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1

Environmental management of assembled chemical weapons assessment program.  

SciTech Connect

Environmental planning and management was an integral part of the ACWA Program planning process. To ensure that environmental protection issues could be addressed expeditiously and not delay the demonstrations, the PMACWA scaled the technology demonstrations such that simplified regulatory processes and existing research and development facilities could be used. The use of enclosed facilities for the demonstrations prevents any uncontrolled discharges to the environment and made it possible to conduct environmental assessments relatively quickly. The PMACWA also arranged for public briefings to ease any community concerns over the operations with chemical weapons. These steps precluded regulatory and community resistance to the ACWA activities. The cooperation of the regulators and stakeholders has been a key element in enabling the ACWA Program to move with the speed that it has to date. Technology demonstrations are currently underway and are scheduled to be completed in late May 1999. The data collected during these demonstrations will be used to prepare and submit a summary report to Congress by August 1999. The challenge continues for the ACWA management to guide the demonstrations to completion and to plan for possible pilot testing. As the scale of the ACWA facilities increase in size, the ease of reduced regulatory processes and environmental analyses will no longer be possible. However, the PMACWA will continue to explore all paths through the environmental process to speed the ACWA program to its goals while at the same time ensuring adequate protection of public health and safety and of the environment.

Frey, G.; Mohrman, G.; Templin, B. R.

1999-05-07

2

[Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].  

PubMed

Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary. PMID:16296384

Nakamura, Katsumi

2005-10-01

3

Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 4 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Pueblo Chemical Depot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the ''Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001c) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored at Pueblo Chemical Depot (PCD), located outside Pueblo, Colorado. This

T. Kimmell; S. Folga; G. Frey; J. Molberg; P. Kier; B. Templin; M. Goldberg

2001-01-01

4

Technology Assessment of the Inspection Readiness Plan in Chemical Weapons Convention Challenge Inspections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis identifies current Information Technology initiatives to help improve the Navy's Inspection Plan for Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) challenge Inspections. The CWC is an intrusive inspection. The Challenge Inspection allows for a team of int...

A. R. Woodley

1998-01-01

5

Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 5 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Blue Grass Army Depot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the ''Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored in the U.S. Army's unitary chemical stockpile at Blue Grass

T. Kimmell; S. Folga; G. Frey; J. Molberg; P. Kier; B. Templin; M. Goldberg

2001-01-01

6

Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 3 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Pine Bluff Arsenal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the ''Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored in the U.S. Army's unitary chemical stockpile at Pine Bluff

T. Kimmell; S. Folga; G. Frey; J. Molberg; P. Kier; B. Templin; M. Goldberg

2001-01-01

7

Chemical Weapons Convention -- Legal issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the US system of constitutional law. Its promise of eliminating what is the most purely genocidal type of weapon from the world's arsenals as well as of destroying the facilities for produ...

1997-01-01

8

Chemical Weapons: The legacy of Operation Desert Storm. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States and allied forces deploying in the 1991 War in the Persian Gulf region faced a formidable Iraqi offensive chemical weapons capability. This threat immediately challenged U.S. policy and resolve as outlined in the 1990 bilateral chemical weapons treaty with the Soviet Union. The necessity to assess retaliatory options, in the event of Iraqi chemical use, was apparent, and

Henscheid

1991-01-01

9

Future treaties: Chemical weapons convention  

SciTech Connect

The recent use and the proliferation of chemical weapons provide impetus to the ongoing negotiations in Geneva to ban the production, possession, and use of all chemical weapons. The provisions of the Chemical Weapons Convention are not all agreed upon yet, challenge inspections and sanctions against violators being two particularly difficult areas. Verification of declared stocks and activities poses no major technical problems, but care in technology development and selection will be required to provide effective verification with minimum intrusion. A carefully designed system will be needed to interpret the extensive data from routine inspections, monitoring, and reporting and to protect company proprietary information. Identification of appropriate sites for challenge poses very difficult technical problems, on which R D could be fruitful. On-site inspection in the US poses potential problems ranging from the loss of classified or proprietary information to high financial costs for site preparation and lost operating time. Site access for inspection could also violate US companies' freedom from illegal search and seizure; several remedies are considered. 47 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Gaines, L.L.; Tanzman, E.A.

1989-09-01

10

The destruction of weapons under the chemical weapons convention  

SciTech Connect

As the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) enters into force, countries with stocks of chemical weapons will begin the task of destroying them. In the U.S. whose stockpile consists of approximately 30,000 tons of nerve and blister agents at eight separate sites in the continental United States at Johnston Atoll in the Pacific, the Army has designed a highly-automated {close_quotes}baseline{close_quotes} system to dismantle and incinerate the weapons. Although researchers have identified potential alternatives to incineration, involving chemical neutralization and biodegradation, it appears that these techniques are likely to substitute for incineration at most, at two sites: Newport, Indiana, and Aberdeen, Maryland. The Russian destruction program is less advanced than that of the U.S. and probably cannot be carried out effectively without significant and technical assistance from abroad, an urgent requirement given that the Duma Defense Committee has described Russian Chemical weapons storage sites as insecure and unsafe.

Smithson, A.E. [Henry L. Stimson Center, Washington, DC (United States); Lenihan, M. [Commission on Protecting and Reducing Government Secrecy, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-07-01

11

Risk assessment and management at U.S. Army Chemical weapons disposal facilities  

SciTech Connect

The Department of the Army has established the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) in response to Congressional direction to eliminate the nation`s stockpile of unitary chemical agents and munitions. This will be accomplished through the construction and operation of disposal facilities specifically designed for this mission. It is a fundamental objective of the CSDP to complete the disposal program with maximum protection of the health and safety of the public, facility staff, and the environment. To this end, the CSDP has implemented a comprehensive risk management program. The army has undertaken qualitative and quantitative risk assessments to help understand the risks to be managed. This risk management program also integrates army system safety practices and policies and industrial safety standards and risk management activities.

Boyd, G.J. [Sciences Applications International Corp., Abingdon, MD (United States)

1996-12-31

12

Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) Program, Immobilized Cell Bioreactor Toxicity Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Until recently, incineration was the only proven technology, adopted by the U.S. Army, that successfully destroyed chemical agents. However, public opposition to incineration redirected research to evaluate alternative technologies. Through the Alternativ...

M. V. Haley C. W. Kurnas M. A. Guelta

2003-01-01

13

Chemical Weapons: The legacy of Operation Desert Storm. Final report  

SciTech Connect

United States and allied forces deploying in the 1991 War in the Persian Gulf region faced a formidable Iraqi offensive chemical weapons capability. This threat immediately challenged U.S. policy and resolve as outlined in the 1990 bilateral chemical weapons treaty with the Soviet Union. The necessity to assess retaliatory options, in the event of Iraqi chemical use, was apparent, and are evaluated in this analysis. The proliferation of chemical weapons worldwide, disarmament efforts, and chemical defense readiness are also reviewed in the context of the 1991 Gulf War. The conclusion that retaliation by conventional means alone as the only acceptable alternative supporting the presidential goal of increased stability in the Middle East is reached. Prospects for revitalized post-war multilateral chemical disarmament efforts, and a reduction in chemical warfare proliferation are also assessed. Recommendations for a post-war national chemical defense policy are made.

Henscheid, M.R.

1991-06-21

14

Nuclear weapon system risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is a process for evaluating hazardous operations by considering what can go wrong, the likelihood of these undesired events, and the resultant consequences. Techniques used in PRA originated in the 1960s. Although there were early exploratory applications to nuclear weapons and other technologies, the first major application of these techniques was in the Reactor Safety Study,

1993-01-01

15

Assessment of potential risk for fish consumption by population in the Baltic Sea area where chemical weapon was dumped  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical weapon dumped after World War II in the Baltic Sea continues to be of a great concern of the public and population\\u000a of the countries adjoining the area of dumping. One of such areas is part of the water area in the vicinity of the island\\u000a of Bornholm. In 2007–2008, within the frameworks of the EU MERCW project “Modelling

M. N. Katkova

2011-01-01

16

Russian chemical weapons: Proliferation or destruction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 11 September 2001 attack on the USA revealed that terrorists are willing to inflict mass casualties and might use weapons of mass destruction (WMD) to increase the scope of their acts. Chemical weapons (CW) are the easiest WMD to use and obtain, and have been more frequently used in terrorist acts and terrorist threats. However, it is not very

Maria Katsva

2002-01-01

17

Declaration requirements of the chemical weapons convention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The declaration requirements of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) are among its most important provisions. Because accurate and timely declarations are necessary for the Convention's verification system to function properly, they are a pre-requisite f...

E. Tanzman B. Kellman

2000-01-01

18

An Innovative Approach to Weapon Performance Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, software models for weapon system assessment were dedicated to particular systems and were very difficult to modify to meet changing requirements. Therefore more flexible modelling and simulation tools were required to ensure a coherent and efficient capability to rapidly assess the performance of increasingly diverse and complex modern weapon systems. The Unified Weapon Model (UWM) is a novel

Dominic Cernis; Graham Halsall

19

Implementing the chemical weapons convention  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty implementing issues, showing how various States Parties have enacted measures that are responsive to CWC obligations. It is intended to highlight the issues that States Parties must address and to identify trends among States Parties that might be useful to States that have not yet made crucial decisions as to how to resolve key matters. At various points in the text, country names are listed in parenthesis to identify pieces of national legislation that demonstrate the point in the text. It should not be inferred that nations not listed have not addressed the point or have taken a different position. In some cases, a nation's position is explained in somewhat more depth to give specific detail to an assertion in the text. Attached to this paper is a chart which illustrates how States Parties in the Central European region as well as the United States respond to the issues raised. Obviously, in preparing such a chart, many subtle provisions in national legislation must be simplified. The point of the chart is to portray, on a few pages, the major trends of legislation.

Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

1999-12-07

20

Chemical Weapons Convention: Boon or Bust.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On April 24, 1997 the Senate ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention by a vote of 74 to 26. This act of consent ended four years of critical debate by the Senate, the Executive Branch, the Department of Defense, the chemical industry and more importantly...

S. T. Chapman

1998-01-01

21

The Control of Chemical and Biological Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is composed of four papers prepared to illuminate the problem areas which might arise if the policies of the 1925 Geneva Protocol and other measures to limit chemical and biological weapons are ratified by the United States Senate. The papers included are: Legal Aspects of the Geneva Protocol of 1925; The Use of Herbicides in War: A…

Alexander, Archibald S.; And Others

22

Emergency management of chemical weapons injuries.  

PubMed

The potential for chemical weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Classes of chemical weapons include nerve agents, vesicants (blister agents), choking agents, incapacitating agents, riot control agents, blood agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The nerve agents work by blocking the actions of acetylcholinesterase leading to a cholinergic syndrome. Nerve agents include sarin, tabun, VX, cyclosarin, and soman. The vesicants include sulfur mustard and lewisite. The vesicants produce blisters and also damage the upper airways. Choking agents include phosgene and chlorine gas. Choking agents cause pulmonary edema. Incapacitating agents include fentanyl and its derivatives and adamsite. Riot control agents include Mace and pepper spray. Blood agents include cyanide. The mechanism of toxicity for cyanide is blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Toxic industrial chemicals include agents such as formaldehyde, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia. PMID:22080590

Anderson, Peter D

2011-11-11

23

Syria's Chemical Weapons: Issues for Congress, August 20, 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use or loss of control of chemical weapons stocks in Syria could have unpredictable consequences for the Syrian population and neighboring countries as well as U.S. allies and forces in the region. Congress may wish to assess the Administrations plans...

A. Feickert M. B. D. Nikitin P. K. Kerr

2013-01-01

24

Plasmachemical Destruction of Chemical Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Soviet Union and then Russia presented in its stockpiles only two types of the first generation of contained chemical\\u000a warfare agents, namely the blister agents yperite (agent HD) and lewisite (agent L). The second generation of Russian toxic\\u000a chemicals include three types of nerve agents (phosphorous containing agent), sarin (agent GB), soman (agent GD) and Russian\\u000a V-gas.

Lev A. Fedorov

25

ROLE OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION IN COMBATING CHEMICAL TERRORISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is shortly characterised stressing its main principles, inter alia the General Purpose\\u000a Criterion. Status of its implementation as of December 2004 shows the main data obligatory declared by already 167 States\\u000a Parties and main achievements in destruction of Chemical Weapons (CW) stockpiles and destruction \\/ conversion of CW production\\u000a facilities and the verification efforts. The

Jiri Matousek

26

Countering the proliferation of chemical weapons. Research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than a decade, the U.S. government has been grappling with the question of chemical-weapon proliferation along with the associated problems of missile and nuclear-weapon proliferation. The Geneva Protocol of 1925 banned the first use but not the production, transfer, or storage of chemical weapons. The extensive chemical-warfare arsenal of the former Soviet Union was the primary chemical-weapon threat

Eisenstein

1993-01-01

27

Electrochemical oxidation of chemical weapons  

SciTech Connect

Catalyzed electrochemical oxidation (CEO), a low-temperature electrochemical oxidation technique, is being examined for its potential use in destroying chemical warfare agents. The CEO process oxidizes organic compounds to form carbon dioxide and water. A bench-scale CEO system was used in three separate tests sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Intelligence and National Security through the Advanced Concepts Program. The tests examined the effectiveness of CEO in destroying sarin (GB), a chemical nerve agent. The tests used 0.5 mL, 0.95 mL, and 1.0 mL of GB, corresponding to 544 mg, 816 mg, and 1,090 mg, respectively, of GB. Analysis of the off gas showed that, under continuous processing of the GB agent, destruction efficiencies of better than six 9s (99.9999% destroyed) could be achieved.

Surma, J.E.

1994-05-01

28

Electrochemical oxidation of chemical weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalyzed electrochemical oxidation (CEO), a low-temperature electrochemical oxidation technique, is being examined for its potential use in destroying chemical warfare agents. The CEO process oxidizes organic compounds to form carbon dioxide and water. A bench-scale CEO system was used in three separate tests sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Intelligence and National Security through the Advanced

Surma

1994-01-01

29

Detecting Chemical Weapons: Threats, Requirements, Solutions, and Future Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although chemicals have been reportedly used as weapons for thousands of years, it was not until 1915 at Ypres, France that an industrial chemical, chlorine, was used in World War I as an offensive weapon in significant quantity, causing mass casualties. From that point until today the development, detection, production and protection from chemical weapons has be an organized endeavor

Brian Boso

2011-01-01

30

Countering the proliferation of chemical weapons. Research report  

SciTech Connect

For more than a decade, the U.S. government has been grappling with the question of chemical-weapon proliferation along with the associated problems of missile and nuclear-weapon proliferation. The Geneva Protocol of 1925 banned the first use but not the production, transfer, or storage of chemical weapons. The extensive chemical-warfare arsenal of the former Soviet Union was the primary chemical-weapon threat to the United States from the start of the Cold War in the early 1950s, and thus drove U.S. chemical-weapon policy. The United States finally ratified the Geneva Protocol in 1975. Iraq's use of chemical weapons in its war with Iran in the 1980s stimulated the United States to improve its export controls of chemicals used to make chemical weapons.

Eisenstein, M.

1993-01-01

31

Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing measures were still under development. Last month, the Web Edition of the Manual was completed. It's internet address, or URL, is http://www.cwc.anl.gov/.

Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

1999-11-05

32

Prospects for International Terrorist Groups Employing Chemical Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There has been much discussion and debate among security analysts, scholars, and politicians about the possible use of weapons of mass destruction. This paper examines the prospects for international terrorist groups employing chemical weapons. Specifical...

D. W. Webb

1999-01-01

33

Chemical weapons: documented use and compounds on the horizon.  

PubMed

Man's inhumanity to man is expressed through a plethora of tools of modern warfare and terror. The use of chemical and biological weapons with the goals of assault, demoralisation and lethality has been documented in recent history, both on the battlefield and in urban terror against civilians. A general review of a few of the currently employed chemical weapons and biological toxins, along with a look at potential chemical weapons and tools of counter-terrorism, follows. While these weapons are fearsome elements, the dangers should be viewed in the context of the widespread availability and efficacy of conventional weapons. PMID:15093243

Bismuth, Chantal; Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J; Barriot, Patrick

2004-04-01

34

Chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East. Study project  

SciTech Connect

Since the early 1980s, chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East has been a growing problem. Most recently, the eight year Iran-Iraq War, marked by the repeated use of chemical weapons, has set an alarming precedent in this region that can no longer be ignored. The threat is acute and the implications for the Middle East, an area where animosities are high and relations tense, are significant. The study will address chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East. It will examine why proliferation occurred and look at initiatives and efforts to prevent proliferation. This study will also discuss the chemical weapons capabilities of the Middle East states, the threat to the region posed by chemical weapons, and some of the implications for balance and stability in the region. Finally, this study will examine future prospects for the region in terms of chemical weapons proliferation there.

Schumeyer, G.

1990-04-01

35

Environmental and safety obligations of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

Among its many unique and precedent-setting provisions, the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) includes important requirements for States Parties to protect the public safety and the environment in the course of carrying out the treaty. These obligations will apply to the destruction of chemical weapons, of former chemical weapons production facilities, and to other activities under the Convention such as the verification scheme. This morning, I will briefly discuss the Convention`s safety and environmental obligations, concentrating on their effects in this country as the United States chemical weapons stockpile is destroyed.

Tanzman, E.A.

1994-04-07

36

Chemical Weapons Disposal: Understanding Scheduled Downtime at Disposal Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Introduction The U.S. Army Chemical Materials Agency (CMA) is responsible for protecting and safely storing the nation's aging chemical weapons, while working toward the effective recovery, treatment and ultimate elimination of the nation's chemical warfa...

1997-01-01

37

[Neurological effects of chemical and biological weapons].  

PubMed

Neurological manifestations of chemical and biological weapons are reviewed. Nerve agents in current use, storage, or production include tabun, sarin, soman and VX. The initial effects of exposure to a nerve agent depend on the dose and on the route of exposure. Sarin, the agent studied most thoroughly in man in Matumoto and Tokyo attacked by Aum shinrikyo will cause miosis, rhinorrehea and shortness of breath are initial complaints immediately after inhalation exposure of the vapor. The severe cases showed loss of consciousness and convulsions. Respiratory arrest may occur. The most toxic of the nerve agents is VX. It is thought to be 100 times as toxic as sarin for humans by the percutaneous rout. The similar findings to sarin exposure are also observed in cases exposured to VX. Atropin and PAM will be effective in the early stage. BZ (benzilate) is a delayed onset incapacitation agent. It causes severe hallucination. The cyanide compounds are among the most rapidly acting of war gases, resulting in death. Anthrax has been the most attractive biological weapon for a long time. Anthrax is an acute bacterial infection of the skin and lungs in man and animals. Meningoencephalitis has been reported in the terminal stage in anthrax infection. In autopsy, it is really confirmed in the characteristic findings of the meningeal abnormality. The potential weaponization of variola virus continues to pose a military threat because the aerosol infectivity of the virus and the development of susceptible populations. A high rate of lethality, a staunch resistance to treatments and a rapid onset of severe generalised muscle weakness make botulinum toxin a suitable agent for biological warfare particularly by oral administration. PMID:15152492

Inoue, Naohide

2003-11-01

38

Chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East. Study project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1980s, chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East has been a growing problem. Most recently, the eight year Iran-Iraq War, marked by the repeated use of chemical weapons, has set an alarming precedent in this region that can no longer be ignored. The threat is acute and the implications for the Middle East, an area where animosities

Schumeyer

1990-01-01

39

Chemical and biological weapons. Implications for anaesthesia and intensive care.  

