Sample records for chemical weapons assessment

  1. Environmental management of assembled chemical weapons assessment program.

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, G.; Mohrman, G.; Templin, B. R.

    1999-05-07

    Environmental planning and management was an integral part of the ACWA Program planning process. To ensure that environmental protection issues could be addressed expeditiously and not delay the demonstrations, the PMACWA scaled the technology demonstrations such that simplified regulatory processes and existing research and development facilities could be used. The use of enclosed facilities for the demonstrations prevents any uncontrolled discharges to the environment and made it possible to conduct environmental assessments relatively quickly. The PMACWA also arranged for public briefings to ease any community concerns over the operations with chemical weapons. These steps precluded regulatory and community resistance to the ACWA activities. The cooperation of the regulators and stakeholders has been a key element in enabling the ACWA Program to move with the speed that it has to date. Technology demonstrations are currently underway and are scheduled to be completed in late May 1999. The data collected during these demonstrations will be used to prepare and submit a summary report to Congress by August 1999. The challenge continues for the ACWA management to guide the demonstrations to completion and to plan for possible pilot testing. As the scale of the ACWA facilities increase in size, the ease of reduced regulatory processes and environmental analyses will no longer be possible. However, the PMACWA will continue to explore all paths through the environmental process to speed the ACWA program to its goals while at the same time ensuring adequate protection of public health and safety and of the environment.

  2. Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 4 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Pueblo Chemical Depot.

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.; Folga, S., Frey, G.; Molberg, J.; Kier, P.; Templin, B.; Goldberg, M.

    2001-04-30

    This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the ''Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001c) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored at Pueblo Chemical Depot (PCD), located outside Pueblo, Colorado. This volume presents technical and process information on each of the destruction technologies applicable to treatment of the specific ACW stored at PCD. The destruction technologies described are those that have been demonstrated during Phase I of the Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) demonstration process (see Volume 1).

  3. Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 2 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Anniston Army Depot.

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.; Folga, S., Frey, G.; Molberg, J.; Kier, P.; Templin, B.; Goldberg, M.

    2001-05-04

    This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the ''Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD), located outside Anniston, Alabama. This volume presents technical and process information on each of the destruction technologies applicable to treatment of the specific ACW stored at ANAD. The destruction technologies described are those that have been demonstrated as part of the Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) selection process (see Volume 1).

  4. An assessment of nondestructive testing technologies for chemical weapons monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.T.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), with the US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC) under the sponsorship of the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA), completed testing of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology on live agent systems. The tests were conducted at Tooele Army Depot during August 1992. The Nondestructive Evaluation systems were tested for potential use in verifying chemical treaty requirements. Five technologies, two neutron and three acoustic, were developed at DOE laboratories. Two systems from the United Kingdom (one neutron and one acoustic) were also included in the field trials. All systems tested showed the ability to distinguish among the VX, GB, and Mustard. Three of the systems (two acoustic and one neutron) were used by On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA) personnel.

  5. Strengthening the link between project planning and environmental impact assessment : the assembled chemical weapons assessment dialogue process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marsha S. Goldberg

    2003-01-01

    An approach to stakeholder involvement known as the Dialogue process has been an integral part of the US Department of Defense Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) Program from its inception. It has provided a means of soliciting stakeholder input before key decisions are made. The projects developed under the ACWA Program are characterized as major federal actions and therefore also

  6. Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 4 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Pueblo Chemical Depot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kimmell; S. Folga; G. Frey; J. Molberg; P. Kier; B. Templin; M. Goldberg

    2001-01-01

    This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the ''Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001c) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored at Pueblo Chemical Depot (PCD), located outside Pueblo, Colorado. This

  7. Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 5 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Blue Grass Army Depot.

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.; Folga, S., Frey, G.; Molberg, J.; Kier, P.; Templin, B.; Goldberg, M.

    2001-05-02

    This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the ''Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored in the U.S. Army's unitary chemical stockpile at Blue Grass Army Depot (BGAD), located outside Richmond, Kentucky. This volume presents technical and process information on each of the destruction technologies applicable to treatment of the specific ACW stored at BGAD. The destruction technologies described are those that have been demonstrated as part of the Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) selection process (see Volume 1).

  8. Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 3 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Pine Bluff Arsenal.

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.; Folga, S., Frey, G.; Molberg, J.; Kier, P.; Templin, B.; Goldberg, M.

    2001-05-04

    This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the ''Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored in the U.S. Army's unitary chemical stockpile at Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA), located outside Pine Bluff, Arkansas. This volume presents technical and process information on each of the destruction technologies applicable to treatment of the specific ACW stored at PBA. The destruction technologies described are those that have been demonstrated as part of the Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) selection process (see Volume 1).

  9. Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 5 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Blue Grass Army Depot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kimmell; S. Folga; G. Frey; J. Molberg; P. Kier; B. Templin; M. Goldberg

    2001-01-01

    This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the ''Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored in the U.S. Army's unitary chemical stockpile at Blue Grass

  10. Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 3 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Pine Bluff Arsenal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kimmell; S. Folga; G. Frey; J. Molberg; P. Kier; B. Templin; M. Goldberg

    2001-01-01

    This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the ''Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored in the U.S. Army's unitary chemical stockpile at Pine Bluff

  11. Biological and Chemical Weapons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    One of the latest in MEDLINEplus' special collections, the Biological and Chemical Weapons page addresses health issues at the forefront of many people's minds these days. As with other MEDLINEplus special collections, this page offers links to news stories, sites providing general information and overviews, information about specific conditions, and relevant organizations. While the sites are not annotated, the page provides a useful introduction to these health issues. The links here are all authoritative and range from the National Center for Infectious Diseases' (NCID) faq on anthrax to Johns Hopkins University's Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies to National Library of Medicine's TOXNET Databases. MEDLINEplus is offered by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and was last mentioned in the April 14, 2000 Scout Report.

  12. Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 2 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Anniston Army Depot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kimmell; S. Folga; G. Frey; J. Molberg; P. Kier; B. Templin; M. Goldberg

    2001-01-01

    This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the ''Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD), located outside Anniston, Alabama. This

  13. OPEN FORUM ON THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION Challenges to the Chemical Weapons Ban

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    OPEN FORUM ON THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION Challenges to the Chemical Weapons Ban 1 MAY 2003 and Former Chairman of the Ad Hoc Committee on Chemical Weapons Conference on Disarmament PRESENTATIONS Chemical Weapons Destruction CHEMICAL WEAPONS DESTRUCTION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION: Sergey Baranovsky

  14. Strengthening the link between project planning and environmental impact assessment : the assembled chemical weapons assessment dialogue process.

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, M. S.; Environmental Assessment

    2003-01-01

    An approach to stakeholder involvement known as the Dialogue process has been an integral part of the US Department of Defense Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) Program from its inception. It has provided a means of soliciting stakeholder input before key decisions are made. The projects developed under the ACWA Program are characterized as major federal actions and therefore also must meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). One of these is the requirement for public participation in the environmental impact assessment process. This case study describes the ACWA Dialogue and NEPA processes, and examines their relationship in the implementation of the ACWA Program. The examination suggests that involving the public at the beginning of a program through a Dialogue-like process can introduce environmental considerations early in the project development process and contribute to the development of a more informed public. These factors improve the overall efficacy of public participation, strengthening the link between project development and environmental assessment in a manner consistent with the original intent of NEPA.

  15. The destruction of weapons under the chemical weapons convention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy E. Smithson; Maureen Lenihan

    1996-01-01

    As the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) enters into force, countries with stocks of chemical weapons will begin the task of destroying them. In the U.S. whose stockpile consists of approximately 30,000 tons of nerve and blister agents at eight separate sites in the continental United States and at Johnston Atoll in the Pacific, the Army has designed a highly?automated “baseline”

  16. Risk assessment and management at U.S. Army Chemical weapons disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.J. [Sciences Applications International Corp., Abingdon, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Department of the Army has established the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) in response to Congressional direction to eliminate the nation`s stockpile of unitary chemical agents and munitions. This will be accomplished through the construction and operation of disposal facilities specifically designed for this mission. It is a fundamental objective of the CSDP to complete the disposal program with maximum protection of the health and safety of the public, facility staff, and the environment. To this end, the CSDP has implemented a comprehensive risk management program. The army has undertaken qualitative and quantitative risk assessments to help understand the risks to be managed. This risk management program also integrates army system safety practices and policies and industrial safety standards and risk management activities.

  17. Risk assessment and management at U.S. Army Chemical weapons disposal facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1996-01-01

    The Department of the Army has established the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) in response to Congressional direction to eliminate the nation`s stockpile of unitary chemical agents and munitions. This will be accomplished through the construction and operation of disposal facilities specifically designed for this mission. It is a fundamental objective of the CSDP to complete the disposal program with

  18. Chemical Weapons: The legacy of Operation Desert Storm. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Henscheid, M.R.

    1991-06-21

    United States and allied forces deploying in the 1991 War in the Persian Gulf region faced a formidable Iraqi offensive chemical weapons capability. This threat immediately challenged U.S. policy and resolve as outlined in the 1990 bilateral chemical weapons treaty with the Soviet Union. The necessity to assess retaliatory options, in the event of Iraqi chemical use, was apparent, and are evaluated in this analysis. The proliferation of chemical weapons worldwide, disarmament efforts, and chemical defense readiness are also reviewed in the context of the 1991 Gulf War. The conclusion that retaliation by conventional means alone as the only acceptable alternative supporting the presidential goal of increased stability in the Middle East is reached. Prospects for revitalized post-war multilateral chemical disarmament efforts, and a reduction in chemical warfare proliferation are also assessed. Recommendations for a post-war national chemical defense policy are made.

  19. Chemical and Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Irwin Slesnick

    2004-01-01

    Chemical warfare began in prehistoric times with the use of such weapons as poisoned arrows. However, World War I was the beginning of modern-day chemical warfare. The birth of biological warfare evolved during World War II. As a result, mankind has been plagued with chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction. This chapter provides a historical account of chemical and biological warfare, and its detrimental impact on society.

  20. hspthe harvard sussex program on chemical and biological weapons (CBW)

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    hspthe harvard sussex program on chemical and biological weapons (CBW) Resource Guide of the use of chemical weapons Never to develop, produce, otherwise acquire, stockpile or retain chemical weapons Never to assist, encourage or induce, in any way, anyone to engag To destroy chemical weapons

  1. Chemical and Biological Weapons Nonproliferation Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A project of the Henry L. Stimson Center, the Chemical and Biological Weapons Nonproliferation Project was launched by Senior Associate, Amy E. Smithson in 1993. The project aims to serve as an "information clearinghouse, watchdog, and problem-solver regarding chemical and biological weapons issues." As such, the site offers a number of resources including information on how much the government is spending on anti-terrorism, how to protect oneself against chemical and biological terrorism, and nonproliferation efforts internationally. The site offers text of legislation, articles, maps of selected countries (especially the United States, Russia, and Iraq), and much more. This should be a very valuable site for both researchers and general readers looking for background material on chemical and biological weapons, their production, and efforts to reduce their threats.

  2. Can an attribution assessment be made for Yellow Rain? Systematic reanalysis in a chemical-and-biological-weapons use investigation.

    PubMed

    Katz, Rebecca; Singer, Burton

    2007-03-01

    In intelligence investigations, such as those into reports of chemical- or biological-weapons (CBW) use, evidence may be difficult to assemble and, once assembled, to weigh. We propose a methodology for such investigations and then apply it to a large body of recently declassified evidence to determine the extent to which an attribution can now be made in the Yellow Rain case. Our analysis strongly supports the hypothesis that CBW were used in Southeast Asia and Afghanistan in the late 1970s and early 1980s, although a definitive judgment cannot be made. The proposed methodology, while resource-intensive, allows evidence to be assembled and analyzed in a transparent manner so that assumptions and rationale for decisions can be challenged by external critics. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions, emphasizing the use of evolving information-extraction (IE) technologies, a sub-field of artificial intelligence (AI). PMID:18208344

  3. 78 FR 55326 - Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ...Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical...Government of Syria has used chemical weapons in violation of international law or lethal chemical weapons against its own...

  4. 15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS...

  5. 15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS ...reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note:...

  6. ROLE OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION IN COMBATING CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiri Matousek

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is shortly characterised stressing its main principles, inter alia the General Purpose\\u000a Criterion. Status of its implementation as of December 2004 shows the main data obligatory declared by already 167 States\\u000a Parties and main achievements in destruction of Chemical Weapons (CW) stockpiles and destruction \\/ conversion of CW production\\u000a facilities and the verification efforts. The

  7. Acoustic weapons ? a prospective assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen Altmann

    2001-01-01

    Acoustic weapons are under research and development in a few countries. Advertised as one type of non?lethal weapon, they are said to immediately incapacitate opponents while avoiding permanent physical damage. Reliable information on specifications or effects is scarce, however. The present article sets out to provide basic information in several areas: effects of large?amplitude sound on humans, potential high?power sources,

  8. Detecting Chemical Weapons: Threats, Requirements, Solutions, and Future Challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Boso

    2011-01-01

    Although chemicals have been reportedly used as weapons for thousands of years, it was not until 1915 at Ypres, France that an industrial chemical, chlorine, was used in World War I as an offensive weapon in significant quantity, causing mass casualties. From that point until today the development, detection, production and protection from chemical weapons has be an organized endeavor

  9. Electrochemical oxidation of chemical weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Surma, J.E.

    1994-05-01

    Catalyzed electrochemical oxidation (CEO), a low-temperature electrochemical oxidation technique, is being examined for its potential use in destroying chemical warfare agents. The CEO process oxidizes organic compounds to form carbon dioxide and water. A bench-scale CEO system was used in three separate tests sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Intelligence and National Security through the Advanced Concepts Program. The tests examined the effectiveness of CEO in destroying sarin (GB), a chemical nerve agent. The tests used 0.5 mL, 0.95 mL, and 1.0 mL of GB, corresponding to 544 mg, 816 mg, and 1,090 mg, respectively, of GB. Analysis of the off gas showed that, under continuous processing of the GB agent, destruction efficiencies of better than six 9s (99.9999% destroyed) could be achieved.

  10. CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION BULLETIN News, Background and Comment on Chemical and Biological Warfare Issues

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION BULLETIN News, Background and Comment on Chemical and Biological DUPLICATION Graham S Pearson HSP Advisory Board The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) was opened biological weapons and prohibit their development, produc- tion, stockpiling, acquisition and retention

  11. The Chemical Weapons Convention -- Legal issues

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the US system of constitutional law. Its promise of eliminating what is the most purely genocidal type of weapon from the world`s arsenals as well as of destroying the facilities for producing these weapons, brings with it a set of novel legal issues. The reservations about the CWC expressed by US business people are rooted in concern about safeguarding confidential business information and protecting the constitutional right to privacy. The chief worry is that international verification inspectors will misuse their power to enter commercial property and that trade secrets or other private information will be compromised as a result. It has been charged that the Convention is probably unconstitutional. The author categorically disagrees with that view and is aware of no scholarly writing that supports it. The purpose of this presentation is to show that CWC verification activities can be implemented in the US consistently with the traditional constitutional regard for commercial and individual privacy. First, he very briefly reviews the types of verification inspections that the CWC permits, as well as some of its specific privacy protections. Second, he explains how the Fourth Amendment right to privacy works in the context of CWC verification inspections. Finally, he reviews how verification inspections can be integrated into these constitutional requirements in the SU through a federal implementing statute.

  12. Chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Schumeyer, G.

    1990-04-01

    Since the early 1980s, chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East has been a growing problem. Most recently, the eight year Iran-Iraq War, marked by the repeated use of chemical weapons, has set an alarming precedent in this region that can no longer be ignored. The threat is acute and the implications for the Middle East, an area where animosities are high and relations tense, are significant. The study will address chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East. It will examine why proliferation occurred and look at initiatives and efforts to prevent proliferation. This study will also discuss the chemical weapons capabilities of the Middle East states, the threat to the region posed by chemical weapons, and some of the implications for balance and stability in the region. Finally, this study will examine future prospects for the region in terms of chemical weapons proliferation there.

  13. 2006, REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN THE REMEDIATION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONTAMINATION IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will document the use of historical imagery, GIS, photogrammetry and hyperspectral remote sensing in locating and removing chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin, and Lewisite from the environment and establishing a risk assessment methodology for...

  14. 76 FR 6087 - Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ...NRC-2011-0017] RIN 3150-AI49 Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and Request for Comment...on a draft guidance document entitled ``Weapons Safety Assessment'' (WSA). This...

  15. 15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS...INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

  16. 15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS...INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

  17. 15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS...INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

  18. 15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS...INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

  19. 77 FR 22559 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Provisions of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ...Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Provisions of the...INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is a multilateral...achieve an international ban on chemical weapons (CW). The CWC prohibits...

  20. 77 FR 75145 - Impact of the Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Commercial Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ...Impact of the Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Commercial Activities...the impact that implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), through the Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act...

  1. 15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. 744...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. (a...stockpiling, or use of chemical or biological weapons in or by any...

  2. 76 FR 76935 - Impact of Implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Commercial Activities Involving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ...111130706-1686-01] Impact of Implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Commercial Activities...the impact that implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), through the Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act...

  3. 75 FR 69630 - Impact of Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention on Commercial Activities Involving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...101103543-0543-02] Impact of Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention on Commercial Activities Involving...the impact that implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), through the Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act...

  4. History of US nuclear weapon safety assessment: The early years

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.D.

    1996-06-01

    From the beginnings of the U.S. nuclear weapons program, military and civilian dual- agency judgment has been fundamental to achieving nuclear weapon and weapon system safety. This interaction was initiated by the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, which created the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The principle of using dual-agency judgment has been perpetuated in the design and assessment of the weapon and weapon system acceptance process since that time. This fundamental approach is still used today in all phases of the weapon life. In this paper, an overview of the history and philosophy of the approach is described.

  5. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. 552...552.25 Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. (a...authorize the use of less-than-lethal weapons, including those containing...

  6. Statistical sampling and chemical analysis of complex weapon components

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, W.B.; Keenan, M.R.; Tissot, R.G.

    1992-12-31

    One of the waste streams generated by nuclear weapon dismantlement programs will be component ``hardware``, including complex electronic assemblies such as: radars, arming/fusing/firing systems, power sources, and use-control and safety systems. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been the design and development laboratory for many of these components and will be responsible for their ultimate disposition. This disposition, whether it be reuse, material recycle, or disposal, will require some level of material characterization and analysis. Previous efforts at developing a process for segregation and characterization of hazardous materials in weapon components have been documented. This paper describes the results of recent activities undertaken in support of the Weapon Hardware Inventory Reduction Effort (WHIRE) at Sandia National Laboratories. These activities have been directed principally towards: The development of a statistically sound sampling plan for chemical analysis of weapon component materials; the development of a non-destructive analytical screening method for determining the Toxicity Characteristic of excess weapon hardware.

  7. these guidelines remain an unresolved issue. This means that the Secretariat cannot confirm that chemical weapons

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    that chemical weapons declared as OCW by states parties are, in fact, old chemical weapons. Because of this, all the provisions for chemical weapons. This would have major resource implications for the Secre- tariat no 3 Strengthening the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention A further one week meeting, the tenth

  8. Chemical and biological weapons in the 'new wars'.

    PubMed

    Ilchmann, Kai; Revill, James

    2014-09-01

    The strategic use of disease and poison in warfare has been subject to a longstanding and cross-cultural taboo that condemns the hostile exploitation of poisons and disease as the act of a pariah. In short, biological and chemical weapons are simply not fair game. The normative opprobrium is, however, not fixed, but context dependent and, as a social phenomenon, remains subject to erosion by social (or more specifically, antisocial) actors. The cross cultural understanding that fighting with poisons and disease is reprehensible, that they are taboo, is codified through a web of interconnected measures, principal amongst these are the 1925 Geneva Protocol; the Biological Weapons Convention; and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Whilst these treaties have weathered the storm of international events reasonably well, their continued health is premised on their being 'tended to' in the face of contextual changes, particularly facing changes in science and technology, as well as the changed nature and character of conflict. This article looks at the potential for normative erosion of the norm against chemical and biological weapons in the face of these contextual changes and the creeping legitimization of chemical and biological weapons. PMID:24132385

  9. Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, C.L. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Johnson, J.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation`s activities and providing an early warning and/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a surprise nuclear attack. However, the deployment of satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; and, neutrons, gamma rays, and X-rays from intentionally detonated fission and fusion weapons. In this paper, the MASH vl.0 code system is used to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized space based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from a thermonuclear weapon detonation in space. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the platform fully loaded, and in several stages representing limited engagement scenarios. The results indicate vulnerabilities to the Command, Control, and Communication (C) bay instruments from radiation damage for a nuclear weapon detonation for certain source/platform orientations. The distance at which damage occurs will depend on the weapon yield (n,{gamma}/kiloton) and size (kilotons).

  10. [On necessity to modify biochemical methods for detecting organophosphorus componds in chemical weapons extinction objects (review of literature)].

    PubMed

    Prokofieva, D S; Shmurak, V I; Sadovnikov, S V; Gontcharov, N V

    2015-01-01

    The article covers problems of biochemical methods assessing organophosphorus toxic compounds in objects of chemical weapons extinction. The authors present results of works developing new, more specific and selective biochemical methods. PMID:26036024

  11. 15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention...Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS...Division, Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S...following: (1) That the chemicals will be used only...

  12. 15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention...Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS...Division, Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S...following: (1) That the chemicals will be used only...

  13. 15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention...Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS...Division, Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S...following: (1) That the chemicals will be used only...

  14. 15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention...Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS...Division, Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S...following: (1) That the chemicals will be used only...

  15. Small sample Bayesian analyses in assessment of weapon performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Qingmin; Wang Hongwei; Liu Jun

    2007-01-01

    Abundant test data are required in assessment of weapon performance. When weapon test data are insufficient, Bayesian analyses in small sample circumstance should be considered and the test data should be provided by simulations. The several Bayesian approaches are discussed and some limitations are founded. An improvement is put forward after limitations of Bayesian approaches available are analyzed and the

  16. Enhanced chemical weapon warning via sensor fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Flaherty; Daniel Pritchett; Brian Cothren; James Schwaiger

    2011-01-01

    Torch Technologies Inc., is actively involved in chemical sensor networking and data fusion via multi-year efforts with Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The objective of these efforts is to develop innovative concepts and advanced algorithms that enhance our national Chemical Warfare (CW) test and warning capabilities via the fusion of traditional and non-traditional CW

  17. 48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition...Foreign Acquisition 225.7005 Restriction on certain chemical weapons...

  18. 48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition...Foreign Acquisition 225.7005 Restriction on certain chemical weapons...

  19. 48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition...Foreign Acquisition 225.7005 Restriction on certain chemical weapons...

  20. 48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition...Foreign Acquisition 225.7005 Restriction on certain chemical weapons...

  1. 48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition...Foreign Acquisition 225.7005 Restriction on certain chemical weapons...

  2. 78 FR 74218 - Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ...Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination...the Government of Syria used chemical weapons in violation of international law or lethal chemical weapons against its own...

  3. Enhanced chemical weapon warning via sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaherty, Michael; Pritchett, Daniel; Cothren, Brian; Schwaiger, James

    2011-05-01

    Torch Technologies Inc., is actively involved in chemical sensor networking and data fusion via multi-year efforts with Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The objective of these efforts is to develop innovative concepts and advanced algorithms that enhance our national Chemical Warfare (CW) test and warning capabilities via the fusion of traditional and non-traditional CW sensor data. Under Phase I, II, and III Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contracts with DPG, Torch developed the Advanced Chemical Release Evaluation System (ACRES) software to support non real-time CW sensor data fusion. Under Phase I and II SBIRs with DTRA in conjunction with the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Torch is using the DPG ACRES CW sensor data fuser as a framework from which to develop the Cloud state Estimation in a Networked Sensor Environment (CENSE) data fusion system. Torch is currently developing CENSE to implement and test innovative real-time sensor network based data fusion concepts using CW and non-CW ancillary sensor data to improve CW warning and detection in tactical scenarios.

  4. 15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition...stockpiling, or use of chemical or biological weapons in or by any country or...

  5. 15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition...stockpiling, or use of chemical or biological weapons in or by any country or...

  6. 15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition...stockpiling, or use of chemical or biological weapons in or by any country or...

  7. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons. 552.25 Section...552.25 Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons. The Warden may authorize the use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons only when the...

  8. 15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition...stockpiling, or use of chemical or biological weapons in or by any country or...

  9. Ecology. Plant invader may use chemical weapons.

    PubMed

    Jensen, M N

    2000-10-20

    On page 521, plant ecologists offer a novel explanation for the success of invasive plants. By comparing how one species of knapweed, Centaurea diffusa, behaves with its natural neighbors and with foreign plant species that evolved separately, they found that the invader apparently gains an edges in its adopted home not only by ditching its herbivores but by wielding weaponry: chemicals exuded from its roots that hamper its new neighbors' growth. PMID:11183749

  10. Detecting Chemical Weapons: Threats, Requirements, Solutions, and Future Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boso, Brian

    2011-03-01

    Although chemicals have been reportedly used as weapons for thousands of years, it was not until 1915 at Ypres, France that an industrial chemical, chlorine, was used in World War I as an offensive weapon in significant quantity, causing mass casualties. From that point until today the development, detection, production and protection from chemical weapons has be an organized endeavor of many of the world's armed forces and in more recent times, non-governmental terrorist organizations. The number of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) has steadily increased as research into more toxic substances continued for most of the 20 th century. Today there are over 70 substances including harassing agents like tear gas, incapacitating agents, and lethal agents like blister, blood, chocking, and nerve agents. The requirements for detecting chemical weapons vary depending on the context in which they are encountered and the concept of operation of the organization deploying the detection equipment. The US DoD, for example, has as a requirement, that US forces be able to continue their mission, even in the event of a chemical attack. This places stringent requirements on detection equipment. It must be lightweight (<2 lbs), detect a large array of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals, detect and warn at concentration levels and time duration to prevent acute health effects, meet military ruggedness specifications and work over a wide range of temperature and humidity, and have a very high probability of detection with a similarly low probability of false positives. The current technology of choice to meet these stringent requirements is Ion Mobility Spectrometry. Many technologies are capable of detecting chemicals at the trace levels required and have been extensively developed for this application, including, but not limited to: mass spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, RAMAN spectroscopy, MEMs micro-cantilever sensors, surface acoustic wave sensors, differential mobility spectrometry, and amplifying fluorescence polymers. In the future the requirements for detection equipment will continue to become even more stringent. The continuing increase in the sheer number of threats that will need to be detected, the development of binary agents requiring that even the precursor chemicals be detected, the development of new types of agents unlike any of the current chemistries, and the expansion of the list of toxic industrial chemical will require new techniques with higher specificity and more sensitivity.

  11. A Poor Man's Nuclear Deterrent: Assessing the Value of Radiological Weapons for State Actors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, Nathan

    The threat of weapons of mass destruction is an issue which remains at the forefront on national security. Nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons are all considered very dangerous by both state and non-state actors. Radiological weapons exist in that same category yet are not held in the same regard; the reason that is given is that these types of weapons are not the weapons of mass destruction that the other three are. Instead, radiological weapons are better considered weapons of mass disruption. Accordingly, in the academic and policy literature there has been very little perceived value associated with such weapons for use by state actors. However the historical focus on the military efficacy of radiological weapons has obscured the obvious truth that they may pose significant value for state actors. What this research shows is that the explosion of a radiological weapon could disrupt a target area in ways which could cripple the economy of an adversary state and promote widespread fear concerning exposure to radiation. Any such attack would not only necessitate large scale evacuation, but cleanup, decontamination, demolition, territory exclusion, and relocation. Moreover, the effects of such an attack would be unlikely to remain an isolated event as evacuated and displaced citizens spread across the nation carrying both fear and residual radiation. All of these factors would only be compounded by a state actor's ability to not only develop such weapons, but to manufacture them in such a composition that contemporary examples of such weapons grossly underestimate their impact. Accordingly, radiological weapons could hold great value for any state actor wishing to pursue their development and to threaten their use. Moreover, "while RDDs may not be well suited as "military weapons" in the classic sense, the use of RDDs could be powerfully coercive."1 In that sense, state actors could even acquire radiological weapons for their deterrent value. 1James L. Ford, "Radiological Dispersal Devices: Assessing the Transnational Threat," Strategic Forum, No. 136, (March 1998), March 29, 2012, http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/ndu/forum136.htm.

  12. Facility agreements under the chemical weapons convention inspections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanzman

    1994-01-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) poses problems of constitutionality, of loss of confidential business information, and even of plant safety. An entirely new and complex worldwide regulatory regime, it nevertheless takes account of the need for certainty in the conduct of industrial production. In particular, the CWC provides for site-specific inspection protocols, called {open_quotes}facility agreements{close_quotes}. Facility agreements are not defined

  13. A Methodology for Weapon System Availability Assessment, incorporating Failure, Damage and

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    A Methodology for Weapon System Availability Assessment, incorporating Failure, Damage in a hostile environment, they are particularly vulnerable in sit- uations of unavailability. Military weapon principles for weapon systems modeling that integrate both system failure and system damage, as well

  14. Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 1 : overview of the ACWA program and appendixes A-E.

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.; Folga, S., Frey, G.; Molberg, J.; Kier, P.; Templin, B.; Goldberg, M.

    2001-04-27

    This TRD is organized as a five-volume set (Figure 1.1). The five volumes include this overview and one volume for each of the four installations that stockpile ACW. Volume 1 provides programmatic information on the technologies associated with ACW remediation. The four remaining volumes provide details regarding the application of ACWA technology systems to ACW at the four stockpile locations: Anniston Army Depot (ANAD), Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA), Pueblo Chemical Depot (PCD), and Blue Grass Army Depot (BGAD). To adequately assess the ACWA situation at any given U.S. Army facility, Volume 1 and the volume specifically dedicated to the facility of interest should be reviewed. Section 1.2 of this volume provides an overview of the ACW unitary stockpile. The section identifies all stockpile locations, the types of munitions contained in the stockpile at each location, and the chemical agents and energetic materials in the various ACW; it also provides chemical and physical property information for these chemicals. Section 1.3 provides an overview of the DOD's process for selecting the ACWA technologies. As this section indicates, demonstration testing for the Demo I and Demo II technologies has been completed. Section 1.4 identifies and summarizes each of the primary technologies that make up the technology systems. With little or no modification, many of the technologies are interchangeable among systems. Others are stand-alone or unique technologies applicable to only one system. Finally, Section 1.5 provides a list of references that were used in preparing this volume of the TRD. Included are the PMACWA's periodic reports to Congress providing information on the progress of the ACWA program (PMACWA 1997, 1998, 1999b, 2000b, 2001c).

  15. Primary tasks to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

    SciTech Connect

    Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Coll. of Law; Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law could cause some nations to implement the Convention without regard to what others nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Conventional would be carried out. As a result, the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared. The Manual is designed to assist States Parties by increasing understanding of the Convention and identifying its obligations as well as suggesting methods to meet them, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems. It acknowledges areas of ambiguity that States Parties should address, and it analyzes legal initiatives that may be undertaken to strengthen the Convention`s enforcement. This paper draws from the Manual and briefly addresses the two tasks that every CWC State Party must undertake first in order to effectively fulfill its extensive requirements. First, each State Party must establish a National Authority. Second, each State Party must enact implementing measures to ensure that its government as well as its businesses and citizens comply with the treaty. As this paper generally discusses how States Parties from different legal backgrounds can accomplish these two tasks, it cannot address every detail of how each State Party should proceed.

  16. Manual for national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    SciTech Connect

    Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Tanzman, E.A.; Gualtieri, D.S.; Grimes, S.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The Convention on the Prohibition on the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature, January 13, 1993, in Paris, France (CWC), is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. The CWC has been signed by over 150 nations, and is expected to enter into force in 1995. With its far-reaching system to verify compliance, the CWC presages a new foundation for international security based neither on fear nor on trust, but on the rule of law. A central feature of the CWC is that it requires each State Party to take implementing measures to make the Convention operative. The CWC goes beyond all prior arms control treaties in this regard. For this approach to succeed, and to inspire the eradication of other categories of mass destruction weaponry, coordination and planning are vital to harmonize CWC national implementation among States Parties. This Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention is designed to assist States Parties, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems, in maximizing CWC enforcement consistent with their national legal obligations.

  17. The chemical weapons convention: A perspective from Geneva

    SciTech Connect

    Kempf, C.R.; Sanborn, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the organization, administration and functioning of the 39-nation Conference on Disarmament (CD) in Geneva. A brief discussion of the structure and evolution of the Chemical Weapons Convention treaty text is given, followed by a description of the principal technical highlights, particularly related to schedules of chemicals and to verification of the chemical industry. The mechanics of issue resolution in the CD setting pointed out, with emphasis on some of the technical aspects of the Convention. Several approaches proposed for verification of on-going chemical industry activities under the CWC are compared to and contrasted with nuclear material safeguards as implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency; specific topics include declarations and reporting, facility agreements, material accountancy, and ways in which the characteristics of the materials being monitored influence and, in some cases determine, the nature of inspection activities. 4 refs.

  18. The chemical weapons convention; A perspective from Geneva

    SciTech Connect

    Kempf, C.R.; Sanborn, J.B. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Nuclear Energy Dept.)

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the organization, administration and functioning of the 39-nation Conference on Disarmament (CD) in Geneva. A brief discussion of the structure and evolution of the Chemical Weapons Conventional treaty text is given, followed by a description of the principal technical highlights, particularly related to schedules of chemicals and to verification of the chemical industry. The mechanics of issue resolution in the CD setting are pointed out, with emphasis on some of the technical aspects of the Convention. Several approaches proposed for verification of on-going chemical industry activities under the CWC are compared to and contrasted with nuclear material safeguards as implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency; specific topics include declarations and reporting, facility agreements, material accountancy, and ways in which the characteristics of the materials being monitored influence and, in some cases determine, the nature of inspection activities.

