, and results obtained for the analysis of representative chemical weapons degradation compounds.

Postlethwaite, Timothy A.; Zhang, Peng; Lancaster, Herbert L., III; Bacon, Christina P.; Mensch, David

2002-02-01

67

Environmental Fate of Organophosphorus Compounds Related to Chemical Weapons  

SciTech Connect

Man-made organophosphorus compounds have been widely distributed throughout our environment as pesticides since their development during and after WWII. Many important studies have documented their relative persistence and toxicity. Development and use of some organophosphorus compounds as nerve agents gave rise to a separate but parallel effort to understand environmental persistence. In this latter case, the experiments have focused mainly on evaporation rates and first-order reaction kinetics. However, because organophosphorus compounds are easily polarized, the ionic content of a surrounding media directly factors into these reaction rates, but limited work in this regard has been done under environmentally relevant conditions. Furthermore, limited experiments investigating persistence of these agents on soil has resulted in widely varying degradation rates. Not surprisingly, no studies have investigated affinities of organophosphorus nerve agents to mineral or organic matter typically found in soil. As a result, we initiated laboratory experiments on dilute concentrations of nerve agent O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothiolate (VX) to quantify persistence in simulated environmental aqueous conditions. A quantitative analytical method was developed for VX and its degradation products using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). VX hydrolysis rate is known to have a pH-dependency, however, the type of buffer and the relative proportion of different nucleophiles in solution significantly affect the overall rate and mechanism of degradation. For example, dissolved carbonate, a weak nucleophile dominating natural water, yielded pseudo-first order rate constants of {approx} 8 x 10{sup -3}/hr at pH 5 and 2 x 10{sup -2}/hr at pH 11. This small pH-dependent variation departs significantly from widely accepted rates at this pH range (4 x 10{sup -4}/hr to 8 x 10{sup -2}/hr) that were based on chloride and hydroxyl (strong nucleophile) dominated experimental solutions. Because of its overwhelming abundance in solution relative to hydroxyl ion, bicarbonate likely effectively competes in nucleophilic attack on phosphorus. The addition of natural dissolved organic matter at 100 mg/L in pH 7 bicarbonate buffered solution slowed VX hydrolysis rates {approx}2 times relative to controls, suggesting hydrophobic interaction. Adsorption experiments derived isotherms from batch aqueous experiments on montmorillonite clay, iron-oxyhydroxide goethite, and on amorphous silica. VX had moderate affinity for montmorillonite and amorphous silica, and very low affinity toward goethite. The addition of dissolved organic matter into solution enhanced VX adsorption to goethite, consistent with its high affinity for hydrophobic organic matter (log K{sub oc} = 2.52). Diisopropylaminoethylthiol (DESH), a hydrolysis product of VX showed equivalent adsorption to montmorillonite, and poor affinity to goethite and silica. However, hydrolysis products O-Ethylmethylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and methylphosphonic acid (MPA) strongly adsorbed on goethite, but not on montmorillonite or silica, suggesting a ligand-exchange mechanism. VX degraded rapidly when completely dried onto goethite followed by rehydration, consistent with an irreversible chemical adsorption mechanism.

Davisson, M L; Love, A H; Vance, A; Reynolds, J G

2005-02-08

68

National measures under the chemical weapons convention to protect confidential business information and compensate for its loss  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a discussion presented at the Regional Seminar on the National Authority and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Measures to protect confidential business information and compensation for information which has not been sufficiently protected is discussed.

Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ. College of Law, Chicago, IL (United States)

1995-07-01

69

Project update: evaluating the community health legacy of WWI chemical weapons testing.  

PubMed

The Spring Valley community of Washington, District of Columbia, was built on the site of a World War I chemical weapons lab where testing activities had distributed arsenic to surface soil and waste disposal had resulted in localized subsurface contamination. In previous work, findings were suggestive of potential site-related health issues, although no evidence of cancer clustering was found. In follow-up, we updated the community health assessment and explored time trends for several arsenic-related cancers. Health indicators continue to be very good in Spring Valley. For all major causes of mortality, Spring Valley rates were lower than United States (US) rates with most substantially lower (20-80 %); rates for heart diseases, Alzheimer's, and essential hypertension and related kidney disease were only slightly lower than US rates (3-8 %). Incidence and mortality rates for the selected cancers in the Spring Valley area were lower than US rates. Small non-statistically significant increasing time trends were observed in Spring Valley for incidence of two arsenic-related cancers: bladder and lung and bronchus. A moderate statistically significant increasing rate trend was observed for lung and bronchus cancer mortality in Spring Valley (p < 0.01). Lung and bronchus cancer mortality rates were also increasing in the Chevy Chase community, the local comparison area closely matched to Spring Valley on important demographic variables, suggesting that the observed increases may not be site-related. A full profile of common cancer site rates and trends for both study areas was suggested to better understand the rate trend findings but no epidemiological study was recommended. PMID:24610560

Fox, Mary A

2014-10-01

70

Analytical technique to address terrorist threats by chemical weapons of mass destruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrorism is no longer an issue without effect on the American mind. We now live with the same concerns and fears that have been commonplace in other developed and third world countries for a long time. Citizens of other countries have long lived with the specter of terrorism and now the U.S. needs to be concerned and prepared for terrorist activities.T he terrorist has the ability to cause great destructive effects by focusing their effort on unaware and unprepared civilian populations. Attacks can range from simple explosives to sophisticated nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Intentional chemical releases of hazardous chemicals or chemical warfare agents pose a great threat because of their ready availability and/or ease of production, and their ability to cause widespread damage. As this battlefront changes from defined conflicts and enemies to unnamed terrorists, we must implement the proper analytical tools to provide a fast and efficient response. Each chemical uses in a terrorists weapon leaves behind a chemical signature that can be used to identify the materials involved and possibly lead investigators to the source and to those responsible. New tools to provide fast and accurate detection for battlefield chemical and biological agent attack are emerging. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is one of these tools that has found increasing use by the military to respond to chemical agent attacks. As the technology becomes smaller and more portable, it can be used by law enforcement personnel to identify suspected terrorist releases and to help prepare the response; define contaminated areas for evacuation and safety concerns, identify the proper treatment of exposed or affected civilians, and suggest decontamination and cleanup procedures.

Dempsey, Patrick M.

1997-01-01

71

Implementing the chemical weapons convention: The nuts and bolts of compliance  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a presentation prepared for the American Bar Association in which the author discusses the issue of rights to privacy in the United States in the face of implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention inspections. The author points out that there are no clear precedents in law which deal with all the issues which will result from international inspections for verification which are required by the treaty. In particular as inspections tread on the issue of personal rights or private property there is a fairly ill defined legal area which needs to be developed to allow such inspections in the face of constitutional guarantees.

Tanzman, E.A.

1995-03-01

72

Comparison of methodologies for assessing the risks from nuclear weapons and from nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

There are important differences between the safety principles for nuclear weapons and for nuclear reactors. For example, a principal concern for nuclear weapons is to prevent electrical energy from reaching the nuclear package during accidents produced by crashes, fires, and other hazards, whereas the foremost concern for nuclear reactors is to maintain coolant around the core in the event of certain system failures. Not surprisingly, new methods have had to be developed to assess the risk from nuclear weapons. These include fault tree transformations that accommodate time dependencies, thermal and structural analysis techniques that are fast and unconditionally stable, and parameter sampling methods that incorporate intelligent searching. This paper provides an overview of the new methods for nuclear weapons and compares them with existing methods for nuclear reactors. It also presents a new intelligent searching process for identifying potential nuclear detonation vulnerabilities. The new searching technique runs very rapidly on a workstation and shows promise for providing an accurate assessment of potential vulnerabilities with far fewer physical response calculations than would be required using a standard Monte Carlo sampling procedure.

Benjamin, A.S.

1996-08-01

73

On-matrix derivatization extraction of chemical weapons convention relevant alcohols from soil.  

PubMed

Present study deals with the on-matrix derivatization-extraction of aminoalcohols and thiodiglycols, which are important precursors and/or degradation products of VX analogues and vesicants class of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). The method involved hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) mediated in situ silylation of analytes on the soil. Subsequent extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of derivatized analytes offered better recoveries in comparison to the procedure recommended by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). Various experimental conditions such as extraction solvent, reagent and catalyst amount, reaction time and temperature were optimized. Best recoveries of analytes ranging from 45% to 103% were obtained with DCM solvent containing 5%, v/v HMDS and 0.01%, w/v iodine as catalyst. The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) with selected analytes ranged from 8 to 277 and 21 to 665ngmL(-1), respectively, in selected ion monitoring mode. PMID:24016719

Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay; Singh, Varoon; Dubey, D K; Pardasani, Deepak

2013-10-11

74

78 FR 55326 - Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Syria Under the Chemical and Biological...Control and Warfare Elimination...a) of the Chemical and Biological...Control and Warfare Elimination...d) of the Chemical and Biological...Control and Warfare...

2013-09-10

75

Steps towards universality of the Chemical Weapons Convention: How can Africa contribute?  

SciTech Connect

Universality is a fundamental principal of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). It suffuses the fabric of the Convention, found not only in the very first ringing clauses of Article I, but also in the many technical details of its Annexes and Schedules. Consequently, universality is a topic on which commentary is appropriate from all quarters. The author offers his personal views as a lawyer on this important matter in the hope that, this distinguished audience may gain a perspective not available from practitioners of other professions. The views expressed in this paper are those of the author alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US or of any other institution.

Tanzman, E.

1999-11-02

76

Public Health, Law, and Local Control: Destruction of the US Chemical Weapons Stockpile  

PubMed Central

Destruction of US chemical weapons has begun at one of the 8 sites in the continental United States, was completed on Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, and is scheduled to begin in at least 3 other locations during the upcoming year. About 25% of the stockpile and 38% of the munitions had been destroyed as of December 31, 2002. However, the program has become controversial with regard to choice of technology, emergency management, and cost. This controversy is in large part due to efforts by some state and local governments and activist groups to play a more central role in a decisionmaking process that was once fully controlled by the US Army. PMID:12893599

Greenberg, Michael R.

2003-01-01

77

Lifetime Assessments of Weapon Organics and Polymers FY05 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

Non-nuclear organics, while not yet regarded to be at risk, figure in a large percentage of Significant Findings Investigations. Further, early application of advanced lifetime, compatibility, and base-lining assessments for LEP replacement materials and emerging materials for the Reliable Replacement Warhead (RRW) provides data for rational material choices. This task is currently assessing the chemical and mechanical characteristics of a variety of weapon organics prioritized by the risk-consequence of material aging. The majority of effort to date has been dedicated to silicone elastomer components known to lose their load resistance with age, with additional effort dedicated to urethane adhesives. This fiscal year, we have focused on initial aging studies of UNI620-3, a candidate replacement material for DC745U, and Adiprene (LW520). Aging studies of S5455, originally scheduled for testing in FY05, were postponed until FY07. We have initiated aging studies on these materials by employing accelerated aging tests with exposure to Co-60 {gamma}-radiation and elevated temperatures and studying their mechanical properties using a variety of analytical tools including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Additionally, we have investigated aging signatures present in parts returned from surveillance as well as initiated long and short term stress relaxation studies for a thorough understanding of compression set occurring in silicone elastomers components. Additional investigations of aging processes in fluoropolymer binders and the combined effects of radiation and tensile set on silicone pads were performed. Finally, we have used temperature programmed desorption (TPD) studies to significantly improve the accuracy of our H{sub 2}O outgassing model in comparison with last year through the use of the isoconversion technique as well as to measure the equilibrium vapor pressure of hydrogenated DPB pellets. This report satisfies the milestones/deliverables for the L3 task 'Update chemical and mechanical aging models for cushion/pads/adhesives' and all data will be input into the L2 milestone 'Bill's token L2 milestone'.

Chinn, S; Maxwell, R; Sawvel, A; Madabhushi, R; Dinh, L; Solyom, D; Cohenour, R

2006-11-01

78

Assessing State Nuclear Weapons Proliferation: Using Bayesian Network Analysis of Social Factors  

SciTech Connect

A Bayesian network (BN) model of social factors can support proliferation assessments by estimating the likelihood that a state will pursue a nuclear weapon. Social factors including political, economic, nuclear capability, security, and national identity and psychology factors may play as important a role in whether a State pursues nuclear weapons as more physical factors. This paper will show how using Bayesian reasoning on a generic case of a would-be proliferator State can be used to combine evidence that supports proliferation assessment. Theories and analysis by political scientists can be leveraged in a quantitative and transparent way to indicate proliferation risk. BN models facilitate diagnosis and inference in a probabilistic environment by using a network of nodes and acyclic directed arcs between the nodes whose connections, or absence of, indicate probabilistic relevance, or independence. We propose a BN model that would use information from both traditional safeguards and the strengthened safeguards associated with the Additional Protocol to indicate countries with a high risk of proliferating nuclear weapons. This model could be used in a variety of applications such a prioritization tool and as a component of state safeguards evaluations. This paper will discuss the benefits of BN reasoning, the development of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) BN state proliferation model and how it could be employed as an analytical tool.

Coles, Garill A.; Brothers, Alan J.; Olson, Jarrod; Whitney, Paul D.

2010-04-16

79

Historical precedence and technical requirements of biological weapons use : a threat assessment.  

SciTech Connect

The threat from biological weapons is assessed through both a comparative historical analysis of the patterns of biological weapons use and an assessment of the technological hurdles to proliferation and use that must be overcome. The history of biological weapons is studied to learn how agents have been acquired and what types of states and substate actors have used agents. Substate actors have generally been more willing than states to use pathogens and toxins and they have focused on those agents that are more readily available. There has been an increasing trend of bioterrorism incidents over the past century, but states and substate actors have struggled with one or more of the necessary technological steps. These steps include acquisition of a suitable agent, production of an appropriate quantity and form, and effective deployment. The technological hurdles associated with the steps present a real barrier to producing a high consequence event. However, the ever increasing technological sophistication of society continually lowers the barriers, resulting in a low but increasing probability of a high consequence bioterrorism event.

Estes, Daniel P.; Vogel, Kathleen Margaret; Gaudioso, Jennifer Marie; Hickok, Lauren T.; Jung, Danielle F.; Barnett, Natalie Beth; Frerichs, Rebecca L.; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson

2004-05-01

80

Miniaturized sequential injection analyzer for the monitoring and quantitation of chemical weapons degradation compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to monitor and detect chemical warfare agents and their degradation compounds continues to be of utmost importance. Remote on-site field analysis of these compounds is also extremely important as it relates to treaty verification for the Chemical Weapons Convention, as well as the minimization and elimination of human exposure. A portable instrument has been developed and miniaturized that allows for the detection of these compounds in the field with better quantitative results and higher reproducibility than traditional field test kits. All sample and reagent manipulations are conducted in a completely automated fashion. Quantitative results may be determined colorimetrically using the molybdenum blue reaction for the final degradation product of phosphonic acid based chemical warfare agents with a detection limit of 0.05 ppm. The instrument is based on the flow analysis technique of sequential injection analysis (SIA). The benefits of this approach are that the method provides rapid response, high reproducibility of results, high sensitivity and minimal waste production.

Lancaster, Herbert L., III; Postlethwaite, Timothy A.; Zhang, Peng; Sorrells, Richard

2002-06-01

81

Recovery from a chemical weapons accident or incident: A concept paper on planning  

SciTech Connect

Emergency planning for an unintended release of chemical agent from the nation`s chemical weapons stockpile should include preparation for. the period following implementation of immediate emergency response. That period -- the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage -- is the subject of this report. The report provides an overview of the role of recovery, reentry, and restoration planning in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), describes the transition from immediate emergency response to restoration, and analyzes the legal framework that would govern restoration activities. Social, economic, and administrative issues, as well as technical ones, need to be considered in the planning effort. Because of possible jurisdictional conflicts, appropriate federal, state, and local agencies need to be included in a coordinated planning process. Advance consideration should be given to the pertinent federal and state statutes and regulations. On the federal level, the principal statutes and regulations to be considered are those associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and the National Environmental Policy Act. This report recommends that extensive preaccident planning be undertaken for the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage and outlines several key issues that should be considered in that planning. The need for interagency cooperation and coordination at all levels of the planning process is emphasized.

Herzenberg, C.L.; Haffenden, R.; Lerner, K.; Meleski, S.A.; Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Lewis, L.M. [US Dept. of Agriculture (United States); Hemphill, R.C. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (United States); Adams, J.D. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

1994-04-01

82

Analysis of chemical weapons decontamination waste from old ton containers from Johnston Atoll using multiple analytical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decontamination waste from chemical weapons (CW) agents has been stored in ton containers on Johnston Atoll since 1971. The waste was recently sampled and analyzed to determine its chemical composition in preparation for future cleanups. Due to the range of products and analytical requirements, multiple chromatographic and spectroscopic methods were necessary, including gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS), gas chromatography\\/atomic emission detection

William R. Creasy; Mark D. Brickhouse; K. M. Morrisse; Richard L. Cheicante; Jill Ruth; Jeffrey Mays; Barry R. Williams; Richard O'Connor; H. Dupont Durst

1999-01-01

83

Environmental management of assembled chemical weapons assessment program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental planning and management was an integral part of the ACWA Program planning process. To ensure that environmental protection issues could be addressed expeditiously and not delay the demonstrations, the PMACWA scaled the technology demonstrations such that simplified regulatory processes and existing research and development facilities could be used. The use of enclosed facilities for the demonstrations prevents any uncontrolled

G. Frey; G. Mohrman; B. R. Templin

1999-01-01

84

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program rapid accident assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report develops a scheme for the rapid assessment of a release of toxic chemicals resulting from an accident in one of the most chemical weapon demilitarization plants or storage areas. The system uses such inputs as chemical and pressure sensors monitoring the plant and reports of accidents radioed to the Emergency Operations Center by work parties or monitoring personnel. A size of release can be estimated from previous calculations done in the risk analysis, from back calculation from an open-air chemical sensor measurement, or from an estimated percentage of the inventory of agent at the location of the release. Potential consequences of the estimated release are calculated from real-time meteorological data, surrounding population data, and properties of the agent. In addition to the estimated casualties, area coverage and no-death contours vs time would be calculated. Accidents are assigned to one of four categories: community emergencies, which are involve a threat to off-site personnel; on-post emergencies, which involve a threat only to on-site personnel; advisory, which involves a potential for threat to on-site personnel; and chemical occurrence, which can produce an abnormal operating condition for the plant but no immediate threat to on-site personnel. 9 refs., 20 tabs.

Chester, C.V.

1990-08-01

85

Extraction and derivatization of chemical weapons convention relevant aminoalcohols on magnetic cation-exchange resins.  

PubMed

Analysis and identification of nitrogen containing aminoalcohols is an integral part of the verification analysis of chemical weapons convention (CWC). This study was aimed to develop extraction and derivatization of aminoalcohols of CWC relevance by using magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction (MDSPE) in combination with on-resin derivatization (ORD). For this purpose, sulfonated magnetic cation-exchange resins (SMRs) were prepared using magnetite nanoparticles as core, styrene and divinylbenzene as polymer coat and sulfonic acid as acidic cation exchanger. SMRs were successfully employed as extractant for targeted basic analytes. Adsorbed analytes were derivatized with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) on the surface of extractant. Derivatized (silylated) compounds were analyzed by GC-MS in SIM and full scan mode. The linearity of the method ranged from 5 to 200ngmL(-1). The LOD and LOQ ranged from 2 to 6ngmL(-1) and 5 to 19ngmL(-1) respectively. The relative standard deviation for intra-day repeatability and inter-day intermediate precision ranged from 5.1% to 6.6% and 0.2% to 7.6% respectively. Recoveries of analytes from spiked water samples from different sources varied from 28.4% to 89.3%. PMID:24418235

Singh, Varoon; Garg, Prabhat; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

2014-02-14

86

Autonomous bio-chemical decontaminator (ABCD) against weapons of mass destruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and the use of such elements pose an eminent asymmetric threat with disastrous consequences to the national security of any nation. In particular, the use of biochemical warfare agents against civilians and unprotected troops in international conflicts or by terrorists against civilians is considered as a very peculiar threat. Accordingly, taking a quarantine-before-inhalation approach to biochemical warfare, the author introduces the notion of autonomous biochemical decontamination against WMD. In the unfortunate event of a biochemical attack, the apparatus proposed herein is intended to automatically detect, identify, and more importantly neutralize a biochemical threat. Along with warnings concerning a cyber-WMD nexus, various sections cover discussions on human senses and computer sensors, corroborating evidence related to detection and neutralization of chemical toxins, and cyber-assisted olfaction in stand alone, peer-to-peer, and network settings. In essence, the apparatus can be used in aviation and mass transit security to initiate mass decontamination by dispersing a decontaminant aerosol or to protect the public water supply against a potential bioterrorist attack. Future effort may involve a system-on-chip (SoC) embodiment of this apparatus that allows a safer environment for the emerging phenomenon of cyber-assisted olfaction and morph cell phones into ubiquitous sensors/decontaminators. Although this paper covers mechanisms and protocols to avail a neutralizing substance, further research will need to explore the substance's various pharmacological profiles and potential side effects.

Hyacinthe, Berg P.

2006-05-01

87

Feasibility of Detecting Byproducts of Chemical Weapons Manufacturing in Environmental Media: A Preliminary Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative information on the environmental transport and fate of organophosphorus nerve agents has been limited to studies conducted at high concentration representative of acute doses (Munroe et al. 1999). Nerve agents have relatively rapidly degradation rates at acute levels, and first order degradation pathways and half-lives have been characterized. However, similar knowledge is lacking in the open literature on the long-term environmental persistence of nerve agents, their manufacturing precursors and byproducts, and their degradation products, particularly at sub-acute or chronic health levels. Although many recent publications reflect low-level detection methods for chemical weapons signature compounds extracted from a variety of different media (e.g. D'Agostino et al., 2001; Kataoka et al., 2001), little of this work answers questions regarding their adsorptive character and chemical persistence. However, these questions are a central theme to both the detection of illegal chemical weapons manufacturing, as well as determining long-term cleanup needs and health risks associated with potential terrorist acts using such agents. Adsorption onto environmental surfaces can enhance the persistence of organophosphorus compounds, particularly with strong chelators like phosphonic acids. In particular, organophosphorus compound adsorption can lead to irreversible binding (e.g. Aubin and Smith, 1992), and current methods of chemical extraction and solid-state detection are challenged to detect them. This may be particularly true if the adsorbed compound is of a low initial concentration because it may be that the most preferred adsorption sites form the strongest bonds. This is particularly true in mixed media having various adsorption domains that adsorb at different rates (e.g. Weber and Huang, 1996). For high enough initial concentrations, sorption sites become saturated and solvent extraction has a relatively high efficiency. It is no surprise that many CW fate studies can report findings using traditional extraction or solid-state methods of detection, since release concentration exceed the capacity of environmental media to adsorb or degrade them. This report documents a test using solid-state {sup 31}P-NMR and GC/MS methods to delineate two adsorbed phosphonates on a uniform silica gel substrate at different concentrations. The test sought to determine the sensitivity of {sup 31}P-NMR detection, delineate adsorption character of the phosphonates, quantify their extraction efficiency using different solvents, and test the phosphonate mobility and photodegradability under short-term idealized conditions. The results show that solid-state detection at the experimental conditions can detect individual phosphonate species down to the 100 ppm level. Sensitivity could be further increased using larger samples and longer collection times. Solvent extraction of the phosphonates from the silica gel showed that a chlorinated solvent (methylene chloride) produced poor recovery for phosphonic acids from the silica gel, whereas methanol used as a solvent achieved high extraction efficiency. The phosphonates used showed strong aqueous mobility in a silica gel column experiment, with a small but significant amount left adsorbed to the substrate. A 96 hour photo-degradation experiment showed no degradation of the compounds.

Davisson, L; Reynolds, J G; Koester, C; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; Love, A H; Viani, B E

2003-03-01

88

Packaging and Delivery of Chemical Weapons: A Defensive Trojan Horse Stratagem in Chromodorid Nudibranchs  

PubMed Central

Background Storage of secondary metabolites with a putative defensive role occurs in the so-called mantle dermal formations (MDFs) that are located in the more exposed parts of the body of most and very likely all members of an entire family of marine mollusks, the chromodorid nudibranchs (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia). Given that these structures usually lack a duct system, the mechanism for exudation of their contents remains unclear, as does their adaptive significance. One possible explanation could be that they are adapted so as to be preferentially attacked by predators. The nudibranchs might offer packages containing highly repugnant chemicals along with parts of their bodies to the predators, as a defensive variant of the strategic theme of the Trojan horse. Methodology and Principal Findings We detected, by quantitative 1H-NMR, extremely high local concentrations of secondary metabolites in the MDFs of six species belonging to five chromodorid genera. The compounds were purified by chromatographic methods and subsequently evaluated for their feeding deterrent properties, obtaining dose-response curves. We found that only distasteful compounds are accumulated in the reservoirs at concentrations that far exceed the values corresponding to maximum deterrent activity in the feeding assays. Other basic evidence, both field and experimental, has been acquired to elucidate the kind of damage that the predators can produce on both the nudibranchs' mantles and the MDFs. Significance As a result of a long evolutionary process that has progressively led to the accumulation of defensive chemical weapons in localized anatomical structures, the extant chromodorid nudibranchs remain in place when molested, retracting respiratory and chemosensory organs, but offering readily accessible parts of their body to predators. When these parts are masticated or wounded by predators, breakage of the MDFs results in the release of distasteful compounds at extremely high concentration in a way that maximizes their repugnant impact. PMID:23620804

Carbone, Marianna; Gavagnin, Margherita; Haber, Markus; Guo, Yue-Wei; Fontana, Angelo; Manzo, Emiliano; Genta-Jouve, Gregory; Tsoukatou, Maria; Rudman, William B.; Cimino, Guido; Ghiselin, Michael T.; Mollo, Ernesto

2013-01-01

89

EIGHTH SESSION OF THE CONFERENCE OF STATES PARTIES TO THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION  

E-print Network

, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia, the Associated Countries Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey together Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction adopted by the EU Heads of State and Government at the Thessaloniki

Sussex, University of

90

Nuclear Weapon  

MedlinePLUS

http://emergency.cdc.gov/radiation What is a nuclear weapon? A nuclear weapon is a device that uses ... radioactive and can contaminate anything it lands on. NUCLEAR WEAPON What are the main dangers of a nuclear ...

91

Physical and Computational Modeling for Chemical and Biological Weapons Airflow Applications  

SciTech Connect

There is a need for information on dispersion and infiltration of chemical and biological agents in complex building environments. A recent collaborative study conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Bechtel Corporation Research and Development had the objective of assessing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for simulation of flow around complicated buildings through a comparison of experimental and numerical results. The test facility used in the experiments was INEEL’s unique large Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) flow system. The CFD code used for modeling was Fluent, a widely available commercial flow simulation package. For the experiment, a building plan was selected to approximately represent an existing facility. It was found that predicted velocity profiles from above the building and in front of the building were in good agreement with the measurements.

McEligot, Donald Marinus; Mc Creery, Glenn Ernest; Pink, Robert John; Barringer, C.; Knight, K. J.

2002-11-01

92

76 FR 76935 - Impact of Implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Commercial Activities Involving...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Schedule 1'' Chemicals Through Calendar Year 2011; Impact of Adding Salts of...involving ``Schedule 1'' chemicals during calendar year 2011. Additionally, BIS seeks...Schedule 1'' Chemicals Through Calendar Year 2011 In providing its advice...

2011-12-09

93

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides independent oversight to the U.S. Army's chemical weapons elimination program and serves as an important element in ensuring the  

E-print Network

to the U.S. Army's chemical weapons elimination program and serves as an important element in ensuring the safe destruction of chemical warfare material for protection of public health. The team's focus is prevention with vigilance. The CDC chemical weapons elimination team's mission is to protect public health

94

78 FR 74218 - Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991 AGENCY...Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991, 22...Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991, as...suspend the authority of foreign air carriers owned or...

2013-12-10

95

78 FR 75910 - Impact of the Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Legitimate Commercial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Chemicals Produced as Intermediates) Through Calendar Year 2013 AGENCY: Bureau of Industry...involving ``Schedule 1'' chemicals during calendar year 2013. The purpose of this notice...in excess of 100 grams aggregate per calendar year (i.e., declared...

2013-12-13

96

75 FR 69630 - Impact of Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention on Commercial Activities Involving...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Chemicals as Intermediates, Through Calendar Year 2010 AGENCY: Bureau of Industry...involving ``Schedule 1'' chemicals during calendar year 2010. BIS reminds the public that...in excess of 100 grams aggregate per calendar year (i.e., declared...

2010-11-15

97

77 FR 75145 - Impact of the Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Commercial Activities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Chemicals Produced as Intermediates) Through Calendar Year 2012 AGENCY: Bureau of Industry...involving ``Schedule 1'' chemicals during calendar year 2012. The purpose of this notice...in excess of 100 grams aggregate per calendar year (i.e., declared...

2012-12-19

98

Chemical facility vulnerability assessment project.  

PubMed

Sandia National Laboratories, under the direction of the Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice, conducted the chemical facility vulnerability assessment (CFVA) project. The primary objective of this project was to develop, test and validate a vulnerability assessment methodology (VAM) for determining the security of chemical facilities against terrorist or criminal attacks (VAM-CF). The project also included a report to the Department of Justice for Congress that in addition to describing the VAM-CF also addressed general observations related to security practices, threats and risks at chemical facilities and chemical transport. In the development of the VAM-CF Sandia leveraged the experience gained from the use and development of VAs in other areas and the input from the chemical industry and Federal agencies. The VAM-CF is a systematic, risk-based approach where risk is a function of the severity of consequences of an undesired event, the attack potential, and the likelihood of adversary success in causing the undesired event. For the purpose of the VAM-CF analyses Risk is a function of S, L(A), and L(AS), where S is the severity of consequence of an event, L(A) is the attack potential and L(AS) likelihood of adversary success in causing a catastrophic event. The VAM-CF consists of 13 basic steps. It involves an initial screening step, which helps to identify and prioritize facilities for further analysis. This step is similar to the prioritization approach developed by the American Chemistry Council (ACC). Other steps help to determine the components of the risk equation and ultimately the risk. The VAM-CF process involves identifying the hazardous chemicals and processes at a chemical facility. It helps chemical facilities to focus their attention on the most critical areas. The VAM-CF is not a quantitative analysis but, rather, compares relative security risks. If the risks are deemed too high, recommendations are developed for measures to reduce the risk. This paper will briefly discuss the CFVA project and VAM-CF process. PMID:14602410

Jaeger, Calvin D

2003-11-14

99

Integrating novel chemical weapons and evolutionarily increased competitive ability in success of a tropical invader.  

PubMed

The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis and the novel weapons hypothesis (NWH) are two non-mutually exclusive mechanisms for exotic plant invasions, but few studies have simultaneously tested these hypotheses. Here we aimed to integrate them in the context of Chromolaena odorata invasion. We conducted two common garden experiments in order to test the EICA hypothesis, and two laboratory experiments in order to test the NWH. In common conditions, C. odorata plants from the nonnative range were better competitors but not larger than plants from the native range, either with or without the experimental manipulation of consumers. Chromolaena odorata plants from the nonnative range were more poorly defended against aboveground herbivores but better defended against soil-borne enemies. Chromolaena odorata plants from the nonnative range produced more odoratin (Eupatorium) (a unique compound of C. odorata with both allelopathic and defensive activities) and elicited stronger allelopathic effects on species native to China, the nonnative range of the invader, than on natives of Mexico, the native range of the invader. Our results suggest that invasive plants may evolve increased competitive ability after being introduced by increasing the production of novel allelochemicals, potentially in response to naïve competitors and new enemy regimes. PMID:25367824

Zheng, Yu-Long; Feng, Yu-Long; Zhang, Li-Kun; Callaway, Ragan M; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso; Luo, Du-Qiang; Liao, Zhi-Yong; Lei, Yan-Bao; Barclay, Gregor F; Silva-Pereyra, Carlos

2015-02-01

100

PRESENTED 03/01/2006: 2006 REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN THE REMEDIATION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONTAMINATION IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE  

EPA Science Inventory

During World War 1, The American University in Washington, DC was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite...

101

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...intermediate. Means any chemical which is produced in a chemical process but, because it is in a transition state in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics, exists only for a very short period of time, and cannot be isolated, even by modifying or dismantling...

2014-01-01

102

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...intermediate . Means any chemical which is produced in a chemical process but, because it is in a transition state in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics, exists only for a very short period of time, and cannot be isolated, even by modifying or dismantling...

2011-01-01

103

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...intermediate . Means any chemical which is produced in a chemical process but, because it is in a transition state in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics, exists only for a very short period of time, and cannot be isolated, even by modifying or dismantling...

2012-01-01

104

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...intermediate . Means any chemical which is produced in a chemical process but, because it is in a transition state in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics, exists only for a very short period of time, and cannot be isolated, even by modifying or dismantling...

2013-01-01

105

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...intermediate . Means any chemical which is produced in a chemical process but, because it is in a transition state in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics, exists only for a very short period of time, and cannot be isolated, even by modifying or dismantling...

2010-01-01

106

Neutralization of chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction using nuclear methods  

E-print Network

This thesis addresses the threat of chemical and biological armed ballistic missiles and their neutralization by nuclear methods. The objective of this effort is twofold. The first objective is to develop a justification for using nuclear...

McAffrey, Veronica Lynn

2002-01-01

107

Biological and chemical weapons of mass destruction: updated clinical therapeutic countermeasures since 2003.  

PubMed

The objective of this article is to provide updated treatment options for bioterrorism agents. This updated synopsis includes recent clinical cases and treatment recommendations that have arisen in the last 5 years. The decontamination, treatment, and disposition of these biologic and chemical agents are presented alphabetically by agent type: biologic, chemical, and radiologic/nuclear. The information provided outlines only new treatment options since 2003. PMID:22573054

Pettineo, Christopher; Aitchison, Robert; Leikin, Scott M; Vogel, Stephen N; Leikin, Jerrold B

2009-01-01

108

A decontamination system for chemical weapons agents using a liquid solution on a solid sorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decontamination system for chemical warfare agents was developed and tested that combines a liquid decontamination reagent solution with solid sorbent particles. The components have fewer safety and environmental concerns than traditional chlorine bleach-based products or highly caustic solutions. The liquid solution, based on Decon Green™, has hydrogen peroxide and a carbonate buffer as active ingredients. The best solid sorbents

Daniel Waysbort; David J. McGarvey; William R. Creasy; Kevin M. Morrissey; David M. Hendrickson; H. Dupont Durst

2009-01-01

109

Versatile attack weapon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air defense threat to air strike forces continues to increase, both in quality and quantity. Third World countries now possess Integrated Air Defense (AID) capabilities equaling that of major powers. Radio Frequency (RF) only Anti-Radiation Homing (ARH) weapons are being effectively neutralized by countermeasure improvements in these land based and satellite IAD systems. The cost of piecemeal modification of existing weapon systems or the continuous fielding of threat specific weapon systems is becoming prohibitive. A low funded in-house project was started in 1988 that confronts this defense threat situation with a multi-mode multi-mission weapon system which is affordable to employ in large quantities. The system has capabilities as both a defense suppression weapon and a surgical strike weapon. Employment can be facilitated from a reduced threat environment to air strike forces. Other objectives for this innovative weapon system are the capabilities for high target damage, countermeasure resistance, real time aim point selection, and real time Battle Damage Assessment (BDA). Technical feasibility of the various system and subsystem elements were verified by theoretical analysis. Many were also verified by physical demonstration in prototype hardware.