PubMed

In the wake of recent atrocities there has been renewed apprehension regarding the possibility of chemical and biological weapon (CBW) deployment by terrorists. Despite various international agreements that proscribe their use, certain states continue to develop chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction. Of greater concern, recent historical examples support the prospect that state-independent organizations have the capability to produce such weapons. Indeed, the deliberate deployment of anthrax has claimed several lives in the USA since September 11, 2001. In the event of a significant CBW attack, medical services would be stretched. However, victim survival may be improved by the prompt, coordinated response of military and civil authorities, in conjunction with appropriate medical care. In comparison with most other specialties, anaesthetists have the professional academic background in physiology and pharmacology to be able to understand the nature of the injuries caused by CBWs. Anaesthetists, therefore, play a vital role both in the initial resuscitation of casualties and in their continued treatment in an intensive care setting. This article assesses the current risk of CBW deployment by terrorists, considers factors which would affect the severity of an attack, and discusses the pathophysiology of those CBWs most likely to be used. The specific roles of the anaesthetist and intensivist in treatment are highlighted. PMID:12378672

White, S M

2002-08-01

40

15 CFR 740.11 - Governments, international organizations, international inspections under the Chemical Weapons...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...inspections under the Chemical Weapons Convention, and the International...inspections under the Chemical Weapons Convention, and the International...reexports for international nuclear safeguards; U.S. government...inspections under the Chemical Weapons Convention; and the...

2013-01-01

41

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section 745...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745.2 ...reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note: The...

2010-01-01

42

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section 745...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745.2 ...reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note: The...

2009-01-01

43

15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2009-01-01

44

15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2010-01-01

45

28 CFR 552.25 - Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. 552.25...less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. (a) The...less-than-lethal weapons, including those containing chemical agents, only...

2013-07-01

46

15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). 742.18 Section 742...742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). States that are...known as the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention), undertake...

2010-01-01

47

15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). 742.18 Section 742...742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). States that are...known as the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention), undertake...

2009-01-01

48

76 FR 6087 - Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2011-0017] RIN 3150-AI49 Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and Request for Comment...on a draft guidance document entitled ``Weapons Safety Assessment'' (WSA). This...

2011-02-03

49

Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons and Missiles: Status and Trends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States has long recognized the dangers inherent in the spread of nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) weapons, and missiles. Despite the preeminence of U.S. military power, or perhaps because of it, these weapons continue to pose very seriou...

S. A. Squassoni

2005-01-01

50

Overview of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

My subject this morning is a very brief overview of the Chemical Weapons Convention. Much has already been written describing and summarizing the Convention, including several of the Supplementary Papers and the Annex contained within the draft Manual. It is not my goal to restate what many of you already know. Rather, in the short time available, I want to focus on the parts of the Convention that are addressed in the draft Manual, that is, I want to highlight for you those aspects of the CWC that require implementation by individual State Parties. As I do so, I will show you where in the draft Manual each of these matters is addressed so that you can see how our document corresponds to the Convention`s requirements. This will provide a bridge between the plenary sessions and workshops that will consider the implementing measures and the Supplementary Papers in the Manual. In organizing my talk to focus on aspects of the Convention requiring national implementing measures, I necessarily leave out certain of its provisions. Among these intentional omissions are, with all due respect to our hosts, the structure and function of the OPCW, the Annex on Chemicals, and various operational aspects of the Convention such as sanctions, duration and withdrawal, entry into force, reservations, the depository, and the various authentic texts. The provisions that require national implementing measures can be conveniently regarded as creating three different kinds of obligations. First, the Convention obligates the government of each State Party to carry out certain actions, which I will refer to as ``executory obligations.`` Second, each State Party must impose certain requirements on persons over whom it has jurisdiction, which I will call ``enforcement obligations.`` Finally, ``cooperation obligations`` are those requiring State Parties to assist one another and the OPCW to achieve the Convention`s goals.

Tanzman, E.A.

1993-12-02

51

Proposals for chemical weapons during the American Civil War.  

PubMed

Proposals for chemical weapons that arose during the American Civil War are described. Most incendiary and all biological agents are excluded. The described proposals appeared primarily in periodicals or letters to government officials on both sides. The weapons were usually meant to temporarily disable enemy combatants, but some might have been lethal, and Civil War caregivers were ill-prepared to deal with the weapons' effects. Evidently, none of the proposed weapons were used. In only one instance was use against civilians mentioned. Among the agents most commonly proposed were cayenne pepper or other plant-based irritants such as black pepper, snuff, mustard, and veratria. Other suggested agents included chloroform, chlorine, hydrogen cyanide, arsenic compounds, sulfur, and acids. Proponents usually suggested that the chemicals be included in explosive artillery projectiles. Less commonly proposed vehicles of delivery included fire engines, kites, and manned balloons. Some of the proposed weapons have modern counterparts. PMID:18543573

Hasegawa, Guy R

2008-05-01

52

Model National Implementing Legislation for the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

It is an honor to address this distinguished audience. We are grateful to the Republique Gabonaise for hosting this important gathering and to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for supporting it. This seminar is another excellent opportunity for all of us to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. At this meeting we speak only for ourselves, neither for the government of the United States of America nor for any other institution. This paper discusses model national implementing legislation under the CWC. Every State Party likely must enact implementing legislation - not only the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons programme.

Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kellman, B. [DePaul University, Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-12-31

53

Manual for national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Convention on the Prohibition on the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature, January 13, 1993, in Paris, France (CWC), is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an ent...

B. Kellman E. A. Tanzman D. S. Gualtieri S. W. Grimes

1993-01-01

54

Database for chemical weapons detection: first results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quick increase of terrorism and asymmetric war is leading towards new needs involving defense and security. Nowadays we have to fight several kind of threats and use of chemical weapons against civil or military objectives is one of the most dangerous. For this reason it is necessary to find equipment, know-how and information that are useful in order to detect and identify dangerous molecules as quickly and far away as possible, so to minimize damage. Lidar/Dial are some of the most powerful optical technologies. Dial technology use two different wavelengths, in order to measure concentration profile of an investigated molecule. For this reason it is needed a "fingerprint" database which consists of an exhaustive collection of absorption coefficients data so to identify each molecule avoiding confusion with interfering ones. Nowadays there is not such a collection of data in scientific and technical literature. We used an FT-IR spectrometer and a CO2 laser source for absorption spectroscopy measurements using cells filled with the investigated molecules. The CO2 source is the transmitter of our DIAL facility. In this way we can make a proper "fingerprint" database necessary to identify dangerous molecules. The CO2 laser has been chosen because it is eye safe and, mainly, because it covers a spectral band where there is good absorption for this kind of molecules. In this paper IR spectra of mustard will be presented and compared to other substances which may interfere producing a false alarm. Methodology, experimental setup and first results are described.

Bellecci, C.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Martellucci, S.; Richetta, M.; Ventura, P.; Antonucci, A.; Pasquino, F.; Ricci, V.; Sassolini, A.

2008-10-01

55

Worldwide governmental efforts to locate and destroy chemical weapons and weapons materials: minimizing risk in transport and destruction.  

PubMed

The article gives an overview on worldwide efforts to eliminate chemical weapons and facilities for their production in the context of the implementation of the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). It highlights the objectives of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the international agency set up in The Hague to implement the CWC, and provides an overview of the present status of implementation of the CWC requirements with respect to chemical weapons (CW) destruction under strict international verification. It addresses new requirements that result from an increased threat that terrorists might attempt to acquire or manufacture CW or related materials. The article provides an overview of risks associated with CW and their elimination, from storage or recovery to destruction. It differentiates between CW in stockpile and old/abandoned CW, and gives an overview on the factors and key processes that risk assessment, management, and communication need to address. This discussion is set in the overall context of the CWC that requires the completion of the destruction of all declared CW stockpiles by 2012 at the latest. PMID:17119230

Trapp, Ralf

2006-09-01

56

History of US nuclear weapon safety assessment: The early years  

SciTech Connect

From the beginnings of the U.S. nuclear weapons program, military and civilian dual- agency judgment has been fundamental to achieving nuclear weapon and weapon system safety. This interaction was initiated by the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, which created the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The principle of using dual-agency judgment has been perpetuated in the design and assessment of the weapon and weapon system acceptance process since that time. This fundamental approach is still used today in all phases of the weapon life. In this paper, an overview of the history and philosophy of the approach is described.

Spray, S.D.

1996-06-01

57

Hyperspectral simulation of chemical weapon dispersal patterns using DIRSIG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fieldable thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometers has made it possible to design and construct new instruments for better detection of battlefield hazards such as chemical weapon clouds. The availability of spectroscopic measurements of these clouds can be used not only for the detection and identification of specific chemical agents but also to potentially quantify the lethality of the cloud. The

Peter S. Arnold; Scott D. Brown; John R. Schott

2000-01-01

58

Options for the destruction of chemical weapons and management of the associated risks.  

PubMed

The destruction of chemical weapons is a hazardous operation. The degree of hazard posed, however, is not uniform and is dependent on the specific chemical agent and the configuration of the weapon or bulk storage vessel in which it is contained. For example, a highly volatile nerve agent in an explosively configured munition, such as a rocket, poses a very different hazard from that of a bulk storage container of viscous mustard gas. Equally the handling of recovered, often highly corroded, World War (WW)I or WWII chemical munitions will pose a very different hazard from that associated with dealing with modern chemical weapons stored under the appropriate conditions. Over the years, a number of technologies have been developed for the destruction of chemical weapons. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. None of them provide a universal solution to the problem. When assessing options for the destruction of these weapons and the management of the associated risks, therefore, it is important to give due consideration and weight to these differences. To ensure that the destruction technology selected takes due account of them and that the resulting overall risk assessment accurately reflects the actual risks involved. PMID:17119231

Manley, Ron G

2006-09-01

59

Chemical and biological weapons: new questions, new answers.  

PubMed Central

The words "chemical and biological weapons" (CBW) send a shiver down most spines these days. With the end of the Cold War, the possibility of a massive nuclear confrontation appears remote, so today many popular doomsday scenarios center on the aggressive use of chemical or biological warfare by rogue nations or terrorist groups. As exaggerated as some of the accounts are, with CBW cast as the latest unseen, unstoppable enemy, the threat posed by these weapons is all too real, and growing. Images p931-a

Hood, E

1999-01-01

60

Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation  

SciTech Connect

Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation`s activities and providing an early warning and/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a surprise nuclear attack. However, the deployment of satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; and, neutrons, gamma rays, and X-rays from intentionally detonated fission and fusion weapons. In this paper, the MASH vl.0 code system is used to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized space based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from a thermonuclear weapon detonation in space. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the platform fully loaded, and in several stages representing limited engagement scenarios. The results indicate vulnerabilities to the Command, Control, and Communication (C) bay instruments from radiation damage for a nuclear weapon detonation for certain source/platform orientations. The distance at which damage occurs will depend on the weapon yield (n,{gamma}/kiloton) and size (kilotons).

Perez, C.L. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Johnson, J.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-03-01

61

Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation's activities and providing an early warning and/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a surprise nuclear attack. However, the deployment of satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; and neutrons, gamma rays, and x-rays from intentionally detonated fission and fusion weapons. In this paper, the MASH vl.0 code system is used to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized space based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from a thermonuclear weapon detonation in space. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the platform fully loaded, and in several stages representing limited engagement scenarios. The results indicate vulnerabilities to the Command, Control, and Communication bay instruments from radiation damage for a nuclear weapon detonation for certain source/platform orientations. The distance at which damage occurs will depend on the weapon yield (n,(gamma)/kiloton) and size (kilotons).

Perez, C. L.; Johnson, J. O.

62

Constitutional implications of implementing a chemical weapons convention  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the United States Constitution declares treaties to be the supreme Law of the Land,'' most treaties the United States enters into require the Congress to enact legislation to fully implement the treaty's terms in American law. The implementing legislation for the Chemical Weapons Convention will be very detailed and complex. In addition, this legislation must not conflict with any

Carnahan

1990-01-01

63

Numerical Simulation of Chemical Weapon Detonations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Huntsville Engineering and Support Center, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, is currently involved in the location, removal, and demilitarization of stockpiled and non-stockpiled chemical munitions. To support the development of safe, efficient, and cost-...

D. J. Stevens I. J. Serena

1996-01-01

64

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons No. Supplement...Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons Note...materials (for producing biological agents) described in ECCNs...and 2B352; and (iii) Technology (for the development,...

2009-01-01

65

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons No. Supplement...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS Pt. 742, Supp. 1 Supplement...Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons Note:...

2013-01-01

66

15 CFR 742.2 - Proliferation of chemical and biological weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.2 Proliferation of chemical and biological weapons. (a... The following controls are maintained...of chemical and biological weapons, has developed common control lists of items...

2009-01-01

67

48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition...Foreign Acquisition 225.7005 Restriction on certain chemical weapons...

2012-10-01

68

Chemical weapons treaty ratification races clock in Congressional hearings  

SciTech Connect

The pounding of the gavel in the Senate Foreign Relations Committee hearing room on Tuesday served as the starting gun signaling the beginning of the Senate's race toward a July finish line: US ratification of the chemical weapons treaty. President Clinton sent the treaty to Congress for Senate consent to ratification and for House and Senate approval of implementing legislation soon after the US signed it on Jan. 13. But the crush of other Congressional business--domestic legislation and other arms control agreements--has, in the words of one Congressional staffer, kept this accord off the members' radar screens.'' That is, until this week, when the Senate Foreign Relations Committee held its first in a series of hearings on the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). At the hearing, top officials from the State Department and the Arms Control Disarmament Agency offered an overview of the treaty and US obligations under it. After the committees get past a general understanding of the accord's requirements, they will begin probing for problems. Issues likely to be explored include the treaty's verifiability; its effect on industry, and especially whether confidential business information can be protected; the US's ability to meet the accord's chemical weapons destruction schedule; and Russia's ability to destroy its chemical stocks. Costs that the US will bear to support the international organization now being set up to implement and monitor the treaty, and financial aid to the Russians for destruction of their chemical arms, also will be scrutinized.

Ember, L.R.

1994-03-21

69

Chemical-Stockpile Disposal Program. Chemical weapons movement history compilation. Historical report 1946-1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report was produced to study the history of past chemical-weapons-movement operations from 1946 to 1986. The history was then to be used as a source of lessons learned for planning any transportation that might be required to implement the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. The report candidly discusses problems encountered on past chemical-weapons-movement operations and suggests areas in which the

Brankowitz

1987-01-01

70

15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. 744...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. (a...stockpiling, or use of chemical or biological weapons in or by any...

2013-01-01

71

28 CFR 552.25 - Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons. 552...Inmates § 552.25 Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons. The Warden may authorize the use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons...

2009-07-01

72

28 CFR 552.25 - Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons. 552...Inmates § 552.25 Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons. The Warden may authorize the use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons...

2010-07-01

73

A research report on Japanese use of chemical weapons during the Second World War  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research report introduces the historical process of Japanese use of chemical weapons against the Chinese during the Second World War, which caused serious casualties and mass destruction. In addition, it also elaborates on the discarded chemical weapons' injuries to the Chinese people and their negative effects on environmental pollution. According to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which became effective

Ping Bu

2007-01-01

74

Evaluating the Community Health Legacy of WWI Chemical Weapons Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spring Valley, Washington, DC, was built over a World War I chemical weapons development site. Testing activities caused wide\\u000a dispersal of arsenic in soil and waste disposal resulted in localized subsurface contamination. Spring Valley presents an\\u000a interesting case study, a contaminated physical environment, but a strongly health-protective social environment. To address\\u000a a possible “healthy community” bias we selected a nearby

Mary Fox; Frank Curriero; Kathryn Kulbicki; Beth Resnick; Thomas Burke

2010-01-01

75

Model national implementing legislation for the chemical weapons convention  

SciTech Connect

Good day. It is an honor to address this distinguished audience. I am grateful to the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia for hosting this important gathering and to the staff of the Provisional Technical Secretariat of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (PTS) for sponsoring it. I also want to express my gratitude to the DePaul University Human Rights Law Institute, the Merck Foundation, and Argonne National Laboratory for supporting my participation here. This workshop is an another excellent opportunity for all of us to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. At this meeting I speak only for myself, neither for the government of the United States of America nor for any other institution. Today, I shall discuss model national implementing legislation under the CWC. Such implementing legislation is likely to be required in every State Party--not only to the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also to the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons programme. This new need for national measures to implement multilateral arms control agreements has generated unease due to a perception that implementation may be burdensome and at odds with existing national law. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried but.

Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Coll. of Law

1995-12-31

76

Legal aspects of national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses some legal aspects of measures at the national level to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). These implementing measures are universal, applying not only to the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also to the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons program. This new need for national measures to implement multilateral arms control agreements has generated unease due to a perception that implementation may be burdensome and at odds with national law. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to effectuate the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby engendering significant disparities in implementation steps among States Parties. The author discusses progress among several States in actually developing national CWC implementing measures. Implementing measures from Australia, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden were available to him in English through the PTS. He compares them in order to illustrate different approaches to national implementation that are emerging. Of course, it is important to note that this brief survey necessarily omitted examination of the existing ``background`` of other, related domestic laws that these signatories might also have adopted that affect CWC implementation.

Tanzman, E.A.; Zeuli, A.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Coll. of Law

1994-11-28

77

Manual for national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

The Convention on the Prohibition on the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature, January 13, 1993, in Paris, France (CWC), is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. The CWC has been signed by over 150 nations, and is expected to enter into force in 1995. With its far-reaching system to verify compliance, the CWC presages a new foundation for international security based neither on fear nor on trust, but on the rule of law. A central feature of the CWC is that it requires each State Party to take implementing measures to make the Convention operative. The CWC goes beyond all prior arms control treaties in this regard. For this approach to succeed, and to inspire the eradication of other categories of mass destruction weaponry, coordination and planning are vital to harmonize CWC national implementation among States Parties. This Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention is designed to assist States Parties, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems, in maximizing CWC enforcement consistent with their national legal obligations.

Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Tanzman, E.A.; Gualtieri, D.S.; Grimes, S.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-12-01

78

Tear gas--harassing agent or toxic chemical weapon?  

PubMed

Tear gas has gained widespread acceptance as a means of controlling civilian crowds and subduing barricaded criminals. The most widely used forms of tear gas have been o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile and omega-chloroacetophenone. Proponents of their use claim that, if used correctly, the noxious effects of exposure are transient and of no long-term consequences. The use of tear gas in recent situations of civil unrest, however, demonstrates that exposure to the weapon is difficult to control and indiscriminate, and the weapon is often not used correctly. Severe traumatic injury from exploding tear gas bombs as well as lethal toxic injury have been documented. Moreover, available toxicological data are deficient as to the potential of tear gas agents to cause long-term pulmonary, carcinogenic, and reproductive effects. Published and recent unpublished in vitro tests have shown o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile to be both clastogenic and mutagenic. Sadly, the nature of its use renders analytic epidemiologic investigation of exposed persons difficult. In 1969, eighty countries voted to include tear gas agents among chemical weapons banned under the Geneva Protocol. There is an ongoing need for investigation into the full toxicological potential of tear gas chemicals and renewed debate on whether their use can be condoned under any circumstances. PMID:2501523

Hu, H; Fine, J; Epstein, P; Kelsey, K; Reynolds, P; Walker, B

1989-08-01

79

Elimination of chemical weapons: is agreement in sight  

SciTech Connect

During the past year, negotiators laboring under the auspices of the little publicized 40-nation Conference on Disarmament (CD) in Geneva have succeeded in resolving or narrowing differences on many of the military-technical issues which but a short time ago seemed to present insuperable obstacles to the conclusion of a world-wide convention. Significant strides have been made in elaborating a rolling text, that is, the text of an agreement that from session to session is being expanded, refined, and improved upon. As a consequence of the development of supertoxic chemical agents and improved means of delivery, there is heightened concern about the chemical warfare (CW) threat in future conflicts. The existence of a major Soviet CW capability is of particular concern to the population of Western Europe, but the relative ease and modest cost of developing a chemical-warfare capability has widened the scope of the threat to world-wide dimensions. Reportedly at least 15 countries now possess these weapons of mass destruction. Most informed observers believe completion of a convention, as now being negotiated, would take on the order of two years, and would be something of a minor miracle. Still, the accomplishments of the past year make a world-wide ban on chemical weapons look a good deal less like an impossible dream.

Flowerree, C.C.