  19. Toxic industrial chemicals and chemical weapons: exposure, identification, and management by syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tomassoni, Anthony J; French, Robert N E; Walter, Frank G

    2015-02-01

    Toxidromes aid emergency care providers in the context of the patient presenting with suspected poisoning, unexplained altered mental status, unknown hazardous materials or chemical weapons exposure, or the unknown overdose. The ability to capture an adequate chemical exposure history and to recognize toxidromes may reduce dependence on laboratory tests, speed time to delivery of specific antidote therapy, and improve selection of supportive care practices tailored to the etiologic agent. This article highlights elements of the exposure history and presents selected toxidromes that may be caused by toxic industrial chemicals and chemical weapons. Specific antidotes for toxidromes and points regarding their use, and special supportive measures, are presented. PMID:25455660

  20. EIGHTH SESSION OF THE CONFERENCE OF STATES PARTIES TO THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    1 EIGHTH SESSION OF THE CONFERENCE OF STATES PARTIES TO THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION Declaration Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction adopted by the EU Heads of State and Government at the Thessaloniki European Council on 20 June 2003 which stresses that the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction

  1. The Role of the Chemical Weapons Convention in Countering Chemical Terrorism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan B. Tucker

    2012-01-01

    A series of incidents over the past two decades has indicated that some terrorist groups are interested in acquiring and using improvised chemical devices (ICDs). Although the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is a disarmament treaty that is legally binding only on sovereign states that join it voluntarily, the Convention fortuitously includes several provisions that can help its members to

  2. Legal aspects of national implementation of the chemical weapons convention confidential provisions

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.; Kellman, B.

    1995-05-09

    Today, I shall discuss legal aspects of implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention`s (CORK) confidentiality provisions. These implementing measures are universal, applying not only to the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also to the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons program. Progress is reported in actually developing implementing measures for the cork`s confidentiality requirements from Australia, Germany, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden.

  3. FAQs Regarding the Deliberate Use of Biological Agents and Chemicals as Weapons

    MedlinePLUS

    ... regarding the deliberate use of biological agents and chemicals as weapons - Which agents or chemicals are most likely to be used to create ... deliberate outbreak? A. Any infectious agents or toxic chemical could in ... use as a weapon. Experts in this field believe that smallpox, anthrax, ...

  4. Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Haffenden; T. Kimmell

    2002-01-01

    This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known

  5. Detection and treatment of chemical weapons and/or biological pathogens

    DOEpatents

    Mariella Jr., Raymond P.

    2004-09-07

    A system for detection and treatment of chemical weapons and/or biological pathogens uses a detector system, an electrostatic precipitator or scrubber, a circulation system, and a control. The precipitator or scrubber is activated in response to a signal from the detector upon the detection of chemical weapons and/or biological pathogens.

  6. 78 FR 38782 - Lifting of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ...DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8361] Lifting of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese...Durham, Office of Missile, Biological, and Chemical Nonproliferation, Bureau of International...

  7. [New approaches to early diagnosis of chronic organophosphorus chemicals intoxication in workers at chemical weapons extermination objects].

    PubMed

    Babakov, V N; Goncharov, N V; Radilov, A S; Glashkina, E P; Podol'skaia, E P; Ermolaeva, E E; Shilov, V V; Prokof'eva, D S; Vo?tenko, N G; Egorov, N A

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrum analysis revealed differences in general contents of low-molecular peptides spectrums in chemical weapons extermination object staffers, in comparison with the reference group. Findings are that serum paraoxonase activity in chemical weapons extermination object staffers in significantly increased. PMID:19514167

  8. Long Wave Infrared Detection of Chemical Weapons Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.; Myers, Tanya L.; Munley, John T.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2007-04-27

    The purpose of Task 3.b under PL02-OP211I-PD07 (CBW simulant detection) was to demonstrate the applicability of the sensor work developed under this project for chemical and biological weapons detection. To this end, the specific goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of detection of chemical agents via that of simulants (Freons) with similar spectroscopic features. This has been achieved using Freon-125 as a simulant, a tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL), and a Herriott cell-based sensor developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) specifically for this task. The experimentally obtained spectrum of this simulant matches that found in the Northwest Infrared (NWIR) spectral library extremely well, demonstrating the ability of this technique to detect the exact shape of this feature, which in turn indicates the ability to recognize the simulant even in the presence of significant interference. It has also been demonstrated that the detected features of a typical interferent, namely water, are so different in shape and width to the simulant, that they are easily recognized and separated from such a measurement. Judging from the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the experimental data obtained, the noise equivalent absorption sensitivity is estimated to be 0.5 x 10-7 to 1 x 10-6 cm-1. For the particular feature of the simulant examined in this work, this corresponds to a relative concentration of 50 to 25 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv). The corresponding relative concentrations of other chemical targets would differ depending on the particular transition strengths, and would thus have to be scaled accordingly.

  9. Systematic Assessment of Nation-States' Motivations and Capabilities to Produce Biological Weapons

    E-print Network

    Systematic Assessment of Nation-States' Motivations and Capabilities to Produce Biological Weapons of Biological Weapons (BW) proliferation is important, but challenging. We describe and use a joint socio, ARO or the U.S. government. #12;Keywords: Arms races, biological weapons, bioweapons, arms control

  10. Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Perez; J. O. Johnson

    1994-01-01

    Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation's activities and providing an early warning and\\/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a

  11. 77 FR 59891 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Declaration and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information...Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Declaration...and Forms AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security. ACTION: Notice...59892

  12. Neutralization of chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction using nuclear methods

    E-print Network

    McAffrey, Veronica Lynn

    2002-01-01

    NEUTRALIZATION OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION USING NUCLEAR METHODS A Thesis by VERONICA LYNN MCAFFREY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilltncnt of the requirements... for the degree of MASTFR OF SCIENCE August 2002 Major Subject: Health Physics NEUTRALIZATION OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION USING NUCLEAR METHODS A Thesis by VERONICA LYNN MCAFFREY Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial...

  13. Recovery from a chemical weapons accident or incident: A concept paper on planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Herzenberg; R. Haffenden; K. Lerner; S. A. Meleski; E. A. Tanzman; L. M. Lewis; R. C. Hemphill; J. D. Adams

    1994-01-01

    Emergency planning for an unintended release of chemical agent from the nation`s chemical weapons stockpile should include preparation for. the period following implementation of immediate emergency response. That period -- the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage -- is the subject of this report. The report provides an overview of the role of recovery, reentry, and restoration planning in the Chemical

  14. Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronics system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Perez; J. O. Johnson

    1994-01-01

    The utilization of reconnaissance\\/surveillance satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; neutrons, gamma rays, and x-rays from fission and fusion weapons; and directed neutral particle beams and lasers. Electronic equipment, including modem

  15. Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by Chemical Weapons Convention inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Economics and Law Section

    1994-10-21

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the United States system of constitutional law. This discussion is about the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by the CWC and about how federal implementing legislation can allow verification inspections to take place in the United States under the Chemical Weapons Convention while remaining in compliance with the Constitution. By implementing legislation, the author means a federal statute that would be enacted separately from Senate approval of the Convention itself. Although implementing legislation is a relatively unusual accompaniment to a treaty, it will be necessary to the CWC, and the Administration has submitted a bill that was under consideration in the last Congress and presumably will be reintroduced early next year. The Fourth and Fifth Amendment problems posed by the CWC arise from the verification inspection scheme embodied in the treaty. The CWC depends heavily on on-site inspections to verify compliance with its key requirements. These include destroying all chemicals weapons stockpiles and bringing potential chemical weapons precursors under international control. The Convention contains four distinct kinds of inspections: systematic inspections of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities, routine inspections of various declared facilities, challenge inspections, and a variant on challenge inspections in cases of alleged use of chemical weapons. All inspections are supposed to be only as intrusive as necessary to carry out the Convention. These inspections will be carried out by inspectors employed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), located in The Hague, which is responsible for enforcing the Convention. Generally, the inspected State Party is permitted to assign observers to accompany the inspectors.

  16. Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronics system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, C.L. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Johnson, J.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The utilization of reconnaissance/surveillance satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; neutrons, gamma rays, and X-rays from fission and fusion weapons; and directed neutral particle beams and lasers. Electronic equipment, including modem integrated circuits, may undergo permanent or transient changes of the electrical properties of the active components when exposed to these sources of radiation. This report summarizes the results of the Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding code system -- MASH v1.0 calculations designed to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized spaced based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emanating from a thermonuclear weapon detonation. The MASH calculations modeled several source/platform geometry configurations, obtaining results for multiple distances and weapon detonation positions relative to the platform. For certain source/platform orientations, the results indicate vulnerabilities to the C{sup 3} bay critical components box to radiation damage from a nuclear weapon detonation. Neutron protection factors ranged from 0.7 to 3.4 for the three platform configurations analyzed, and gamma-ray protection factors ranged from approximately 1.5 to 9.8. The results further indicate the source has a direct line-of-sight to the critical components box for certain source/platform orientations, regardless of the number of interceptors present. The merits of utilizing the MASH code system for estimating dose and shielding factors for spaced based assets has been demonstrated. The geometry configuration studied here is greatly simplified compared to those that will be encountered in an actual design.

  17. Chemical weapons convention: Strategic implications for the United States. Strategy research report

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, F.J.

    1996-03-26

    On January 13, 1993, in Paris, 130 countries signed the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), to ban the entire class of Chemical Weapons. Debate continues on the strategic implications of the Convention, as drafted, and whether it is in the U.S. national security interest. This paper explores the historical, moral, and legal aspects of chemical warfare, and the strategic implications of the Convention, including operational, policy, constitutional, and industry impact for the U.S. This paper concludes that, although `imperfect,` the Convention represents a significant contribution to U.S. security objectives, and serves the national interest.

  18. Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.

    SciTech Connect

    Haffenden, R.; Kimmell, T.

    2002-02-20

    This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable.

  19. Disposal of chemical weapons in the Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Glasby

    1997-01-01

    Large quantities of chemical warfare agents were dumped in the Baltic Sea after World War II (WWII). This included 32 000 t of chemical munitions containing approximately 11 000 t of chemical warfare agents which were dumped into the Bornholm Basin and 2000 t of chemical munitions containing approximately 1000 t in the Gotland Basin. Because this material was contained

  20. A Methodology to Assess Lethality and Collateral Damage for Nonfragmenting Precision-Guided Weapons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda Humphrey; David Faulkner

    2008-01-01

    A methodology was developed to assess lethality and collateral damage for the Focused Lethality Munition (FLM) program. FLM is a new nonfragmenting, precision-guided weapon with damage effects mechanisms that differ from the principal fragmentation damage effects for traditional weapons. To date, guidelines to determine lethality, based on mannequin test data, have not been articulated for nonfragmenting warheads such as FLM.

  1. An assessment of North Korea's nuclear weapons capabilities

    E-print Network

    Sivels, Ciara (Ciara Brooke)

    2013-01-01

    In February of 2013, North Korea conducted its third nuclear weapons test. Speculations are that this test was conducted to further develop a warhead small enough to fit on an intercontinental ballistic missile. This test ...

  2. Disposal of chemical weapons in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Glasby, G P

    1997-11-01

    Large quantities of chemical warfare agents were dumped in the Baltic Sea after World War II (WWII). This included 32,000 t of chemical munitions containing approximately 11,000 t of chemical warfare agents which were dumped into the Bornholm Basin and 2000 t of chemical munitions containing approximately 1000 t in the Gotland Basin. Because this material was contained in wooden crates, it was distributed throughout the Baltic. The long-term environmental impact of these agents is unknown. PMID:9394485

  3. Disposal of Old Chemical Weapons by Controlled Detonation: Full Scale Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Van Beneden; M. H. Lefebvre; B. Vanclooster; B. Simoens; Belgian EOD Unit

    For several years, the Belgian MOD has made in its Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) facility at Poelkapelle important efforts to destroy part of the Old Chemical Weapons using the Controlled Detonation Chamber technology (CDC). Driven by the requirement for a high throughput and the need to better control the lifetime of the chamber, a comprehensive investigation of the destruction process

  4. Chemical Weapons on the Sea Floor: A Plea for Complete Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter G. Brewer; Keith C. Hester; N. Nakayama

    2008-01-01

    Ocean scientists have so far paid scant attention to the numerous sites and large quantities of chemical weapons (CW) disposed of on the sea floor, but the time for this inattention may now be past. In recent work we have shown that these sites are not well mapped, that there are no standards for marking or identification, and that unplanned

  5. Study of chemical weapon agent disposal based on microwave energy application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Starets

    1999-01-01

    Discusses research work dealing with the effects microwaves exert on different substances, first of all, on chemical weapon agents (CWAs). The first stage of investigation included tests with a surrogate CWA and the results have shown that microwave energy at 2450 MHz is most effectively absorbed by organophosphorus agents (OPA). Tributylphosphate (TBP) was used as the surrogate CWA. The tests

  6. REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN THE REMEDIATION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONTAMINATION IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite. After the end of t...

  7. Assessing the risk from the depleted uranium weapons used in Operation Allied Force

    E-print Network

    Liolios, T E

    1999-01-01

    The conflict in Yugoslavia has been a source of great concern for the neighboring countries, about the radiological and toxic hazard posed by the alleged presence of depleted uranium in NATO weapons. In the present study a worst-case scenario is assumed mainly to assess the risk for Greece and other neighboring countries of Yugoslavia at similar distances . The risk of the weapons currently in use is proved to be negligible at distances greater than 100 Km. For shorter distances classified data of weapons composition are needed to obtain a reliable assessment.

  8. Non-destructive evaluation techniques for chemical weapons destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J.K.; Caffrey, A.J.

    1996-09-01

    fThe safe and verifiable disposition, either by incineration or chemical neutralization of chemical warfare (CW) agents requires correct {ital a priori} identification of each munition or container to be processed. A variety of NDE techniques have been used or tested for the examination and characterization of munitions. In the U.S., three widely used techniques are X-ray radiography, acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS), and prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PINS). The technical bases, instrumental implementations, and applications of the U.S. versions of these methods are briefly discussed. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Methods for the rapid detection of biological and chemical weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, A.; Hemberger, P.H.; Swanson, B.I.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This work undertook the development of technology for the detection of chemical and biological agents. The project consisted of three tasks: (1) modifying a transportable mass spectrometer for the detection of chemical gents; (2) demonstrating the detection of a specific bacterial DNA sequence using a fluorescence-based single- copy gene detector; and (3) upgrading a surface acoustic wave measurement station.

  10. Effects of a chemical weapons incineration plant on red-tailed tropicbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreiber, E.A.; Doherty, P.F.; Schenk, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    From 1990 to 2000, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) incinerated part of the U.S. stockpile of chemical weapons on Johnston Atoll, central Pacific Ocean, which also is a National Wildlife Refuge and home to approximately a half-million breeding seabirds. The effect on wildlife of incineration of these weapons is unknown. Using a multi-strata mark-recapture analysis, we investigated the effects of JACADS on reproductive success, survival, and movement probabilities of red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda) nesting both downwind and upwind of the incineration site. We found no effect of chemical incineration on these tropicbird demographic parameters over the 8 years of our study. An additional 3 years of monitoring tropicbird demography will take place, post-incineration.

  11. A framework for the assessment of non-lethal weapons.

    PubMed

    Rappert, Brian

    2004-01-01

    In many government, police and military circles, attention is being given to so-called 'non-lethal' weapons as means of reducing many of the negative effects directly or indirectly associated with the use of force. Despite the purported ability of the adoption of such weaponry to lessen grounds for contention and concern, past experience suggests the need for scepticism regarding the purported benefits. Rather than relying on poorly substantiated claims, comprehensive procedures are needed to ensure the appropriateness of force options. This article outlines some of the institutional structures required for 'carefully evaluating' and 'carefully controlling' non-lethal weapons, with a discussion of the perennial tensions associated with ensuring the relative 'acceptability' of the use of force. PMID:15015546

  12. Die and Let Die: Exploring Links between Suicide Terrorism and Terrorist Use of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Weapons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ADAM DOLNIK

    2003-01-01

    The use of suicide bombings by some organizations is often presented as evidence of eroding constraints among terrorists to use chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear weapons. Besides a possibly more reckless approach to violence resulting from the weakened instinct of self-preservation, it is clear that suicide delivery of such weapons would have great tactical advantages over other forms of delivery.

  13. Program of technical assistance to the organization for the prohibition of chemical weapons, informal report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    Currently, U.S. organizations provide technical support to the U.S. Delegation for its work as part of the Preparatory Commission (PrepCom) of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in The Hague. The current efforts of the PrepCom are focussed on preparations for the Entry-Into-Force (EIF) of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons (often referred to as the {open_quotes}Chemical Weapons Convention{close_quotes} (CWC)). EIF of the CWC is expected in 1995, and shortly thereafter the PrepCom will cease to exist, with the OPCW taking over responsibilities under the CWC. A U.S. program of technical assistance to the OPCW for its verification responsibilities may be created as part of U.S. policy objectives after EIF of the CWC. In the summary below, comments by participants are presented in Square Brackets Some of the same points arose several times during the discussions; they are grouped together under the most pertinent heading.

  14. National measures under the chemical weapons convention to protect confidential business information and compensate for its loss

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ. College of Law, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-07-01

    This report contains a discussion presented at the Regional Seminar on the National Authority and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Measures to protect confidential business information and compensation for information which has not been sufficiently protected is discussed.

  15. Project update: evaluating the community health legacy of WWI chemical weapons testing.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mary A

    2014-10-01

    The Spring Valley community of Washington, District of Columbia, was built on the site of a World War I chemical weapons lab where testing activities had distributed arsenic to surface soil and waste disposal had resulted in localized subsurface contamination. In previous work, findings were suggestive of potential site-related health issues, although no evidence of cancer clustering was found. In follow-up, we updated the community health assessment and explored time trends for several arsenic-related cancers. Health indicators continue to be very good in Spring Valley. For all major causes of mortality, Spring Valley rates were lower than United States (US) rates with most substantially lower (20-80 %); rates for heart diseases, Alzheimer's, and essential hypertension and related kidney disease were only slightly lower than US rates (3-8 %). Incidence and mortality rates for the selected cancers in the Spring Valley area were lower than US rates. Small non-statistically significant increasing time trends were observed in Spring Valley for incidence of two arsenic-related cancers: bladder and lung and bronchus. A moderate statistically significant increasing rate trend was observed for lung and bronchus cancer mortality in Spring Valley (p < 0.01). Lung and bronchus cancer mortality rates were also increasing in the Chevy Chase community, the local comparison area closely matched to Spring Valley on important demographic variables, suggesting that the observed increases may not be site-related. A full profile of common cancer site rates and trends for both study areas was suggested to better understand the rate trend findings but no epidemiological study was recommended. PMID:24610560

  16. Analytical technique to address terrorist threats by chemical weapons of mass destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, Patrick M.

    1997-01-01

    Terrorism is no longer an issue without effect on the American mind. We now live with the same concerns and fears that have been commonplace in other developed and third world countries for a long time. Citizens of other countries have long lived with the specter of terrorism and now the U.S. needs to be concerned and prepared for terrorist activities.T he terrorist has the ability to cause great destructive effects by focusing their effort on unaware and unprepared civilian populations. Attacks can range from simple explosives to sophisticated nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Intentional chemical releases of hazardous chemicals or chemical warfare agents pose a great threat because of their ready availability and/or ease of production, and their ability to cause widespread damage. As this battlefront changes from defined conflicts and enemies to unnamed terrorists, we must implement the proper analytical tools to provide a fast and efficient response. Each chemical uses in a terrorists weapon leaves behind a chemical signature that can be used to identify the materials involved and possibly lead investigators to the source and to those responsible. New tools to provide fast and accurate detection for battlefield chemical and biological agent attack are emerging. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is one of these tools that has found increasing use by the military to respond to chemical agent attacks. As the technology becomes smaller and more portable, it can be used by law enforcement personnel to identify suspected terrorist releases and to help prepare the response; define contaminated areas for evacuation and safety concerns, identify the proper treatment of exposed or affected civilians, and suggest decontamination and cleanup procedures.

  17. Weapon System Capability Assessment under uncertainty based on the evidential reasoning approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiang Jiang; Xuan Li; Zhi-jie Zhou; Dong-ling Xu; Ying-wu Chen

    2011-01-01

    Weapon System Capability Assessment (WSCA) is the initial point of quantification of capabilities in the military capability planning (MCP). WSCA is often a multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) problem with both quantitative and qualitative information under uncertain environment. In this paper, the analysis process and algorithm for WSCA problem is proposed on the basis of belief structure (BS) model and

  18. Hospital preparedness for weapons of mass destruction incidents: An initial assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly N. Treat; Janet M. Williams; Paul M. Furbee; William G. Manley; Floyd K. Russell; Clarence D. Stamper

    2001-01-01

    Study Objective: We performed an assessment of hospital preparedness for weapons of mass destruction (WMD) incidents in Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Region III. Methods: Interviews of hospital personnel were completed in 30 hospitals. Data collected included level of preparedness, mass decontamination capabilities, training of hospital staff, and facility security capabilities. Results: No respondents believed their sites were fully prepared

  19. Public Health, Law, and Local Control: Destruction of the US Chemical Weapons Stockpile

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    Destruction of US chemical weapons has begun at one of the 8 sites in the continental United States, was completed on Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, and is scheduled to begin in at least 3 other locations during the upcoming year. About 25% of the stockpile and 38% of the munitions had been destroyed as of December 31, 2002. However, the program has become controversial with regard to choice of technology, emergency management, and cost. This controversy is in large part due to efforts by some state and local governments and activist groups to play a more central role in a decisionmaking process that was once fully controlled by the US Army. PMID:12893599

  20. Public health, law, and local control: destruction of the US chemical weapons stockpile.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Michael R

    2003-08-01

    Destruction of US chemical weapons has begun at one of the 8 sites in the continental United States, was completed on Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, and is scheduled to begin in at least 3 other locations during the upcoming year. About 25% of the stockpile and 38% of the munitions had been destroyed as of December 31, 2002. However, the program has become controversial with regard to choice of technology, emergency management, and cost. This controversy is in large part due to efforts by some state and local governments and activist groups to play a more central role in a decision making process that was once fully controlled by the US Army. PMID:12893599

  1. Steps towards universality of the Chemical Weapons Convention: How can Africa contribute?

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.

    1999-11-02

    Universality is a fundamental principal of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). It suffuses the fabric of the Convention, found not only in the very first ringing clauses of Article I, but also in the many technical details of its Annexes and Schedules. Consequently, universality is a topic on which commentary is appropriate from all quarters. The author offers his personal views as a lawyer on this important matter in the hope that, this distinguished audience may gain a perspective not available from practitioners of other professions. The views expressed in this paper are those of the author alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US or of any other institution.

  2. [On new screening biomarker to evaluate health state in personnel engaged into chemical weapons extinction].

    PubMed

    Voitenko, N G; Garniuk, V V; Prokofieva, D S; Gontcharov, N V

    2015-01-01

    The work was aimed to find new screeding parameters (biomarkers) for evaluation of health state of workers engaged into enterprises with hazardous work conditions, as exemplified by "Maradykovskyi" object of chemical weapons extinction. Analysis of 27 serum cytokines was conducted in donors and the object personnel with various work conditions. Findings are statistically significant increase of serum eotaxin in the personnel of "dirty" zone, who are regularly exposed to toxic agents in individual filter protective means over the working day. For screening detection of health disorders in the object personnel, the authors suggested new complex biomarker--ratio Eotaxin* IFN?/TNF? that demonstrates 67.9% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity in differentiating the "dirty" zone personnel and other staffers. PMID:26036023

  3. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program rapid accident assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Chester, C.V.

    1990-08-01

    This report develops a scheme for the rapid assessment of a release of toxic chemicals resulting from an accident in one of the most chemical weapon demilitarization plants or storage areas. The system uses such inputs as chemical and pressure sensors monitoring the plant and reports of accidents radioed to the Emergency Operations Center by work parties or monitoring personnel. A size of release can be estimated from previous calculations done in the risk analysis, from back calculation from an open-air chemical sensor measurement, or from an estimated percentage of the inventory of agent at the location of the release. Potential consequences of the estimated release are calculated from real-time meteorological data, surrounding population data, and properties of the agent. In addition to the estimated casualties, area coverage and no-death contours vs time would be calculated. Accidents are assigned to one of four categories: community emergencies, which are involve a threat to off-site personnel; on-post emergencies, which involve a threat only to on-site personnel; advisory, which involves a potential for threat to on-site personnel; and chemical occurrence, which can produce an abnormal operating condition for the plant but no immediate threat to on-site personnel. 9 refs., 20 tabs.

  4. Assessing State Nuclear Weapons Proliferation: Using Bayesian Network Analysis of Social Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, Garill A.; Brothers, Alan J.; Olson, Jarrod; Whitney, Paul D.

    2010-04-16

    A Bayesian network (BN) model of social factors can support proliferation assessments by estimating the likelihood that a state will pursue a nuclear weapon. Social factors including political, economic, nuclear capability, security, and national identity and psychology factors may play as important a role in whether a State pursues nuclear weapons as more physical factors. This paper will show how using Bayesian reasoning on a generic case of a would-be proliferator State can be used to combine evidence that supports proliferation assessment. Theories and analysis by political scientists can be leveraged in a quantitative and transparent way to indicate proliferation risk. BN models facilitate diagnosis and inference in a probabilistic environment by using a network of nodes and acyclic directed arcs between the nodes whose connections, or absence of, indicate probabilistic relevance, or independence. We propose a BN model that would use information from both traditional safeguards and the strengthened safeguards associated with the Additional Protocol to indicate countries with a high risk of proliferating nuclear weapons. This model could be used in a variety of applications such a prioritization tool and as a component of state safeguards evaluations. This paper will discuss the benefits of BN reasoning, the development of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) BN state proliferation model and how it could be employed as an analytical tool.

  5. Risk associated with the demilitarization of the United States chemical weapons stockpile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Flanagan; W. Fraize; T. Kartachak

    1989-01-01

    In accordance with Public Law 99-145 (Title 14, Part B, Section 1412) a programmatic Environmental Impact Statement was prepared to assess the environmental impact of destruction of the continental US (CONUS) stockpile of unitary lethal chemical agent and munitions. The CONUS supply of chemical munitions and agents accounted for 94.4% by weight of the entire US stockpile. The CONUS stockpile

  6. Miniaturized sequential injection analyzer for the monitoring and quantitation of chemical weapons degradation compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Herbert L., III; Postlethwaite, Timothy A.; Zhang, Peng; Sorrells, Richard

    2002-06-01

    The ability to monitor and detect chemical warfare agents and their degradation compounds continues to be of utmost importance. Remote on-site field analysis of these compounds is also extremely important as it relates to treaty verification for the Chemical Weapons Convention, as well as the minimization and elimination of human exposure. A portable instrument has been developed and miniaturized that allows for the detection of these compounds in the field with better quantitative results and higher reproducibility than traditional field test kits. All sample and reagent manipulations are conducted in a completely automated fashion. Quantitative results may be determined colorimetrically using the molybdenum blue reaction for the final degradation product of phosphonic acid based chemical warfare agents with a detection limit of 0.05 ppm. The instrument is based on the flow analysis technique of sequential injection analysis (SIA). The benefits of this approach are that the method provides rapid response, high reproducibility of results, high sensitivity and minimal waste production.

  7. Recovery from a chemical weapons accident or incident: A concept paper on planning

    SciTech Connect

    Herzenberg, C.L.; Haffenden, R.; Lerner, K.; Meleski, S.A.; Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Lewis, L.M. [US Dept. of Agriculture (United States); Hemphill, R.C. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (United States); Adams, J.D. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Emergency planning for an unintended release of chemical agent from the nation`s chemical weapons stockpile should include preparation for. the period following implementation of immediate emergency response. That period -- the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage -- is the subject of this report. The report provides an overview of the role of recovery, reentry, and restoration planning in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), describes the transition from immediate emergency response to restoration, and analyzes the legal framework that would govern restoration activities. Social, economic, and administrative issues, as well as technical ones, need to be considered in the planning effort. Because of possible jurisdictional conflicts, appropriate federal, state, and local agencies need to be included in a coordinated planning process. Advance consideration should be given to the pertinent federal and state statutes and regulations. On the federal level, the principal statutes and regulations to be considered are those associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and the National Environmental Policy Act. This report recommends that extensive preaccident planning be undertaken for the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage and outlines several key issues that should be considered in that planning. The need for interagency cooperation and coordination at all levels of the planning process is emphasized.

  8. Performance assessment of zircon as a waste form for excess weapons plutonium under deep borehole burial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Ewing, R.C.; Lutze, W. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) is proposed as a waste form for excess weapons-grade plutonium. Zircon is an extremely durable ceramic that is often found as an accessory mineral in Precambrian terranes with ages up to 4 billion years. The chemical durability of zircon in groundwater far exceeds that of other waste forms, as modeled leach rates may be as low as 10{sup {minus}11} g/m{sup 2}d. At least 10 wt% Pu can substitute for Zr in zircon. Self-radiation damage from alpha decay leads to a crystalline-to-amorphous transformation that is modeled as a function of time and temperature for deep borehole conditions. Based on the results of this assessment, zircon could meet all necessary durability and criticality criteria required for a Pu waste form. The types of data used in this analysis are generally not available for other crystalline ceramics or glasses.

  9. Microsynthesis and electron ionisation mass spectrometric analysis of chemical weapons convention (CWC)-related O , O -dialkyl- N , N -dialkylphosphoramidates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meehir Palit; Deepak Pardasani; A. K. Gupta; Purushottam Shakya; D. K. Dubey

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes microsynthesis and GC\\/EIMS analysis of O, O-dialkyl- N, N-dialkylphosphoramidates (DADAPs). DADAPs belong to schedule 2B6 category of chemical weapons convention (CWC), as they are important markers of the chemical warfare agent Tabun and its analogues. The study was undertaken to develop a spectral database of DADAPs for verification of CWC. The reported synthetic strategy can be adopted

  10. Multiple-technique analytical characterization of a mixture containing chemical-weapons simulant from a munition.

    PubMed

    Brickhouse, M D; Creasy, W R; Williams, B R; Morrissey, K M; O'Connor, R J; Durst, H D

    2000-06-23

    An amber yellow organic liquid was found in a munition shell at Dugway Proving Grounds, UT, USA, that was likely used as a simulant of chemical weapons. The primary analytical techniques to characterize the mixture were gas chromatography-infrared detection-mass spectral detection (GC-IR-MS); liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS); nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using the nuclei 1H, 13C and 31P; and gas chromatography-atomic emission detection (GC-AED). Six major phosphorus-containing components were identified and confirmed by at least three techniques, and several additional phosphorus-containing components of lower concentration have been identified by GC-IR-MS and LC-MS. Five major non-phosphorus components, including ethyl acetate, diethyl sulfide and dibutylamine, have been identified by multiple techniques. The major phosphorus compound (23.9+/-0.4 wt.%) was O,O,O-triethyl phosphorothioate (I) and the second most abundant (14.4+/-0.2 wt.%) was O,O,S-triethyl phosphorothioate (III). No VX, G-agent, or pesticide was observed in the sample, although III may be a cholinesterase inhibitor which produces delayed toxic response. III also produces a false hit for the pesticide cyanthoate when analyzed by GC-MS-EI. The mixture appears to have been formulated as a chemical warfare agent simulant, most likely as a challenge of agent detection techniques. PMID:10910213

  11. The effect of chemical weapons incineration on the survival rates of Red-tailed Tropicbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreiber, E.A.; Schenk, G.A.; Doherty, P.F., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    In 1992, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) began incinerating U.S. chemical weapons stockpiles on Johnston Atoll (Pacific Ocean) where about 500,000 seabirds breed, including Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda). We hypothesized that survival rates of birds were lower in those nesting downwind of the incinerator smokestack compared to those upwind, and that birds might move away from the area. From 1992 - 2000 we monitored survival and movements between areas upwind and downwind from the JACADS facility. We used a multi-strata mark recapture approach to model survival, probability of recapture and movement. Probability of recapture was significantly higher for birds in downwind areas (owing to greater recapture effort) and thus was an important 'nuisance' parameter to take into account in modeling. We found no differences in survival between birds nesting upwind ( 0.8588) and downwind (0.8550). There was no consistent difference in movement rates between upwind or downwind areas from year to year: differences found may be attributed to differing vegetation growth and human activities between the areas. Our results suggest that JACADS has had no documentable influence on the survival and year to year movement of Red-tailed Tropicbirds.