Quist, D.

1992-11-01

110

Cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals at a former nuclear weapons plant: piloting of an exposure surveillance system.  

PubMed

Cleanup of former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facilities involves potential exposures to various hazardous chemicals. We have collaboratively developed and piloted an exposure database and surveillance system for cleanup worker hazardous chemical exposure data with a cleanup contractor at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). A unique system feature is the incorporation of a 34-category work task-coding scheme. This report presents an overview of the data captured by this system during development and piloting from March 1995 through August 1998. All air samples collected were entered into the system. Of the 859 breathing zone samples collected, 103 unique employees and 39 unique compounds were represented. Breathing zone exposure levels were usually low (86% of breathing zone samples were below analytical limits of detection). The use of respirators and other exposure controls was high (87 and 88%, respectively). Occasional high-level excursions did occur. Detailed quantitative summaries are provided for the six most monitored compounds: asbestos, beryllium, carbon tetrachloride, chromium, lead, and methylene chloride. Task and job title data were successfully collected for most samples, and showed specific cleanup activities by pipe fitters to be the most commonly represented in the database. Importantly, these results demonstrate the feasibility of the implementation of integrated exposure database and surveillance systems by practicing industrial hygienists employed in industry as well as the preventive potential and research uses of such systems. This exposure database and surveillance system--the central features of which are applicable in any industrial work setting--has enabled one of the first systematic quantitative characterizations of DOE cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals. PMID:11217724

LaMontagne, A D; Van Dyke, M V; Martyny, J W; Ruttenber, A J

2001-02-01

111

High Resolution Mapping of an Alleged Chemical Weapons Dump Site in the Santa Cruz Basin, offshore California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nautical charts record seven locations off the coast of California labeled as 'Chemical Munitions Dumping Area, Disused' that together cover some 12,000 km2 of sea floor. However only one such chemical munitions site is officially documented and no record exists of any chemical munitions disposed of at other locations, thus creating confusion. We have executed a one day AUV mapping survey of a corner of one such site in the Santa Cruz Basin, south of Port Hueneme, to examine and investigate the debris field. The region is covered with soft sediment and the overlying water is very low in oxygen at ~10 ?mol/kg. The processed 110 kHz sidescan data revealed some 754 targets in 25.6 km2 for an average of 29 targets per km2. This was followed by two ROV dives to investigate the targets identified. We found but one false positives among the over 40 targets visited, and found items ranging from two distinct lines of unmarked or labeled and now empty barrels, two target drones, and much miscellaneous debris including 4-packs of cat food cans and a large ships mast over 30m in length. There was zero evidence of chemical weapons materiel as expected given the lack of official records. Almost all of the targets were covered in dense and colorful assemblages of invertebrates: sponges, anemones, and crabs. Where barrels were sufficiently open for full visual inspection, the interior sea floor appeared to have become fully anoxic and was covered in white and yellow bacterial mat. The area chosen for our survey (centered at 33.76 deg N 119.56 deg W) was across the north western boundary of the marked site, and represents only ~ 10% percent of the designated area. Our expectation, that human nature would drive the disposal activities to the nearest corner of the chosen area rather than the center of the field appears to have been confirmed. Objects were found both within and outside of the boundary of the dump site. We have not surveyed the full marked area but there appears to be the substantial possibility of a gross error in the labeling of charts. Our results show that simple, rapid, and cost effective surveys of these sites can be made, that the found debris field of rusted barrels and other objects appears to have contained more mundane waste material that long ago dissipated or hydrolyzed. It is likely that the majority of disposed material is far from the center of the charted area and thus a re-drawing of the warning zone following additional surveying of the actual extent of the dump site to reflect this would be a significant improvement.

Brewer, P. G.; Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.

2013-12-01

112

3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents ...of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994...biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2010-01-01

113

77 FR 66513 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by...biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering...effectively to the worldwide threat of weapons of mass destruction proliferation...

2012-11-05

114

75 FR 68671 - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents Federal...of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by...biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2010-11-08

115

3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents ...of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994...biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2011-01-01

116

76 FR 70317 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents Federal...National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by...biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2011-11-10

117

Cyber Weapons Convention  

Microsoft Academic Search

World leaders are beginning to look beyond temporary fixes to the challenge of securing the Internet. One possible solution may be an international arms control treaty for cyberspace. The 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) provides national security planners with a useful model. CWC has been ratified by 98% of the world’s governments, and encompasses 95% of the world’s population. It

Kenneth Geers

2010-01-01

118

In-field assessment of chemical high explosives using immunoassay techniques  

SciTech Connect

Base realignment and weapons complex reconfiguration have prompted closure of former military related properties. As a result, chemical high explosives in environmental media are encountered with greater frequency during accelerated site characterization activities. The DOE`s Pantex nuclear weapons production/disassembly facility in Amarillo, Texas has observed nitroaromatic and nitramine compounds in soil and groundwater. Recognizing that phases characterization programs are time consuming and expensive, Pantex has employed compound specific immunoassay screening techniques to semi-quantitatively assess high explosive contamination in environmental media. As a result of using immunoassay techniques at over 500 sample locations, Pantex has achieved significant benefits corollary to reduced analytical expenses and timeframes, waste generation and management expenditures, field mobilization, and site characterization timeframes. Pantex Plant concludes that the use of immunoassay field screening of samples for chemical high explosives results in accelerated site characterization at a decreased expense while maintaining quality protocols and worker protection.

Hardy, D.J.; Crossley, D.B.; O`Connell, M.S. [Battelle Pantex, Amarillo, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

119

Chemical Mixtures: Considering the Evolution of Toxicology and Chemical Assessment  

PubMed Central

The assessment of chemical mixtures is a complex topic for toxicologists, regulators, and the public. In this article the linkage between the science of toxicology and the needs of governmental regulatory agencies in the United States is explored through an overview of environmental regulations enacted over the past century and a brief history of modern toxicology. One of the goals of this overview is to encourage both regulators and scientists to consider the benefits and limitations of this science–regulatory relationship as they tackle existing issues such as chemical mixtures. It is clear that a) over the past 100 years chemical regulation and toxicologic research, have in large part, shared a common emphasis on characterization and regulation of individual chemicals. But chemical mixtures have been, and continue to be, evaluated at hazardous waste sites around the United States. For this reason the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for chemical mixtures assessment are also reviewed. These guidelines highlight the current practice of mixtures assessment, which relies primarily on the existing single-chemical database. It is also clear that b) the science and assessment of chemical mixtures are moving forward through the combined efforts of regulatory agencies and scientists from a broad range of disciplines, including toxicology. Because toxicology is at this exciting crossroads, particular attention should be paid to the forces (e.g., public demands, regulatory needs, funding, academic interests) that both promote and limit the growth of this expanding discipline. PMID:15811826

Monosson, Emily

2005-01-01

120

Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attacks: An Analysis of the Preparedness of Hospitals for Managing Victims Affected by Chemical or Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction  

PubMed Central

The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York’s Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11) and the tragic incidents involving twenty-three people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be “ready” in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO) nationwide survey, our nation’s hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection and analysis. Six hypotheses were tested. Using a questionnaire survey, the availability of functional preparedness plans, specific preparedness education/training, decontamination facilities, surge capacity, pharmaceutical supplies, and laboratory diagnostic capabilities of hospitals were examined. The findings revealed that a majority (89.2%) of hospitals in the State of Mississippi have documented preparedness plans, provided specific preparedness education/training (89.2%), have dedicated facilities for decontamination (75.7%), and pharmaceutical plans and supplies (56.8%) for the treatment of victims in the event of a disaster involving chemical or biological WMD. However, over half (59.5%) of the hospitals could not increase surge capacity (supplies, equipment, staff, patient beds, etc.) and lack appropriate laboratory diagnostic services (91.9%) capable of analyzing and identifying WMD. In general, hospitals in the State of Mississippi, like a number of hospitals throughout the United States, are still not adequately prepared to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD which consequently may result in the loss of hundreds or even thousands of lives. Therefore, hospitals continue to require substantial resources at the local, State, and national levels in order to be “truly” prepared. PMID:16823078

Bennett, Russell L.

2006-01-01

121

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: MAJOR BARIUM CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes data on air emissions from the production of major barium chemicals. Compounds studied include barium sulfide, barium carbonate, barium chloride, barium hydroxide, and barium sulfate. In order to evaluate potential environmental effects the source severity,...

122

Exposure Assessment of Chemicals from Packaging Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of chemicals may enter our food supply, by means of intentional or unintentional addition, at different stages of the food chain. These chemicals include food additives, pesticide residues, environmental contaminants, mycotox-ins, flavoring substances, and micronutrients. Packaging systems and other food-contact materials are also a source of chemicals contaminating food products and beverages. Monitoring exposure to these chemicals has become an integral part of ensuring the safety of the food supply. Within the context of the risk analysis approach and more specifically as an integral part of risk assessment procedures, the exercise known as exposure assessment is crucial in providing data to allow sound judgments concerning risks to human health. The exercise of obtaining this data is part of the process of revealing sources of contamination and assessing the effectiveness of strategies for minimizing the risk from chemical contamination in the food supply (Lambe, 2002).

Poças, Maria De Fátima; Hogg, Timothy

123

Conventional weapons demilitarization: A health and environmental effects data-base assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To support studies of the health and environmental risks of such by-products, this report presents assessments of data available on parameters that affect the risks posed by explosives and their principal co-contaminants. Specifically, data-base assessments cover factors that influence the transport and fate of the contaminants in environmental media (e.g., soils, water, etc.) and subsequently, human exposures via different pathways

D. Layton; B. Mallon; W. Mitchell; L. Hall; R. Fish; L. Perry; G. Snyder; K. Bogen; W. Malloch; C. Ham; P. Dowd

1987-01-01

124

78 FR 67289 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by...biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering...effectively to the worldwide threat of weapons of mass destruction proliferation...

2013-11-12

125

Conventional weapons demilitarization: A health and environmental effects data-base assessment  

SciTech Connect

To support studies of the health and environmental risks of such by-products, this report presents assessments of data available on parameters that affect the risks posed by explosives and their principal co-contaminants. Specifically, data-base assessments cover factors that influence the transport and fate of the contaminants in environmental media (e.g., soils, water, etc.) and subsequently, human exposures via different pathways (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, and skin absorption). Information on dose-response relationships for various toxic effects in humans and laboratory animals is evaluated so that acceptable daily intakes for noncarcinogenic substances and virtually safe dose rates for carcinogenic substances can be defined. Toxic effects on plant and aquatic species are also addressed. The explosives and co-contaminants considered include TNT (co-contaminants: 2,4-dinitrotoluene; 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene, and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene); RDX (co-contaminant: HMX); tetryl (co-contaminant: picric acid); PETN; and ammonium picrate (co-contaminant: picric acid). 358 refs., 12 figs., 92 tabs.

Layton, D.; Mallon, B.; Mitchell, W.; Hall, L.; Fish, R.; Perry, L.; Snyder, G.; Bogen, K.; Malloch, W.; Ham, C.; Dowd, P.

1987-12-01

126

Assessment of Chemical and Radiological Vulnerabilities  

SciTech Connect

Following the May 14, 1997 chemical explosion at Hanford's Plutonium Reclamation Facility, the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office and its prime contractor, Fluor Hanford, Inc., completed an extensive assessment to identify and address chemical and radiological safety vulnerabilities at all facilities under the Project Hanford Management Contract. This was a challenging undertaking because of the immense size of the problem, unique technical issues, and competing priorities. This paper focuses on the assessment process, including the criteria and methodology for data collection, evaluation, and risk-based scoring. It does not provide details on the facility-specific results and corrective actions, but discusses the approach taken to address the identified vulnerabilities.

SETH, S.S.

2000-05-17

127

78 FR 16694 - Chemical Security Assessment Tool (CSAT)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0058] Chemical Security Assessment Tool (CSAT) AGENCY...extension of Information Collection Request, Chemical Security Assessment Tool for an additional...commercial or financial information, Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability...

2013-03-18

128

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric studies of O-alkyl O-2-(N,N-dialkylamino) ethyl alkylphosphonites(phosphonates) for chemical weapons convention verification.  

PubMed

The electron ionization (EI) mass spectra of a series of O-alkyl O-2-(N,N-dialkylaminolethyl alkylphosphonites(phosphonates), which are precursors of nerve agents, were studied for Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) verification. General El fragmentation pathways were constructed and discussed. Proposed fragment structures were confirmed through analyzing fragment ions of deuterated analogs and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The observed fragment ions are due to different fragmentation pathways such as hydrogen and McLafferty+1 rearrangements, alkene, amine and alkoxy elimination by alpha- or beta-cleavage process. Fragment ions distinctly allow unequivocal identification of the interested compounds including those of isomeric compounds. The presence and abundance of fragment ions were found to depend on the size and structure of the alkyl group attached to nitrogen, phosphorus and oxygen atoms. PMID:24800420

Saeidian, Hamid; Babri, Mehran; Ramezani, Atefeh; Ashrafi, Davood; Sarabadani, Mansour; Naseri, Mohammad Taghi

2013-01-01

129

PREPARATION, DERIVATIZATION WITH TRIMETHYLSILYLDIAZOMETHANE, AND GC\\/MS ANALYSIS OF A “POOL” OF ALKYL METHYLPHOSPHONIC ACIDS FOR USE AS QUALITATIVE STANDARDS IN SUPPORT OF COUNTERTERRORISM AND THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are hundreds of nerve agents in the class of alkyl methylphosphonofluoridates covered by Schedule 1 of the CWC (Chemical Weapons Convention). Hydrolysis of these sarin-like nerve agents results in an equal number of alkyl methylphosphonic acids. These alkyl methylphosphonic acids are persistent and provide good evidence of specific agent production or use. In order to support the CWC and

Michael D. Crenshaw; David B. Cummings

2004-01-01

130

Chapter 13 -Firearms, Weapons, Destructive Devices  

E-print Network

53 Chapter 13 - Firearms, Weapons, Destructive Devices The Oregon Administrative Rules contain OAR or incendiary material or any other chemical substance; or (b) A bomb, grenade, missile, or similar device authorized by law or authorized in this rule. Possession of a concealed weapons permit does not constitute

131

77 FR 74678 - Chemical Security Assessment Tool (CSAT)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Infrastructure Security Compliance Division (ISCD...Chemical Security Assessment Tool (CSAT...Department's Methodology in Estimating...Department's Methodology in Estimating...validity of the methodology and assumptions...Infrastructure Security Compliance Division. Title...Chemical Security Assessment Tool. OMB...

2012-12-17

132

Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material  

SciTech Connect

The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and pending successful test results, may be incorporated in the various munitions assessment systems in the future. These systems are intended to enhance CWM fill materiel identification, agent air monitoring, agent or agent degradation product detection by surface analysis, and real-time x-ray capabilities.

A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

1999-05-27

133

Guidance Document Quick Guide to Assess Risk for Hazardous Chemicals  

E-print Network

Guidance Document Quick Guide to Assess Risk for Hazardous Chemicals The following outline provides a summary of the steps that laboratory workers should use to assess the risks of handling toxic chemicals Identify chemicals to be used and circumstances of use- Identify the chemicals involved in the proposed

134

EU STRATEGY AGAINST PROLIFERATION OF WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION  

E-print Network

to produce chemical warfare (CW) agent precursors and to weaponise chemical warfare agents. In addition or are seeking to develop such weapons. The risk that terrorists will acquire chemical, biological, radiological undermining non-proliferation and disarmament efforts. 7. Chemical Weapons Proliferation: A particular

Sussex, University of

135

Development and Application of Computational/In Vitro Toxicological Methods for Chemical Hazard Risk Reduction of New Materials for Advanced Weapon Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is essential for reducing the chemical hazards of new weapon systems. The current collaboration between HEST (toxicology research and testing), MLPJ (computational chemistry) and PRS (computational chemistry, new propellant synthesis) is focusing R&D efforts on basic research goals that will rapidly transition to useful products for propellant development. Computational methods are being investigated that will assist in forecasting cellular toxicological end-points. Models developed from these chemical structure-toxicity relationships are useful for the prediction of the toxicological endpoints of new related compounds. Research is focusing on the evaluation tools to be used for the discovery of such relationships and the development of models of the mechanisms of action. Combinations of computational chemistry techniques, in vitro toxicity methods, and statistical correlations, will be employed to develop and explore potential predictive relationships; results for series of molecular systems that demonstrate the viability of this approach are reported. A number of hydrazine salts have been synthesized for evaluation. Computational chemistry methods are being used to elucidate the mechanism of action of these salts. Toxicity endpoints such as viability (LDH) and changes in enzyme activity (glutahoione peroxidase and catalase) are being experimentally measured as indicators of cellular damage. Extrapolation from computational/in vitro studies to human toxicity, is the ultimate goal. The product of this program will be a predictive tool to assist in the development of new, less toxic propellants.

Frazier, John M.; Mattie, D. R.; Hussain, Saber; Pachter, Ruth; Boatz, Jerry; Hawkins, T. W.

2000-01-01

136

Environmental Effects of Weapons Technology, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles includes a general account of the environmental effects of modern weapons technology, a selection of news reports demonstrating the peacetime hazards of chemical and biological weapons, data on the physiological effects of the most common chemical weapons, a discussion of the hazards of biological weapons, a report of…

McClintock, Michael; And Others

137

Combating the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reveals the growing threat posed to all countries by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Discusses the international effort combating this proliferation including the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties, Biological Weapons Convention, and Chemical Weapons Convention. Also considers regional arms…

Jenkins, Bonnie

1997-01-01

138

Nuclear weapons modernizations  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

2014-05-09

139

Nuclear weapons modernizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

Kristensen, Hans M.

2014-05-01

140

APPROACHES TO RISK ASSESSMENT FOR MULTIPLE CHEMICAL EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office (ECAO) in Cincinnati has developed health risk assessment methods for chronic exposure to single chemical from a single route of exposure. Risk assessments for carcinogens associated an exposure level with a particular incidence of...

141

Trace level detection of compounds related to the chemical weapons convention by 1H-detected 13C NMR spectroscopy executed with a sensitivity-enhanced, cryogenic probehead.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional 1H-13C HSQC (heteronuclear single quantum correlation) and fast-HMQC (heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation) pulse sequences were implemented using a sensitivity-enhanced, cryogenic probehead for detecting compounds relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention present in complex mixtures. The resulting methods demonstrated exceptional sensitivity for detecting the analytes at trace level concentrations. 1H-13C correlations of target analytes at < or = 25 microg/mL were easily detected in a sample where the 1H solvent signal was approximately 58,000-fold more intense than the analyte 1H signals. The problem of overlapping signals typically observed in conventional 1H spectroscopy was essentially eliminated, while 1H and 13C chemical shift information could be derived quickly and simultaneously from the resulting spectra. The fast-HMQC pulse sequences generated magnitude mode spectra suitable for detailed analysis in approximately 4.5 h and can be used in experiments to efficiently screen a large number of samples. The HSQC pulse sequences, on the other hand, required roughly twice the data acquisition time to produce suitable spectra. These spectra, however, were phase-sensitive, contained considerably more resolution in both dimensions, and proved to be superior for detecting analyte 1H-13C correlations. Furthermore, a HSQC spectrum collected with a multiplicity-edited pulse sequence provided additional structural information valuable for identifying target analytes. The HSQC pulse sequences are ideal for collecting high-quality data sets with overnight acquisitions and logically follow the use of fast-HMQC pulse sequences to rapidly screen samples for potential target analytes. Use of the pulse sequences considerably improves the performance of NMR spectroscopy as a complimentary technique for the screening, identification, and validation of chemical warfare agents and other small-molecule analytes present in complex mixtures and environmental samples. PMID:18345646

Cullinan, David B; Hondrogiannis, George; Henderson, Terry J

2008-04-15

142

Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT) - an interactive training tool for {open_quotes}challenge inspections{close_quotes} under the chemical weapons convention  

SciTech Connect

The on-site inspection provisions in many current and proposed arms control agreements require extensive preparation and training on the part of both the Inspection Teams and the Inspected Parties. Current training techniques include lectures, table-top inspections, and practice inspections. The Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT), an interactive computer training tool, increases the utility of table-top inspections. Under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) challenge inspections are short-notice inspections that may occur anywhere, anytime, and with no right of refusal. The time interval between notice of intent to inspect a facility and the arrival of inspectors at the facility may be as short as 72 hours. Therefore, advance training is important. ACE-IT is used for training both the Inspection Team (inspector) and the Inspected Party (host) to conduct a hypothetical challenge inspection under the CWC. An exercise moderator controls the exercise. The training covers all of the events in the challenge inspection regime, from initial notification of an inspection through post-inspection activities. But the primary emphasis of the training tool is on conducting the inspection itself, and in particular, the concept of managed access. Managed access is used to assure the inspectors that the facility is in compliance with the CWC, while protecting sensitive information that is not related to the CWC.

Dobranich, P.R.

1997-08-01

143

Chemical and Biological Engineering Student Learning Outcome Assessment Report  

E-print Network

1 Chemical and Biological Engineering Student Learning Outcome Assessment Report 1. Department/Program Mission The mission of the Department of Chemical and Biological is to prepare chemical engineers for successful careers of leadership and innovation in chemical engineering and related fields; expands

Missouri-Rolla, University of

144

Environmental Health and Safety Chemical Hygiene Laboratory Assessment  

E-print Network

Environmental Health and Safety Chemical Hygiene Laboratory Assessment PI of promptly. Work surfaces are free of contamination. Heavy objects are stored on lower shelves. Glassware are available and in use. Chemical Fume Hoods / Exhaust Points # Compliance Items: Category Item Comments

145

Combating Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available on Senator Arlen Specter's Website, this massive document is the fruit of the Commission to Assess the Organization of the Federal Government to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. In short, it's an assessment of the state of weapons proliferation in places the United States sees as potential national security threats, from insecure Russian stockpiles of nuclear weapons to Saddam Hussein's reputed supplies of Anthrax. While not all readers will agree with either the rather alarmist tone of the document's scenarios or its admittedly less alarmist recommendations, it is a good source for information concerning the intelligence community's assessment of the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) around the globe. The report offers a table of contents sidebar for easy access to portions of the document.

Destruction., United S.

146

Identification of nuclear weapons  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for non-invasively indentifying different types of nuclear weapons is disclosed. A neutron generator is placed against the weapon to generate a stream of neutrons causing fissioning within the weapon. A first detects the generation of the neutrons and produces a signal indicative thereof. A second particle detector located on the opposite side of the weapon detects the fission particles and produces signals indicative thereof. The signals are converted into a detected pattern and a computer compares the detected pattern with known patterns of weapons and indicates which known weapon has a substantially similar pattern. Either a time distribution pattern or noise analysis pattern, or both, is used. Gamma-neutron discrimination and a third particle detector for fission particles adjacent the second particle detector are preferably used. The neutrons are generated by either a decay neutron source or a pulled neutron particle accelerator.

Mihalczo, J.T.; King, W.T.

1987-04-10

147

Using chemical categories to fill data gaps in hazard assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazard assessments of chemicals have been limited by the availability of test data and the time needed to evaluate the test data. While available data may be inadequate for the majority of industrial chemicals, the body of existing knowledge for most hazards is large enough to permit reliable estimates to be made for untested chemicals without additional animal testing. We

K. van Leeuwen; Terry W. Schultz; T. Henry; B. Diderich; G. D. Veith

2009-01-01

148

Endless generations of nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The author feels that pursuit of Star Wars and continued US nuclear testing is blocking progress toward the eventual worldwide elimination of nuclear weapons. It is also bound to reveal new ways to attack military or civilian targets that will, in turn, stimulate further searches for new types of offensive and defensive nuclear weapons. Some of these developments could intensify the belief that limited nuclear wars can be fought and won. In short, development of new generations of nuclear weapons will provide the kind of positive feedback to the nuclear arms race that will greatly expand its dangers and its costs. Further proliferation of new types of nuclear weapons will increase the already extreme complexity of military planning and response, and the attendant dangers of nuclear war occurring by accident or through misinterpretation of information. Assessments of possible new military threats will become more uncertain as the complexities increase. Uncertainty can lead to catastrophic mistakes. Real or mistakenly perceived gaps in nuclear preparedness are likely to be used as further arguments for vast new military expenditures. We may all come to long for the relative simplicity of military nuclear issues during the first decade or so following the end of World War II. For these reasons, the author is convinced that there should be a halt to all nuclear tests, worldwide, as soon as possible. 2 references.

Taylor, T.B.

1986-11-01

149

Reconversion of nuclear weapons  

E-print Network

The nuclear predicament or nuclear option. Synopsis of three lectures : 1- The physical basis of nuclear technology. Physics of fission. Chain reaction in reactors and weapons. Fission fragments. Separration of isotopes. Radiochemistry.2- Nuclear reactors with slow and fast neutrons. Power, size, fuel and waste. Plutonium production. Dose rate, shielding and health hazard. The lessons of Chernobyl3- Nuclear weapons. Types, energy, blast and fallout. Fusion and hydrogen bombs. What to do with nuclear weapons when you cannot use them? Testing. Nonmilittary use. Can we get rid of the nuclear weapon? Nuclear proliferation. Is there a nuclear future?

Kapitza, Sergei P

1993-01-01

150

Enhanced-Radiation Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enhanced-radiation warhead is a particularly dangerous weapon insofar as it might mislead anyone into believing that its deployment would make it possible for nuclear warfare to be safely limited and tightly controlled; in this sense its very deployment could lower the threshold separating conventional warfare from nuclear warfare. Enhanced-radiation weapons are no more (and perhaps they are less) ''humane''

Fred M. Kaplan

1978-01-01

151

HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

The implementation of Superfund requires a methodology for estimating health risk from multi-chemical contamination at ambient levels. Most often, the chemical composition of these mixtures is poorly characterized, exposure data are uncertain and toxicologic data on the known com...

152

Portfolio Assessment on Chemical Reactor Analysis and Process Design Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment determines what students regard as important: if a teacher wants to change students' learning, he/she should change the methods of assessment. This article describes the use of portfolio assessment on five courses dealing with chemical reactor and process design during the years 1999-2001. Although the use of portfolio was a new…

Alha, Katariina

2004-01-01

153

Program of technical assistance to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons - lessons learned from the U.S. program of technical assistance to IAEA safeguards. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Nuclear Agency is sponsoring a technical study of the requirements of a vehicle to meet the OPCW`s future needs for enhanced chemical weapons verification capabilities. This report provides information about the proven mechanisms by which the U.S. provided both short- and long-term assistance to the IAEA to enhance its verification capabilities. Much of the technical assistance has generic application to international organizations verifying compliance with disarmament treaties or conventions. In addition, some of the equipment developed by the U.S. under the existing arrangements can be applied in the verification of other disarmament treaties or conventions. U.S. technical assistance to IAEA safeguards outside of the IAEA`s regular budget proved to be necessary. The U.S. technical assistance was successful in improving the effectiveness of IAEA safeguards for its most urgent responsibilities and in providing the technical elements for increased IAEA {open_quotes}readiness{close_quotes} for the postponed responsibilities deemed important for U.S. policy objectives. Much of the technical assistance was directed to generic subjects and helped to achieve a system of international verification. It is expected that the capabilities of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) to verify a state`s compliance with the {open_quotes}Chemical Weapons Convention{close_quotes} will require improvements. This report presents 18 important lessons learned from the experience of the IAEA and the U.S. Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), organized into three tiers. Each lesson is presented in the report in the context of the difficulty, need and history in which the lesson was learned. Only the most important points are recapitulated in this executive summary.

NONE

1995-06-01

154

Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Additivity-Based Approaches  

EPA Science Inventory

Powerpoint presentation includes additivity-based chemical mixture risk assessment methods. Basic concepts, theory and example calculations are included. Several slides discuss the use of "common adverse outcomes" in analyzing phthalate mixtures....

155

SCREENING PROTOCOL FOR ASSESSING TOXICITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS TOANAEROBIC PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A screening protocol has been developed to provide a rapid andrepeatable assessment of the effect of toxic organic chemicals onanaerobic treatment processes. his protocol also providesinformation on the rate limiting biological reactions and theconcentrations at which changes in ...

156

INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENTS FOR FIVE CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhalation exposure-response assessments for five chemicals (acrolein, ethylene oxide, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, hydrogen sulfide, and phosgene) for less-than-lifetime durations are being developed to inform the development of the Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodolog...

157

Chemical Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

158

Conventional weapons demilitarization: A health and environmental effects data base assessment: Propellants and their co-contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The demilitarization of propellants by open burning results in the deposition of residues on soils. Residues can consist of the main ingredients in propellant formulations, namely, nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, and nitroguanidine. Co-contaminants, consisting of plasticizers and stabilizers present in propellant formulations as well as environmental degradation products of the propellants, represent additional soil contaminants. These substances include nitrosoguanidine, dibutylphthlate, diethylphthlate, dipenylamine, and ethyl centralite. To support studies of the health and environmental risks of such by-products, this report presents assessments of data available on parameters that affect the risks posed by propellants and their principal co-contaminants. Specifically, data-base assessments cover factors that influence the transport and fate of the contaminants in environmental media (e.g., soils, water, etc.) and subsequently, human exposures via different pathways (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, and skin absorption). Importantly, information on dose-response relationships for various toxic effects in humans and laboratory animals is evaluated so that acceptable daily intakes for noncarcinogenic substances and virtually safe dose rates species are also addressed. 284 refs.

Mallon, B.; Layton, D.; Fish, R.; Hsieh, P.; Hall, L.; Perry, L.; Snyder, G.

1988-08-01

159

CONCEPT OF PROGNOSTIC MODEL ASSESSMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICAL FATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Prognostic assessment provides information on environmental behavior of chemicals when no direct information exists. The utility of this method of analysis depends on the way in which the prognostic modeling tools are used. When the environment and the properties of the chemical ...

160

ASSESSING THE NEUROTOXIC POTENTIAL OF CHEMICALS - A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Since 1981, the development of methodology to assess the neurotoxic potential of chemicals has been a high priority within the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). ollowing the completion of an in-depth review of the scientific principles and methods for the assessm...

161

Nonproliferation and arms control assessment of weapons-usable fissile material storage and excess plutonium disposition alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (DOE-NN) with support from the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD). Its purpose is to analyze the nonproliferation and arms reduction implications of the alternatives for storage of plutonium and HEU, and disposition of excess plutonium, to aid policymakers and the public in making final decisions. While this assessment describes the benefits and risks associated with each option, it does not attempt to rank order the options or choose which ones are best. It does, however, identify steps which could maximize the benefits and mitigate any vulnerabilities of the various alternatives under consideration.

NONE

1997-01-01

162

DRILLING MUD ASSESSMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSIS REFERENCE VOLUME  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents concentrations of specific metals and hydrocarbons in eleven drilling fluids (muds) taken from operating gas and oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico. Each drilling fluid was analyzed chemically for heavy metal and hydrocarbon content in three distinct phases: (1) ...

163

RISK ASSESSMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The passage of the Safe Drinking Water and Food Quality Protection Acts requires EPA to develop a program for screening and testing of chemicals for their potential to produce adverse effects on the endocrine systems of humans or wildlife. When tests for estrogen, androgen and t...

164

A design assessment system to protect buildings from internal chemical and biological threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent world events involving chemical and biological (CB) attacks within critical infrastructure have highlighted a potential threat to buildings and their occupants. The March 1995 release of sarin gas in a Tokyo subway and the September 2001 mailing of letters containing anthrax spores have demonstrated the viability of using CB agents as weapons on critical infrastructure. These two attacks resulted

Victor Masano Nakano

2008-01-01

165

Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical "Chemical" Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security, and way of life. One particular type of CI--that relating to chemicals--constitutes both an important element of our nation's infrastructure and a particularly attractive set of potential targets. This is primarily because of the large quantities of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) it employs in various operations and because of the essential economic functions it serves. This study attempts to minimize some of the ambiguities that presently impede chemical infrastructure threat assessments by providing new insight into the key motivational factors that affect terrorist organizations propensity to attack chemical facilities. Prepared as a companion piece to the Center for Nonproliferation Studies August 2004 study--''Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure''--it investigates three overarching research questions: (1) why do terrorists choose to attack chemical-related infrastructure over other targets; (2) what specific factors influence their target selection decisions concerning chemical facilities; and (3) which, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack chemical infrastructure targets? The study involved a multi-pronged research design, which made use of four discrete investigative techniques to answer the above questions as comprehensively as possible. These include: (1) a review of terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist interest in targeting chemical facilities; (2) the preparation of case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played a significant role in leading some terrorist groups to attack chemical facilities; (3) an examination of data from the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITIC) to further illuminate the nature of terrorist attacks against chemical facilities to date; and (4) the refinement of the DECIDe--the Determinants Effecting Critical Infrastructure Decisions--analytical framework to make the factors and dynamics identified by the study more ''usable'' in future efforts to assess terrorist intentions to target chemical-related infrastructure.

Ackerman, G; Bale, J; Moran, K

2004-12-14

166

Curriculum Assessment as a Direct Tool in ABET Outcomes Assessment in a Chemical Engineering Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chemical engineering programme at the United Arab Emirates University is designed to fulfil the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) (A-K) EC2000 criteria. The Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering has established a well-defined process for outcomes assessment for the chemical engineering programme in order to…

Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Attar, Hazim

2010-01-01

167

DOE Nuclear Weapon Reliability Definition: History, Description, and Implementation  

SciTech Connect

The overarching goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapon reliability assessment process is to provide a quantitative metric that reflects the ability of the weapons to perform their intended function successfully. This white paper is intended to provide insight into the current and long-standing DOE definition of nuclear weapon reliability, which can be summarized as: The probability of achieving the specified yield, at the target, across the Stockpile-To-Target Sequence of environments, throughout the weapon's lifetime, assuming proper inputs.

Wright, D.L.; Cashen, J.J.; Sjulin, J.M.; Bierbaum, R.L.; Kerschen, T.J.

1999-04-01

168

Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts  

SciTech Connect

This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

Senglaub, M.

1996-06-01

169

Performance calculation and simulation system of high energy laser weapon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy laser weapons are ready for some of today's most challenging military applications. Based on the analysis of the main tactical/technical index and combating process of high energy laser weapon, a performance calculation and simulation system of high energy laser weapon was established. Firstly, the index decomposition and workflow of high energy laser weapon was proposed. The entire system was composed of six parts, including classical target, platform of laser weapon, detect sensor, tracking and pointing control, laser atmosphere propagation and damage assessment module. Then, the index calculation modules were designed. Finally, anti-missile interception simulation was performed. The system can provide reference and basis for the analysis and evaluation of high energy laser weapon efficiency.