1988-04-01

80

Primary Polymer Aging Processes Identified from Weapon Headspace Chemicals  

SciTech Connect

A current focus of our weapon headspace sampling work is the interpretation of the volatile chemical signatures that we are collecting. To help validate our interpretation we have been developing a laboratory-based material aging capability to simulate material decomposition chemistries identified. Key to establishing this capability has been the development of an automated approach to process, analyze, and quantify arrays of material combinations as a function of time and temperature. Our initial approach involves monitoring the formation and migration of volatile compounds produced when a material decomposes. This approach is advantageous in that it is nondestructive and provides a direct comparison with our weapon headspace surveillance initiative. Nevertheless, this approach requires us to identify volatile material residue and decomposition byproducts that are not typically monitored and reported in material aging studies. Similar to our weapon monitoring method, our principle laboratory-based method involves static headspace collection by solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). SPME is a sorbent collection technique that is ideally suited for preconcentration and delivery of trace gas-phase compounds for analysis by GC. When combined with MS, detection limits are routinely in the low- and sub-ppb ranges, even for semivolatile and polar compounds. To automate this process we incorporated a robotic sample processor configured for SPME collection. The completed system will thermally process, sample, and analyze a material sample. Quantification of the instrument response is another process that has been integrated into the system. The current system screens low-milligram quantities of material for the formation or outgas of small compounds as initial indicators of chemical decomposition. This emerging capability offers us a new approach to identify and non-intrusively monitor decomposition mechanisms that are accelerated by stockpile-relevant aging parameters such as heat, irradiation, material incompatibility and physical force. The primary organic material groups that make up many of the weapon systems are chlorofluoropolymers, polysiloxanes, and polyurethanes (PUR). In the weapon headspace we see the greatest residue from polysiloxanes and PUR and, therefore, are interested in identifying and quantifying the origin responsible for their presence. Although we have produced a number of significant findings concerning the chlorofluoropolymer and polysiloxane materials, this work focuses on the decomposition of PUR.

Chambers, D M; Bazan, J M; Ithaca, J G

2002-03-25

81

Long-term skin damage due to chemical weapon exposure.  

PubMed

Sulfur mustard (2,2-dichlorodiethyl sulfide: SM), the protagonist of vesicant chemical weapons, was first used in July 1917. Despite prohibition of its production and use by international conventions, it has been used in several conflicts. More than 100,000 soldiers and civilians were injured due to SM exposure during Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988). The acute skin lesions consist of erythema, edema, and blisters. Skin xerosis and pruritus, pigmentation disorders, scars, and cherry angiomas are among the most common long-term skin lesions after contact with SM. Although SM is a well-known carcinogenic substance, skin cancers are rarely reported. PMID:21047269

Firooz, Alireza; Sadr, Bardia; Davoudi, Seyed M; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Panahi, Yunes; Dowlati, Yahya

2010-11-04

82

A conceptual framework for verifying the multinational Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

The United States has for several years sought an effective, global ban on the production, possession, and use of chemical weapons (CW). In 1984, then-Vice President Bush submitted to the ongoing Conference on Disarmament in Geneva a draft comprehensive Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC); since then, he has supported the multinational process for CWC implementation. Given the high visibility of a CW treaty, policy makers face some major questions. Is such a treaty more valuable to national security than a chemical deterrent capability How useful will the treaty be if key nations or geographical regions are not covered How useful will the treaty be if key nations or geographical regions are not covered What constitutes an effective CWC verification regime, and can the objectives of this regime be achieved How would signatories respond to noncompliance by other signatories The answers to such questions will be important in determining the level of support, both nationally and internationally, for the multinational CWC. In addressing the issue of effective verification, it is important to consider how the CWC objectives devolve into general requirements for the verification regime. Translating these requirements into specific monitoring and inspection activities helps in understanding the extent and limitations of effective CWC verification. 4 refs.

Apt, K.E.

1990-08-01

83

Hyperspectral simulation of chemical weapon dispersal patterns using DIRSIG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fieldable thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometers has made it possible to design and construct new instruments for better detection of battlefield hazards such as chemical weapon clouds. The availability of spectroscopic measurements of these clouds can be used not only for the detection and identification of specific chemical agents but also to potentially quantify the lethality of the cloud. The simulation of chemical weapon dispersal patterns in a synthetic imaging environment offers significant benefits to sensor designers. Such an environment allows designers to easily develop trade spaces to test detection and quantification algorithms without the need for expensive and dangerous field releases. This paper discusses the implementation of a generic gas dispersion model that has been integrated into the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model. The gas cloud model utilizes a 3D Gaussian distribution and first order dynamics (drift and dispersion) to drive the macro-scale cloud development and movement. The model also attempts to account for turbulence by incorporating fractional Brownian motion techniques to reproduce the micro-scale variances within the cloud. The cloud path length concentrations are then processed by the DIRSIG radiometry sub-model to compute the emission and transmission of the cloud body on a per-pixel basis. Example hyperspectral image cubes containing common agents and release amounts will be presented. Time lapse sequences will also be presented to demonstrate the evolution of the cloud over time.

Arnold, Peter S.; Brown, Scott D.; Schott, John R.

2000-07-01

84

The Role of the Chemical Weapons Convention in Countering Chemical Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of incidents over the past two decades has indicated that some terrorist groups are interested in acquiring and using improvised chemical devices (ICDs). Although the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is a disarmament treaty that is legally binding only on sovereign states that join it voluntarily, the Convention fortuitously includes several provisions that can help its members to

Jonathan B. Tucker

2012-01-01

85

Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction: Assessing the risks  

SciTech Connect

The report describes what nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons can do, analyzes the consequences of their spread for the United States and the world, and summarizes technical aspects of monitoring and controlling their production. The report also explains the array of policy tools that can be used to combat proliferation, identifying tradeoffs and choices that confront policymakers.

Not Available

1993-08-01

86

Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known

R. Haffenden; T. Kimmell

2002-01-01

87

Fighting nerve agent chemical weapons with enzyme technology.  

PubMed

The extreme toxicity of organophosphorous-based compounds has been known since the late 1930s. Starting in the mid-1940s, many nations throughout the world have been producing large quantities of organophosphorous (OP) nerve agents. Huge stockpiles of nerve agents have since developed. There are reportedly more than 200,000 tons of nerve agents in existence worldwide. There is an obvious need for protective clothing capable of guarding an individual from exposure to OP chemical weapons. Also, chemical processes that can effectively demilitarize and detoxify stored nerve agents are in great demand. The new and widely publicized Chemical Weapons Treaty requires such processes to soon be in place throughout the world. Biotechnology may provide the tools necessary to make such processes not only possible, but quite efficient in reducing the nerve agent dilemma. The following paper discusses some of the history in developing enzyme technology against nerve agents. Our laboratory has interest in enhancing the productivity and potential utility of these systems in both demilitarization and decontamination applications. Freeze-dried nerve agent-hydrolyzing enzyme preparations have been shown to be effective in decontaminating gaseous nerve agents. The direct incorporation of nerve agent-hydrolyzing enzymes within cross-linked polyurethane foam matrices during polymer synthesis has been shown to dramatically enhance the productivity of two different enzyme systems. The future goal of such work lies in building a bridge between the clinical application of nerve agent-hydrolyzing enzymes and practical processing techniques that may take advantage of the initial results already achieved in the laboratory. PMID:9928090

LeJeune, K E; Dravis, B C; Yang, F; Hetro, A D; Doctor, B P; Russell, A J

1998-12-13

88

Simulation for the Assessment of Tactical Nuclear Weapons (SATAN II).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SATAN 2 Programming Specification Manual (PSM) provides a detailed description for the SATAN 2 Model as implemented on the IBM 360/50/65 computer. SATAN 2, Simulation for the Assessment of Tactical Nuclear Weapons, is a model for the two-sided, open p...

M. Lautzenheiser W. B. Bales C. D. Seefeldt N. H. Fletcher D. A. Eoff

1974-01-01

89

Simulation for the Assessment of Tactical Nuclear Weapons (SATAN II).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SATAN 2 Programming Specification Manual (PSM) provides a detailed description for the SATAN 2 Model as implemented on the IBM 360/50/65 computer. SATAN 2, Simulation for the Assessment of Tactical Nuclear Weapons, is a model for the two-sided, open p...

M. Lautzenheiser W. B. Bales C. D. Seefeldt N. H. Fletcher D. A. Eoff

1973-01-01

90

Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by Chemical Weapons Convention inspections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the United States system of constitutional law. This discussion is about the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by the CWC and about how federal implementing legislation can allow verification inspections to take place in the United States under the Chemical Weapons Convention while remaining in compliance with the Constitution.

Tanzman

1994-01-01

91

A feasibility study of the destruction of chemical weapons by photocatalytic oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The destruction of existing arsenals or deposits of chemical weapons is an important obstacle on the way to the successful implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention which was opened for signature in 1993. Many approaches have been proposed and none can be seen as panacea. Each has its merits and shortcomings. In this paper we review the different technologies and

M. L. Hitchman; A. R. Spackman; F. J. Yusta; B. Morel

1997-01-01

92

The Domestic Politics of Arms Control Treaty Ratification: The Case of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a case study of the treatment of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) by the United States Senate. It examines the chemical weapons non-proliferation regime, the negotiations of the CWC, and its consideration by the Senate. The study explores the domestic and international political contexts of the treaty ratification effort, the state of congressional-executive relations, presidential strategy, and

Sean P. Giovanello

93

Late effects of use of nuclear and certain chemical weapons in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late biological consequences of the use of nuclear and chemical (herbicide and defoliant) weapons are compared. Attention is drawn to the incidence of certain malignancies in exposed persons; and differences in the localization of the increases among the victims of nuclear and chemical weapons are considered on a pathophysiological basis.The only prevention of these medical consequences of war is a

Zdenek Dienstbier

1985-01-01

94

U.S. Disposal of Chemical Weapons in the Ocean: Background and Issues for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Armed Forces disposed of chemical weapons in the ocean from World War I through 1970. At that time, it was thought that the vastness of ocean waters would absorb chemical agents that may leak from these weapons. However, public concerns about hum...

D. M. Bearden

2006-01-01

95

Chemical Weapons Rearmament and the Security of Europe: Can Support be Mustered.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This memorandum considers the current debate addressing the issue of US/NATO chemical weapons modernization and rearmament. The authors examine the arguments of those who support and oppose major new US chemical warfare initiatives such as the production ...

J. M. Weinstein H. G. Gole

1983-01-01

96

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and reexports of the following commodities and technical data is March 7, 1991: (i) Equipment (for producing chemical weapon precursors and chemical warfare agents) described in ECCNs 2B350 and 2B351; (ii) Equipment and materials...

2010-01-01

97

The control of chemical weapons: A strategic analysis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis develops an analytical framework for optimal design of a ban on chemical weapons (CW). The thesis addresses two principal questions: first, could it be in the interest of individual states to adopt a CW ban, even if compliance by adversaries cannot be presupposed Second, how can designers of the treaty maximize incentives to accede and comply, but simultaneously minimize the threat to national sovereignty, including the risk of giving up a deterrent stockpile, and the risk that sensitive information would be revealed during inspections Three problems can plague any disarmament agreement. The first danger is that the agreement will be so minimalist that although all countries may adhere to it, it will have little effect on international behavior. The second danger is that the treaty will have such a weak enforcement mechanism that although nations may accede, they may not comply under conditions of international stress. The third danger is that the terms of the arrangement will be so onerous that few nations will agree to adopt it in the first place. This thesis develops a framework for thinking about how to strike the proper balance between these competing concerns. A salient characteristic of CW is the relative ease with which they can be produced in secret. The dissertation analyzes the effectiveness of inspection procedures of varying intrusiveness, and investigates the risks to sensitive government and industrial facilities. The thesis concludes with an analysis of the extent to which a ban on a single weapon could enhance the stability of the [open quotes]balance of terror.[close quotes] The author makes specific policy recommendations about how to set the optimal level of enforcement so that the ban is likely to succeed, and thus become more than a symbolic gesture.

Stern, J.E.

1992-01-01

98

The control of chemical weapons: A strategic analysis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis develops an analytical framework for optimal design of a ban on chemical weapons (CW). The thesis addresses two principal questions: first, could it be in the interest of individual states to adopt a CW ban, even if compliance by adversaries cannot be presupposed? Second, how compliance by adverse can designers of the treaty maximize incentives to accede and to national comply, but simultaneously minimize the threat sovereignty, including the risk of giving up a deterrent stockpile, and the risk that sensitive information would be revealed during inspections? Three problems can plague any disarmament agreement will be so minimalist that although all countries may adhere to it, it will have little effect on international behavior. The second danger is that weak enforcement mechanism that the treaty will have such a although nations may accede, they may not comply under conditions of international stress. The third danger is that the terms of the arrangement will be so onerous that few nations will agree to adopt it in the first place. This thesis develops a framework for thinking about how to strike the proper balance between these competing concerns. A salient characteristic of CW is the relative ease with which they can be produced in secret. The dissertation analyzes the effectiveness of inspection procedures of varying intrusiveness, and investigates the risks to sensitive government and industrial facilities. The thesis concludes with an analysis of the extent to which a ban on a single weapon could enhance the stability of the ``balance of terror.`` The author makes specific policy recommendations about how to set the optimal level of enforcement so that the ban is likely to succeed, and thus become more than a symbolic gesture.

Stern, J.E.

1992-05-01

99

Weight-of-evidence environmental risk assessment of dumped chemical weapons after WWII along the Nord-Stream gas pipeline in the Bornholm Deep.  

PubMed

In connection with installation of two natural gas pipelines through the Baltic Sea between Russia and Germany, there has been concern regarding potential re-suspension of historically dumped chemical warfare agents (CWA) in a nearby dump site and the potential environmental risks associated. 192 sediment and 11 porewater samples were analyzed for CWA residues, both parent and metabolites in 2008 and 2010 along the pipeline corridor next to the dump site. Macrozoobenthos and background variables were also collected and compared to the observed CWA levels and predicted potential risks. Detection frequencies and levels of intact CWA found were low, whereas CWA metabolites were more frequently found. Re-suspension of CWA residue-containing sediment from installation of the pipelines contributes marginally to the overall background CWA residue exposure and risk along the pipeline route. The multivariate weight-of-evidence analysis showed that physical and background parameters of the sediment were of higher importance for the biota than observed CWA levels. PMID:22440539

Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Thomsen, Marianne; Larsen, Jørn Bo

2012-03-01

100

Assessment for effectiveness of missile-gun integrated weapon system based on FSKA model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly analyses the requiring developing missile-gun integrated weapon system and the composition and operation process of this weapon system. The basic definition and methods in assessment for effectiveness of missile-gun integrated weapon system are also given in this paper. The application of FSKA model in missile-gun integrated weapon system is especially emphasized. The effectiveness of missile-gun integrated weapon

Su Lide; He Jianhua; Wang Jianqiang

2011-01-01

101

[Chemical weapons: antidotes. View about the real means, perspectives].  

PubMed

Chemical methods remain a credible threat in 1999. The doctrine for their use not only includes the battlefield but also domestic terrorism as was disclosed during the Tokyo metro attempt in 1995. International Treaties have not yet proven their efficacy. The arsenal of chemical weapons has changed little since the second World War but is now dispersed into many high-risk zones throughout the world. There has also been little change in antidotes: therapeutic prevention with pyridostigmine against organo-phosphorus compounds, protective treatment for seizure-induced brain lesions using anticonvulsants in association with oxime for acetylcholinesterase reactivation, and atropine are combined in a three-compartment syringe. Preventive measures against vesicants and other suffocating or toxic intracellular substances (CN, AsH(3), fluorocarbons.) can only be achieved with protective skin covering or protective breathing devices. There is no specific treatment and we often have to use symptomatic medications. Future perspectives include: phosphotriesterases as organo-phosphorus scavengers, huperzine as pretreatment and gacyclidine (GCK 11) which would effectively complete emergency multiple drug therapy against nerve agents. A new two-compartment syringe is now prepared with atropine, avisafone and HI6 or pralidoxine. A gel made of cyclodextrines for external and eventually internal use is under study. PMID:10669805

Ricordel, I; Meunier, J

2000-01-01

102

Chemical weapons convention: Strategic implications for the United States. Final report  

SciTech Connect

On January 13, 1993, in Paris, France, 130 countries signed the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) to ban the entire class of chemical weapons. Debate continues on the strategic implications of the convention, as drafted, and whether it is in the U.S. national security interest. The author explores the historical, moral, and legal aspects of chemical warfare, and the strategic implications of the convention, including operational, policy, Constitutional, and industry impact for the United States.

Vogel, F.J.

1997-01-08

103

Methadone as a chemical weapon: two fatal cases involving babies.  

PubMed

Methadone is largely used for the substitution management of opiate-dependent individuals but can also be easily found on the black market. The first cases involving repetitive sedation linked to the use of methadone and subsequent death of 2 babies are reported. At the autopsy, no particular morphologic changes were noted except for pulmonary and visceral congestion. There was no evidence of violence, and the pathologist in both cases found no needle marks. Toxicological analyses, as achieved by GC/MS, demonstrated both recent and repetitive methadone exposure. In case 1, a 14-month-old girl was found dead at home. Blood concentrations were 1071 and 148 ng/mL for methadone and EDDP, respectively. Hair (6 cm) tested positive at 1.91 and 0.82 ng/mg for methadone and EDDP, respectively. In case 2, a 5-month-old girl was taken to hospital in a pediatric unit for coma. Antemortem blood analysis demonstrated methadone exposure (142 ng/mL), and the baby was declared dead 12 days after admission. Hair analysis (5 cm) by segmentation was positive for methadone in the range 1.0 (root) to 21.3 ng/mg (end). The death of the babies was attributed to accidental asphyxia ina situation where methadone was considered as a chemical weapon. The mothers, who were the perpetrators in both cases, did not deny the use of methadone as a sedative drug. PMID:16404812

Kintz, Pascal; Villain, Marion; Dumestre-Toulet, Véronique; Capolaghi, Bernard; Cirimele, Vincent

2005-12-01

104

Statistical sampling and chemical analysis of complex weapon components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the waste streams generated by nuclear weapon dismantlement programs will be component ''hardware'', including complex electronic assemblies such as: radars, arming/fusing/firing systems, power sources, and use-control and safety systems. Sandia Na...

W. B. Chambers M. R. Keenan R. G. Tissot

1992-01-01

105

77 FR 59891 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Declaration and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...reports and inspections. This information is required for the United States to comply with the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), an international arms control treaty. II. Method of Collection Submitted electronically or on paper. III. Data OMB...

2012-10-01

106

Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation's activities and providing an early warning and\\/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a

C. L. Perez; J. O. Johnson

1994-01-01

107

An exotic chemical weapon explains low herbivore damage in an invasive alga.  

PubMed

Invasion success of introduced species is often attributed to a lack of natural enemies as stated by the enemy release hypothesis (ERH). The ERH intuitively makes sense for specialized enemies, but it is less evident why invaders in their new area escape attacks by generalist enemies. A recent hypothesis explains low herbivore damage on invasive plants with plant defense chemicals that are evolutionarily novel to native herbivores. Support for this novel weapon hypothesis (NWH) is so far based on circumstantial evidence. To corroborate the NWH, there is a need for direct evidence through explicit characterizations of the novel chemicals and their effects on native consumers. This study evaluated the NWH using the highly invasive red alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera. In pairwise feeding experiments, preferences between B. hamifera and native competitors were assessed for four common generalist herbivores in the invaded area. Through a bioassay-guided fractionation, we identified the deterrent compound and verified its effect in an experiment with the synthesized compound at natural concentrations. The results showed that native herbivores strongly preferred native algae to B. hamifera. The resistance against herbivores could be tracked down to the algal metabolite 1,1,3,3-tetrabromo-2-heptanone, a compound not known from native algae in the invaded area. The importance of the chemical defense was further underlined by the feeding preference of herbivores for individuals with a depleted content of 1,1,3,3-tetrabromo-2-heptanone. This study thus provides the first conclusive example of a highly successful invader where low consumption in the new range can be directly attributed to a specific chemical defense against evolutionarily naive native generalists. In conclusion, our results support the notion that novel chemical weapons against naive herbivores can provide a mechanistic explanation for plant invasion success. PMID:23431603

Enge, Swantje; Nylund, Göran Mikael; Harder, Tilmann; Pavia, Henrik

2012-12-01

108

Weapons of mass destruction: Overview of the CBRNEs (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives).  