  12. Environmental management of assembled chemical weapons assessment program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Frey; G. Mohrman; B. R. Templin

    1999-01-01

    Environmental planning and management was an integral part of the ACWA Program planning process. To ensure that environmental protection issues could be addressed expeditiously and not delay the demonstrations, the PMACWA scaled the technology demonstrations such that simplified regulatory processes and existing research and development facilities could be used. The use of enclosed facilities for the demonstrations prevents any uncontrolled

  13. Regeneration Engineering for Weapon System Availability Assessment Maxime Monnin, maxime.monnin@incose.org; Benoit Iung, benoit.iung@incose.org; and Olivier

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Regeneration Engineering for Weapon System Availability Assessment Maxime Monnin, maxime by internal system failures and external factors such as damage. This is increasingly the case for weapon become a requirement in the design of weapon systems. According to recent work supported

  14. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides independent oversight to the U.S. Army's chemical weapons elimination program and serves as an important element in ensuring the

    E-print Network

    to the U.S. Army's chemical weapons elimination program and serves as an important element in ensuring is prevention with vigilance. The CDC chemical weapons elimination team's mission is to protect public health and nonstockpile chemical weapons. This mission is mandated by Public Laws 91-121, 91-441, and 99

  15. Nuclear weapon radiation effects on a Space Based Interceptor weapon platform

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.O.; Smith, M.S.; Santoro, R.T.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the dose to the various electronic components and sensitive areas (fuel tanks) of a representative Space Based Interceptor (SBI) weapon platform due to an exo-atmospheric nuclear weapon detonation. In particular, the damage resulting from incident neutrons, gamma-rays, and x-rays generated by the weapon detonation was assessed for the critical electronic components and for materials whose chemical/physical properties might degrade. To perform this analysis, a three dimensional ORNL computer model of a SBI weapon platform was devised to estimate the effects of natural and nuclear weapon radiation on the external surfaces and materials and on the internal components. It should be noted that the SBI weapon platform used in this study represents the author's concept of such a system. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Feasibility of Detecting Byproducts of Chemical Weapons Manufacturing in Environmental Media: A Preliminary Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, L; Reynolds, J G; Koester, C; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; Love, A H; Viani, B E

    2003-03-01

    Quantitative information on the environmental transport and fate of organophosphorus nerve agents has been limited to studies conducted at high concentration representative of acute doses (Munroe et al. 1999). Nerve agents have relatively rapidly degradation rates at acute levels, and first order degradation pathways and half-lives have been characterized. However, similar knowledge is lacking in the open literature on the long-term environmental persistence of nerve agents, their manufacturing precursors and byproducts, and their degradation products, particularly at sub-acute or chronic health levels. Although many recent publications reflect low-level detection methods for chemical weapons signature compounds extracted from a variety of different media (e.g. D'Agostino et al., 2001; Kataoka et al., 2001), little of this work answers questions regarding their adsorptive character and chemical persistence. However, these questions are a central theme to both the detection of illegal chemical weapons manufacturing, as well as determining long-term cleanup needs and health risks associated with potential terrorist acts using such agents. Adsorption onto environmental surfaces can enhance the persistence of organophosphorus compounds, particularly with strong chelators like phosphonic acids. In particular, organophosphorus compound adsorption can lead to irreversible binding (e.g. Aubin and Smith, 1992), and current methods of chemical extraction and solid-state detection are challenged to detect them. This may be particularly true if the adsorbed compound is of a low initial concentration because it may be that the most preferred adsorption sites form the strongest bonds. This is particularly true in mixed media having various adsorption domains that adsorb at different rates (e.g. Weber and Huang, 1996). For high enough initial concentrations, sorption sites become saturated and solvent extraction has a relatively high efficiency. It is no surprise that many CW fate studies can report findings using traditional extraction or solid-state methods of detection, since release concentration exceed the capacity of environmental media to adsorb or degrade them. This report documents a test using solid-state {sup 31}P-NMR and GC/MS methods to delineate two adsorbed phosphonates on a uniform silica gel substrate at different concentrations. The test sought to determine the sensitivity of {sup 31}P-NMR detection, delineate adsorption character of the phosphonates, quantify their extraction efficiency using different solvents, and test the phosphonate mobility and photodegradability under short-term idealized conditions. The results show that solid-state detection at the experimental conditions can detect individual phosphonate species down to the 100 ppm level. Sensitivity could be further increased using larger samples and longer collection times. Solvent extraction of the phosphonates from the silica gel showed that a chlorinated solvent (methylene chloride) produced poor recovery for phosphonic acids from the silica gel, whereas methanol used as a solvent achieved high extraction efficiency. The phosphonates used showed strong aqueous mobility in a silica gel column experiment, with a small but significant amount left adsorbed to the substrate. A 96 hour photo-degradation experiment showed no degradation of the compounds.

  17. Risk associated with the demilitarization of the United States chemical weapons stockpile

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.F.; Fraize, W.; Kartachak, T.

    1989-01-01

    In accordance with Public Law 99-145 (Title 14, Part B, Section 1412) a programmatic Environmental Impact Statement was prepared to assess the environmental impact of destruction of the continental US (CONUS) stockpile of unitary lethal chemical agent and munitions. The CONUS supply of chemical munitions and agents accounted for 94.4% by weight of the entire US stockpile. The CONUS stockpile is currently stored at the eight sites. The hazards associated with the disposal process included those associated with (1) plant operation, (2) transportation, (3) handling, and (4) external events (pervasive among the other 3 hazard areas). 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Dynamic Model for Assessing Impact of Regeneration Actions on System Availability: Application to Weapon Systems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to Weapon Systems Maxime Monnin, LAMIH, University of Valenciennes Benoit Iung, PhD, CRAN, Nancy University of unavailability. Military weapon systems can become unavailable due to system failures or damage to the system. This paper aims to define principles for weapon systems modeling that integrate both system failure

  19. Nonnuclear Consolidation Environmental Assessment. Executive summary, Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a proposal, known as Complex 21, to reconfigure the Nation`s Nuclear Weapons Complex (Complex). The complex is a set of interrelated facilities that design, manufacture, test, and maintain this country`s nuclear weapons. The Complex also produces and/or recycles the nuclear materials used in building weapons and stores nuclear materials for future use. DOE also dismantles the weapons retired from the stockpile. In addition, DOE conducts surveillance and maintenance activities to ensure the reliability and safety of the stockpiled weapons throughout their operational life.

  20. Nuclear Weapon

    MedlinePLUS

    http://emergency.cdc.gov/radiation What is a nuclear weapon? A nuclear weapon is a device that ... radioactive and can contaminate anything it lands on. NUCLEAR WEAPON What are the main dangers of a ...

  1. Adapting Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Methods to Assess Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressor Combinations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation based on the following abstract: Chemical mixtures risk assessment methods are routinely used. To address combined chemical and nonchemical stressors, component-based approaches may be applicable, depending on the toxic action among diverse stressors. Such methods a...

  2. Reality theory: A means to control the public`s fear of chemical weapons use. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Pate, B.E.

    1997-04-01

    On 20 March 1995 terrorists released the chemical nerve agent sarin into the Tokyo subway system, killing 10 commuters and changing the public`s attitude about the most basic aspect of their lives: the air they breathe and the daily ritual of their commute to work. This is the new threat the United States must face: terrorism and its attack on the will of the people forcing governments to yield to the terrorists` position. Yet there is a different public response in warfare compared with a peacetime terrorist attack. This paper examines the psychological response of people in wartime and applies this description to chemical weapons use in war and in peace. The public`s response can be predicted if one uses reality theory, a concept leaders can use to mitigate responses that would prevent the execution of national strategy.

  3. Assessing the morality of using the space environment as a platform for weapons. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Caffall, W.E.; Stafford, R.G.

    1989-05-01

    Remarks about President Ronald Reagan's hope of developing a system of national defense which does not rest on the reliance on nuclear weapons introduce the discussion on how US citizens expect their military to conduct war. A description of the Just War Theory and the Law of Armed Conflict completes the background for the authors' views of how space weapons could significantly change US employment of the Principles of War. The dramatic enhancements to the Principles of War available through space weapons apply to the full spectrum of conflict and promote the very real possibility of truly limiting war. The analysis of the Just War Theory, the Law of Armed Conflict, and the space-enhanced Principles of War resulted in the conclusion that a more moral means of warfighting does exist than reliance on weapons of mass destruction and indiscriminate killing. The space environment offers that hopeful solution.

  4. 15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...consisting of all compounds of carbon, except for its oxides, sulfides, and metal carbonates, identifiable by chemical name, by...produced in a chemical process but, because it is in a transition state in terms of thermodynamics and...

  5. 15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...consisting of all compounds of carbon, except for its oxides, sulfides, and metal carbonates, identifiable by chemical name, by...produced in a chemical process but, because it is in a transition state in terms of thermodynamics and...

  6. 15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...consisting of all compounds of carbon, except for its oxides, sulfides, and metal carbonates, identifiable by chemical name, by...produced in a chemical process but, because it is in a transition state in terms of thermodynamics and...

  7. 15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...consisting of all compounds of carbon, except for its oxides, sulfides, and metal carbonates, identifiable by chemical name, by...produced in a chemical process but, because it is in a transition state in terms of thermodynamics and...

  8. 15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...reexports of precursor chemicals controlled by ECCN 1C350, for CB reasons. Also note the...chemicals and mixtures controlled under ECCN 1C351. A license is required for CW reasons...reexport Schedule 1 chemicals controlled under ECCN 1C351.d.11 or d.12 to all...

  9. Of owl or ostrich. The U.S. policy of calculated ambiguity to deter the use of chemical and biological weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Lakamp, M.A.

    1998-12-01

    The United States has adopted a policy of calculated ambiguity regarding the role of nuclear weapons in response to a potential chemical or biological weapons (CBW) attack. Many factors affect decisions about the role nuclear weapons play in US counterproliferation strategy. This thesis describes the policy of calculated ambiguity and offers some observations about its prospects and pitfalls. The thesis presents evidence that suggests nuclear weapons could play a positive role in the US counterproliferation strategy, at least in some circumstances. It also explains how such a role could conflict with the US nonproliferation strategy. Such a role would also violate the nuclear taboo and be seen by a majority of countries as illegal and immoral. The United States has chosen a policy of calculated ambiguity in an attempt to retain the deterrent value of nuclear weapons without paying the political, legal, and moral costs of explicit reliance on nuclear weapons to deter the use of CBW. This may have short-term benefits, but ultimately may damage the national interest.

  10. Chinese weapons

    E-print Network

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-07-29

    From a very early date the Chinese were making extremely sophisticated and standardized weapons, often in huge quantities. The development of weapons manufacture and the threat of barbarian invasions is described by Christopher Cullen....

  11. Youths Carrying a Weapon or Using a Weapon in a Fight: What Makes the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurnherr, Judit; Michaud, Pierre-Andre; Berchtold, Andre; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize weapon-carrying adolescents and to assess whether weapon carriers differ from weapon users. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional school-based survey of 7548 adolescents aged 16-20 years in Switzerland. Youths carrying a weapon were compared with those who do not. Subsequently, weapon carriers were…

  12. PRESENTED 03/01/2006: 2006 REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN THE REMEDIATION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONTAMINATION IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington, DC was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite...

  13. Chemical Weapons Convention Requirements Part 745page 1 Export Administration Regulations September 28, 2001

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, Daniel

    to the requirement to obtain an export license under the EAR for chemicals controlled by ECCN 1C350 or 1C351 for any to BXA for Schedule 1 chemicals controlled subject to the EAR and under ECCNs 1C350 or 1C351

  14. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...destinations (except Iran or Syria) of chemicals controlled by ECCN 1C350 is March 7, 1991, except for applications to export...contract sanctity date for reexports of chemicals controlled under ECCN 1C350 is March 7, 1991, except that the contract sanctity...

  15. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...destinations (except Iran or Syria) of chemicals controlled by ECCN 1C350 is March 7, 1991, except for applications to export...contract sanctity date for reexports of chemicals controlled under ECCN 1C350 is March 7, 1991, except that the contract sanctity...

  16. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...destinations (except Iran or Syria) of chemicals controlled by ECCN 1C350 is March 7, 1991, except for applications to export...contract sanctity date for reexports of chemicals controlled under ECCN 1C350 is March 7, 1991, except that the contract sanctity...

  17. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...destinations (except Iran or Syria) of chemicals controlled by ECCN 1C350 is March 7, 1991, except for applications to export...contract sanctity date for reexports of chemicals controlled under ECCN 1C350 is March 7, 1991, except that the contract sanctity...

  18. Chapter 13 -Firearms, Weapons, Destructive Devices

    E-print Network

    53 Chapter 13 - Firearms, Weapons, Destructive Devices The Oregon Administrative Rules contain OAR Definitions (1) "Firearm" means a weapon or device, by whatever name known, which is designed to expel chemical action, and which is readily capable for use as a weapon. (2) "Weapon" means any knife having

  19. Integrating novel chemical weapons and evolutionarily increased competitive ability in success of a tropical invader.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu-Long; Feng, Yu-Long; Zhang, Li-Kun; Callaway, Ragan M; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso; Luo, Du-Qiang; Liao, Zhi-Yong; Lei, Yan-Bao; Barclay, Gregor F; Silva-Pereyra, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis and the novel weapons hypothesis (NWH) are two non-mutually exclusive mechanisms for exotic plant invasions, but few studies have simultaneously tested these hypotheses. Here we aimed to integrate them in the context of Chromolaena odorata invasion. We conducted two common garden experiments in order to test the EICA hypothesis, and two laboratory experiments in order to test the NWH. In common conditions, C. odorata plants from the nonnative range were better competitors but not larger than plants from the native range, either with or without the experimental manipulation of consumers. Chromolaena odorata plants from the nonnative range were more poorly defended against aboveground herbivores but better defended against soil-borne enemies. Chromolaena odorata plants from the nonnative range produced more odoratin (Eupatorium) (a unique compound of C. odorata with both allelopathic and defensive activities) and elicited stronger allelopathic effects on species native to China, the nonnative range of the invader, than on natives of Mexico, the native range of the invader. Our results suggest that invasive plants may evolve increased competitive ability after being introduced by increasing the production of novel allelochemicals, potentially in response to naïve competitors and new enemy regimes. PMID:25367824

  20. Fight or flight? A geographic mosaic in host reaction and potency of a chemical weapon in the social parasite Harpagoxenus sublaevis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Bauer; Volker Witte; Melanie Böhm; Susanne Foitzik

    2009-01-01

    Ant social parasites use chemical warfare to facilitate host colony takeover, which is a critical but recurring step in their\\u000a life cycle. Many slave-making ants use the secretion of the Dufour gland to manipulate host behaviour during parasitic nest\\u000a foundation and slave raids. Harpagoxenus sublaevis applies this chemical weapon onto defending Leptothorax host workers, which elicits deadly fights amongst them.

  1. Swept frequency acoustic interferometry technique for chemical weapons verification and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, D.N.; Anthony, B.W.; Lizon, D.C.

    1995-03-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for rapid on-site verification and monitoring of chemical munitions, such as artillery shells and bulk containers. Present NDE techniques provide only limited characterizations of such munitions. This paper describes the development of a novel noninvasive technique, swept-frequency acoustic interferometry (SFAI), that significantly enhances the capability of munitions characterizations. The SFAI technique allows very accurate and simultaneous determination of sound velocity and attenuation of chemical agents over a large frequency range inside artillery shells, in addition to determining agent density. The frequency-dependent sound velocity and attenuation can, in principle, provide molecular relaxation properties of the chemical agent. The same instrument also enables a direct fill-level measurement in bulk containers. Industrial and other applications of this general-purpose technique are also discussed.

  2. Neutralization of chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction using nuclear methods 

    E-print Network

    McAffrey, Veronica Lynn

    2002-01-01

    the effectiveness of low-yield nuclear interceptors to neutralize biological or chemical tactical ballistic missile warheads and to extend the model for high-energy neutrons (20 MeV) to explore the effect of increasing neutron energies. The original model...

  3. Swept frequency acoustic interferometry technique for chemical weapons verification and monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. N. Sinha; B. W. Anthony; D. C. Lizon

    1995-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for rapid on-site verification and monitoring of chemical munitions, such as artillery shells and bulk containers. Present NDE techniques provide only limited characterizations of such munitions. This paper describes the development of a novel noninvasive technique, swept-frequency acoustic interferometry (SFAI), that significantly enhances the capability of munitions characterizations. The SFAI technique allows very accurate

  4. Cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals at a former nuclear weapons plant: piloting of an exposure surveillance system.

    PubMed

    LaMontagne, A D; Van Dyke, M V; Martyny, J W; Ruttenber, A J

    2001-02-01

    Cleanup of former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facilities involves potential exposures to various hazardous chemicals. We have collaboratively developed and piloted an exposure database and surveillance system for cleanup worker hazardous chemical exposure data with a cleanup contractor at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). A unique system feature is the incorporation of a 34-category work task-coding scheme. This report presents an overview of the data captured by this system during development and piloting from March 1995 through August 1998. All air samples collected were entered into the system. Of the 859 breathing zone samples collected, 103 unique employees and 39 unique compounds were represented. Breathing zone exposure levels were usually low (86% of breathing zone samples were below analytical limits of detection). The use of respirators and other exposure controls was high (87 and 88%, respectively). Occasional high-level excursions did occur. Detailed quantitative summaries are provided for the six most monitored compounds: asbestos, beryllium, carbon tetrachloride, chromium, lead, and methylene chloride. Task and job title data were successfully collected for most samples, and showed specific cleanup activities by pipe fitters to be the most commonly represented in the database. Importantly, these results demonstrate the feasibility of the implementation of integrated exposure database and surveillance systems by practicing industrial hygienists employed in industry as well as the preventive potential and research uses of such systems. This exposure database and surveillance system--the central features of which are applicable in any industrial work setting--has enabled one of the first systematic quantitative characterizations of DOE cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals. PMID:11217724

  5. Chemical Mixtures: Considering the Evolution of Toxicology and Chemical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Monosson, Emily

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of chemical mixtures is a complex topic for toxicologists, regulators, and the public. In this article the linkage between the science of toxicology and the needs of governmental regulatory agencies in the United States is explored through an overview of environmental regulations enacted over the past century and a brief history of modern toxicology. One of the goals of this overview is to encourage both regulators and scientists to consider the benefits and limitations of this science–regulatory relationship as they tackle existing issues such as chemical mixtures. It is clear that a) over the past 100 years chemical regulation and toxicologic research, have in large part, shared a common emphasis on characterization and regulation of individual chemicals. But chemical mixtures have been, and continue to be, evaluated at hazardous waste sites around the United States. For this reason the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for chemical mixtures assessment are also reviewed. These guidelines highlight the current practice of mixtures assessment, which relies primarily on the existing single-chemical database. It is also clear that b) the science and assessment of chemical mixtures are moving forward through the combined efforts of regulatory agencies and scientists from a broad range of disciplines, including toxicology. Because toxicology is at this exciting crossroads, particular attention should be paid to the forces (e.g., public demands, regulatory needs, funding, academic interests) that both promote and limit the growth of this expanding discipline. PMID:15811826

  6. High Resolution Mapping of an Alleged Chemical Weapons Dump Site in the Santa Cruz Basin, offshore California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, P. G.; Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    Nautical charts record seven locations off the coast of California labeled as 'Chemical Munitions Dumping Area, Disused' that together cover some 12,000 km2 of sea floor. However only one such chemical munitions site is officially documented and no record exists of any chemical munitions disposed of at other locations, thus creating confusion. We have executed a one day AUV mapping survey of a corner of one such site in the Santa Cruz Basin, south of Port Hueneme, to examine and investigate the debris field. The region is covered with soft sediment and the overlying water is very low in oxygen at ~10 ?mol/kg. The processed 110 kHz sidescan data revealed some 754 targets in 25.6 km2 for an average of 29 targets per km2. This was followed by two ROV dives to investigate the targets identified. We found but one false positives among the over 40 targets visited, and found items ranging from two distinct lines of unmarked or labeled and now empty barrels, two target drones, and much miscellaneous debris including 4-packs of cat food cans and a large ships mast over 30m in length. There was zero evidence of chemical weapons materiel as expected given the lack of official records. Almost all of the targets were covered in dense and colorful assemblages of invertebrates: sponges, anemones, and crabs. Where barrels were sufficiently open for full visual inspection, the interior sea floor appeared to have become fully anoxic and was covered in white and yellow bacterial mat. The area chosen for our survey (centered at 33.76 deg N 119.56 deg W) was across the north western boundary of the marked site, and represents only ~ 10% percent of the designated area. Our expectation, that human nature would drive the disposal activities to the nearest corner of the chosen area rather than the center of the field appears to have been confirmed. Objects were found both within and outside of the boundary of the dump site. We have not surveyed the full marked area but there appears to be the substantial possibility of a gross error in the labeling of charts. Our results show that simple, rapid, and cost effective surveys of these sites can be made, that the found debris field of rusted barrels and other objects appears to have contained more mundane waste material that long ago dissipated or hydrolyzed. It is likely that the majority of disposed material is far from the center of the charted area and thus a re-drawing of the warning zone following additional surveying of the actual extent of the dump site to reflect this would be a significant improvement.

  7. On-line high-performance liquid chromatography–ultraviolet–nuclear magnetic resonance method of the markers of nerve agents for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avik Mazumder; Hemendra K. Gupta; Prabhat Garg; Rajeev Jain; Devendra K. Dubey

    2009-01-01

    This paper details an on-flow liquid chromatography–ultraviolet–nuclear magnetic resonance (LC–UV–NMR) method for the retrospective detection and identification of alkyl alkylphosphonic acids (AAPAs) and alkylphosphonic acids (APAs), the markers of the toxic nerve agents for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Initially, the LC–UV–NMR parameters were optimized for benzyl derivatives of the APAs and AAPAs. The optimized parameters include stationary

  8. Open knowledge management for chemical hazard assessment & alternatives analysis

    E-print Network

    Silver, Whendee

    Open knowledge management for chemical hazard assessment & alternatives analysis A hypothetical- progressive efforts to solve the "toxics" problem by substituting hazardous chemicals. These efforts are exemplified by the scientific assessment of chemical toxicity and environmental hazard (chemical hazard

  9. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: MAJOR BARIUM CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes data on air emissions from the production of major barium chemicals. Compounds studied include barium sulfide, barium carbonate, barium chloride, barium hydroxide, and barium sulfate. In order to evaluate potential environmental effects the source severity,...

  10. AB Blanket for Cities (for continual pleasant weather and protection from chemical, biological and radioactive weapons)

    E-print Network

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    In a series of previous articles (see references) the author offered to cover a city or other important large installations or subregions by a transparent thin film supported by a small additional air overpressure under the form of an AB Dome. The building of a gigantic inflatable AB Dome over an empty flat surface is not difficult. However, if we want to cover a city, garden, forest or other obstacle course we cannot easily deploy the thin film over building or trees. In this article is suggested a new method which solves this problem. The idea is to design a double film blanket filled by light gas (for example, methane, hydrogen, or helium). Sections of this AB Blanket are lighter then air and fly in atmosphere. They can be made on a flat area (serving as an assembly area) and delivered by dirigible or helicopter to station at altitude over the city. Here they connect to the already assembled AB Blanket subassemblies, cover the city in an AB Dome and protect it from bad weather, chemical, biological and rad...

  11. Differences in Assessing Chemical vs. Nonchemical Stressors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cumulative risk assessment (CRA) addresses the impacts of multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors on real world individuals and communities, resulting in complex exposures for individuals and populations with a variety of vulnerabilities, in applications that range from envir...

  12. 3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential...Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November...proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass...

  13. 75 FR 68671 - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential...Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November...proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass...

  14. 76 FR 70317 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ...National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential...National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November...proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass...

  15. Method for Derivatization and Detection of Chemical Weapons Convention Related Sulfur Chlorides via Electrophilic Addition with 3-Hexyne.

    PubMed

    Goud, D Raghavender; Pardasani, Deepak; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Sulfur monochloride (S2Cl2) and sulfur dichloride (SCl2) are important precursors of the extremely toxic chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard and classified, respectively, into schedule 3.B.12 and 3.B.13 of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Hence, their detection and identification is of vital importance for verification of CWC. These chemicals are difficult to detect directly using chromatographic techniques as they decompose and do not elute. Until now, the use of gas chromatographic approaches to follow the derivatized sulfur chlorides is not reported in the literature. The electrophilic addition reaction of sulfur monochloride and sulfur dichloride toward 3-hexyne was explored for the development of a novel derivatization protocol, and the products were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. Among various unsaturated reagents like alkenes and alkynes, symmetrical alkyne 3-hexyne was optimized to be the suitable derivatizing agent for these analytes. Acetonitrile was found to be the suitable solvent for the derivatization reaction. The sample preparation protocol for the identification of these analytes from hexane spiked with petrol matrix was also optimized. Liquid-liquid extraction followed by derivatization was employed for the identification of these analytes from petrol matrix. Under the established conditions, the detection and quantification limits are 2.6 ?g/mL, 8.6 ?g/mL for S2Cl2 and 2.3 ?g/mL, 7.7 ?g/mL for SCl2, respectively, in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The calibration curve had a linear relationship with y = 0.022x - 0.331 and r(2) = 0.992 for the working range of 10 to 500 ?g/mL for S2Cl2 and y = 0.007x - 0.064 and r(2) = 0.991 for the working range of 10 to 100 ?g/mL for SCl2, respectively. The intraday RSDs were between 4.80 to 6.41%, 2.73 to 6.44% and interday RSDs were between 2.20 to 7.25% and 2.34 to 5.95% for S2Cl2 and SCl2, respectively. PMID:26054007

  16. WEAPONS ON CAMPUS REGULATION WEAPONS ON CAMPUS

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Robert Michael

    WEAPONS ON CAMPUS REGULATION CHAPTER 20 WEAPONS ON CAMPUS 8VAC115-20-10. Definitions, including the Virginia Institute of Marine Science. "Weapon" means any firearm or any other weapon listed115-20-20. Possession of weapons prohibited. Possession or carrying of any weapon by any person

  17. The Department of Defense`s Chemical Weapons Destruction Program. Hearing before the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, June 16, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The House hearing before the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources Subcommittee addressed the Department of Defense`s Chemical Weapons destruction program. The hearing focussed on the Department of Army`s program to destroy its stockpile of lethal chemical weapons located at eight locations in the United States and on Johnston Atoll in the Pacific. This program has been plaqued with continued delays, procedural shortcuts, and enormous cost overruns. In 1985, Congress directed the Army to destry the U.S. chemical weapons stockpile by 1995. Included is the General Accounting Office testimony on: Chemical Weapons Destruction: Issues related to environmental permitting and testing experience. Statements of Federal and State government officials and industry officials, along with statements and documents submitted for the record by environmental associations are included.

  18. Cyber Weapons Convention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Geers

    2010-01-01

    World leaders are beginning to look beyond temporary fixes to the challenge of securing the Internet. One possible solution may be an international arms control treaty for cyberspace. The 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) provides national security planners with a useful model. CWC has been ratified by 98% of the world’s governments, and encompasses 95% of the world’s population. It

  19. Modeling Chemical Exposures in Risk Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Lewandowski

    Risk assessment is increasingly concerned with assessing risks from environmental exposure pathways beyond those typically\\u000a considered, i.e., direct ingestion, inhalation or dermal exposure to chemicals in air, water, and soil. A number of models\\u000a have been developed to facilitate analysis of these more complex exposure situations. Such models also enhance our ability\\u000a to assess both aggregate and cumulative exposures. Three

  20. Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attacks: An Analysis of the Preparedness of Hospitals for Managing Victims Affected by Chemical or Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Russell L.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York’s Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11) and the tragic incidents involving twenty-three people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be “ready” in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO) nationwide survey, our nation’s hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection and analysis. Six hypotheses were tested. Using a questionnaire survey, the availability of functional preparedness plans, specific preparedness education/training, decontamination facilities, surge capacity, pharmaceutical supplies, and laboratory diagnostic capabilities of hospitals were examined. The findings revealed that a majority (89.2%) of hospitals in the State of Mississippi have documented preparedness plans, provided specific preparedness education/training (89.2%), have dedicated facilities for decontamination (75.7%), and pharmaceutical plans and supplies (56.8%) for the treatment of victims in the event of a disaster involving chemical or biological WMD. However, over half (59.5%) of the hospitals could not increase surge capacity (supplies, equipment, staff, patient beds, etc.) and lack appropriate laboratory diagnostic services (91.9%) capable of analyzing and identifying WMD. In general, hospitals in the State of Mississippi, like a number of hospitals throughout the United States, are still not adequately prepared to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD which consequently may result in the loss of hundreds or even thousands of lives. Therefore, hospitals continue to require substantial resources at the local, State, and national levels in order to be “truly” prepared. PMID:16823078

  1. Chemical or biological terrorist attacks: an analysis of the preparedness of hospitals for managing victims affected by chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Russell L

    2006-03-01

    The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York's Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11) and the tragic incidents involving twentythree people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be "ready" in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO) nationwide survey, our nation's hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection and analysis. Six hypotheses were tested. Using a questionnaire survey, the availability of functional preparedness plans, specific preparedness education/training, decontamination facilities, surge capacity, pharmaceutical supplies, and laboratory diagnostic capabilities of hospitals were examined. The findings revealed that a majority (89.2%) of hospitals in the State of Mississippi have documented preparedness plans, provided specific preparedness education/training (89.2%), have dedicated facilities for decontamination (75.7%), and pharmaceutical plans and supplies (56.8%) for the treatment of victims in the event of a disaster involving chemical or biological WMD. However, over half (59.5%) of the hospitals could not increase surge capacity (supplies, equipment, staff, patient beds, etc.) and lack appropriate laboratory diagnostic services (91.9%) capable of analyzing and identifying WMD. In general, hospitals in the State of Mississippi, like a number of hospitals throughout the United States, are still not adequately prepared to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD which consequently may result in the loss of hundreds or even thousands of lives. Therefore, hospitals continue to require substantial resources at the local, State, and national levels in order to be "truly" prepared. PMID:16823078

  2. The assessment of radiation exposures in native American communities from nuclear weapons testing in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Frohmberg, E.; Goble, R.; Sanchez, V.; Quigley, D.

    2000-02-01

    Native Americans residing in a broad region downwind from the Nevada Test Site during the 1950s and 1960s received significant radiation exposures from nuclear weapons testing. Because of differences in diet, activities, and housing, their radiation exposures are only very imperfectly represented in the Department of Energy dose reconstructions. There are important missing pathways, including exposures to radioactive iodine from eating small game. The dose reconstruction model assumptions about cattle feeding practices across a year are unlikely to apply to the native communities as are other model assumptions about diet. Thus exposures from drinking milk and eating vegetables have not yet been properly estimated for these communities. Through consultations with members of the affected communities, these deficiencies could be corrected and the dose reconstruction extended to Native Americans. An illustration of the feasibility of extending the dose reconstruction is provided by a sample calculation to estimate radiation exposures to the thyroid from eating radio-iodine-contaminated rabbit thyroids after the Dedan test. The illustration is continued with a discussion of how the calculation results may be used to make estimates for other tests and other locations.

  3. The assessment of radiation exposures in Native American communities from nuclear weapons testing in Nevada.

    PubMed

    Frohmberg, E; Goble, R; Sanchez, V; Quigley, D

    2000-02-01

    Native Americans residing in a broad region downwind from the Nevada Test Site during the 1950s and 1960s received significant radiation exposures from nuclear weapons testing. Because of differences in diet, activities, and housing, their radiation exposures are only very imperfectly represented in the Department of Energy dose reconstructions. There are important missing pathways, including exposures to radioactive iodine from eating small game. The dose reconstruction model assumptions about cattle feeding practices across a year are unlikely to apply to the native communities as are other model assumptions about diet. Thus exposures from drinking milk and eating vegetables have not yet been properly estimated for these communities. Through consultations with members of the affected communities, these deficiencies could be corrected and the dose reconstruction extended to Native Americans. An illustration of the feasibility of extending the dose reconstruction is provided by a sample calculation to estimate radiation exposures to the thyroid from eating radio-iodine-contaminated rabbit thyroids after the Sedan test. The illustration is continued with a discussion of how the calculation results may be used to make estimates for other tests and other locations. PMID:10795343

  4. Bioterrorism: toxins as weapons.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-04-01

    The potential for biological weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Biological weapons include infectious agents and toxins. Toxins are poisons produced by living organisms. Toxins relevant to bioterrorism include ricin, botulinum, Clostridium perfrigens epsilson toxin, conotoxins, shigatoxins, saxitoxins, tetrodotoxins, mycotoxins, and nicotine. Toxins have properties of biological and chemical weapons. Unlike pathogens, toxins do not produce an infection. Ricin causes multiorgan toxicity by blocking protein synthesis. Botulinum blocks acetylcholine in the peripheral nervous system leading to muscle paralysis. Epsilon toxin damages cell membranes. Conotoxins block potassium and sodium channels in neurons. Shigatoxins inhibit protein synthesis and induce apoptosis. Saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin inhibit sodium channels in neurons. Mycotoxins include aflatoxins and trichothecenes. Aflatoxins are carcinogens. Trichothecenes inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis. Nicotine produces numerous nicotinic effects in the nervous system. PMID:22523138

  5. MN4602 Crouch 2004 REASSESSING WEAPON SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    MN4602 Crouch 2004 REASSESSING WEAPON SYSTEM OPERATIONAL TEST & EVALUATION METHODOLOGIES LTC Thom support assessing a weapon systems true cost and performance characteristics? S1: Can/should cost methodologies adequately address weapon systems total ownership cost (TOC)? S3: Are there critical cost

  6. Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

    1999-05-27

    The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and pending successful test results, may be incorporated in the various munitions assessment systems in the future. These systems are intended to enhance CWM fill materiel identification, agent air monitoring, agent or agent degradation product detection by surface analysis, and real-time x-ray capabilities.

  7. Antisatellite Weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garwin, Richard L.; White, Andrew D.

    1984-08-01

    Satellites are vulnerable to the existing Soviet ASAT weapon, to the U.S. ASAT under development, to the large numbers of ICBMs in existence, and to many future threats, including space mines. An ban on ASAT use and test is adequately verifiable to increase U.S. security and to reduce the likelihood of at least one cause of war. The U.S. should move with urgency to negotiate such a ban with the Soviet Union and then with other nations, because the ability efficiently to destroy the satellites of others is less valuable to the U.S. than the reduced threat to our own satellites under a treaty regime.

  8. Verifying a nuclear weapon`s response to radiation environments

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, F.F.; Barrett, W.H.

    1998-05-01

    The process described in the paper is being applied as part of the design verification of a replacement component designed for a nuclear weapon currently in the active stockpile. This process is an adaptation of the process successfully used in nuclear weapon development programs. The verification process concentrates on evaluating system response to radiation environments, verifying system performance during and after exposure to radiation environments, and assessing system survivability.

  9. 77 FR 66513 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ...Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive...by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

  10. APPROACHES TO RISK ASSESSMENT FOR MULTIPLE CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office (ECAO) in Cincinnati has developed health risk assessment methods for chronic exposure to single chemical from a single route of exposure. Risk assessments for carcinogens associated an exposure level with a particular incidence of...

  11. Guidance Note 052 RISK ASSESSMENTS FOR HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS

    E-print Network

    Guidance Note 052 RISK ASSESSMENTS FOR HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS as required under the CONTROL Involving the Use of Hazardous Chemicals. COSHH requires health risks to be assessed and controlled the Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations and represent a numbered code describing

  12. Guidance Document Quick Guide to Assess Risk for Hazardous Chemicals

    E-print Network

    Guidance Document Quick Guide to Assess Risk for Hazardous Chemicals The following outline provides. Determine the acute toxicity hazard level for each substance; classify each chemical as highly toxic a summary of the steps that laboratory workers should use to assess the risks of handling toxic chemicals

  13. Micro-chemical and micro-structural investigation of archaeological bronze weapons from the Ayanis fortress (lake Van, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraldi, F.; Çilingir?glu, A.; Angelini, E.; Riccucci, C.; De Caro, T.; Batmaz, A.; Mezzi, A.; Caschera, D.; Cortese, B.