Wang, Pei; Liu, Min; Su, Yu; Zhang, Ke

2014-12-01

170

Integration of high energy laser weapons systems aboard all-electric ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

An all-electric ship construct for surface combatants will need to consider the impact of future, electric power based weapons systems. Shipboard environments, driven by war fighting, hoteling, and safety arguments, are already influencing the development of high impulse weapons systems away from chemical or nuclear derived charging mechanism. shipboard high energy laser (HEL) weapons system concepts, for example, are already

M. J. Wardlaw; T. L. Wilson

2002-01-01

171

Investigation of compound-independent calibration and partial molecular formula determination by gas chromatography-atomic-emission detection for characterisation of organophosphorus and organosulfur agents related to the chemical weapons convention.  

PubMed

Atomic-emission detection (AED) is a technique particularly-well suited to screening complex samples for multiple compounds containing heteroatoms such as phosphorus, sulfur, or nitrogen, which are especially relevant in verification of chemical disarmament. Among other GC detectors, AED has unique characteristics such as compound-independent calibration and possible raw-formula determination. Because contradictory results have been reported on these points, we set up a study with the objectives not only of applying these techniques to chemical weapons convention-related chemicals but of determining under which conditions they would yield satisfactory results. The extensive data collected in this study are evidence that the response of the detector, particularly for the phosphorus line, is very dependent on the molecular mass and concentration of the chemicals analysed whereas molecular structure seems to have less effect on the AED signal. Most interestingly, compound-independent calibration and subsequent partial molecular formula determination usually seem satisfactory when the reference compounds used to calibrate the system have GC retention times and molecular masses close to those of the unknown analytes (whose molecular mass may be determined by GC-CI-MS). We therefore suggest the use of a reference set of compounds covering a large chromatographic window, which enables the selection, within this set, of the most appropriate reference compound for calibration and for determination of the raw formula of an unknown analyte. For optimal performance, the use of a new discharge tube is also recommended. PMID:16240110

Juillet, Yannick; Gibert, Edmond; Bégos, Arlette; Bellier, Bruno

2005-11-01

172

Effects of Nuclear Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

Sartori, Leo

1983-01-01

173

Nuclear Weapons and Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing debate on nuclear weapons in recent years has begun to make inroads into school curricula. Elementary and secondary school teachers now face the important task of educating their students on issues relating to nuclear war without indoctrinating them to a particular point of view. (JBM)

Howie, David I.

1984-01-01

174

Air weapon fatalities.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To describe characteristics of a series of people accidentally and deliberately killed by air powered weapons. METHODS: Five cases of fatal airgun injury were identified by forensic pathologists and histopathologists. The circumstances surrounding the case, radiological examination, and pathological findings are described. The weapon characteristics are also reported. RESULTS: Three of the victims were adult men, one was a 16 year old boy, and one an eight year old child. Four of the airguns were .22 air rifles, the other a .177 air rifle. Two committed suicide, one person shooting himself in the head, the other in the chest. In both cases the guns were fired at contact range. Three of the cases were classified as accidents: in two the pellet penetrated into the head and in one the chest. CONCLUSIONS: One person each year dies from an air powered weapon injury in the United Kingdom. In addition there is considerable morbidity from airgun injuries. Fatalities and injuries are most commonly accidents, but deliberately inflicted injuries occur. Airguns are dangerous weapons when inappropriately handled and should not be considered as toys. Children should not play with airguns unsupervised. Images PMID:9797730

Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Rooney, N

1998-01-01

175

Names and Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the theoretical significance of using names as titles for situations, and applies this analysis to the United States' intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) programs. Argues that the names given to ICBMs preserve their utility as weapons by linking them to the myths of the nineteenth-century western frontier. (MM)

Kauffman, Charles

1989-01-01

176

75 FR 4833 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Assessment Questionnaire-Voluntary Chemical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...accordance with 5 CFR 1320.10...and vulnerability assessment methodologies that...Web-based, automated assessment tool for voluntary...Voluntary Chemical Assessment Tool (VCAT...VCAT Assessment questionnaire and will answer...address facility assessments, response...

2010-01-29

177

ASSESSING TOXICITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS TO ANAEROBIC TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A screening protocol has been developed to provide a rapid but dependable and repeatable assessment of the effect of toxic organic chemicals on anaerobic treatment processes. his protocol provides information on the rate limiting biological reactions and the concentration of toxi...

178

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS Pastoor, Timothy1, Barton, Hugh2 1 Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC, USA. 2 EPA, Office of Research and Development-NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. A multi-stakeholder series of discussions d...

179

Ethics and nuclear weapons research  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear weapons are the ultimate weapons. Hence, many believe that in the realm of military research and development, research on nuclear weapons represents the ultimate. Those of us involved in nuclear weapon research are frequently asked why we do what we do, rather than get involved in the more ''peaceful'' endeavors open to scientists and engineers. There is a variety of answers to this question. 15 refs.

Brown, P.S.

1989-01-20

180

Hazard and risk assessment of teratogenic chemicals under REACH.  

PubMed

In 2007, a new European chemicals legislation was implemented: Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006, also known as "REACH." It obliges companies to take the main responsibility for the valid information on the safe use of the chemicals they manufacture and/or place on the European market. So they must, for example, register their chemicals at the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and submit extensive substance-related registration dossiers containing information on the substances' intrinsic hazardous properties and documentation of their risk assessment. REACH regulates the registration and evaluation process as well as the authorization and restriction procedure. In addition, classification, labeling, and packaging of chemicals apply in accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 ("CLP Regulation"). It implements almost completely the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS) into European legislation and will fully replace the Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC) and the Dangerous Preparations Directive (1999/45/EC) by 2015. According to both the old and the new classification system, teratogenic chemicals are classified as developmental toxicants, with developmental toxicity falling within the hazard class of reproductive toxicity. REACH as well as the CLP Regulation provide several procedures in which reproductive toxicants take a special position because their harmful effects are considered particularly serious. Teratogenic substances are not explicitly named by these legal texts but, as they constitute as developmental toxicants a hazard differentiation of reproductive toxicity, they are implicitly always included by the provisions. PMID:23138924

Prutner, Wiebke

2013-01-01

181

Holistic Metrics for Assessment of the Greenness of Chemical Reactions in the Context of Chemical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two new semiquantitative green chemistry metrics, the green circle and the green matrix, have been developed for quick assessment of the greenness of a chemical reaction or process, even without performing the experiment from a protocol if enough detail is provided in it. The evaluation is based on the 12 principles of green chemistry. The…

Ribeiro, M. Gabriela T. C.; Machado, Adelio A. S. C.

2013-01-01

182

Early retirement for weaponeers?  

SciTech Connect

Department of Energy`s Lawrence Livermore Laboratory`s once-vital nuclear weapons division is now in dire straits. The laboratory was established in 1952, during the titanic struggle over the hydrogen bomb, has grown steadily from $7 million to its peak of $1.1 billion in 1991. The future for key members of their most experienced weapons design team is uncertain. Over the past two years, Livermore`s operating budget has fallen by 12.5 percent or $127.6 million. Nearly 750 employees, 10 percent of the work force, accepted early retirement offers last year. Further budget cuts will force another 300 to 600 personnel out by the end of 1995. The future resides in the U.S. Congress.

Weisman, J.

1994-07-01

183

Monitoring nuclear weapons 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a America’s first space program was to develop surveillance satellites to monitor the nuclear arsenals of the Soviet Union and\\u000a its allies. Although the Cold War has ended, nuclear weapons remain a threat to world peace and surveillance satellites are\\u000a still an important tool in monitoring them. A recent US policy statement on the subject stated that “The threat of nuclear

Pat Norris

184

US nuclear weapons policy  

SciTech Connect

We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

May, M.

1990-12-05

185

International physical protection self-assessment tool for chemical facilities.  

SciTech Connect

This report is the final report for Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project No.130746, International Physical Protection Self-Assessment Tool for Chemical Facilities. The goal of the project was to develop an exportable, low-cost, computer-based risk assessment tool for small to medium size chemical facilities. The tool would assist facilities in improving their physical protection posture, while protecting their proprietary information. In FY2009, the project team proposed a comprehensive evaluation of safety and security regulations in the target geographical area, Southeast Asia. This approach was later modified and the team worked instead on developing a methodology for identifying potential targets at chemical facilities. Milestones proposed for FY2010 included characterizing the international/regional regulatory framework, finalizing the target identification and consequence analysis methodology, and developing, reviewing, and piloting the software tool. The project team accomplished the initial goal of developing potential target categories for chemical facilities; however, the additional milestones proposed for FY2010 were not pursued and the LDRD funding therefore was redirected.

Tewell, Craig R.; Burdick, Brent A.; Stiles, Linda L.; Lindgren, Eric Richard

2010-09-01

186

78 FR 14299 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Chemical Assessment Advisory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...public meeting of the SAB Chemical Assessment Advisory...enhancements to the process for developing IRIS toxicological reviews for chemicals. DATES: The SAB CAAC...IRIS program and the process for developing IRIS toxicological reviews for chemicals. The SAB Staff...

2013-03-05

187

Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources  

SciTech Connect

This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas and petroleum-derived resources. Results from both parts of the assessment indicate that, in the absence of gas and petroleum, coal undoubtedly would be a major source of chemicals first, followed by biomass. The most attractive biomass resources are wood, agricultural residues, and sugar and starch crops. A reasonable approximation to the current product slate for the petrochemical industry could be manufactured using only renewable resources for feedstocks. Approximately 2.5 quads (10/sup 15/ Btu (1.055 x 10/sup 18/ joules)) per year of oil and gas would be released. Further use of biomass fuels in the industry could release up to an additional 1.5 quads. however, such an industry would be unprofitable under current economic conditions with existing or near-commercial technology. As fossil resources become more expensive and biotechnology becomes more efficient, the economics will be more favorable. Use of the chemicals industry model to evaluate process technologies is demonstrated. Processes are identified which have potential for significant added value to the system if process improvements can be made to improve the economics. Guidelines and recommendations for research and development programs to improve the attractiveness of chemicals from biomass are discussed.

Donaldson, T.L.; Culberson, O.L.

1983-06-01

188

Assessment of human exposure to chemicals from Superfund sites.  

PubMed Central

Assessing human exposure to chemicals from Superfund sites requires knowledge of basic physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in the environment and specific information about the local environment and population in the vicinity of sites of interest. Although progress is being made in both areas, there is still a tremendous amount to be done. Participants at this meeting have identified several of the areas in need of greater understanding, and they are listed below. Movement of dissolved and volatile organics, especially NAPLs, in the subsurface environment. This includes study of the partitioning of compounds between NAPLs, air, water, and soil. Partitioning of volatilized chemicals between gaseous and aerosol components of the atmosphere. This includes understanding how these components influence both wet and dry deposition. Long-term movement from sediments into biota and how these affect chronic toxicity to sediment biota. Broad validation of PBPK models describing partitioning of compounds from sediment and water into fish. Reactions of chemicals sorbed to atmospheric particles. This includes application of laboratory models to real and varied atmospheric conditions. Interactions between biotic and abiotic transformations in soil and sediment. Applicability of physiological pharmacokinetic models developed in laboratory studies of experimental animals and clinical investigations of humans to environmental chemicals, concentrations, and routes of exposure in humans. Use of human and wildlife behavioral and biomonitoring information to estimate exposure. This includes better understanding of human variability and the applicability of information gathered from particular wildlife species. To successfully address these gaps in our knowledge, much more analytical data must be collected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8187712

Kamrin, M A; Fischer, L J; Suk, W A; Fouts, J R; Pellizzari, E; Thornton, K

1994-01-01

189

Weapons and Minority Youth Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weapons violence is a major public health problem that especially impacts minority youth. Interventions designed to reduce weapon use by youth are categorized as educational/behavioral change, legal, and technological/environmental. Few educational programs currently exist, but those that do largely concern firearm safety courses, public…

Northrop, Daphne; Hamrick, Kim

190

Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from glasnost in that there now is more open debate about a range of issues in the Soviet Union, including defense issues. Thus, we now have a great deal of published material to draw upon in assessing Soviet views, and experts in the West can talk much more freely to Soviet experts. However, this information explosion makes it more difficult to discriminate signal from noise, particularly as there continues to be both propaganda and deception in Soviet statements about defense issues. Clearly, some Soviet statements about nuclear weapons are designed to influence attitudes and actions in the West. I shall cite some examples in this paper.

Sloss, L. (Sloss (Leon) Associates, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-10-01

191

Ship-to-Air Missile Weapon System Command Effectiveness Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the definition and index system of the ship-to-air missile weapon system command effectiveness, it assessed the weapon system command effectiveness through fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. Thereinto, it assessed the evaluation index weight through modified AHP, and implemented fuzzy comprehensive judgement through the weighted average fuzzy operator. The example exemplified the operability of the proposed methodology.

Dou Jihua; Chen Wanchun; Shi Deping

2010-01-01

192

Identification and Toxicological Assessment of Thermal Degradation Products of Organic Constituents of Parts Comprising LLNL Design ARG Phase 2 Interim Report  

SciTech Connect

The goals of Phase II of the Non Rad Toxics Project were: (1) To identify and quantify the major chemicals comprising smoke from smoldering plastics most prevalent in the LLNL designed weapons as well as materials unique to LANL designed weapons and SANDIA parts found in the LLNL and LANL weapons; and (2) To perform toxic assessment of the identified chemicals using existing literature information or TOPKAT, a computer program designed for toxic assessment of organic and certain organo-metallic compounds. This project was in support of the ARG Program needs No.15, Table XI, Accident Response Group.

Lipska, A.E.; Lopez, R.D.

1999-10-27

193

Toxico-Cheminformatics: New and Expanding Public Resources to Support Chemical Toxicity Assessments  

EPA Science Inventory

High-throughput screening (HTS) technologies, along with efforts to improve public access to chemical toxicity information resources and to systematize older toxicity studies, have the potential to significantly improve information gathering efforts for chemical assessments and p...

194

ASSESSING CHEMICAL RELEASES AND WORKER EXPOSURES FROM A FILTERPRESS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical releases and worker exposures associated with the filtration of an industrial wastewater sludge were characterized. The filter was a recessed chamber filter press with an open filtrate discharge system. Chemical releases and worker exposures for a selected chemical were ...

195

A Novel Approach: Chemical Relational Databases, and the Role of the ISSCAN Database on Assessing Chemical Carcinogenity  

EPA Science Inventory

Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity databases are crucial resources for toxicologists and regulators involved in chemicals risk assessment. Until recently, existing public toxicity databases have been constructed primarily as "look-up-tables" of existing data, and most often did no...

196

Nuclear Weapons and Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides suggestions on how science teachers can, and should, deal with the nuclear weapons debate in a balanced and critical way. Includes a table outlining points for and against deterrence and disarmament. (JN)

Wellington, J. J.

1984-01-01

197

Nuclear weapons and nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

Cassel, C.; McCally, M.; Abraham, H.

1984-01-01

198

Assessment of impacts at the advanced test reactor as a result of chemical releases at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides an assessment of potential impacts at the Advanced Test Reactor Facility (ATR) resulting from accidental chemical spill at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Spills postulated to occur at the Lincoln Blvd turnoff to ICPP were also evaluated. Peak and time weighted average concentrations were calculated for receptors at the ATR facility and the Test Reactor Area

Rood

1991-01-01

199

Biological weapons--the poor man`s nuke. Research report  

SciTech Connect

Biological warfare is one leg of the triad of weapons of mass destruction (coupled with nuclear and chemical weapons). Biological weapons pose a significant threat to the United States military and public population across the spectrum of conflict. There is, however, little common knowledge of the insidious yet devastating potential of these weapons. This paper is written for the lay (that is non-technical) reader, outlining the history, threat, and possible countermeasures related to biological warfare agents. The intent is to heighten the awareness level regarding biological warfare as a military and terrorist threat.

Schneider, B.R.; Mayer, T.N.

1995-04-01

200

Incorporating biologically based models into assessments of risk from chemical contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general approach to assessment of risk from chemical contaminants in drinking water involves three steps: hazard identification, exposure assessment, and dose-response assessment. Traditionally, the risks to humans associated with different levels of a chemical have been derived from the toxic responses observed in animals. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that further information is needed if risks to humans are to be assessed accurately. Biologically based models help clarify the dose-response relationship and reduce uncertainty.

Bull, R. J.; Conolly, R. B.; De Marini, D. M.; MacPhail, R. C.; Ohanian, E. V.; Swenberg, J. A.

1993-01-01

201

Cardiac fibrillation risk of Taser weapons.  

PubMed

The debate on potential health hazards associated with delivering electric discharges to incapacitated subjects, in particular on whether electric discharge weapons are lethal, less lethal or non-lethal, is still controversial. The cardiac fibrillation risks of Taser weapons X26 and X3 have been investigated by measuring the delivered high-tension pulses in dependence on load impedance. Excitation thresholds and sinus-to-Taser conversion factors have been determined by numerical modeling of endocardial, myocardial, and epicardial cells. Detailed quantitative assessment of cardiac electric exposure has been performed by numerical simulation at the normal-weighted anatomical model NORMAN. The impact of anatomical variation has been quantified at an overweight model (Visible Man), both with a spatial resolution of 2 × 2 × 2 mm voxels. Spacing and location of dart electrodes were systematically varied and the worst-case position determined. Based on volume-weighted cardiac exposure assessment, the fibrillation probability of the worst-case hit was determined to 30% (Taser X26) and 9% (Taser X3). The overall risk assessment of Taser application accounting for realistic spatial hit distributions was derived from training sessions of police officers under realistic scenarios and by accounting for the influence of body (over-)weight as well as gender. The analysis of the results showed that the overall fibrillation risk of Taser use is not negligible. It is higher at Taser X26 than at Taser X3 and amounts to about 1% for Europeans with an about 20% higher risk for Asians. Results demonstrate that enhancement as well as further reduction of fibrillation risk depends on responsible use or abuse of Taser weapons. PMID:24776896

Leitgeb, Norbert

2014-06-01

202

76 FR 41371 - Impact of Reducing the Mixture Concentration Threshold for Commercial Schedule 3 Chemical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Concentration Threshold for Commercial Schedule 3 Chemical Activities Under the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations; Proposed Rule...Concentration Threshold for Commercial Schedule 3 Chemical Activities Under the Chemical Weapons...

2011-07-13

203

76 FR 41365 - Impact of Reducing the Mixture Concentration Threshold for Commercial Schedule 2A Chemical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Concentration Threshold for Commercial Schedule 2A Chemical Activities Under the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations; Proposed Rule...Concentration Threshold for Commercial Schedule 2A Chemical Activities Under the Chemical Weapons...

2011-07-13

204

Assessment of hazard of chemical accidental releases triggered by floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the number of accidents happened, when floods trigger the releases of hazardous materials and following environment contamination. Baia Mare (Romania), Spolana Neratovice (Czech Republic) and hurricane Katrina (USA) are well known examples. The importance of this kind of phenomenon as a type of so called NATECH events is expressed among others in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which reorganises water conservation in Europe. It requires programmes of protection measures to be drawn up not later than 2009, and in sub-article 11 (3) l b) to prevent and/or reduce the impact of accidental pollution incidents, for example as a result of floods. Effective measures demand the assessment of hazard and risk of accidental release triggered by floods and there is a need for the method which can be used for these purposes. Such a method is still missing and this is why the basic method for hazard assessment has been developed. Simple indexes-based method is composed of three segments (natural risks, technological risks and combined risk) and it has flexible, modular structure. First segment estimates the probability of flooding of installation, the second, based on the reference scenarios estimates the possibility of release of chemicals and the third classify consequences. The work on refining of parameters and method continues. Method can be used in prevention of major accidents in the framework of the Council Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances (Seveso II directive) and can help to complete the safety studies in classified establishments.

Simonova, M.; Danihelka, P.

2009-04-01

205

12. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. AFTER SEGREGATION, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. AFTER SEGREGATION, PLUTONIUM MATERIALS WERE EITHER RETURNED TO THE BUILDING 776 FOUNDRY WHERE THEY WERE CAST INTO FEED INGOTS, OR UNDERWENT CHEMICAL RECOVERY FOR PURIFICATION. (8/7/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

206

Implementation and Student Perceptions of e-Assessment in a Chemical Engineering Module  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes work carried out at the Department of Chemical Engineering at UCL into the use of e-assessment in a second year module and, in particular, the student perceptions of this mode of assessment. Three quizzes were implemented in Moodle, the first two as formative assessment and the final quiz as summative assessment. The results…

Sorensen, Eva

2013-01-01

207

NCCLC: NETWORK FOR RAPID ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL LIFE CYCLE IMPACT  

EPA Science Inventory

The project is expected to provide a platform for chemical and material life-cycle information exchange. A wide use of CLB will enable organically growing LCA database for chemicals and materials. The project is expected to help chemical producers understand potential envir...

208

A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

209

A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFERY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

210

Challenges of exposure assessment for health studies in the aftermath of chemical incidents and disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure assessment during and after acute chemical incidents and disasters is essential for health studies that may follow. During chemical incidents, the focus usually lies on risk assessment and afterward attention shifts toward possible (long-term) health effects. This may lead to insufficient available data on exposure to study the association between exposure and health outcome, and collection of additional exposure

Sim Bongers; Nicole A H Janssen; B Reiss; L Grievink; E Lebret; H Kromhout

2008-01-01

211

Defining food sampling strategies for chemical risk assessment Nathalie Wesolek, Alain-Claude Roudot  

E-print Network

and risk management. For chemical contaminants in food, contamination assessments enable consumer chemical analysis and sampling plan performance. A sampling plan is always used when the contamination). INTRODUCTION Chemical contaminant analyses in food are of utmost importance, as these contaminants can trigger

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

212

A Generic QSAR for Assessing the Bioaccumulation Potential of Organic Chemicals in Aquatic Food Webs  

E-print Network

A Generic QSAR for Assessing the Bioaccumulation Potential of Organic Chemicals in Aquatic Food the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals in aquatic food webs. The QSAR is derived by parameterization quality. The QSAR provides estimates of the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals in higher

Gobas, Frank

213

Deterring weapons of mass destruction terrorism. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis examines terrorist acts involving the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against unsuspecting civilians by the Aum Shinrikyo and Rajneesh cults. The proliferation of WMD (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) has created a concern that terrorists might use WMD. Despite obvious signs, these groups were not identified as terrorists until after they committed terrorist attacks. This thesis identifies common characteristics of terrorists that have used WMD in the past and generates indicators of non-state actors that might commit WMD terrorism in the future.

LeHardy, F.A.

1997-12-01

214

What Are Nuclear Weapons For?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the decades of the Cold War the prospect of a nuclear holocaust was all too real. With the demise of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, that threat to civilization as we know it had receded. But today we face a grave new danger, the acquisition of nuclear weapons by hostile or unstable governments and terrorists. What can and should we be doing to meet this challenge and prevent the world's most dangerous weapons from falling into very dangerous hands? Are there any reasons for us to still retain thousands of nuclear warheads in our arsenals? What are they for? Can we rekindle the bold vision of a world free of nuclear weapons that President Reagan and General Secretary Gorbachev brought to their remarkable summit meeting at Reykjavik twenty years ago, and define practical steps toward achieving such a goal?

Drell, Sidney

2007-03-01

215

Adjoint method for assessment and reduction of chemical risk in open spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical accidents and chemical terrorisms are threats to people's health and lives. To predict and assess the potential risk\\u000a of chemical leakage is of great importance for decision-makers to reduce risk and panic beforehand. When the chemical gas\\u000a releases into an open space, the transfer and diffusion of the poisonous aerosol is directly affected by meteorological factors,\\u000a so the atmospheric

Feng Liu; Yuanhang Zhang; Fei Hu

2005-01-01

216

The Navy's high-energy laser weapon system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 25 years, in an attempt to develop a speed-of- light hard-kill weapon system, the U.S. Navy has successfully reduced megawatt-class chemical laser and high power beam control technologies to engineering practice. This Navy program was established during the cold war era when defending naval battle group was the primary concern of the U.S. Navy. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, however, an urgent and challenging issue facing the U.S. Navy is the self-defense against cruise missile in a littoral battlefield environment against threats originating from shore and/or scattered low- value platforms. This fundamental shift in the battlefield environment and engagement configuration profoundly affected the basic performance requirements placed on potential shipboard high energy laser weapon systems (HELWS). In a littoral maritime environment, thermal blooming limits atmospheric propagation of an HEL beam, and thus limits the weapon's effectiveness. This paper identifies and discusses the technical issues associated with HELWS requirements in this new environment. It also discuses the collateral capabilities that enhance and complement the performance of other weapon and sensor systems onboard ship. This paper concludes that the HELWS using a free electron laser (FEL) offers a unique weapon option for our warships in facing the new defense challenges of the future.

Cook, Joung R.; Albertine, John R.

1997-05-01

217

Veteran Transfer Students and Concealed Weapons on Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case details the challenges faced by various members of a 4-year university regarding Kathryn, a non-traditional transfer student and military veteran who recently returned from a traumatic deployment in Afghanistan. Precisely, this study identifies ambiguities pertaining to (a) threat assessment, (b) university weapons policies, (c) transfer…

Pesetski, Christine; Ofstein, Jennifer; Outlaw, Stacy; Brooks, Racheal

2014-01-01

218

Date: 14 Oct 2013 Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C University of Cambridge Revised July 2004  

E-print Network

spaces) Clear and tidy workspace with no other chemical contamination. Disposal measures to be usedDate: 14 Oct 2013 Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C © University of Cambridge Revised July 2004 UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE CHEMICAL HAZARD RISK ASSESSMENT FORM

Cambridge, University of

219

Retrospective assessment of exposure to chemicals for a microelectronics and business machine manufacturing facility.  

PubMed

A retrospective exposure assessment was performed for use in a health outcomes study of a facility manufacturing circuit boards, business machines, and other equipment during the years 1969-2002. A matrix was developed identifying chemical use by department-year based on company-provided information. Use of six chemical agents (fiberglass, lead, methylene chloride, methyl chloroform, perchloroethylene, and trichloroethylene) and six chemical classes (acid-base, aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, other hydrocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, and metals), and general (including unspecified) chemicals was identified. The matrix also contained an assignment for each department-year categorizing the potential for use of chemicals as negligible, intermittent/incidental, or routine. These department-based exposure matrix data were combined with work history data to provide duration of potential chemical use for workers. Negligible, intermittent/incidental or routine extent-of-chemical-use categories comprised 42.6%, 39.4%, and 17.9%, respectively, of total person-years of employment. Cumulative exposure scores were also developed, representing a relative measure of the cumulative extent of potential exposure to the six chemical agents, six chemical classes, and general (including unspecified) chemicals. Additionally, the study period was divided into manufacturing eras showing trends in chemical use, and showing that process use of trichloroethylene and methylene chloride ended in the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, respectively. This approach may be useful in other assessments addressing a variety of chemicals, and with data constraints common to retrospective chemical exposure studies. PMID:24224613

Fleming, Donald A; Woskie, Susan R; Jones, James H; Silver, Sharon R; Luo, Lian; Bertke, Stephen J

2014-01-01

220

Interactions between chemical and climate stressors: A role for mechanistic toxicology in assessing climate change risks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Incorporation of global climate change (GCC) effects into assessments of chemical risk and injury requires integrated examinations of chemical and nonchemical stressors. Environmental variables altered by GCC (temperature, precipitation, salinity, pH) can influence the toxicokinetics of chemical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion as well as toxicodynamic interactions between chemicals and target molecules. In addition, GCC challenges processes critical for coping with the external environment (water balance, thermoregulation, nutrition, and the immune, endocrine, and neurological systems), leaving organisms sensitive to even slight perturbations by chemicals when pushed to the limits of their physiological tolerance range. In simplest terms, GCC can make organisms more sensitive to chemical stressors, while alternatively, exposure to chemicals can make organisms more sensitive to GCC stressors. One challenge is to identify potential interactions between nonchemical and chemical stressors affecting key physiological processes in an organism. We employed adverse outcome pathways, constructs depicting linkages between mechanism-based molecular initiating events and impacts on individuals or populations, to assess how chemical- and climate-specific variables interact to lead to adverse outcomes. Case examples are presented for prospective scenarios, hypothesizing potential chemical–GCC interactions, and retrospective scenarios, proposing mechanisms for demonstrated chemical–climate interactions in natural populations. Understanding GCC interactions along adverse outcome pathways facilitates extrapolation between species or other levels of organization, development of hypotheses and focal areas for further research, and improved inputs for risk and resource injury assessments.

Hooper, Michael J.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Cristol, Daniel A.; Maryoung, Lindley A.; Noyes, Pamela D.; Pinkerton, Kent E.

2013-01-01

221

The meteorological monitoring audit, preventative maintenance and quality assurance programs at a former nuclear weapons facility  

SciTech Connect

The purposes of the meteorological monitoring audit, preventative maintenance, and quality assurance programs at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), are to (1) support Emergency Preparedness (EP) programs at the Site in assessing the transport, dispersion, and deposition of effluents actually or potentially released into the atmosphere by Site operations; and (2) provide information for onsite and offsite projects concerned with the design of environmental monitoring networks for impact assessments, environmental surveillance activities, and remediation activities. The risk from the Site includes chemical and radioactive emissions historically related to nuclear weapons component production activities that are currently associated with storage of large quantities of radionuclides (plutonium) and radioactive waste forms. The meteorological monitoring program provides information for site-specific weather forecasting, which supports Site operations, employee safety, and Emergency Preparedness operations.

Maxwell, D.R. [DynCorp of Colorado, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

1995-12-31

222

Risk Identification and Evaluation of Weapons Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the risk evaluation problem in developing weapon is investigated, and a systematized risk evaluation approach based on the independent third party is proposed. Concretely, the necessity of carrying out the risk evaluation based on the independent third party in developing weapon is discussed, and the risk factors in developing weapon are identified. In the stage of choosing

Cheng Wang; Huiru Chen

2010-01-01

223

The Causes of Nuclear Weapons Proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This critical review of the new political science literature on the causes of nuclear weapons proliferation consists of seven parts. The first section briefly presents what we know about which states developed nuclear weapons and which states started but abandoned weapons development programs. I highlight the problems that result from uncertainty about the accuracy and completeness of the data. The

Scott D. Sagan

224

The Causes of Nuclear Weapons Proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This critical review of the new political science literature on the causes of nuclear weapons proliferation consists of seven parts. The first section briefly presents what we know about which states developed nuclear weapons and which states started but abandoned weapons development programs. I highlight the problems that result from uncertainty about the accuracy and completeness of the data. The

Scott D. Sagan

2011-01-01

225

Weapons in Schools. NSSC Resource Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than ever, our public school system must confront weapons in schools and become aware of steadily rising statistics on youth homicide and suicide. This report delineates the problem, discusses why children carry weapons to school, and outlines strategies for keeping weapons out of schools and for improving school safety. Although some…

Butterfield, George E., Ed.; Turner, Brenda, Ed.

226

Operation Desert Shield: medical aspects of weapons of mass destruction.  

PubMed

Our concern over possible use of weapons of mass destruction against U.S. forces in the Middle East has increased because Iraq has violated the Geneva Protocol of 1925 and the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention, attempted to acquire nuclear capability and delivery systems, and is reported to be developing biological weapons. The Army Medical Department has had no experience, since World War I, in the management and treatment of mass casualties contaminated by chemical agents, and has never treated casualties resulting from the use of nuclear or biological weapons used against our soldiers. Management and diagnosis of casualties will be complicated by their possible exposure to a mixture of chemical warfare and biological warfare agents. Triage is an essential aspect in the management of mass casualties since the number of injured patients will exceed the maximum medical capability to treat each patient on arrival. All levels of medical support must be prepared to protect themselves, their equipment and supplies, and their patients from contamination. In contaminated operations on the integrated battlefield, it will be of utmost importance to incorporate flexibility and innovation to match the medical and tactical situation. PMID:1852275

Knudson, G B

1991-06-01

227

DEVELOPMENT OF CHEMICAL COMPATIBILITY CRITERIA FOR ASSESSING FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LINERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory testing was conducted to develop chemical resistance data using immersion tests. Six FML materials (polyvinylchloride, chlorinated polyethylene, chlorosulfonated polyethylene, high density polyethylene, epichlorohydrin and ethylene propylene diene terpolymer) were test...

228

DIOXINS. VOLUME III. ASSESSMENT OF DIOXIN-FORMING CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical reaction mechanisms by which dioxins may be formed are reviewed, particularly those likely to occur within commercially significant processes. Various routes of formation are identified in addition to the classical route of the hydrolysis of trichlorophenol. Basic organi...

229

Weapons of Mass Destruction Technology Evaluation and Training Range  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has a long history for providing technology evaluation and training for military and other federal level Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) response agencies. Currently there are many federal organizations and commercial companies developing technologies related to detecting, assessing, mitigating and protecting against hazards associated with a WMD event. Unfortunately, very few locations exist within the United States where WMD response technologies are realistically field tested and evaluated using real chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive materials. This is particularly true with biological and radiological hazards. Related to this lack of adequate WMD, multi-hazard technology testing capability is the shortage of locations where WMD response teams can train using actual chemical, biological, and radiological material or highly realistic simulates. In response to these technology evaluation and training needs, the INL has assembled a consortium of subject matter experts from existing programs and identified dedicated resources for the purpose of establishing an all-hazards, WMD technology evaluation and training range. The author describes the challenges associated with creating the all-hazards WMD technology evaluation and training range and lists the technical, logistical and financial benefits of an all-hazards technology evaluation and training range. Current resources and capabilities for conducting all-hazard technology evaluation and training at the INL are identified. Existing technology evaluation and training programs at the INL related to radiological, biological and chemical hazards are highlighted, including successes and lessons learned. Finally, remaining gaps in WMD technology evaluation and training capabilities are identified along with recommendations for closing those gaps.

Kevin Larry Young

2009-05-01

230

BYSTANDER EFFECTS GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIAION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

BYSTANDER EFFECTS, GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIATION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES R. Julian Preston Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27711, USA There ...

231

Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other Environmental Impacts  

EPA Science Inventory

TRACI, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts, has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency?s National Risk Management Research Laboratory to facilitate the characterization of stressors that have potential effects, ...

232

AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT: A MULTISECTOR APPROACH TO THE MODERNIZATION OF HUMAN SAFETY REQUIREMENTS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Better understanding of toxicological mechanisms, enhanced testing capabilities, and demands for more sophisticated data for safety and health risk assessment have generated international interest in improving the current testing paradigm for agricultural chemicals. To address th...

233

INTEGRATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY AND TOXICOLOGY IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENTS FOR ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EDCS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Prospective and disgnostic assessments of the ecological risk of toxic chemicals require a thorough integration of aspects of environmental chemistry and toxicology. Failure to successfully achieve this can result in a lack of scientific credibility, as well as missed opportuniti...