PubMed

The events of September 11, 2001, made citizens of the world acutely aware of disasters consequent to present-day terrorism. This is a war being waged for reasons obscure to many of its potential victims. The term "NBCs" was coined in reference to terrorist weapons of mass destruction, i.e., nuclear, biological and chemical. The currently accepted acronym is "CBRNE" which includes Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive weapons. Non-nuclear explosives are the most common terrorist weapon now in use. Nuclear and radiological weapons are beyond the scope of this publication, which focuses on the "CBEs", i.e. chemical, biological and explosive weapons. Although neurologists will not be the first responders to CBEs, they must know about the neurological effects in order to provide diagnosis and treatment to survivors. Neurological complications of chemical, biological and explosive weapons which have or may be used by terrorists are reviewed by international experts in this publication. Management and treatment profiles are outlined. PMID:16920155

Prockop, Leon D

2006-08-21

109

Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Major Weapon Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the last 5 years, the Department of Defense (DOD) has doubled its planned investments in new weapon systems from about $700 billion in 2001 to nearly $1.4 trillion in 2006. While the weapons that DOD develops have no rival in superiority, weapon system...

2006-01-01

110

Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by Chemical Weapons Convention inspections  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the United States system of constitutional law. This discussion is about the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by the CWC and about how federal implementing legislation can allow verification inspections to take place in the United States under the Chemical Weapons Convention while remaining in compliance with the Constitution. By implementing legislation, the author means a federal statute that would be enacted separately from Senate approval of the Convention itself. Although implementing legislation is a relatively unusual accompaniment to a treaty, it will be necessary to the CWC, and the Administration has submitted a bill that was under consideration in the last Congress and presumably will be reintroduced early next year. The Fourth and Fifth Amendment problems posed by the CWC arise from the verification inspection scheme embodied in the treaty. The CWC depends heavily on on-site inspections to verify compliance with its key requirements. These include destroying all chemicals weapons stockpiles and bringing potential chemical weapons precursors under international control. The Convention contains four distinct kinds of inspections: systematic inspections of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities, routine inspections of various declared facilities, challenge inspections, and a variant on challenge inspections in cases of alleged use of chemical weapons. All inspections are supposed to be only as intrusive as necessary to carry out the Convention. These inspections will be carried out by inspectors employed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), located in The Hague, which is responsible for enforcing the Convention. Generally, the inspected State Party is permitted to assign observers to accompany the inspectors.

Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Economics and Law Section

1994-10-21

111

[Normative and legal aspects of medical support of the persons working with toxic chemicals relating to the chemical weapons].  

PubMed

In article the existing lows and other legislation acts of state regulation in the field of medical maintenance of the works connected to destruction of toxic chemicals concerning to the chemical weapon is analysed. Features of carrying out of medical examinations and expertise of diseases at the soldiers and officers occupied on these works are submitted. The conclusion that the existing legislation acts allows to carry out qualitative medical service of the personnel of objects of storage and destruction of the chemical weapon, the military men occupied on works with toxic chemicals and the inhabitants living in sanitary-protective zones is made. PMID:20731089

Belevitin, A B; Grebeniuk, A N; Musi?chuk, Iu I; Sidorov, D A

2010-06-01

112

Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nat...

C. L. Perez J. O. Johnson

1994-01-01

113

Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronics system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of reconnaissance\\/surveillance satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; neutrons, gamma rays, and x-rays from fission and fusion weapons; and directed neutral particle beams and lasers. Electronic equipment, including modem

C. L. Perez; J. O. Johnson

1994-01-01

114

Chemical weapons convention: Strategic implications for the United States. Strategy research report  

SciTech Connect

On January 13, 1993, in Paris, 130 countries signed the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), to ban the entire class of Chemical Weapons. Debate continues on the strategic implications of the Convention, as drafted, and whether it is in the U.S. national security interest. This paper explores the historical, moral, and legal aspects of chemical warfare, and the strategic implications of the Convention, including operational, policy, constitutional, and industry impact for the U.S. This paper concludes that, although `imperfect,` the Convention represents a significant contribution to U.S. security objectives, and serves the national interest.

Vogel, F.J.

1996-03-26

115

Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronics system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of reconnaissance/surveillance satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; neutrons, gamma rays, and X-rays from fission and fusion weapons; and directed neutral particle beams and lasers. Electronic equipment, including modem integrated circuits, may undergo permanent or transient changes of the electrical properties of the active components when exposed to these sources of radiation. This report summarizes the results of the Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding code system -- MASH v1.0 calculations designed to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized spaced based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emanating from a thermonuclear weapon detonation. The MASH calculations modeled several source/platform geometry configurations, obtaining results for multiple distances and weapon detonation positions relative to the platform. For certain source/platform orientations, the results indicate vulnerabilities to the C{sup 3} bay critical components box to radiation damage from a nuclear weapon detonation. Neutron protection factors ranged from 0.7 to 3.4 for the three platform configurations analyzed, and gamma-ray protection factors ranged from approximately 1.5 to 9.8. The results further indicate the source has a direct line-of-sight to the critical components box for certain source/platform orientations, regardless of the number of interceptors present. The merits of utilizing the MASH code system for estimating dose and shielding factors for spaced based assets has been demonstrated. The geometry configuration studied here is greatly simplified compared to those that will be encountered in an actual design.

Perez, C.L. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Johnson, J.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-05-01

116

Proliferation of chemical weapons and ballistic missiles: Risks to NATOs southern region. Individual Study Project  

SciTech Connect

Proliferation of chemical weapons and ballistic missiles in the Middle East and North Africa represents a growing risk to NATOs Southern Region. Several countries in the region possess chemical weapons and other are seeking the capability to develop and employ them. Likewise, ballistic missile trends and emerging capabilities in the region give reason for concern since the not-too-distant future may see missiles tipped with chemical warheads. The region faces explosive population growth, economic difficulties, and political turmoil. When you add the Arab/Israeli animosities and the spread of Islamic fundamentalism to this instability, the region becomes volatile. Thus, the heightened concern over the proliferation of weapons use and negotiations and a discussion of the region's volatility, examines the proliferation of chemical weapons and ballistic missiles in the Middle East and North Africa. The resulting future risks to NATOs Southern Region are discussed with the focus on chemical defense preparedness. Conclusions address the continued proliferation and the risks to NATOs Southern Region. Some brief thoughts for the way ahead are offered on security, confidence-building, and cooperation in the region, as well as, on strengthening the chemical defense posture of the Southern Region.

King, J.R.

1991-07-01

117

Disposal of chemical weapons in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Large quantities of chemical warfare agents were dumped in the Baltic Sea after World War II (WWII). This included 32,000 t of chemical munitions containing approximately 11,000 t of chemical warfare agents which were dumped into the Bornholm Basin and 2000 t of chemical munitions containing approximately 1000 t in the Gotland Basin. Because this material was contained in wooden crates, it was distributed throughout the Baltic. The long-term environmental impact of these agents is unknown. PMID:9394485

Glasby, G P

1997-11-01

118

Note on the Chemical Weapons Convention's Second Review Conference, Held at The Hague on 7–18 April 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

After giving an introduction to the Chemical Weapons Convention (1993), which bans all chemical weapons worldwide, Section 2 of this note discusses the preparations for and proceedings of its Second Review Conference. The Conference's procedural aspects are considered in Section 3. Section 4 discusses the main findings of the Conference Report on the Convention's provisions, the extent to which these

Maarten W. J. Lak

2009-01-01

119

United States initiative for chemical weapons arms control. Master`s thesis, 2 August 1995-7 June 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates the US policy initiative renouncing the employment of chemical weapons (CW). The focus of the research is to determine if such an initiative will achieve the national objective for implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). If the initiative does not meet the national objective are there feasible options for the United States Government (USG). In 1993,

1996-01-01

120

Deployment, toxicity and influence on the environment and other issues connected with sea-dumped chemical weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dumping of chemical warfare in the Baltic Sea after WW II After World War II some 300,000 tons of chemical weapons (CW) were captured on German territory. The largest part of these weapons was dumped in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak Strait on the orders of the British, Soviet, and American Military Administrations in Germany. At least 170,000 tons of

Vadim PAKA

121

Simulation for the Assessment of Tactical Nuclear Weapons (SATAN II). General Description. Change 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manual describes briefly the Simulation for the Assessment of TActical Nuclear Weapons (SATAN II). The SATAN 2 simulation is a model for the two-sided, open play of a tactical nuclear weapons conflict on simulated battlefields. When provided by the us...

M. W. Lautzenheiser W. B. Bales N. H. Fletcher D. A. Eoff R. B. Koehler

1974-01-01

122

Simulation for the Assessment of Tactical Nuclear Weapons (SATAN II). General Description.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manual describes briefly the Simulation for the Assessment of TActical Nuclear Weapons (SATAN 2). The SATAN 2 simulation is a model for the two-sided, open play of tactical nuclear weapon exchanges on simulated battle-fields. When provided by the user...

M. W. Lautzenheiser W. B. Bales N. H. Fletcher D. A. Eoff R. B. Koehler

1972-01-01

123

Assessing State Nuclear Weapons Proliferation: Using Bayesian Network Analysis of Social Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Bayesian network (BN) model of social factors can support proliferation assessments by estimating the likelihood that a state will pursue a nuclear weapon. Social factors including political, economic, nuclear capability, security, and national identity and psychology factors may play as important a role in whether a State pursues nuclear weapons as more physical factors. This paper will show how

Garill A. Coles; Alan J. Brothers; Jarrod Olson; Paul D. Whitney

2010-01-01

124

Weapons of mass destruction: Overview of the CBRNEs (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The events of September 11, 2001, made citizens of the world acutely aware of disasters consequent to present-day terrorism. This is a war being waged for reasons obscure to many of its potential victims. The term “NBCs” was coined in reference to terrorist weapons of mass destruction, i.e., nuclear, biological and chemical. The currently accepted acronym is “CBRNE” which includes

Leon D. Prockop

2006-01-01

125

Legal aspects of national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention transfer provisions  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses legal aspects of implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention`s (CWC`s) export and import provisions. These implementing measures are universal, applying not only to the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also to the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons program. This new need for national measures to implement multilateral arms control agreements has generated unease due to a perception that implementation may be burdensome and at odds with national law. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to effectuate the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby engendering significant disparities in implementation steps among States Parties. As a result, the author and his colleagues prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Here the author discusses progress among several States in actually developing implementing measures for the Convention`s transfer requirements. CWC legislation from australia, Germany, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden were available at this writing in English through the Provisional Technical Secretariat. Of course, it is important to note that this brief survey necessarily omitted examination of the existing background of other, related domestic laws that these signatories might also have adopted that affect CWC implementation.

NONE

1995-05-01

126

Chemical weapons and the gulf war: The dog that did not bark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a realistic threat that Iraq would use chemical weapons (CW) during the Gulf War, it did not do so. Fear of retaliation was probably a key factor, but battlefield conditions—including the rapid tempo of operations, the destruction of Iraq's delivery systems, and the weather—also may have played a significant part in Baghdad's decisionmaking. There is greater impetus for controls

Norman Cigar

1992-01-01

127

Reasoned Response to Nimby Opposition to Incineration of Chemical Weapon Stockpiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis of a dilemma faced by elected officials who face international responsibilities on one hand and obligations to constituents on the other. Diplomatic efforts to rid the world of chemical weapons culminated in January 1993 with the signing of a ...

M. C. Bobrick

1993-01-01

128

15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.4 Restrictions...chemical and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition...specified items to a certain end-user, because there is an...this section, anywhere in the world. Specific notice is to...

2010-01-01

129

15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.4 Restrictions...chemical and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition...specified items to a certain end-user, because there is an...this section, anywhere in the world. Specific notice is to...

2009-01-01

130

Chemical Weapon's: Army's Emergency Preparedness Program Has Financial Management Weaknesses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As requested, we reviewed how the Army's Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) funds about $281 million appropriated in fiscal years 1988 to 1994 were spent. We have previously reported problems the Army experienced in improving the em...

1995-01-01

131

Open cycle chemical power and thermal management integration for space weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space weapons typically require large amounts of power and substantial cooling. Independent design of the power-generator and thermal-management subsystems leads to excessive platform weight. Chemically fueled space-based lasers have large reactant-conditioning heat-input requirements. An integrated power and thermal-management system (IPTMS) for these weapons uses the waste heat from the power generation cycle to provide reactant heating. Electrically powered weapons have high power and cooling requirements. In an IPTMS, a common expendable hydrogen supply permits the cooling fluid to be used as the power-generation working fluid. Optimization of the temperature selected for the cryogenically cooled components is shown to provide minimum overall hydrogen consumption, and thus minimizes system weight.

Weber, Kent; Giellis, Roger

1987-06-01

132

Medical Prevention and Protection Against Chemical Weapons (Chapter Three),  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to avoid or reduce injuries caused to our front and rear when the enemy conducts chemical attacks, not only the military must do the protection work well, but local cities, especially important cities, must also not be ignored. Doing the protecti...

O. Ziqian W. Tingzhi

1988-01-01

133

A comparison of national compliance legislation under the chemical weapons convention  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is unique among multilateral arms control agreements in requiring national compliance legislation. This paper discusses the compliance legislation enacted by Australia, Germany, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden in anticipation of this agreement entering into force. It compares how these five nations addressed the requirement for legislation to penalize violations of the Convention, as well as how they have developed legal mechanisms to acquire the information about dual-use chemicals that must be declared to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. This analysis shows that although different options exist to meet these treaty requirements, areas of consistency between nations are emerging that will encourage universal compliance as the regime matures.

Tanzman, E.A.

1995-03-03

134

Microelectronic Status Analysis and Secondary Part Procureability Assessment of the HAWK Weapon System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The MT Division, Engineering Directorate (ED), RDEC, AMCOM has the mission and function of providing microelectronic technology assessments, and producibility and supportability analyses for the HAWK weapon system. MT evaluates the impact of nonavailabili...

G. A. Maddux

2000-01-01

135

The decay of chemical weapons agents under environmental conditions  

SciTech Connect

The rate and mechanism of decay of chemical agents in the environment was studied via live agent field trials at the chemical and Biological Defence Establishment, Porton Down, UK. The plan was to deposit the agents GD (Soman), VX, and H (sulfur mustard) on separate l-m{sup 2} plots on three successive days; i.e., Tuesday through Thursday. The depositions were to be made so as to give an areal concentration of 10 g/m{sup 2}. Four felt pads of approximately 25 cm{sup 2} each were placed at the corners of each of the test plots. These were subsequently extracted and analyzed by CBDE to determine the actual agent concentration. Samples for LLNL (two different types of soil, disks of silicone rubber gasket material, and short cylinders of concrete were to be contaminated and analyzed. Results are described.

McGuire, R.R.; Haas, J.S.; Eagle, R.J.

1993-04-09

136

Laser weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential for deploying lasers as an effective antimissile system is assessed. High intensity and precise collimation are noted as essential for lasers as weapons, although size and material properties determine the actual performance. Gas-dynamic, electron, and chemical lasers are reviewed as prime weapons candidates. Space-, ground-, and ship-based uses are considered; each demands precision pointing, involving movable mirrors, target tracking and condition sensors, and central processing for target choice, along with large capacity power generation and storage. Laser propagation in the atmosphere is degraded by absorption, scattering, thermal blooming, turbulence (causes diffraction), and plasma formation ahead of the beam. Different modes of damaging missiles are reviewed, and it is found that mirrored surfaces, ablative coatings, and fluid layers have significant abilities to protect a missile in-flight. Destroying an ICBM in the boost phase is calculated to require a one million MW generator, far beyond current power engineering capabilities. Conventional weapons are viewed as more effective than lasers, although high energy laser research may have definite applications in areas such as chemical engineering

Tsipis, K.

1981-12-01

137

Die and Let Die: Exploring Links between Suicide Terrorism and Terrorist Use of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of suicide bombings by some organizations is often presented as evidence of eroding constraints among terrorists to use chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear weapons. Besides a possibly more reckless approach to violence resulting from the weakened instinct of self-preservation, it is clear that suicide delivery of such weapons would have great tactical advantages over other forms of delivery.

ADAM DOLNIK

2003-01-01

138

Comparative Assessment of Aircraft-to-Weapon Communication Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Working Group II of Working Panel 0-4 of The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) consists of members from the United States, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Working Group II surveyed existing and proposed aircraft-to-weapon fuze selection syst...

1971-01-01

139

Chemical weapons detection by fast neutron activation analysis techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A neutron diagnostic experimental apparatus has been tested for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions. Designed to potentially satisfy a significant number of van-mobile requirements, this equipment is based on an easy to use industrial sealed tube neutron generator that interrogates the munitions of interest with 14 MeV neutrons. Gamma ray spectra are detected with a high purity germanium detector, especially shielded from neutrons and gamma ray background. A mobile shell holder has been used. Possible configurations allow the detection, in continuous or in pulsed modes, of gamma rays from neutron inelastic scattering, from thermal neutron capture, and from fast or thermal neutron activation. Tests on full scale sealed munitions with chemical simulants show that those with chlorine (old generation materials) are detectable in a few minutes, and those including phosphorus (new generation materials) in nearly the same time.

Bach, P.; Ma, J. L.; Froment, D.; Jaureguy, J. C.

1993-06-01

140

The Army and chemical weapons destruction: Implementation in a changing context  

SciTech Connect

In 1985, Congress directed the Army to destroy the nation`s stockpile of chemical weapons. The estimate was that this task could be accomplished by 1994 at a cost of $1.7 billion. By 1998, only a portion of the stockpile has been destroyed, the deadline extended to 2007 and the estimated cost had risen to approximately $16 billion. This paper discusses the factors underlying cost escalation and missed deadlines. It examines the diffusion of control over the implementation process surrounding the chemical weapons demilitarization (Chem Demil) program in the US. Focusing on the role of the Army and its difficulties in adjusting strategies in the face of political change from the Cold War to the post-Cold War setting, it analyzes the course of implementation through three converging streams of political activity. What differentiates the federal, intergovernmental, and international streams are the nature and number of actors, and the type of pressures with which the Army must deal.

Lambright, W.H.; Gereben, A.; Cerveny, L.

1998-12-31

141

Applications of deactivated GC columns for analysis of nitrogen-containing chemicals related to the chemical weapons convention.  

PubMed

Nitrogen-containing chemicals are one of the important families of compounds relevant to the purposes of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Several applications, using various injection modes, of new deactivated columns specially designed for basic compounds are presented. These columns prove remarkably well-suited to the gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of the chemicals of interest, even to underivatized amino-alcohols, whose analysis on conventional GC columns is often difficult and hindered by poor resolution and high detection limits. Such a deactivated phase can even replace the typical GC phases used for CWC verification purposes. PMID:16620512

Le Moullec, Sophie; Juillet, Yannick; Bégos, Arlette; Bellier, Bruno

2006-03-01

142

Portable sequential injection analyzer for onsite screening for chemical weapons degradation compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many circumstances, the ability to perform on-site, point-of-collection analysis can play a pivotal role in the goals or requirements of the inquiry. Toward this end, the use of commercial or customized kits, which require the analyst to manually perform the metering and mixing of reagents with the sample and the subsequent visual, spectrophotometric or other interpretation of the results, has become widespread. Often, these methods can suffer from poor reproducibility and sensitivity in addition to being tedious and time consuming. Flow analysis methods, such as traditional flow injection analysis (FIA) and the more recent sequential injection analysis (SIA), have found widespread use in the automation of sample and reagent handling and subsequent analysis for many important analytes. These methods can be completely automated and offer excellent reproducibility, minimized analysis time, and in certain configurations, very high sensitivity. We have developed a miniaturized, fully portable SIA-based instrument for on-site screening for chemical weapons degradation products during challenge inspections under the Chemical Weapons Convention, as well as for the sensitive analysis of other important environmental analytes. In this paper, we will discuss our portable SIA design, the analytical approaches utilized, and results obtained for the analysis of representative chemical weapons degradation compounds.

Postlethwaite, Timothy A.; Zhang, Peng; Lancaster, Herbert L.; Bacon, Christina P.; Mensch, David

2002-02-01

143

National measures under the chemical weapons convention to protect confidential business information and compensate for its loss  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a discussion presented at the Regional Seminar on the National Authority and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Measures to protect confidential business information and compensation for information which has not been sufficiently protected is discussed.

Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ. College of Law, Chicago, IL (United States)

1995-07-01

144

Nine cases of accidental exposure to dimethyl sulphate--a potential chemical weapon.  

PubMed

Dimethyl sulphate (DMS) is an innocuous appearing, widely used, and highly toxic chemical. It is used both as a methylating agent in industrial chemical synthesis and in medical laboratories for chemical cleavage of DNA. It is readily absorbed through the skin, mucous membranes, and gastrointestinal tract. Delayed toxicity allows potentially fatal exposures to occur prior to development of any warning symptoms. Toxicity is manifested initially by mucosal inflammation of eyes, nose, oropharynx, and airways. This can progress to severe airway oedema and necrosis, and non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. Other systemic effects include convulsions, delirium, coma, and renal, hepatic, and cardiac failure. All these features make DMS a potential chemical weapon. We report nine cases of varying degrees of inhalational exposure to DMS, occurring as a result of a single chemical spillage incident in the United Kingdom. Industrial poisoning is surprisingly rare and there are few previous reports in the literature outside China. PMID:16299199

Rippey, J C R; Stallwood, M I

2005-12-01

145

Analytical technique to address terrorist threats by chemical weapons of mass destruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrorism is no longer an issue without effect on the American mind. We now live with the same concerns and fears that have been commonplace in other developed and third world countries for a long time. Citizens of other countries have long lived with the specter of terrorism and now the U.S. needs to be concerned and prepared for terrorist activities.T he terrorist has the ability to cause great destructive effects by focusing their effort on unaware and unprepared civilian populations. Attacks can range from simple explosives to sophisticated nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Intentional chemical releases of hazardous chemicals or chemical warfare agents pose a great threat because of their ready availability and/or ease of production, and their ability to cause widespread damage. As this battlefront changes from defined conflicts and enemies to unnamed terrorists, we must implement the proper analytical tools to provide a fast and efficient response. Each chemical uses in a terrorists weapon leaves behind a chemical signature that can be used to identify the materials involved and possibly lead investigators to the source and to those responsible. New tools to provide fast and accurate detection for battlefield chemical and biological agent attack are emerging. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is one of these tools that has found increasing use by the military to respond to chemical agent attacks. As the technology becomes smaller and more portable, it can be used by law enforcement personnel to identify suspected terrorist releases and to help prepare the response; define contaminated areas for evacuation and safety concerns, identify the proper treatment of exposed or affected civilians, and suggest decontamination and cleanup procedures.

Dempsey, Patrick M.

1997-01-01

146

Public Health, Law, and Local Control: Destruction of the US Chemical Weapons Stockpile  

PubMed Central

Destruction of US chemical weapons has begun at one of the 8 sites in the continental United States, was completed on Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, and is scheduled to begin in at least 3 other locations during the upcoming year. About 25% of the stockpile and 38% of the munitions had been destroyed as of December 31, 2002. However, the program has become controversial with regard to choice of technology, emergency management, and cost. This controversy is in large part due to efforts by some state and local governments and activist groups to play a more central role in a decisionmaking process that was once fully controlled by the US Army.

Greenberg, Michael R.

2003-01-01

147

Implementing the chemical weapons convention: The nuts and bolts of compliance  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a presentation prepared for the American Bar Association in which the author discusses the issue of rights to privacy in the United States in the face of implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention inspections. The author points out that there are no clear precedents in law which deal with all the issues which will result from international inspections for verification which are required by the treaty. In particular as inspections tread on the issue of personal rights or private property there is a fairly ill defined legal area which needs to be developed to allow such inspections in the face of constitutional guarantees.

Tanzman, E.A.

1995-03-01

148

Of owl or ostrich. The U.S. policy of calculated ambiguity to deter the use of chemical and biological weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States has adopted a policy of calculated ambiguity regarding the role of nuclear weapons in response to a potential chemical or biological weapons (CBW) attack. Many factors affect decisions about the role nuclear weapons play in US counterproliferation strategy. This thesis describes the policy of calculated ambiguity and offers some observations about its prospects and pitfalls. The thesis

Lakamp

1998-01-01

149

Detection of chemical weapon agents and simulants using chemical ionization reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Chemical ionization reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CIR-TOF-MS) has been used for the analysis of prepared mixtures of chemical weapon agents (CWAs) sarin and sulfur mustard. Detection of the CWA simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, triethyl phosphate, and dimethyl methyl phosphonate has also been investigated. Chemical ionization of all the agents and simulants was shown to be possible using the CIR-TOF-MS technique with a variety of reagent ions, and the sensitivity was optimized by variation of instrument parameters. The ionization process was found to be largely unaffected by sample humidity levels, demonstrating the potential suitability of the method to a range of environmental conditions, including the analysis of CWAs in air and in the breath of exposed individuals. PMID:17894471

Cordell, Rebecca L; Willis, Kerry A; Wyche, Kevin P; Blake, Robert S; Ellis, Andrew M; Monks, Paul S

2007-09-26

150

Geochemistry of chemical weapon breakdown products on the seafloor: 1,4-thioxane in seawater.  

PubMed

The long-term fate of chemical weapon debris disposed of in the ocean some 50 years ago, now sinking into marine sediments and leaking into the ocean environment, is poorly known. Direct evidence exists showing chemical weapon agents actively being released on the sea floor with detrimental effects including harm to marine life. Thus there is strong interest in determining the fate and lifetime of these materials, their decomposition products, and the affected zones around these sites. Here we study the geochemical properties of a mustard gas breakdown product, 1,4-thioxane (TO), using Raman spectroscopy. We show that TO forms a hydrate with a help-gas (a second guest added to stabilize the hydrate), such as methane or hydrogen sulfide, with the hydrate stability regime some 10 degrees C above pure methane hydrate. The temperature, pressure, and reducing conditions required for hydrate formation commonly occur at known disposal sites. The TO solubility was measured in seawater and found to vary from 0.65 to 0.63 mol/kg water between 4.5 and 25.0 degrees C. Similar to other hydrate systems, the TO solubility decreased in the presence of hydrate. A low solubility in water coupled with its ability to form a hydrate within marine sediments can greatly decrease molecular mobility and increase its lifetime. These results demonstrate how unanticipated reactions with marine sediments can occur, and how little is known of the processes controlling the environmental science of these materials. PMID:19244991

Zhang, Xin; Hester, Keith C; Mancillas, Oscar; Peltzer, Edward T; Walz, Peter M; Brewer, Peter G

2009-02-01

151

The first non-state use of a chemical weapon in warfare: the Tamil Tigers' assault on East Kiran  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents research conducted by the author in Sri Lanka to verify the first non-state use of a chemical weapon in warfare. This 1990 incident involved a primitive chemical attack perpetrated by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (the LTTE or Tamil Tigers) on a Sri Lankan Armed Forces (SLAF) encampment in East Kiran, in the Batticaloa district of

Bruce Hoffman

2009-01-01

152

Ecological Risk Assessment of Radiological Exposure to Depleted Uranium in Soils at a Weapons Testing Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for unacceptable risks to biota from radiological exposure to depleted uranium (DU) in soils was evaluated at two sites where DU weapons testing had been conducted in the past. A screening risk assessment was conducted to determine if measured concentrations of DU-associated radionuclides in site soils exceed radionuclide levels considered protective of biota. While concentrations of individual radionuclides

JING-JY CHENG; IHOR HLOHOWSKYJ; CHIH LUN TSAO

2004-01-01

153

Hospital preparedness for weapons of mass destruction incidents: An initial assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: We performed an assessment of hospital preparedness for weapons of mass destruction (WMD) incidents in Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Region III. Methods: Interviews of hospital personnel were completed in 30 hospitals. Data collected included level of preparedness, mass decontamination capabilities, training of hospital staff, and facility security capabilities. Results: No respondents believed their sites were fully prepared

Kimberly N. Treat; Janet M. Williams; Paul M. Furbee; William G. Manley; Floyd K. Russell; Clarence D. Stamper

2001-01-01

154

Hospital Preparedness for Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents:An Initial Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate hospital preparedness for weapons of mass destruction (WMD), we performed an initial assessment in the emergency response hospitals in Taipei. Interviews of hospital personnel were performed in 10 hospitals. Data collected included level of preparedness, mass decontamina- tion capabilities, training of hospital staff, and facility security capabilities. No respondents believed their sites were fully prepared to handle a

Tzong-Luen Wang; Huei-Tsair Chen; Hang Chang

155

[Impact of chemical weapon destruction on the structure of lake zoohydrobiont community].  

PubMed

Community structure of zoohydrobionts in the lake affected by chemical weapon destruction was studied for the first time. Low pH favored species specific to acidic water bodies as well as bidominant zooplankton community. The long-term effects of chemical pollution determined the stage of community succession, namely, the absence of the key predator (fishes), abundance of detritus consumers in the zoobenthic community (dipteran larvae), diversity of amphibiotic insects, and low species diversity in the zooplankton community with the prevalence of cladocerans and rotifers. Unbalanced composition of higher trophic levels results in an unstable functioning of the lake and accumulation of significant amounts of detritus, which is utilized by the abundant microzoobenthic component of the ecosystem. PMID:16634441

Sto?ko, T G; Maze?, Iu A; Tsyganov, A N; Tikhonenkov, D V

156

Technology diffusion of a different nature: Applications of nuclear safeguards technology to the chemical weapons verification regime  

SciTech Connect

The following discussion focuses on the issue of arms control implementation from the standpoint of technology and technical assistance. Not only are the procedures and techniques for safeguarding nuclear materials undergoing substantial changes, but the implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) will give rise to technical difficulties unprecedented in the implementation of arms control verification. Although these regimes present new challenges, an analysis of the similarities between the nuclear and chemical weapons non-proliferation verification regimes illustrates the overlap in technological solutions. Just as cost-effective and efficient technologies can solve the problems faced by the nuclear safeguards community, these same technologies offer solutions for the CWC safeguards regime. With this in mind, experts at the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), who are responsible for verification implementation, need to devise a CWC verification protocol that considers the technology already available. The functional similarity of IAEA and the OPCW, in conjunction with the technical necessities of both verification regimes, should receive attention with respect to the establishment of a technical assistance program. Lastly, the advanced status of the nuclear and chemical regime vis-a-vis the biological non-proliferation regime can inform our approach to implementation of confidence building measures for biological weapons.

Kadner, S.P. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reisman, A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Turpen, E. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1996-10-01

157

[Preparedness of Pomeranian Region hospitals for a possible attack with chemical weapons].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to find out whether the medical staff in the emergency units in all Pomeranian Region hospitals were prepared for possible chemical weapon attack. Key medical personnel, senior doctors and nurses, in 24 hospitals were interviewed by the authors. None of the medical staff have received training in self-protection and management of mass casualties after accidental or terroristic chemical release. There were only four hospitals which had adequate space and special chambers for decontamination. None of the emergency units had special equipment needed for self-protection. The majority of the staff did not know their tasks and individual roles in the case of chemical contamination. None of the personnel had information about antidotes and place of their storage. Only 16.7% of the staff knew the source of quick information about specific treatment of casualties. Conclusions: The emergency departments in Pomeranian Region hospitals are not prepared for a possible terroristic chemical attack. There is an urgent need for training the medical staff in self-protection and management of mass casualties after accidental or terroristic chemical release. It is important to make bank of antidotes which could be placed in the regional poison control centres. All these procedures could be carried out without too much expenditure. PMID:15521603

Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Sein Anand, Jacek; Rutkowski, Przemys?aw; Wnuk, Katarzyna

2004-01-01

158

Assessment of the safety of US nuclear weapons and related nuclear test requirements: A post-Bush Initiative update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuclear Weapons Reduction Initiative announced by President Bush on September 27, 1991, is described herein as set forth in Defense Secretary Cheney`s Nuclear Arsenal Reduction Order issued September 28, 1991. The implications of the Bush Initiative for improved nuclear weapons safety are assessed in response to a request by US Senators Harkin, Kennedy, and Wirth to the Lawrence Livermore

Kidder

1991-01-01

159

Risk assessment methodologies for nuclear weapons compared to risk assessment methodologies for nuclear reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are major differences between the safety principles for nuclear weapons and for nuclear reactors. For example, a principal concern for nuclear weapons is to prevent electrical energy from reaching the nuclear package during accidents produced by crashes, fires, and other hazards, whereas the foremost concern for nuclear reactors is to maintain coolant around the core in the event of

1994-01-01

160

Nondestructive control of chemical weapons combining neutron-activation analysis and neutron-radiography techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A project of a transportable neutron system has been designed for nondestructive detection of weapon materials such as chemical agents or explosives. The system combines imaging and identifying techniques, and uses a sealed tube neutron generator GENIE 46. The neutron emitting module is embedded in a moderator/collimator. The resulting mixed 14 MeV and thermal neutron beam allows the user to perform neutron radiography and gamma-ray spectroscopy. Substances to be detected are imaged in a first step and then identified by comparing relative spectral line intensities with those of reference materials. The moderator provides a first level protection against radiation to the operators. This project includes only industrial sub assemblies, transportable by truck to be used in open area.

Bach, Pierre; Cluzeau, S.; Le Tourneur, P.; Jaureguy, J. C.; Guir, F.

1995-03-01

161

Health and environmental threats associated with the destruction of chemical weapons.  

PubMed

Still existing arsenals of chemical weapons (CW) pose not only security threats for possible use in hostilities by state actors or misuse by terrorists but also safety threats to humans and biota due to leakages and possible accidents. The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) commits the States Parties (SPs) to destroy CW using technologies taking into consideration human health and environmental protection. It does not allow methods, routinely used up to the 1970s, such as earth burial, open-pit burning, and sea dumping. Long-term health and environmental threats and some accidents that have already occurred in the known localities of the sea-dumped and earth-buried arsenals of Nazi-German armed forces in the Baltic Region and of Imperial Japanese forces in the Far East Region are analyzed according to the impact of major CW and ammunition types (i.e., sulfur mustard--HD, tabun--GA, arsenicals--DA, DC, DM, arsine oil, and chloroacetophenone--CN). Any possible operations and handling with CW envisaged by the CWC as well as their verification are summarized taking into account the health threat they pose. CW and toxic armament waste to be destroyed and applied technologies (both developed and under current use in operational CW destruction facilities [CWDF]) are reviewed as are systems of health safety and environmental protection of the destruction/demilitarization stems from the extraordinary high toxicity of supertoxic lethal agents in man and biota. Problems of currently used Russian and U.S. standards for maximum allowable workplace concentrations and general population limits and possibilities of their determination by available analytical instrumentation are discussed. PMID:17119232

Matousek, Jirí

2006-09-01

162

The use of thermal desorption in monitoring for the chemical weapons demilitarization program.  

PubMed

Under international treaty, the United States and Russia are disposing of their aging stockpile of chemical weapons. Incineration and chemical neutralization are options for sites in the United States, although Russia prefers the latter. The storage and disposal of bulk and chemical agents and weapons involve unique hazards of handling extremely toxic materials. There are three major areas of concern--the storage stockpile, the disposal area, and the discovery and destruction of "found" material not considered part of the stockpile. Methods have been developed to detect the presence of chemical agents in the air, and these are used to help assure worker protection and the safety of the local population. Exposure limits for all chemical agents are low, sometimes nanograms per cubic meter for worker control limits and picograms per cubic meter for general population limits. There are three types of monitoring used in the USA: alarm, confirmation, and historical. Alarm monitors are required to give relatively immediate real-time responses to agent leaks. They are simple to operate and rugged, and provide an alarm in near real-time (generally a few minutes). Alarm monitors for the demilitarization program are based on sorbent pre-concentration followed by thermal desorption and simple gas chromatography. Alarms may need to be confirmed by another method, such as sample tubes collocated with the alarm monitor and analyzed in a laboratory by more sophisticated chromatography. Sample tubes are also used for historical perimeter monitoring, with sample periods typically of 12 h. The most common detector is the flame photometric detector, in sulfur or phosphorous mode, although others, such as mass-selective detectors, also have been used. All agents have specific problems with collection, chromatography and detection. Monitoring is not made easier by interferences from pesticide spraying, busy roadways or military firing ranges. Exposure limits drive the requirements for analytical sensitivity. Lowering limits adds additional difficulties to the monitoring efforts. The various monitoring methods and the role they play in ensuring worker and general population safety are discussed. PMID:12400916

Harper, Martin

2002-10-01

163

Miniaturized sequential injection analyzer for the monitoring and quantitation of chemical weapons degradation compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to monitor and detect chemical warfare agents and their degradation compounds continues to be of utmost importance. Remote on-site field analysis of these compounds is also extremely important as it relates to treaty verification for the Chemical Weapons Convention, as well as the minimization and elimination of human exposure. A portable instrument has been developed and miniaturized that allows for the detection of these compounds in the field with better quantitative results and higher reproducibility than traditional field test kits. All sample and reagent manipulations are conducted in a completely automated fashion. Quantitative results may be determined colorimetrically using the molybdenum blue reaction for the final degradation product of phosphonic acid based chemical warfare agents with a detection limit of 0.05 ppm. The instrument is based on the flow analysis technique of sequential injection analysis (SIA). The benefits of this approach are that the method provides rapid response, high reproducibility of results, high sensitivity and minimal waste production.

Lancaster, Herbert L.; Postlethwaite, Timothy A.; Zhang, Peng; Sorrells, Richard

2002-06-01

164

Recovery from a chemical weapons accident or incident: A concept paper on planning  

SciTech Connect

Emergency planning for an unintended release of chemical agent from the nation`s chemical weapons stockpile should include preparation for. the period following implementation of immediate emergency response. That period -- the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage -- is the subject of this report. The report provides an overview of the role of recovery, reentry, and restoration planning in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), describes the transition from immediate emergency response to restoration, and analyzes the legal framework that would govern restoration activities. Social, economic, and administrative issues, as well as technical ones, need to be considered in the planning effort. Because of possible jurisdictional conflicts, appropriate federal, state, and local agencies need to be included in a coordinated planning process. Advance consideration should be given to the pertinent federal and state statutes and regulations. On the federal level, the principal statutes and regulations to be considered are those associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and the National Environmental Policy Act. This report recommends that extensive preaccident planning be undertaken for the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage and outlines several key issues that should be considered in that planning. The need for interagency cooperation and coordination at all levels of the planning process is emphasized.

Herzenberg, C.L.; Haffenden, R.; Lerner, K.; Meleski, S.A.; Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Lewis, L.M. [US Dept. of Agriculture (United States); Hemphill, R.C. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (United States); Adams, J.D. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

1994-04-01

165

Lifetime Assessments of Weapon Organics and Polymers FY05 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

Non-nuclear organics, while not yet regarded to be at risk, figure in a large percentage of Significant Findings Investigations. Further, early application of advanced lifetime, compatibility, and base-lining assessments for LEP replacement materials and emerging materials for the Reliable Replacement Warhead (RRW) provides data for rational material choices. This task is currently assessing the chemical and mechanical characteristics of a variety of weapon organics prioritized by the risk-consequence of material aging. The majority of effort to date has been dedicated to silicone elastomer components known to lose their load resistance with age, with additional effort dedicated to urethane adhesives. This fiscal year, we have focused on initial aging studies of UNI620-3, a candidate replacement material for DC745U, and Adiprene (LW520). Aging studies of S5455, originally scheduled for testing in FY05, were postponed until FY07. We have initiated aging studies on these materials by employing accelerated aging tests with exposure to Co-60 {gamma}-radiation and elevated temperatures and studying their mechanical properties using a variety of analytical tools including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Additionally, we have investigated aging signatures present in parts returned from surveillance as well as initiated long and short term stress relaxation studies for a thorough understanding of compression set occurring in silicone elastomers components. Additional investigations of aging processes in fluoropolymer binders and the combined effects of radiation and tensile set on silicone pads were performed. Finally, we have used temperature programmed desorption (TPD) studies to significantly improve the accuracy of our H{sub 2}O outgassing model in comparison with last year through the use of the isoconversion technique as well as to measure the equilibrium vapor pressure of hydrogenated DPB pellets. This report satisfies the milestones/deliverables for the L3 task 'Update chemical and mechanical aging models for cushion/pads/adhesives' and all data will be input into the L2 milestone 'Bill's token L2 milestone'.