    2013-12-01

    Bronze weapons (VII cen BC) found during the archaeological excavation of the Ayanis fortress (lake Van, eastern Anatolia, Turkey) are investigated in order to determine their chemical composition and metallurgical features as well as to identify the micro-chemical and micro-structural nature of the corrosion products grown during long-term burial. Small fragments were sampled from the artefacts and analysed by means of the combined use of optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The results show that the bronze artefacts have been manufactured by using alloys with a controlled and refined chemical composition demonstrating the high level metallurgical competence and skill of the Urartian craftsmen and artists. Furthermore, the micro-structural and metallurgical investigations evidence the presence of equiaxed grains in the matrix, indicating that the artefact were produced by repeated cycles of mechanical shaping and thermal annealing treatments to restore the alloy ductility. From the degradation point of view, the results show the structures and the chemical composition of the stratified corrosion layers (i.e. the patina) where the copper or tin depletion phenomenon is commonly observed with the surface enrichment of some elements coming from the burial soil, mainly Cl, which is related to the high concentration of chlorides in the Ayanis soil. The results reveal also that another source of degradation is the inter-granular corrosion phenomenon likely increased by the metallurgical features of the alloys caused by the high temperature manufacturing process that induces crystallisation and segregation phenomena along the grain boundaries.

  14. Development and Application of Computational/In Vitro Toxicological Methods for Chemical Hazard Risk Reduction of New Materials for Advanced Weapon Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, John M.; Mattie, D. R.; Hussain, Saber; Pachter, Ruth; Boatz, Jerry; Hawkins, T. W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is essential for reducing the chemical hazards of new weapon systems. The current collaboration between HEST (toxicology research and testing), MLPJ (computational chemistry) and PRS (computational chemistry, new propellant synthesis) is focusing R&D efforts on basic research goals that will rapidly transition to useful products for propellant development. Computational methods are being investigated that will assist in forecasting cellular toxicological end-points. Models developed from these chemical structure-toxicity relationships are useful for the prediction of the toxicological endpoints of new related compounds. Research is focusing on the evaluation tools to be used for the discovery of such relationships and the development of models of the mechanisms of action. Combinations of computational chemistry techniques, in vitro toxicity methods, and statistical correlations, will be employed to develop and explore potential predictive relationships; results for series of molecular systems that demonstrate the viability of this approach are reported. A number of hydrazine salts have been synthesized for evaluation. Computational chemistry methods are being used to elucidate the mechanism of action of these salts. Toxicity endpoints such as viability (LDH) and changes in enzyme activity (glutahoione peroxidase and catalase) are being experimentally measured as indicators of cellular damage. Extrapolation from computational/in vitro studies to human toxicity, is the ultimate goal. The product of this program will be a predictive tool to assist in the development of new, less toxic propellants.

  15. Weapons System Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giles J. Strickroth

    1957-01-01

    A weapons system provides for, and includes, all elements required to perform a desired mission. The scope of a weapons system begins at the conception of an idea and ends with the successful use of the weapon in the field. A wide variety of weapons systems are concurrently in process at Martin. To manage these projects, a somewhat unique organizational

  16. Pathogens as weapons : the international security implications of biological warfare

    E-print Network

    Koblentz, Gregory D

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation assesses the international security implications of biological weapons and the strategic consequences of their proliferation. It examines the impact of biological weapons on four key areas of concern for ...

  17. Evaluating Exposures to Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors in a Cumulative Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characteristically toxicological and epidemiological studies involving chemical mixtures (e.g., multi-pollutant exposures) have been increasing. Human health assessment of chemical and nonchemical mixture risk remains rare. Recently, there has been an increased emphasis on integr...

  18. Combating the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Bonnie

    1997-01-01

    Reveals the growing threat posed to all countries by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Discusses the international effort combating this proliferation including the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties, Biological Weapons Convention, and Chemical Weapons Convention. Also considers regional arms…

  19. Using chemical categories to fill data gaps in hazard assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. van Leeuwen; Terry W. Schultz; T. Henry; B. Diderich; G. D. Veith

    2009-01-01

    Hazard assessments of chemicals have been limited by the availability of test data and the time needed to evaluate the test data. While available data may be inadequate for the majority of industrial chemicals, the body of existing knowledge for most hazards is large enough to permit reliable estimates to be made for untested chemicals without additional animal testing. We

  20. New Versus Classic Approaches for Chemical Risk Assessment and Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud A. Hassanien

    In recent years, the public has become increasingly aware of the presence of harmful chemicals in our environment. Many people\\u000a express concerns about chemicals and other foreign substances in food, in drinking water, and toxic pollutants in the air.\\u000a Exposure and risk assessment of chemical environmental pollution have been widely studied. Risk assessment provides a systematic\\u000a approach for characterizing the

  1. 78 FR 67289 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ...National Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive...by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

  2. Assessment of chemical process hazards in early design stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shailesh Shah; Ulrich Fischer; Konrad Hungerbühler

    2005-01-01

    A new method called SREST-layer-assessment method with automated software tool is presented that in a hierarchical approach reveals the degree of non-ideality of chemical processes with regard to SHE (safety, health and environment) aspects at different layers: the properties of the chemical substances involved (substance assessment layer (SAL)), possible interactions between the substances (reactivity assessment layer (RAL)), possible hazard scenarios

  3. Chemical Risk Assessment in Toxicological Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmut Greim

    \\u000a The discipline of toxicology is concerned with the health risks of human exposure to chemicals. According to the Paracelsus’\\u000a paradigm toxicology is charged with describing the adverse effects of chemicals in a qualitative sense, and with evaluating\\u000a them quantitatively by determining how much of a chemical is required to produce a substance specific. Taken together the\\u000a intrinsic properties of an

  4. Nuclear weapon radiation effects on a Space Based Interceptor weapon platform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O. Johnson; M. S. Smith; R. T. Santoro

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the dose to the various electronic components and sensitive areas (fuel tanks) of a representative Space Based Interceptor (SBI) weapon platform due to an exo-atmospheric nuclear weapon detonation. In particular, the damage resulting from incident neutrons, gamma-rays, and x-rays generated by the weapon detonation was assessed for the critical electronic components and

  5. Quality assurance and reliability sub-committee W88-0/Mk5 weapon assessment NSA lab test results (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Earl M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-11-29

    The purpose of this report is to gather appropriate level of relevant stockpile surveillance data to assess trends in the NEP quality, reliability, performance, and safety over the life of the system. The objectives are to gather relevant stockpile data to assess NEP quality and trends and to develop metrics to assess the suitability of the surveillance sampling regime to meet assessment process requirements.

  6. Risk assessment studies on succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors, the new weapons in the battle to control Septoria leaf blotch in wheat.

    PubMed

    Fraaije, Bart A; Bayon, Carlos; Atkins, Sarah; Cools, Hans J; Lucas, John A; Fraaije, Marco W

    2012-04-01

    Chemical control of Septoria leaf blotch, caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola, is essential to ensure wheat yield and food security in most European countries. Mycosphaerella graminicola has developed resistance to several classes of fungicide and, with the efficacy of azoles gradually declining over time, new modes of action and/or improvements in host varietal resistance are urgently needed to ensure future sustainable disease control. Several new-generation carboxamide fungicides with broad-spectrum activity have recently been introduced into the cereal market. Carboxamides inhibit succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (complex II) but, because of their single-site specificity, these fungicides may be prone to resistance development. The objective of this study was to assess the risk of resistance development to different Sdh inhibitor (SDHI) fungicides in M.?graminicola. UV mutagenesis was conducted to obtain a library of carboxin-resistant mutants. A range of SDHI resistance-conferring mutations was found in Sdh subunits B, C and D. Pathogenicity studies with a range of Sdh variants did not detect any fitness costs associated with these mutations. Most of the amino acid residues identified (e.g. B-S221P/T, B-H267F/L/N/Y, B-I269V and D-D129E/G/T) are directly involved in forming the cavity in which SDHI fungicides bind. Docking studies of SDHI fungicides in structural models of wild-type and mutated Sdh complexes also indicated which residues were important for the binding of different SDHI fungicides and showed a different binding for fluopyram. The predictive power of the model was also shown. Further diagnostic development, enabling the detection of resistant alleles at low frequencies, and cross-resistance studies will aid the implementation of anti-resistance strategies to prolong the cost-effectiveness and lifetime of SDHI fungicides. PMID:21933337

  7. HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The implementation of Superfund requires a methodology for estimating health risk from multi-chemical contamination at ambient levels. Most often, the chemical composition of these mixtures is poorly characterized, exposure data are uncertain and toxicologic data on the known com...

  8. Biological weapons--the poor man`s nuke. Research report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Schneider; T. N. Mayer

    1995-01-01

    Biological warfare is one leg of the triad of weapons of mass destruction (coupled with nuclear and chemical weapons). Biological weapons pose a significant threat to the United States military and public population across the spectrum of conflict. There is, however, little common knowledge of the insidious yet devastating potential of these weapons. This paper is written for the lay

  9. ASSESSING MATERNAL AND FETAL EXPOSURE TO CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data will fill key gaps in our understanding of exposure before birth and capacity to detoxify Bisphenol A (BPA) and could inform and strengthen future studies of the effects of BPA and other environmental chemicals on development. ...

  10. ASSESSING THE BIODEGRADATION OF SEDIMENT ASSOCIATED CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigations of the fate of xenobiotic chemicals in laboratory systems that accommodate the microbial ecology of sediments are described. These systems permit examination of biochemical activities in the sediment bed with particular emphasis at the sediment-water interface. Sed...

  11. INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENTS FOR FIVE CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation exposure-response assessments for five chemicals (acrolein, ethylene oxide, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, hydrogen sulfide, and phosgene) for less-than-lifetime durations are being developed to inform the development of the Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodolog...

  12. 76 FR 41371 - Impact of Reducing the Mixture Concentration Threshold for Commercial Schedule 3 Chemical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ...Chemical Activities Under the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations; Proposed...Chemical Activities Under the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations AGENCY...on the impact of amending the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...

  13. 76 FR 41365 - Impact of Reducing the Mixture Concentration Threshold for Commercial Schedule 2A Chemical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ...Chemical Activities Under the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations; Proposed...Chemical Activities Under the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations AGENCY...on the impact of amending the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...

  14. ASSESSING THE NEUROTOXIC POTENTIAL OF CHEMICALS - A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1981, the development of methodology to assess the neurotoxic potential of chemicals has been a high priority within the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). ollowing the completion of an in-depth review of the scientific principles and methods for the assessm...

  15. Chemical and Biological Engineering Student Learning Outcome Assessment Report

    E-print Network

    Missouri-Rolla, University of

    issues. VII. a recognition of the need for, and an ability to engage in, life-long learning. b knowledge acquired through life-long learning. Program Outcome 10 The S&T Chemical Engineering Program1 Chemical and Biological Engineering Student Learning Outcome Assessment Report 1. Department

  16. GUIDELINES FOR THE HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1986 Guidelines for the Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures represent the Agency's science policy and are a procedural guide for evaluating data on the health risks from exposures to chemical mixtures. The emphasis is on dose response and risk characterization. ...

  17. SUPPLEMENTARY GUIDANCE FOR CONDUCTING HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a supplement to the EPA Guidelines for the Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures of 1986. The 1986 Guidelines represent the Agency's science policy and are a procedural guide for evaluating data on the health risks from exposures to chemical mixt...

  18. CONCEPT OF PROGNOSTIC MODEL ASSESSMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICAL FATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prognostic assessment provides information on environmental behavior of chemicals when no direct information exists. The utility of this method of analysis depends on the way in which the prognostic modeling tools are used. When the environment and the properties of the chemical ...

  19. Relative Importance of Modularity and Other Morphological Attributes on Different Types of Lithic Point Weapons: Assessing Functional Variations

    PubMed Central

    González-José, Rolando; Charlin, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The specific using of different prehistoric weapons is mainly determined by its physical properties, which provide a relative advantage or disadvantage to perform a given, particular function. Since these physical properties are integrated to accomplish that function, examining design variables and their pattern of integration or modularity is of interest to estimate the past function of a point. Here we analyze a composite sample of lithic points from southern Patagonia likely formed by arrows, thrown spears and hand-held points to test if they can be viewed as a two-module system formed by the blade and the stem, and to evaluate the degree in which shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle explain the observed variance and differentiation among points supposedly aimed to accomplish different functions. To do so we performed a geometric morphometric analysis on 118 lithic points, departing from 24 two-dimensional landmark and semi landmarks placed on the point's contour. Klingenberg's covariational modularity tests were used to evaluate different modularity hypotheses, and a composite PCA including shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle was used to estimate the importance of each attribute to explaining variation patterns. Results show that the blade and the stem can be seen as “near decomposable units” in the points integrating the studied sample. However, this modular pattern changes after removing the effects of reduction. Indeed, a resharpened point tends to show a tip/rest of the point modular pattern. The composite PCA analyses evidenced three different patterns of morphometric attributes compatible with arrows, thrown spears, and hand-held tools. Interestingly, when analyzed independently, these groups show differences in their modular organization. Our results indicate that stone tools can be approached as flexible designs, characterized by a composite set of interacting morphometric attributes, and evolving on a modular way. PMID:23094104

  20. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical "Chemical" Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, G; Bale, J; Moran, K

    2004-12-14

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security, and way of life. One particular type of CI--that relating to chemicals--constitutes both an important element of our nation's infrastructure and a particularly attractive set of potential targets. This is primarily because of the large quantities of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) it employs in various operations and because of the essential economic functions it serves. This study attempts to minimize some of the ambiguities that presently impede chemical infrastructure threat assessments by providing new insight into the key motivational factors that affect terrorist organizations propensity to attack chemical facilities. Prepared as a companion piece to the Center for Nonproliferation Studies August 2004 study--''Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure''--it investigates three overarching research questions: (1) why do terrorists choose to attack chemical-related infrastructure over other targets; (2) what specific factors influence their target selection decisions concerning chemical facilities; and (3) which, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack chemical infrastructure targets? The study involved a multi-pronged research design, which made use of four discrete investigative techniques to answer the above questions as comprehensively as possible. These include: (1) a review of terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist interest in targeting chemical facilities; (2) the preparation of case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played a significant role in leading some terrorist groups to attack chemical facilities; (3) an examination of data from the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITIC) to further illuminate the nature of terrorist attacks against chemical facilities to date; and (4) the refinement of the DECIDe--the Determinants Effecting Critical Infrastructure Decisions--analytical framework to make the factors and dynamics identified by the study more ''usable'' in future efforts to assess terrorist intentions to target chemical-related infrastructure.

  1. Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

    1999-01-01

    The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these

  2. DRILLING MUD ASSESSMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSIS REFERENCE VOLUME

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents concentrations of specific metals and hydrocarbons in eleven drilling fluids (muds) taken from operating gas and oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico. Each drilling fluid was analyzed chemically for heavy metal and hydrocarbon content in three distinct phases: (1) ...

  3. Experts workshop on the ecotoxicological risk assessment of ionizable organic chemicals: Towards a science-based framework for chemical assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need to develop analytical methods and tools that can be applied to assess the environmental risks associated with charged, polar, and ionisable organic chemicals, such as those used as active pharmaceutical ingredients, biocides, and surface active chemicals. ...

  4. Psychophysical assessment of the chemical irritability of human skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BARRY G. GREEN; GREGORY S. SHAFFER

    1992-01-01

    Our goal in this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a psychophysical scaling method for the quantitative assessment of cutaneous sensory irritation. We sought both to assess the sensory irritancy of topical chemicals and to quantify individual differences in irritability. Measurements were made of the perceived intensity, time course, and quality of sensations produced by application of methyl salicylate

  5. Ecological food web analysis for chemical risk assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damian V. Preziosi; Robert A. Pastorok

    2008-01-01

    Food web analysis can be a critical component of ecological risk assessment, yet it has received relatively little attention among risk assessors. Food web data are currently used in modeling bioaccumulation of toxic chemicals and, to a limited extent, in the determination of the ecological significance of risks. Achieving more realism in ecological risk assessments requires new analysis tools and

  6. Unrecognized and Unwelcome? The Role of the EU in Preventing the Proliferation of CBRN Weapons, Materials and Knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamil Zwolski

    2011-01-01

    This article assesses the role of the EU as an actor in the area of non-proliferation of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) weapons, materials and know-how. It focuses primarily on the Russian Federation. Russia's extensive CBRN programmes, combined with bad economy, weak security and high unemployment among CBRN scientists, have become a major source of concern for the international

  7. Curriculum Assessment as a Direct Tool in ABET Outcomes Assessment in a Chemical Engineering Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Attar, Hazim

    2010-01-01

    The chemical engineering programme at the United Arab Emirates University is designed to fulfil the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) (A-K) EC2000 criteria. The Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering has established a well-defined process for outcomes assessment for the chemical engineering programme in order to…

  8. Development of a risk assessment program for chemical terrorism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Younghee Lee; Jinkyung Kim; Junghwan Kim; Jiyong Kim; Il Moon

    2010-01-01

    The study focuses on assessing the security risk of the terrorism in the chemical industry. This research modifies conventional\\u000a risk assessment methods for including terrorism and sabotage scenarios. The objective of this risk assessment is to identify\\u000a security hazards, threats and vulnerabilities facing each target facility, and to find the adequate countermeasures to protect\\u000a the public, workers, national interest, environment,

  9. 15 CFR 719.21 - Payment of final assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT § 719.21 Payment of final assessment. (a) Time for...

  10. Review of the U.S. Army's health risk assessments for oral exposure to six chemical-warfare agents. Introduction.

    PubMed

    2000-03-01

    The U.S. Army is under a congressional mandate and the Chemical Weapons Convention of January 1993 to destroy its entire stockpile of chemical munitions. In addition to stockpiled munitions, nonstockpile chemical materiel (NSCM) has been identified for destruction. NSCM includes a host of lethal wastes from past disposal efforts, unserviceable munitions, chemically contaminated containers, chemical-production facilities, newly located chemical munitions, known sites containing substantial quantities of buried chemical weapons and wastes, and binary weapons and components. There are eight stockpile sites located in the continental United States and one on an island in the Pacific Ocean, and 82 NSCM locations have been identified. There are concerns, based on storage and past disposal practices, about soil and groundwater contamination at those sites. Six of the most commonly found chemical-warfare agents at stockpile and NSCM sites are the nerve agents GA, GB, GD, and VX and the vesicating (blistering) agents sulfur mustard and lewisite. To ensure that chemical contamination is reduced to safe concentrations at stockpile and NSCM sites before they are used for residential, occupational, or wildlife purposes, the U.S. Army requested that health-based exposure limits for GA, GB, GD, VX, sulfur mustard, and lewisite be developed to protect the public and the environment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was asked to conduct the health risk assessments and propose chronic oral reference doses (RfDs) and, where appropriate, oral slope factors (SFs) for the six agents. RfDs are toxicological values developed for noncancer effects and used as reference points to limit human oral exposure to potentially hazardous concentrations of chemicals thought to have thresholds for their effects. RfDs are estimates (with uncertainty spanning an order of magnitude or greater) of daily oral chemical exposures that are unlikely to have deleterious effects during a human lifetime. For chemicals identified as carcinogens (e.g., sulfur mustard), SFs are also calculated. SFs are estimates of upper-bound lifetime cancer risk from chronic exposure to an agent. The Army's Surgeon General adopted the proposed RfDs and SFs developed by ORNL as interim values to ensure that consistent health-based criteria were applied in ongoing initiatives requiring decisions on the safety of contaminated sites. The Army's Surgeon General also requested that the National Research Council (NRC) independently review the scientific validity of these values. The NRC assigned this task to the Committee on Toxicology (COT), and a multidisciplinary subcommittee of experts was convened to assess the scientific validity of the interim RfDs developed for GA, GB, GD, VX, sulfur mustard, and lewisite and the SF developed for sulfur mustard. Specifically, the subcommittee was asked to (1) determine whether all the relevant toxicity data were considered appropriately; (2) review the uncertainty, variability, and quality of the data; (3) determine the appropriateness of the assumptions used to derive the RfDs (e.g., the application of uncertainty factors); and (4) identify data gaps and make recommendations for future research. Although multiple agents are present at stockpile and NSCM sites, the subcommittee was asked to evaluate the agents only on an individual basis. Furthermore, although the most likely routes of exposure to chemical-warfare agents at these sites are the inhalation and dermal routes, the subcommittee was only asked to evaluate toxicological risk from the oral route at this time. The Army is in the process of developing inhalation exposure guidelines. The subcommittee was also not asked to address issues related to risk management, such as technology, detection, and feasibility. PMID:10742829

  11. Air weapon fatalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Milroy; J. C. Clark; N. Carter; G. Rutty; N. Rooney

    1998-01-01

    AIMS: To describe characteristics of a series of people accidentally and deliberately killed by air powered weapons. METHODS: Five cases of fatal airgun injury were identified by forensic pathologists and histopathologists. The circumstances surrounding the case, radiological examination, and pathological findings are described. The weapon characteristics are also reported. RESULTS: Three of the victims were adult men, one was a

  12. Weapons bay acoustic environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Shaw; R. M. Shimovetz

    1994-01-01

    An aircraft weapons bay exposed to freestream flow experiences an intense aeroacoustic environment in and around the bay. Experience has taught that the intensity of this environment can be severe enough to result in damage to a store, its internal equipment, or the structure of the weapons bay itself. To ensure that stores and sensitive internal equipment can withstand this

  13. Date: Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C University of Cambridge Revised July 2004

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    Date: Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C © University of Cambridge Revised July 2004 UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE CHEMICAL HAZARD RISK ASSESSMENT FORM Completing) #12;Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C © University of Cambridge Revised July 2004 Are any

  14. Date: Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C University of Cambridge Revised July 2004

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    Date: Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C © University of Cambridge Revised July 2004 UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE CHEMICAL HAZARD RISK ASSESSMENT FORM Completing Code of Practice on the Safe Use of Carcinogens etc) #12;Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C

  15. Integrated modeling systems to assess exposure and toxicity of chemicals in support of aquatic ecological risk assessment of methodologically challenging chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    From an exposure assessment perspective, persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals (PBTs) are some of the most challenging chemicals facing environmental decision makers today. Due to their general physico-chemical properties [e.g., high octanol-water partition coefficien...

  16. Probabilistic approaches in the effect assessment of toxic chemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Scheringer; Dirk Steinbach; Beate Escher; Konrad Hungerbiihler

    2002-01-01

    There is an ongoing discussion whether in the environmental risk assessment for chemicals the so called ‘deterministic’ approach\\u000a using point estimates of exposure and effect concentrations is still appropriate. Instead, the more detailed and scientifically\\u000a sounder probabilistic methods that have been developed over the last years are widely recommended. Here, we present the results\\u000a of a probabilistic effect assessment for

  17. Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by military ... there are no guarantees of safety during a chemical emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. You ...

  18. Assessment of human exposure to chemical contaminants in foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. B. S. Conacher; J. Mes

    1993-01-01

    One of the most important factors in assessing risk to human health from potentially harmful chemicals in foods is the availability of good data on the exposure of the public to such substances. The means of acquiring these data generally involves monitoring programmes using appropriate sampling procedures and reliable analytical methods for measuring the compounds of concern in a variety

  19. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRAM ASSESSMENT PLAN Program Learning Objectives

    E-print Network

    Cantlon, Jessica F.

    , and societal context (i) a recognition of the need for, and an ability to engage in life-long learning20 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRAM ASSESSMENT PLAN Program Learning Objectives ABET Engineering Program Outcomes. Senior surveys directly probe students that have just completed

  20. ASSESSING TOXICITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS TO ANAEROBIC TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A screening protocol has been developed to provide a rapid but dependable and repeatable assessment of the effect of toxic organic chemicals on anaerobic treatment processes. his protocol provides information on the rate limiting biological reactions and the concentration of toxi...

  1. Structure activity relationships to assess new chemicals under TSCA

    SciTech Connect

    Auletta, A.E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Under Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), manufacturers must notify the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 90 days before manufacturing, processing, or importing a new chemical substance. This is referred to as a premanufacture notice (PMN). The PMN must contain certain information including chemical identity, production volume, proposed uses, estimates of exposure and release, and any health or environmental test data that are available to the submitter. Because there is no explicit statutory authority that requires testing of new chemicals prior to their entry into the market, most PMNs are submitted with little or no data. As a result, EPA has developed special techniques for hazard assessment of PMN chemicals. These include (1) evaluation of available data on the chemical itself, (2) evaluation of data on analogues of the PMN, or evaluation of data on metabolites or analogues of metabolites of the PMN, (3) use of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs), and (4) knowledge and judgement of scientific assessors in the interpretation and integration of the information developed in the course of the assessment. This approach to evaluating potential hazards of new chemicals is used to identify those that are most in need of addition review of further testing. It should not be viewed as a replacement for testing. 4 tabs.

  2. Date: Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C University of Cambridge Revised July 2004

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    Date: Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C © University of Cambridge Revised July 2004 UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE CHEMICAL HAZARD RISK ASSESSMENT FORM Completing are the hazards and risks?): HCL and HNO3 are corrosive and toxic, can cause chemical burns to skins, eyes, mucous

  3. Date: Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C University of Cambridge Revised July 2004

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    Date: Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C © University of Cambridge Revised July 2004 UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE CHEMICAL HAZARD RISK ASSESSMENT FORM Completing, corrosive, irritant, readily absorbed through skin Exposure Route i.e. skin, eyes #12;Chemical Hazard Risk

  4. Nuclear Weapons Latency 

    E-print Network

    Sweeney, David J

    2014-07-25

    , demonstrates how Nuclear Weapons Latency can help characterize the proliferation risk of different policy options for decision makers. Analysis showed that development of any one of pyroprocessing, PUREX, or especially commercial uranium enrichment technologies...

  5. Responding to chemical attack. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bagley, R.W.

    1991-02-11

    In view of Iraq's stated intention of using chemical weapons in the Persian Gulf War, the Coalition forces must be prepared to respond. Iraq is capable of conducting such an attack. While the use of chemical weapons may not be militarily significant, the political effect of the use and the response to it may be very significant. Responses including the use of chemical and nuclear weapons are assessed in terms of their legality, political cost, and military effectiveness and found unacceptable. Reliance on diplomatic protests and on post-war criminal sanctions are judged ineffective. A response in the form of increased conventional attack on the Iraqi chemical infrastructure is recommended because that response will preserve the present Coalition, effectively counter the chemical attack, contribute to regional stability, and enhance the reputation of the United States for lawfulness and dependability.

  6. Virtual nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

  7. Holistic Metrics for Assessment of the Greenness of Chemical Reactions in the Context of Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, M. Gabriela T. C.; Machado, Adelio A. S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Two new semiquantitative green chemistry metrics, the green circle and the green matrix, have been developed for quick assessment of the greenness of a chemical reaction or process, even without performing the experiment from a protocol if enough detail is provided in it. The evaluation is based on the 12 principles of green chemistry. The…

  8. Application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models in chemical risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Moiz; Fisher, Jeffrey; Blount, Benjamin; Ruiz, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Post-exposure risk assessment of chemical and environmental stressors is a public health challenge. Linking exposure to health outcomes is a 4-step process: exposure assessment, hazard identification, dose response assessment, and risk characterization. This process is increasingly adopting "in silico" tools such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to fine-tune exposure assessments and determine internal doses in target organs/tissues. Many excellent PBPK models have been developed. But most, because of their scientific sophistication, have found limited field application-health assessors rarely use them. Over the years, government agencies, stakeholders/partners, and the scientific community have attempted to use these models or their underlying principles in combination with other practical procedures. During the past two decades, through cooperative agreements and contracts at several research and higher education institutions, ATSDR funded translational research has encouraged the use of various types of models. Such collaborative efforts have led to the development and use of transparent and user-friendly models. The "human PBPK model toolkit" is one such project. While not necessarily state of the art, this toolkit is sufficiently accurate for screening purposes. Highlighted in this paper are some selected examples of environmental and occupational exposure assessments of chemicals and their mixtures. PMID:22523493

  9. Life Cycle Assessment and Sustainability of Chemical Products 

    E-print Network

    Sahnoune, A.

    2014-01-01

    Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 LCAs of chemical products System Boundaries • Packaging of construction products, paper or plastic? ESL-IE-14-05-38 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20...: “Life cycle assessment of metallocene polyethylene sacks”, ExxonMobil 2011 Paper sack metallocene polyethylene sack Functional Unit: 25 kg sack Polyethylene Sack Paper Sack - thin Paper Sack - thick LCA Results Summary Paper sacks vs. polyethylene sacks...

  10. Human Exposure to Endocrine-Active Chemicals: Hazard Assessment Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Safe; Kevin Connor; Kavita Ramamoorthy; Kevin Gaido; Susan Maness

    1997-01-01

    Industrial-derived endocrine disruptors or endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) have been identified and hypothesized to play a role in human disease. Most of the xeno-EACs which have been characterized bind to the estrogen receptor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, or androgen receptor. Hazard and risk assessment of xeno-EACs is complicated by several factors which include the following: (i) humans are exposed to relatively high

  11. DOE Nuclear Weapon Reliability Definition: History, Description, and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.L.; Cashen, J.J.; Sjulin, J.M.; Bierbaum, R.L.; Kerschen, T.J.

    1999-04-01

    The overarching goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapon reliability assessment process is to provide a quantitative metric that reflects the ability of the weapons to perform their intended function successfully. This white paper is intended to provide insight into the current and long-standing DOE definition of nuclear weapon reliability, which can be summarized as: The probability of achieving the specified yield, at the target, across the Stockpile-To-Target Sequence of environments, throughout the weapon's lifetime, assuming proper inputs.

  12. Integration of high energy laser weapons systems aboard all-electric ships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Wardlaw; T. L. Wilson

    2002-01-01

    An all-electric ship construct for surface combatants will need to consider the impact of future, electric power based weapons systems. Shipboard environments, driven by war fighting, hoteling, and safety arguments, are already influencing the development of high impulse weapons systems away from chemical or nuclear derived charging mechanism. shipboard high energy laser (HEL) weapons system concepts, for example, are already

  13. International physical protection self-assessment tool for chemical facilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Tewell, Craig R.; Burdick, Brent A.; Stiles, Linda L.; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2010-09-01

    This report is the final report for Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project No.130746, International Physical Protection Self-Assessment Tool for Chemical Facilities. The goal of the project was to develop an exportable, low-cost, computer-based risk assessment tool for small to medium size chemical facilities. The tool would assist facilities in improving their physical protection posture, while protecting their proprietary information. In FY2009, the project team proposed a comprehensive evaluation of safety and security regulations in the target geographical area, Southeast Asia. This approach was later modified and the team worked instead on developing a methodology for identifying potential targets at chemical facilities. Milestones proposed for FY2010 included characterizing the international/regional regulatory framework, finalizing the target identification and consequence analysis methodology, and developing, reviewing, and piloting the software tool. The project team accomplished the initial goal of developing potential target categories for chemical facilities; however, the additional milestones proposed for FY2010 were not pursued and the LDRD funding therefore was redirected.

  14. Impurity Profiling of a Chemical Weapon Precursor for Possible Forensic Signatures by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography\\/Mass Spectrometry and Chemometrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamin C. Hoggard; Jon H. Wahl; Robert E. Synovec; Gary M. Mong; Carlos G. Fraga

    2010-01-01

    In this work we present the feasibility of using analytical chemical and chemometric methodologies to reveal and exploit the organic impurity profiles from commercial dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) samples to illustrate the type of forensic information that may be obtained from chemical-attack evidence. Using DMMP as a model compound for a toxicant that may be used in a chemical attack, we

  15. Performance calculation and simulation system of high energy laser weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei; Liu, Min; Su, Yu; Zhang, Ke

    2014-12-01

    High energy laser weapons are ready for some of today's most challenging military applications. Based on the analysis of the main tactical/technical index and combating process of high energy laser weapon, a performance calculation and simulation system of high energy laser weapon was established. Firstly, the index decomposition and workflow of high energy laser weapon was proposed. The entire system was composed of six parts, including classical target, platform of laser weapon, detect sensor, tracking and pointing control, laser atmosphere propagation and damage assessment module. Then, the index calculation modules were designed. Finally, anti-missile interception simulation was performed. The system can provide reference and basis for the analysis and evaluation of high energy laser weapon efficiency.

  16. Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Senglaub, M.

    1996-06-01

    This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

  17. New blast weapons.

    PubMed

    Dearden, P

    2001-02-01

    Over the last decade a large number of weapon systems have appeared that use blast as their primary damage mechanism. This is a notable trend; until recently very few warheads relied on blast as their primary output. Most warheads in service use explosives to drive metal such as fragments and shaped charge jets to engage targets. New technologies are now being integrated into warheads that claim to have enhanced blast performance. Blast weapons could have been designed to fill a gap in capability; they are generally used for the attack of 'soft' targets including personnel, both in the open and within protective structures. With the increased number and range of these weapons, it is likely that UK forces will have to face them in future conflicts. This paper briefly describes fuel-air explosive blast weapons and reviews a range of enhanced blast weapons that have been developed recently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the reasons why enhanced blast technologies may be proliferating and how this could affect the Defence Medical Services. PMID:11307681

  18. METHODOLOGY FOR THE EVALUATION OF CUMULATIVE EPISODIC EXPOSURE TO CHEMICAL STRESSORS IN AQUATIC RISK ASSESSMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ecological risk assessment method was developed to evaluate the magnitude, duration, and episodic nature of chemical stressors on aquatic communities. The percent of an ecosystem's species at risk from a designated chemical exposure scenario is generated. In effects assessment...

  19. The Impact of the 1994 Federal Assault Weapons Ban on Gun Markets: An Assessment of Short-Term Primary and Secondary Market Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher S. Koper; Jeffrey A. Roth

    2002-01-01

    The reactions of the gun market, including those of producers, wholesalers, retailers, and consumers, play an important role in shaping the potential impact of gun control policies on gun crime. As a case in point, this paper examines the federal Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, which bans a group of military-style semiautomatic firearms (i.e., assault weapons).

  20. The Strategic Weapon System Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Navy's Strategic Weapon System training program has five principal components: needs assessment/task analysis (Personnel Performance Profile); instructional design (Training Path System); instructional development (Curricula); training implementation; and personnel and training evaluation. This training model illustrates how a program…

  1. Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, T.L.; Culberson, O.L.