234

Major weapon system environmental life-cycle cost estimating for Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C3P2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Titan 4 Space Launch Vehicle Program is one of many major weapon system programs that have modified acquisition plans and operational procedures to meet new, stringent environmental rules and regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) is just one of the regulatory changes that has affected the program. In the last few years, public environmental awareness, coupled with stricter environmental regulations, has created the need for DOD to produce environmental life-cycle cost estimates (ELCCE) for every major weapon system acquisition program. The environmental impact of the weapon system must be assessed and budgeted, considering all costs, from cradle to grave. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has proposed that organizations consider Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C(sup 3)P(sup 2)) issues associated with each acquisition program to assess life-cycle impacts and costs. The Air Force selected the Titan 4 system as the pilot program for estimating life-cycle environmental costs. The estimating task required participants to develop an ELCCE methodology, collect data to test the methodology and produce a credible cost estimate within the DOD C(sup 3)P(sup 2) definition. The estimating methodology included using the Program Office weapon system description and work breakdown structure together with operational site and manufacturing plant visits to identify environmental cost drivers. The results of the Titan IV ELCCE process are discussed and expanded to demonstrate how they can be applied to satisfy any life-cycle environmental cost estimating requirement.

Hammond, Wesley; Thurston, Marland; Hood, Christopher

1995-01-01

235

Chemical Assessment State of the Science: Evaluation of 32 decision-support tools used to screen and prioritize chemicals.  

PubMed

The last decade has seen an increased focus on evaluating the safety and sustainability of chemicals in consumer and industrial products. In order to effectively and accurately evaluate safety and sustainability, tools are needed to characterize hazard, exposure, and risk pertaining to products and processes. Because many of these tools will be used to identify problematic chemistries, and because many have potential applications in various steps of an alternatives analysis, the limitations and capabilities of available tools should be understood by users so that, ultimately, potential chemical risk is accurately reflected. In our study, we examined 32 chemical characterization tools from government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The tools we studied were diverse, and varied widely in their scope and assessment. As such, they were separated into five categories for comparison: 1) Screening and Prioritization; 2) Database Utilization; 3) Hazard Assessment; 4) Exposure and Risk Assessment; and 5) Certification and Labeling. Each tool was scored based on our weighted set of criteria, and then compared to other tools in the same category. Ten tools received a high score in one or more categories; 24 tools received a medium score in one or more categories, and five tools received a low score in one or more categories. Although some tools were placed into more than one category, no tool encompassed all five of the assessment categories. Though many of the tools evaluated may be useful for providing guidance for hazards - and, in some cases, exposure - few tools characterize risk. To our knowledge, this study is the first to critically evaluate a large set of chemical assessment tools and provide an understanding of their strengths and limitations. Integr Environ Assess Manag © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25377590

Gauthier, Alison M; Fung, Mai; Panko, Julie; Kingsbury, Tony; Perez, Angela L; Hitchcock, Kristen; Ferracini, Tyler; Sahmel, Jennifer; Banducci, Amber; Jacobsen, Megan; Abelmann, Anders; Shay, Erin

2014-11-01

236

Historical Nuclear Weapons Test Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the product of a recent joint effort between the US Department of Energy and Department of Defense to declassify films on the nuclear weapons program, place them on videotape, and make them publicly available. Taken as a whole, the films document the history of nuclear weapon development in the US, beginning with the first bomb tested at Trinity Site in southeastern New Mexico in July 1945. As the site notes, while portions of these films were previously released, this is the first time the films have ever been edited for declassification and public release. The films are grouped in five sections, with listings giving operation name date, length of film, and format (color or black and white). Clicking on an individual entry for a film brings up a two-paragraph description and short clips in .mpeg and RealPlayer format, the latter offering four connection speed choices. Video purchase information is provided at the site.

237

ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING TECHNOLOGY: AN EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL COAL CLEANING PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report assembles and assesses technical and economic information on chemical coal cleaning processes. Sufficient data was located to evaluate 11 processes in detail. It was found that chemical coal cleaning processes can remove up to 99% of the pyritic sulfur and 40% of the o...

238

Chemical and microbiological assessment of pendimethalin-contaminated soil after treatment with Fenton's reagent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed chemical effects and microbial response after Fenton's treatment of pendimethalin contaminated soils. The efficiency of the rapid chemical transformation of pendimethalin varied from 25% to greater than 90%. The highest efficiency was associated with a soil having comparatively low organic matter and low acid neutralizing capacity. This is consistent with the role of organic matter as a

Christopher M. Miller; Richard L. Valentine; Marc E. Roehl; Pedro J. J. Alvarez

1996-01-01

239

Safety management and risk assessment in chemical laboratories.  

PubMed

The present paper highlights a new safety management program, MICE (Management, Information, Control and Emergency), which has been specifically adapted for the academic environment. The process starts with an exhaustive hazard inventory supported by a platform assembling specific hazards encountered in laboratories and their subsequent classification. A proof of concept is given by a series of implementations in the domain of chemistry targeting workplace health protection. The methodology is expressed through three examples to illustrate how the MICE program can be used to address safety concerns regarding chemicals, strong magnetic fields and nanoparticles in research laboratories. A comprehensive chemical management program is also depicted. PMID:22026190

Marendaz, Jean-Luc; Friedrich, Kirstin; Meyer, Thierry

2011-01-01

240

Nuclear Weapons Complex reconfiguration study  

SciTech Connect

Shortly after assuming duties as Secretary of Energy, I reviewed the Nuclear Weapons Complex Modernization Report'' submitted to the Congress in January 1989 as required by the National Defense Authorization Act of 1988 and 1989. My review showed that several of the report's assumptions needed to be re-evaluated. During this eighteen-month review, dramatic world changes forced further reassessments of the future Nuclear Weapons Complex. These changes are reflected in the new report. The new report presents a plan to achieve a reconfigured complex, called Complex-21. Complex-21 would be smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operated than the Complex of today. Complex-21 would be able to safely and reliability support nuclear deterrent stockpile objectives set forth by the President and funded by the Congress. It would be consistent with realities of the emerging international security environment and flexible enough to accommodate the likely range of deterrent contingencies. In addition, Complex-21 would be constructed and operated to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and orders. Achieving Complex-21 will require significant resources. This report provides and organized approach toward selecting the most appropriate configuration for Complex-21, satisfying environmental requirements, and minimizing costs. The alternative -- to continue to use piecemeal fixes to run an antiquated complex -- will be more expensive and provide a less reliable Nuclear Weapons Complex. As a consequence, implementation of the Complex-21 plan is considered necessary to ensure continued viability of our nuclear deterrent.

Not Available

1991-01-01

241

Health risk assessments of DEHP released from chemical protective gloves.  

PubMed

The substance di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in chemical protective gloves to improve their flexibility and workability. However, it is possible that workers using protective gloves to handle various solvents may be exposed to DEHP leached by the solvents. Using an ASTM F739 permeation cell, it was found that BTEX solvents permeating through the glove samples dissolved DEHP from the gloves. Even without continuously contacting the permeant, DEHP was released from the contaminated glove samples during the desorption experiments. The DEHP leaching amounts were found to be inversely correlated to the permeability coefficients of BTEX in the glove samples. This result implied that the larger the amount of DEHP released from the glove samples, the higher the permeation resistance of gloves. Although chemical protective gloves provide adequate skin exposure protection to workers, the dermal exposure model developed herein indicates that leaching of DEHP from the glove samples may pose a potential health risk to the workers who handle BTEX. This study suggests that the selection of protective gloves should not only be concerned with the chemical resistance of the gloves but also the health risk associated with leaching of chemicals, such as DEHP, used in the manufacturing of the gloves. PMID:25261760

Chao, Keh-Ping; Huang, Chan-Sheng; Wei, Chung-Ying

2015-02-11

242

NEW METHODS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF IMMUNOTOXICITY OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The immune system is a target of toxic insult following subchronic or chronic exposure to environmental chemicals, therapeutic drugs or abused drugs. nteraction of xenobiotics with the immune system may result in undesirable effects of three principal types; (a) those manifested ...

243

Advancing Exposure Characterization for Chemical Evaluation and Risk Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

A new generation of scientific tools has emerged to rapidly measure signals from cells, tissues, and organisms following exposure to chemicals. High-visibility efforts to apply these tools for efficient toxicity testing raise important research questions in exposure science. As v...

244

Spatial Approaches for Ecological Screening and Exposure Assessment of Chemicals and Radionclides  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation details a tool, SADA, available for use in environmental assessments of chemicals that can also be used for radiological assessments of the environment. Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance (SADA) is a Windows freeware program that incorporates tools from e...

245

Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Learning and Developmental Disorders: Epidemiology and Exposure Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation has two areas of focus: learning and developmental disorders (LDDs) and polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs). Epidemiological and exposure assessment methods are applied to each. The first paper used geographic location as a surrogate for exposure and broadly assesses the effect of the environment, both physical and social, on LDD…

Hoffman, Jennifer Kate

2010-01-01

246

APPROACHES FOR INCORPORATING NON-CHEMICAL STRESSORS INTO CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past twenty years, the risk assessment paradigm has gradually shifted from an individual chemical approach to a community-based model. Inherent in community-based risk assessment is consideration of the totality of stressors affecting a defined population including both ...

247

RISK ASSESSMENT IS A DEVELOPING SCIENCE: APPROACHES TO IMPROVE EVALUATION OF SINGLE CHEMICALS AND CHEMICAL MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office of the U.S. EPA is engaged in the development of risk assessment guidelines and methodologies as part of the regulatory program of the Agency. here is an increasing need for methods that address more complex exposure situations, in...

248

Assessing and improving cross-border chemical incident preparedness and response across Europe.  

PubMed

Good practices in emergency preparedness and response for chemical incidents include practices specific to the different functions of exposure assessment (e.g., within the monitoring function, the use of mobile monitoring equipment; within the modelling function, the use of rapid dispersion models with integrated mapping software) and generic practices to engage incident response stakeholders to maximise exposure assessment capabilities (e.g., sharing protocols and pre-prepared information and multi-agency training and exercising). Such practices can optimise cross-border collaboration. A wide range of practices have been implemented across MSs during chemical incident response, particularly during incidents that have cross-border and trans-boundary impacts. This paper proposes a self-assessment methodology to enable MSs, or organisations within MSs, to examine exposure assessment capabilities and communication pathways between exposure assessors and public health risk assessors. Where gaps exist, this methodology provides links to good practices that could improve response, communication and collaboration across local, regional and national borders. A fragmented approach to emergency preparedness for chemical incidents is a major obstacle to improving cross-border exposure assessment. There is no one existing body or structure responsible for all aspects of chemical incident preparedness and response in the European Union. Due to the range of different organisations and networks involved in chemical incident response, emergency preparedness needs to be drawn together. A number of recommendations are proposed, including the use of networks of experts which link public health risk assessors with experts in exposure assessment, in order to coordinate and improve chemical incident emergency preparedness. The EU's recent Decision on serious cross-border threats to health aims to facilitate MSs' compliance with the International Health Regulations, which require reporting and communication regarding significant chemical incidents. This provides a potential route to build on in order to improve chemical incident preparedness and response across Europe. PMID:24768281

Stewart-Evans, James; Hall, Lisbeth; Czerczak, Slawomir; Manley, Kevin; Dobney, Alec; Hoffer, Sally; Pa?aszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Jankowska, Agnieszka

2014-11-01

249

Guidance Note 052 RISK ASSESSMENTS FOR HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS  

E-print Network

source of information for completing a COSHH / DSEAR assessment is the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS;safety data or the condition of the substance is in doubt due to its age, it should be disposed and fresh agents or radioactive substances ­ this information can be found elsewhere on the Safety Department

250

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist mall- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

251

VALIDATION METHODS FOR CHEMICAL EXPOSURE AND HAZARD ASSESSMENT MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Mathematical models and computer simulation codes designed to aid in hazard assessment for environmental protection must be verified and validated before they can be used with confidence in a decision-making or priority-setting context. Operational validation, or full-scale testi...

252

Improving the risk assessment of lipophilic persistent environmental chemicals in breast milk.  

PubMed

Lipophilic persistent environmental chemicals (LPECs) have the potential to accumulate within a woman's body lipids over the course of many years prior to pregnancy, to partition into human milk, and to transfer to infants upon breastfeeding. As a result of this accumulation and partitioning, a breastfeeding infant's intake of these LPECs may be much greater than his/her mother's average daily exposure. Because the developmental period sets the stage for lifelong health, it is important to be able to accurately assess chemical exposures in early life. In many cases, current human health risk assessment methods do not account for differences between maternal and infant exposures to LPECs or for lifestage-specific effects of exposure to these chemicals. Because of their persistence and accumulation in body lipids and partitioning into breast milk, LPECs present unique challenges for each component of the human health risk assessment process, including hazard identification, dose-response assessment, and exposure assessment. Specific biological modeling approaches are available to support both dose-response and exposure assessment for lactational exposures to LPECs. Yet, lack of data limits the application of these approaches. The goal of this review is to outline the available approaches and to identify key issues that, if addressed, could improve efforts to apply these approaches to risk assessment of lactational exposure to these chemicals. PMID:25068490

Lehmann, Geniece M; Verner, Marc-André; Luukinen, Bryan; Henning, Cara; Assimon, Sue Anne; LaKind, Judy S; McLanahan, Eva D; Phillips, Linda J; Davis, Matthew H; Powers, Christina M; Hines, Erin P; Haddad, Sami; Longnecker, Matthew P; Poulsen, Michael T; Farrer, David G; Marchitti, Satori A; Tan, Yu-Mei; Swartout, Jeffrey C; Sagiv, Sharon K; Welsh, Clement; Campbell, Jerry L; Foster, Warren G; Yang, Raymond S H; Fenton, Suzanne E; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Francis, Bettina M; Barnett, John B; El-Masri, Hisham A; Simmons, Jane Ellen

2014-08-01

253

Antibacterial activity and biodegradability assessment of chemically grafted nanofibrillated cellulose.  

PubMed

Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and their derivatives were prepared using three chemical surface modification strategies. All grafting was characterized by FTIR and contact angle measurements in order to evaluate the efficiency of grafting. Antibacterial activities of neat and grafted samples were investigated against two kinds of bacteria (i.e. Gram+ (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram- (Klebsiella pneumoniae)). All the grafted samples displayed promising results with at least bacteriostatic effect or bactericidal properties. They also strongly enhanced the photo-catalytic antimicrobial effect of TiO2. This study proves that it is better to use grafted NFC either alone or for functionalization with TiO2 if anti-bacterial properties are desired. The cellulose backbone is known to be easily biodegradable in different biodegradation conditions and environments. The chemical surface modifications applied on NFC in the present work did not negatively influence this valuable property of cellulose but help for monitoring this property, which could be very useful for paper, packaging and composites. PMID:25491853

Missoum, Karim; Sadocco, Patrizia; Causio, Jessica; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur; Bras, Julien

2014-12-01

254

Assessment of genetic and chemical variability in Thymus caramanicus.  

PubMed

Thymus caramanicus is an endemic species grown in Iran with interesting pharmacological and biological properties. In the present work, essential oil compositions and inter-simple sequences repeat (ISSR) markers were used to estimate the relationships among and within seven populations of T. caramanicus, belonging to three provinces in Iran. The studied individuals were distinguished on the basis of ISSR markers and constituents of essential oil. A total of 127 band positions were produced by 12 ISSR primers, of which 105 were found polymorphic with 82.68% polymorphism. Genetic similarity values among individuals ranged between 0.15 and 0.82 which was indicative of a high level of genetic variation. On the basis of their genetic similarities, ISSR analysis allowed to group the samples into two main clusters. One of these included populations originated from Kerman and Isfahan provinces, and the other cluster consists of populations from Semnan province. Chemical compounds of essential oils were found variable in the various individuals and all samples were principally composed of phenolic constituents (carvacrol and/or thymol). As a consequence, the plants were classified into two major chemotypes including carvacrol and thymol/carvacrol. A relationship between genetic and chemical variability and geographic distribution has been observed in studied populations of T. caramanicus. PMID:24469732

Hadian, Javad; Bigdeloo, Mahdi; Nazeri, Vahideh; Khadivi-Khub, Abdollah

2014-05-01

255

Assessing the Robustness of Chemical Prioritizations Based on ToxCast Chemical Profiling  

EPA Science Inventory

A central goal of the U.S. EPA?s ToxCast? program is to provide empirical, scientific evidence to aid in prioritizing the toxicity testing of thousands of chemicals. The agency has developed a prioritization approach, the Toxicological Prioritization Index (ToxPi?), that calculat...

256

A screening method for preliminary assessment of risk to groundwater from land-applied chemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple mathematical model for initial screening is presented that can aid in evaluating the relative risk to groundwater from applying nonpolar synthetic organic chemicals to soil. The basic premise is that the magnitude of the quotient of the chemical concentration of the water entering the aquifer and the maximum allowable concentration (as established by EPA or Health Departments) represents the health risk of a chemical. The chemical concentration of the soil water is estimated based on conservative, simplifying assumptions and requires only readily available data such as: basic soil properties (organic matter and saturated hydraulic conductivity), organic chemical properties (octanol-water partition coefficient and degradation rate) and environmental factors (recharge rate and depth to groundwater). The methodology was applied to assess the relative risk of organic chemicals in municipal sewage sludge and pesticides applied to agricultural land. The results are realistic.

Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Naylor, Lewis M.

1987-06-01

257

Life Cycle Assessment and Sustainability of Chemical Products  

E-print Network

equivalent GWP* to that of a HDPE grocery bag, reusable bags need to be used: Paper LDPE PP CottonHDPE 3x 4x 11x 131x •Source: Adapted from “Life cycle assessment of supermarket carrier bags: a review of the bags available in 2006”, UK Environment Agency... enabler of solutions to reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions • Incorporate a life cycle thinking approach • Efficiency of manufacturing and conversion processes, and of supply chain • Innovation in new and high performance products • LCA a globally...

Sahnoune, A.

2014-01-01

258

A model to calculate effectiveness of a submarine-launched nuclear ASW weapon  

SciTech Connect

LLNL's Navy Tactical Applications Group (NTAG) has produced a computer model to calculate the probability of kill of a submarine-launched nuclear ASW standoff-weapon. Because of the uncertainties associated with target position and motion and with weapon delivery, this is a problem appropriately treated statistically. The code is a Monte Carlo's simulation which follows the engagement from localization through optional evasive maneuvers of the target to attack and damage assessment. For a given scenario (weapon characteristics, target characteristics, firing platform depth and hardness, etc.) the code produces a table and ultimately a plot of Pk as a function of range. 2 figs., 1 tab.

Magnoli, D.E.

1989-06-01

259

Systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios.  

SciTech Connect

Throughout history, as new chemical threats arose, strategies for the defense against chemical attacks have also evolved. As a part of an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, a systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios was performed to understand how the chemical threats and attack strategies change over time. For the analysis, the difficulty in executing chemical attack was evaluated within a framework of three major scenario elements. First, historical examples of chemical terrorism were examined to determine how the use of chemical threats, versus other weapons, contributed to the successful execution of the attack. Using the same framework, the future of chemical terrorism was assessed with respect to the impact of globalization and new technologies. Finally, the efficacy of the current defenses against contemporary chemical terrorism was considered briefly. The results of this analysis justify the need for continued diligence in chemical defense.

Hoette, Trisha Marie

2012-03-01

260

Chemical warfare agents  

PubMed Central

Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

2010-01-01

261

Chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

Ganesan, K; Raza, S K; Vijayaraghavan, R

2010-07-01

262

Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences  

SciTech Connect

Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants in residences in the United States and in countries with similar lifestyles. These data were used to calculate representative mid-range and upper bound concentrations relevant to chronic exposures for 267 pollutants and representative peak concentrations relevant to acute exposures for 5 activity-associated pollutants. Representative concentrations are compared to available chronic and acute health standards for 97 pollutants. Fifteen pollutants appear to exceed chronic health standards in a large fraction of homes. Nine other pollutants are identified as potential chronic health hazards in a substantial minority of homes and an additional nine are identified as potential hazards in a very small percentage of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as priority hazards based on the robustness of measured concentration data and the fraction of residences that appear to be impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; formaldehyde; naphthalene; nitrogen dioxide; and PM{sub 2.5}. Activity-based emissions are shown to pose potential acute health hazards for PM{sub 2.5}, formaldehyde, CO, chloroform, and NO{sub 2}.

Logue, J.M.; McKone, T.E.; Sherman, M. H.; Singer, B.C.

2010-05-10

263

Use of chemical genomics in assessment of the UPR.  

PubMed

Glucose deprivation, one of the major physiological conditions in solid tumor, leads to activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cancer cells. The UPR occurs through the transcriptional and translational regulatory mechanisms that improve the capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to fold and traffic proteins and allows the cell to survive under stress conditions. We previously reported that the macrocyclic compound versipelostatin and the antidiabetic biguanides metformin, buformin, and phenformin could inhibit the UPR during glucose deprivation as well as induce the UPR by treatment of cells with 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG), a glycolysis inhibitor. Versipelostatin and biguanides show highly selective cytotoxicity to glucose-deprived tumor cells and exert in vivo antitumor activity; thus, these compounds would be interesting anticancer agent candidates. By microarray analysis, we demonstrated that cancer cells under glucose deprivation conditions caused activation of the UPR transcription program, which was suppressed broadly by versipelostatin and biguanides. We also identified the drug-driven gene signatures that can be used to discover pharmacologic UPR modulators. Indeed, we found several bioactive drugs, such as pyrvinium pamoate, valinomycin, and rottlerin, that selectively suppressed 2DG-induced GRP78 promoter activity as versipelostatin and biguanide did. Together with growing bioinformatics databases and analytical tools, our approach could provide a chemical genomic basis for developing UPR-targeting drugs against solid tumors. PMID:21329808

Saito, Sakae; Tomida, Akihiro

2011-01-01

264

Utilizing toxicogenomic data to understand chemical mechanism of action in risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The predominant role of toxicogenomic data in risk assessment, thus far, has been one of augmentation of more traditional in vitro and in vivo toxicology data. This article focuses on the current available examples of instances where toxicogenomic data has been evaluated in human health risk assessment (e.g., acetochlor and arsenicals) which have been limited to the application of toxicogenomic data to inform mechanism of action. This article reviews the regulatory policy backdrop and highlights important efforts to ultimately achieve regulatory acceptance. A number of research efforts on specific chemicals that were designed for risk assessment purposes have employed mechanism or mode of action hypothesis testing and generating strategies. The strides made by large scale efforts to utilize toxicogenomic data in screening, testing, and risk assessment are also discussed. These efforts include both the refinement of methodologies for performing toxicogenomics studies and analysis of the resultant data sets. The current issues limiting the application of toxicogenomics to define mode or mechanism of action in risk assessment are discussed together with interrelated research needs. In summary, as chemical risk assessment moves away from a single mechanism of action approach toward a toxicity pathway-based paradigm, we envision that toxicogenomic data from multiple technologies (e.g., proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, supportive RT-PCR studies) can be used in conjunction with one another to understand the complexities of multiple, and possibly interacting, pathways affected by chemicals which will impact human health risk assessment.

Wilson, Vickie S., E-mail: wilson.vickie@epa.gov [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Keshava, Nagalakshmi [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Hester, Susan [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Segal, Deborah; Chiu, Weihsueh [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Thompson, Chad M. [ToxStrategies, Inc., 23501 Cinco Ranch Blvd., Suite G265, Katy, TX 77494 (United States); Euling, Susan Y. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States)

2013-09-15

265

Evaluation of Biomonitoring Data from the CDC National Exposure Report in a Risk Assessment Context: Perspectives across Chemicals  

EPA Science Inventory

BACKGROUND: Biomonitoring data reported in the National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (NER) provide information on the presence and concentrations of more than 400 chemicals in human blood and urine. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) and other risk assessment...

266

Ecological Risk Assessment of Chemicals Migrated from a Recycled Plastic Product  

PubMed Central

Objectives Potential environmental risks caused by chemicals that could be released from a recycled plastic product were assessed using a screening risk assessment procedure for chemicals in recycled products. Methods Plastic slope protection blocks manufactured from recycled plastics were chosen as model recycled products. Ecological risks caused by four model chemicals -di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb)- were assessed. Two exposure models were built for soil below the block and a hypothetic stream receiving runoff water. Based on the predicted no-effect concentrations for the selected chemicals and exposure scenarios, the allowable leaching rates from and the allowable contents in the recycled plastic blocks were also derived. Results Environmental risks posed by slope protection blocks were much higher in the soil compartment than in the hypothetic stream. The allowable concentrations in leachate were 1.0×10-4, 1.2×10-5, 9.5×10-3, and 5.3×10-3 mg/L for DEHP, DINP, Cd, and Pb, respectively. The allowable contents in the recycled products were 5.2×10-3, 6.0×10-4, 5.0×10-1, and 2.7×10-1 mg/kg for DEHP, DINP, Cd, and Pb, respectively. Conclusions A systematic ecological risk assessment approach for slope protection blocks would be useful for regulatory decisions for setting the allowable emission rates of chemical contaminants, although the method needs refinement. PMID:24303349

Roh, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Min-Hyuck; Kim, Woo Il; Kang, Young-Yeul; Shin, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Jong-Guk

2013-01-01

267

Chemical characterization of a commercial Commiphora wightii resin sample and chemical profiling to assess for authenticity.  

PubMed

The gum resin of Commiphora wightii [(Hook. ex Stocks) Engl.] is an ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of arthritis, inflammation, obesity, lipid disorders, and cardiovascular diseases and is known as guggul. Morphologically, it is not easy to distinguish guggul from closely related gum resins of other plants. Reliability of the commercially available guggul is critical due to the high risk of adulteration. To check authenticity, a commercial guggul sample was investigated for its chemical markers and 17 metabolites were identified, including three new, 20(S),21-epoxy-3-oxocholest-4-ene (1), 8 ?-hydroxy-3,20-dioxopregn-4,6-diene (2), and 5-(13' Z-nonadecenyl)resorcinol (17) from the ethyl acetate soluble part. During the current study, compounds 14- 17 were identified as constituents of Mangifera indica gum, as an adulterant in the commercial guggul sample. This discovery highlighted the common malpractices in the trade of medicinal raw material in the developing world. The structures of the compounds were deduced by the spectroscopic technique and chemical methods, as well as by comparison with the reported data. The structure of 20(S),21-epoxy-3-oxocholest-4-ene (1) was also unambiguously deduced by single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique. PMID:21240842

Ahmed, Rida; Ali, Zulfiqar; Wu, Yunshan; Kulkarni, Swapnil; Avery, Mitchell A; Choudhary, Muhammed Iqbal; Khan, Ikhlas A

2011-06-01

268

Nuclear Weapons, Psychology, and International Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fear of nuclear energy, nuclear weapons, and nuclear was is widespread among the peoples of the world. However, to what extent do the fears (both rational and irrational) of policy-making elites and political masses produce actual effects upon the behavior of governments (who, after all, control the use of nuclear weapons)? (Author/RK)

Dougherty, James E.

1976-01-01

269

Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

Bing, G.F.

1991-08-20

270

Undisclosed chemicals--implications for risk assessment: a case study from the mining industry.  

PubMed

Many of the chemicals used in industry can be hazardous to human health and the environment, and some formulations can have undisclosed ingredients and hazards, increasing the uncertainty of the risks posed by their use. The need for a better understanding of the extent of undisclosed information in chemicals arose from collecting data on the hazards and exposures of chemicals used in typical mining operations (copper, platinum and coal). Four main categories of undisclosed chemicals were defined (incomplete disclosure; chemicals with unspecific identities; relative quantities of ingredients not stated; and trade secret ingredients) by reviewing material safety data sheet (MSDS) omissions in previous studies. A significant number of chemicals (20% of 957 different chemicals) across the three sites had a range of undisclosed information, with majority of the chemicals (39%) having unspecific identities. The majority of undisclosed information was found in commercially available motor oils followed by cleaning products and mechanical maintenance products, as opposed to reagents critical to the main mining processes. All three types of chemicals had trade secrets, unspecific chemical identities and incomplete disclosures. These types of undisclosed information pose a hindrance to a full understanding of the hazards, which is made worse when combined with additional MSDS omissions such as acute toxicity endpoints (LD50) and/or acute aquatic toxicity endpoints (LC50), as well as inadequate hazard classifications of ingredients. The communication of the hazard information in the MSDSs varied according to the chemical type, the manufacturer and the regulations governing the MSDSs. Undisclosed information can undermine occupational health protection, compromise the safety of workers in industry, hinder risk assessment procedures and cause uncertainty about future health. It comes down to the duty of care that industries have towards their employees. With a wide range of chemicals increasingly used, there is a balance that needs to be reached between disclosure requirements, trade secret provisions and definitions of hazardous ingredients for market needs, and the information required to protect the health of their workers. PMID:24685487

Singh, Khareen; Oates, Christopher; Plant, Jane; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

2014-07-01

271

Skin sensitization in chemical risk assessment: report of a WHO/IPCS international workshop focusing on dose-response assessment.  

PubMed

An international workshop was held in 2006 to evaluate experimental techniques for hazard identification and hazard characterization of sensitizing agents in terms of their ability to produce data, including dose-response information, to inform risk assessment. Human testing to identify skin sensitizers is discouraged for ethical reasons. Animal-free alternatives, such as quantitative structure-activity relationships and in vitro testing approaches, have not been sufficiently developed for such application. Guinea pig tests do not generally include dose-response assessment and are therefore not designed for the assessment of potency, defined as the relative ability of a chemical to induce sensitization in a previously naive individual. In contrast, the mouse local lymph node assay does include dose-response assessment and is appropriate for this purpose. Epidemiological evidence can be used only under certain circumstances for the evaluation of the sensitizing potency of chemicals, as it reflects degree of exposure as well as intrinsic potency. Nevertheless, human diagnostic patch test data and quantitative elicitation data have provided very important information in reducing allergic contact dermatitis risk and sensitization in the general population. It is therefore recommended that clinical data, particularly dose-response data derived from sensitized patients, be included in risk assessment. PMID:18237832

van Loveren, Henk; Cockshott, Amanda; Gebel, Tom; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; de Jong, Wim H; Matheson, Joanna; McGarry, Helen; Musset, Laurence; Selgrade, Maryjane K; Vickers, Carolyn

2008-03-01

272

Nuclear weapons are illegal threats  

SciTech Connect

Challenging Harry Almond's position that nuclear deterrence is workable, the author contends that there is no historical basis for believing that anticipation of the horrors of war will be an effective deterrent. He questions the belief that the nuclear balance of terror has maintained the peace for the past 40 years because an arms race is inherently unstable. The argument that the pursuit of national interests takes precedence over any limitation imposed by international law reflects a perception of international law that is comparable to the Third Reich. The bases for a legal evaluation of the status of nuclear weapons under international law come from express and implicit treaty provisions, international custom, general principles of international law, judicial decisions, resolutions at the United Nations, and the opinions of qualified jurists as well as military necessity.

Meyrowitz, E.L.

1985-05-01

273

Challenges to developing countries after joining WTO: risk assessment of chemicals in food.  

PubMed

FAO/WHO encourages member countries to develop national food control measures based on risk assessment in order to assure proper protection level to consumers and facilitate fair trade. This is particularly important for developing countries as WTO members because it is clearly stated in the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Agreement that: (a) SPS measures should be based on risk assessment techniques developed by relevant international organizations; and (b) Codex standards which is based on risk assessment are regarded as the international norm in trade dispute settlement. When conducting risk assessment on food chemicals (including additives and contaminants) in developing countries, in most cases it is not necessary to conduct their own hazard characterization because the ADIs or PTWIs of food chemicals developed by international expert groups (e.g. JECFA) are universally applicable and also developing countries do not have the resources to repeat those expensive toxicological studies. On the other hand, it is necessary to conduct exposure assessment in developing countries because exposure to food chemicals varies from country to country. This is not only crucial in setting national standards, but also very important for developing countries to participate in the process of developing Codex standards. In addition to food standard development, risk assessment is also useful in setting up priorities in imported food inspection and evaluating the success of various food safety control measures. PMID:15138023

Chen, Junshi

2004-05-20

274

An integrated approach to the toxicity evaluation of Irish marine sediment - chemical assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was a collaborative project between the Marine Institute (MI) in Galway and Radiation and Environmental Science Centre (RESC) in the Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT). In Ireland, at present, sediment quality assessments are generally reliant on chemical analysis alone with limited bioassay techniques available to further characterise the sediment. Some causative agents of toxicity to biological organisms are

Michelle Giltrap

2008-01-01

275

Learning from the application of nuclear probabilistic safety assessment to the chemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the new approach of risk analysis established by the French Ministry of the Environment and develops the benefits of applying nuclear probabilistic safety assessment approaches to the chemical industry.In the aftermath of the AZF disaster in Toulouse on 21 September 2001, a new law was proposed by the French government asking for the investigation of all representative

Cyril Charvet; Jean-Luc Chambon; François Corenwinder; Jérôme Taveau

2011-01-01

276

BYSTANDER EFFECTS, GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIATION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an increased interest in utilizing mechanistic data in support of the cancer risk assessment process for ionizing radiation and environmental chemical exposures. In this regard the use of biologically based dose-response models is particularly advocated. The aim is to pr...

277

Chemical compounds and toxicological assessments of drinking water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET)  

E-print Network

Chemical compounds and toxicological assessments of drinking water stored in polyethylene to restrictions and/or specifications according to their toxicological data. Despite this, the analysis of PET in bottled water have been suggested as the source of these toxicological effects. Furthermore, sample

Short, Daniel

278

Incorporating Risk Assessment and Inherently Safer Design Practices into Chemical Engineering Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces, via case study example, the benefit of including risk assessment methodology and inherently safer design practices into the curriculum for chemical engineering students. This work illustrates how these tools can be applied during the earliest stages of conceptual process design. The impacts of decisions made during…

Seay, Jeffrey R.; Eden, Mario R.

2008-01-01

279

PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENTS OF IN VITRO PHARMACOKINETIC DATA AND EXPOSURE INFORMATION FOR THE TOXCAST PHASE II CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Momentum has been growing in Toxicology to assess the utility of high-throughput screening (HTS) assays in the determination of chemical testing priorities. However, in vitro potencies determined in these assays do not consider in vivo bioavailability, clearance or exposure estim...

280

Estimating Toxicity Pathway Activating Doses for High Throughput Chemical Risk Assessments  

EPA Science Inventory

Estimating a Toxicity Pathway Activating Dose (TPAD) from in vitro assays as an analog to a reference dose (RfD) derived from in vivo toxicity tests would facilitate high throughput risk assessments of thousands of data-poor environmental chemicals. Estimating a TPAD requires def...

281

CHEN 3AA0 Chemical Engineering Progress Assessment II (Concepts Inventory Exam)  

E-print Network

CHEN 3AA0 Chemical Engineering Progress Assessment II (Concepts Inventory Exam) Instructions to as the Concept Inventory Exam (CIE). The following material discusses the nature of the CIE and the CHEN 3AA0 engineering concepts. Administration: The CIE is offered in CHEN 3AA0 and is part of the passing criteria

Ashurst, W. Robert

282

ASSESSING ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICAL EXPOSURE IN INDIGENOUS AQUATIC POPULATIONS IN THE OHIO RIVER  

EPA Science Inventory

The NERL has launched a collaborative study with the ORSANCO to determine the degree of ecologically relevant endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) exposure in the New Cumberland Pool of the Ohio River under the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program - Great Rivers Project...