Chinn, S; Maxwell, R; Sawvel, A; Madabhushi, R; Dinh, L; Solyom, D; Cohenour, R

2006-11-01

166

Final Environmental Assessment for the Naval Weapons Station Concord Port Terminal Operations and Administration Building, Concord, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential impacts on the human environment resulting from the implementation of Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Concord Port Terminal Operations and Administration Building alternatives. This EA has been prepare...

1998-01-01

167

Review Environmental Assessment for the Naval Weapons Station Concord Port Terminal Operations and Administration Building, Concord, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential impacts on the human environment resulting from the implementation of Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Concord Port Terminal Operations and Administration Building alternatives. This EA has been prepare...

1997-01-01

168

US capability to monitor compliance with the chemical weapons convention. Report of the Select Committee on Intelligence, United States Senate. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session, September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This Senate Committee report deals with the implications for verification of and compliance disputes regarding the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). United States technical capabilities and improvements needed to monitor and verify arms control of chemical weapons are examined.

NONE

1994-12-31

169

Historical precedence and technical requirements of biological weapons use : a threat assessment.  

SciTech Connect

The threat from biological weapons is assessed through both a comparative historical analysis of the patterns of biological weapons use and an assessment of the technological hurdles to proliferation and use that must be overcome. The history of biological weapons is studied to learn how agents have been acquired and what types of states and substate actors have used agents. Substate actors have generally been more willing than states to use pathogens and toxins and they have focused on those agents that are more readily available. There has been an increasing trend of bioterrorism incidents over the past century, but states and substate actors have struggled with one or more of the necessary technological steps. These steps include acquisition of a suitable agent, production of an appropriate quantity and form, and effective deployment. The technological hurdles associated with the steps present a real barrier to producing a high consequence event. However, the ever increasing technological sophistication of society continually lowers the barriers, resulting in a low but increasing probability of a high consequence bioterrorism event.

Estes, Daniel P.; Vogel, Kathleen Margaret; Gaudioso, Jennifer Marie; Hickok, Lauren T.; Jung, Danielle F.; Barnett, Natalie Beth; Frerichs, Rebecca L.; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson

2004-05-01

170

Chemical weapon functional exercise--Cincinnati: observations and lessons learned from a "typical medium-sized" city's response to simulated terrorism utilizing Weapons of Mass Destruction.  

PubMed

In the wake of the September 11, 2001, attacks and the subsequent anthrax scare, there is growing concern about the United States' vulnerability to terrorist use of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). As part of ongoing preparation for this terrible reality, many jurisdictions have been conducting simulated terrorist incidents to provide training for the public safety community, hospitals, and public health departments. As an example of this national effort to improve domestic preparedness for such events, a large scale, multi-jurisdictional chemical weapons drill was conducted in Cincinnati, Ohio, on May 20, 2000. This drill depicted the components of the early warning system for hospitals and public health departments, the prehospital medical response to terrorism. Over the course of the exercise, emergency medical services personnel decontaminated, triaged, treated, and transported eighty-five patients. Several important lessons were learned that day that have widespread applicability to health care delivery systems nationwide, especially in the areas of decontamination, triage, on-scene medical care, and victim transportation. As this training exercise helped Cincinnati to prepare for dealing with future large scale WMD incidents, such drills are invaluable preparation for all communities in a world increasingly at risk from terrorist attacks. PMID:12766215

FitzGerald, Denis J; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D; Crocco, Todd J

171

Chemical weapon functional exercise--Cincinnati: observations and lessons learned from a "typical medium-sized" city's response to simulated terrorism utilizing Weapons of Mass Destruction.  

PubMed Central

In the wake of the September 11, 2001, attacks and the subsequent anthrax scare, there is growing concern about the United States' vulnerability to terrorist use of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). As part of ongoing preparation for this terrible reality, many jurisdictions have been conducting simulated terrorist incidents to provide training for the public safety community, hospitals, and public health departments. As an example of this national effort to improve domestic preparedness for such events, a large scale, multi-jurisdictional chemical weapons drill was conducted in Cincinnati, Ohio, on May 20, 2000. This drill depicted the components of the early warning system for hospitals and public health departments, the prehospital medical response to terrorism. Over the course of the exercise, emergency medical services personnel decontaminated, triaged, treated, and transported eighty-five patients. Several important lessons were learned that day that have widespread applicability to health care delivery systems nationwide, especially in the areas of decontamination, triage, on-scene medical care, and victim transportation. As this training exercise helped Cincinnati to prepare for dealing with future large scale WMD incidents, such drills are invaluable preparation for all communities in a world increasingly at risk from terrorist attacks.

FitzGerald, Denis J.; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D.; Crocco, Todd J.

2003-01-01

172

Autonomous bio-chemical decontaminator (ABCD) against weapons of mass destruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and the use of such elements pose an eminent asymmetric threat with disastrous consequences to the national security of any nation. In particular, the use of biochemical warfare agents against civilians and unprotected troops in international conflicts or by terrorists against civilians is considered as a very peculiar threat. Accordingly, taking a quarantine-before-inhalation approach to biochemical warfare, the author introduces the notion of autonomous biochemical decontamination against WMD. In the unfortunate event of a biochemical attack, the apparatus proposed herein is intended to automatically detect, identify, and more importantly neutralize a biochemical threat. Along with warnings concerning a cyber-WMD nexus, various sections cover discussions on human senses and computer sensors, corroborating evidence related to detection and neutralization of chemical toxins, and cyber-assisted olfaction in stand alone, peer-to-peer, and network settings. In essence, the apparatus can be used in aviation and mass transit security to initiate mass decontamination by dispersing a decontaminant aerosol or to protect the public water supply against a potential bioterrorist attack. Future effort may involve a system-on-chip (SoC) embodiment of this apparatus that allows a safer environment for the emerging phenomenon of cyber-assisted olfaction and morph cell phones into ubiquitous sensors/decontaminators. Although this paper covers mechanisms and protocols to avail a neutralizing substance, further research will need to explore the substance's various pharmacological profiles and potential side effects.

Hyacinthe, Berg P.

2006-06-01

173

Legal aspects of national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention national authority provisions. Workshop I: The National Authority  

SciTech Connect

This seminar is an excellent opportunity for all attendees to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author discusses legal aspects of implementing the CWC`s national authority provisions. These implementing measures are universal, applying not only to the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also to the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons programme. This new need for national measures to implement multilateral arms control agreements has generated unease due to a perception that implementation may be burdensome and at odds with national law. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to effectuate the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby engendering significant disparities in implementation steps among States Parties. As a result, the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention late last year and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. Here the author discusses progress among several States in actually developing implementing measures for the Convention`s national authority requirements. CWC legislation from Australia, Germany, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden were available at this writing in English through the PTS. Of course, it is important to note that this brief survey necessarily omitted examination of the existing {open_quotes}background{close_quotes} of other, related domestic laws that these signatories might also have adopted that affect CWC implementation. The author hopes that his brief review will give delegations a flavor of the choices that exist for national implementation of the CWC.

Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ. College of Law, Chicago, IL (United States)

1995-05-09

174

Gas chromatography electron ionization mass spectrometric analysis of O-alkyl methylphosphinates for verification of Chemical Weapons Convention.  

PubMed

We describe the gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analysis of O-alkyl methylphosphinates (AMPs), which are included in schedule 2B4 chemicals in the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). GC/MS analysis of variety of AMPs and their deuterated analogues revealed that their fragmentations were determined by alpha-cleavages, McLafferty +1 and hydrogen rearrangements. Based on the obtained electron ionization mass spectra of AMPs the fragmentation routes were rationalized, which were substantiated by the GC/MS analysis of deuterated analogues. PMID:19679938

Pardasani, Deepak; Kanaujia, Pankaj K; Tak, Vijay; Garg, Prabhat; Mazumder, Avik; Dubey, Devendra K

2009-01-01

175

Public Health Assessment for Concord Naval Weapons Station (a/k/a Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach Detachment Concord), Concord, California, July 15, 2005. EPA Facility ID: CA7170024528.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepared this public health assessment (PHA) to evaluate potential past and current exposures to contaminants originating from Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach Detachment Concord (NWS SBD Concor...

2005-01-01

176

Autonomous bio-chemical decontaminator (ABCD) against weapons of mass destruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and the use of such elements pose an eminent asymmetric threat with disastrous consequences to the national security of any nation. In particular, the use of biochemical warfare agents against civilians and unprotected troops in international conflicts or by terrorists against civilians is considered as a very peculiar threat. Accordingly, taking a

Berg P. Hyacinthe

2006-01-01

177

The evolution of a health hazard assessment database management system for military weapons, equipment, and materiel.  

PubMed

During the 1970s, the Army health hazard assessment (HHA) process developed as a medical program to minimize hazards in military materiel during the development process. The HHA Program characterizes health hazards that soldiers and civilians may encounter as they interact with military weapons and equipment. Thus, it is a resource for medical planners and advisors to use that can identify and estimate potential hazards that soldiers may encounter as they train and conduct missions. The U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine administers the program, which is integrated with the Army's Manpower and Personnel Integration program. As the HHA Program has matured, an electronic database has been developed to record and monitor the health hazards associated with military equipment and systems. The current database tracks the results of HHAs and provides reporting designed to assist the HHA Program manager in daily activities. PMID:11977887

Murnyak, George R; Spencer, Clark O; Chaney, Ann E; Roberts, Welford C

2002-04-01

178

Nuclear weapon reliability evaluation methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document provides an overview of those activities that are normally performed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide nuclear weapon reliability evaluations for the Department of Energy. These reliability evaluations are first provided as a prediction of the attainable stockpile reliability of a proposed weapon design. Stockpile reliability assessments are provided for each weapon type as the weapon is fielded

1993-01-01

179

Weapons of mass destruction, WMD  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeSince the invasion into Iraq in 2003, weapons of mass destruction (WMD), have come to general notice; they include today chemical, biological, and atomic\\/nuclear weapons, (CW, BW, and AW). Radiological findings shall be described.

H. Vogel

2007-01-01

180

A convergence of weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the course of the post?war era, two types of weapons—weapons of mass destruction (WMD) (traditionally nuclear arms, biological and chemical weapons, and their delivery systems), and conventional arms, such as tanks, artillery, aircraft, and naval vessels—have become separated conceptually by scholars and policy makers. This has, in turn, produced separate research agendas among scholars. Proliferation research focuses on the

John Sislin

1998-01-01

181

NMCSSC Simulation for the Assessment of Tactical Nuclear Weapons (SATAN II). System Description. Change 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Satan II is a model for the two-sided, open play of a tactical nuclear weapons conflict on simulated battlefields. When provided by the user with descriptions of the engaging forces, rates of target acquisition, and a nuclear weapons employment doctrine, ...

M. Lautzenheiser W. B. Bales N. H. Fletcher D. A. Eoff R. B. Koehler

1973-01-01

182

Comparison of methodologies for assessing the risks from nuclear weapons and from nuclear reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are important differences between the safety principles for nuclear weapons and for nuclear reactors. For example, a principal concern for nuclear weapons is to prevent electrical energy from reaching the nuclear package during accidents produced by crashes, fires, and other hazards, whereas the foremost concern for nuclear reactors is to maintain coolant around the core in the event of

1996-01-01

183

Reality theory: A means to control the public`s fear of chemical weapons use. Research report  

SciTech Connect

On 20 March 1995 terrorists released the chemical nerve agent sarin into the Tokyo subway system, killing 10 commuters and changing the public`s attitude about the most basic aspect of their lives: the air they breathe and the daily ritual of their commute to work. This is the new threat the United States must face: terrorism and its attack on the will of the people forcing governments to yield to the terrorists` position. Yet there is a different public response in warfare compared with a peacetime terrorist attack. This paper examines the psychological response of people in wartime and applies this description to chemical weapons use in war and in peace. The public`s response can be predicted if one uses reality theory, a concept leaders can use to mitigate responses that would prevent the execution of national strategy.

Pate, B.E.

1997-04-01

184

Ecological risk assessment of radiological exposure to depleted uranium in soils at a weapons testing facility.  

SciTech Connect

The potential for unacceptable risks to biota from radiological exposure to depleted uranium (DU) in soils was evaluated at two sites where DU weapons testing had been conducted in the past. A screening risk assessment was conducted to determine if measured concentrations of DU-associated radionuclides in site soils exceed radionuclide levels considered protective of biota. While concentrations of individual radionuclides did not exceed acceptable levels, total radionuclide concentrations could result in potentially unacceptable doses to exposed biota. Thus, a receptor-specific assessment was conducted to estimate external and internal radiological doses to vegetation and wildlife known or expected to occur at the sites. Wildlife evaluated included herbivores, omnivores, and top-level predators. Internal dose estimates to wildlife considered exposure via fugitive dust inhalation and soil and food ingestion; root uptake was the primary exposure route evaluated for vegetation. Total doses were compared with acceptable dose levels of 1.0 and 0.1 rad/day for vegetation and wildlife, respectively, with potentially unacceptable risks indicated for doses exceeding these levels. All estimated doses were below or approximated acceptable levels, typically by an order of magnitude or more. These results indicate that current levels of DU in soils do not pose unacceptable radiological risks to biota at the sites evaluated.

Hlohowskyj, I.; Cheng, J.; Tsao, C.; Environmental Assessment

2004-01-01

185

Simulation for the Assessment of Tactical Nuclear Weapons (SATAN II). Verification Test Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents the Government testing required to verify the results of SATAN II and its interfacing capability with ATLAS. This programming effort provides the capability to game both nuclear and conventional weapons within a tactical environment...

M. Lautzenheiser W. Bales

1971-01-01

186

Nonnuclear Consolidation Environmental Assessment. Executive summary, Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a proposal, known as Complex 21, to reconfigure the Nation's Nuclear Weapons Complex (Complex). The complex is a set of interrelated facilities that design, manufacture, test, and maintain this country's nuclea...

1993-01-01

187

Mass spectral analysis of N-oxides of Chemical Weapons Convention related aminoethanols under electrospray ionization conditions.  

PubMed

N,N'-Dialkylaminoethanols are the hydrolyzed products or precursors of chemical warfare agents such as V-agents and nitrogen mustards, and they are prone to undergo oxidation in environmental matrices or during decontamination processes. Consequently, screening of the oxidized products of aminoethanols in aqueous samples is an important task in the verification of chemical weapons convention-related chemicals. Here we report the successful characterization of the N-oxides of N,N'-dialkylaminoethanols, alkyl diethanolamines, and triethanolamine using positive ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra of the [M+H](+) and [M+Na](+) ions show diagnostic product ions that enable the unambiguous identification of the studied N-oxides, including those of isomeric compounds. The proposed fragmentation pathways are supported by high-resolution mass spectrometry data and product/precursor ion spectra. The CID spectra of [M+H](+) ions included [MH-CH(4)O(2)](+) as the key product ion, in addition to a distinctive alkene loss that allowed us to recognize the alkyl group attached to the nitrogen. The [M+Na](+) ions show characteristic product ions due to the loss of groups (R) attached to nitrogen either as a radical (R) or as a molecule [R+H or (R-H)] after hydrogen migration. PMID:21259362

Sridhar, L; Karthikraj, R; Murty, M R V S; Raju, N Prasada; Vairamani, M; Prabhakar, S

2011-02-28

188

Determination of mustard and lewisite related compounds in abandoned chemical weapons (Yellow shells) from sources in China and Japan.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the states of the contents in chemical munitions that Japanese Imperial Forces abandoned at the end of World War II in Japan and China is gravely lacking. To unearth and recover these chemical weapons and detoxify the contents safely, it is essential to establish analytical procedures to definitely determine the CWA contents. We established such a procedure and applied it to the analysis of chemicals in the abandoned shells. Yellow shells are known to contain sulfur mustard, lewisite, or a mixture of both. Lewisite was analyzed without thiol derivatization, because it and its decomposition products yield the same substances in the derivatization. Analysis using our new procedure showed that both mustard and lewisite remained as the major components after the long abandonment of nearly 60 years. The content of mustard was 43% and that of lewisite 55%. The viscous material found was suggested to be mostly oligomers of mustard. Comparison of the components in the Yellow agents with mustard recovered in both Japan and China showed a difference in the impurities between the CWAs produced by the former Imperial navy and those by the former Imperial army. PMID:16269149

Hanaoka, Shigeyuki; Nomura, Koji; Wada, Takeharu

2005-11-02

189

Assessment factors—Applications in health risk assessment of chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the scientific basis for default assessment factors used in risk assessment of nongenotoxic chemicals including the use of chemical- and pathways specific assessment factors, and extrapolation approaches relevant to species differences, age and gender. One main conclusion is that the conventionally used default factor of 100 does not cover all inter-species and inter-individual differences. We suggest that a

Agneta Falk-Filipsson; Annika Hanberg; Katarina Victorin; Margareta Warholm; Maria Wallén

2007-01-01

190

Environmental risk assessment of existing chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the existing chemicals of high priority have been released into the environment for many years. Risk assessments for\\u000a existing chemicals are now conducted within the framework of the German Existing Chemicals Program and by the EC Regulation\\u000a on Existing Substances. The environmental assessment of a chemical involves:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a a) \\u000a \\u000a exposure assessment leading to the derivation of a predicted environmental

Jan Ahlers; Robert Diderich; Ursula Klaschka; Annette Marschner; Beatrice Schwarz-Schulz

1994-01-01

191

Process Improvement to the Inspection Readiness Plan in Chemical Weapons Convention Challenge Inspections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis identified current Information Technology initiatives to help improve the Navy's Inspection Readiness Plan for Chemical Warfare Convention (CWC) Challenge Inspection. The CWC is an intensive inspection. The Challenge Inspection allows for a te...

W. M. Triplett

1997-01-01

192

Biological and chemical weapons of mass destruction: updated clinical therapeutic countermeasures since 2003.  

PubMed

The objective of this article is to provide updated treatment options for bioterrorism agents. This updated synopsis includes recent clinical cases and treatment recommendations that have arisen in the last 5 years. The decontamination, treatment, and disposition of these biologic and chemical agents are presented alphabetically by agent type: biologic, chemical, and radiologic/nuclear. The information provided outlines only new treatment options since 2003. PMID:22573054

Pettineo, Christopher; Aitchison, Robert; Leikin, Scott M; Vogel, Stephen N; Leikin, Jerrold B

193

Analysis of chemical weapons decontamination waste from old ton containers from Johnston Atoll using multiple analytical methods  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination waste from chemical weapons (CW) agents has been stored in ton containers on Johnston Atoll since 1971. The waste was recently sampled and analyzed to determine its chemical composition in preparation for future cleanups. Due to the range of products and analytical requirements, multiple chromatographic and spectroscopic methods were necessary, including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), gas chromatography/atomic emission detection (GC/AED), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The samples were screened for residual agents. No residual sarin (GB) or VX was found to detection limits of 20 ng/mL, but 3% of the samples contained residual sulfur mustard (HD) at < 140 ng/mL. Decontamination products of agents were identified. The majority (74%) of the ton containers were documented correctly, in that the observed decontamination products were in agreement with the labeled agent type, but for a number of the containers, the contents were not in agreement with the labels. In addition, arsenic compounds that are decontamination products of the agent lewisite (L) were observed in a few ton containers, suggesting that lewisite was originally present but not documented. This study was a prototype to demonstrate the level of effort required to characterize old bulk CW-related waste.

Creasy, W.R.; Brickhouse, M.D.; Morrisse, K.M. [EAI Corp., Abingdon, MD (United States)] [and others

1999-07-01

194

On-matrix derivatisation-extraction of precursors of nitrogen- and sulfur-mustards for verification of chemical weapons convention.  