    1983-06-01

    This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas and petroleum-derived resources. Results from both parts of the assessment indicate that, in the absence of gas and petroleum, coal undoubtedly would be a major source of chemicals first, followed by biomass. The most attractive biomass resources are wood, agricultural residues, and sugar and starch crops. A reasonable approximation to the current product slate for the petrochemical industry could be manufactured using only renewable resources for feedstocks. Approximately 2.5 quads (10/sup 15/ Btu (1.055 x 10/sup 18/ joules)) per year of oil and gas would be released. Further use of biomass fuels in the industry could release up to an additional 1.5 quads. however, such an industry would be unprofitable under current economic conditions with existing or near-commercial technology. As fossil resources become more expensive and biotechnology becomes more efficient, the economics will be more favorable. Use of the chemicals industry model to evaluate process technologies is demonstrated. Processes are identified which have potential for significant added value to the system if process improvements can be made to improve the economics. Guidelines and recommendations for research and development programs to improve the attractiveness of chemicals from biomass are discussed.

  2. cvm magazine Newest Weapon

    E-print Network

    Langerhans, Brian

    and Stereotactic Radiation Therapy," said Nolan. "We can now consider radiation therapy for cancers that were21 cvm magazine Newest Weapon in War on Pet Cancer Radiation Oncology Service includes state of doing in radiation oncology." Gieger and Nolan are exploring these frontiers in cancer treatment

  3. Air weapon fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Rooney, N

    1998-01-01

    AIMS: To describe characteristics of a series of people accidentally and deliberately killed by air powered weapons. METHODS: Five cases of fatal airgun injury were identified by forensic pathologists and histopathologists. The circumstances surrounding the case, radiological examination, and pathological findings are described. The weapon characteristics are also reported. RESULTS: Three of the victims were adult men, one was a 16 year old boy, and one an eight year old child. Four of the airguns were .22 air rifles, the other a .177 air rifle. Two committed suicide, one person shooting himself in the head, the other in the chest. In both cases the guns were fired at contact range. Three of the cases were classified as accidents: in two the pellet penetrated into the head and in one the chest. CONCLUSIONS: One person each year dies from an air powered weapon injury in the United Kingdom. In addition there is considerable morbidity from airgun injuries. Fatalities and injuries are most commonly accidents, but deliberately inflicted injuries occur. Airguns are dangerous weapons when inappropriately handled and should not be considered as toys. Children should not play with airguns unsupervised. Images PMID:9797730

  4. Electronics in weapon systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Hagenbucher

    1983-01-01

    The use of electronics in weapon systems is described. The electronics policy of the US Ministry of Defense is explained. The computer generated images and digital radar landmass simulation system for cost efficient training is presented. Flight simulation systems are compared. Military computers used as flight aids are presented. A digital photogrammetry system is described. Air control information systems are

  5. Effects of Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Leo

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

  6. US weapons secrets revealed

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.S.; Arkin, W.M.

    1993-03-01

    Extraordinary details have only recently been revealed about the struggle over the control of early U.S. nuclear weapons and their initial deployments abroad. The information comes from a newly declassified top secret report, part of a larger study, The History of the Strategic Arms Competition, 1945-1972, commissioned by Defense Secretary James R. Schlisinger in summer 1974.

  7. US weapons secrets revealed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Norris; W. M. Arkin

    1993-01-01

    Extraordinary details have only recently been revealed about the struggle over the control of early U.S. nuclear weapons and their initial deployments abroad. The information comes from a newly declassified top secret report, part of a larger study, The History of the Strategic Arms Competition, 1945-1972, commissioned by Defense Secretary James R. Schlisinger in summer 1974.

  8. Names and Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Charles

    1989-01-01

    Traces the theoretical significance of using names as titles for situations, and applies this analysis to the United States' intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) programs. Argues that the names given to ICBMs preserve their utility as weapons by linking them to the myths of the nineteenth-century western frontier. (MM)

  9. Open architecture applied to next-generation weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Leo J.; Shaver, Jonathan; Young, Quinn; Christensen, Jacob

    2014-06-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has postulated a new weapons concept known as Flexible Weapons to define and develop technologies addressing a number of challenges. Initial studies on capability attributes of this concept have been conducted and AFRL plans to continue systems engineering studies to quantify metrics against which the value of capabilities can be assessed. An important aspect of Flexible Weapons is having a modular "plug-n-play" hardware and software solution, supported by an Open Architecture and Universal Armament Interface (UAI) common interfaces. The modular aspect of Flexible Weapons is a means to successfully achieving interoperability and composability at the weapon level. Interoperability allows for vendor competition, timely technology refresh, and avoids costs by ensuring standard interfaces widely supported in industry, rather than an interface unique to a particular vendor. Composability provides for the means to arrange an open end set of useful weapon systems configurations. The openness of Flexible Weapons is important because it broadens the set of computing technologies, software updates, and other technologies to be introduced into the weapon system, providing the warfighter with new capabilities at lower costs across the life cycle. One of the most critical steps in establishing a Modular, Open Systems Architecture (MOSA) for weapons is the validation of compliance with the standard.

  10. 75 FR 62916 - Re-Delegation by the Under Secretary of State to the Director, Office of Chemical and Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...the Director, Office of Chemical and Biological Weapons Affairs, of the Functions...including by Section 101 of the Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation...the Director, Office of Chemical and Biological Weapons Affairs, Bureau of...

  11. Characterization and Detection of Biological Weapons with Atomic Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Malkin, A J; Plomp, M; Leighton, T J; McPherson, A

    2006-09-25

    Critical gaps exist in our capabilities to rapidly characterize threat agents which could be used in attacks on facilities and military forces. DNA-based PCR and immunoassay-based techniques provide unique identification of species, strains and protein signatures of pathogens. However, differentiation between naturally occurring and weaponized bioagents and the identification of formulation signatures are beyond current technologies. One of the most effective and often the only definitive means to identify a threat agent is by its direct visualization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a rapid imaging technique that covers the size range of most biothreat agents (several nanometers to tens of microns), is capable of resolving pathogen morphology and structure, and could be developed into a portable device for biological weapons (BW) field characterization. AFM can detect pathogens in aerosol, liquid, surface and soil samples while concomitantly acquiring their weaponization and threat agent digital signatures. BW morphological and structural signatures, including modifications to pathogen microstructural architecture and topology that occur during formulation and weaponization, provide the means for their differentiation from crude or purified unformulated agent, processing signatures, as well as assessment of their potential for dispersion, inhalation and environmental persistence. AFM visualization of pathogen morphology and architecture often provides valuable digital signatures and allows direct detection and identification of threat agents. We have demonstrated that pathogens, spanning the size range from several nanometers for small agricultural satellite viruses to almost half micron for pox viruses, and to several microns for bacteria and bacterial spores, can be visualized by AFM under physiological conditions to a resolution of {approx}20-30 {angstrom}. We have also demonstrated that viruses from closely related families could be differentiated by AFM on the basis of their structural attributes. Similarly, we have shown3-5 that bacterial spore coat structures are phylogenetically and growth medium determined. These findings validate that AFM can identify species/formulation-specific signatures that could used to reconstruct production conditions. In addition, we showed that internal structures of pathogens could be revealed by chemical and enzymatic dissection, thus providing additional AFM threat agent signatures. We have developed AFM-based immunochemical labeling procedures for threat-specific epitope visualization, which extend the specificity of structural information that AFM can provide. AFM enables sensitive detection/identification/detection of threat agents (e.g Sterne. B. anthracis spore sample having a concentration of {approx}10{sup 6} spores/ml) and allows their identification in environmental cluttered samples. AFM analysis has the capacity for accessing forensically important data and rapid BW identification and weaponization characterization.

  12. 78 FR 64936 - Dichloromethane and N-Methylpyrrolidone TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Rescheduled...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ...Stan Barone, Jr., Risk Assessment Division...Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Environmental...draft DCM and NMP TSCA risk assessment recommendations...Chemicals, Peer review, Risk assessments, Dichloromethane...Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. [FR...

  13. Test Procedure Conducted Energy Weapons

    E-print Network

    Adler, Andy

    Test Procedure for Conducted Energy Weapons Version 1.1 2010/07/31 #12;Contents Page 0.0 Disclaimer A TASER M26 13 Appendix B TASER X26 23 #12;1 Test Procedure for Conducted Energy Weapons 0.0 Disclaimer Energy Weapons ("CEWs") in a controlled and repeatable manner across jurisdictions. The consistent

  14. Date: 25 Mar 2014 Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C University of Cambridge Revised July 2004

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    Date: 25 Mar 2014 Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C © University of Cambridge Revised July 2004 UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE CHEMICAL HAZARD RISK ASSESSMENT FORM Lab coat Yes Glove box / isolator No Chemical apron No #12;Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD

  15. Process waste assessment for the Radiography Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1994-01-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate the Radiography Laboratory, located in Building 923. It documents the processes, identifies the hazardous chemical waste streams generated by these processes, recommends possible ways to minimize waste, and serves as a reference for future assessments of this facility. The Radiography Laboratory provides film radiography or radioscopy (electronic imaging) of weapon and nonweapon

  16. Early retirement for weaponeers?

    SciTech Connect

    Weisman, J.

    1994-07-01

    Department of Energy`s Lawrence Livermore Laboratory`s once-vital nuclear weapons division is now in dire straits. The laboratory was established in 1952, during the titanic struggle over the hydrogen bomb, has grown steadily from $7 million to its peak of $1.1 billion in 1991. The future for key members of their most experienced weapons design team is uncertain. Over the past two years, Livermore`s operating budget has fallen by 12.5 percent or $127.6 million. Nearly 750 employees, 10 percent of the work force, accepted early retirement offers last year. Further budget cuts will force another 300 to 600 personnel out by the end of 1995. The future resides in the U.S. Congress.

  17. Weapons and Aggression

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anderson, Craig

    Created by Craig Anderson of Iowa State University, this case study addresses the question: "Does the mere presence of a weapon increase the accessibility of aggressive thoughts?" It concerns the following concepts: quantile and box plots, stem and leaf displays, one-sample t test, confidence interval, within-subjects ANOVA, and consequences of violation of normality assumption. This is a great example of a case study that illustrates many different concepts of statistics.

  18. Modular weapon control unit

    SciTech Connect

    Boccabella, M.F.; McGovney, G.N.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the Modular Weapon Control Unit (MWCU) program was to design and develop a reconfigurable weapon controller (programmer/sequencer) that can be adapted to different weapon systems based on the particular requirements for that system. Programmers from previous systems are conceptually the same and perform similar tasks. Because of this commonality and the amount of re-engineering necessary with the advent of every new design, the idea of a modular, adaptable system has emerged. Also, the controller can be used in more than one application for a specific weapon system. Functionality has been divided into a Processor Module (PM) and an Input/Output Module (IOM). The PM will handle all operations that require calculations, memory, and timing. The IOM will handle interfaces to the rest of the system, input level shifting, output drive capability, and detection of interrupt conditions. Configuration flexibility is achieved in two ways. First, the operation of the PM is determined by a surface mount Read-Only Memory (ROM). Other surface-mount components can be added or neglected as necessary for functionality. Second, IOMs consist of configurable input buffers, configurable output drivers, and configurable interrupt generation. Further, these modules can be added singly or in groups to a Processor Module to achieve the required I/O configuration. The culmination of this LDRD was the building of both Processor Module and Input/Output Module. The MWCU was chosen as a test system to evaluate Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology, desirable for high component density and good thermal characteristics.

  19. US nuclear weapons policy

    SciTech Connect

    May, M.

    1990-12-05

    We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

  20. Evaluating human variability in chemical risk assessment: hazard identification and dose-response assessment for noncancer oral toxicity of trichloroethylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Barton; C. D. Flemming; J. C. Lipscomb

    1996-01-01

    Human variability can be addressed during each stage in the risk assessment of chemicals causing noncancer toxicities. Noncancer toxicities arising from oral exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) are used in this paper as a case study for exploring strategies for identifying and incorporating information about human variability in the chemical specific hazard identification and dose-response assessment steps. Toxicity testing in laboratory

  1. An approach for assessing human exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Glenn [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), National Center for Environmental Assessment, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)], E-mail: rice.glenn@epa.gov; MacDonell, Margaret [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division (United States); Hertzberg, Richard C. [Emory University, Rollins School of Public Health (United States); Teuschler, Linda [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), National Center for Environmental Assessment, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Picel, Kurt; Butler, Jim; Chang, Young-Soo; Hartmann, Heidi [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Humans are exposed daily to multiple chemicals, including incidental exposures to complex chemical mixtures released into the environment and to combinations of chemicals that already co-exist in the environment because of previous releases from various sources. Exposures to chemical mixtures can occur through multiple pathways and across multiple routes. In this paper, we propose an iterative approach for assessing exposures to environmental chemical mixtures; it is similar to single-chemical approaches. Our approach encompasses two elements of the Risk Assessment Paradigm: Problem Formulation and Exposure Assessment. Multiple phases of the assessment occur in each element of the paradigm. During Problem Formulation, analysts identify and characterize the source(s) of the chemical mixture, ensure that dose-response and exposure assessment measures are concordant, and develop a preliminary evaluation of the mixture's fate. During Exposure Assessment, analysts evaluate the fate of the chemicals comprising the mixture using appropriate models and measurement data, characterize the exposure scenario, and estimate human exposure to the mixture. We also describe the utility of grouping the chemicals to be analyzed based on both physical-chemical properties and an understanding of environmental fate. In the article, we also highlight the need for understanding of changes in the mixture composition in the environment due to differential transport, differential degradation, and differential partitioning to other media. The section describes the application of the method to various chemical mixtures, highlighting issues associated with assessing exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment.

  2. Environmental assessment for the purchase of Russian low enriched uranium derived from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The United States is proposing to purchase from the Russian Federation low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) resulting from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The purchase would be accomplished through a proposed contract requiring the United States to purchase 15,250 metric tons (tonnes) of LEU (or 22,550 tonnes of UF{sub 6}) derived from blending 500 metric tones uranium (MTU) of HEU from nuclear warheads. The LEU would be in the form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and would be converted from HEU in Russia. The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is the entity proposing to undertake the contract for purchase, sale, and delivery of the LEU from the Russian Federation. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is negotiating the procedure for gaining confidence that the LEU is derived from HEU that is derived from dismantled nuclear weapons (referred to as ``transparency),`` and would administer the transparency measures for the contract. There are six environments that could potentially be affected by the proposed action; marine (ocean); US ports of entry; truck or rail transportation corridors; the Portsmouth GDP; the electric power industry; and the nuclear fuel cycle industry. These environmental impacts are discussed.

  3. A framework for chemical plant safety assessment under uncertainty.

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, X.; Anitescu, M.; Pereira, C.; Regalbuto, M.

    2009-03-01

    We construct a framework for assessing the risk that the uncertainty in the plant feed and physical parameters may mask the loss of a reaction product. To model the plant, we use a nonlinear, quasi-steady-state model with stochastic input and parameters. We compute the probability that more than a certain product amount is diverted, given the statistics of the uncertainty in the plant feed, in the values of the chemical parameters, and in the output measurement. The uncertainty in the physical parameters is based on the one provided by the recently developed concept of thermochemical tables. We use Monte Carlo methods to compute the probabilities, based on a Cauchy-theorem-like approach to avoid making anything but the safest asymptotic assumptions, as well as to avoid the excessive noise in the region of low-probability events.

  4. A Novel Approach: Chemical Relational Databases, and the Role of the ISSCAN Database on Assessing Chemical Carcinogenity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity databases are crucial resources for toxicologists and regulators involved in chemicals risk assessment. Until recently, existing public toxicity databases have been constructed primarily as "look-up-tables" of existing data, and most often did no...

  5. ASSESSING CHEMICAL RELEASES AND WORKER EXPOSURES FROM A FILTERPRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical releases and worker exposures associated with the filtration of an industrial wastewater sludge were characterized. The filter was a recessed chamber filter press with an open filtrate discharge system. Chemical releases and worker exposures for a selected chemical were ...

  6. Handheld ultrasound concealed weapons detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franklin S. Felber; Norbert C. Wild; Scott Nunan; Dennis Breuner; Frank Doft

    1998-01-01

    A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a remove concealed weapons detector has been built and tested. The concealed weapons detector will enable law enforcement and security officers to detect metallic and nonmetallic weapons concealed beneath clothing remotely from beyond arm's length to about 20 feet. These detectors may be used to: (1) allow hands-off, stand-off frisking of suspects for metallic and

  7. Assessing chemical information literacy skills using the ACRL standards as a guide

    E-print Network

    Emmett, Ada; Emde, Judith

    2006-07-06

    assessment had ever been conducted. For the Spring 2004 and 2005 semester classes, a measurement tool was designed to gauge the development of chemical information literacy skills during the semester. The students were given the assessment at the beginning...

  8. Date: 12/01/12 Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C University of Cambridge Revised July 2004

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    Date: 12/01/12 Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C © University of Cambridge Revised July 2004 UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE CHEMICAL HAZARD RISK ASSESSMENT FORM of Carcinogens etc) #12;Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C © University of Cambridge Revised July 2004

  9. Date:09-01-2013 Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C University of Cambridge Revised July 2004

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    Date:09-01-2013 Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C © University of Cambridge Revised July 2004 UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE CHEMICAL HAZARD RISK ASSESSMENT FORM #12;Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C © University of Cambridge Revised July 2004 Are any

  10. Date: 20/02/2013 Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C University of Cambridge Revised July 2004

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    Date: 20/02/2013 Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C © University of Cambridge Revised July 2004 UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE CHEMICAL HAZARD RISK ASSESSMENT FORM Code of Practice on the Safe Use of Carcinogens etc) #12;Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C

  11. Date: 20/02/2013 Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C University of Cambridge Revised July 2004

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    Date: 20/02/2013 Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C © University of Cambridge Revised July 2004 UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE CHEMICAL HAZARD RISK ASSESSMENT FORM, mouth #12;Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C © University of Cambridge Revised July 2004

  12. Implementation and Student Perceptions of e-Assessment in a Chemical Engineering Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes work carried out at the Department of Chemical Engineering at UCL into the use of e-assessment in a second year module and, in particular, the student perceptions of this mode of assessment. Three quizzes were implemented in Moodle, the first two as formative assessment and the final quiz as summative assessment. The results…

  13. Development of a simulation model for an Army chemical munition disposal facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Berger; Jiuyi Hua; Paul T. Otis; Katrina S. Werpetinski; Vincent F. Johnston

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Army is in the process of disposing of its stockpile of obsolete chemical weapons. A simulation model has been developed to help identify facility operational strategies that may increase the number of munitions or the quantity of chemical agent processed over an extended period of time. It is also used to assess the potential effects of proposed plant

  14. Assessment of hazard of chemical accidental releases triggered by floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonova, M.; Danihelka, P.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, the number of accidents happened, when floods trigger the releases of hazardous materials and following environment contamination. Baia Mare (Romania), Spolana Neratovice (Czech Republic) and hurricane Katrina (USA) are well known examples. The importance of this kind of phenomenon as a type of so called NATECH events is expressed among others in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which reorganises water conservation in Europe. It requires programmes of protection measures to be drawn up not later than 2009, and in sub-article 11 (3) l b) to prevent and/or reduce the impact of accidental pollution incidents, for example as a result of floods. Effective measures demand the assessment of hazard and risk of accidental release triggered by floods and there is a need for the method which can be used for these purposes. Such a method is still missing and this is why the basic method for hazard assessment has been developed. Simple indexes-based method is composed of three segments (natural risks, technological risks and combined risk) and it has flexible, modular structure. First segment estimates the probability of flooding of installation, the second, based on the reference scenarios estimates the possibility of release of chemicals and the third classify consequences. The work on refining of parameters and method continues. Method can be used in prevention of major accidents in the framework of the Council Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances (Seveso II directive) and can help to complete the safety studies in classified establishments.

  15. Weapons and Minority Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrop, Daphne; Hamrick, Kim

    Weapons violence is a major public health problem that especially impacts minority youth. Interventions designed to reduce weapon use by youth are categorized as educational/behavioral change, legal, and technological/environmental. Few educational programs currently exist, but those that do largely concern firearm safety courses, public…

  16. Electromagnetic Compatibility in Weapon Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred J. Nichols

    1964-01-01

    The high density of electrical and electronic equipment in modern weapon systems, the extension of performance limits of both the equipment and the weapon systems and growth in complexity and quantity of systems have greatly aggravated the problem of insuring electromagnetic compatibility. Electromagnetic incompatibility can exist as soon as two or more of the most minor elements of the system

  17. Defining food sampling strategies for chemical risk assessment Nathalie Wesolek, Alain-Claude Roudot

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Defining food sampling strategies for chemical risk assessment Nathalie Wesolek, Alain and risk management. For chemical contaminants in food, contamination assessments enable consumer level of a food lot is evaluated, due to the fact that the whole lot can not be analysed, but only

  18. Experimental and modelling approaches for the assessment of chemical impacts of leachate migration

    E-print Network

    Sheffield, University of

    Experimental and modelling approaches for the assessment of chemical impacts of leachate migration of landfill leachate migration on groundwater resources are conservative and generalised. Cost are evaluated as a combined approach for assessing the chem'ical impact of leachate migration in the Triassic

  19. Application of a fugacity model for assessing chemical fate in ecodistricts of southern Ontario

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Booty; I. W. S. Wong

    1996-01-01

    A fugacity model that was developed to assess the chemical fate of organic chemicals in regions of Canada has been incorporated into the RAISON (Regional Analysis by Intelligent Systems ON a microcomputer) expert system and has been modified and applied to ecodistricts of southern Ontario, Canada. The model is used to estimate a selected chemical's distribution between four bulk compartments

  20. Interactions between chemical and climate stressors: A role for mechanistic toxicology in assessing climate change risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incorporation of global climate change (GCC) effects into regulatory assessments of chemical risk and injury requires an integrated examination of both chemical and non-chemical stressors. Environmental variables altered by GCC, such as temperature, precipitation, salinity and pH...

  1. Celanese Chemicals Clear Lake Plant Energy Projects Assessment and Implementation

    E-print Network

    Weber, J.

    The Clear Lake Plant of Celanese Chemicals has implemented a strategy to reduce energy consumption. The plant identified, designed, and completed several projects to improve its chemical production processes. These projects reduce steam use, fuel...

  2. NCCLC: NETWORK FOR RAPID ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL LIFE CYCLE IMPACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project is expected to provide a platform for chemical and material life-cycle information exchange. A wide use of CLB will enable organically growing LCA database for chemicals and materials. The project is expected to help chemical producers understand potential envir...

  3. Predation risk assessment by green frog ( Rana clamitans ) tadpoles through chemical cues produced by multiple prey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael E. Fraker

    2009-01-01

    Many prey assess predation risk through predator chemical cues. Numerous studies have shown that (1) prey sometimes respond\\u000a to chemical cues produced by heterospecifics and (2) that many species are capable of associative learning. This study extends\\u000a this research by focusing on predation risk assessment and antipredator behavior in environments containing chemical cues\\u000a produced by multiple prey species. The results

  4. Concealed weapon identification using terahertz imaging sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Eddie L.; Moyer, Steve; Franck, Charmaine C.; DeLucia, Frank C.; Casto, Corey; Petkie, Douglas T.; Murrill, Steven R.; Halford, Carl E.

    2006-05-01

    Terahertz imaging sensors are being considered for providing a concealed weapon identification capability for military and security applications. In this paper the difficulty of this task is assessed in a systematic way. Using imaging systems operating at 640 GHz, high resolution imagery of possible concealed weapons has been collected. Information in this imagery is removed in a controlled and systematic way and then used in a human observer perception experiment. From the perception data, a calibration factor describing the overall difficulty of this task was derived. This calibration factor is used with a general model of human observer performance developed at the US Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate to predict the task performance of observers using terahertz imaging sensors. Example performance calculations for a representative imaging sensor are shown.

  5. International approach to the assessment of chemical risks.

    PubMed

    Mercier, M

    1991-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the International Programme on Chemical Safety, a joint venture of the World Health Organization, the United Nations Environment Programme and the International Labour Organization, is to carry out and disseminate evaluations of the risk to human health and the environment from exposure to chemicals, mixtures of chemicals, or combinations of chemicals and physical and biological agents. These evaluations, performed by groups of internationally reputed and independent experts, provide a scientific and objective basis that national authorities may be able to use for planning and for the development of control measures, such as the establishment of exposure limits for chemical pollutants. PMID:2057757

  6. Deciding which chemical mixtures risk assessment methods work best for what mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Teuschler, Linda K. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment, 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr. (MS-A110), Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)], E-mail: teuschler.linda@epa.gov

    2007-09-01

    The most commonly used chemical mixtures risk assessment methods involve simple notions of additivity and toxicological similarity. Newer methods are emerging in response to the complexities of chemical mixture exposures and effects. Factors based on both science and policy drive decisions regarding whether to conduct a chemical mixtures risk assessment and, if so, which methods to employ. Scientific considerations are based on positive evidence of joint toxic action, elevated human exposure conditions or the potential for significant impacts on human health. Policy issues include legislative drivers that may mandate action even though adequate toxicity data on a specific mixture may not be available and risk assessment goals that impact the choice of risk assessment method to obtain the amount of health protection desired. This paper discusses three important concepts used to choose among available approaches for conducting a chemical mixtures risk assessment: (1) additive joint toxic action of mixture components; (2) toxicological interactions of mixture components; and (3) chemical composition of complex mixtures. It is proposed that scientific support for basic assumptions used in chemical mixtures risk assessment should be developed by expert panels, risk assessment methods experts, and laboratory toxicologists. This is imperative to further develop and refine quantitative methods and provide guidance on their appropriate applications. Risk assessors need scientific support for chemical mixtures risk assessment methods in the form of toxicological data on joint toxic action for high priority mixtures, statistical methods for analyzing dose-response for mixtures, and toxicological and statistical criteria for determining sufficient similarity of complex mixtures.

  7. Improving ecological risk assessment of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals by using an integrated modeling system - An example assessing chloroparaffins in riverine environments.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical risk assessment (CRA) is primarily carried out at the screening level relying on empirical relationships between chemical properties and tested toxicity effects. Ultimately, risk to aquatic ecosystems is strongly dependent on actual exposure, which depends on chemical pr...

  8. Date: 16/12/13 Review Date: 16/12/14 Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C University of Cambridge Revised July 2004

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    Date: 16/12/13 Review Date: 16/12/14 Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C © University of Cambridge Revised July 2004 UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE CHEMICAL HAZARD RISK;Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C © University of Cambridge Revised July 2004 Control measures

  9. Date: 21 Oct 2013 Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C University of Cambridge Revised July 2004

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    Date: 21 Oct 2013 Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C © University of Cambridge Revised July 2004 UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE CHEMICAL HAZARD RISK ASSESSMENT FORM in distilled water 100 ml Liquid Corrosive, irritant Skin, eyes, ingestion, inhalation #12;Chemical Hazard Risk

  10. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CHEMICAL AND CLIMATE STRESSORS: A ROLE FOR MECHANISTIC TOXICOLOGY IN ASSESSING CLIMATE CHANGE RISKS

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Michael J; Ankley, Gerald T; Cristol, Daniel A; Maryoung, Lindley A; Noyes, Pamela D; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2013-01-01

    Incorporation of global climate change (GCC) effects into assessments of chemical risk and injury requires integrated examinations of chemical and nonchemical stressors. Environmental variables altered by GCC (temperature, precipitation, salinity, pH) can influence the toxicokinetics of chemical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion as well as toxicodynamic interactions between chemicals and target molecules. In addition, GCC challenges processes critical for coping with the external environment (water balance, thermoregulation, nutrition, and the immune, endocrine, and neurological systems), leaving organisms sensitive to even slight perturbations by chemicals when pushed to the limits of their physiological tolerance range. In simplest terms, GCC can make organisms more sensitive to chemical stressors, while alternatively, exposure to chemicals can make organisms more sensitive to GCC stressors. One challenge is to identify potential interactions between nonchemical and chemical stressors affecting key physiological processes in an organism. We employed adverse outcome pathways, constructs depicting linkages between mechanism-based molecular initiating events and impacts on individuals or populations, to assess how chemical- and climate-specific variables interact to lead to adverse outcomes. Case examples are presented for prospective scenarios, hypothesizing potential chemical–GCC interactions, and retrospective scenarios, proposing mechanisms for demonstrated chemical–climate interactions in natural populations. Understanding GCC interactions along adverse outcome pathways facilitates extrapolation between species or other levels of organization, development of hypotheses and focal areas for further research, and improved inputs for risk and resource injury assessments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:32–48. © 2012 SETAC PMID:23136056

  11. How electroshock weapons kill!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2010-03-01

    Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

  12. Exposure-Based Prioritization of Chemicals for Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manufactured chemicals are used extensively to produce a wide variety of consumer goods and are required by important industrial sectors. Presently, information is insufficient to estimate risks posed to human health and the environment from the over ten thousand chemical substan...

  13. Biological weapons--a primer for microbiologists.

    PubMed

    Hawley, R J; Eitzen, E M

    2001-01-01

    Biological weapons are not new. Biological agents have been used as instruments of warfare and terror for thousands of years to produce fear and harm in humans, animals, and plants. Because they are invisible, silent, odorless, and tasteless, biological agents may be used as an ultimate weapon-easy to disperse and inexpensive to produce. Individuals in a laboratory or research environment can be protected against potentially hazardous biological agents by using engineering controls, good laboratory and microbiological techniques, personal protective equipment, decontamination procedures, and common sense. In the field or during a response to an incident, only personal protective measures, equipment, and decontamination procedures may be available. In either scenario, an immediate evaluation of the situation is foremost, applying risk management procedures to control the risks affecting health, safety, and the environment. The microbiologist and biological safety professional can provide a practical assessment of the biological weapons incident to responsible officials in order to help address microbiological and safety issues, minimize fear and concerns of those responding to the incident, and help manage individuals potentially exposed to a threat agent. PMID:11544355

  14. Policy Name: Weapons Policy Originating/Responsible Department: University Safety

    E-print Network

    Carleton University

    Policy Name: Weapons Policy Originating/Responsible Department: University Safety Approval the following concerns, obstacles, and risks: · Weapons (such as Firearms and Replica Weapons) have to display Weapons as an illustration or statement of their research; · Carleton University owns Weapons

  15. International Criminalization of Chemical and Biological Weapons

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. The Torture materials (1980), torture (1984), and crimes against maritime navigation (1988). The United States has

  16. Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert C. Wild; Frank Doft; Dennis Breuner; Franklin S. Felber

    2001-01-01

    A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 12 feet (4 meters). The detector can be used in prison settings, by officers in

  17. Concealed weapons detection using electromagnetic resonances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan R. Hunt; R. Douglas Hogg; William Foreman

    1998-01-01

    Concealed weapons pose a significant threat to both law enforcement and security agency personnel. The uncontrolled environments associated with peacekeeping and the move toward relaxation of concealed weapons laws here in the U.S. provide a strong motivation for developing weapons detection technologies which are noninvasive and can function noncooperatively. Existing weapons detection systems are primarily oriented to detecting metal and

  18. 32 CFR 234.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weapons. 234.10 Section 234.10 National...THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.10 Weapons. (a) Except as otherwise authorized...are prohibited: (1) Possessing a weapon. (2) Carrying a weapon....

  19. Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition

    E-print Network

    Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign FY 2012 a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear weapons stockpile without underground testing. Science-based weapons's Budget. Page 105 #12;Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign FY

  20. 32 CFR 234.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weapons. 234.10 Section 234.10 National...THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.10 Weapons. (a) Except as otherwise authorized...are prohibited: (1) Possessing a weapon. (2) Carrying a weapon....

  1. 32 CFR 234.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weapons. 234.10 Section 234.10 National...THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.10 Weapons. (a) Except as otherwise authorized...are prohibited: (1) Possessing a weapon. (2) Carrying a weapon....

  2. 32 CFR 234.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons. 234.10 Section 234.10 National...THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.10 Weapons. (a) Except as otherwise authorized...are prohibited: (1) Possessing a weapon. (2) Carrying a weapon....

  3. 32 CFR 234.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weapons. 234.10 Section 234.10 National...THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.10 Weapons. (a) Except as otherwise authorized...are prohibited: (1) Possessing a weapon. (2) Carrying a weapon....

  4. COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY: AN APPROACH FOR PRIORITIZING CHEMICAL RISK ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterizing toxic effects for industrial chemicals carries the challenge of focusing resources on the greatest potential risks for human health and the environment. The union of molecular modeling, bioinformatics and simulation of complex systems with emerging technologies suc...