283

ASSESSMENT OF RISK CAUSED BY REMEDIAL ACTIONS CONSIDERED FOR VERTAC CHEMICAL CORPORATION SITE, JACKSONVILLE, ARKANSAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the study is to assess the risk caused by dust emissions associated with proposed remedial actions considered for the Vertac Chemical Corporation site in Jacksonville, Arkansas. Much of the site is contaminated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD as a result of the materials handlin...

284

DEVELOPMENT OF MOLECULAR MARKERS OF RESPONSE TO ASSESS THE SENSITIVITY OF CHILDREN TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Development of Molecular Markers of Response to Assess the Sensitivity of Children to Environmental Chemicals J.Allen, C. Blackman, M. Blaze, D. Delker, D. DeMarini, C. Doerr, R. Grindstaff, S. Hester, C. Jones, A. Kligerman, G. Knapp, M. Kohan, C. Nelson, R. Owen, J. P...

285

STRESS PATHWAY-BASED REPORTER ASSAYS TO ASSESS TOXICITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS.  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an increasing need for assays for the rapid and efficient assessment of toxicities of large numbers of environmental chemicals. To meet this need, we are developing cell-based reporter assays that measure the activation of key molecular stress pathways. We are using pro...

286

REMOTE SENSING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL PLANTS AND REFINERIES FOLLOWING HURRICANES KATRINA AND RITA  

EPA Science Inventory

The massive destruction brought by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita also impacted the many chemical plants and refineries in the region. The achievement of this rapid analysis capability highlights the advancement of this technology for air quality assessment and monitoring. Case st...

287

Life cycle assessment of offset printed matter with EDIP97: how important are emissions of chemicals?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing product life cycle assessment (LCA) studies on offset printed matter all point at paper as the overall dominating cause of environmental impacts. All studies focus on energy consumption and the dominating role of paper is primarily based on the energy-related impact categories: global warming, acidification and nutrient enrichment. Ecotoxicity and human toxicity, which are related to emissions of chemicals,

Henrik Fred Larsen; Morten Søes Hansen; Michael Hauschild

2009-01-01

288

Assessment of physico-chemical and biokinetic properties of uranium peroxide hydrate UOâ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprehensive studies on the radiotoxicological risk of an intermediate compound UOâ, which is not specified in ICRP Recommendations, were motivated by its increased use in the nuclear fuel cycle and the lack of information such as physico-chemical and biokinetic properties. The aim of this work was to give an experimental basis for assessing the appropriate limits on intake for workers

E. Ansoborlo; V. Chazel; P. Houpert; M. H. Henge-Napoli; F. Paquet; A. Hodgson; N. Stradling

1998-01-01

289

Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions.

Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

1994-09-01

290

Finally, Proof of Weapons of Mass Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Allelopathy (one species' use of chemicals to harm other species) may be a key ingredient in successful invasions of alien plants into established communities. Bais et al. show that in response to elicitation by common soil fungi, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) launches an ineffective defense against the fungi that results in extensive collateral damage to neighboring plants. Specifically, the flavonoid (–)-catechin, released from the roots of knapweed, produces a massive reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative burst, Ca2+ signaling, and rapid cell death in those unadapted native species whose habitats the plant regularly invades. The roots release both (+) and (–) enantiomers, but only the (–) enantiomer functions as a weapon of mass destruction; the (+) enantiomer inhibits the growth of numerous common soil-borne bacterial pathogens. Eliciting apoptotic response for a competitive advantage is an example of signal cross-talk between the genomes of interacting organisms and highlights how the internal signaling of one organism can be used by others to adjust their phenotypes in an adaptive manner. The study provides strong circumstantial evidence for an allelopathic interaction, but the genetic manipulation of (–)-catechin release would allow researchers to determine if these responses occur in nature. Precise genetic control over the release of secondary metabolites from plants would benefit ecological research.

Ian T. Baldwin (Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology; Department of Molecular Ecology REV)

2003-10-07

291

Introduction to Pits and Weapons Systems (U)  

SciTech Connect

A Nuclear Explosive Package includes the Primary, Secondary, Radiation Case and related components. This is the part of the weapon that produces nuclear yield and it converts mechanical energy into nuclear energy. The pit is composed of materials that allow mechanical energy to be converted to electromagnetic energy. Fabrication processes used are typical of any metal fabrication facility: casting, forming, machining and welding. Some of the materials used in pits include: Plutonium, Uranium, Stainless Steel, Beryllium, Titanium, and Aluminum. Gloveboxes are used for three reasons: (1) Protect workers and public from easily transported, finely divided plutonium oxides - (a) Plutonium is very reactive and produces very fine particulate oxides, (b) While not the 'Most dangerous material in the world' of Manhattan Project lore, plutonium is hazardous to health of workers if not properly controlled; (2) Protect plutonium from reactive materials - (a) Plutonium is extremely reactive at ambient conditions with several components found in air: oxygen, water, hydrogen, (b) As with most reactive metals, reactions with these materials may be violent and difficult to control, (c) As with most fabricated metal products, corrosion may significantly affect the mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of the product; and (3) Provide shielding from radioactive decay products: {alpha}, {gamma}, and {eta} are commonly associated with plutonium decay, as well as highly radioactive materials such as {sup 241}Am and {sup 238}Pu.

Kautz, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-02

292

History of chemical and biological warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when

L. Szinicz

2005-01-01

293

Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

Watson, A.P.

2003-07-24

294

Assessing the effects of adsorptive polymeric resin additions on fungal secondary metabolite chemical diversity  

PubMed Central

Adsorptive polymeric resins have been occasionally described to enhance the production of specific secondary metabolites (SMs) of interest. Methods that induce the expression of new chemical entities in fungal fermentations may lead to the discovery of new bioactive molecules and should be addressed as possible tools for the creation of new microbial chemical libraries for drug lead discovery. Herein, we apply both biological activity and chemical evaluations to assess the use of adsorptive resins as tools for the differential expression of SMs in fungal strain sets. Data automation approaches were applied to ultra high performance liquid chromatography analysis of extracts to evaluate the general influence in generating new chemical entities or in changing the production of specific SMs by fungi grown in the presence of resins and different base media. PMID:25379340

González-Menéndez, Víctor; Asensio, Francisco; Moreno, Catalina; de Pedro, Nuria; Monteiro, Maria Candida; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Vicente, Francisca; Bills, Gerald F.; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Tormo, José R.

2014-01-01

295

Assessing the effects of adsorptive polymeric resin additions on fungal secondary metabolite chemical diversity.  

PubMed

Adsorptive polymeric resins have been occasionally described to enhance the production of specific secondary metabolites (SMs) of interest. Methods that induce the expression of new chemical entities in fungal fermentations may lead to the discovery of new bioactive molecules and should be addressed as possible tools for the creation of new microbial chemical libraries for drug lead discovery. Herein, we apply both biological activity and chemical evaluations to assess the use of adsorptive resins as tools for the differential expression of SMs in fungal strain sets. Data automation approaches were applied to ultra high performance liquid chromatography analysis of extracts to evaluate the general influence in generating new chemical entities or in changing the production of specific SMs by fungi grown in the presence of resins and different base media. PMID:25379340

González-Menéndez, Víctor; Asensio, Francisco; Moreno, Catalina; de Pedro, Nuria; Monteiro, Maria Candida; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Vicente, Francisca; Bills, Gerald F; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Tormo, José R

2014-07-01

296

Construction of a risk assessment system for chemical residues in agricultural products  

PubMed Central

Objectives Continuous monitoring of chemical residues in agricultural and food products has been performed by various government bodies in South Korea. These bodies have made attempts to systematically manage this information by creating a monitoring database system as well as a system based on these data with which to assess the health risk of chemical residues in agricultural products. Methods Meanwhile, a database system is being constructed consisting of information about monitoring and, following this, a demand for convenience has led to the need for an evaluation tool to be constructed with the data processing system. Results Also, in order to create a systematic and effective tool for the risk assessment of chemical residues in foods and agricultural products, various evaluation models are being developed, both domestically and abroad. Overseas, systems such as Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model: Food Commodity Intake Database and Cumulative and Aggregate Risk Evaluation System are being used; these use the US Environmental Protection Agency as a focus, while the EU has developed Pesticide Residue Intake Model for assessments of pesticide exposure through food intake. Following this, the National Academy of Agricultural Science (NAAS) created the Agricultural Products Risk Assessment System (APRAS) which supports the use and storage of monitoring information and risk assessments. APRAS efficiently manages the monitoring data produced by NAAS and creates an extraction feature included in the database system. Also, the database system in APRAS consists of a monitoring database system held by the NAAS and food consumption database system. Food consumption data is based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Conclusions This system is aimed at exposure and risk assessments for chemical residues in agricultural products with regards to different exposure scenarios. PMID:25622642

Choi, Shinai; Hong, Jiyeon; Lee, Dayeon; Paik, Minkyoung

2014-01-01

297

Toward a nuclear weapons free world?  

SciTech Connect

Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide any enduring improvement in security; rather, it was seen as creating ever greater risks and dangers. Arms control negotiations and limitations, adopted as a means to regulate the technical competition, may also have relieved some of the political pressures and dangers. But the balance of terror, and the fears of it, continued. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) under President Reagan was a very different approach to escaping from the precarious protection of nuclear weapons, in that it sought a way to continue to defend the US and the West, but without the catastrophic risks of mutual deterrence. As such, SDI connoted unhappiness with the precarious nuclear balance and, for many, with nuclear weapons in general. The disappearance of the Warsaw Pact, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the sudden end of the Cold War seemed to offer a unique opportunity to fashion a new, more peaceful world order that might allow for fading away of nuclear weapons. Scholars have foreseen two different paths to a nuclear free world. The first is a fundamental improvement in the relationships between states such that nuclear weapons are no longer needed. The second path is through technological development, e.g., missile defenses which could provide effective protection against nuclear attacks. The paper discusses nuclear weapon policy in the US, views of other nuclear states, the future of nuclear weapons, and issues in a less-nuclear world.

Maaranen, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

1996-09-01

298

Chemical warfare: Implications for Operation Desert Storm and beyond. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the potential for use of lethal and incapacitating chemical agents in the Persian Gulf. Insight from past chemical warfare case studies, current international law, and U.S. and Soviet policy, strategy and tactics provide a basis for examination of Iraq's chemical warfare potential and operational strategy. In addition, a survey of Naval War College students assesses the current U.S. Armed Forces level of chemical warfare readiness. This analysis combined with the U.S. experience and current war with Iraq as well as proposing a more viable operational capability to meet stated national policy in response to chemical weapons.

Trummer, F.G.; Twining, B.L.

1991-02-11

299

Weapon container catalog. Volumes 1 & 2  

SciTech Connect

The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required for loading) used for weapon programs and for special use containers. When completed, the catalog will contain five volumes. Volume 1 for enduring stockpile programs (B53, B61, B83, W62, W76, W78, W80, W84, W87, and W88) and Volume 2, Special Use Containers, are being released. The catalog is intended as a source of information for weapon program engineers and also provides historical information. The catalog also will be published on the SNL Internal Web and will undergo periodic updates.

Brown, L.A.; Higuera, M.C.

1998-02-01

300

A Proposal for Assessing Study Quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument  

EPA Science Inventory

The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals...

301

Risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in chemical industrial parks based on catastrophe theory.  

PubMed

According to risk systems theory and the characteristics of the chemical industry, an index system was established for risk assessment of enterprises in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) based on the inherent risk of the source, effectiveness of the prevention and control mechanism, and vulnerability of the receptor. A comprehensive risk assessment method based on catastrophe theory was then proposed and used to analyze the risk levels of ten major chemical enterprises in the Songmu Island CIP, China. According to the principle of equal distribution function, the chemical enterprise risk level was divided into the following five levels: 1.0 (very safe), 0.8 (safe), 0.6 (generally recognized as safe, GRAS), 0.4 (unsafe), 0.2 (very unsafe). The results revealed five enterprises (50%) with an unsafe risk level, and another five enterprises (50%) at the generally recognized as safe risk level. This method solves the multi-objective evaluation and decision-making problem. Additionally, this method involves simple calculations and provides an effective technique for risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in CIPs. PMID:23208298

Chen, Yu; Song, Guobao; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Zhenyu

2012-12-01

302

Risk Assessment and Hierarchical Risk Management of Enterprises in Chemical Industrial Parks Based on Catastrophe Theory  

PubMed Central

According to risk systems theory and the characteristics of the chemical industry, an index system was established for risk assessment of enterprises in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) based on the inherent risk of the source, effectiveness of the prevention and control mechanism, and vulnerability of the receptor. A comprehensive risk assessment method based on catastrophe theory was then proposed and used to analyze the risk levels of ten major chemical enterprises in the Songmu Island CIP, China. According to the principle of equal distribution function, the chemical enterprise risk level was divided into the following five levels: 1.0 (very safe), 0.8 (safe), 0.6 (generally recognized as safe, GRAS), 0.4 (unsafe), 0.2 (very unsafe). The results revealed five enterprises (50%) with an unsafe risk level, and another five enterprises (50%) at the generally recognized as safe risk level. This method solves the multi-objective evaluation and decision-making problem. Additionally, this method involves simple calculations and provides an effective technique for risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in CIPs. PMID:23208298

Chen, Yu; Song, Guobao; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Zhenyu

2012-01-01

303

Prioritising chemicals used in personal care products in China for environmental risk assessment: application of the RAIDAR model.  

PubMed

China represents a significant market for the sale of personal care products (PCPs). Given the continuous emission of hundreds of chemicals used in PCPs to waste water and the aquatic environment after regular use, methods for prioritising the environmental risk assessment for China are needed. In an effort to assess the prioritisation of chemicals used in PCPs in China, we have identified the chemical ingredients used in 2500 PCPs released to the Chinese market in 2009, and estimated the annual emission of these chemicals. The physical-chemical property data for these substances have been estimated and used as model inputs in the RAIDAR model. In general, the RAIDAR model provides an overall assessment of the multimedia fate of chemicals, and provides a holistic approach for prioritising chemical ingredients. The prioritisation exercise conducted in this study is shown to be strongly influenced by loss processes, such as the removal efficiencies of WWT plants and biotransformation. PMID:22265345

Gouin, Todd; van Egmond, Roger; Price, Oliver R; Hodges, Juliet E N

2012-06-01

304

Prospective life cycle assessment of graphene production by ultrasonication and chemical reduction.  

PubMed

One promising future bulk application of graphene is as composite additive. Therefore, we compare two production routes for in-solution graphene using a cradle-to-gate lifecycle assessment focusing on potential differences in energy use, blue water footprint, human toxicity, and ecotoxicity. The data used for the assessment is based on information in scientific papers and patents. Considering the prospective nature of this study, environmental impacts from background systems such as energy production were not included. The production routes are either based on ultrasonication or chemical reduction. The results show that the ultrasonication route has lower energy and water use, but higher human and ecotoxicity impacts, compared to the chemical reduction route. However, a sensitivity analysis showed that solvent recovery in the ultrasonication process gives lower impacts for all included impact categories. The sensitivity analysis also showed that solvent recovery is important to lower the blue water footprint of the chemical reduction route as well. The results demonstrate the possibility to conduct a life cycle assessment study based mainly on information from patents and scientific articles, enabling prospective life cycle assessment studies of products at early stages of technological development. PMID:24646298

Arvidsson, Rickard; Kushnir, Duncan; Sandén, Björn A; Molander, Sverker

2014-04-15

305

Controlling Weapons-Grade Fissile Material  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the problems of controlling weapons-grade fissionable material. Projections of the growth of fission nuclear reactors indicates sufficient materials will be available to construct 300,000 atomic bombs each containing 10 kilograms of plutonium by 1990. (SL)

Rotblat, J.

1977-01-01

306

Micromachining technology for advanced weapon systems  

SciTech Connect

An overview of planned uses for polysilicon surface-micromachining technology in advanced weapon systems is presented. Specifically, this technology may allow consideration of fundamentally new architectures for realization of surety component functions.

Sniegowski, J.J.

1996-12-31

307

Nuclear Weapons Effects (Self-Teaching Materials).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by the Civil Defense Preparedness Agency, this autoinstructional text deals with nuclear weapons effects. The destructive effects of an atomic blast are first introduced, and then long-term radioactive consequences are stressed. (CP)

Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

308

Noninvasive detection of weapons of mass destruction using terahertz radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing and immediate threat of biological and chemical weapons has placed urgency on the development of chemical and biological warfare agent (CWA/BWA) screening devices. Specifically, the ability to detect CWA/BWA prior to deployment is paramount to mitigating the threat without exposing individuals to its effects. SPARTA, Inc. and NIST are currently investigating the feasibility of using far-infrared radiation, or terahertz (THz, 1 THz = 1012 Hz) radiation, to non-invasively detect biological and chemical agents, explosives and drugs/narcotics inside sealed containers. Small-to-medium sized molecules (3-100 atoms) in gas, liquid and solid phases consistently exhibit identifiable spectral features in the far-IR portion of the spectrum. Many compounds associated with weapons of mass destruction are made up of molecules of this size. The THz portion of the spectrum lies between visible light and radio waves, allowing for partial transmission of 0.3-10.0 THz (30-1000 ?m, 10-330 cm-1) light through most common materials. Therefore, transmission measurements of THz light can potentially be used to non-invasively detect the presence of CWA/BWA, explosives and drugs in the pathway of a THz radiation beam.

Campbell, Matthew B.; Heilweil, Edwin J.

2003-08-01

309

Physical protection technologies for the reconfigured weapons complex  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories was a memtier of the Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Safeguards and Security (S&S) team providing assistance to the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Weapons Complex Reconfigaration. New and improved S&S concepts, approaches and technologies were needed to support both new and upgraded facilities. Physical protection technologies used in these facilities were to use proven state-of-the-art systems in such areas as image processing, alarm communications and display, entry control, contraband detection, intrusion detection and video assessment, access delay, automation and robotics, and various insider protection systems. Factors considered in the selection of these technologies were protection against the design basis threat, reducing S&S life-cycle costs, automation of S&S functions to minimize operational costs, access to critical assets and exposure of people to hazardous environments, increasing the amount of delay to an outsider adversary and having reliable and maintainable systems. This paper will discuss the S&S issues, requirements, technology opportunities and needs. Physical protection technologies and systems considered in the design effort of the Weapons Complex Reconfiguration facilities will be reviewed.

Jaeger, C.D.

1994-08-01

310

Initial radiations from tactical nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

Neutron and gamma-ray free-field kermas and fluence spectra for ranges between 1 and 2 km are presented for three tactical nuclear weapons and are compared with nuclear radiations at Hiroshima. The three tactical weapons are modeled as near-surface bursts of a fusion explosive, a fission explosive, and a suppressed-neutron explosive represented by the Little Boy bomb used at Hiroshima.

Loewe, W.E.

1985-08-01

311

Europium-155 in debris from nuclear weapons.  

PubMed

The lithium-drifted germanium detector enables determination of europium-155 on a routine basis in environmental samples contaminated with debris from nuclear weapons. From measurements of europium-155, cesium-144, and strontium-90 in air filters collected between 1961 and 1966, the yield of europium-155 from weapons was estimated at 1400 atoms per 10(6) fissions, which is close to the yield of europium-155 from fast fission of uranium-238. PMID:6028023

Aarkrog, A; Lippert, J

1967-07-28

312

[Assessment of human health risk upon acute inhalational exposure to chemical substances].  

PubMed

To provide the safety of the population and environment with the occurrence of man-caused catastrophes due their increase is now an urgent problem. Toxic hazard coefficients were calculated for hydrogen sulfide in the settlements located in a possible chemical pollution area in the Orenburg gas-chemical complex. Assessment of the hazard of toxic effects to the population upon exposure to hydrogen sulfide has indicated that there may be toxic effects in the inhabitants of the study nearby inhabited localities. The findings do not characterize the possible severity of intoxication so it is necessary to develop a system of criteria for the differentiation of the severity of negative effects in order to evaluate the hazard of acute chemical exposures. PMID:19802955

Salikhova, L R; Neplokhov, A A; Ermakova, O Iu

2009-01-01

313

Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area habitability study. Volume 2. Air assessment: indicator chemicals. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Environmental studies were conducted to provide data that could be used by the Commissioner of Health for the State of New York in determining whether the Emergency Declaration Area (EDA) surrounding the Love Canal hazardous-waste site is habitable. An air assessment was conducted for Love Canal Indicator Chemicals. Homes throughout the EDA were sampled using the Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer Model 6000E.

Not Available

1988-02-01

314

Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Opportunities for Control and Abolition  

PubMed Central

Nuclear weapons pose a particularly destructive threat. Prevention of the proliferation and use of nuclear weapons is urgently important to public health. “Horizontal” proliferation refers to nation-states or nonstate entities that do not have, but are acquiring, nuclear weapons or developing the capability and materials for producing them. “Vertical” proliferation refers to nation-states that do possess nuclear weapons and are increasing their stockpiles of these weapons, improving the technical sophistication or reliability of their weapons, or developing new weapons. Because nation-states or other entities that wish to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons need methods for delivering those weapons, proliferation of delivery mechanisms must also be prevented. Controlling proliferation—and ultimately abolishing nuclear weapons—involves national governments, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental and professional organizations, and society at large. PMID:17666690

Sidel, Victor W.; Levy, Barry S.

2007-01-01

315

The Insecticide Synergist Piperonyl Butoxide Inhibits Hedgehog Signaling: Assessing Chemical Risks  

PubMed Central

The spread of chemicals, including insecticides, into the environment often raises public health concerns, as exemplified by a recent epidemiologic study associating in utero piperonyl butoxide (PBO) exposure with delayed mental development. The insecticide synergist PBO is listed among the top 10 chemicals detected in indoor dust; a systematic assessment of risks from PBO exposure, as for many toxicants unfortunately, may be underdeveloped when important biological targets that can cause toxicity are unknown. Hedgehog/Smoothened signaling is critical in neurological development. This study was designed to use novel high-throughput in vitro drug screening technology to identify modulators of Hedgehog signaling in environmental chemicals to assist the assessment of their potential risks. A directed library of 1408 environmental toxicants was screened for Hedgehog/Smoothened antagonist activity using a high-content assay that evaluated the interaction between Smoothened and ?arrestin2 green fluorescent protein. PBO was identified as a Hedgehog/Smoothened antagonist capable of inhibiting Hedgehog signaling. We found that PBO bound Smoothened and blocked Smoothened overexpression–induced Gli-luciferase reporter activity but had no effect on Gli-1 downstream transcriptional factor–induced Gli activity. PBO inhibited Sonic Hedgehog ligand–induced Gli signaling and mouse cerebellar granular precursor cell proliferation. Moreover, PBO disrupted zebrafish development. Our findings demonstrate the value of high-throughput target-based screening strategies that can successfully evaluate large numbers of environmental toxicants and identify key targets and unknown biological activity that is helpful in properly assessing potential risks. PMID:22552772

Chen, Wei

2012-01-01

316

Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks  

PubMed Central

Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on. PMID:23603866

Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

2013-01-01

317

TRACI 2.0 - The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts  

EPA Science Inventory

TRACI 2.0, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts 2.0, has been expanded and developed for sustainability metrics, life cycle impact assessment, industrial ecology, and process design impact assessment for developing increasingly sus...

318

Chemical warfare, past and future. Study project  

SciTech Connect

World War I was arena for the first use of chemical warfare. The enormous tactical success brought about by this first time use of chemical weapons caused the continued development of more sophisticated tactics and weapons in this category of unconventional warfare. This phenomenon has carried through to today. However, at present, because of technological developments, the global economic situation, and political factors, coupled with the inability of the western world to control the proliferation of chemical weapons, a situation weapon of mass destruction. Recent use by Iraq against Kurdish civilian indicates that chemical warfare is no longer limited to the battlefield. The western nations have a need to understand the risk. This paper conducts an analysis of past lessons and the factors which will affect the use of chemical warfare in the future. From this analysis, the paper reaches conclusions concerning the significant threat chemical weapons pose for the entire world in the not too distant future.

Tzihor, A.

1992-05-15

319

Biological and Chemical Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism.

Fitch

2002-01-01

320

Impact of spatiotemporal fluctuations in airborne chemical concentration on toxic hazard assessment.  

PubMed

Models widely used to assess atmospheric chemical-dispersion hazards for emergency response rely on acute exposure guideline level (AEGL) or similar concentration guidelines to map geographic areas potentially affected by corresponding levels of toxic severity. By ignoring substantial, random variability in concentration over time and space, such standard methods routinely underestimate the size of potentially affected areas. Underestimation due to temporal fluctuation - applicable to chemicals like hydrogen cyanide (HCN) for which peak concentrations best predict acute toxicity - becomes magnified by spatial fluctuation, defined as heterogeneity in average concentration at each location relative to standard-method predictions. The combined impact of spatiotemporal fluctuation on size of assessed threat areas was studied using a statistical-simulation assessment method calibrated to Joint Urban 2003 Oklahoma City field-tracer data. For a hypothetical 60-min urban release scenario involving HCN gas, the stochastic method predicted that lethal/severe effects could occur in an area 18 or 25 times larger than was predicted by standard methods targeted to a 60-min AEGL, assuming wind speeds > or =2.0 or < or =1.5m/s, respectively. The underestimation doubled when the standard method was targeted to a 10-min AEGL. Further research and field data are needed for improved stochastic methods to assess spatiotemporal fluctuation effects. PMID:17706864

Bogen, K T; Gouveia, F J

2008-03-21

321

Vehicle effects on skin sensitizing potency of four chemicals: assessment using the local lymph node assay.  

PubMed

The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) can be used to determine the relative skin sensitizing potency of chemicals via interpolation of the quantitative dose response data generated. Using this approach we have demonstrated previously that the vehicle matrix in which a chemical allergen is encountered on the skin can have a significant influence on sensitizing potency. Estimates of relative potency are calculated from LLNA dose responses as a function of the mathematically derived EC3 value, this being the concentration estimated to induce a stimulation index (SI) of 3. To investigate further the influence of application vehicle on sensitizing potency, the LLNA has been used to examine the activity of four recognized human contact allergens: isoeugenol and cinnamic aldehyde, two fragrance chemicals; 3-dimethylaminopropylamine (a sensitizing impurity of cocamidopropyl betaine, a surfactant used in shower gel) and dibromodicyanobutane (the sensitizing component of Euxyl K 400, a preservative used in cosmetics). The four chemicals were applied in each of seven different vehicles (acetone: olive oil [4 : 1]; dimethylsulphoxide; methylethylketone; dimethyl formamide; propylene glycol; and both 50 : 50 and 90 : 10 mixtures of ethanol and water). It was found that the vehicle in which a chemical is presented to the epidermis can have a marked effect on sensitizing activity. EC3 values ranged from 0.9 to 4.9% for isoeugenol, from 0.5 to 1.7% for cinnamic aldehyde, from 1.7 to > 10% for dimethylaminopropylamine and from 0.4 to 6.4% for dibromodicyanobutane. These data confirm that the vehicle in which a chemical is encountered on the skin has an important influence on the relative skin sensitizing potency of chemicals and may have a significant impact on the acquisition of allergic contact dermatitis. The data also demonstrate the utility of the LLNA as a method for the prediction of these effects and thus for the development of more accurate risk assessments. PMID:18498452

Wright, Z M; Basketter, P A; Blaikie, L; Cooper, K J; Warbrick, E V; Dearman, R J; Kimber, I

2001-04-01

322

Environmental effect assessment for sexual endocrine-disrupting chemicals: Fish testing strategy.  

PubMed

Current standard testing and assessment tools are not designed to identify specific and biologically highly sensitive modes of action of chemicals, such as endocrine disruption. This information, however, can be important to define the relevant endpoints for an assessment and to characterize thresholds of their sublethal, population-relevant effects. Starting a decade ago, compound-specific risk assessment procedures were amended by specifically addressing endocrine-disrupting properties of substances. In 2002, the Conceptual Framework, agreed upon by OECD's Task Force on Endocrine Disrupters Testing and Assessment, did not propose specific testing strategies, and appropriate testing methods had not yet been developed and approved. In the meantime, the OECD Test Guidelines Programme has undertaken important steps to revise established and to develop new test methods, which can be used to identify and quantify effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on mammals, birds, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates. For fish testing of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, the first Test Guidelines have recently been adopted by the OECD and validation of further test systems is under progress. Based on these test systems and the experience gained during their validation procedures, we propose a 3-step fish testing strategy: 1) Weight-of-evidence approach for identifying potential sexual endocrine-disrupting chemicals; even after advanced specification of systematic criteria, this step of establishing initial suspicion will still require expert judgment; 2) in vivo evaluation of sexual endocrine-disrupting activity in fish by applying in vivo fish screening assays; sufficient data are available to diagnose the aromatase-inhibition and estrogen-receptor agonist mechanisms of action by indicative endpoints (biomarkers), whereas the ability of the respective biomarkers in the screening assay to identify the estrogen-receptor antagonists and androgen-receptor agonists and antagonists requires further validation; 3) characterization of sexual endocrine-mediated adverse effects including threshold concentrations; in cases when the most sensitive population-relevant endpoints and the most sensitive time window for exposure are known for the mechanisms of action, the fish full life-cycle or 2-generation test, which are the normal definitive tests, might be abbreviated to, e.g., the fish sexual development test. In the European Union, the measurement of indicative endpoints in the definitive test might be crucial for the authorization procedure under REACH and plant-protection products. The results of the definitive tests can be used in existing schemes of compound-specific environmental risk assessments. PMID:20872646

Knacker, Thomas; Boettcher, Melanie; Frische, Tobias; Rufli, Hans; Stolzenberg, Hans-Christian; Teigeler, Matthias; Zok, Sabine; Braunbeck, Thomas; Schäfers, Christoph

2010-10-01

323

The Chemical Hazards Assessment Prior to D&D of the Plutonium Finishing Plant, Hanford Nuclear Reservation  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the evaluation methods and results of a chemical safety status assessment of the process equipment at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Nuclear Reservation Plutonium Finishing Plant. This assessment, designated as the Plutonium Finishing Plant Residual Chemical Hazards Assessment, focused particular emphasis on the idle and inactive plant systems, though certain active areas also were examined to the extent that these were examined during a previous facility vulnerability assessment completed in 1999. The Plutonium Finishing Plant is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation that is situated in south central Washington State.

Hopkins, A. M.; Prevette, S. S.; Sherwood, A. R.; Fitch, L. R.; Ranade, D. G.; Oldham, R. W.

2003-02-26

324

POLLUTION ASSESSMENT AND PREVENTION SOFTWARE FOR CHEMICAL INDUSTRY PROCESS SIMULATORS (SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this project is to develop functional and design specifications for sofware that would allow the incorporation of pollution prevention and assessment into chemical industry process design. The project was divided into two major parts: development specifications relate...

325

Assessment Of Chemical Dispersant Effectiveness In A Wave Tank Under Regular Non-Breaking And Breaking Wave Conditions  

EPA Science Inventory

Current chemical dispersant effectiveness tests for product selection are commonly performed with bench-scale testing apparatus. However, for the assessment of oil dispersant effectiveness under real sea state conditions, test protocols are required to have hydrodynamic conditio...

326

Laser weapons come down to earth  

SciTech Connect

The Star Wars debate seldom mentions the fact that low-powered lasers are already widely used as adjuncts to conventional weaponry and tactical laser weapons will soon be ready for military arsenals. The superpowers will both have mass-produced directed-energy weapons available soon. Other directed-energy weapons, such as particle beams, atmospheric compression waves, microwaves, and radio-frequency waves are in various stages of development. The Stingray, a low-energy, tank-mounted laser that targets enemy electro-optical systems and crazes the inside of the tank cockpit, uses an innovative slab design instead of the conventional rod. The slab neutralizes the heating effect, improving beam quality tenfold. The author discusses the possibility that the psychological impact of battlefield lasers could match or exceed the physiological effects because of eye damage.

Morrison, D.C.

1985-05-01

327

Non-Chemical Stressors and Cumulative Risk Assessment: An Overview of Current Initiatives and Potential Air Pollutant Interactions  

PubMed Central

Regulatory agencies are under increased pressure to consider broader public health concerns that extend to multiple pollutant exposures, multiple exposure pathways, and vulnerable populations. Specifically, cumulative risk assessment initiatives have stressed the importance of considering both chemical and non-chemical stressors, such as socioeconomic status (SES) and related psychosocial stress, in evaluating health risks. The integration of non-chemical stressors into a cumulative risk assessment framework has been largely driven by evidence of health disparities across different segments of society that may also bear a disproportionate risk from chemical exposures. This review will discuss current efforts to advance the field of cumulative risk assessment, highlighting some of the major challenges, discussed within the construct of the traditional risk assessment paradigm. Additionally, we present a summary of studies of potential interactions between social stressors and air pollutants on health as an example of current research that supports the incorporation of non-chemical stressors into risk assessment. The results from these studies, while suggestive of possible interactions, are mixed and hindered by inconsistent application of social stress indicators. Overall, while there have been significant advances, further developments across all of the risk assessment stages (i.e., hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response, and risk characterization) are necessary to provide a scientific basis for regulatory actions and effective community interventions, particularly when considering non-chemical stressors. A better understanding of the biological underpinnings of social stress on disease and implications for chemical-based dose-response relationships is needed. Furthermore, when considering non-chemical stressors, an appropriate metric, or series of metrics, for risk characterization is also needed. Cumulative risk assessment research will benefit from coordination of information from several different scientific disciplines, including, for example, toxicology, epidemiology, nutrition, neurotoxicology, and the social sciences. PMID:21776216

Lewis, Ari S.; Sax, Sonja N.; Wason, Susan C.; Campleman, Sharan L.

2011-01-01

328

Workshop: use of "read-across" for chemical safety assessment under REACH.  

PubMed

Read-across has generated much attention, since it may be used as an alternative approach for addressing the information requirements under REACH. Experience in the application of "read-across" has undoubtedly been gained within the context of the 2010 registrations (>1000 tonnes/annum). Industry, European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and EU Member States all conceptually accept read-across approaches but difficulties still remain in applying them consistently in practice. A workshop on the 'Use of Read-Across for Chemical Safety Assessment under REACH', organised by ECHA with the active support of Cefic LRI was held on the 3rd October 2012 to gain insight on how ECHA evaluates read-across justifications, to share Industry experiences with read-across approaches and to discuss practical strategies to help develop scientifically valid read-across for future submissions. PMID:23266660

Patlewicz, Grace; Roberts, David W; Aptula, Aynur; Blackburn, Karen; Hubesch, Bruno

2013-03-01

329

Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area habitability study. Volume 3. Soil assessment: indicator chemicals. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Environmental studies were conducted to provide data that could be used by the Commissioner of Health for the State of New York in determining whether the Emergency Declaration Area (EDA) surrounding the Love Canal hazardous-waste site is habitable. The soil assessment compared concentrations of the Love Canal Indicator Chemicals found in the EDA to concentrations found in similar western New York communities. An analytical technique was developed to detect the indicator chemicals at very low levels, i.e. 1.0 ppb. The analytical technique utilized a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer operating in the selected ion monitoring mode. The analytical results were statistically compared between the EDA and the comparison areas using a modified Wilcoxon rank sum test.