PubMed

Development and refinement of sample preparation protocols for retrospective detection and identification of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their markers is of paramount importance from verification point of view of chemical weapons convention (CWC). Precursors of nitrogen- and sulfur-mustards (NMPs and SMPs) are polar adsorptive markers of vesicant class of CWAs. Their detection in a given environmental sample may imply past contamination with mustards. For the efficient extraction of NMPs and SMPs from soil, on-matrix derivatisation-extraction (OMDEX) method was developed and optimized. The method involved trifluoroacetylation of analytes on soil itself, followed by extraction with suitable solvent. The extracted samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This virtually single-step sample preparation offered better recoveries of NMPs and SMPs in comparison to conventionally used extraction, evaporation and derivatisation. The best recoveries of analytes were obtained with acetonitrile by OMDEX method. Dynamic linearity range of trifluoroacetylated (TFA) derivatives of NMPs and SMPs was 1-12 microg/L in GC-MS analysis in SIM mode. Repeatability and reproducibility of this technique containing 5 and 10 microg analytes/gm soil was <3.3% and <4.6%, respectively. OMDEX technique was finally applied for the detection of TFA derivatives of NMPs in the soil sample supplied in 16th official proficiency test conducted by OPCW in October 2004. PMID:15974066

Dubey, D K; Pardasania, Deepak; Palita, Meehir; Gupta, A K; Jain, Rajiv

2005-05-27

195

Carol Anne Bond v the United States of America: how a woman scorned threatened the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

PubMed

The case of Carol Anne Bond v the United States of America stemmed from a domestic dispute when Ms. Bond attempted to retaliate against her best friend by attacking her with chemical agents. What has emerged is a much greater issue--a test of standing on whether a private citizen can challenge the Tenth Amendment. Instead of being prosecuted in state court for assault, Ms. Bond was charged and tried in district court under a federal criminal statute passed as part of implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Ms. Bond's argument rests on the claim that the statute exceeded the federal government's enumerated powers in criminalizing her behavior and violated the Constitution, while the government contends legislation implementing treaty obligations is well within its purview. This question remains unanswered because there is dispute among the lower courts as to whether Ms. Bond, as a citizen, even has the right to challenge an amendment guaranteeing states rights when a state is not a party to the action. The Supreme Court heard the case on February 22, 2011, and, if it decides to grant Ms. Bond standing to challenge her conviction, the case will be returned to the lower courts. Should the court decide Ms. Bond has the standing to challenge her conviction and further questions the constitutionality of the law, it would be a significant blow to implementation of the CWC in the U.S. and the effort of the federal government to ensure we are meeting our international obligations. PMID:21819227

Muldoon, Anna; Kornblet, Sarah; Katz, Rebecca

2011-08-05

196

Youths Carrying a Weapon or Using a Weapon in a Fight: What Makes the Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objective of this study was to characterize weapon-carrying adolescents and to assess whether weapon carriers differ from weapon users. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional school-based survey of 7548 adolescents aged 16-20 years in Switzerland. Youths carrying a weapon were compared with those who do not. Subsequently, weapon carriers were…

Thurnherr, Judit; Michaud, Pierre-Andre; Berchtold, Andre; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

2009-01-01

197

Swept frequency acoustic interferometry technique for chemical weapons verification and monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for rapid on-site verification and monitoring of chemical munitions, such as artillery shells and bulk containers. Present NDE techniques provide only limited characterizations of such munitions. This paper describes the development of a novel noninvasive technique, swept-frequency acoustic interferometry (SFAI), that significantly enhances the capability of munitions characterizations. The SFAI technique allows very accurate and simultaneous determination of sound velocity and attenuation of chemical agents over a large frequency range inside artillery shells, in addition to determining agent density. The frequency-dependent sound velocity and attenuation can, in principle, provide molecular relaxation properties of the chemical agent. The same instrument also enables a direct fill-level measurement in bulk containers. Industrial and other applications of this general-purpose technique are also discussed.

Sinha, D.N.; Anthony, B.W.; Lizon, D.C.

1995-03-01

198

Source Assessment: Major Barium Chemicals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes data on air emissions from the production of major barium chemicals. Compounds studied include barium sulfide, barium carbonate, barium chloride, barium hydroxide, and barium sulfate. In order to evaluate potential environmental eff...

H. D. Troy R. B. Rezink

1978-01-01

199

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: MAJOR BARIUM CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes data on air emissions from the production of major barium chemicals. Compounds studied include barium sulfide, barium carbonate, barium chloride, barium hydroxide, and barium sulfate. In order to evaluate potential environmental effects the source severity,...

200

Threat assessment of mycotoxins as weapons: molecular mechanisms of acute toxicity.  

PubMed

Mycotoxins are impractical as tactical weapons, butthey can be used by small poor terrorist organizations to poison food and water sources or can be released in crowded, confined areas. Crude concentrated or dried extracts of readily grown fungal cultures can be used as weapons. The production of fungal weapons does not require elaborate facilities for the growth of fungi, sophisticated equipment for the purification of the toxins, or highly trained personnel. Aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A, and the trichothecenes T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol could be weaponized for bioterrorism. Knowledge of the symptoms of intoxication and the biochemical mechanisms of action of mycotoxins is necessary for the rapid identification of the toxins, the development of prophylactic antidotes, and the design of effective treatments of affected persons. All of these mycotoxins except deoxynivalenol are carcinogens (Stark, A. A., Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 34:235-262, 1980; Stark, A. A., p. 435-445, in P. S. Steyn and R. Vleggaar, ed., Mycotoxins and phycotoxins, 1986; Stark, A. A., p. 47-60, in C. L. Wilson and S. Droby, ed., Microbial food contamination, 2000; Stark, A. A., and N. Paster, p. 60-64, in M. L. Wahlqvist, A. S. Truswell, R. Smith, and P. L. Nestel, ed., Nutrition in a sustainable environment, 1994). Because immediate and widespread death, illness, or panic is the goal of bioterrorists, the mechanisms by which mycotoxins exert acute toxicity are the focus of this article. PMID:15954722

Stark, Avishay-Abraham

2005-06-01

201

The assessment of radiation exposures in native American communities from nuclear weapons testing in Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native Americans residing in a broad region downwind from the Nevada Test Site during the 1950s and 1960s received significant radiation exposures from nuclear weapons testing. Because of differences in diet, activities, and housing, their radiation exposures are only very imperfectly represented in the Department of Energy dose reconstructions. There are important missing pathways, including exposures to radioactive iodine from

Eric Frohmberg; Robert Goble; Virginia Sanchez; Dianne Quigley

2000-01-01

202

NMCSSC Simulation for the Assessment of Tactical Nuclear Weapons (SATAN II). System Description.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SATAN 2 System Description (SDM) provides a description of the SATAN 2 Model and its operations. SATAN 2 is a model for the two-sided, open play of tactical nuclear weapons exchanges on simulated battlefields. When provided by the user with descriptio...

M. Lautzenheiser W. B. Bales N. H. Fletcher D. A. Eoff R. B. Koehler

1973-01-01

203

Proliferation of Chemical Weapons: Putting the Genie Back in the Bottle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following the introduction of gas warfare in World War I, there developed a set of restraints which were effective in preventing the use of toxic chemical agents in World War II. The prolonged Korean and Vietnam conflicts were fought, again without resort...

T. M. Weekly

1989-01-01

204

A decontamination system for chemical weapons agents using a liquid solution on a solid sorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decontamination system for chemical warfare agents was developed and tested that combines a liquid decontamination reagent solution with solid sorbent particles. The components have fewer safety and environmental concerns than traditional chlorine bleach-based products or highly caustic solutions. The liquid solution, based on Decon Green™, has hydrogen peroxide and a carbonate buffer as active ingredients. The best solid sorbents

Daniel Waysbort; David J. McGarvey; William R. Creasy; Kevin M. Morrissey; David M. Hendrickson; H. Dupont Durst

2009-01-01

205

Nine cases of accidental exposure to dimethyl sulphate--a potential chemical weapon  

PubMed Central

We report nine cases of varying degrees of inhalational exposure to DMS, occurring as a result of a single chemical spillage incident in the United Kingdom. Industrial poisoning is surprisingly rare and there are few previous reports in the literature outside China.

Rippey, J; Stallwood, M

2005-01-01

206

Technologies underlying weapons of mass destruction. Background paper  

SciTech Connect

The background paper explores the technical pathways by which states might acquire nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and the systems to deliver them. It also assesses the level of effort, commitment, and resources required to mount such developments. The paper is a companion to the OTA report Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Assessing the Risks, which describes what nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons can do and how they might be used (PB94-107612). That report also analyzes the consequences of the spread of such weapons for the United States and the world, surveys the array of policy tools that can be used to combat proliferation, and identifies tradeoffs and choices that confront policymakers.

Not Available

1993-12-01

207

[Viruses as biological weapons].  

PubMed

The destruction made by nuclear, biological and chemical weapons used by governments and terrorist groups in the near history is posing anxiety and fear for human being. Rumour about the possible use of these agents leads to the development of serious negative effects on populations. Since there are no vaccine and therapy for most viral agents and cost of production as biological weapons is low, interest rate is rising for viruses. In this review, general characteristics, diagnosis, therapy and protective measures for viral agents such as variola virus, hemorrhagic fever viruses, encephalitis viruses, Hantaviruses and Nipah viruses, those can be used as biological weapon, have been summarized. PMID:16358499

Akçali, Alper

2005-07-01

208

Exposure Assessment of Chemicals from Packaging Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of chemicals may enter our food supply, by means of intentional or unintentional addition, at different stages of the food chain. These chemicals include food additives, pesticide residues, environmental contaminants, mycotox-ins, flavoring substances, and micronutrients. Packaging systems and other food-contact materials are also a source of chemicals contaminating food products and beverages. Monitoring exposure to these chemicals has become an integral part of ensuring the safety of the food supply. Within the context of the risk analysis approach and more specifically as an integral part of risk assessment procedures, the exercise known as exposure assessment is crucial in providing data to allow sound judgments concerning risks to human health. The exercise of obtaining this data is part of the process of revealing sources of contamination and assessing the effectiveness of strategies for minimizing the risk from chemical contamination in the food supply (Lambe, 2002).

Poças, Maria De Fátima; Hogg, Timothy

209

Novel Weapons Testing: Are Invasive Plants More Chemically Defended than Native Plants?  

PubMed Central

Background Exotic species have been hypothesized to successfully invade new habitats by virtue of possessing novel biochemistry that repels native enemies. Despite the pivotal long-term consequences of invasion for native food-webs, to date there are no experimental studies examining directly whether exotic plants are any more or less biochemically deterrent than native plants to native herbivores. Methodology/Principal Findings In a direct test of this hypothesis using herbivore feeding assays with chemical extracts from 19 invasive plants and 21 co-occurring native plants, we show that invasive plant biochemistry is no more deterrent (on average) to a native generalist herbivore than extracts from native plants. There was no relationship between extract deterrence and length of time since introduction, suggesting that time has not mitigated putative biochemical novelty. Moreover, the least deterrent plant extracts were from the most abundant species in the field, a pattern that held for both native and exotic plants. Analysis of chemical deterrence in context with morphological defenses and growth-related traits showed that native and exotic plants had similar trade-offs among traits. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our results suggest that particular invasive species may possess deterrent secondary chemistry, but it does not appear to be a general pattern resulting from evolutionary mismatches between exotic plants and native herbivores. Thus, fundamentally similar processes may promote the ecological success of both native and exotic species.

Lind, Eric M.; Parker, John D.

2010-01-01

210

Neurosciences and research on chemical weapons of mass destruction in Nazi Germany.  

PubMed

As a side-product of industrial research, new chemical nerve agents (Tabun, Sarin, Soman) superior to those available to the Allied Forces were discovered in Nazi Germany. These agents were never used by Germany, even though they were produced at a large scale. This article explores the toxicological and physiological research into the mechanisms of action of these novel nerve agents, and the emergence of military research objectives in neurophysiological and neurotoxicological research. Recently declassified Allied military intelligence files document secret nerve agent research, leading to intensified research on anticholinesterase agents in the peripheral and the central nervous system. The article discusses the involvement of IG Farben scientists, educational, medical and military institutions, and of Nobel Prize laureate Richard Kuhn, director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research. PMID:16887760

Schmaltz, Florian

2006-09-01

211

On-line high-performance liquid chromatography–ultraviolet–nuclear magnetic resonance method of the markers of nerve agents for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details an on-flow liquid chromatography–ultraviolet–nuclear magnetic resonance (LC–UV–NMR) method for the retrospective detection and identification of alkyl alkylphosphonic acids (AAPAs) and alkylphosphonic acids (APAs), the markers of the toxic nerve agents for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Initially, the LC–UV–NMR parameters were optimized for benzyl derivatives of the APAs and AAPAs. The optimized parameters include stationary

Avik Mazumder; Hemendra K. Gupta; Prabhat Garg; Rajeev Jain; Devendra K. Dubey

2009-01-01

212

Arsenic content in water and bottom sediments in the areas of chemical weapon dumps in the Bornholm basin of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are considered on samples taken during the 2006–2008 expeditions from the water and bottom sediments in the areas where\\u000a chemical weapon was dumped in the Bornholm basin. Arsenic concentration is detected with the X-ray fluorescence analysis and\\u000a inversion voltammetry. Results are under consideration of the enhanced arsenic content and their relation to arsenic-bearing\\u000a toxic agents. It is pointed out

I. S. Khalikov; Yu. I. Savin

2011-01-01

213

A decontamination system for chemical weapons agents using a liquid solution on a solid sorbent.  

PubMed

A decontamination system for chemical warfare agents was developed and tested that combines a liquid decontamination reagent solution with solid sorbent particles. The components have fewer safety and environmental concerns than traditional chlorine bleach-based products or highly caustic solutions. The liquid solution, based on Decon Greentrade mark, has hydrogen peroxide and a carbonate buffer as active ingredients. The best solid sorbents were found to be a copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and n-lauryl methacrylate (Polytrap 6603 Adsorber); or an allyl methacrylate cross-linked polymer (Poly-Pore E200 Adsorber). These solids are human and environmentally friendly and are commonly used in cosmetics. The decontaminant system was tested for reactivity with pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Soman, GD), bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (Mustard, HD), and S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX) by using NMR Spectroscopy. Molybdate ion (MoO(4)(-2)) was added to the decontaminant to catalyze the oxidation of HD. The molybdate ion provided a color change from pink to white when the oxidizing capacity of the system was exhausted. The decontaminant was effective for ratios of agent to decontaminant of up to 1:50 for VX (t(1/2) < or = 4 min), 1:10 for HD (t(1/2) < 2 min with molybdate), and 1:10 for GD (t(1/2) < 2 min). The vapor concentrations of GD above the dry sorbent and the sorbent with decontamination solution were measured to show that the sorbent decreased the vapor concentration of GD. The E200 sorbent had the additional advantage of absorbing aqueous decontamination solution without the addition of an organic co-solvent such as isopropanol, but the rate depended strongly on mixing for HD. PMID:18524476

Waysbort, Daniel; McGarvey, David J; Creasy, William R; Morrissey, Kevin M; Hendrickson, David M; Durst, H Dupont

2008-04-29

214

AAAS Assessment of the Role of the Reliable Replacement Warhead in the US Nuclear Weapons Complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Association for the Advancement of Science sponsored a study of the role of the Reliable Replacement Warhead (RRW) in the US Nuclear Weapons Complex during the latter part of 2006. As the Chair of that study I will report our principal findings and recommendations. Our conclusions are based on the experience and knowledge of the committee members, the information available in numerous reports and related analyses, and on presentations and discussions with DOE/NNSA officials, staff members from the Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, and Sandia National Laboratories, and others with special expertise and perspectives.

Tarter, C. Bruce

2007-03-01

215

Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Terrorist Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weapons of mass destruction is a former Soviet military term which was euphemistically used to denote nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. It is now widely used, despite debate over its appropriateness, and its definition has broadened to include ra...

S. Bowman

2002-01-01

216

The Department of Defense`s Chemical Weapons Destruction Program. Hearing before the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, June 16, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The House hearing before the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources Subcommittee addressed the Department of Defense`s Chemical Weapons destruction program. The hearing focussed on the Department of Army`s program to destroy its stockpile of lethal chemical weapons located at eight locations in the United States and on Johnston Atoll in the Pacific. This program has been plaqued with continued delays, procedural shortcuts, and enormous cost overruns. In 1985, Congress directed the Army to destry the U.S. chemical weapons stockpile by 1995. Included is the General Accounting Office testimony on: Chemical Weapons Destruction: Issues related to environmental permitting and testing experience. Statements of Federal and State government officials and industry officials, along with statements and documents submitted for the record by environmental associations are included.

NONE

1993-12-31

217

Assessing the impact of Melendez-Diaz on the investigation and prosecution of biological weapons incidents.  

PubMed

In June 2009, the U.S. Supreme Court asserted in Melendez-Diaz v Massachusetts that the admission of a laboratory analyst's certificate to validate forensic evidence against a defendant violated the defendant's Sixth Amendment Confrontation Clause rights. The Court stated that if a prosecution wished to use forensic science evidence against a defendant, the plaintiff must ensure that an actual lab analyst could testify live before the court as to the nature of the laboratory certificate being presented against the defendant, in order to uphold a defendant's constitutional right to confront the adverse witnesses against him or her. The opinion itself, as well as dicta in both the majority and the dissenting opinions, has potential implications for the success of any future prosecutions of alleged biological weapons use involving microbial forensics. Not only does the Melendez-Diaz opinion create an added burden on laboratory investigators, but the case called into question the reliability of the use of forensic science in the courtroom. Analysts and policymakers should be aware of this ruling and any potential impact the Court may have on the ability to successfully prosecute a biological weapons use event. PMID:20028244

Bahr, Elizabeth L; Katz, Rebecca

2009-12-01

218

3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential...National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On...posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass...

2013-01-01

219

3 CFR - Continuation of National Emergency with Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Emergency with Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents...Emergency with Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14...and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2009-01-01

220

3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14...and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2010-01-01

221

Microsynthesis and gas chromatography/electron ionization mass spectrometric and tandem mass spectrometric analysis of cyclic alkylphosphonates for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

PubMed

We describe the microsynthesis and gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analysis of cyclic alkylphosphonates (CAPs), which are included in schedule 2B4 chemicals in the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). The reported microsynthesis is efficient in comparison with traditional synthesis. GC/MS and GC/tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis of a variety of CAPs revealed that their fragmentations were dominated by alpha-cleavages, alkene eliminations and hydrogen rearrangements. Based on the obtained mass spectra and precursor and product ion analysis of five-, six- and seven-membered cyclic alkylphosphonates, the proposed fragmentation routes rationalize most of the characteristic ions. PMID:18636421

Dubey, Devendra K; Pardasani, Deepak; Kanaujia, Pankaj K; Tak, Vijay; Gupta, Hemendra K

2008-08-01

222

Assessment of the fiscal year 1997 Department of Defense budget and program activities for domestic defense against weapons of mass destruction. Master`s thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines Department of Defense involvement in U.S. preparedness to manage the consequences of a nuclear, radiological, biological, or chemical terrorist attack against its cities. It analyzes the establishment and implementation of the Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act of 1996 which directed the Department of Defense to assist in the training of state and local emergency response

1997-01-01

223

Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attacks: An Analysis of the Preparedness of Hospitals for Managing Victims Affected by Chemical or Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction  

PubMed Central

The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York’s Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11) and the tragic incidents involving twenty-three people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be “ready” in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO) nationwide survey, our nation’s hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection and analysis. Six hypotheses were tested. Using a questionnaire survey, the availability of functional preparedness plans, specific preparedness education/training, decontamination facilities, surge capacity, pharmaceutical supplies, and laboratory diagnostic capabilities of hospitals were examined. The findings revealed that a majority (89.2%) of hospitals in the State of Mississippi have documented preparedness plans, provided specific preparedness education/training (89.2%), have dedicated facilities for decontamination (75.7%), and pharmaceutical plans and supplies (56.8%) for the treatment of victims in the event of a disaster involving chemical or biological WMD. However, over half (59.5%) of the hospitals could not increase surge capacity (supplies, equipment, staff, patient beds, etc.) and lack appropriate laboratory diagnostic services (91.9%) capable of analyzing and identifying WMD. In general, hospitals in the State of Mississippi, like a number of hospitals throughout the United States, are still not adequately prepared to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD which consequently may result in the loss of hundreds or even thousands of lives. Therefore, hospitals continue to require substantial resources at the local, State, and national levels in order to be “truly” prepared.

Bennett, Russell L.

2006-01-01

224

Chemical or biological terrorist attacks: an analysis of the preparedness of hospitals for managing victims affected by chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction.  