  5. Models for risk assessment of reactive chemicals in aquatic toxicology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Peter Freidig

    2000-01-01

    A quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) for a,b-unsaturated carboxylates\\u000a(mainly acrylates and methacrylates) was established in chapter 2. Chemical reaction rate\\u000aconstants were measured for 12 different chemicals with three different nucleophiles, namely\\u000aH 2 O, OH - and glutathione (GSH). Relatively small differences were found in hydrolysis\\u000arates (reaction with H 2 O and OH - ). At an

  6. Weapons injuries during and after periods of conflict: retrospective analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Meddings, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative frequency of weapon injuries during conflict and after periods of conflict in the absence of disarmament. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a database of war wounds. SETTING: Region with a protracted conflict between rival combatant groups and a subsequent transition to the uncontested military authority of a single power. SUBJECTS: 2332 people who received weapons injuries during the conflict or post-conflict periods and were admitted to hospital within 24 hours of injury. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Percentage change in mean monthly admission rate by weapon type between conflict and post-conflict periods; annual incidence of injury by weapon type during conflict and post-conflict periods; percentage change in annual incidence by weapon type between conflict and post-conflict periods. RESULTS: Mean monthly admission rates for injuries from fragmentation munitions decreased by 8% between conflict and post-conflict periods and by 23% for injuries from mines and 32% for gunshot injuries. The decline in admissions for all injuries was 23%. After adjustment for population growth over the study period, declines in annual incidence were 22% for fragmentation munitions injuries, 34% for mine injuries, and 40% for gunshot injuries. The decline in incidence for all injuries was 33%. In-hospital mortality from weapons related injuries increased from 2.5% to 6.1% (P < 0.001) between conflict and post-conflict periods. CONCLUSIONS: In this setting, continued availability of weapons is associated with increased mortality and a level of injuries from weapons that is only somewhat reduced from that observed during a period of conflict. PMID:9418089

  7. Cardiac fibrillation risk of Taser weapons.

    PubMed

    Leitgeb, Norbert

    2014-06-01

    The debate on potential health hazards associated with delivering electric discharges to incapacitated subjects, in particular on whether electric discharge weapons are lethal, less lethal or non-lethal, is still controversial. The cardiac fibrillation risks of Taser weapons X26 and X3 have been investigated by measuring the delivered high-tension pulses in dependence on load impedance. Excitation thresholds and sinus-to-Taser conversion factors have been determined by numerical modeling of endocardial, myocardial, and epicardial cells. Detailed quantitative assessment of cardiac electric exposure has been performed by numerical simulation at the normal-weighted anatomical model NORMAN. The impact of anatomical variation has been quantified at an overweight model (Visible Man), both with a spatial resolution of 2 × 2 × 2 mm voxels. Spacing and location of dart electrodes were systematically varied and the worst-case position determined. Based on volume-weighted cardiac exposure assessment, the fibrillation probability of the worst-case hit was determined to 30% (Taser X26) and 9% (Taser X3). The overall risk assessment of Taser application accounting for realistic spatial hit distributions was derived from training sessions of police officers under realistic scenarios and by accounting for the influence of body (over-)weight as well as gender. The analysis of the results showed that the overall fibrillation risk of Taser use is not negligible. It is higher at Taser X26 than at Taser X3 and amounts to about 1% for Europeans with an about 20% higher risk for Asians. Results demonstrate that enhancement as well as further reduction of fibrillation risk depends on responsible use or abuse of Taser weapons. PMID:24776896

  8. INTEGRATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY AND TOXICOLOGY IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENTS FOR ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EDCS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective and disgnostic assessments of the ecological risk of toxic chemicals require a thorough integration of aspects of environmental chemistry and toxicology. Failure to successfully achieve this can result in a lack of scientific credibility, as well as missed opportuniti...

  9. Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other Environmental Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRACI, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts, has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency?s National Risk Management Research Laboratory to facilitate the characterization of stressors that have potential effects, ...

  10. AN OVERVIEW OF PATHOGEN RESEARCH IN THE MICROBIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Microbiological and Chemical Exposure Assessment Research Division of the EPA Office of Research and Development's National Exposure Research Laboratory has a robust in-house research program aimed at developing better occurrence and exposure methods for waterborne pathogens....

  11. Using Secondary Data to Evaluate Diverse Groups of Chemical and Nonchemical Stressors in Cumulative Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    A main impediment of performing cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) is having data for multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors in the same individuals or populations. Therefore, secondary data analysis can be utilized as a screening approach to integrate population characteri...

  12. TRACI - THE TOOL FOR THE REDUCTION AND ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRACI, The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts, is described along with its history, the underlying research, methodologies, and insights within individual impact categories. TRACI facilitates the characterization of stressors that ma...

  13. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT: A MULTISECTOR APPROACH TO THE MODERNIZATION OF HUMAN SAFETY REQUIREMENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Better understanding of toxicological mechanisms, enhanced testing capabilities, and demands for more sophisticated data for safety and health risk assessment have generated international interest in improving the current testing paradigm for agricultural chemicals. To address th...

  14. BYSTANDER EFFECTS GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIAION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    BYSTANDER EFFECTS, GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIATION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES R. Julian Preston Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27711, USA There ...

  15. Development of an In Silico Metabolic Simulator and Searchable Metabolism Database for Chemical Risk Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA is faced with long lists of chemicals that need to be assessed for hazard, and a gap in evaluating chemical risk is accounting for metabolic activation resulting in increased toxicity. The goals of this project are to develop a capability to predict metabolic maps of x...

  16. Survey and assessment of heat of reaction type chemical heat pumps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Sanders Jr.; D. F. Suciu; W. J. Toth; P. M. Wikoff

    1984-01-01

    The development of technology to augment a significant portion of the manufacturing fuel requirements with the low grade energy contained in the industrial process waste heat streams is discussed. The development of mechanical and chemical heat pumps for industrial application were investigated. The state-of-the-art and heat of reaction chemical heat pump systems (HRCHP) were assessed. Significant potential for such a

  17. The Quantitative Assessment of Risk Caused By Fire and Explosion in Chemical Process Industry

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    The Quantitative Assessment of Risk Caused By Fire and Explosion in Chemical Process Industry Farid By Fire and Explosion in Chemical Process Industry: A Domino Effect-Based Study Corresponding Author by the domino effect are the most destructive accidents related to industrial plants. Fire and explosion

  18. Assessment of environment-, health- and safety aspects of fine chemical processes during early design phases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guntram Koller; Ulrich Fischer; Konrad Hungerbühler

    1999-01-01

    Most environmental-, health- and safety problems (EHS) of a chemical process are fixed during the early stages of the design process, when the chemical reaction pathway and the reaction parameters (e.g. solvents, temperature) are selected. Although a large variety of methods exist for assessing EHS problems of existing processes, none of them can be applied as a general method during

  19. Chemical hazard identification and assessment tool for evaluation of stormwater priority pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Eriksson; A. Baun; P. S. Mikkelsen; A. Ledin

    Assessment of chemical hazards is a critical issue, which have to be dealt with when evaluating different strategies for sustainable handling of stormwater. In the present study, a methodology for identifying the most critical and representative chemical pollutants was developed. A list of selected stormwater priority pollutants (SSPP-list) is the out-put from the procedure. Two different strategies for handling of

  20. Structure of Microbial Communities in Activated Sludge: Potential Implications for Assessing the Biodegradability of Chemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Forney; W.-T. Liu; J. B. Guckert; Y. Kumagai; E. Namkung; T. Nishihara; R. J. Larson

    2001-01-01

    Various methods used to assess the biodegradability of chemicals often employ activated sludge as an inoculum since chemicals that ultimately enter the environment are often discharged through wastewater. Differences in the structure and function of activated sludge microbial communities that may complicate interpretation of biodegradation tests could arise from differences in wastewater composition, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) operation, or manipulations

  1. Deterring weapons of mass destruction terrorism. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    LeHardy, F.A.

    1997-12-01

    This thesis examines terrorist acts involving the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against unsuspecting civilians by the Aum Shinrikyo and Rajneesh cults. The proliferation of WMD (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) has created a concern that terrorists might use WMD. Despite obvious signs, these groups were not identified as terrorists until after they committed terrorist attacks. This thesis identifies common characteristics of terrorists that have used WMD in the past and generates indicators of non-state actors that might commit WMD terrorism in the future.

  2. Rainout assessment: the ACRA system and summaries of simulation results. [Computer systems to estimate threats from precipitation scavenging of radioactive debris clouds from nuclear weapons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Watson; S. Barr; R. E. Allenson

    1977-01-01

    A generalized, three-dimensional, integrated computer code system was developed to estimate collateral-damage threats from precipitation-scavenging (rainout) of airborne debris-clouds from defensive tactical nuclear engagements. This code system, called ACRA for Atmospheric-Contaminant Rainout Assessment, is based on Monte Carlo statistical simulation methods that allow realistic, unbiased simulations of probabilistic storm, wind, and precipitation fields that determine actual magnitudes and probabilities of

  3. ASSESSING CHEMICAL HAZARDS AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) FOR PLANNING FUTURE D&D

    SciTech Connect

    HOPKINS, A.M.; KLOS, D.B.; MINETT, M.J.

    2007-01-25

    This paper documents the fiscal year (FY) 2006 assessment to evaluate potential chemical and radiological hazards associated with vessels and piping in the former plutonium process areas at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Evaluations by PFP engineers as design authorities for specific systems and other subject-matter experts were conducted to identify the chemical hazards associated with transitioning the process areas for the long-term layup of PFP before its eventual final decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). D and D activities in the main process facilities were suspended in September 2005 for a period of between 5 and 10 years. A previous assessment conducted in FY 2003 found that certain activities to mitigate chemical hazards could be deferred safely until the D and D of PFP, which had been scheduled to result in a slab-on-grade condition by 2009. As a result of necessary planning changes, however, D and D activities at PFP will be delayed until after the 2009 time frame. Given the extended project and plant life, it was determined that a review of the plant chemical hazards should be conducted. This review to determine the extended life impact of chemicals is called the ''Plutonium Finishing Plant Chemical Hazards Assessment, FY 2006''. This FY 2006 assessment addresses potential chemical and radiological hazard areas identified by facility personnel and subject-matter experts who reevaluated all the chemical systems (items) from the FY 2003 assessment. This paper provides the results of the FY 2006 chemical hazards assessment and describes the methodology used to assign a hazard ranking to the items reviewed.

  4. Tissue screening concentration values for assessing ecological risks of chemical residues in aquatic biota

    SciTech Connect

    Shephard, B.K. [URS Consultants, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Ecological risk based screening concentrations for aquatic biota tissue residues have been developed for 74 chemicals. These tissue screening concentrations (TSC`s) are non-site specific and applicable to a wide variety of both freshwater and marine biota. Chemical residues in tissues at concentrations below the TSC are presumed to pose little or no risk to aquatic biota, allowing chemicals to be quickly eliminated from further consideration in an ecological risk assessment. Compared with human health risk assessments, relatively few screening tools are available to ecological risk assessors which allow them to quickly reduce the number of chemicals which need to be carried through the complete risk assessment process. To date, only ambient water quality criteria and sediment quality guidelines have been widely used as screening tools in ecological risk assessment. It is believed that the tissue screening concentrations described will provide ecological risk assessors with another tool for rapidly identifying contaminants of concern to aquatic biota, while allowing those chemicals which do not pose significant risks to aquatic biota to be eliminated from the risk assessment. Computational methods for deriving TSC`s will be shown, and the TSC`s for 74 chemicals, covering a wide range of chemicals, both metals and organic compounds, will be presented. The results of a literature survey for over 40 chemicals, comparing whole body tissue residues associated with toxic responses to the calculated TSC`s will be shown. This review indicates that for most chemicals, the TSC`s describe tissue residues for aquatic biota which, if not exceeded, are indicative of chemical concentrations which pose little or no risks to aquatic biota.

  5. 76 FR 68809 - Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation; Termination of Chemical and Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...Nonproliferation; Termination of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions...Missile, Biological, and Chemical Nonproliferation, Bureau...in its efforts to acquire chemical or biological weapons capability: Gerhard...

  6. Virtual enterprise model for the electronic components business in the Nuclear Weapons Complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Ferguson; K. S. Long; J. A. Sayre; A. L. Hull; D. A. Carey; J. R. Sim; M. G. Smith

    1994-01-01

    The electronic components business within the Nuclear Weapons Complex spans organizational and Department of Energy contractor boundaries. An assessment of the current processes indicates a need for fundamentally changing the way electronic components are developed, procured, and manufactured. A model is provided based on a virtual enterprise that recognizes distinctive competencies within the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at the vendors.

  7. Chemical assessment state of the science: Evaluation of 32 decision-support tools used to screen and prioritize chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Alison M; Fung, Mai; Panko, Julie; Kingsbury, Tony; Perez, Angela L; Hitchcock, Kristen; Ferracini, Tyler; Sahmel, Jennifer; Banducci, Amber; Jacobsen, Megan; Abelmann, Anders; Shay, Erin

    2015-04-01

    The last decade has seen an increased focus on evaluating the safety and sustainability of chemicals in consumer and industrial products. In order to effectively and accurately evaluate safety and sustainability, tools are needed to characterize hazard, exposure, and risk pertaining to products and processes. Because many of these tools will be used to identify problematic chemistries, and because many have potential applications in various steps of an alternatives analysis, the limitations and capabilities of available tools should be understood by users so that, ultimately, potential chemical risk is accurately reflected. In our study, we examined 32 chemical characterization tools from government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The tools we studied were diverse, and varied widely in their scope and assessment. As such, they were separated into five categories for comparison: 1) Screening and Prioritization; 2) Database Utilization; 3) Hazard Assessment; 4) Exposure and Risk Assessment; and 5) Certification and Labeling. Each tool was scored based on our weighted set of criteria, and then compared to other tools in the same category. Ten tools received a high score in one or more categories; 24 tools received a medium score in one or more categories, and five tools received a low score in one or more categories. Although some tools were placed into more than one category, no tool encompassed all five of the assessment categories. Though many of the tools evaluated may be useful for providing guidance for hazards - and, in some cases, exposure - few tools characterize risk. To our knowledge, this study is the first to critically evaluate a large set of chemical assessment tools and provide an understanding of their strengths and limitations. PMID:25377590

  8. Health risk assessments of DEHP released from chemical protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Chao, Keh-Ping; Huang, Chan-Sheng; Wei, Chung-Ying

    2015-02-11

    The substance di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in chemical protective gloves to improve their flexibility and workability. However, it is possible that workers using protective gloves to handle various solvents may be exposed to DEHP leached by the solvents. Using an ASTM F739 permeation cell, it was found that BTEX solvents permeating through the glove samples dissolved DEHP from the gloves. Even without continuously contacting the permeant, DEHP was released from the contaminated glove samples during the desorption experiments. The DEHP leaching amounts were found to be inversely correlated to the permeability coefficients of BTEX in the glove samples. This result implied that the larger the amount of DEHP released from the glove samples, the higher the permeation resistance of gloves. Although chemical protective gloves provide adequate skin exposure protection to workers, the dermal exposure model developed herein indicates that leaching of DEHP from the glove samples may pose a potential health risk to the workers who handle BTEX. This study suggests that the selection of protective gloves should not only be concerned with the chemical resistance of the gloves but also the health risk associated with leaching of chemicals, such as DEHP, used in the manufacturing of the gloves. PMID:25261760

  9. Assessment and management of chemical coping in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Del Fabbro, Egidio

    2014-06-01

    Chemical coping is a working definition that describes patients' intake of opioids on a scale that spans the range between normal nonaddictive opioid use for pain all the way to opioid addiction. Most patients will fall somewhere between the two extremes in using opioid analgesics to cope with their psychological or spiritual distress. The degree to which patients use their medications in a maladaptive manner will determine their susceptibility to drug toxicity and harm. When there are no obvious cancer-related causes for increased pain intensity, chemical coping and other patient-related factors such as delirium, somatization, and depression should be considered. As part of the initial evaluation of patients with cancer-related pain, a brief screening tool such as the CAGE questionnaire should be used to identify patients who may be at risk for chemical coping. Identifying patients at risk will allow clinicians to avoid unnecessary opioid toxicity, control pain, and improve quality of life. A structured approach for managing opioid use should be adopted, including standardized documentation, opioid treatment agreements, urine drug screens, frequent visits, and restricted quantities of breakthrough opioids. All patients at risk should receive brief motivational interviewing with an objective, nonjudgmental, and empathic style that includes personalized feedback, particularly about markers of risk or harm. For chemical copers approaching the addiction end of the spectrum, with evidence of compulsive use and destructive behavior, referral should be made to substance abuse specialists. PMID:24799476

  10. Assessment of Air Change Rates in Chemical Laboratories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeh-Chung Chien; Cheng-Ping Chang; Chi-Pon Lo

    2009-01-01

    By performing a set of controlled experiments and field measurements, this study investigated ventilation conditions in chemical laboratories in universities, as well as the impact of various ventilation measures on air change rate (ACR). The controlled study was conducted in one research laboratory. On\\/off air-conditioning, a fume hood, local exhaust, and an open door were the test variables. The field

  11. Advancing Exposure Characterization for Chemical Evaluation and Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new generation of scientific tools has emerged to rapidly measure signals from cells, tissues, and organisms following exposure to chemicals. High-visibility efforts to apply these tools for efficient toxicity testing raise important research questions in exposure science. As v...

  12. NEW METHODS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF IMMUNOTOXICITY OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The immune system is a target of toxic insult following subchronic or chronic exposure to environmental chemicals, therapeutic drugs or abused drugs. nteraction of xenobiotics with the immune system may result in undesirable effects of three principal types; (a) those manifested ...

  13. 80 FR 37615 - Notification of Two Public Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board Chemical Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2015-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces two public teleconferences of the SAB Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee Augmented for the Review of the Draft Benzo[a]pyrene Assessment (CAAC-Benzo[a]pyrene Panel) to discuss its draft report concerning EPA's draft Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Toxicological Review of......

  14. Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Learning and Developmental Disorders: Epidemiology and Exposure Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jennifer Kate

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation has two areas of focus: learning and developmental disorders (LDDs) and polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs). Epidemiological and exposure assessment methods are applied to each. The first paper used geographic location as a surrogate for exposure and broadly assesses the effect of the environment, both physical and social, on LDD…

  15. ADVANCES IN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT FOR SYSTEMIC TOXICANTS AND CHEMICAL MIXTURES: AN INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The symposium focuses on improvement of techniques and evaluation of newly developed techniques in risk assessment of systemic toxicants and toxic mixtures of chemicals. The goal of the symposium is to review the risk assessment procedures for systemic toxicants now in use and to...

  16. APPROACHES FOR INCORPORATING NON-CHEMICAL STRESSORS INTO CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past twenty years, the risk assessment paradigm has gradually shifted from an individual chemical approach to a community-based model. Inherent in community-based risk assessment is consideration of the totality of stressors affecting a defined population including both ...

  17. Date: 25 Mar 2014 Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C University of Cambridge Revised July 2004

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    Date: 25 Mar 2014 Review Date: Assessment Reference: Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment Form HSD 030C © University of Cambridge Revised July 2004 UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE CHEMICAL HAZARD RISK ASSESSMENT FORM of solution will be prepared. Risks associated with the procedure (What are the hazards and risks?): Sodium

  18. Veteran Transfer Students and Concealed Weapons on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesetski, Christine; Ofstein, Jennifer; Outlaw, Stacy; Brooks, Racheal

    2014-01-01

    This case details the challenges faced by various members of a 4-year university regarding Kathryn, a non-traditional transfer student and military veteran who recently returned from a traumatic deployment in Afghanistan. Precisely, this study identifies ambiguities pertaining to (a) threat assessment, (b) university weapons policies, (c) transfer…

  19. Significance of single particle effects in neutral beam weapon lethality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steverding, B.; Browning, J. S.

    This paper provides a rationale for assessing the response of microelectronics to single event effects caused by directed energy weapons utilizing beams of neutral particles. The current understanding of single particle vulnerabilities is summarized, and an extrapolation of these vulnerabilities outside of the experimental domain is presented.

  20. Weapons of Mass Destruction technology evaluation and training range

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Larry Young

    2009-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has a long history for providing technology evaluation and training for military and other federal level weapons of mass destruction (WMD) response agencies. Currently there are many federal organizations and commercial companies developing technologies related to detecting, assessing, mitigating and protecting against hazards associated with a WMD event. Unfortunately, very few locations exist within the

  1. Prioritizing Chemicals and Data Requirements for Screening-Level Exposure and Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Trevor N.; Wania, Frank; Breivik, Knut; McLachlan, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Scientists and regulatory agencies strive to identify chemicals that may cause harmful effects to humans and the environment; however, prioritization is challenging because of the large number of chemicals requiring evaluation and limited data and resources. Objectives: We aimed to prioritize chemicals for exposure and exposure potential and obtain a quantitative perspective on research needs to better address uncertainty in screening assessments. Methods: We used a multimedia mass balance model to prioritize > 12,000 organic chemicals using four far-field human exposure metrics. The propagation of variance (uncertainty) in key chemical information used as model input for calculating exposure metrics was quantified. Results: Modeled human concentrations and intake rates span approximately 17 and 15 orders of magnitude, respectively. Estimates of exposure potential using human concentrations and a unit emission rate span approximately 13 orders of magnitude, and intake fractions span 7 orders of magnitude. The actual chemical emission rate contributes the greatest variance (uncertainty) in exposure estimates. The human biotransformation half-life is the second greatest source of uncertainty in estimated concentrations. In general, biotransformation and biodegradation half-lives are greater sources of uncertainty in modeled exposure and exposure potential than chemical partition coefficients. Conclusions: Mechanistic exposure modeling is suitable for screening and prioritizing large numbers of chemicals. By including uncertainty analysis and uncertainty in chemical information in the exposure estimates, these methods can help identify and address the important sources of uncertainty in human exposure and risk assessment in a systematic manner. PMID:23008278

  2. RISK ASSESSMENT IS A DEVELOPING SCIENCE: APPROACHES TO IMPROVE EVALUATION OF SINGLE CHEMICALS AND CHEMICAL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office of the U.S. EPA is engaged in the development of risk assessment guidelines and methodologies as part of the regulatory program of the Agency. here is an increasing need for methods that address more complex exposure situations, in...

  3. On the incorporation of chemical-specific information in risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Clewell, Harvey J; Andersen, Melvin E; Blaauboer, Bas J

    2008-08-15

    This paper describes the evolution of chemical risk assessment from its early dependence on generic default approaches to the current situation in which mechanistic and biokinetic data are routinely incorporated to support a more chemical-specific approach. Two methodologies that have played an important role in this evolution are described: mode-of-action evaluation and physiologically based biokinetic (PBBK) modelling. When used together, these techniques greatly increase the opportunity for the incorporation of biokinetic and mechanistic data in risk assessment. The resulting risk assessment approaches are more appropriately tailored to the specific chemical and are more likely to provide an accurate assessment of the potential hazards associated with human exposures. The appropriate application of PBBK models in risk assessment demands well-formulated statements about the chemical mode of action. It is this requirement for an explicit, mechanistic hypothesis that gives biologically motivated models their power, but at the same time serves as the greatest impediment to the acceptance of a chemical-specific risk assessment approach by regulators. The chief impediment to the regulatory acceptance and application of PBBK models in risk assessment is concern about uncertainties associated with their use. To some extent such concerns can be addressed by the development of generally accepted approaches for model evaluation and quantitative uncertainty analysis. In order to assure the protection of public health while limiting the economic and social consequences of over-regulation, greater dialogue between researchers and regulators is crucially needed to foster an increased use of emerging scientific information and innovative methods in chemical risk assessments. PMID:18588959

  4. Toxicokinetic modeling and its applications in chemical risk assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvin E. Andersen

    2003-01-01

    In recent years physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling has found frequent application in risk assessments where PBPK models serve as important adjuncts to studies on modes of action of xenobiotics. In this regard, studies on mode of action provide insight into both the sites\\/mechanisms of action and the form of the xenobiotic associated with toxic responses. Validated PBPK models permit

  5. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist mall- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

  6. Using Drawing Technology to Assess Students' Visualizations of Chemical Reaction Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsin-Yi; Quintana, Chris; Krajcik, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we investigated how students used a drawing tool to visualize their ideas of chemical reaction processes. We interviewed 30 students using thinking-aloud and retrospective methods and provided them with a drawing tool. We identified four types of connections the students made as they used the tool: drawing on existing knowledge, incorporating dynamic aspects of chemical processes, linking a visualization to the associated chemical phenomenon, and connecting between the visualization and chemistry concepts. We also compared students who were able to create dynamic visualizations with those who only created static visualizations. The results indicated a relationship between students constructing a dynamic view of chemical reaction processes and their understanding of chemical reactions. This study provides insights into the use of visualizations to support instruction and assessment to facilitate students' integrated understanding of chemical reactions.

  7. Experimental assessment of the performance of a proposed lead slowing-down spectrometer at WNR/PSR (Weapons Neutron Research/Proton Storage Ring)

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M.S.; Koehler, P.E.; Michaudon, A.; Schelberg, A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Danon, Y.; Block, R.C.; Slovacek, R.E. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (USA)); Hoff, R.W.; Lougheed, R.W. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    In November 1989, we carried out a measurement of the fission cross section of {sup 247}Cm, {sup 250}Cf, and {sup 254}Es on the Rensselaer Intense Neutron Source (RINS) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). In July 1990, we carried out a second measurement, using the same fission chamber and electronics, in beam geometry at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) facility. Using the relative count rates observed in the two experiments, and the flux-enhancement factors determined by the RPI group for a lead slowing-down spectrometer compared to beam geometry, we can assess the performance of a spectrometer similar to RINS, driven by the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. With such a spectrometer, we find that is is feasible to make measurements with samples of 1 ng for fission 1 {mu}g for capture, and of isotopes with half-lives of tens of minutes. It is important to note that, while a significant amount of information can be obtained from the low resolution RINS measurement, a definitive determination of average properties, including the level density, requires that the resonance structure be resolved. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. The evolving science of chemical risk assessment for land-applied biosolids.

    PubMed

    Schoof, Rosalind A; Houkal, Dana

    2005-01-01

    Biosolids, effluents, and manures are widely applied to agricultural land and other land with varying degrees of pretreatment or control. Regulations governing land application of biosolids take several broad forms in different countries, including limitations based on rates that do not lead to increases in background chemical concentrations or risk assessment approaches such as those used in the United States. Risk assessment is a process that is inherently limited by currently available information and practices, and consequently, risk-based land application limits must be reevaluated periodically. For complex mixtures such as biosolids, three principal categories of information will be affected by changing practices and scientific advances: (i) chemical constituents present in the material, (ii) the nature of expected exposures, and (iii) toxicity of the chemical constituents. New analytical methods and lower detection limits will affect chemical identification in wastes. Approaches to exposure assessment, such as increasing emphasis on probabilistic analyses, will continue to evolve, and exposure assumptions will change as new studies provide better data on factors such as soil ingestion, plant uptake of chemicals, and bioavailability of chemicals in soil. Similarly, toxicity assessments will be updated as new studies are conducted. The evolving science over the past decade is illustrated by comparing approaches used by the USEPA to assess human health and ecological risks for the Part 503 rule compared with the more recent evaluation of dioxins and related compounds in biosolids. While risks of chemicals in land-applied biosolids and other residuals need to be periodically re-evaluated, such re-evaluations may take forms other than full risk assessments. PMID:15647540

  9. Weapons of Mass Destruction Technology Evaluation and Training Range

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Larry Young

    2009-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has a long history for providing technology evaluation and training for military and other federal level Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) response agencies. Currently there are many federal organizations and commercial companies developing technologies related to detecting, assessing, mitigating and protecting against hazards associated with a WMD event. Unfortunately, very few locations exist within the United States where WMD response technologies are realistically field tested and evaluated using real chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive materials. This is particularly true with biological and radiological hazards. Related to this lack of adequate WMD, multi-hazard technology testing capability is the shortage of locations where WMD response teams can train using actual chemical, biological, and radiological material or highly realistic simulates. In response to these technology evaluation and training needs, the INL has assembled a consortium of subject matter experts from existing programs and identified dedicated resources for the purpose of establishing an all-hazards, WMD technology evaluation and training range. The author describes the challenges associated with creating the all-hazards WMD technology evaluation and training range and lists the technical, logistical and financial benefits of an all-hazards technology evaluation and training range. Current resources and capabilities for conducting all-hazard technology evaluation and training at the INL are identified. Existing technology evaluation and training programs at the INL related to radiological, biological and chemical hazards are highlighted, including successes and lessons learned. Finally, remaining gaps in WMD technology evaluation and training capabilities are identified along with recommendations for closing those gaps.

  10. Technical guide for applications of gene expression profiling in human health risk assessment of environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Bourdon-Lacombe, Julie A; Moffat, Ivy D; Deveau, Michelle; Husain, Mainul; Auerbach, Scott; Krewski, Daniel; Thomas, Russell S; Bushel, Pierre R; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L

    2015-07-01

    Toxicogenomics promises to be an important part of future human health risk assessment of environmental chemicals. The application of gene expression profiles (e.g., for hazard identification, chemical prioritization, chemical grouping, mode of action discovery, and quantitative analysis of response) is growing in the literature, but their use in formal risk assessment by regulatory agencies is relatively infrequent. Although additional validations for specific applications are required, gene expression data can be of immediate use for increasing confidence in chemical evaluations. We believe that a primary reason for the current lack of integration is the limited practical guidance available for risk assessment specialists with limited experience in genomics. The present manuscript provides basic information on gene expression profiling, along with guidance on evaluating the quality of genomic experiments and data, and interpretation of results presented in the form of heat maps, pathway analyses and other common approaches. Moreover, potential ways to integrate information from gene expression experiments into current risk assessment are presented using published studies as examples. The primary objective of this work is to facilitate integration of gene expression data into human health risk assessments of environmental chemicals. PMID:25944780

  11. Assessing the Robustness of Chemical Prioritizations Based on ToxCast Chemical Profiling

    EPA Science Inventory

    A central goal of the U.S. EPA?s ToxCast? program is to provide empirical, scientific evidence to aid in prioritizing the toxicity testing of thousands of chemicals. The agency has developed a prioritization approach, the Toxicological Prioritization Index (ToxPi?), that calculat...

  12. Antibacterial activity and biodegradability assessment of chemically grafted nanofibrillated cellulose.

    PubMed

    Missoum, Karim; Sadocco, Patrizia; Causio, Jessica; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur; Bras, Julien

    2014-12-01

    Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and their derivatives were prepared using three chemical surface modification strategies. All grafting was characterized by FTIR and contact angle measurements in order to evaluate the efficiency of grafting. Antibacterial activities of neat and grafted samples were investigated against two kinds of bacteria (i.e. Gram+ (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram- (Klebsiella pneumoniae)). All the grafted samples displayed promising results with at least bacteriostatic effect or bactericidal properties. They also strongly enhanced the photo-catalytic antimicrobial effect of TiO2. This study proves that it is better to use grafted NFC either alone or for functionalization with TiO2 if anti-bacterial properties are desired. The cellulose backbone is known to be easily biodegradable in different biodegradation conditions and environments. The chemical surface modifications applied on NFC in the present work did not negatively influence this valuable property of cellulose but help for monitoring this property, which could be very useful for paper, packaging and composites. PMID:25491853

  13. Merging applicability domains for in silico assessment of chemical mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruifeng; Wallqvist, Anders

    2014-03-24

    Using a benchmark Ames mutagenicity data set, we evaluated the performance of molecular fingerprints as descriptors for developing quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models and defining applicability domains with two machine-learning methods: random forest (RF) and variable nearest neighbor (v-NN). The two methods focus on complementary aspects of chemical mutagenicity and use different characteristics of the molecular fingerprints to achieve high levels of prediction accuracies. Thus, while RF flags mutagenic compounds using the presence or absence of small molecular fragments akin to structural alerts, the v-NN method uses molecular structural similarity as measured by fingerprint-based Tanimoto distances between molecules. We showed that the extended connectivity fingerprints could intuitively be used to define and quantify an applicability domain for either method. The importance of using applicability domains in QSAR modeling cannot be understated; compounds that are outside the applicability domain do not have any close representative in the training set, and therefore, we cannot make reliable predictions. Using either approach, we developed highly robust models that rival the performance of a state-of-the-art proprietary software package. Importantly, based on the complementary approach used by the methods, we showed that by combining the model predictions we raised the applicability domain from roughly 80% to 90%. These results indicated that the proposed QSAR protocol constituted a highly robust chemical mutagenicity prediction model. PMID:24494696

  14. Approximate Trajectories for a Loop Weapon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Anderson; P. W. Rowe

    1955-01-01

    Computer simulation of delivery of bombs by the low-level atomic weapons delivery Loop system. Strictly a mathematical treatise of trajectories calculated with the aid of an electronic analog computer. No weapon data.

  15. Research on high power microwave weapons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoqi Ni; Benqing Gao; Junwei Lu

    2005-01-01

    This article describes for high power microwave (abbreviation HPM) weapons research from its procedures and developing trends. In the process of researching, developing and using weapons, we have been seeking a real \\

  16. Undersea Weapon Design and Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kam W. Ng

    This paper provides an overview of the Undersea Weapon Design and Optimization (UWDO) program sponsored by the United States Navy's Office of Naval Research (ONR). Progress, status, and future research directions of the UWDO program are presented. The objective of the UWDO program is to develop computational tools and simulation-based methodology to optimize undersea weaponry system designs with respect to

  17. Nuclear weapons: suppose we froze

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ball

    1982-01-01

    Anti-nuclear weapon activities have shifted their focus from Europe to the US, where leaders of the freeze movement concentrate on intercontinental missiles rather than on the smaller, mobile type of most concern to Europeans. A freeze on cruise and Pershing II missiles would increase Europe's vulnerability without changing the overall parity. Calls to change nuclear policy are due to changing

  18. Weapons engineering tritium facility overview

    SciTech Connect

    Najera, Larry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-20

    Materials provide an overview of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) as introductory material for January 2011 visit to SRS. Purpose of the visit is to discuss Safety Basis, Conduct of Engineering, and Conduct of Operations. WETF general description and general GTS program capabilities are presented in an unclassified format.

  19. Life cycle assessment of biomass conversion to feedstock chemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce W. Vigon; Duane A. Tolle; David P. Evers; Scott L. Freeman; Kenneth K. Humphreys; Christopher F. Wend; Ronald Landucci

    1996-01-01

    The life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was applied to the comparative analysis of two processes for producing 1,4-butanediol. The first process is the conventional hydrocarbon feedstock-based approach, utilizing methane to produce formaldehyde, and acetylene with synthesis under conditions of heat and pressure. The second is a biomass-based feedstock approach where glucose derived from corn is fermented. When evaluated from the standpoint

  20. Operation Desert Shield: Medical aspects of weapons of mass destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Knudson, G.B. (Department of Pathology, Letterman Army Medical Center, Presidio of San Francisco, CA (USA))

    1991-06-01

    The authors concern over possible use of weapons of mass destruction against U.S. forces in the Middle East has increased because Iraq has violated the Geneva Protocol of 1925 and the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention, attempted to acquire nuclear capability and delivery systems, and is reported to be developing biological weapons. The Army Medical Department has had no experience, since World War I, in the management and treatment of mass casualties contaminated by chemical agents, and has never treated casualties resulting from the use of nuclear or biological weapons used against our soldiers. Management and diagnosis of casualties will be complicated by their possible exposure to a mixture of chemical warfare and biological warfare agents. Triage is an essential aspect in the management of mass casualties since the number of injured patients will exceed the maximum medical capability to treat each patient on arrival. All levels of medical support must be prepared to protect themselves, their equipment and supplies, and their patients from contamination. In contaminated operations on the integrated battlefield, it will be of utmost importance to incorporate flexibility and innovation to match the medical and tactical situation.