Not Available

1988-05-01

330

DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF SITE-SPECIFIC CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CRITERIA FOR ASSESSING NEW BEDFORD HARBOR PILOT DREDGING PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerical site-specific chemical and biological criteria were established to assess the impact of a pilot dredging project on water quality at the New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, USA, Superfund site. ecause most existing chemical concentrations in the water column and indigeno...

331

Automated high-throughput assessment of prostate biopsy tissue using infrared spectroscopic chemical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) chemical imaging has been demonstrated as a promising technique to complement histopathological assessment of biomedical tissue samples. Current histopathology practice involves preparing thin tissue sections and staining them using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) after which a histopathologist manually assess the tissue architecture under a visible microscope. Studies have shown that there is disagreement between operators viewing the same tissue suggesting that a complementary technique for verification could improve the robustness of the evaluation, and improve patient care. FT-IR chemical imaging allows the spatial distribution of chemistry to be rapidly imaged at a high (diffraction-limited) spatial resolution where each pixel represents an area of 5.5 × 5.5 ?m2 and contains a full infrared spectrum providing a chemical fingerprint which studies have shown contains the diagnostic potential to discriminate between different cell-types, and even the benign or malignant state of prostatic epithelial cells. We report a label-free (i.e. no chemical de-waxing, or staining) method of imaging large pieces of prostate tissue (typically 1 cm × 2 cm) in tens of minutes (at a rate of 0.704 × 0.704 mm2 every 14.5 s) yielding images containing millions of spectra. Due to refractive index matching between sample and surrounding paraffin, minimal signal processing is required to recover spectra with their natural profile as opposed to harsh baseline correction methods, paving the way for future quantitative analysis of biochemical signatures. The quality of the spectral information is demonstrated by building and testing an automated cell-type classifier based upon spectral features.

Bassan, Paul; Sachdeva, Ashwin; Shanks, Jonathan H.; Brown, Mick D.; Clarke, Noel W.; Gardner, Peter

2014-03-01

332

Controlling weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law  

SciTech Connect

Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the improvement in international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. The emphasis in the phrase ``Cold War`` was on the word ``cold,`` and relations with the former Communist regimes are now ``warm`` by comparison. It is equally valid to consider what has happened to the word ``was` in this highly descriptive phrase. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of the last fifty years, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. Out of these military postures a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to controlling weapons,of mass destruction through the ``rule of law.`` Rawls wrote that ``legal system is a coercive order of public rules addressed to rational persons for the purpose of regulating their conduct and providing the framework for social cooperation. The regular and impartial administration of public rules, becomes the rule of law when applied to the legal system.`` Inparticular, Rawls identifies as part of this system of public rules those laws that aim to prevent free riders on the economic system and those that aim to correct such externalities as environmental pollution.``

Tanzman, E.A.

1995-08-08

333

A C. elegans Screening Platform for the Rapid Assessment of Chemical Disruption of Germline Function  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite the developmental impact of chromosome segregation errors, we lack the tools to assess environmental effects on the integrity of the germline in animals. Objectives: We developed an assay in Caenorhabditis elegans that fluorescently marks aneuploid embryos after chemical exposure. Methods: We qualified the predictive value of the assay against chemotherapeutic agents as well as environmental compounds from the ToxCast Phase I library by comparing results from the C. elegans assay with the comprehensive mammalian in vivo end point data from the ToxRef database. Results: The assay was highly predictive of mammalian reproductive toxicities, with a 69% maximum balanced accuracy. We confirmed the effect of select compounds on germline integrity by monitoring germline apoptosis and meiotic progression. Conclusions: This C. elegans assay provides a comprehensive strategy for assessing environmental effects on germline function. PMID:23603051

Allard, Patrick; Kleinstreuer, Nicole C.; Knudsen, Thomas B.

2013-01-01

334

METHODS USED IN THE U.S. FOR THE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF HEALTH RISK DUE TO CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

A key factor in the development of a strategy for the control of environmental pollution or the protection of human health is the assessment of the risk associated with the accidental or intentional release of the chemical. isk assessment may be used to estimate the degree of ris...

335

Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives  

SciTech Connect

Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ? Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ? Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ? Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ? Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Emerging Risk Unit, Via Carlo Magno 1A, 43126 Parma (Italy); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM Utrecht (Netherlands)

2013-08-01

336

RTECS (Registry of Toxic Effects Chemical Substances) regulatory subfile. Regulations, recommendations, and assessments (for microcomputers). Data file  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulations, Recommendations, and Assessments Extracted from RTECS -- contains 4277 chemical substances that must have had one or more of the following data lines: OSHA standards, MSHA standards, DOT shipping regulations, NIOSH recommendations, ACGIH TLV, IARC assessments indicating positive or suspected carcinogenic activity in animals and\\/or man, and NTP positive carcinogenesis test results. Substances are listed in alphabetical order by

J. Fang; D. Sweet

1985-01-01

337

RTECS (Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances) regulatory subfile. Regulations, recommendations, and assessments (for microcomputers). Data file  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulations, Recommendations and Assessments Extracted from RTECS - Contains 4277 chemical substances which must have had one or more of the following data lines: OSHA standards, MSHA standards, DOT shipping regulations, NIOSH recommendations, ACGIH TLV, LARC assessments indicating positive or suspected carcinogenic activity in animals and\\/or man, and NTP positive carcinogenesis test results. Substances are listed in alphabetical order by

J. Fang; D. Sweet

1985-01-01

338

Defense against nuclear weapons: a decision analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response to the public health threat posed by nuclear weapons is a medical imperative. The United States, in contrast to other nations, has chosen a course that assures maximal casualties in the event of a nuclear attack, on the theory that prevention of the attack is incompatible with preventive measures against its consequences, such as blast injuries and radiation sickness.

Orient

1985-01-01

339

Nuclear weapons and the gray area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major issue facing the United States and its European allies is what to do about the nuclear threat to Western Europe, and to NATO's deterrent, posed by Soviet systems targeted on Western Europe - the SS-20 mobile missile and other Soviet weapons in the gray area between the strategic and the tactical. The prospect of strategic parity between the

Treverton

2009-01-01

340

The history of nuclear weapon safety devices  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents the history of safety devices used in nuclear weapons from the early days of separables to the latest advancements in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS). Although the paper focuses on devices, the principles of Enhanced Nuclear Detonation Safety implementation will also be presented.

Plummer, D.W.; Greenwood, W.H.

1998-06-01

341

Principles of Guided Missiles and Nuclear Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundamentals of missile and nuclear weapons systems are presented in this book which is primarily prepared as the second text of a three-volume series for students of the Navy Reserve Officers' Training Corps and the Officer Candidate School. Following an introduction to guided missiles and nuclear physics, basic principles and theories are…

Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

342

Find and neutralize clandestine nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The objective of finding nuclear material at entry portals is to provide a secure perimeter as large as a weapon damage radius so that operations could be conducted within it relatively unencumbered. The objective of wide area search for nuclear material to provide a safe zone of similar dimensions in an area in which it is not possible to maintain a secure perimeter, to provide assurance for civilians living at an area at risk, or to provide rapid, wide area search of regions that could conceal nuclear threats to forces in the field. This rapid, wide-area, and confident detection of nuclear materials is the essential first step in developing the ability to negate terrorist nuclear assemblies or weapons. The ability to detect and negate nuclear materials are necessary to prevent the forced, massive evacuation of urban populations or the disruption of military operations in response to terrorist threats. This paper describes the limitations to current sensors used for nuclear weapon detection and discusses a novel approach to nuclear weapon detection using a combination of directional information (imaging) and gamma ray energy (color) to produce a gamma ray color camera.

Canavan, G.H.

1997-09-01

343

Vulnerability of Structures to Weapons Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geotechnical and structures laboratory have a number of funded research efforts to support Department of Defense (DoD) requirements for understanding the response of structures to explosives\\/weapons. These efforts are all heavily dependent on high performance computing (HPC) simulations to meet research needs. The research efforts to be supported include: force protection, military operations in urban terrain, and homeland defense.

James Baylot; Stephen Akers; J. O'Daniel; B. Armstrong; R. Weed

2008-01-01

344

Vulnerability of Structures to Weapons Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory (GSL) has a number of funded research efforts to support Department of Defense (DoD) requirements for understanding the response of structures to explosives\\/weapons. These efforts are all heavily dependent on high performance computing (HPC) simulations to meet research needs. The research efforts to be supported include Force Protection, Military Operations in Urban Terrain, and Homeland

James Baylot; Stephen Akers; J. O'Daniel; B. Armstrong; K. Danielson; R. Weed

2009-01-01

345

Cyber Weaponization: Analysis of Internet Arms Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet attacks are a familiar part of cyber residency for every modern institution. While the criminals behind the attacks, their business practices, and the illicit economy that propels most of the acts have been the subjects of many researchers, the refinement of the tools employed has not. We posit the concept of weaponization as an important facet of Internet security

Jason Gordon

346

Cognitive Consistency in Beliefs about Nuclear Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper details a study supporting the hypothesis that people's opinions about nuclear arms control are influenced by their logically relevant beliefs about nuclear weapons, nuclear war, and the Soviet Union. The hypothesis should not be construed to imply that these beliefs are the only influences or the most powerful influences on arms control…

Nelson, Linden

347

What Do Americans Know about Nuclear Weapons?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a survey of knowledge of and attitudes toward nuclear weapons. Respondents (N=938) were students and adults aged 15 to 89 who completed a 51-item questionnaire. Also reports on an experiment in which college students (N=166) were given the survey under one of four different conditions. (JN)

Zweigenhaft, Richard L.

1984-01-01

348

The monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper partially reviews and updates the potential for monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons, including verification of their destruction. Cooperative monitoring with templates of the gamma-ray spectrum are an important tool, dependent on the use of information barriers.

Garwin, Richard L.

2014-05-01

349

Nuclear Weapons: Concepts, Issues, and Controversies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The schools must confront and deal with the issues of the nuclear weapons controversy on pain of ceasing to be relevant to the critical needs of the rising generation. Every aspect of the nuclear arms controversy needs to be discussed in secondary and university classrooms. (RM)

Reardon, Betty; And Others

1983-01-01

350

Dangerous knowledge: Can nuclear weapons be abolished?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The end of the Cold War spurred significant and encouraging steps towards the abolition and eradication of nuclear weapons. After the breakthrough discussions between Gorbachev and Reagan at Reykjavik in 1986, the substantial cut-backs in Russian and American nuclear warheads agreed to under the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) negotiations, successive initiatives at the United Nations (UN) and the review

Jasjit Singh; Manpreet Sethi; Garry Jacobs

2007-01-01

351

43 CFR 423.30 - Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. 423.30 Section 423.30 Public...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. (a) You may possess firearms...must not use or possess explosives, or fireworks or pyrotechnics of any type,...

2014-10-01

352

43 CFR 423.30 - Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. 423.30 Section 423.30 Public...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. (a) You may possess firearms...must not use or possess explosives, or fireworks or pyrotechnics of any type,...

2012-10-01

353

43 CFR 423.30 - Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. 423.30 Section 423.30 Public...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. (a) You may possess firearms...must not use or possess explosives, or fireworks or pyrotechnics of any type,...

2013-10-01

354

43 CFR 423.30 - Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. 423.30 Section 423.30 Public...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. (a) You may possess firearms...must not use or possess explosives, or fireworks or pyrotechnics of any type,...

2011-10-01

355

Lubricant replacement in rolling element bearings for weapon surety devices  

SciTech Connect

Stronglink switches are a weapon surety device that is critical to the nuclear safety theme in modem nuclear weapons. These stronglink switches use rolling element bearings which contain a lubricant consisting of low molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) fragments. Ozone-depleting solvents are used in both the manufacture and application of this lubricant. An alternate bearing lubrication for stronglink switches is needed that will provide long-term chemical stability, low migration and consistent performance. Candidates that were evaluated include bearings with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers, bearings with TiC-coated balls, and bearings with Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls and steel races. These candidates were compared to the lubricants currently used which are bearings lubricated with PTFE fragments of low molecular weight in a fluorocarbon solvent. The candidates were also compared to bearings lubricated with a diester oil which is representative of bearing lubricants used in industrial applications. Evaluation consisted of cycling preloaded bearings and subjecting them to 23 gRMS random vibration. All of the candidates are viable substitutes for low load application where bearing preload is approximately 1 pound. For high load applications where the bearing preload is approximately 10 pounds, bearings with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers appear to be the best substitutes. Bearings with TiC-coated balls also appear to be a viable candidate but these bearings did not perform as well as the sputtered MoS{sub 2}.

Steinhoff, R.; Dugger, M.T.; Varga, K.S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-05-01

356

Assessment of chemical modifications of sites in the CDRs of recombinant antibodies  

PubMed Central

Modifications like asparagine deamidation, aspartate isomerization, methionine oxidation, and lysine glycation are typical degradations for recombinant antibodies. For the identification and functional evaluation of antibody critical quality attributes (CQAs) derived from chemical modifications in the complementary-determining regions (CDRs) and the conserved regions, an approach employing specific stress conditions, elevated temperatures, pH, oxidizing agents, and forced glycation with glucose incubation, was applied. The application of the specific stress conditions combined with ion exchange chromatography, proteolytic peptide mapping, quantitative liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and functional evaluation by surface plasmon resonance analysis was adequate to identify and functionally assess chemical modification sites in the CDRs of a recombinant IgG1. LC-Met-4, LC-Asn-30/31, LC-Asn-92, HC-Met-100c, and HC Lys-33 were identified as potential CQAs. However, none of the assessed degradation products led to a complete loss of functionality if only one light or heavy chain of the native antibody was affected. PMID:24441081

Haberger, Markus; Bomans, Katrin; Diepold, Katharina; Hook, Michaela; Gassner, Jana; Schlothauer, Tilman; Zwick, Adrian; Spick, Christian; Kepert, Jochen Felix; Hienz, Brigitte; Wiedmann, Michael; Beck, Hermann; Metzger, Philipp; Mølhøj, Michael; Knoblich, Constanze; Grauschopf, Ulla; Reusch, Dietmar; Bulau, Patrick

2014-01-01

357

Integrative sediment assessment at Atlantic Spanish harbours by means of chemical and ecotoxicological tools.  

PubMed

This study refers to the integrative assessment of sediment quality in three harbour areas at the Spanish Atlantic Coast: Vigo (Northwestern Spain), Bilbao and Pasajes (Northern Spain). At each site, two lines of evidence have been considered: chemical analyses (metal, PAH and PCB concentrations in sediments and ammonia concentration in bioassays) and toxicity tests (Microtox®, Corophium sp. marine amphipod and Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin larvae). Chemical and ecotoxicological results have been integrated by means of a tabular matrix and a multivariate factorial analysis (FA). Highly toxic samples have been characterised in Vigo and Pasajes harbours while Bilbao samples present toxicity levels ranging from non-toxic to moderately toxic. High toxicity is associated with high levels of contaminants whereas confounding factors (ammonia, organic matter and mud) have been identified to be the main cause of low to moderate toxicity. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that deriving potential toxicity of sediments based on comparison with Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) is in agreement to toxicity results in areas presenting high levels of contaminants. However, at lower levels of toxicity (low to moderate), the mismatch between the potential toxicity (SQG approach) and the toxicity measured by bioassays is greater, as the former only accounts for chemical concentrations, without considering the interaction between contaminants and the effect of confounding factors. Contrarily, the multivariate analysis seems to be a robust tool for the integration and interpretation of different lines of evidence in areas affected by different sources of contamination. PMID:22544172

Montero, N; Belzunce-Segarra, M J; Menchaca, I; Garmendia, J M; Franco, J; Nieto, O; Etxebarria, N

2013-02-01

358

Approaches and considerations for the assessment of immunotoxicity for environmental chemicals: a workshop summary.  

PubMed

As experience is gained with toxicology testing and as new assays and technologies are developed, it is critical for stakeholders to discuss opportunities to advance our overall testing strategies. To facilitate these discussions, a workshop on practices for assessing immunotoxicity for environmental chemicals was held with the goal of sharing perspectives on immunotoxicity testing strategies and experiences, developmental immunotoxicity (DIT), and integrated and alternative approaches to immunotoxicity testing. Experiences across the chemical and pharmaceutical industries suggested that standard toxicity studies, combined with triggered-based testing approaches, represent an effective and efficient approach to evaluate immunotoxic potential. Additionally, discussions on study design, critical windows, and new guideline approaches and experiences identified important factors to consider before initiating DIT evaluations including assay choice and timing and the impact of existing adult data. Participants agreed that integrating endpoints into standard repeat-dose studies should be considered for fulfilling any immunotoxicity testing requirements, while also maximizing information and reducing animal use. Participants also acknowledged that in vitro evaluation of immunosuppression is complex and may require the use of multiple assays that are still being developed. These workshop discussions should contribute to developing an effective but more resource and animal efficient approach for evaluating chemical immunotoxicity. PMID:24280359

Boverhof, Darrell R; Ladics, Greg; Luebke, Bob; Botham, Jane; Corsini, Emanuela; Evans, Ellen; Germolec, Dori; Holsapple, Michael; Loveless, Scott E; Lu, Haitian; van der Laan, Jan Willem; White, Kimber L; Yang, Yung

2014-02-01

359

Analytical pyrolysis vs. classical wet chemical analysis to assess the decay of archaeological waterlogged wood.  

PubMed

The macromolecular complexity of wood limits the possibility of obtaining complete chemical information on its alteration in archaeological objects. This paper compares the results obtained in the characterisation of the components of archaeological wood by a classical wet chemical method and by an instrumental method based on pyrolysis in presence of hexamethyldisilazane coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, Py(HMDS)-GC/MS. We compare the results obtained with the two methods quantitatively. This enables us to evaluate the efficiency of Py(HMDS)-GC/MS in assessing the chemical composition and the state of conservation of degraded wood. The material analysed consisted of reference sound wood and waterlogged wood from the ?ó?te historical site, located on a small island on Lake Zara?skie in Poland. The samples are from the remains of settlements dating to a period between the 9th and the 12th centuries AD. The results obtained by Py(HMDS)-GC/MS analysis are consistent in the determination of the level of degradation of archaeological wood with the results obtained using traditional techniques. The pyrolysis method is faster, reproducible, and reveals not only the amount but also the quality of the wood constituents, needing a much smaller sample. PMID:22938608

Lucejko, Jeannette J; Zborowska, Magdalena; Modugno, Francesca; Colombini, Maria P; Pr?dzy?ski, W?odzimierz

2012-10-01

360

[Chemical fixation of metals in soil using bone char and assessment of the soil genotoxicity].  

PubMed

We evaluate the effects of soil in situ remediation by application of bone char as a soil amendment based on chemical and biological assessment. The application of bone char decreased the Pb in the in the water soluble (WS), exchangeable (EX), carbonate-bound (CAR) and Fe-Mn oxides-Bound (Fe-Mn) fraction but increased the Pb in organic-bound (ORG) fraction indicating the decreased bioavailability of Pb. The application of bone char decreased the Cd, Cu and Zn in water soluble, exchangeable, carbonate-bound fraction by increasing substantial amounts of heavy metals in the ORG fraction or Residual (RES) fraction. The soil genotoxicity was evaluated using plant comet assay of root tip cells of Allium cepa L. and the results indicated that bone char application reduced genotoxcity of heavy metals, decreasing the DNA damages in plants which was consistent with the changes of the chemical forms of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn indicating the changes of the chemical forms of heavy metals may be one of the reasons for decreased soil genotoxicity. PMID:17489175

Lin, Ai-Jun; Zhang, Xu-Hong; Su, Yu-Hong; Hu, Ying; Cao, Qing; Zhu, Yong-Guan

2007-02-01

361

The Use of Mechanistically Defined Chemical Mixtures (MDCM) to Assess Component Effects on the Percutaneous Absorption and Cutaneous Disposition of Topically Exposed Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, attention has been directed to the risk assessment of cutaneous exposure to chemical mixtures rather than to only a single compound since this is the exposure scenario in the environment, residence, and work place. Using acetone or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) (80% in water) as a vehicle, percutaneous absorption and cutaneous disposition of parathion (PA) were studied following PA (40 ?g\\/cm2)

Gui L. Qiao; James D. Brooks; Ron E. Baynes; Nancy A. Monteiro-Riviere; Patrick L. Williams; Jim E. Riviere

1996-01-01

362

Evaluation of Biomonitoring Data from the CDC National Exposure Report in a Risk Assessment Context: Perspectives across Chemicals  

PubMed Central

Background: Biomonitoring data reported in the National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals [NER; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012)] provide information on the presence and concentrations of > 400 chemicals in human blood and urine. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) and other risk assessment–based values now allow interpretation of these biomonitoring data in a public health risk context. Objectives: We compared the measured biomarker concentrations in the NER with BEs and similar risk assessment values to provide an across-chemical risk assessment perspective on the measured levels for approximately 130 analytes in the NER. Methods: We identified available risk assessment–based biomarker screening values, including BEs and Human Biomonitoring-I (HBM-I) values from the German Human Biomonitoring Commission. Geometric mean and 95th percentile population biomarker concentrations from the NER were compared to the available screening values to generate chemical-specific hazard quotients (HQs) or cancer risk estimates. Conclusions: Most analytes in the NER show HQ values of < 1; however, some (including acrylamide, dioxin-like chemicals, benzene, xylene, several metals, di-2(ethylhexyl)phthalate, and some legacy organochlorine pesticides) approach or exceed HQ values of 1 or cancer risks of > 1 × 10–4 at the geometric mean or 95th percentile, suggesting exposure levels may exceed published human health benchmarks. This analysis provides for the first time a means for examining population biomonitoring data for multiple environmental chemicals in the context of the risk assessments for those chemicals. The results of these comparisons can be used to focus more detailed chemical-specific examination of the data and inform priorities for chemical risk management and research. PMID:23232556

Kirman, Christopher R.; Schoeny, Rita; Portier, Christopher J.; Hays, Sean M.

2012-01-01

363

Weapon research project cost evaluation method based on technology readiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional weapon research project pricing method makes the bigger valuation cost, the more profit research department is got. The weapon research department always loses the driver of saving cost and controlling expenditure. This paper identifies the technology units, evaluates technology risk based on technology readiness theory. According to value engineering methods, it provides weapon research project cost evaluation method from

Tengda Guo; Mengjun Li; Chaomin Ou

2011-01-01

364

Chinese nuclear weapons and arms control policies. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines Chinese nuclear weapons and arms control policies and focuses on the period since 1982. The section on nuclear weapons policies and capabilities discusses China`s land, sea, and airborne deterrent forces, the development of tactical nuclear weapons, and nuclear doctrine and policy. The section on arms control policy describes Beijing`s stance on disarmament, nonproliferation, arms control talks, the

Sismanidis

1985-01-01

365

Nuclear proliferation: The diplomatic role of non-weaponized programs  

SciTech Connect

The end of the Cold War has not seen the end of reliance on nuclear weapons for deterrence or diplomacy purposes. The use of nuclear weapons for such purposes is as evident in the threshold states as in the nuclear powers. The nuclear weapon states used their nuclear weapons for deterrence, bargaining, and blackmail, even during the early years of the Cold War when the US was essentially non-Weaponized. In the nuclear non-Weaponized states in Asia a non-Weaponized deterrent relationship is developing between India and Pakistan and North Korea has used its nuclear program to restore diplomatic relations with the international community. The role of nuclear weapons in the post Cold War world is determined by the role of non-Weaponized programs in proliferating states. This paper describes examples in South Asia and the Korean peninsula and show that while an increased reliance on nuclear weapons programs may be a threat to the current non-proliferation regime, the focus on non-Weaponized programs rather than on weapons themselves actually improves international security by reducing the threat of nuclear war.

Reynolds, R.R.

1996-01-01

366

Adolescents Who Carry Weapons to School: A Review of Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple self-report surveys have collected data about weapons in school. This record review study considers characteristics of 47 adolescents adjudicated for carrying weapons at school and provides a descriptive analysis against a comparison group of 37 juveniles with other offenses. Demographics, weapon type, legal history, prior school…

Finkenbine, Ryan D.; Dwyer, R. Gregg

2006-01-01

367

36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...net (2) Weapons, traps or nets may be carried, possessed or...vacation home. (3) Traps, nets and unloaded weapons may be...with Federal and State law. (c) The use of a weapon, trap or net in a manner that endangers...

2011-07-01

368

36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...net. (2) Weapons, traps or nets may be carried, possessed or...vacation home. (3) Traps, nets and unloaded weapons may be...with Federal and State law. (c) The use of a weapon, trap or net in a manner that endangers...

2010-07-01

369

36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...net. (2) Weapons, traps or nets may be carried, possessed or...vacation home. (3) Traps, nets and unloaded weapons may be...with Federal and State law. (c) The use of a weapon, trap or net in a manner that endangers...

2011-07-01

370

36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...net (2) Weapons, traps or nets may be carried, possessed or...vacation home. (3) Traps, nets and unloaded weapons may be...with Federal and State law. (c) The use of a weapon, trap or net in a manner that endangers...

2010-07-01

371

11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS WERE NUCLEAR WEAPONS SHIPPED TO THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT FROM THE NUCLEAR WEAPON STOCKPILE FOR RETIREMENT, TESTING, OR UPGRADING. FISSILE MATERIALS (PLUTONIUM, URANIUM, ETC.) AND RARE MATERIALS (BERYLLIUM) WERE RECOVERED FOR REUSE, AND THE REMAINDER WAS DISPOSED. (8/7/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

372

Integrated environmental assessment of freshwater sediments: a chemical and ecotoxicological approach at the Alqueva reservoir.  

PubMed

In order to study the pollution of an aquatic ecosystem, it is necessary to analyze not only the levels of chemical pollutants in water, but also those accumulated in the sediment matrix, as well as to assess its ecotoxicological status. The Alqueva reservoir, the largest artificial lake in Europe, was chosen as case study as it constitutes the most important water supply source in southern Portugal. It is located in the Guadiana River Basin, in a semi-arid region with high levels of water scarcity and where agriculture is one of the main activities. The evaluation of sediments comprised: (1) physical and chemical analysis (grain size, pH, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus); (2) potentially toxic trace elements (Cu, As, Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn and Ni); and (3) ecotoxicological evaluation with Vibrio fischeri, Thamnocephalus platyurus, Daphnia magna, and Heterocypris incongruens. Total trace element concentrations indicated that As, Cd, and Pb surpassed the Canadian levels for the protection of aquatic life, in most of Alqueva's sites. The results of the toxicity assessment showed that some locations induced acute and chronic toxicity in the species used. Further, the H. incongruens was the most sensitive species as far as the contamination found in the sediment is concerned, followed by the bacteria V. fischeri. This integrative approach, together with the water column quality assessment, allowed a comprehensive evaluation of the environmental quality of this strongly modified water body and will allow the implementation of remediation strategies to obtain a good ecological potential as proposed in the Water Framework Directive. PMID:23990124

Palma, P; Ledo, L; Soares, S; Barbosa, I R; Alvarenga, P

2014-04-01

373

Variation in sensitivity of aquatic species to toxicants: Practical consequences for effect assessment of chemical substances  

SciTech Connect

This study addresses the relation between the sensitivity of aquatic species and mode of action of different classes or organic chemicals. The authors analyzed large data sets of ecotoxicological information to reveal the interspecies variation in sensitivity, to relate this variation to the compounds' mode of action, and to explain the observed patterns using general biological information. Here the authors present a general framework and recommendations for risk assessment procedures. The authors recommend the use of toxicologically based classification schemes at an early stage of the risk assessment procedure. Screening programs are most efficiently run when only one species per compound is tested to prioritize substances. The toxicity of compounds belonging to the class of nonpolar narcotics is highly predictable and shows little interspecies variation. For these compounds quantitative structure-activity relationships (WSARs) can be used to estimate effect levels. Most effort should be put into testing reactive compounds and compounds with a specific mode of action as toxicity to some species can be 10{sup 5}--10{sup 6} times higher compared with less sensitive species. The use of assessment factors in effect assessment procedures may lead to an underestimation of effects on the more sensitive species. For many priority pollutants there is little information on their ecotoxicity. Predictive techniques are needed to compensate for this lack of data. Knowledge of the relation between modes of action of compounds and interspecies variation in sensitivity should be integrated in risk assessment procedures in order to make more efficient use of the limited financial resources available.

Vaal, M.A.; Van Leeuwen, C.J.; Hoekstra, J.A.; Hermens, J.L.M.

2000-04-01

374

Difficult Decisions: Chemical Warfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives the background history and chemistry of modern day chemical warfare from World War I to the present. Provides discussion questions to stimulate deeper thinking on the issue. Contains a discussion activity called "Can New Chemical Weapons Lead to Humane Warfare?" (CW)

Slesnick, Irwin L.; Miller, John A.

1988-01-01

375

Weapons proliferation and organized crime: The Russian military and security force dimension  

SciTech Connect

One dimension of international security of the post-Cold War era that has not received enough attention is how organized crime facilitates weapons proliferation worldwide. The former Soviet Union (FSU) has emerged as the world`s greatest counterproliferation challenge. It contains the best developed links among organized crime, military and security organizations, and weapons proliferation. Furthermore, Russian military and security forces are the principle source of arms becoming available to organized crime groups, participants in regional conflict, and corrupt state officials engaged in the black, gray, and legal arms markets in their various dimensions. The flourishing illegal trade in conventional weapons is the clearest and most tangible manifestation of the close links between Russian power ministries and criminal organizations. The magnitude of the WMD proliferation problem from the FSU is less clear and less tangible. There have been many open reports of small-scale fissile material smuggling out of the FSU. The situation with regard to the proliferation of chemical weapon usually receives less attention but may be more serious. With an acknowledged stockpile of 40,000 metric tons of chemical agents, the potential for proliferation is enormous.

Turbiville, G.H.

1996-06-01

376

Safety issues in fabricating mixed oxide fuel using surplus weapons plutonium  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an assessment of the safety issues and implications of fabricating mixed oxide (MOX) fuel using surplus weapons plutonium. The basis for this assessment is the research done at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in identifying and resolving the technical issues surrounding the production of PuO{sub 2} feed, removal of gallium from the PuO{sub 2} feed, the fabrication of test fuel, and the work done at the LANL plutonium processing facility. The use of plutonium in MOX fuel has been successfully demonstrated in Europe, where the experience has been almost exclusively with plutonium separated from commercial spent nuclear fuel. This experience in safely operating MOX fuel fabrication facilities directly applies to the fabrication and irradiation of MOX fuel made from surplus weapons plutonium. Consequently, this paper focuses on the technical difference between plutonium from surplus weapons, and light-water reactor recycled plutonium. Preliminary assessments and research lead to the conclusion that no new process or product safety concerns will arise from using surplus weapons plutonium in MOX fuel.

Buksa, J.; Badwan, F.; Barr, M.; Motley, F.

1998-07-01

377

Coal gasification: Direct applications and syntheses of chemicals and fuels: A research needs assessment  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Working Group for an Assessment of Coal-Gasification Research Needs (COGARN - coal gasification advanced research needs) has reviewed and evaluated US programs dealing with coal gasification for a variety of applications. Cost evaluations and environmental-impact assessments formed important components of the deliberations. We have examined in some depth each of the following technologies: coal gasification for electricity generation in combined-cycle systems, coal gasification for the production of synthetic natural gas, coal gasifiers for direct electricity generation in fuel cells, and coal gasification for the production of synthesis gas as a first step in the manufacture of a wide variety of chemicals and fuels. Both catalytic and non-catalytic conversion processes were considered. In addition, we have constructed an orderly, long-range research agenda on coal science, pyrolysis, and partial combustion in order to support applied research and development relating to coal gasification over the long term. The COGARN studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research needs in fuel utilization that involves coal gasification as the dominant or an important component. The findings and research recommendations of COGARN are summarized in this publication.

Penner, S.S.; Alpert, S.B.; Beer, J.M.; Denn, M.; Haag, W.; Magee, R.; Reichl, E.; Rubin, E.S.; Solomon, P.R.; Wender, I.

1987-06-01

378

Human biomonitoring after chemical incidents and during short-term maintenance work as a tool for exposure analysis and assessment.  

PubMed

Human biomonitoring (HBM) is frequently used for the analysis and assessment of exposure to chemicals under routine working conditions. In recent years, HBM has also been applied to monitor the exposure of the general population, and of emergency responders in the aftermath of chemical incidents. Two examples of targeted HBM programs in the chemical industry are described and discussed in this paper: (1) analysis and assessment of the exposure of firefighters and chemical workers after the spill of p-chloroaniline from a burning chemical barrel, and (2) biomonitoring of maintenance workers potentially exposed to benzene during regular turnarounds. The results of these investigations underline that human biomonitoring contributes substantially to comprehensive exposure analyses, human health risk assessments and communication. In addition, regular HBM surveillance and feedback can assist in the continuous improvement of workplace safety measures and exposure control. In conclusion, data on accidental or short-term exposure to hazardous chemicals are an important source of information for the further development of limit and assessment values, the validation of biomarkers and of targeted HBM programs for both routine monitoring and disaster management. PMID:25290578

Bader, M; Van Weyenbergh, T; Verwerft, E; Van Pul, J; Lang, S; Oberlinner, C

2014-12-15

379

Nuclear weapons tests and environmental consequences: a global perspective.  

PubMed

The beginning of the atomic age marked the outset of nuclear weapons testing, which is responsible for the radioactive contamination of a large number of sites worldwide. The paper aims to analyze nuclear weapons tests conducted in the second half of the twentieth century, highlighting the impact of radioactive pollution on the atmospheric, aquatic, and underground environments. Special attention was given to the concentration of main radioactive isotopes which were released, such as ¹?C, ¹³?Cs, and ??Sr, generally stored in the atmosphere and marine environment. In addition, an attempt was made to trace the spatial delimitation of the most heavily contaminated sites worldwide, and to note the human exposure which has caused a significantly increased incidence of thyroidal cancer locally and regionally. The United States is one of the important examples of assessing the correlation between the increase in the thyroid cancer incidence rate and the continental-scale radioactive contamination with ¹³¹I, a radioactive isotope which was released in large amounts during the nuclear tests carried out in the main test site, Nevada. PMID:24563393

Pr?v?lie, Remus

2014-10-01

380

Chemical fingerprint analysis for quality assessment and control of Bansha herbal tea using paper spray mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Chemical fingerprinting methodology is an approach for quality assessment and control of herbal medicines and related products based on the holistic chemical profile obtained by various analytical techniques. This study demonstrates the first application of paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) as a chemical fingerprinting methodology for tracing the origins, establishing the authenticity, and assessing the overall quality of a famous herbal product, Bansha herbal tea (BHT). A negative ion PS-MS spectrum yielded the best chemical profiling information and was most appropriate for fingerprint analysis of BHT. In addition to the identification of active ingredients, various compounds present in BHT were simultaneously detected without any sample pretreatment and chromatographic separation, providing valuable information for the quality assessment and control of this herbal product. According to the principal component analysis of the PS-MS fingerprints, two sources of commercially available BHT products made by different manufacturers were easily differentiated. Qualified and expired products from the two manufacturers were also successfully distinguished, and the consistency of the quality between the manufacturers was assessed. Our experimental data demonstrated that the PS-MS chemical fingerprinting is a simple, rapid, and robust methodology for pharmaceutical analysis, with promising prospects for quality assessment and control of herbal medicines and related products with high-throughput. PMID:23764447

Deng, Jiewei; Yang, Yunyun

2013-06-27

381

Probabilistic cost-benefit analysis of enhanced safety features for strategic nuclear weapons at a representative location  

SciTech Connect

We carried out a demonstration analysis of the value of developing and implementing enhanced safety features for nuclear weapons in the US stockpile. We modified an approach that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed in response to a congressional directive that NRC assess the ``value-impact`` of regulatory actions for commercial nuclear power plants. Because improving weapon safety shares some basic objectives with NRC regulations, i.e., protecting public health and safety from the effects of accidents involving radioactive materials, we believe the NRC approach to be appropriate for evaluating weapons-safety cost-benefit issues. Impact analysis includes not only direct costs associated with retrofitting the weapon system, but also the expected costs (or economic risks) that are avoided by the action, i.e., the benefits.