  1. MANAGING AVOCADO PESTS WITH ROMANCE, INTRIGUE AND WAR - INTEGRATING PHEROMONES, ASSASSINS AND WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoff Waite

    SUMMARY Avocado growers continually wage war on pests that ravage their crops. For the last 60 years, crop protection tradition fostered by the generally excellent results achieved, has been to use weapons of mass destruction in the form of chemical pesticides to combat the enemy. Issues of chemical resistance development in target species, chemical residues in fruit and the environment,

  2. Evaluation of Biomonitoring Data from the CDC National Exposure Report in a Risk Assessment Context: Perspectives across Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Biomonitoring data reported in the National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (NER) provide information on the presence and concentrations of more than 400 chemicals in human blood and urine. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) and other risk assessment...

  3. Weapons in Schools. NSSC Resource Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, George E., Ed.; Turner, Brenda, Ed.

    More than ever, our public school system must confront weapons in schools and become aware of steadily rising statistics on youth homicide and suicide. This report delineates the problem, discusses why children carry weapons to school, and outlines strategies for keeping weapons out of schools and for improving school safety. Although some…

  4. 48 CFR 25.301-3 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weapons. 25.301-3 Section 25.301-3...Outside the United States 25.301-3 Weapons. The contracting officer shall follow agency procedures and the weapons policy established by the...

  5. 48 CFR 25.301-3 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Weapons. 25.301-3 Section 25.301-3...Outside the United States 25.301-3 Weapons. The contracting officer shall follow agency procedures and the weapons policy established by the...

  6. Strengthening the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    Strengthening the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention: Countering the Threat from Biological Weapons Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs By Command of Her Majesty April 2002 Cm 5484 £5.00 #12;3 STRENGTHENING THE BIOLOGICAL AND TOXIN WEAPONS CONVENTION

  7. 48 CFR 25.301-3 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weapons. 25.301-3 Section 25.301-3...Outside the United States 25.301-3 Weapons. The contracting officer shall follow agency procedures and the weapons policy established by the...

  8. 48 CFR 25.301-3 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weapons. 25.301-3 Section 25.301-3...Outside the United States 25.301-3 Weapons. The contracting officer shall follow agency procedures and the weapons policy established by the...

  9. Weapons in an Affluent Suburban School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Stephanie R.; Campanaro, Amy; Pitts, Traci Bice; Steiner, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the self-reported violence and weapon carrying behaviors of largely affluent, suburban adolescents in San Francisco, California. Survey data indicated that weapons carrying was a significant issue for these high school students. Predictors of weapon carrying did not differ in comparison to predictors among inner city youth. Distinct…

  10. 48 CFR 25.301-3 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weapons. 25.301-3 Section 25.301-3...Outside the United States 25.301-3 Weapons. The contracting officer shall follow agency procedures and the weapons policy established by the...

  11. Imaging sensor fusion for concealed weapon detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas C. Currie; Fred J. Demma; David D. Ferris; Robert W. McMillan; Michael C. Wicks; Kathleen Zyga

    1997-01-01

    Sensors are needed for concealed weapon detection which perform better with regard to weapon classification, identification, probability of detection and false alarm rate than the magnetic sensors commonly used in airports. We have concluded that no single sensor will meet the requirements for a reliable concealed weapon detector and thus that sensor fusion is required to optimize detection probability and

  12. Empirical evaluation of sufficient similarity in dose—Response for environmental risk assessment of chemical mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leanna G. Stork; Chris Gennings; Walter H. Carter; Linda K. Teuschler; Edward W. Carney

    2008-01-01

    When toxicity data are not available for a chemical mixture of concern, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines\\u000a allow risk assessment to be based on data for a surrogate mixture considered “sufficiently similar” in terms of chemical\\u000a composition and component proportions. As a supplementary approach, using statistical equivalence testing logic and mixed\\u000a model theory we have developed methodology to define

  13. Assessing and Managing Risks Arising from Exposure to Endocrine-Active Chemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen P. Phillips; Warren G. Foster; William Leiss; Vanita Sahni; Nataliya Karyakina; Michelle C. Turner; Sam Kacew; Daniel Krewski

    2008-01-01

    Managing risks to human health and the environment produced by endocrine-active chemicals (EAC) is dependent on sound principles of risk assessment and risk management, which need to be adapted to address the uncertainties in the state of the science of EAC. Quantifying EAC hazard identification, mechanisms of action, and dose-response curves is complicated by a range of chemical structure\\/toxicology classes,

  14. 15 CFR 745.1 - Advance notification and annual report of all exports of Schedule 1 chemicals to other States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745...Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) not less than 30 days...every export of a Schedule 1 chemical, in any quantity, to...

  15. 15 CFR 714.1 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.1 Annual declaration...Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (see part 716 of the...

  16. Systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2012-03-01

    Throughout history, as new chemical threats arose, strategies for the defense against chemical attacks have also evolved. As a part of an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, a systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios was performed to understand how the chemical threats and attack strategies change over time. For the analysis, the difficulty in executing chemical attack was evaluated within a framework of three major scenario elements. First, historical examples of chemical terrorism were examined to determine how the use of chemical threats, versus other weapons, contributed to the successful execution of the attack. Using the same framework, the future of chemical terrorism was assessed with respect to the impact of globalization and new technologies. Finally, the efficacy of the current defenses against contemporary chemical terrorism was considered briefly. The results of this analysis justify the need for continued diligence in chemical defense.

  17. Utilizing toxicogenomic data to understand chemical mechanism of action in risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Vickie S., E-mail: wilson.vickie@epa.gov [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Keshava, Nagalakshmi [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Hester, Susan [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Segal, Deborah; Chiu, Weihsueh [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Thompson, Chad M. [ToxStrategies, Inc., 23501 Cinco Ranch Blvd., Suite G265, Katy, TX 77494 (United States); Euling, Susan Y. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The predominant role of toxicogenomic data in risk assessment, thus far, has been one of augmentation of more traditional in vitro and in vivo toxicology data. This article focuses on the current available examples of instances where toxicogenomic data has been evaluated in human health risk assessment (e.g., acetochlor and arsenicals) which have been limited to the application of toxicogenomic data to inform mechanism of action. This article reviews the regulatory policy backdrop and highlights important efforts to ultimately achieve regulatory acceptance. A number of research efforts on specific chemicals that were designed for risk assessment purposes have employed mechanism or mode of action hypothesis testing and generating strategies. The strides made by large scale efforts to utilize toxicogenomic data in screening, testing, and risk assessment are also discussed. These efforts include both the refinement of methodologies for performing toxicogenomics studies and analysis of the resultant data sets. The current issues limiting the application of toxicogenomics to define mode or mechanism of action in risk assessment are discussed together with interrelated research needs. In summary, as chemical risk assessment moves away from a single mechanism of action approach toward a toxicity pathway-based paradigm, we envision that toxicogenomic data from multiple technologies (e.g., proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, supportive RT-PCR studies) can be used in conjunction with one another to understand the complexities of multiple, and possibly interacting, pathways affected by chemicals which will impact human health risk assessment.

  18. Radiological and chemical assessment of phosphate rocks in some countries.

    PubMed

    Cevik, U; Baltas, H; Tabak, A; Damla, N

    2010-10-15

    In this study, the radiological, structural and chemical characterizations of Mardin-Mazida?i phosphate rock, which is an important phosphate fertilizer source in Turkey were investigated and compared to those of several different phosphate rocks of Tunisia, Egypt, Morocco, Algeria and Syria using gamma spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurement techniques. Elemental analysis results of phosphate samples showed that they were mainly composed of CaO, P(2)O(5), SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), SO(3) and Fe(2)O(3). Elemental concentrations of U and Th were calculated using (226)Ra and (232)Th activity concentrations, respectively. As a result of XRD analysis, the main peaks of the samples were found to be Fluorapatite (Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)F). The radioactivity concentration levels for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in all phosphate samples ranged from 250 to 1029 Bq kg(-1) with a mean of 535 Bq kg(-1), from 5 to 50 Bq kg(-1) with a mean of 20 Bq kg(-1) and from 117 to 186 Bq kg(-1) with a mean of 148 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The computed values of annual effective doses ranged from 0.17 to 0.59 mSv, with a mean value of 0.33 mSv, which is lower than the recommended limit of 1 mSv y(-1) by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. PMID:20630655

  19. Coupling biological measurement endpoints used in ecological risk assessment with chemical measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, M.; Mahato, M. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Franklin, TN (United States). Aquatic Toxicology Lab.

    1995-12-31

    Collections of surface water, sediments, and the benthic community were made in support of an ecological risk assessment for a stream on a US Air Force base in Oklahoma. Over 250 chemicals were detected within water and sediments, of which over 30 of those screened were classified as chemicals of potential ecological concern (COPEC) based on available toxicity benchmarks. Many of the chemicals detected were clustered in specific samples and in various concentration combinations, To address the complexity of this mixture of chemicals and chemical concentrations, the results of 28-day chronic Hyalella azteca bulk sediment toxicity tests, early life-stage, 7-day fathead minnow toxicity tests, 7-day survival and reproduction results with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and benthic community indices (i.e. biotic index(ices), number of taxa, number of individuals) were evaluated for correlations and associations with the chemicals detected. The resultant evaluation was useful in discriminating those COPEC`s within the various samples that were associated and predictive of the observed ecological measurement endpoints. Additional parameters such as, sulfide analysis of the overlying water from the sediment samples, was enlightening especially regarding an apparent reversal of the correlation between metal concentrations and toxicity. Benthic community indices were also useful in evaluating relationships between chemical concentrations, toxicological effects and aquatic hazard quotients. The approach presented is believed to be superior to the triad approach based on its ability to address mixtures of chemicals and variable chemical concentrations in combination. The results of this evaluation were able to more concisely identify the COPEC`s as well as, establish a priority system and clarify the risk assessment in the context of the complexity of chemical mixtures.

  20. Undisclosed chemicals--implications for risk assessment: a case study from the mining industry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Khareen; Oates, Christopher; Plant, Jane; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Many of the chemicals used in industry can be hazardous to human health and the environment, and some formulations can have undisclosed ingredients and hazards, increasing the uncertainty of the risks posed by their use. The need for a better understanding of the extent of undisclosed information in chemicals arose from collecting data on the hazards and exposures of chemicals used in typical mining operations (copper, platinum and coal). Four main categories of undisclosed chemicals were defined (incomplete disclosure; chemicals with unspecific identities; relative quantities of ingredients not stated; and trade secret ingredients) by reviewing material safety data sheet (MSDS) omissions in previous studies. A significant number of chemicals (20% of 957 different chemicals) across the three sites had a range of undisclosed information, with majority of the chemicals (39%) having unspecific identities. The majority of undisclosed information was found in commercially available motor oils followed by cleaning products and mechanical maintenance products, as opposed to reagents critical to the main mining processes. All three types of chemicals had trade secrets, unspecific chemical identities and incomplete disclosures. These types of undisclosed information pose a hindrance to a full understanding of the hazards, which is made worse when combined with additional MSDS omissions such as acute toxicity endpoints (LD50) and/or acute aquatic toxicity endpoints (LC50), as well as inadequate hazard classifications of ingredients. The communication of the hazard information in the MSDSs varied according to the chemical type, the manufacturer and the regulations governing the MSDSs. Undisclosed information can undermine occupational health protection, compromise the safety of workers in industry, hinder risk assessment procedures and cause uncertainty about future health. It comes down to the duty of care that industries have towards their employees. With a wide range of chemicals increasingly used, there is a balance that needs to be reached between disclosure requirements, trade secret provisions and definitions of hazardous ingredients for market needs, and the information required to protect the health of their workers. PMID:24685487

  1. The role of professional judgment in chemical hazard assessment and communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Hamilton; Daniel A. Daggett; Charles A. Pittinger

    2006-01-01

    Most hazard assessment guidelines and regulatory requirements—both nationally and internationally—explicitly advocate the use of professional judgment in hazard assessment. However, the practical application of such judgment (i.e., how and when that judgment should be applied) is often left to the assessor’s discretion. This can lead to inconsistent guidance on the use, handling, and disposal of chemicals and can ultimately result

  2. Tissue screening concentrations for use in assessing ecological risks of chemical residues in aquatic biota

    SciTech Connect

    Shephard, B.K. [URS Consultants, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Ecological risk based screening concentrations for tissue residues have been developed for aquatic biota. Termed tissue screening concentrations (TSCs), they are generally applicable (i.e. non-site specific) to a wide variety of both freshwater and marine biota. Chemical residues in tissues at concentrations below the TSC are presumed to pose little or no risk to aquatic biota, allowing chemicals to be quickly eliminated from further consideration in a risk assessment. To date, relatively few widely applicable screening tools are available to ecological risk assessors. The toxicological basis for TSCs is applicable to both metals and organic compounds. Toxic responses in aquatic biota are directly related to waterborne concentrations of chemicals, and at equilibrium, tissue residues in biota are also proportional to the chemical concentration in water. Therefore, the toxic response in biota is directly related to the tissue residue. A TSC is calculated by multiplying a toxicity value (such as a chronic ambient water quality criterion) by a bioconcentration factor. The selection of the toxicity information and bioconcentration factors for TSC calculation is critical to the success of this screening method, and will be illustrated for cadmium, mercury, and PCB. A literature review comparing whole body tissue residues associated with toxic responses to the TSCs indicated that for most chemicals, the calculated TSCs provide an adequate level of protection so that TSCs can be used as a screening tool in ecological risk assessments. TSCs do not currently provide an accurate assessment of chemicals which are rapidly metabolized to either more or less toxic compounds by biota. The mean safety factor for the 74 chemicals with calculated TSCs is 14. Field tests of the TSCs indicate they identify the same site contaminants of concern as other methods used to assess ecological risks at hazardous waste sites.

  3. Chemical warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  4. Television in Underwater Weapons Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan R. Metzler

    1961-01-01

    At the Naval Ordnance Test Station sea ranges at San Clemente Island, closed-circuit television is used both over and under water for certain phases of underwater weapons testing. The functions of this instrumentation are to provide: real-time data, engineering surveillance, monitoring, underwater launcher positioning, range surveillance, time-event data, trajectory data, and to assist in underwater search and recovery. At present,

  5. Key beam weapons tests slated

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Robinson Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses charged particle beam weapons proposed for deployment onboard U.S. Navy vessels for point defense against cruise missiles and describes propagation tests scheduled for late 1981 or early 1982 which will study the feasibility of the concept. The tests will use a new 50-MeV advanced-technology accelerator at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in California and will follow closely the

  6. The Navy's high-energy laser weapon system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joung R. Cook; John R. Albertine

    1997-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, in an attempt to develop a speed-of- light hard-kill weapon system, the U.S. Navy has successfully reduced megawatt-class chemical laser and high power beam control technologies to engineering practice. This Navy program was established during the cold war era when defending naval battle group was the primary concern of the U.S. Navy. Since the collapse

  7. 22 CFR 103.11 - Payment of final assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS REGULATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION AND THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION IMPLEMENTATION ACT OF 1998 ON THE TAKING OF SAMPLES AND ON ENFORCEMENT OF...

  8. Int J Hyg Environ Health. Author manuscript Comparative assessing for radiological, chemical, and physical exposures

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Int J Hyg Environ Health. Author manuscript Page /1 15 Comparative assessing for radiological effects Introduction Uranium is known for its chemical and radiological toxicity after acute exposure. But there is little evidence on the adverse health effects and particularly on the carcinogenic potential

  9. Application of biological monitoring for exposure assessment following chemical incidents: A procedure for decision making

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul T J Scheepers; Peter M J Bos; Joke Konings; Nicole A H Janssen; Linda Grievink

    2011-01-01

    Determination of the level of exposure during and after a chemical incident is crucial for the assessment of public health risks and for appropriate medical treatment, as well as for subsequent health studies that may be part of disaster management. Immediately after such an incident, there is usually no opportunity to collect reliable quantitative information on personal exposures and environmental

  10. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WORLD TRADE CENTER FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FOR USE IN TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical Analysis of World Trade Center Fine Particulate Matter for Use in Toxicological Assessment John K. McGee1, Lung Chi Chen2, Mitchell D. Cohen2, Glen R. Chee2, Colette M. Prophete2, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Shirley J. Wasson3, Teri L. Conner4, Daniel L. Costa1, and Steph...

  11. LIFE CYCLE BIOASSAY FOR ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF TOXIC CHEMICALS USING RAPID CYCLING OF BRASSICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Initial evaluation of a new plant life cycle bioassay for the assessment of the effects of toxic chemicals is presented. he bioassay features a rapid cycling Brassica species that can complete its life cycle in as little as 36 days. he herbicide dalapon (2,2 dichloropropionic aci...

  12. Learning from the application of nuclear probabilistic safety assessment to the chemical industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cyril Charvet; Jean-Luc Chambon; François Corenwinder; Jérôme Taveau

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the new approach of risk analysis established by the French Ministry of the Environment and develops the benefits of applying nuclear probabilistic safety assessment approaches to the chemical industry.In the aftermath of the AZF disaster in Toulouse on 21 September 2001, a new law was proposed by the French government asking for the investigation of all representative

  13. Estimating Toxicity Pathway Activating Doses for High Throughput Chemical Risk Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimating a Toxicity Pathway Activating Dose (TPAD) from in vitro assays as an analog to a reference dose (RfD) derived from in vivo toxicity tests would facilitate high throughput risk assessments of thousands of data-poor environmental chemicals. Estimating a TPAD requires def...

  14. Incorporating Risk Assessment and Inherently Safer Design Practices into Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Jeffrey R.; Eden, Mario R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces, via case study example, the benefit of including risk assessment methodology and inherently safer design practices into the curriculum for chemical engineering students. This work illustrates how these tools can be applied during the earliest stages of conceptual process design. The impacts of decisions made during…

  15. APPLICABILITY OF U.S. EPA RISK ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES FOR CHEMICAL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA published Guidelines for the health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures in September, 1986. To facilitate the application of Guidelines procedures the Agency has developed a data base on known toxicological interactions (synergism, etc.). This unique resource allos ...

  16. CHEMICAL TESTING AND ASSESSMENT RESEARCH COMMITTEE - RESEARCH STRATEGY 1979-1985

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document was developed by the Chemical Testing and Assessment Research Committee and it presents a multi-year strategy for ORD's programs on Toxic Substances. This strategy is intended to serve as a basis for preparing each fiscal year's program proposals and for reviewing t...

  17. BYSTANDER EFFECTS, GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIATION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an increased interest in utilizing mechanistic data in support of the cancer risk assessment process for ionizing radiation and environmental chemical exposures. In this regard the use of biologically based dose-response models is particularly advocated. The aim is to pr...

  18. ASSESSING ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICAL EXPOSURE IN INDIGENOUS AQUATIC POPULATIONS IN THE OHIO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NERL has launched a collaborative study with the ORSANCO to determine the degree of ecologically relevant endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) exposure in the New Cumberland Pool of the Ohio River under the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program - Great Rivers Project...

  19. Toxicity assessment of nanoparticles: impact of physico-chemical properties and adsorption artefacts on biological responses

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Toxicity assessment of nanoparticles: impact of physico-chemical properties and adsorption artefacts on biological responses Introduction: In medicine, the uses of nanoparticles (NP) offer new measurements showed that these nanoparticles had a crystallite size of 10nm. Laser granulometry emphasized

  20. REMOTE SENSING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL PLANTS AND REFINERIES FOLLOWING HURRICANES KATRINA AND RITA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The massive destruction brought by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita also impacted the many chemical plants and refineries in the region. The achievement of this rapid analysis capability highlights the advancement of this technology for air quality assessment and monitoring. Case st...

  1. Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions.

  2. Transfer of chemicals from feed to animal products: The use of transfer factors in risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Leeman, W R; Van Den Berg, K J; Houben, G F

    2007-01-01

    The human risk assessment of feed contaminants has often been hampered by a lack of knowledge concerning their behaviour when consumed by livestock. To gain a better understanding of the transfer of contaminants from animal feed to animal products, a meta-analysis of public literature was made. Data concerning feed contaminant concentrations, feeding periods, residue levels in animal products, and other parameters were gathered and recorded. For each case a 'transfer factor', which was defined as the ratio of the concentration of a chemical in an animal product to the concentration of the chemical in animal feed, was calculated. Scientifically founded transfer factors were calculated and analysed for groups of chemicals based on their contaminant classes or physicochemical properties. These database-derived transfer factors enable a more accurate risk assessment in the case of a feed contamination, and enable rapid risk management decision-making and/or intervention. PMID:17164211

  3. Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 1 : overview of the ACWA program and appendixes AE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kimmell; S. Folga; G. Frey; J. Molberg; P. Kier; B. Templin; M. Goldberg

    2001-01-01

    This TRD is organized as a five-volume set (Figure 1.1). The five volumes include this overview and one volume for each of the four installations that stockpile ACW. Volume 1 provides programmatic information on the technologies associated with ACW remediation. The four remaining volumes provide details regarding the application of ACWA technology systems to ACW at the four stockpile locations:

  4. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.

    2003-07-24

    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  5. Access and use of information resources in assessing health risks from chemical exposure: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    Health risk assessment is based on access to comprehensive information about potentially hazardous agents in question. Relevant information is scattered throughout the literature, and often is not readily accessible. To be useful in assessment efforts, emerging scientific findings, risk assess parameters, and associated data must be compiled and evaluated systemically. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are among the federal agencies heavily involved in this effort. This symposium was a direct response by EPA and ORNL to the expressed needs of individuals involved in assessing risks from chemical exposure. In an effort to examine the state of the risk assessment process, the availability of toxicological information, and the future development and transfer of this information, the symposium provided an excellent cadre of speakers and participants from state and federal agencies, academia and research laboratories to address these topics. This stimulating and productive gathering discussed concerns associated with (1) environmental contamination by chemicals; (2) laws regulating chemicals; (3) information needs and resources; (4) applications; (5) challenges and priorities; and (6)future issues. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  6. Probabilistic approaches in the effect assessment of toxic chemicals. What are the benefits and limitations?

    PubMed

    Scheringer, Martin; Steinbach, Dirk; Escher, Beate; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2002-01-01

    There is an ongoing discussion whether in the environmental risk assessment for chemicals the so called 'deterministic' approach using point estimates of exposure and effect concentrations is still appropriate. Instead, the more detailed and scientifically sounder probabilistic methods that have been developed over the last years are widely recommended. Here, we present the results of a probabilistic effect assessment for the aquatic environment performed for the pesticide methyl parathion and compare them with the results obtained with the common deterministic approach as described in the EU Technical Guidance Document. Methyl parathion was chosen because a sufficient data set (acute toxicity data for about 70 species) was available. The assumptions underlying the probabilistic effect assessment are discussed in the light of the results obtained for methyl parathion. Two important assumptions made by many studies are: (i) a sufficient number of ecologically relevant toxicity data is available, (ii) the toxicity data follow a certain distribution such as log-normal. Considering the scarcity of data for many industrial chemicals, we conclude that these assumptions would not be fulfilled in many cases if the probabilistic assessment was applied to the majority of industrial chemicals. Therefore, despite the well-known limitations of the deterministic approach, it should not be replaced by probabilistic methods unless the assumptions of these methods are carefully checked in each individual case, which would significantly increase the effort for the assessment procedure. PMID:12391805

  7. Assessment of impacts at the advanced test reactor as a result of chemical releases at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, A.S.

    1991-02-01

    This report provides an assessment of potential impacts at the Advanced Test Reactor Facility (ATR) resulting from accidental chemical spill at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Spills postulated to occur at the Lincoln Blvd turnoff to ICPP were also evaluated. Peak and time weighted average concentrations were calculated for receptors at the ATR facility and the Test Reactor Area guard station at a height above ground level of 1.0 m. Calculated concentrations were then compared to the 15 minute averaged Threshold Limit Value - Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL) and the 30 minute averaged Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) limit. Several different methodologies were used to estimate source strength and dispersion. Fifteen minute time weighted averaged concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and anhydrous ammonia exceeded TLV-STEL values for the cases considered. The IDLH value for these chemicals was not exceeded. Calculated concentrations of ammonium hydroxide, hexone, nitric acid, propane, gasoline, chlorine and liquid nitrogen were all below the TLV-STEL value.

  8. Assessing the effects of adsorptive polymeric resin additions on fungal secondary metabolite chemical diversity

    PubMed Central

    González-Menéndez, Víctor; Asensio, Francisco; Moreno, Catalina; de Pedro, Nuria; Monteiro, Maria Candida; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Vicente, Francisca; Bills, Gerald F.; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Tormo, José R.

    2014-01-01

    Adsorptive polymeric resins have been occasionally described to enhance the production of specific secondary metabolites (SMs) of interest. Methods that induce the expression of new chemical entities in fungal fermentations may lead to the discovery of new bioactive molecules and should be addressed as possible tools for the creation of new microbial chemical libraries for drug lead discovery. Herein, we apply both biological activity and chemical evaluations to assess the use of adsorptive resins as tools for the differential expression of SMs in fungal strain sets. Data automation approaches were applied to ultra high performance liquid chromatography analysis of extracts to evaluate the general influence in generating new chemical entities or in changing the production of specific SMs by fungi grown in the presence of resins and different base media. PMID:25379340

  9. Cumulative Risk Assessment for Combined Health Effects From Chemical and Nonchemical Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Stephen H.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulative risk assessment is a science policy tool for organizing and analyzing information to examine, characterize, and possibly quantify combined threats from multiple environmental stressors. We briefly survey the state of the art regarding cumulative risk assessment, emphasizing challenges and complexities of moving beyond the current focus on chemical mixtures to incorporate nonchemical stressors, such as poverty and discrimination, into the assessment paradigm. Theoretical frameworks for integrating nonchemical stressors into cumulative risk assessments are discussed, the impact of geospatial issues on interpreting results of statistical analyses is described, and four assessment methods are used to illustrate the diversity of current approaches. Prospects for future progress depend on adequate research support as well as development and verification of appropriate analytic frameworks. PMID:21551386

  10. Reducing aquatic hazards of industrial chemicals: probabilistic assessment of sustainable molecular design guidelines.

    PubMed

    Connors, Kristin A; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina M; Kostal, Jakub; Anastas, Paul; Zimmerman, Julie B; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-08-01

    Basic toxicological information is lacking for the majority of industrial chemicals. In addition to increasing empirical toxicity data through additional testing, prospective computational approaches to drug development aim to serve as a rational basis for the design of chemicals with reduced toxicity. Recent work has resulted in the derivation of a "rule of 2," wherein chemicals with an octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) less than 2 and a difference between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital (?E) greater than 9 (log P<2 and ?E?>9 eV) are predicted to be 4 to 5 times less likely to elicit acute or chronic toxicity to model aquatic organisms. The present study examines potential reduction of aquatic toxicity hazards from industrial chemicals if these 2 molecular design guidelines were employed. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches were used to model the likelihood of encountering industrial chemicals exceeding toxicological categories of concern both with and without the rule of 2. Modeling predicted that utilization of these molecular design guidelines for log P and ?E would appreciably decrease the number of chemicals that would be designated to be of "high" and "very high" concern for acute and chronic toxicity to standard model aquatic organisms and end points as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. For example, 14.5% of chemicals were categorized as having high and very high acute toxicity to the fathead minnow model, whereas only 3.3% of chemicals conforming to the design guidelines were predicted to be in these categories. Considerations of specific chemical classes (e.g., aldehydes), chemical attributes (e.g., ionization), and adverse outcome pathways in representative species (e.g., receptor-mediated responses) could be used to derive future property guidelines for broader classes of contaminants. PMID:24839109

  11. Construction of a risk assessment system for chemical residues in agricultural products

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Shinai; Hong, Jiyeon; Lee, Dayeon; Paik, Minkyoung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Continuous monitoring of chemical residues in agricultural and food products has been performed by various government bodies in South Korea. These bodies have made attempts to systematically manage this information by creating a monitoring database system as well as a system based on these data with which to assess the health risk of chemical residues in agricultural products. Methods Meanwhile, a database system is being constructed consisting of information about monitoring and, following this, a demand for convenience has led to the need for an evaluation tool to be constructed with the data processing system. Results Also, in order to create a systematic and effective tool for the risk assessment of chemical residues in foods and agricultural products, various evaluation models are being developed, both domestically and abroad. Overseas, systems such as Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model: Food Commodity Intake Database and Cumulative and Aggregate Risk Evaluation System are being used; these use the US Environmental Protection Agency as a focus, while the EU has developed Pesticide Residue Intake Model for assessments of pesticide exposure through food intake. Following this, the National Academy of Agricultural Science (NAAS) created the Agricultural Products Risk Assessment System (APRAS) which supports the use and storage of monitoring information and risk assessments. APRAS efficiently manages the monitoring data produced by NAAS and creates an extraction feature included in the database system. Also, the database system in APRAS consists of a monitoring database system held by the NAAS and food consumption database system. Food consumption data is based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Conclusions This system is aimed at exposure and risk assessments for chemical residues in agricultural products with regards to different exposure scenarios. PMID:25622642

  12. Assessment of Weighted Quantile Sum Regression for Modeling Chemical Mixtures and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Czarnota, Jenna; Gennings, Chris; Wheeler, David C

    2015-01-01

    In evaluation of cancer risk related to environmental chemical exposures, the effect of many chemicals on disease is ultimately of interest. However, because of potentially strong correlations among chemicals that occur together, traditional regression methods suffer from collinearity effects, including regression coefficient sign reversal and variance inflation. In addition, penalized regression methods designed to remediate collinearity may have limitations in selecting the truly bad actors among many correlated components. The recently proposed method of weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression attempts to overcome these problems by estimating a body burden index, which identifies important chemicals in a mixture of correlated environmental chemicals. Our focus was on assessing through simulation studies the accuracy of WQS regression in detecting subsets of chemicals associated with health outcomes (binary and continuous) in site-specific analyses and in non-site-specific analyses. We also evaluated the performance of the penalized regression methods of lasso, adaptive lasso, and elastic net in correctly classifying chemicals as bad actors or unrelated to the outcome. We based the simulation study on data from the National Cancer Institute Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Program (NCI-SEER) case–control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) to achieve realistic exposure situations. Our results showed that WQS regression had good sensitivity and specificity across a variety of conditions considered in this study. The shrinkage methods had a tendency to incorrectly identify a large number of components, especially in the case of strong association with the outcome. PMID:26005323

  13. A Proposal for Assessing Study Quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals...

  14. Risk Assessment and Hierarchical Risk Management of Enterprises in Chemical Industrial Parks Based on Catastrophe Theory

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Song, Guobao; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Zhenyu

    2012-01-01

    According to risk systems theory and the characteristics of the chemical industry, an index system was established for risk assessment of enterprises in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) based on the inherent risk of the source, effectiveness of the prevention and control mechanism, and vulnerability of the receptor. A comprehensive risk assessment method based on catastrophe theory was then proposed and used to analyze the risk levels of ten major chemical enterprises in the Songmu Island CIP, China. According to the principle of equal distribution function, the chemical enterprise risk level was divided into the following five levels: 1.0 (very safe), 0.8 (safe), 0.6 (generally recognized as safe, GRAS), 0.4 (unsafe), 0.2 (very unsafe). The results revealed five enterprises (50%) with an unsafe risk level, and another five enterprises (50%) at the generally recognized as safe risk level. This method solves the multi-objective evaluation and decision-making problem. Additionally, this method involves simple calculations and provides an effective technique for risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in CIPs. PMID:23208298

  15. Proposals to overcome limitations in the EU chemical risk assessment scheme.

    PubMed

    Trapp, S; Schwartz, S

    2000-10-01

    The notification of new chemicals in the European Union requires a risk assessment. A Technical Guidance Document (TGD) was prepared for assistance. The TGD proposes QSARs, regressions and models from various sources. Each method has its own range of applicability and its own restrictions. Regressions used in the assessment of indirect human exposure have a common regression range from log K(OW), 3.0-4.6. Most models are compartment models, which do not consider a spatial distribution of the chemical, and were originally developed for non-dissociating, lipophilic persistent chemicals with measurable vapor pressure. Taking this into account, the TGD is only applicable for a minority of chemical classes. Dissociating compounds, ions, polar and very non-polar compounds do not belong to them. The effect of mixtures cannot be considered, except for hydrocarbons. Using the example of plant uptake, it is shown that in certain cases uptake is underestimated by the model due to processes not considered. This may lead to a wrong security in risk assessment. To overcome these limitations, a set of alternative models with different application ranges should be developed. When no applicable method is available, it might be better not to use a model at all instead of an inadequate model, and look for other sources of information. PMID:10879813

  16. The relationship between whole effluent toxicity (WET) and chemical-based effluent quality assessment in Vojvodina (Serbia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivana Teodorovi?; Milena Be?eli?; Ivana Planojevi?; Ivana Ivan?ev-Tumbas; Božo Dalmacija

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between whole effluent toxicity (WET) and chemical-based effluent quality assessment across a range of effluent\\u000a types was examined for the first time in Serbia. WET was determined by Daphnia magna acute tests, while chemical-based toxicity was taken as theoretical for concentrations of priority chemicals and effluent\\u000a quality assessment based on the valid Serbian regulations. A poor correlation was

  17. Chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in surface water using passive samplers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, D.A.; Cranor, W.L.; Perkins, S.D.; Clark, R.C.; Smith, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    Passive sampling methodologies were used to conduct a chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in the surface waters of three geographically distinct agricultural watersheds. A selection of current-use agrochemicals and persistent organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides, were targeted using the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and the semipermeable membrane device passive samplers. In addition to the chemical analysis, the Microtox assay for acute toxicity and the yeast estrogen screen (YES) were conducted as potential assessment tools in combination with the passive samplers. During the spring of 2004, the passive samplers were deployed for 29 to 65 d at Leary Weber Ditch, IN; Morgan Creek, MD; and DR2 Drain, WA. Chemical analysis of the sampler extracts identified the agrochemicals predominantly used in those areas, including atrazine, simazine, acetochlor, and metolachlor. Other chemicals identified included deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine, trifluralin, fluoranthene, pyrene, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and pentachloroanisole. Screening using Microtox resulted in no acutely toxic samples. POCIS samples screened by the YES assay failed to elicit a positive estrogenic response. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical warfare: Implications for Operation Desert Storm and beyond. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Trummer, F.G.; Twining, B.L.