Stephens, D.R.; Hall, C.H.; Holman, G.S.; Graham, K.F.; Harvey, T.F.; Serduke, F.J.D.

1993-10-01

382

Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium: Plant layout study and related design issues  

SciTech Connect

In preparation for and in support of a detailed R and D Plan for the Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium, an ABC Plant Layout Study was conducted at the level of a pre-conceptual engineering design. The plant layout is based on an adaptation of the Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) detailed conceptual design that was completed in the early 1070s. Although the ABC Plant Layout Study included the Accelerator Equipment as an essential element, the engineering assessment focused primarily on the Target; Primary System (blanket and all systems containing plutonium-bearing fuel salt); the Heat-Removal System (secondary-coolant-salt and supercritical-steam systems); Chemical Processing; Operation and Maintenance; Containment and Safety; and Instrumentation and Control systems. Although constrained primarily to a reflection of an accelerator-driven (subcritical) variant of MSBR system, unique features and added flexibilities of the ABC suggest improved or alternative approaches to each of the above-listed subsystems; these, along with the key technical issues in need of resolution through a detailed R&D plan for ABC are described on the bases of the ``strawman`` or ``point-of-departure`` plant layout that resulted from this study.

Cowell, B.S.; Fontana, M.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Krakowski, R.A.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Sailor, W.C.; Williamson, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-04-01

383

Cruise, Pershing and SS-20: The search for consensus: Nuclear weapons in Europe  

SciTech Connect

This study provides an assessment of the nuclear weapons issues facing the NATO Alliance. It shows the build up step by step, country by country and explains the various arms control initiatives. For those interested in the on-going Geneva Talks, this book offers background material, as well as assessing prospects for the future, including the implications of the Strategic Defence Initiative ('Star Wars').

Cartwright, J.; Critchley, J.

1985-01-01

384

Assessment of microphysical and chemical factors of aerosols over seas of the Russian Artic Eastern Section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The newly observed kickoff of the Northern Route development drew serious attention to state of the Arctic Resource environment. Occurring climatic and environmental changes are more sensitively seen in polar areas in particular. Air environment control allows for making prognostic assessments which are required for planning hazardous environmental impacts preventive actions. In August - September 2013, RV «Professor Khlustin» Northern Sea Route expeditionary voyage took place. En-route aerosol sampling was done over the surface of the Beringov, Chukotka and Eastern-Siberia seas (till the town of Pevek). The purpose of sampling was to assess spatio-temporal variability of optic, microphysical and chemical characteristics of aerosol particles of the surface layer within different areas adjacent to the Northern Sea Route. Aerosol test made use of automated mobile unit consisting of photoelectric particles counter AZ-10, aetalometr MDA-02, aspirator on NBM-1.2 pump chassis, and the impactor. This set of equipment allows for doing measurements of number concentration, dispersed composition of aerosols within sizes d=0.3-10 mkm, mass concentration of submicron sized aerosol, and filter-conveyed aerosols sampling. Filter-conveyed aerosols sampling was done using method accepted by EMEP and EANET monitoring networks. The impactor channel was upgraded to separate particles bigger than 1 mkm in size, and the fine grain fraction settled down on it. Reverse 5-day and 10-day trajectories of air mass transfer executed at heights of 10, 1500 and 3500 m were analyzed. The heights were selected by considerations that 3000 m is the height which characterizes air mass trend in the lower troposphere. 1500 m is the upper border of the atmospheric boundary layer, and the sampling was done in the Earth's surface layer at less than 10 m. Minimum values of the bespoken microphysical characteristics are better characteristic of higher latitudes where there are no man induced sources of aerosols while the natural ones are of lower severity due to low temperatures endemic for the Arctic Ocean areas. For doing the assessment of the air mass components chemical formulation samples of water soluble fraction of the atmospheric aerosol underwent chemical analysis. Sum of main ions within the aerosol composition varied from 0.23 to 16.2 mkg/m3. Minimum ion concentrations are defined in the aerosol sampled over the Chukotka sea surface at still. Chemical composition of the Beringov and Chukotka sea aerosol was dominated by impurities of sea origin coming from the ocean with air mass. Ion sum increased concentrations were observed in the Pevek area (Eastern Siberia Sea). Aerosol chemical composition building was impacted by air mass coming from the shore. Maximum concentrations of the bespoken components are seen in the aerosol sampled during stormy weather. Increase of wind made it for raising into the air of the sea origin particles. Ingestion of sprays onto the filter was eliminated by covering the sample catcher with a special protective hood. This completed survey is indicative of favourable state of atmosphere in the arctic resource of the Russian Arctic Eastern Section during Summer-Autumn season of 2013. The job is done under financial support of project. 23 Programs of fundamental research of the RAS Presidium, Partnership Integration Project, SB RAS. 25.

Golobokova, Liudmila; Polkin, Victor

2014-05-01

385

Evaluation of risk assessment guideline levels for the chemical warfare agents mustard, GB, and VX.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Army has estimated acute lethality guideline levels for inhalation of the chemical warfare agents mustard, GB, and VX. These levels are expressed as dosages measured in milligram-minutes per cubic meter (mg-min/m3). The National Advisory Council has also proposed acute emergency guideline levels (AEGLs) for the agents. The AEGLs are threshold exposure limits for the general public for mild effects, serious adverse effects, and lethality. They are expressed as air concentrations (in units of mg/m3) and are applicable to emergency exposure periods ranging from 10 min to 8 h. The report discusses strengths and deficiencies in the levels, important parameters (i.e., exposure time, breathing rate) that need to be explicitly addressed in deriving the guideline levels, and possible impacts that could result from using AEGLs instead of guideline dosages in future assessments.

Hartmann, H.; Environmental Assessment

2002-06-01

386

Epidemiologic approaches to assessing human cancer risk from consuming aquatic food resources from chemically contaminated water.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic approaches to assessing human cancer risk from consuming fish from contaminated waters must confront the problems of long latency and rarity of the end point (cancer). The latency problem makes determination of diet history more difficult, while the low frequency of cancer as an end point reduces the statistical power of the study. These factors are discussed in relation to the study designs most commonly employed in epidemiology. It is suggested that the use of biomarkers for persistent chemicals may be useful to mitigate the difficulty of determining exposure, while the use of more prevalent and timely end points, such as carcinogen-DNA adducts or oncogene proteins, may make the latency and rarity problems more tractable. PMID:2050052

Ozonoff, D; Longnecker, M P

1991-01-01

387

Defense programs: A Sandia weapon review bulletin  

SciTech Connect

Sandia`s mission to explore technology that enhances US nuclear weapons capabilities has been the primary impetus for the development of a class of inertial measurement units not available commercially. The newest member of the family is the Ring Laser Gyro Assembly. The product of a five-year joint effort by Sandia and Honeywell`s Space and Strategic Systems Operation, the RLGA is a small, one-nautical-mile-per-hour-class inertial measurement unit that consumes only 16 watts - attributes that are important to a guidance and control capability for new or existing weapons. These same attributes led the Central Inertial Guidance Test Facility at Holloman Air Force Base to select the RLGA for their newest test instrumentation pod. The RLGA sensor assembly is composed of three Honeywell ring laser gyroscopes and three Sundstrand Data Control accelerometers that are selected from three types according to the user`s acceleration range and accuracy needs.

Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L. [eds.

1993-11-01

388

Development of human cell models for assessing the carcinogenic potential of chemicals  

SciTech Connect

To develop human cell models for assessing the carcinogenic potential of chemicals, we established transgenic human cell lines and tested the sensitivity of known carcinogens using a cell transformation assay. A retroviral vector encoding an oncogenic allele of H-Ras (HBER) or c-Myc (HBEM) was introduced into human bronchial epithelial cells (HBE) immortalized by SV40 large T (LT) antigen, leading to increased cell proliferation but failing to confer a transformed phenotype characterized by anchorage-independent cell growth and tumor formation of immunodeficient mice. When these pre-transformed cells were treated with nickel sulfate (NiSO{sub 4}), we found that it shortened the latency of malignant transformation at least by 19 wk in HBER cells or 16 wk in HBEM cells compared to vector control cells. Similarly, the latency of cell transformation was shorter by 15 wk in HBER cells or 9 wk in HBEM cells when cells were treated with benzo(a)pyrenediol epoxide (BPDE). HBER cells appeared to be more sensitive to TPA, NiSO{sub 4} or BPDE-induced cell transformation compared to human embryonic kidney cells expressing H-Ras (HEKR), implying that cell-type specificity is one of important factors determining the effectiveness of the assay. Using AFB{sub 1} and BaP as the representative pro-carcinogens, we also compared the efficiency of three different metabolic conditions in mediating cell transformation. Low dose chemical induction seems to be a prospective system used for metabolic activation of pro-carcinogens. Our findings provided direct evidence that a genetically modified human cell transformation model can be applied to the assessment of potent carcinogens.

Pang Yaqin; Li Wenxue; Ma Rulin; Ji Weidong; Wang Qing; Li Daochuan; Xiao Yongmei; Wei Qing; Lai Yandong; Yang Ping; Chen Liping; Tang Shifu; Lin Yuchun [Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou, 510080 (China); Zhuang Zhixiong [Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou, 510080 (China); Laboratory of Toxicology Research, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1 Tianbei, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518020 (China); Zheng Yuxin [National Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 29 Nanwei Road, Beijing, 100050 (China); Chen Wen [Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou, 510080 (China)], E-mail: wenchen1107@163.com

2008-11-01

389

Assessment of subsurface VOCs using a chemical microsensor array. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of laboratory investigations of several performance parameters relevant to surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) chemical sensor arrays for the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in contaminated soil and groundwater. The small size, low cost, sensitivity and selectivity of such instruments promise improvements in the quality and quantity of data used to guide site assessment and restoration efforts. In this investigation, calibrations were performed for 15 different coated SAW sensors. Each sensor was exposed to six VOCs selected to represent three chemical classes of contaminants that are commonly found at waste sites (i.e., aliphatic, aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons). A new pattern recognition method was developed for determining which coated sensors would maximize the selectivity and accuracy of quantitation for a given set of vapor contaminants. Using this method, an optimal subwet of four coated sensors was selected for testing in a prototype microsensor instrument. Additional laboratory experiments were performed with this optimized array to assess the limits of detection and linear response ranges for the representative vapors, as well as the additivity of responses to vapors in binary mixtures, temperature and humidity effects, aging effects, and other performance parameters related to the application of this technology to soil and groundwater VOC monitoring. Results demonstrate that SAW microsensor arrays can identify and quantify specific VOCs at concentrations in the {mu}g/L to mg/L range when present alone or in simple (e.g., binary) mixtures. SAW sensor technology offers a potentially effective alternative to existing field instrumentation for headspace analysis, soil vapor monitoring, and vacuum extraction process monitoring of VOCs in subsurface media.

Batterman, S.A.; Zellers, E.T. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Public Health

1993-06-01

390

Robots as Weapons in Just Wars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay analyzes the use of military robots in terms of the jus in bello concepts of discrimination and proportionality. It argues that while robots may make mistakes, they do not suffer from most\\u000a of the impairments that interfere with human judgment on the battlefield. Although robots are imperfect weapons, they can\\u000a exercise as much restraint as human soldiers, if

Marcus Schulzke

391

Waterborne parasites and physico-chemical assessment of selected lakes in Malaysia.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the physico-chemical parameters and waterborne parasites in selected recreational lakes from Malaysia. Samples were collected from seven stations of Recreational Lake A (RL-A) and six stations of Recreational Lake B (RL-B). The samples were processed to detect the presence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. using immunomagnetic separation kit, helminth eggs or ova by bright field microscopy and Acanthamoeba spp. by cultivation in non-nutrient agar. Chemical parameters such as ammonia, chlorine, fluoride, nitrate and nitrite and physical parameters such as dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, pH, salinity, temperature and total dissolved solid were also measured. Both lakes were freshwater with salinity ranging from 0.05 to 0.09 ppt. Most stations of these lakes were contaminated with Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., Ascaris spp. and hookworm. Schistosoma spp. was found in RL-B only, while Acanthamoeba spp. was found in all stations. Of all sampling sites, station 5 of RL-B is the most contaminated. Linear regression and correlation analysis revealed that Giardia spp. and Schistosoma spp. showed a significant negative correlation with turbidity (p?chemical analysis in Malaysia. Future work on heavy metals (chromium, copper, mercury and zinc) is recommended to enhance the overall water quality monitoring and to take appropriate safety measures to ensure maintenance of good water standards. PMID:24046263

Onichandran, Subashini; Kumar, Thulasi; Lim, Yvonne A L; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Andiappan, Hemah; Salibay, Cristina C; Chye, Tan Tian; Ithoi, Init; Dungca, Julieta Z; Sulaiman, Wan Y W; Ling, Lau Yee; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

2013-12-01

392

Hancornia speciosa latex for biomedical applications: physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility assessment and angiogenic activity.  

PubMed

The latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa is used in folk medicine for treatment of several diseases, such as acne, warts, diabetes, gastritis and inflammation. In this work, we describe the biocompatibility assessment and angiogenic properties of H. speciosa latex and its potential application in medicine. The physical-chemical characterization was carried out following different methodologies (CHN elemental analyses; thermogravimetric analyses and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). The biocompatibility was evaluated through cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests in fibroblast mouse cells and the angiogenic properties were evaluated using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay model. The physical-chemical results showed that the structure of Hancornia speciosa latex biomembrane is very similar to that of Hevea brasiliensis (commercially available product). Moreover, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays showed that H. speciosa latex is biocompatible with life systems and can be a good biomaterial for medical applications. The CAM test showed the efficient ability of H. speciosa latex in neovascularization of tissues. The histological analysis was in accordance with the results obtained in the CAM assay. Our data indicate that the latex obtained from H. speciosa and eluted in water showed significant angiogenic activity without any cytotoxic or genotoxic effects on life systems. The same did not occur with H. speciosa latex stabilized with ammonia. Addition of ammonia does not have significant effects on the structure of biomembranes, but showed a smaller cell survival and a significant genotoxicity effect. This study contributes to the understanding of the potentialities of H. speciosa latex as a source of new phytomedicines. PMID:24973907

Almeida, Luciane Madureira; Floriano, Juliana Ferreira; Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Magno, Lais Nogueira; da Mota, Lígia Souza Lima Silveira; Peixoto, Nei; Mrué, Fátima; Melo-Reis, Paulo; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Graeff, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Gonçalves, Pablo José

2014-09-01

393

Statistical issues in risk assessment of reproductive outcomes with chemical mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Establishing the relationship between a given chemical exposure and human reproductive health risk is complicated by exposures or other concomitant factors that may vary from pregnancy to pregnancy. Moreover, when exposures are to complex mixtures of chemicals, varying with time in number of components, doses of individual components, and constancy of exposure, the picture becomes even more complicated. A pilot study of risk of adverse reproductive outcomes among male wastewater treatment workers and their wives is described here. The wives of 231 workers were interviewed to evaluate retrospectively the outcomes of spontaneous early fetal loss and infertility. In addition, 87 workers participated in a cross-sectional evaluation of sperm/semen parameters. Due to the ever-changing nature of the exposure and the lack of quantification of specific exposures, six dichotomous variables were used for each specific job description to give a surrogate measure of exposure. Hence, no quantitative exposure-response relationships could be modeled. These six variables were independently assigned by two environmental hygienists, and their interrater reliability was assessed. Results are presented and further innovations in statistical methodology are proposed for further applications.

Hertzber, V.S.; Lemasters, G.K.; Hansen, K. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Zenick, H.M. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

1991-01-01

394

Statistical issues in risk assessment of reproductive outcomes with chemical mixtures.  

PubMed Central

Establishing the relationship between a given chemical exposure and human reproductive health risk is complicated by exposures or other concomitant factors that may vary from pregnancy to pregnancy. Moreover, when exposures are to complex mixtures of chemicals, varying with time in number of components, doses of individual components, and constancy of exposure, the picture becomes even more complicated. A pilot study of risk of adverse reproductive outcomes among male wastewater treatment workers and their wives is described here. The wives of 231 workers were interviewed to evaluate retrospectively the outcomes of spontaneous early fetal loss and infertility. In addition, 87 workers participated in a cross-sectional evaluation of sperm/semen parameters. Due to the ever-changing nature of the exposure and the lack of quantification of specific exposures, six dichotomous variables were used for each specific job description to give a surrogate measure of exposure. Hence, no quantitative exposure-response relationships could be modeled. These six variables were independently assigned by two environmental hygienists, and their interrater reliability was assessed. Results are presented and further innovations in statistical methodology are proposed for further applications. PMID:2050057

Hertzberg, V S; Lemasters, G K; Hansen, K; Zenick, H M

1991-01-01

395

Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations  

SciTech Connect

Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

Cornwell, G.C.

1998-12-01

396

Medical implications of enhanced radiation weapons.  

PubMed

During the 1960s through 1980s the United States and several other nations developed, and even considered deploying, enhanced-radiation warheads (ERWs). The main effect of ERWs (sometimes called "neutron bombs"), as compared to other types of nuclear weapons, is to enhance radiation casualties while reducing blast and thermal damage to the infrastructure. Five nations were reported to have developed and tested ERWs during this period, but since the termination of the "Cold War" there have been no threats of development, deployment, or use of such weapons. However, if the technology of a quarter of a century ago has been developed, maintained, or even advanced since then, it is conceivable that the grim possibility of future ERW use exists. The type of destruction, initial triage of casualties, distribution of patterns of injury, and medical management of ERWs will be shown to significantly differ from that of fission weapons. Emergency response planners and medical personnel, civilian or military, must be aware of these differences to reduce the horrible consequences of ERW usage and appropriately treat casualties. PMID:21265303

Reeves, Glen I

2010-12-01

397

The US nuclear weapon infrastructure and a stable global nuclear weapon regime  

SciTech Connect

US nuclear weapons capabilities -- extant force structure and nuclear weapons infrastructure as well as declared policy -- influence other nations' nuclear weapons postures, at least to some extent. This influence can be desirable or undesirable, and is, of course, a mixture of both. How strong the influence is, and its nature, are complicated, controversial, and -- in our view -- not well understood but often overstated. Divergent views about this influence and how it might shape the future global nuclear weapons regime seem to us to be the most serious impediment to reaching a national consensus on US weapons policy, force structure and supporting infrastructure. We believe that a paradigm shift to capability-based deterrence and dissuasion is not only consistent with the realities of the world and how it has changed, but also a desirable way for nuclear weapon postures and infrastructures to evolve. The US and other nuclear states could not get to zero nor even reduce nuclear arms and the nuclear profile much further without learning to manage latent capability. This paper has defined three principles for designing NW infrastructure both at the 'next plateau' and 'near zero.' The US can be a leader in reducing weapons and infrastructure and in creating an international regime in which capability gradually substitutes for weapons in being and is transparent. The current 'strategy' of not having policy or a Congressionally-approved plan for transforming the weapons complex is not leadership. If we can conform the US infrastructure to the next plateau and architect it in such a way that it is aligned with further arms reductions, it will have these benefits: The extant stockpile can be reduced in size, while the smaller stockpile still deters attack on the US and Allies. The capabilities of the infrastructure will dissuade emergence of new challenges/threats; if they emerge, nevertheless, the US will be able to deal with them in time. We will begin to transform the way other major powers view their nuclear capability. Finally, and though of less cosmic importance, it will save money in the long run.

Immele, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

398

Chemical and Biological Warfare Should Defenses Be Researched and Deployed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

and and Toxin Weapons Convention of 1972, which is now in jeopardy. This article ~~n~~~~ ~~~t~~t~~~x~~~ti ~~~~~ discusses the history of chemical and biological warfare, existing and potential Germany.l weapons, the proliferation of weapons and delivery systems, ways to prevent the use of these weapons, and ways to protect populations from their effects. EXISTING AND POTENTIAL (~AM~.1989;262:644-648) WEAPONS

Jane M Orient

399

75 FR 36684 - Proposed Revised Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, and Phenylpropanolamine...annual needs for the List I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine...annual needs for the List I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and...

2010-06-28

400

The dynamic response of a weapon`s internal components to a high speed impact  

SciTech Connect

The dynamic response of a weapon`s internal components to an accident is critical in determining the safety of a weapon. The primary objective of this study was to determine the safety of the weapon based on the acceleration histories of its safety components. The accident scenario was a 80 feet/second impact of the weapon onto a railroad rail. Large deformations and many contacts were expected due to the severity of the impact condition. The complexity of this analysis required a nonlinear finite element code which could track many contact surfaces simultaneously and simulate material failure using element death. The damage to the structure and its contents was simulated using PRONTO3D (an explicit finite element code developed at Sandia National Laboratories). Some of PRONTO3D`s advanced features used in the calculations included the self-contacting algorithms, material death, and rigid body mechanics. Throughout the analysis, a large number of mechanical contacts, both normal and sliding with friction, were detected and tracked by PRONT03D. The analysis predicted large deformations and material failure that took the form of tears in the aluminum shroud and in the housing of the components. The predicted acceleration histories were then used to determine if the components remained functional.

Gruda, J.D.

1994-12-31

401

Brigade Combat Team Future Combat Systems Inspector General Objective Crew Served Weapon Objective Individual Combat Weapon  

E-print Network

technology for use on 25-millimeter, high-explosive, airbursting ammunition and with program entry into the system development and demonstration phase of the acquisition process. (U) Background. The Objective Individual Combat Weapon (OICW or XM29 [Increment III]) is a dual-engagement weapon: its primary subsystem fires a 25-millimeter, airbursting ammunition (XM25 [Increment II]), and its secondary subsystem fires the standard 5.56-millimeter ammunition (Increment I). The Advanced Crew Served Weapon, which later became the XM307 and XM307G Programs, is to provide accurate, long-range firepower, including airbursting ammunitions, in a lightweight system package. The XM307 and XM307G weapons are the next generation of mounted and dismounted machine guns, respectively. (U) This is the fourth in a series of reports on the overall management of the OICW Program. This report addresses a common fuze technology for the high-explosive, airbursting shells used in the XM25/XM29 and XM307 weapons. This report also addresses entry of the XM307 and XM307G Programs into the system development and

unknown authors

402

Integrating mechanistic and polymorphism data to characterize human genetic susceptibility for environmental chemical risk assessment in the 21st century  

SciTech Connect

Response to environmental chemicals can vary widely among individuals and between population groups. In human health risk assessment, data on susceptibility can be utilized by deriving risk levels based on a study of a susceptible population and/or an uncertainty factor may be applied to account for the lack of information about susceptibility. Defining genetic susceptibility in response to environmental chemicals across human populations is an area of interest in the NAS' new paradigm of toxicity pathway-based risk assessment. Data from high-throughput/high content (HT/HC), including -omics (e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) technologies, have been integral to the identification and characterization of drug target and disease loci, and have been successfully utilized to inform the mechanism of action for numerous environmental chemicals. Large-scale population genotyping studies may help to characterize levels of variability across human populations at identified target loci implicated in response to environmental chemicals. By combining mechanistic data for a given environmental chemical with next generation sequencing data that provides human population variation information, one can begin to characterize differential susceptibility due to genetic variability to environmental chemicals within and across genetically heterogeneous human populations. The integration of such data sources will be informative to human health risk assessment.

Mortensen, Holly M., E-mail: mortensen.holly@epa.gov [Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Computational Toxicology, US EPA, 109 TW Alexander Dr., Mailcode B205-01, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Euling, Susan Y. [Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment, US EPA, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Mail Code 8623P, Washington, DC 20460 (United States)

2013-09-15

403

A multi-route exposure assessment of chemically contaminated drinking water.  

PubMed

This report provides an example of how a single source of contamination could potentially contribute to all routes of exposure. A modeling approach was used to estimate multiple exposure routes in an attempt to assess the health significance of gasoline-contaminated drinking water supplies. This model consisted of a two-compartment, indoor air quality equation that calculates the contribution made by ambient and indoor air contaminated by a pollutant volatilized from drinking water to that pollutant's inhalation burden. In addition, the model uses the traditional equations for assessing a pollutant's oral and dermal burdens. Benzene, toluene and xylene were used as surrogates for gasoline contamination to determine the contribution of contaminated water to adult and child body burdens from indoor air, oral (drinking water and food) and dermal exposure routes. The contribution thus calculated for each chemical was compared to the EPA's Office of Drinking Water Health Advisories. In terms of acute exposure, the use of chemically contaminated water for showering purposes may generate vapor in the confined area of the bathroom at levels sufficient to cause or contribute to mucous tissue irritation, as commonly reported in affected homes. High temperatures and humidity may also contribute to these effects, especially in the bathroom. In terms of chronic exposure, the use of chemically contaminated water at EPA-recommended guideline amounts in an affected home may result in inhalation, oral and dermal exposures leading to cumulative doses exceeding adult and child total daily body burdens based on EPA's Health Advisories. Thus, this model indicates that the traditional standard/guidelines derivation processes should be reevaluated to consider the pollutant contribution from multiple routes of exposure. The New Jersey Departments of Health and Environmental Protection conducted a study in which concentrations of several pollutants including benzene in the breathing zone were measured during a 15-minute shower in homes with contaminated water. The findings suggest that the air quality model used in the present study may satisfactorily predict the airborne concentrations of pollutants in, at least, the bathroom after showering with contaminated water (Pearson rank correlation coefficient of 0.773 with p = 0.0012 for n = 14). The findings of the present study support the use of an adjustment factor for all exposure durations to account for exposures to other sources of the contaminant, i.e., urban, occupational, and food. A value of 20% seems appropriate based on the study's findings.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3843508

Shehata, A T

1985-12-01

404

Enhancing Credibility of Chemical Safety Studies: Emerging Consensus on Key Assessment Criteria  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examined the extent to which consensus exists on the criteria that should be used for assessing the credibility of a scientific work, regardless of its funding source, and explored how these criteria might be implemented. Data sources Three publications, all presented at a session of the 2009 annual meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, have proposed a range of criteria for evaluating the credibility of scientific studies. At least two other similar sets of criteria have recently been proposed elsewhere. Data extraction/synthesis In this article we review these criteria, highlight the commonalities among them, and integrate them into a list of 10 criteria. We also discuss issues inherent in any attempt to implement the criteria systematically. Conclusions Recommendations by many scientists and policy experts converge on a finite list of criteria for assessing the credibility of a scientific study without regard to funding source. These criteria should be formalized through a consensus process or a governmental initiative that includes discussion and pilot application of a system for reproducibly implementing them. Formal establishment of such a system should enable the debate regarding chemical studies to move beyond funding issues and focus on scientific merit. PMID:21163723

Conrad, James W.; Becker, Richard A.

2011-01-01

405

Methods to assess reproductive effects of environmental chemicals: studies of cadmium and boron administered orally.  

PubMed Central

Results of a U.S.S.R.--U.S. cooperative laboratory effort to improve and validate experimental techniques used to assess subtle reproductive effects in male laboratory animals are reported. The present studies attempted to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of cadmium as cadmium chloride and boron as borax (Na2B4O7) and to investigate the mechanism of toxicity in the rat following acute and subchronic oral exposure. In vitro cell separation techniques, in vivo serial mating tests, and plasma assays for hormones were utilized. Effects on the seminal vesicle and prostate were evaluated with chemical and enzyme assays. Clinical chemistry was monitored routinely. Acute oral doses, expressed as boron were 45, 150, and 450 mg/kg while doses for cadmium equivalent were 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg. Rats were also allowed free access to drinking water containing either boron (0.3, 1.0, and 6.0 mg/l.) or cadmium (0.001, and 0.l mg/l.) for 90 days. Randomly selected animals were studied following 30, 60, and 90 days of treatment. These initial studies, utilizing a variety of methods to assess the reproductive toxicity of environmental substances in male animals, suggest that cadmium and boron at the concentrations and dose regimens tested are without significant reproductive toxicity. PMID:1269508

Dixon, R L; Lee, I P; Sherins, R J

1976-01-01

406

Development of a security vulnerability assessment process for the RAMCAP chemical sector.  

PubMed

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Directorate of Information Analysis & Infrastructure Protection (IAIP), Protective Services Division (PSD), contracted the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Innovative Technologies Institute, LLC (ASME ITI, LLC) to develop guidance on Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection (RAMCAP). AcuTech Consulting Group (AcuTech) has been contracted by ASME ITI, LLC, to provide assistance by facilitating the development of sector-specific guidance on vulnerability analysis and management for critical asset protection for the chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) sectors. This activity involves two key tasks for these three sectors: Development of a screening to supplement DHS understanding of the assets that are important to protect against terrorist attack and to prioritize the activities. Development of a standard security vulnerability analysis (SVA) framework for the analysis of consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats. This project involves the cooperative effort of numerous leading industrial companies, industry trade associations, professional societies, and security and safety consultants representative of those sectors. Since RAMCAP is a voluntary program for ongoing risk management for homeland security, sector coordinating councils are being asked to assist in communicating the goals of the program and in encouraging participation. The RAMCAP project will have a profound and positive impact on all sectors as it is fully developed, rolled-out and implemented. It will help define the facilities and operations of national and regional interest for the threat of terrorism, define standardized methods for analyzing consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats, and describe best security practices of the industry. This paper will describe the results of the security vulnerability analysis process that was developed and field tested for the chemical manufacturing sector. This method was developed through the cooperation of the many organizations and the individuals involved from the chemical sector RAMCAP development activities. The RAMCAP SVA method is intended to provide a common basis for making vulnerability assessments and risk-based decisions for homeland security. Mr. Moore serves as the coordinator for the chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and LNG sectors for the RAMCAP project and Dr. Jones is the chief technology officer for ASME-ITI, LLC for RAMCAP. PMID:16920260

Moore, David A; Fuller, Brad; Hazzan, Michael; Jones, J William

2007-04-11

407

Remote Chemical Sensing Using Quantum Cascade Lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research done by the IR sensors team at PNNL is focused on developing advanced spectroscopic methods for detecting signatures of nuclear, chemical, biological and explosives weapons or weapons production. The sensors we develop fall into two categories: remote sensors that can be operated at distances ranging from 150 m to 10 km, and point sensors that are used for in-situ

Warren W. Harper; Jana D. Strasburg; Pam M. Aker; John F. Schultz

2004-01-01

408

Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering Programme in Ghana: Students' Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering…

Boateng, Cyril D.; Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

2012-01-01

409

TEXAS: a Tool for EXposure ASsessment-Statistical Models for Estimating Occupational Exposure to Chemical Agents.  

PubMed

Measurements of occupational exposure to chemical agents are performed by sampling and analyzing workplace atmospheres. In France, this is done by the industrial hygienists of the prevention network of the Social Security Service, who collect and then enter the data in the COLCHIC database. More than 900000 measurements performed in French companies over the past 25 years have been collected. Using this amount of data is major challenge for obtaining knowledge and predicting occupational exposures. This study presents the way in which statistical models are built and used on the basis of almost 19000 recent measurements of 26 frequent chemical substances. For a given substance, the models use 13 exposure determinants as inputs, such as the task performed, the occupation of the operator or the type of process employed. The models permit to estimate two parameters: the geometric mean and geometric standard deviation. These parameters are used to build an exposure profile. By combining them with the limit value, an exposure index is estimated using a Bayesian network. A decision rule based on the interpretation of this probability is proposed to qualify the predicted situation as 'well-controlled situation', 'controlled situation', and 'poorly controlled situation'. On the basis of this decision rule, 62% of predictions are true for all substances confounded, an average of 36% of predictions are approximate and only 2% of them are wrong. The result of this study led to the development of a pragmatic software tool named TEXAS, tool for exposure assessment, which enables industrial hygienists to obtain a rapid estimation of the level of exposure control as a function of simple determinants of work situations. PMID:25433001

Clerc, Frédéric; Bertrand, Nicolas; Vincent, Raymond

2014-11-27

410

Bystander effects, genomic instability, adaptive response, and cancer risk assessment for radiation and chemical exposures  

SciTech Connect

There is an increased interest in utilizing mechanistic data in support of the cancer risk assessment process for ionizing radiation and environmental chemical exposures. In this regard, the use of biologically based dose-response models is particularly advocated. The aim is to provide an enhanced basis for describing the nature of the dose-response curve for induced tumors at low levels of exposure. Cellular responses that might influence the nature of the dose-response curve at low exposures are understandably receiving attention. These responses (bystander effects, genomic instability, and adaptive responses) have been studied most extensively for radiation exposures. The former two could result in an enhancement of the tumor response at low doses and the latter could lead to a reduced response compared to that predicted by a linear extrapolation from high dose responses. Bystander responses, whereby cells other than those directly traversed by radiation tracks are damaged, can alter the concept of target cell population per unit dose. Similarly, induced genomic instability can alter the concept of total response to an exposure. There appears to be a role for oxidative damage and cellular signaling in the etiology of these cellular responses. The adaptive response appears to be inducible at very low doses of radiation or of some chemicals and reduces the cellular response to a larger challenge dose. It is currently unclear how these cellular toxic responses might be involved in tumor formation, if indeed they are. In addition, it is not known how widespread they are as regards inducing agents. Thus, their impact on low dose cancer risk remains to be established.

Preston, R. Julian [Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)]. E-mail: preston.julian@epa.gov

2005-09-01

411

The relationship between whole effluent toxicity (WET) and chemical-based effluent quality assessment in Vojvodina (Serbia).  

PubMed

The relationship between whole effluent toxicity (WET) and chemical-based effluent quality assessment across a range of effluent types was examined for the first time in Serbia. WET was determined by Daphnia magna acute tests, while chemical-based toxicity was taken as theoretical for concentrations of priority chemicals and effluent quality assessment based on the valid Serbian regulations. A poor correlation was found between WET and chemical-based effluent quality assessment: positive toxicity tests were found, in general, in cases where samples satisfied the requirements of mandatory effluent monitoring. Statistically insignificant correlation between the predicted and observed toxicity indicated that the presence of priority substances accounted to the overall toxicity only to a certain degree, most probably due to a rather short list of priority pollutants regularly analysed in effluents. Current monitoring requirements neglect hazards that derive from potentially present toxicants and unpredictable toxicity of complex mixtures, which led to poor correlation between the WET and chemical-based results in this study. PMID:18972215

Teodorovi?, Ivana; Beceli?, Milena; Planojevi?, Ivana; Ivancev-Tumbas, Ivana; Dalmacija, Bozo

2009-11-01

412

Neutrophils Turn Plasma Proteins into Weapons against HIV-1  

PubMed Central

As a consequence of innate immune activation granulocytes and macrophages produce hypochlorite/hypochlorous acid (HOCl) via secretion of myeloperoxidase (MPO) to the outside of the cells, where HOCl immediately reacts with proteins. Most proteins that become altered by this system do not belong to the invading microorganism but to the host. While there is no doubt that the myeloperoxidase system is capable of directly inactivating HIV-1, we hypothesized that it may have an additional indirect mode of action. We show in this article that HOCl is able to chemically alter proteins and thus turn them into Idea-Ps (Idea-P?=?immune defence-altered protein), potent amyloid-like and SH-groups capturing antiviral weapons against HIV-1. HOCl-altered plasma proteins (Idea-PP) have the capacity to bind efficiently and with high affinity to the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120, and to its receptor CD4 as well as to the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). Idea-PP was able to inhibit viral infection and replication in a cell culture system as shown by reduced number of infected cells and of syncytia, resulting in reduction of viral capsid protein p24 in the culture supernatant. The unmodified plasma protein fraction had no effect. HOCl-altered isolated proteins antithrombin III and human serum albumin, taken as representative examples of the whole pool of plasma proteins, were both able to exert the same activity of binding to gp120 and inhibition of viral proliferation. These data offer an opportunity to improve the understanding of the intricacies of host-pathogen interactions and allow the generation of the following hypothetical scheme: natural immune defense mechanisms generate by posttranslational modification of plasma proteins a potent virucidal weapon that immobilizes the virus as well as inhibits viral fusion and thus entry into the host cells. Furthermore simulation of this mechanism in vitro might provide an interesting new therapeutic approach against microorganisms. PMID:23840401

Hagleitner, Magdalena; Rambach, Günter; Van Aken, Hugo; Dierich, Manfred; Kehrel, Beate E.

2013-01-01

413

The chemical, toxicological and ecological studies in assessing the heavy metal pollution in Le An River, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

By integrating the chemical, toxicological and ecological data, the impact of heavy metal pollution on the Le An River was assessed. The results showed that the water and sediment pollution has affected the aquatic ecosystem due to discharges from Dexing copper mines and mines along the Jishui River. The ecological deterioration between the Dexing copper mine and the converges with

Mengchang He; Zijian Wang; Hongxiao Tang

1998-01-01

414

Use of Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers to assess the effects of chronic pesticide exposure on biofilms  

E-print Network

conditions (reference site) and in sites exposed to pesticides (contaminated site). The exposure imposed 1 Use of Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers to assess the effects of chronic pesticide exposure on biofilms Soizic Morin1, Stéphane Pesce2, Sandra KimTiam1, Xavier Libert1, Marina

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

415

Use of solid phase characterisation and chemical modelling for assessing the behaviour of arsenic in contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soil, containing waste material from an industrially contaminated site, was found to be heavily contaminated with several heavy metals and As. A risk assessment for As leaching from this material has been carried out in several stages, collation and examination of historical records, solid-phase characterization and chemical modelling. The historical record indicates that the most probable source of As

D. G Lumsdon; J. C. L Meeussen; E Paterson; L. M Garden; P Anderson

2001-01-01

416

cholesterol in phosphatidylcholine bilayers Assess the nature of cholesterol-lipid interactions through the chemical potential of  

E-print Network

cholesterol in phosphatidylcholine bilayers Assess the nature of cholesterol-lipid interactions of cholesterol­lipid interactions through the chemical potential of cholesterol in phosphatidylcholine bilayers, Dresden, Germany, and approved February 9, 2007 (received for review December 21, 2006) Cholesterol plays

Huang, Juyang

417

Prevention of the Outer Space Weaponization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

9 states. The satellites of various functions (early warning, communication, data acquisition, reconnaissance and navigation) were actively used and continue to be used with the purposes of raising efficiency of ground armed forces, especially in fight against international terrorism. At the same time such satellites are not a weapon in the sense of that word since they do not create the threats of armed attack in outer space or from outer space. Moreover, they promote maintaining of stability in the international relations. For this reason the reconnaissance and data acquisition satellites used for the verification of observance by States of the arms limitation agreements are under international protection as national technical means of the control. Similar protection is enjoyed by the early warning satellites. With the help of space communication facilities the more reliable operative connection of the statesmen is organized in the strained situations. By this way the probability of making of the incorrect retaliatory decisions in critical political situations is reduced. At the same time it's necessary to take into consideration that the activities of such satellite systems are tightly connected with ground armed forces of the states. the earth, what from the point of view of international law may be qualified as establishing a partial demilitarization regime in outer space. After the prohibition of anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) and anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons it will be possible to speak about establishing of an international legal regime of complete demilitarization in outer space eliminating any kinds of weapon from outer space. in a peaceful time. weaponization.The main task of this paper is to analyze and to discuss the present binding regime of the outer space deweaponization and particular measures on consolidation and strengthening of this regime. agreements of the Russian Federation and the USA into multilateral Treaties. Such "immunity" would cover all operating space objects, irrespective of their military or civil designation. This approach is quite justified taking into consideration that military sattelites enhanced international peace and security and had broad advantages, such as treaty compliance and monitoring, the global positioning system, counter-terrorism and sanctions enforcement. Many examples of the last years demonstrate the tendency of engagement of military satellites into commercial space services. transparency on the pre-launch stage of space activity, including satellite inspection before ignition. Objects Flight Path Tracking. implemantation of a non-use of force and threat of force - a fundamental principle of modern international law. This implies the application of the menshened principle of international law by means of a treaty to the outer space activities with reference to the actions made in outer space, or directed from outer space against targets on the Earth as well as directed from the Earth against objects moving in outer space. to the possibility of conclusion in future of a multilateral arrangement on the prohibition of the space-based ABM. Accordingly, it is discussed the problem of an efficient international control over the prohibition of placement of the above mentioned weapons into outer space. to the challenges of the new millennium. 8

Zhukov, Gennady P.

2002-01-01

418

Toxicity assessment of industrial chemicals and airborne contaminants: transition from in vivo to in vitro test methods: a review.  

PubMed

Exposure to occupational and environmental contaminants is a major contributor to human health problems. Inhalation of gases, vapors, aerosols, and mixtures of these can cause a wide range of adverse health effects, ranging from simple irritation to systemic diseases. Despite significant achievements in the risk assessment of chemicals, the toxicological database, particularly for industrial chemicals, remains limited. Considering there are approximately 80,000 chemicals in commerce, and an extremely large number of chemical mixtures, in vivo testing of this large number is unachievable from both economical and practical perspectives. While in vitro methods are capable of rapidly providing toxicity information, regulatory agencies in general are still cautious about the replacement of whole-animal methods with new in vitro techniques. Although studying the toxic effects of inhaled chemicals is a complex subject, recent studies demonstrate that in vitro methods may have significant potential for assessing the toxicity of airborne contaminants. In this review, current toxicity test methods for risk evaluation of industrial chemicals and airborne contaminants are presented. To evaluate the potential applications of in vitro methods for studying respiratory toxicity, more recent models developed for toxicity testing of airborne contaminants are discussed. PMID:16195213

Bakand, S; Winder, C; Khalil, C; Hayes, A

2005-12-01

419

A proposal for assessing study quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument  

PubMed Central

The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals present several challenges, including their presence in analytical laboratories and sampling equipment, difficulty in establishing temporal order in cross-sectional studies, short- and long-term variability in exposures and biomarker concentrations, and a paucity of information on the number of measurements required for proper exposure classification. To date, the scientific community has not developed a set of systematic guidelines for designing, implementing and interpreting studies of short-lived chemicals that use biomonitoring as the exposure metric or for evaluating the quality of this type of research for WOE assessments or for peer review of grants or publications. We describe key issues that affect epidemiology studies using biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals and propose a systematic instrument – the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument – for evaluating the quality of research proposals and studies that incorporate biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals. Quality criteria for three areas considered fundamental to the evaluation of epidemiology studies that include biological measurements of short-lived chemicals are described: 1) biomarker selection and measurement, 2) study design and execution, and 3) general epidemiological study design considerations. We recognize that the development of an evaluative tool such as BEES-C is neither simple nor non-controversial. We hope and anticipate that the instrument will initiate further discussion/debate on this topic. PMID:25137624

LaKind, Judy S.; Sobus, Jon R.; Goodman, Michael; Barr, Dana Boyd; Fürst, Peter; Albertini, Richard J.; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Schoeters, Greet; Tan, Yu-Mei; Teeguarden, Justin; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weisel, Clifford P.

2015-01-01

420

A proposal for assessing study quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument.  

PubMed

The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals present several challenges, including their presence in analytical laboratories and sampling equipment, difficulty in establishing temporal order in cross-sectional studies, short- and long-term variability in exposures and biomarker concentrations, and a paucity of information on the number of measurements required for proper exposure classification. To date, the scientific community has not developed a set of systematic guidelines for designing, implementing and interpreting studies of short-lived chemicals that use biomonitoring as the exposure metric or for evaluating the quality of this type of research for WOE assessments or for peer review of grants or publications. We describe key issues that affect epidemiology studies using biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals and propose a systematic instrument--the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument--for evaluating the quality of research proposals and studies that incorporate biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals. Quality criteria for three areas considered fundamental to the evaluation of epidemiology studies that include biological measurements of short-lived chemicals are described: 1) biomarker selection and measurement, 2) study design and execution, and 3) general epidemiological study design considerations. We recognize that the development of an evaluative tool such as BEES-C is neither simple nor non-controversial. We hope and anticipate that the instrument will initiate further discussion/debate on this topic. PMID:25137624

LaKind, Judy S; Sobus, Jon R; Goodman, Michael; Barr, Dana Boyd; Fürst, Peter; Albertini, Richard J; Arbuckle, Tye E; Schoeters, Greet; Tan, Yu-Mei; Teeguarden, Justin; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weisel, Clifford P

2014-12-01

421

The Acquisition and Application of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Data in Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessments  

SciTech Connect

The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) formed the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee in the year 2000 to design a toxicity testing scheme that would incorporate current understanding of pesticide toxicology and exposure and recognize the specificity of agricultural products. The purpose of and background for the ACSA project are described in detail in the companion paper by Carmichael et al. (2006). As the proposed tiered testing approach for agricultural chemical safety assessment evolved, the ACSA Technical Committee and its task forces (Carmichael et al., 2006; Cooper et al., 2006; Doe et al., 2006) worked toward the following objectives: (1) Provide information that can be applied to a range of relevant human exposure situations. (2) Characterize effects that have the potential to damage human health at exposure levels approximating those that might be encountered in the use of these compounds. (3) Avoid high doses that cause unnecessary public concern (e.g., safety assessments should focus on doses that are relevant to realistic human exposures while maintaining adequate power for the experimental studies to detect toxicity). (4) Use the minimum number of animals necessary to produce a thorough safety assessment of the chemicals of interest. (5) Inflict the minimum amount of distress on animals. (6) Minimize excessive and unnecessary use of resources by regulatory authorities and industry, which could be used to address other issues of concern. (7) Increase both the efficiency and relevance of the current safety assessment process.

Barton, H. A.; Pastoor, Timothy P.; Baetcke, Karl; Chambers, Janice E.; Diliberto, Janet; Doerrer, Nancy G.; Driver, Jeffrey H.; Hastings, Charles E.; Iyengar, Seshadri; Krieger, Robert; Stahl, Bernhard; Timchalk, Chuck

2006-01-01

422

Prompt effects of nuclear weapons: a microcomputer model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research allowed for development of a microcomputer model reporting the damage and casualty-producing prompt effects of nuclear weapons from one kiloton to ten megatons. The mode was largely regression-derived and used range-contour modeling to report the effects of normal nuclear weapons. Effects were predicted for the low to intermediate overpressure range (1 to 150 psi overpressure). The weapon effects

1987-01-01

423

Recovery of weapon plutonium as feed material for reactor fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report presents preliminary considerations for recovering and converting weapon plutonium from various US weapon forms into feed material for fabrication of reactor fuel elements. An ongoing DOE study addresses the disposition of excess weapon plutonium through its use as fuel for nuclear power reactors and subsequent disposal as spent fuel. The spent fuel would have characteristics similar to those of commercial power spent fuel and could be similarly disposed of in a geologic repository.

Armantrout, G.A.; Bronson, M.A.; Choi, Jor-Shan [and others

1994-03-16

424

ToxRead: A tool to assist in read across and its use to assess mutagenicity of chemicals.  

PubMed

Life sciences, and toxicology in particular, are heavily impacted by the development of methods for data collection and data analysis; they are moving from an analytical approach to a modelling approach. The scarce availability of experimental data is a known bottleneck in assessing the properties of new chemicals. Even when a model is available, the resulting predictions have to be assessed by close scrutiny of the chemicals and the biological properties of the compounds concerned. To avoid unnecessary testing, a read across strategy is often suggested and used. In this paper we discuss how to improve and standardize read across activity using ad hoc visualization and data search methods which use similarity measures and fragment search to organize in a chart a picture of all the relevant information that the expert needs to make an assessment. We show in particular how to apply our system to the case of mutagenicity. PMID:25511972

Gini, G; Franchi, A M; Manganaro, A; Golbamaki, A; Benfenati, E

2014-12-01

425

Chemical and biological assessment of two offshore drilling sites in the Alaskan Arctic.  

PubMed

A retrospective chemical and biological study was carried out in Camden Bay, Alaskan Beaufort Sea, where single exploratory oil wells were drilled at two sites more than two decades ago. Barium from discharged drilling mud was present in sediments at concentrations as high as 14%, ~200 times above background, with significantly higher concentrations of Ba, but not other metals, within 250 m of the drilling site versus reference stations. Elevated concentrations of Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb were found only at two stations within 25 m of one drilling site. Concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) were not significantly different at reference versus drilling-site stations; however, TPAH were elevated in Ba-rich layers from naturally occurring perylene in ancient formation cuttings. Infaunal biomass and species abundance were not significantly different at reference versus drilling-site stations; infauna were less diverse at drilling-site stations. Our assessment showed that discharges from single wells within large areas caused minimal long-term, adverse impacts to the benthic ecosystem. PMID:23535013

Trefry, John H; Dunton, Kenneth H; Trocine, Robert P; Schonberg, Susan V; McTigue, Nathan D; Hersh, Eric S; McDonald, Thomas J

2013-05-01

426

Assessment of heavy metal contamination of dustfall in northern China from integrated chemical and magnetic investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic phases are a common component of dustfall samples and mineral magnetic studies have been increasingly exploited for air quality studies in recent years to assess the source and spatial-temporal distribution of anthropogenic magnetic particulates and associated heavy metals. Here we report a comparative study of magnetic and chemical properties of atmospheric particulate deposits from rural areas of Inner Mongolia and urban regions of Hebei and Beijing. The sample sets were collected at 13 monitoring stations by the gravimetric method between April 2009 and March 2010. At the rural sites paramagnetic clays, complemented by hematite and goethite recognized by Isothermal Remanent Magnetism (IRM) and Diffuse Reflectance Spectra (DRS) investigations, accompany fine grained magnetite as an important fraction. Although present as a residual phase in samples from the urban regions, coarse-grained magnetite of anthropogenic origin dominants the magnetic signatures in these latter environments. Systematic variations with local anthropogenic activity including traffic, the mining of ores and a range of industrial emissions are identified, together with a seasonal signature in the Beijing area. We use correlations between magnetic concentration-related parameters, notably magnetic susceptibility, and the Pollution Load Index to demonstrate how magnetic parameters can be used as a practical tool for mapping degrees of heavy metal pollution and tracing the sources of pollutants in dustfall samples.

Qiao, Qingqing; Huang, Baochun; Zhang, Chunxia; Piper, John D. A.; Pan, Yuepeng; Sun, Ying

2013-08-01

427

Proteomic Signatures of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo: Sensitivity and Specificity in Toxicity Assessment of Chemicals  

PubMed Central

Studies using embryos of the zebrafish Danio rerio (DarT) instead of adult fish for characterising the (eco-) toxic potential of chemicals have been proposed as animal replacing methods. Effect analysis at the molecular level might enhance sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the embryonal studies. The present paper aimed to test the potential of toxicoproteomics with zebrafish eleutheroembryos for sensitive and specific toxicity assessment. 2-DE-based toxicoproteomics was performed applying low-dose (EC10) exposure for 48?h with three-model substances Rotenone, 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC) and Diclofenac. By multivariate “pattern-only” PCA and univariate statistical analyses, alterations in the embryonal proteome were detectable in nonetheless visibly intact organisms and treatment with the three substances was distinguishable at the molecular level. Toxicoproteomics enabled the enhancement of sensitivity and specificity of the embryonal toxicity assay and bear the potency to identify protein markers serving as general stress markers and early diagnosis of toxic stress. PMID:22084678

Hanisch, Karen; Küster, Eberhard; Altenburger, Rolf; Gündel, Ulrike

2010-01-01

428

Assessment of serum biomarkers in rats after exposure to pesticides of different chemical classes.  

PubMed

There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon, fipronil) with different neurotoxic actions. Adult male Long-Evans rats were evaluated after single exposure to vehicle or one of two doses of each pesticide at the time of peak effect. The doses were selected to produce similar magnitude of behavioral effects across chemicals. Serum or plasma was analyzed using commercial cytokine/protein panels and targeted metabolomics. Additional studies of fipronil used lower doses (lacking behavioral effects), singly or for 14days, and included additional markers of exposure and biological activity. Biomarker profiles varied in the number of altered analytes and patterns of change across pesticide classes, and discriminant analysis could separate treatment groups from control. Low doses of fipronil produced greater effects when given for 14days compared to a single dose. Changes in thyroid hormones and relative amounts of fipronil and its sulfone metabolite also differed between the dosing regimens. Most cytokine changes reflected alterations in inflammatory responses, hormone levels, and products of phospholipid, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism. These findings demonstrate distinct blood-based analyte profiles across pesticide classes, dose levels, and exposure duration. These results show promise for detailed analyses of these biomarkers and their linkages to biological pathways. PMID:25497286

Moser, Virginia C; Stewart, Nicholas; Freeborn, Danielle L; Crooks, James; MacMillan, Denise K; Hedge, Joan M; Wood, Charles E; McMahen, Rebecca L; Strynar, Mark J; Herr, David W

2015-01-15

429

Copper availability assessment of Cu-contaminated vineyard soils using black oat cultivation and chemical extractants.  

PubMed

Grapevines grown on acid soils with low fertility in southern Brazil are treated with intense foliar applications of copper (Cu) fungicides, resulting in an increased level of Cu in the soil and increased toxicity. The present study evaluated the accumulation and bioavailability of Cu, and soils with varying levels of Cu from the main producing regions of southern Brazil were collected. The forms of Cu present in the soil were assessed using chemical extractants; additionally, oat cultivation was performed, reflecting the use of the plant as an indicator of Cu bioavailability. Cu accumulated in the topsoil, mainly in bioavailable forms, and there was also an increase of Cu up to a depth of 0.4 m. Cu was primarily found in the mineral fraction, with apparent saturation of the soil organic matter functional groups. Inceptisol and Alfisol soils with a long history of cupric fungicide application were found to have levels of Cu toxic to oat plants. Furthermore, accumulated copper in Alfisol soil from the Campanha Gaúcha region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul had higher bioavailability compared to Cu accumulated in Inceptisol soil from the Serra Gaúcha region. In addition, the copper concentration in roots was found to serve as an indicator of Cu bioavailability in soil, but not of copper phytotoxicity in plants. PMID:25245214

Girotto, Eduardo; Ceretta, Carlos A; Brunetto, Gustavo; Miotto, Alcione; Tiecher, Tadeu L; De Conti, Lessandro; Lourenzi, Cledimar R; Lorensini, Felipe; Gubiani, Paulo I; da Silva, Leandro S; Nicoloso, Fernando T

2014-12-01

430

GIS-based system for surface water risk assessment of agricultural chemicals. 1. Methodological approach.  

PubMed

A methodology to develop a GIS-based system for the surface water risk assessment of agricultural chemicals is described. It is based on the integration of relational and spatial databases, GIS incorporating raster and vector, mass balance models, and pesticide risks indicators. Surface water pollution was modeled by taking into account two main processes: the load due to drift and the load due to a rainfall-runoff event. The former is immediately consequent to pesticide application; the second occurs a short period afterward. Thus two distinct PEC (predicted environmental concentration) values were estimated, differing in time. A pilot approach was applied to the herbicide alachlor on corn in Lombardia region (northern Italy) and represents the first stage of a wider project. Although the resultant alachlor PEC and risk maps represent a static image of a worst-case simulation, the main objective was to provide information for the territory with respect to relative risks at the watershed level, which is important in managing risks to the aquatic environment. The driving forces and spatial variability of the above-mentioned processes were investigated to improve knowledge about the territory and to indicate the need for more detailed site-specific studies. PMID:11999062

Verro, Roberto; Calliera, Maura; Maffioli, Guido; Auteri, Domenica; Sala, Serenella; Finizio, Antonio; Vighi, Marco

2002-04-01

431

Characterization and assessment of chemical modifications of metal-bearing sludges arising from unsuitable disposal.  

PubMed

Ettringite-gypsum sludge, formed by neutralization of acid mine drainage with lime, has been stored temporarily in the open pit of a uranium mine that floods periodically. The present study characterized samples of this sludge, named according to the time of placement as Fresh, Intermediate, and Old. Standard leaching and sequential extraction procedures assessed the associations and stabilities of U, Zn, Fe, Mn, and other contaminants in the solid phases. Corresponding mineralogical transformations associated with sludge weathering were modeled using PHREEQC. The main crystalline phases were ettringite, gypsum and calcite; the minor constituents were fluorite and gibbsite. This mineral assemblage could be attributed to the incongruent dissolution of ettringite to form gibbsite, calcite, and gypsum. Sequential extractions indicated high contents of U, Ca, SO(4), and Zn in the water-soluble (exchangeable) and carbonate fractions. Thus, the analytical and modeling results indicated that despite being classified as non-toxic by standard leaching protocols, the minerals composing the sludge could be sources of dissolved F, SO(4), Fe, Zn, Mn, U, and Al under various environmental conditions. Decommissioning strategies intended to prevent contaminant migration will need to consider the chemical stability of the sludge in various environments. PMID:22138170

Gomes, Abda F S; Lopez, Dina L; Ladeira, Ana Cláudia Q

2012-01-15

432

Strategies for denaturing the weapons-grade plutonium stockpile  

SciTech Connect

In the next few years, approximately 50 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium and 150 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be removed from nuclear weapons in the US and declared excess. These materials represent a significant energy resource that could substantially contribute to our national energy requirements. HEU can be used as fuel in naval reactors, or diluted with depleted uranium for use as fuel in commercial reactors. This paper proposes to use the weapons-grade plutonium as fuel in light water reactors. The first such reactor would demonstrate the dual objectives of producing electrical power and denaturing the plutonium to prevent use in nuclear weapons.

Buckner, M.R.; Parks, P.B.

1992-10-01

433

INTERIOR OF WEAPONS CLEANING CLASSROOM. view TO WEST. Plattsburgh ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF WEAPONS CLEANING CLASSROOM. view TO WEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

434

An evaluation of two conducted electrical weapons using a swine comparative cardiac safety model.  

PubMed

Arrest-related deaths proximate to the use of a conducted electrical weapon (CEW) continue to generate controversy despite a better understanding of the multi-factorial nature of many of these deaths. With the rapid adoption of this technology by law enforcement, and the proliferation of companies entering the marketplace, it is important to have a method to assess the relative safety of these weapons. We had previously developed a model to assess the relative cardiac safety of CEWs. In this study, we use this model to compare the TASER X2 and the Karbon Arms MPID. Our results suggest that the TASER X2 may have an improved cardiac safety margin over the Karbon Arms MPID as determined by a smaller area of cardiac pacing on the anterior chest in our model. This model seems to offer a reproducible means of comparing the cardiac effects of CEWs. PMID:24895072

Dawes, Donald M; Ho, Jeffrey D; Moore, Johanna C; Laudenbach, Andrew P; Reardon, Robert F; Miner, James R

2014-09-01

435

STATISTICAL ISSUES IN RISK ASSESSMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE OUTCOMES WITH CHEMICAL MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Establishing the relationship between a given chemical exposure and human reproductive health risk is complicated by exposures or other concomitant factors that may vary from pregnancy to pregnancy. Moreover, when exposures are to complex mixtures of chemicals, varying with time ...

436

Integration of Dosimetry, Exposure and High-Throughput Screening Data in Chemical Toxicity Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

High-throughput in vitro toxicity screening can provide an efficient way to identify potential biological targets for chemicals. However, relying on nominal assay concentrations may misrepresent potential in vivo effects of these chemicals due to differences in bioavailability, c...

437

76 FR 77019 - Final Adjusted Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals: Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals: Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, and Phenylpropanolamine...annual needs for the List I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine...needs represents those quantities of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and...

2011-12-09

438

76 FR 56809 - Proposed Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, and Phenylpropanolamine...annual needs for certain List I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine...needs represents those quantities of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and...

2011-09-14

439

76 FR 77252 - Established Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, and Phenylpropanolamine...annual needs for the List I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine...needs represents those quantities of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and...

2011-12-12

440

77 FR 55503 - Final Adjusted Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, and Phenylpropanolamine...Annual Needs for the list I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine...Needs represents those quantities of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and...

2012-09-10

441

Blank Assessment for Ultra-Small Radiocarbon Samples: Chemical Extraction and Separation Versus AMS  

E-print Network

C contamination from conventional AMS chemical treatments (contamination removed (?? ?? 1), C c is the C introduced by any chemicalcontamination during the isolation of individual organic compounds, nor that the preceding chemical

2010-01-01

442

 BLANK ASSESSMENT FOR ULTRA-SMALL RADIOCARBON SAMPLES: CHEMICAL EXTRACTION AND SEPARATION VERSUS AMS  

E-print Network

C contamination from conventional AMS chemical treatments (contamination removed (?? ?? 1), C c is the C introduced by any chemicalcontamination during the isolation of individual organic compounds, nor that the preceding chemical

2010-01-01

443

SPARC GENERATED CHEMICAL PROPERTIES DATABASE FOR USE IN NATIONAL RISK ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The SPARC (Sparc Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) Model was used to provide temperature dependent algorithms used to estimate chemical properties for approximately 200 chemicals of interest to the promulgation of the Hazardous Waste Identification Rule (HWIR) . Proper...

444

TRACKING SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FROM WEAPONS TO DISPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

Supporting nuclear nonproliferation and global security principles, beginning in 1994 the United States has withdrawn more than 50 metric tons (MT) of government-controlled plutonium from potential use in nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, established protocols for the tracking of this "excess" and "surplus" plutonium, and for reconciling the current storage and utilization of the plutonium to show that its management is consistent with the withdrawal policies. Programs are underway to ensure the safe and secure disposition of the materials that formed a major part of the weapons stockpile during the Cold War, and growing quantities have been disposed as waste, after which they are not included in traditional nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A) data systems. A combination of resources is used to perform the reconciliations that form the basis for annual reporting to DOE, to U.S. Department of State, and to international partners including the International Atomic Energy Agency.

Allender, J.; Beams, J.; Sanders, K.; Myers, L.

2013-07-16

445

Diagnosis and Prognosis of Weapon Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Prognostics Framework is a set of software tools with an open architecture that affords a capability to integrate various prognostic software mechanisms and to provide information for operational and battlefield decision-making and logistical planning pertaining to weapon systems. The Prognostics NASA Tech Briefs, February 2005 17 Framework is also a system-level health -management software system that (1) receives data from performance- monitoring and built-in-test sensors and from other prognostic software and (2) processes the received data to derive a diagnosis and a prognosis for a weapon system. This software relates the diagnostic and prognostic information to the overall health of the system, to the ability of the system to perform specific missions, and to needed maintenance actions and maintenance resources. In the development of the Prognostics Framework, effort was focused primarily on extending previously developed model-based diagnostic-reasoning software to add prognostic reasoning capabilities, including capabilities to perform statistical analyses and to utilize information pertaining to deterioration of parts, failure modes, time sensitivity of measured values, mission criticality, historical data, and trends in measurement data. As thus extended, the software offers an overall health-monitoring capability.

Nolan, Mary; Catania, Rebecca; deMare, Gregory

2005-01-01

446

78 FR 17201 - Pesticide Chemicals; Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...qualitative environmental and human health risk assessments for ancymidol based...The Agency has conducted a human health risk assessment for both dietary (food...toxicological endpoints for human health risk assessment and because...

2013-03-20

447

INVENTION SUMMARY: TRACI: TOOL FOR THE REDUCTION AND ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL IMPACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

TRACI is an impact assessment tool being developed by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory, EPA, Cincinnati to assist environmental decision making. It includes impact assessment methodologies and supporting databases to allow a screening level assessment in seven im...

448

Frontiers in Assessing the Role of Chemical Speciation And Natural Attenuation on the Bioavailability of Contaminants in the Terrestrial Environment  

SciTech Connect

It has long been recognized that contaminants interact with the solid soil phase via a series of sorption-desorption (all chemicals) and precipitation-dissolution (polar and ionic compounds) reactions including physical migration into micropores and diffusion into the solid phase (see Chapter 2). Until recently the extent of such interactions and the binding with different solid pools was established via a series of chemical extractions (see Chapter 20) and a combination of instrumental techniques. However, none of these techniques provide a true indication of the speciation of contaminants on or in solid minerals and organics. The last decade has witnessed the emergence of tools that provide an assessment of the speciation and attenuation of chemicals at molecular level. In this chapter we provide an overview of the current state-of-the-art for assessing speciation and attenuation of contaminants in the terrestrial environment. Given that speciation and attenuation influence chemical bioavailability, we devote part of this chapter to the application of isotopic dilution techniques to bioavailability assessment. We have not attempted to be exhaustive but rather to highlight a number of studies in sufficient detail so that the reader will be provided with an insight as to whether such approaches are applicable to their field of endeavor and what the realistic outcomes might be.

Gerson, A.R.; Anastasio, C.; Crowe, S.; Fowle, D.; Guo, B.; Kennedy, I.; Lombi, E.; Nico, P.S.; Marcus, M.A.; Martin, R.R.; Naftel, S.J.; Nelson, A.J.; Paktunc, D.; Roberts, J.A.; Weisener, C.G.; Werner, M.L.

2009-05-28

449

Use of TSH?:EGFP transgenic zebrafish as a rapid in vivo model for assessing thyroid-disrupting chemicals  

SciTech Connect

Accumulating evidence indicates that a wide range of chemicals have the ability to interfere with the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis. Novel endpoints should be evaluated in addition to existing methods in order to effectively assess the effects of these chemicals on the HPT axis. Thyroid-stimulating hormone subunit ? (TSH?) plays central regulatory roles in the HPT system. We identified the regulatory region that determines the expression level of zebrafish TSH? in the anterior pituitary. In the transgenic zebrafish with EGFP driven by the TSH? promoter, the similar responsive patterns between the expression levels of TSH?:EGFP and endogenous TSH? mRNA in the pituitary are observed following treatments with goitrogen chemicals and exogenous thyroid hormones (THs). These results suggest that the TSH?:EGFP transgenic reporter zebrafish may be a useful alternative in vivo model for the assessment of chemicals interfering with the HPT system. Highlights: ? The promoter of zebrafish TSH? gene has been identified. ? The stable TSH?:EGFP transgenic zebrafish reporter germline has been generated. ? The EGFP in the transgenic fish recapitulated the pattern of pituitary TSH? mRNA. ? The transgenic zebrafish may be an in vivo model for EDC assessment.

Ji, Cheng [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China) [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Jin, Xia; He, Jiangyan [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China)] [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Yin, Zhan, E-mail: zyin@ihb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China)] [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

2012-07-15

450

Weapons Are Prohibited On Campus University of California, Irvine Police Department  

E-print Network

is a weapon? A weapon is basically anything somebody could use to hurt or harm somebody else. Weapons could be any of the following: a knife a gun pepper spray your own hands your feet any available object that could be used to hurt somebody else What kind of weapon can't I bring to school? Most weapons

Rose, Michael R.

451

Applications of contaminant fate and bioaccumulation models in assessing ecological risks of chemicals: A case study for gasoline hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Mass balance models of chemical fate and transport can be applied in ecological risk assessments for quantitative estimation of concentrations in air, water, soil and sediment. These concentrations can, in turn, be used to estimate organism exposures and ultimately internal tissue concentrations that can be compared to mode-of-action-based critical body residues that correspond to toxic effects. From this comparison, risks to the exposed organism can be evaluated. To illustrate the practical utility of fate models in ecological risk assessments of commercial products, the EQC model and a simple screening level biouptake model including three organisms, (a bird, a mammal and a fish) is applied to gasoline. In this analysis, gasoline is divided into 24 components or ''blocks'' with similar environmental fate properties that are assumed to elicit ecotoxicity via a narcotic mode of action. Results demonstrate that differences in chemical properties and mode of entry into the environment lead to profound differences in the efficiency of transport from emission to target biota. We discuss the implications of these results and insights gained into the regional fate and ecological risks associated with gasoline. This approach is particularly suitable for assessing mixtures of components that have similar modes of action. We conclude that the model-based methodologies presented are widely applicable for screening level ecological risk assessments that support effective chemicals management.

MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Foster, Karen L.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Parkerton, Thomas F.; Mackay, Don

2004-02-01

452

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 713 - Schedule 2 Chemicals  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Schedule 2 Chemicals No. Supplement No. 1 to Part...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS Pt. 713, Supp. 1...

2010-01-01

453

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 715 - Definition of an Unscheduled Discrete Organic Chemical  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Definition of an Unscheduled Discrete Organic Chemical No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 715...AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING UNSCHEDULED DISCRETE ORGANIC CHEMICALS (UDOCs) Pt. 715, Supp. 1...

2011-01-01

454

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 713 - Schedule 2 Chemicals  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Schedule 2 Chemicals No. Supplement No. 1 to Part...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS Pt. 713, Supp. 1...

2013-01-01

455

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 714 - Schedule 3 Chemicals  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Schedule 3 Chemicals No. Supplement No. 1 to Part...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS Pt. 714, Supp. 1...

2011-01-01

456

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 714 - Schedule 3 Chemicals  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Schedule 3 Chemicals No. Supplement No. 1 to Part...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS Pt. 714, Supp. 1...

2010-01-01

457

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 713 - Schedule 2 Chemicals  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Schedule 2 Chemicals No. Supplement No. 1 to Part...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS Pt. 713, Supp. 1...

2012-01-01

458

15 CFR 714.3 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals. 714.3 Section 714.3 Commerce...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.3 Advance...

2013-01-01

459

15 CFR 714.3 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals. 714.3 Section 714.3 Commerce...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.3 Advance...

2011-01-01

460

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 745 - Schedules of Chemicals  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Schedules of Chemicals No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 745... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS Pt...Supplement No. 1 to Part 745—Schedules of Chemicals C.A.S. Registry No....

2013-01-01

461

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 714 - Schedule 3 Chemicals  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Schedule 3 Chemicals No. Supplement No. 1 to Part...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS Pt. 714, Supp. 1...

2013-01-01