    1991-02-11

    This paper presents the potential for use of lethal and incapacitating chemical agents in the Persian Gulf. Insight from past chemical warfare case studies, current international law, and U.S. and Soviet policy, strategy and tactics provide a basis for examination of Iraq's chemical warfare potential and operational strategy. In addition, a survey of Naval War College students assesses the current U.S. Armed Forces level of chemical warfare readiness. This analysis combined with the U.S. experience and current war with Iraq as well as proposing a more viable operational capability to meet stated national policy in response to chemical weapons.

  19. Assessing dose-response relationships for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs): a focus on non-monotonicity.

    PubMed

    Zoeller, R Thomas; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental principle in regulatory toxicology is that all chemicals are toxic and that the severity of effect is proportional to the exposure level. An ancillary assumption is that there are no effects at exposures below the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL), either because no effects exist or because they are not statistically resolvable, implying that they would not be adverse. Chemicals that interfere with hormones violate these principles in two important ways: dose-response relationships can be non-monotonic, which have been reported in hundreds of studies of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs); and effects are often observed below the LOAEL, including all environmental epidemiological studies examining EDCs. In recognition of the importance of this issue, Lagarde et al. have published the first proposal to qualitatively assess non-monotonic dose response (NMDR) relationships for use in risk assessments. Their proposal represents a significant step forward in the evaluation of complex datasets for use in risk assessments. Here, we comment on three elements of the Lagarde proposal that we feel need to be assessed more critically and present our arguments: 1) the use of Klimisch scores to evaluate study quality, 2) the concept of evaluating study quality without topical experts' knowledge and opinions, and 3) the requirement of establishing the biological plausibility of an NMDR before consideration for use in risk assessment. We present evidence-based logical arguments that 1) the use of the Klimisch score should be abandoned for assessing study quality; 2) evaluating study quality requires experts in the specific field; and 3) an understanding of mechanisms should not be required to accept observable, statistically valid phenomena. It is our hope to contribute to the important and ongoing debate about the impact of NMDRs on risk assessment with positive suggestions. PMID:25971795

  20. History of chemical and biological warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Szinicz

    2005-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when

  1. Beyond REACH: roadblocks and shortcuts en route to integrated risk assessment and management of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Assmuth, Timo; Hildén, Mikael; Craye, Matthieu

    2010-08-15

    This paper addresses obstacles and opportunities for the development and application of novel methods for integrated assessment of cumulative risks from chemicals, exemplified by the REACH legislation of the EU, in the context of multiple stressors and of chemicals policy. We examine the role of such methods in connection with REACH by models of integration and innovation of risk information in multi-actor risk governance; analyses of key documents on REACH; and interviews with EU regulators and stakeholders. We first explain the emergence of REACH as a response to tensions in EU chemicals, environmental and other policies. We then analyze the present configuration of REACH particularly in relation to key dimensions of risk integration: across stressors; exposed organisms; and impacts. Among the policy aspects of integrated risk information, we focus on its interaction with management and the contesting framings and interpretations of assessment. Avenues and barriers are identified for integrated treatment of risks under REACH and with other instruments. We emphasize how bounded, formal and static assessments interact with open and informal approaches that have more flexibility in integrating risks in new ways. We conclude with a generalizing discussion on the role of novel methods of integrated risk assessment in the development of reflexive and participatory governance under REACH and beyond. PMID:20347473

  2. Assessing environmental chemicals for estrogenicity using a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays.

    PubMed

    Shelby, M D; Newbold, R R; Tully, D B; Chae, K; Davis, V L

    1996-12-01

    Because of rampant concern that estrogenic chemicals in the environment may be adversely affecting the health of humans and wildlife, reliable methods for detecting and characterizing estrogenic chemicals are needed. It is important that general agreement be reached on which tests to use and that these tests then be applied to the testing of both man-made and naturally occurring chemicals. As a step toward developing a comprehensive approach to screening chemicals for estrogenic activity, three assays for detecting estrogenicity were conducted on 10 chemicals with known or suspected estrogenic activity. The assays were 1) competitive binding with the mouse uterine estrogen receptor, 2) transcriptional activation in HeLa cells transfected with plasmids containing an estrogen receptor and a response element, and 3) the uterotropic assay in mice. The chemicals studied were 17 beta-estradiol, diethylstilbestrol, tamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, methoxychlor, the methoxychlor metabolite 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE), endosulfan, nonylphenol, o,p'-DDT, and kepone. These studies were conducted to assess the utility of this three-assay combination in the routine screening of chemicals, or combinations of chemicals, for estrogenic activity. Results were consistent among the three assays with respect to what is known about the estrogenic activities of the chemicals tested and their requirements for metabolic activation. By providing information on three levels of hormonal activity (receptor binding, transcriptional activation, and an in vivo effect in an estrogen-responsive tissue), an informative profile of estrogenic activity is obtained with a reasonable investment of resources. PMID:9118870

  3. Nuclear Weapons Enterprise Transformation - A Sustainable Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OBrien

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear weapons play an essential role in United States (U.S.) National Security Policy and a succession of official reviews has concluded that nuclear weapons will continue to have a role for the foreseeable future. Under the evolving U.S. government policy, it is clear that role will be quite different from what it was during the Cold War. The nuclear-weapons stockpile

  4. Weapons material and the commercial fuel cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steyn

    1993-01-01

    In 1991, the United States and the former USSR had arsenals of [approximately]18,000 and 27,200 nuclear weapons, respectively. Approximately 10,000 of the US and 13,000 of the former USSR weapons were in the strategic category, and the remainder were tactical weapons. The dramatic changes in the political climate between the United States and the republics of the former USSR have

  5. Temporal concordance between apical and transcriptional points of departure for chemical risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Russell S; Wesselkamper, Scott C; Wang, Nina Ching Y; Zhao, Q Jay; Petersen, Dan D; Lambert, Jason C; Cote, Ila; Yang, Longlong; Healy, Eric; Black, Michael B; Clewell, Harvey J; Allen, Bruce C; Andersen, Melvin E

    2013-07-01

    The number of legacy chemicals without toxicity reference values combined with the rate of new chemical development is overwhelming the capacity of the traditional risk assessment paradigm. More efficient approaches are needed to quantitatively estimate chemical risks. In this study, rats were dosed orally with multiple doses of six chemicals for 5 days and 2, 4, and 13 weeks. Target organs were analyzed for traditional histological and organ weight changes and transcriptional changes using microarrays. Histological and organ weight changes in this study and the tumor incidences in the original cancer bioassays were analyzed using benchmark dose (BMD) methods to identify noncancer and cancer points of departure. The dose-response changes in gene expression were also analyzed using BMD methods and the responses grouped based on signaling pathways. A comparison of transcriptional BMD values for the most sensitive pathway with BMD values for the noncancer and cancer apical endpoints showed a high degree of correlation at all time points. When the analysis included data from an earlier study with eight additional chemicals, transcriptional BMD values for the most sensitive pathway were significantly correlated with noncancer (r = 0.827, p = 0.0031) and cancer-related (r = 0.940, p = 0.0002) BMD values at 13 weeks. The average ratio of apical-to-transcriptional BMD values was less than two, suggesting that for the current chemicals, transcriptional perturbation did not occur at significantly lower doses than apical responses. Based on our results, we propose a practical framework for application of transcriptomic data to chemical risk assessment. PMID:23596260

  6. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 715 - Examples of Unscheduled Discrete Organic Chemicals (UDOCs) and UDOC Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...of Unscheduled Discrete Organic Chemicals (UDOCs) and UDOC Production...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES...INVOLVING UNSCHEDULED DISCRETE ORGANIC CHEMICALS (UDOCs) Pt. 715,...

  7. The role of sub-lethal weapons in human rights abuse.

    PubMed

    Wright, S

    2001-01-01

    This article is based on two recent reports contracted by the European Parliament (EP), which assessed sub-lethal weapons as flexible tools of political control. It analyses the role and function of existing weapons systems in human rights abuses using examples from Indonesia, Israel, Kenya, Northern Ireland and Turkey. These weapons are designed to 'appear' rather than 'be' safe and, since they augment rather than replace lethal technologies, their use can distort conflicts and actually bridge the firewall between use of less-lethal and lethal technologies. PMID:11578040

  8. [Predictive models for the assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals: a new challenge for employers].

    PubMed

    Gromiec, Jan Piotr; Kupczewska-Dobecka, Ma?gorzata; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Czerczak, S?awomir

    2013-01-01

    Employers are obliged to carry out and document the risk associated with the use of chemical substances. The best but the most expensive method is to measure workplace concentrations of chemicals. At present no "measureless" method for risk assessment is available in Poland, but predictive models for such assessments have been developed in some countries. The purpose of this work is to review and evaluate the applicability of selected predictive methods for assessing occupational inhalation exposure and related risk to check the compliance with Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs), as well as the compliance with REACH obligations. Based on the literature data HSE COSHH Essentials, EASE, ECETOC TRA, Stoffenmanager, and EMKG-Expo-Tool were evaluated. The data on validation of predictive models were also examined. It seems that predictive models may be used as a useful method for Tier 1 assessment of occupational exposure by inhalation. Since the levels of exposure are frequently overestimated, they should be considered as "rational worst cases" for selection of proper control measures. Bearing in mind that the number of available exposure scenarios and PROC categories is limited, further validation by field surveys is highly recommended. Predictive models may serve as a good tool for preliminary risk assessment and selection of the most appropriate risk control measures in Polish small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) providing that they are available in the Polish language. This also requires an extensive training of their future users. PMID:24502133

  9. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility program: Eleven additional chemicals: Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    An Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared to assess the environmental consequences of spill testing eleven hazardous materials at the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility (LGFSTF) at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site (NTS). These chemicals are: chlorosulfonic acid, fluorosulfonic acid, hydrogen chloride, methyl trichlorosilane, nitrogen tetroxide, oleum, silicon tetrachloride, sulfur-trioxide, titanium tetrachloride, trichlorosilane, and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine. DOE has determined that the proposed spill testing of these eleven hazardous materials at LGFSTF at Frenchman Flat is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS) will not be prepared.

  10. Assessment of airborne exposure and dermal contact to acrylamide during chemical grouting operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, J.M.

    1987-07-22

    Acrylamide exposure may occur by inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption; acrylamide is a neurotoxin and an irritant. The report details the results of field studies to assess airborne exposure and dermal contact to acrylamide during chemical grouting operations. Occupational exposures to acrylamide were characterized for sewer mainline, lateral line, and manhole maintenance operations. The objective of the study was to collect exposure data based on observations and measurements to be used as an integral part of a quantitative risk assessment by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Toxic Substances.

  11. Does the Gun Pull the Trigger? Automatic Priming Effects of Weapon Pictures and Weapon Names

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig A. Anderson; Arlin J. Benjamin; Bruce D. Bartholow

    1998-01-01

    More than 30 years ago, Berkowitz and LePage (1967) published the first study demonstrating that the mere presence of a weapon increases aggressive behavior. These results have been repli- cated in several contexts by several research teams. The standard explanation of this weapons effect on aggressive behavior involves priming; identification of a weapon is believed to automatically increase the accessibility

  12. The effects of nuclear test?ban regimes on third?generation?weapon innovation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan L. Fenstermacher

    1990-01-01

    Under the rationale of assessing potential Soviet threats, several third?generation— weapon concepts are being actively studied in the US. This paper presents a technical analysis of the physical principles and likely capabilities of three nuclear directed?energy concepts (x?ray lasers, nuclear kinetic?energy weapons, and microwave devices) and describes the implications for their development of threshold test bans at thresholds above and

  13. Virtual enterprise model for the electronic components business in the Nuclear Weapons Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, T.J.; Long, K.S.; Sayre, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hull, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Carey, D.A.; Sim, J.R.; Smith, M.G. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Div.

    1994-08-01

    The electronic components business within the Nuclear Weapons Complex spans organizational and Department of Energy contractor boundaries. An assessment of the current processes indicates a need for fundamentally changing the way electronic components are developed, procured, and manufactured. A model is provided based on a virtual enterprise that recognizes distinctive competencies within the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at the vendors. The model incorporates changes that reduce component delivery cycle time and improve cost effectiveness while delivering components of the appropriate quality.

  14. Power-plant chlorination: a biological and chemical assessment. Final report, December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.W. Jr.; Helz, G.R.; Burton, D.T.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment is presented of the pertinent literature on chlorine chemistry and toxicity and a listing of research recommendations based on the review. Chlorine reaction rates and paths, chemical species, oxidant analyses, and organic products are discussed. Freshwater, estuarine, and marine toxicity methodologies are considered as well as specific tests on many organisms. Research recommendtions include refinement of existing methodologies and development of new techniques.

  15. Simplifying the assessment of building vulnerability to chemical,biological and radiological releases

    SciTech Connect

    Thatcher, T.L.; Wood, E.E.; Edelson, E.C.; Sextro, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    The intentional or accidental release of airborne chemical, biological, or radiological materials can pose a significant threat to the health of building occupants. Pre-planning and emergency response measures, such as HVAC system manipulation and sheltering during an event, can significantly reduce the exposure of building occupants. A straightforward and comprehensive vulnerability assessment methodology is an essential tool for assisting building managers and operators in preparing for airborne hazards.

  16. MAXCRED – a new software package for rapid risk assessment in chemical process industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faisal I Khan; S. A Abbasi

    1998-01-01

    A new software package for conducting rapid risk assessment (RRA) in chemical process industries and the system of methodologies on which it is based are described. The objectives behind the development of the package are to achieve greater breadth and depth, sophistication, and user-friendliness in conducting RRA. In pursuit of these objectives we have incorporated in the package state-of-the-art models

  17. Integrated Accident Risk Analysis and Applications for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis C. Bley; James G. Droppo; Vitaly A. Eremenko

    \\u000a Although many studies could benefit from the aspects of risk assessment described in this book to clean up Cold War legacies\\u000a only a few studies have integrated risk management and risk assessment well. This chapter describes one such study—efforts\\u000a of the U.S. Army to remediate the legacy of chemical weapons stored in the United States. This effort addressed the human

  18. TRACI 2.0 - The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRACI 2.0, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts 2.0, has been expanded and developed for sustainability metrics, life cycle impact assessment, industrial ecology, and process design impact assessment for developing increasingly sus...

  19. In vitro methods for hazard assessment of industrial chemicals – opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chin Lin; Ghassabian, Sussan; Smith, Maree T.; Lam, Ai-Leen

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes as a result of repeated exposure of an allergen primarily on skin. ACD accounts for up to 95% of occupational skin diseases, with epoxy resins implicated as one of the most common causes of ACD. Efficient high-throughput in vitro screening for accurate identification of compounds and materials that may pose hazardous risks in the workplace is crucial. At present, the murine local lymph node assay is the ‘method of choice’ for predicting the sensitizing potency of contact allergens. As the 3Rs principles of reduction, refinement, and replacement in animal testing has gained political and economic momentum, several in vitro screening methods have been developed for identifying potential contact allergens. To date, these latter methods have been utilized primarily to assess the skin sensitizing potential of the chemical components of cosmetic products with scant research attention as to the applicability of these methods to industrial chemicals, particularly epoxy resins. Herein we review the currently utilized in vitro methods and identify the knowledge gaps with regard to assessing the generalizability of in vitro screening methods for assessing the skin sensitizing potential of industrial chemicals. PMID:25999858

  20. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on. PMID:23603866

  1. PUBLIC SAFETY WEAPON CONTRACT Following is the Public Safety Weapon Storage Contract. This contract outlines The University of Montana's policy

    E-print Network

    Steele, Brian

    PUBLIC SAFETY WEAPON CONTRACT Following is the Public Safety Weapon Storage Contract. This contract requires all weapons (rifles, handguns, shotguns of any type or caliber including BB guns and pellet guns.) All weapons may only be checked-in AND checked-out by the owner of the weapon. The owner must always

  2. Application of weapon framework ground vehicle technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanta Sarkar; Brian Novak; Curt Adams

    1998-01-01

    In the distributed computing domain a framework is defined as a software environment that simplifies application development and management. Frameworks are categorized in three distinct classes: infrastructure, integration and enterprise. Using an enterprise wide framework approach, weapon system development and maintenance can be simplified and can lead to significant advantages such as extensibility and interoperability. The weapon system technical architecture

  3. Weapon system survivability in electromagnetic environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Free; D. E. Clark

    1979-01-01

    The combination of today's weapon system sophistication and the requirements for them to operate in an increasingly dense electromagnetic environment has caused the weapon system survivability scope to be broadened. There is no lack of technology to assure survivability, but implementation of existing technology is not always applied properly in the managerial function. Managerial guidance and methodologies are being developed

  4. Lightweight weapon system for robot soldier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Wan-he; Zhang Yue; Li Zhong-xin

    2009-01-01

    With the development of science and technology and the coming information age, robot soldier will gradually become indispensable to the armed forces on the battlefield. Due to the use of different objects, lightweight weapon which is equipped for robot soldiers awaits to further develop. Some preliminary research and analysis on the lightweight weapon for the robot soldiers is carried out,

  5. Propulsion technology effect on weapon system reliability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1990-01-01

    A methodology for estimating the reliability of weapon systems early in development, even before system testing, has been applied to four types of advanced gun propulsion (advanced solids, liquid propellant, electromagnetic, and electrothermal) for three different weapon system types (artillery, armor, and air defense). The goals were to determine the feasibility of developing a methodology by which the reliability of

  6. Use of high power microwave weapons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Van Keuren; J. Knighten

    1995-01-01

    The destructive power of high power microwave (HPM) generators allow them to be used as effective weapons by both law enforcement and criminal organizations. Now, with the desperate need for cash by some developing nations, devices such as relativistic magnetrons, capable of producing multi-megawatts and for use in weapons, have been offered for sale to other nations, groups, and individuals.

  7. Space weapon-The arms control dilemma

    SciTech Connect

    Jasani, B.

    1985-01-01

    Anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons, rather than ballistic missile defense, is the main focus of this volume, prepared by SIPRI. There are many authors from the West and the East. The volume as a whole argues a consistent case for a bilateral moratorium on the testing of ASAT weapons, to be followed by a complete ban.

  8. Effects of nuclear weapons. Third edition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Glasstone; P. J. Dolan

    1977-01-01

    Since the last edition of ''The Effects of Nuclear Weapons'' in 1962 much new information has become available concerning nuclear weapon effects. This has come in part from the series of atmospheric tests, including several at very high altitudes, conducted in the Pacific Ocean area in 1962. In addition, laboratory studies, theoretical calculations, and computer simulations have provided a better

  9. Evaluating weapon systems using fuzzy arithmetic operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shyi-Ming Chen

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to deal with the performance evaluation of weapon systems using fuzzy arithmetic operations. An example of tactical missile systems selection is used to illustrate the performance evaluation process of weapon systems. Because the proposed methods uses simplified fuzzy arithmetic operations of fuzzy numbers rather than the complicated entropy weight calculations mentioned in

  10. Next generation lubrication system for weapons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hitesh K. Trivedi; Maurice M. Massey; Rabi S. Bhattacharya; Gerald A. Strahl; David Collum

    2001-01-01

    Current weapon system lubricants have performance limitations in extreme climatic conditions, specifically in sand and dust and cold environments. An alternative solid lubricant based lubrication system was investigated and validated using the ASTM subscale tests. The solid lubricants were selected and evaluated based on weapon system lubrication requirements. The solid lubrication systems were evaluated for coefficient of friction, wear, load

  11. Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Haines; C de B White; J Gleisner

    1983-01-01

    The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil

  12. Nuclear Weapons, Psychology, and International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, James E.

    1976-01-01

    Fear of nuclear energy, nuclear weapons, and nuclear was is widespread among the peoples of the world. However, to what extent do the fears (both rational and irrational) of policy-making elites and political masses produce actual effects upon the behavior of governments (who, after all, control the use of nuclear weapons)? (Author/RK)

  13. Vehicle effects on skin sensitizing potency of four chemicals: assessment using the local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Wright, Z M; Basketter, P A; Blaikie, L; Cooper, K J; Warbrick, E V; Dearman, R J; Kimber, I

    2001-04-01

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) can be used to determine the relative skin sensitizing potency of chemicals via interpolation of the quantitative dose response data generated. Using this approach we have demonstrated previously that the vehicle matrix in which a chemical allergen is encountered on the skin can have a significant influence on sensitizing potency. Estimates of relative potency are calculated from LLNA dose responses as a function of the mathematically derived EC3 value, this being the concentration estimated to induce a stimulation index (SI) of 3. To investigate further the influence of application vehicle on sensitizing potency, the LLNA has been used to examine the activity of four recognized human contact allergens: isoeugenol and cinnamic aldehyde, two fragrance chemicals; 3-dimethylaminopropylamine (a sensitizing impurity of cocamidopropyl betaine, a surfactant used in shower gel) and dibromodicyanobutane (the sensitizing component of Euxyl K 400, a preservative used in cosmetics). The four chemicals were applied in each of seven different vehicles (acetone: olive oil [4 : 1]; dimethylsulphoxide; methylethylketone; dimethyl formamide; propylene glycol; and both 50 : 50 and 90 : 10 mixtures of ethanol and water). It was found that the vehicle in which a chemical is presented to the epidermis can have a marked effect on sensitizing activity. EC3 values ranged from 0.9 to 4.9% for isoeugenol, from 0.5 to 1.7% for cinnamic aldehyde, from 1.7 to > 10% for dimethylaminopropylamine and from 0.4 to 6.4% for dibromodicyanobutane. These data confirm that the vehicle in which a chemical is encountered on the skin has an important influence on the relative skin sensitizing potency of chemicals and may have a significant impact on the acquisition of allergic contact dermatitis. The data also demonstrate the utility of the LLNA as a method for the prediction of these effects and thus for the development of more accurate risk assessments. PMID:18498452

  14. 10 CFR Appendix H to Part 73 - Weapons Qualification Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 1 15 yards 2 5 seconds Standing, draw weapon, move to kneeling position...reholster 2 15 yards 2 5 seconds Standing, draw weapon, move to kneeling position...revolver) 12 seconds (semiautomatic) Standing, draw weapon, fire 2 rounds,...

  15. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives. 0.215 Section 0...of Conduct § 0.215 Possession of weapons and explosives. (a) Employees shall...explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons, either openly or concealed,...

  16. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives. 0.215 Section 0...of Conduct § 0.215 Possession of weapons and explosives. (a) Employees shall...explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons, either openly or concealed,...

  17. 32 CFR 552.125 - Disposition of confiscated weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2009-07-01 true Disposition of confiscated weapons. 552.125 Section 552.125 National... § 552.125 Disposition of confiscated weapons. Commanders will maintain confiscated weapons in the unit arms room pending final...

  18. 14 CFR 135.119 - Prohibition against carriage of weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Prohibition against carriage of weapons. 135.119 Section 135.119 Aeronautics...119 Prohibition against carriage of weapons. No person may, while on board an...about that person a deadly or dangerous weapon, either concealed or unconcealed....

  19. 14 CFR 135.119 - Prohibition against carriage of weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Prohibition against carriage of weapons. 135.119 Section 135.119 Aeronautics...119 Prohibition against carriage of weapons. No person may, while on board an...about that person a deadly or dangerous weapon, either concealed or unconcealed....

  20. 14 CFR 135.119 - Prohibition against carriage of weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Prohibition against carriage of weapons. 135.119 Section 135.119 Aeronautics...119 Prohibition against carriage of weapons. No person may, while on board an...about that person a deadly or dangerous weapon, either concealed or unconcealed....

  1. 32 CFR 552.125 - Disposition of confiscated weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Disposition of confiscated weapons. 552.125 Section 552.125 National... § 552.125 Disposition of confiscated weapons. Commanders will maintain confiscated weapons in the unit arms room pending final...

  2. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives. 0.215 Section 0...of Conduct § 0.215 Possession of weapons and explosives. (a) Employees shall...explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons, either openly or concealed,...

  3. 32 CFR 552.125 - Disposition of confiscated weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Disposition of confiscated weapons. 552.125 Section 552.125 National... § 552.125 Disposition of confiscated weapons. Commanders will maintain confiscated weapons in the unit arms room pending final...

  4. 14 CFR 135.119 - Prohibition against carriage of weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Prohibition against carriage of weapons. 135.119 Section 135.119 Aeronautics...119 Prohibition against carriage of weapons. No person may, while on board an...about that person a deadly or dangerous weapon, either concealed or unconcealed....

  5. 14 CFR 135.119 - Prohibition against carriage of weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Prohibition against carriage of weapons. 135.119 Section 135.119 Aeronautics...119 Prohibition against carriage of weapons. No person may, while on board an...about that person a deadly or dangerous weapon, either concealed or unconcealed....

  6. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives. 0.215 Section 0...of Conduct § 0.215 Possession of weapons and explosives. (a) Employees shall...explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons, either openly or concealed,...

  7. 32 CFR 552.125 - Disposition of confiscated weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2009-07-01 true Disposition of confiscated weapons. 552.125 Section 552.125 National... § 552.125 Disposition of confiscated weapons. Commanders will maintain confiscated weapons in the unit arms room pending final...

  8. 48 CFR 217.173 - Multiyear contracts for weapon systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Multiyear contracts for weapon systems. 217.173 Section 217... 217.173 Multiyear contracts for weapon systems. As authorized by 10 U...a multiyear contract for— (a) A weapon system and associated items,...

  9. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives. 0.215 Section 0...of Conduct § 0.215 Possession of weapons and explosives. (a) Employees shall...explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons, either openly or concealed,...

  10. 32 CFR 552.125 - Disposition of confiscated weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 true Disposition of confiscated weapons. 552.125 Section 552.125 National... § 552.125 Disposition of confiscated weapons. Commanders will maintain confiscated weapons in the unit arms room pending final...

  11. Default Values for Assessment of Potential Dermal Exposure of the Hands to Industrial Chemicals in the Scope of Regulatory Risk Assessments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HANS MARQUART; NICHOLAS D. WARREN; JUHA LAITINEN

    2006-01-01

    Dermal exposure needs to be addressed in regulatory risk assessment of chemicals. The models used so far are based on very limited data. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a large number of new measurements on dermal exposure to industrial chemicals in various work situations, together with information on possible determinants of exposure. These data and information,togetherwithsomenon-RISKOFDERMdatawereusedtoderivedefaultvaluesfor potential dermal exposure

  12. Improved $?$-weapons for Higgs hunting

    E-print Network

    G. Barenboim; C. Bosch; M. L. López-Ibáñez; O. Vives

    2013-11-28

    In this work, we use the results from Higgs searches in the $\\gamma\\gamma$ and $\\tau\\tau$ decay channels at LHC and indirect bounds as BR$(B \\to X_s \\gamma)$ to constrain the parameter space of a generic MSSM Higgs sector. In particular, we include the latest CMS results that look for additional Higgs states with masses up to 1 TeV. We show that the $\\tau \\tau$ channel is the best and most accurate weapon in the hunt for new Higgs states beyond the Standard Model. We obtain that present experimental results rule out additional neutral Higgs bosons in a generic MSSM below 300 GeV for any value of $\\tan \\beta$ and, for instance, values of $\\tan \\beta$ above 30 are only possible for Higgs masses above 600 GeV. ATLAS stored data has the potential to render this bound obsolete in the near future.

  13. Weapons-usable material disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Canter, H.R.

    1994-12-31

    With the end of the Cold War, significant quantities and forms of nuclear materials are now in excess of national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. Underscoring the concern about risk of theft or diversion of these materials contributing to proliferation or their reuse to reconstitute a large arsenal and resume the nuclear arms race, the President has directed an interagency working group to initiate a comprehensive review of long-term options for plutonium disposition (and by implication other weapons-usable material such as highly enriched uranium). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the agency with responsibility for production and management of these materials, has the technical expertise and resources needed for this review, and is a member of the interagency working group. This report discusses the topic of plutonium disposition.

  14. Nuclear weapons are illegal threats

    SciTech Connect

    Meyrowitz, E.L.

    1985-05-01

    Challenging Harry Almond's position that nuclear deterrence is workable, the author contends that there is no historical basis for believing that anticipation of the horrors of war will be an effective deterrent. He questions the belief that the nuclear balance of terror has maintained the peace for the past 40 years because an arms race is inherently unstable. The argument that the pursuit of national interests takes precedence over any limitation imposed by international law reflects a perception of international law that is comparable to the Third Reich. The bases for a legal evaluation of the status of nuclear weapons under international law come from express and implicit treaty provisions, international custom, general principles of international law, judicial decisions, resolutions at the United Nations, and the opinions of qualified jurists as well as military necessity.

  15. Finally, Proof of Weapons of Mass Destruction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ian T. Baldwin (Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology; Department of Molecular Ecology REV)

    2003-10-07

    Allelopathy (one species' use of chemicals to harm other species) may be a key ingredient in successful invasions of alien plants into established communities. Bais et al. show that in response to elicitation by common soil fungi, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) launches an ineffective defense against the fungi that results in extensive collateral damage to neighboring plants. Specifically, the flavonoid (–)-catechin, released from the roots of knapweed, produces a massive reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative burst, Ca2+ signaling, and rapid cell death in those unadapted native species whose habitats the plant regularly invades. The roots release both (+) and (–) enantiomers, but only the (–) enantiomer functions as a weapon of mass destruction; the (+) enantiomer inhibits the growth of numerous common soil-borne bacterial pathogens. Eliciting apoptotic response for a competitive advantage is an example of signal cross-talk between the genomes of interacting organisms and highlights how the internal signaling of one organism can be used by others to adjust their phenotypes in an adaptive manner. The study provides strong circumstantial evidence for an allelopathic interaction, but the genetic manipulation of (–)-catechin release would allow researchers to determine if these responses occur in nature. Precise genetic control over the release of secondary metabolites from plants would benefit ecological research.

  16. The Chemical Hazards Assessment Prior to D&D of the Plutonium Finishing Plant, Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A. M.; Prevette, S. S.; Sherwood, A. R.; Fitch, L. R.; Ranade, D. G.; Oldham, R. W.

    2003-02-26

    This report describes the evaluation methods and results of a chemical safety status assessment of the process equipment at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Nuclear Reservation Plutonium Finishing Plant. This assessment, designated as the Plutonium Finishing Plant Residual Chemical Hazards Assessment, focused particular emphasis on the idle and inactive plant systems, though certain active areas also were examined to the extent that these were examined during a previous facility vulnerability assessment completed in 1999. The Plutonium Finishing Plant is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation that is situated in south central Washington State.

  17. Chemical warfare, past and future. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Tzihor, A.

    1992-05-15

    World War I was arena for the first use of chemical warfare. The enormous tactical success brought about by this first time use of chemical weapons caused the continued development of more sophisticated tactics and weapons in this category of unconventional warfare. This phenomenon has carried through to today. However, at present, because of technological developments, the global economic situation, and political factors, coupled with the inability of the western world to control the proliferation of chemical weapons, a situation weapon of mass destruction. Recent use by Iraq against Kurdish civilian indicates that chemical warfare is no longer limited to the battlefield. The western nations have a need to understand the risk. This paper conducts an analysis of past lessons and the factors which will affect the use of chemical warfare in the future. From this analysis, the paper reaches conclusions concerning the significant threat chemical weapons pose for the entire world in the not too distant future.

  18. A proposed approach for the assessment of chemicals in indirect potable reuse schemes.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Weinstein, Philip; Cook, Angus; Devine, Brian; Van Buynder, Paul

    2007-10-01

    The city of Perth in Western Australia is facing a future of compromised water supplies. In recent years, this urban region has been experiencing rapid population growth, coupled with drying climate, which has exacerbated water shortages. As part of the government strategy to secure water sustainability and to address an agenda focused on all elements of the water cycle, a target of 20% reuse of treated wastewater by 2012 was established. This includes a feasibility review of managed aquifer recharge for indirect potable reuse. A characterization of contaminants in wastewater after treatment and an assessment of the health implications are necessary to reassure both regulators and the public. To date, the commonly used approach involves a comparison of measured contaminant concentrations with the established drinking-water standards or other toxicological guidelines for the protection of human health. However, guidelines and standards have not been established for many contaminants in recycled water (unregulated chemicals). This article presents a three-tiered approach for the preliminary health risk assessment of chemicals in order to determine key contaminants that need to be monitored and managed. The proposed benchmark values for the calculation of risk quotients are health based, systematically defined, scientifically defensible, easy to apply, and clear to interpret. The proposed methodology is based on the derivation of health-based levels for unregulated contaminants with toxicity information and a "threshold of toxicological concern" for unregulated contaminants without toxicity data. The application of this approach will help policymakers set guidelines regarding unregulated chemicals in recycled water. PMID:17763083

  19. Techniques to evaluate the importance of common cause degradation on reliability and safety of nuclear weapons.

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, John L.

    2011-05-01

    As the nuclear weapon stockpile ages, there is increased concern about common degradation ultimately leading to common cause failure of multiple weapons that could significantly impact reliability or safety. Current acceptable limits for the reliability and safety of a weapon are based on upper limits on the probability of failure of an individual item, assuming that failures among items are independent. We expanded the current acceptable limits to apply to situations with common cause failure. Then, we developed a simple screening process to quickly assess the importance of observed common degradation for both reliability and safety to determine if further action is necessary. The screening process conservatively assumes that common degradation is common cause failure. For a population with between 100 and 5000 items we applied the screening process and conclude the following. In general, for a reliability requirement specified in the Military Characteristics (MCs) for a specific weapon system, common degradation is of concern if more than 100(1-x)% of the weapons are susceptible to common degradation, where x is the required reliability expressed as a fraction. Common degradation is of concern for the safety of a weapon subsystem if more than 0.1% of the population is susceptible to common degradation. Common degradation is of concern for the safety of a weapon component or overall weapon system if two or more components/weapons in the population are susceptible to degradation. Finally, we developed a technique for detailed evaluation of common degradation leading to common cause failure for situations that are determined to be of concern using the screening process. The detailed evaluation requires that best estimates of common cause and independent failure probabilities be produced. Using these techniques, observed common degradation can be evaluated for effects on reliability and safety.

  20. THE ACQUISITION AND APPLICATION OF ABSORPTION, DISTRIBUTION, METABOLISM, AND EXCRETION (ADME) DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multi-sector international group of government, academic, and industry scientists has developed a proposal for an improved testing scheme for assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. Incorporation of pharmacokinetic studies describing the absorption, distribution, me...