PubMed

The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York's Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11) and the tragic incidents involving twentythree people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be "ready" in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO) nationwide survey, our nation's hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection and analysis. Six hypotheses were tested. Using a questionnaire survey, the availability of functional preparedness plans, specific preparedness education/training, decontamination facilities, surge capacity, pharmaceutical supplies, and laboratory diagnostic capabilities of hospitals were examined. The findings revealed that a majority (89.2%) of hospitals in the State of Mississippi have documented preparedness plans, provided specific preparedness education/training (89.2%), have dedicated facilities for decontamination (75.7%), and pharmaceutical plans and supplies (56.8%) for the treatment of victims in the event of a disaster involving chemical or biological WMD. However, over half (59.5%) of the hospitals could not increase surge capacity (supplies, equipment, staff, patient beds, etc.) and lack appropriate laboratory diagnostic services (91.9%) capable of analyzing and identifying WMD. In general, hospitals in the State of Mississippi, like a number of hospitals throughout the United States, are still not adequately prepared to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD which consequently may result in the loss of hundreds or even thousands of lives. Therefore, hospitals continue to require substantial resources at the local, State, and national levels in order to be "truly" prepared. PMID:16823078

Bennett, Russell L

2006-03-01

225

Strategic weapons  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Defense Department's process for formulating its strategic weapons targeting policy and translating that policy into a nuclear war plan-the Single Integrated Operational Plan. GAO provides information on the relationship between the strategic nuclear targeting process and the determination of requirements for nuclear weapons and related delivery systems, level of civilian oversight, and categories and types of targets. These strategic nuclear weapons systems, commonly known as the triad, include land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles, submarine-launched ballistic missiles, and strategic bombers armed with nuclear bombs and missiles.

Not Available

1991-09-01

226

In silico assessment of chemical biodegradability.  

PubMed

Biodegradation is the principal environmental dissipation process. Due to a lack of comprehensive experimental data, high study cost and time-consuming, in silico approaches for assessing the biodegradable profiles of chemicals are encouraged and is an active current research topic. Here we developed in silico methods to estimate chemical biodegradability in the environment. At first 1440 diverse compounds tested under the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) protocol were used. Four different methods, namely support vector machine, k-nearest neighbor, naïve Bayes, and C4.5 decision tree, were used to build the combinatorial classification probability models of ready versus not ready biodegradability using physicochemical descriptors and fingerprints separately. The overall predictive accuracies of the best models were more than 80% for the external test set of 164 diverse compounds. Some privileged substructures were further identified for ready or not ready biodegradable chemicals by combining information gain and substructure fragment analysis. Moreover, 27 new predicted chemicals were selected for experimental assay through the Japanese MITI test protocols, which validated that all 27 compounds were predicted correctly. The predictive accuracies of our models outperform the commonly used software of the EPI Suite. Our study provided critical tools for early assessment of biodegradability of new organic chemicals in environmental hazard assessment. PMID:22332973

Cheng, Feixiong; Ikenaga, Yutaka; Zhou, Yadi; Yu, Yue; Li, Weihua; Shen, Jie; Du, Zheng; Chen, Lei; Xu, Congying; Liu, Guixia; Lee, Philip W; Tang, Yun

2012-02-29

227

EVALUATING THE THREAT OF BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS IN EASTERN AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological, chemical and nuclear weapons, often referred to as weapons of mass destruction (WMD), have captured global public attention in recent years. The war in Iraq in 2003 and 2004 was waged because some countries, led by the United States, believed Iraq had chemical and biological weapons and wished to prevent the transfer of these weapons to terrorists or terrorist

JAMES THUO NJUGUNA

2005-01-01

228

Biologically motivated models for chemical risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the risk associated with human exposure to environmental chemicals depends to a large extent on the ability to extrapolate from a particular range of exposure conditions in the test animal species to a very different range of exposure conditions in the human. One of the more promising tools for accomplishing this extrapolation is the biologically motivated pharmacokinetic\\/pharmacodynamic model. In

H. J. Clewell; M. E. Andersen

1989-01-01

229

To disarm [weapons abolition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes how recent events have brought a renewed urgency to halting the spread of massively destructive weapons, whether nuclear, chemical, or biological. The concern of the moment is that these deadly devices not fall into the hands of extremists. There may also be a growing sense that what will ultimately make the world a safer place is to

J. Kumagai

2002-01-01

230

Non?Lethal Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article gives an overview of non?lethal weapons (NLWs) programmes, the technologies involved, and their present and future deployment. It also looks at the risks and dangers involved with their use, and comments on possible chemical and biological warfare treaty violations. Increasing interest is being paid by military and related research communities to NLWs, and pressure is being put on

Nick Lewer

1995-01-01

231

Nuclear Weapon Burst Parameters Governing Urban Fire Vulnerability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The weapon burst parameters governing thermal effects from nuclear weapon explosions are reviewed as part of the OCD program for assessing urban vulnerability to fire from nuclear bursts. The most important burst parameters are weapon yield, burst height,...

R. E. Jones S. B. Martin R. H. Renner

1967-01-01

232

The assessment of radiation exposures in native American communities from nuclear weapons testing in Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Native Americans residing in a broad region downwind from the Nevada Test Site during the 1950s and 1960s received significant radiation exposures from nuclear weapons testing. Because of differences in diet, activities, and housing, their radiation exposures are only very imperfectly represented in the Department of Energy dose reconstructions. There are important missing pathways, including exposures to radioactive iodine from eating small game. The dose reconstruction model assumptions about cattle feeding practices across a year are unlikely to apply to the native communities as are other model assumptions about diet. Thus exposures from drinking milk and eating vegetables have not yet been properly estimated for these communities. Through consultations with members of the affected communities, these deficiencies could be corrected and the dose reconstruction extended to Native Americans. An illustration of the feasibility of extending the dose reconstruction is provided by a sample calculation to estimate radiation exposures to the thyroid from eating radio-iodine-contaminated rabbit thyroids after the Dedan test. The illustration is continued with a discussion of how the calculation results may be used to make estimates for other tests and other locations.

Frohmberg, E.; Goble, R.; Sanchez, V.; Quigley, D.

2000-02-01

233

Dynamic Analysis of Shoulder-Fired Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A recoil analysis to assess several recoil mitigating technologies applied to shoulder-fired weapons such as a grenade launcher or shotgun has been conducted. Parameters such as weapon weight, recoil impulse, recoil velocity and recoil energy were identif...

P. D. Benzkofer

1993-01-01

234

Application of cation-exchange solid-phase extraction for the analysis of amino alcohols from water and human plasma for verification of Chemical Weapons Convention.  

PubMed

The analysis of nitrogen containing amino alcohols, which are the precursors and degradation products of nitrogen mustards and nerve agent VX, constitutes an important aspect for verifying the compliance to the CWC (Chemical Weapons Convention). This work devotes on the development of solid-phase extraction method using silica- and polymer-based SCX (strong cation-exchange) and MCX (mixed-mode strong cation-exchange) cartridges for N,N-dialkylaminoethane-2-ols and alkyl N,N-diethanolamines, from water. The extracted analytes were analyzed by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) in the full scan and selected ion monitoring modes. The extraction efficiencies of SCX and MCX cartridges were compared, and results revealed that SCX performed better. Extraction parameters, such as loading capacity, extraction solvent, its volume, and washing solvent were optimized. Best recoveries were obtained using 2 mL methanol containing 10% NH(4)OH and limits of detection could be achieved up to 5 x 10(-3) microg mL(-1) in the selected ion monitoring mode and 0.01 microg mL(-1) in full scan mode. The method was successfully employed for the detection and identification of amino alcohol present in water sample sent by Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in the official proficiency tests. The method was also applied to extract the analytes from human plasma. The SCX cartridge showed good recoveries of amino alcohols from human plasma after protein precipitation. PMID:18282579

Kanaujia, Pankaj K; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Gupta, A K; Dubey, D K

2008-02-08

235

Soviet nuclear weapons policy  

SciTech Connect

This book assesses both Western and Soviet literature on Soviet nuclear weapons policy. The author discusses the development of the various Western schools of interpretation and their effect on U.S. policy and provides an introduction to Soviet sources (Russian language as well as translated material). Analytical chapters are followed by comprehensive annotated listings of a broad range of civilian and military publications.

Green, W.C.

1987-01-01

236

Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material  

SciTech Connect

The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and pending successful test results, may be incorporated in the various munitions assessment systems in the future. These systems are intended to enhance CWM fill materiel identification, agent air monitoring, agent or agent degradation product detection by surface analysis, and real-time x-ray capabilities.

A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

1999-05-27

237

Nuclear weapon reliability evaluation methodology  

SciTech Connect

This document provides an overview of those activities that are normally performed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide nuclear weapon reliability evaluations for the Department of Energy. These reliability evaluations are first provided as a prediction of the attainable stockpile reliability of a proposed weapon design. Stockpile reliability assessments are provided for each weapon type as the weapon is fielded and are continuously updated throughout the weapon stockpile life. The reliability predictions and assessments depend heavily on data from both laboratory simulation and actual flight tests. An important part of the methodology are the opportunities for review that occur throughout the entire process that assure a consistent approach and appropriate use of the data for reliability evaluation purposes.

Wright, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-06-01

238

Survey and assessment of chemical heat pumps  

SciTech Connect

The vapor-compression heat pump is now recognized as a means of reclaiming and recycling waste energy from industrial processes. Chemical heat pumps (CHPs) offer good promise for extending the achievable range of temperature lift for heat recovery at a cost below that of prime fuel. This document describes the physical principles of CHPs and their operating characteristics and presents a worldwide collation and bibliography of current CHP technology. Two major types of CHPs are identified on the basis of whether the driving force comes from: (1) heats of chemical reaction (HRCHP) or (2) heats of phase interaction (sorption, dilution, etc.), labeled collectively heat of mixing (HMCHP). The advantages, disadvantages, and desirable characteristics of various current approaches to CHP technology, and particularly of the working media pairs that perform the HMCHP energy cycle, are assessed. The future for industrial CHP applications in the United States lies in: (1) identification of specific examples of major applications; (2) improved high-temperature working media; and (3) cycles that achieve economic competitiveness via improved internal efficiencies and long-term operating reliability. Recommmendations for future CHP research are proposed for HMCHPs: these include container material and corrosion inhibitor research and design and feasibility assessment of promising concepts. For HRCHPs, which are still in the conceptual stage, the list is similar, with emphasis on identification of new chemical reaction sequences, laboratory characterization, and catalyst research.

Kaplan, S.I.; Ally, M.R.; Chappell, R.N.; Friedel, W.; Hanna, W.T.; Huntley, W.R.; Krause, H.H.; Perez-Blanco, H.; Rebello, W.J.; Sanders, R.D. Sr.

1985-11-01

239

77 FR 74678 - Chemical Security Assessment Tool (CSAT)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. DHS-2012-0058] Chemical Security Assessment Tool...to DHS/NPPD/IP/ISCD Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism...received will be posted without alteration at http://www.regulations...or financial information, Chemical-terrorism...

2012-12-17

240

Prevention of WMD Proliferation and Terrorism, Report Card: An Assessment of the U.S. Government's Progress in Protecting the United States from Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

OVERVIEW: In December 2008, the Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism released a unanimous threat assessment: Unless the world community acts decisively and with great urgency, it is more likely than not t...

2010-01-01

241

Verifying a nuclear weapon`s response to radiation environments  

SciTech Connect

The process described in the paper is being applied as part of the design verification of a replacement component designed for a nuclear weapon currently in the active stockpile. This process is an adaptation of the process successfully used in nuclear weapon development programs. The verification process concentrates on evaluating system response to radiation environments, verifying system performance during and after exposure to radiation environments, and assessing system survivability.

Dean, F.F.; Barrett, W.H.

1998-05-01

242

Exposure Assessment of Chemicals from Packaging Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of chemicals may enter our food supply, by means of intentional or unintentional addition, at different stages of\\u000a the food chain. These chemicals include food additives, pesticide residues, environmental contaminants, mycotox-ins, flavoring\\u000a substances, and micronutrients. Packaging systems and other food-contact materials are also a source of chemicals contaminating\\u000a food products and beverages. Monitoring exposure to these chemicals has

Maria de Fátima Poças; Timothy Hogg

2009-01-01

243

On-line high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-nuclear magnetic resonance method of the markers of nerve agents for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

PubMed

This paper details an on-flow liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-UV-NMR) method for the retrospective detection and identification of alkyl alkylphosphonic acids (AAPAs) and alkylphosphonic acids (APAs), the markers of the toxic nerve agents for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Initially, the LC-UV-NMR parameters were optimized for benzyl derivatives of the APAs and AAPAs. The optimized parameters include stationary phase C(18), mobile phase methanol:water 78:22 (v/v), UV detection at 268nm and (1)H NMR acquisition conditions. The protocol described herein allowed the detection of analytes through acquisition of high quality NMR spectra from the aqueous solution of the APAs and AAPAs with high concentrations of interfering background chemicals which have been removed by preceding sample preparation. The reported standard deviation for the quantification is related to the UV detector which showed relative standard deviations (RSDs) for quantification within +/-1.1%, while lower limit of detection upto 16mug (in mug absolute) for the NMR detector. Finally the developed LC-UV-NMR method was applied to identify the APAs and AAPAs in real water samples, consequent to solid phase extraction and derivatization. The method is fast (total experiment time approximately 2h), sensitive, rugged and efficient. PMID:19481219

Mazumder, Avik; Gupta, Hemendra K; Garg, Prabhat; Jain, Rajeev; Dubey, Devendra K

2009-05-13

244

New Weapon Proposal: Towed Laydown Weapon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proposal is made for a delivery system which will allow delivery of a laydown weapon at altitudes of 100 feet or lower. The weapon would be towed behind the delivery aircraft. At time of release the weapon is given an upward component of velocity.

Claassen

1957-01-01

245

Reality theory: A means to control the public`s fear of chemical weapons use. Research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 20 March 1995 terrorists released the chemical nerve agent sarin into the Tokyo subway system, killing 10 commuters and changing the public`s attitude about the most basic aspect of their lives: the air they breathe and the daily ritual of their commute to work. This is the new threat the United States must face: terrorism and its attack on

Pate

1997-01-01

246

Preliminary Chemical Aging and Lifetime Assessment for High Density S5370  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary lifetime assessment of S5370 stress cushions has been performed. Data from three sources were obtained and reviewed to perform this assessment. The sources were the following: (1) the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Honeywell FM&T Kansas City Plant's 2-year and 9-year accelerated aging studies; (2) a large selection of weapon surveillance return data; (3) laboratory experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Honeywell FM&T Kansas City Plant on artificially aged material. The general conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) There is an inherently large degree of structural and chemical heterogeneity in S5370 cushions that complicates lifetime assessments; (2) Current surveillance testing procedures are inadequate for providing insight into aging trends; (3) LANL PMAP data suggests a 60 year load retention of greater than 40%; however, this is for low density versions and extrapolation to high density must be performed with caution and a new set of testing is recommended; (4) Results of chemical aging assessments suggest that radiation damage is minimal at stockpile relevant doses, thermal degradation leads to compression set due to disentanglement of the network structure over time and a negligible amount of chain scissioning at relevant temperatures. The compression set is accelerated by exposure to radiation; (5) In the absence of further testing, a 60-year load retention of greater than 40% is estimated.

Maxwell, R S; Chinn, S

2003-11-24

247

Chemical Risk Assessment in Toxicological Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The discipline of toxicology is concerned with the health risks of human exposure to chemicals. According to the Paracelsus’\\u000a paradigm toxicology is charged with describing the adverse effects of chemicals in a qualitative sense, and with evaluating\\u000a them quantitatively by determining how much of a chemical is required to produce a substance specific. Taken together the\\u000a intrinsic properties of an

Helmut Greim

248

Using chemical categories to fill data gaps in hazard assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazard assessments of chemicals have been limited by the availability of test data and the time needed to evaluate the test data. While available data may be inadequate for the majority of industrial chemicals, the body of existing knowledge for most hazards is large enough to permit reliable estimates to be made for untested chemicals without additional animal testing. We

K. van Leeuwen; Terry W. Schultz; T. Henry; B. Diderich; G. D. Veith

2009-01-01

249

Retrospective exposure assessment in a chemical research and development facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this exposure assessment was to reconstruct cumulative historical exposures for workers who have been exposed to multiple chemicals and chemical groups to better understand a cluster of brain cancers within a research and development lab. Chemicals of interest, including acrylates, bis-chloromethyl ether (BCME), chloromethyl methyl ether (CMME), isothiazolones and nitrosoamines, were selected on the basis of the

Yu-Cheng Chen; Gurumurthy Ramachandran; Bruce H. Alexander; Jeffrey H. Mandel

250

Assessment and Evaluation of Risks to Health from Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asbestos, thalidomide, and smog in the environment have all given spectacular evidence of the power of man-made chemical substances to harm people. Phenobarbitone, paracetamol, DDT and penicillin are chemicals that have given large benefits for small risk. Epidemiological evidence allows us to consider dose, response and cost for some of these. For new chemicals we try to assess risk before

A. E. M. McLean

1981-01-01

251

Environmental Effects of Weapons Technology, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of articles includes a general account of the environmental effects of modern weapons technology, a selection of news reports demonstrating the peacetime hazards of chemical and biological weapons, data on the physiological effects of the most common chemical weapons, a discussion of the hazards of biological weapons, a report of…

McClintock, Michael; And Others

252

New Versus Classic Approaches for Chemical Risk Assessment and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the public has become increasingly aware of the presence of harmful chemicals in our environment. Many people\\u000a express concerns about chemicals and other foreign substances in food, in drinking water, and toxic pollutants in the air.\\u000a Exposure and risk assessment of chemical environmental pollution have been widely studied. Risk assessment provides a systematic\\u000a approach for characterizing the

Mahmoud A. Hassanien

253

Weather modeling for hazard and consequence assessment operations during the 2006 Winter Olympic Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consequence assessment (CA) operations are those processes that attempt to mitigate negative impacts of incidents involving hazardous materials such as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high explosive (CBRNE) agents, facilities, weapons, or transportation. Incident types range from accidental spillage of chemicals at\\/en route to\\/from a manufacturing plant, to the deliberate use of radiological or chemical material as a weapon in

P. Hayes; J. L. Trigg; D. Stauffer; G. Hunter; J. McQueen

2006-01-01

254

Chemical Dependency Regional Needs Assessment: Northeastern Minnesota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Minnesota Model of Chemical Dependency Treatment, which evolved from a combination of the grassroots Alcoholics Anonymous movement and the State Mental Health Services in the 1960s has made Minnesota an international leader in chemical dependency treatment efforts. Northeastern Minnesota has shared this reputation with the state. In spite of…

Stone, Marylee

255

Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT) - an interactive training tool for {open_quotes}challenge inspections{close_quotes} under the chemical weapons convention  

SciTech Connect

The on-site inspection provisions in many current and proposed arms control agreements require extensive preparation and training on the part of both the Inspection Teams and the Inspected Parties. Current training techniques include lectures, table-top inspections, and practice inspections. The Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT), an interactive computer training tool, increases the utility of table-top inspections. Under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) challenge inspections are short-notice inspections that may occur anywhere, anytime, and with no right of refusal. The time interval between notice of intent to inspect a facility and the arrival of inspectors at the facility may be as short as 72 hours. Therefore, advance training is important. ACE-IT is used for training both the Inspection Team (inspector) and the Inspected Party (host) to conduct a hypothetical challenge inspection under the CWC. An exercise moderator controls the exercise. The training covers all of the events in the challenge inspection regime, from initial notification of an inspection through post-inspection activities. But the primary emphasis of the training tool is on conducting the inspection itself, and in particular, the concept of managed access. Managed access is used to assure the inspectors that the facility is in compliance with the CWC, while protecting sensitive information that is not related to the CWC.

Dobranich, P.R.

1997-08-01

256

Thermally assisted methylation and subsequent silylation of scheduled acids of chemical weapon convention for on-site analysis and its comparison with the other methods of methylation.  

PubMed

On-site verification of the chemical weapon convention (CWC) requires provision for the detection and identification of alkyl phosphonic acids as well as some organic acids that are amenable to GC-MS only after derivatisation. Various derivatisation methods have been used for the identification of these acids and for many cases the methyl derivatives are less prone to artifacts possibly leading to false positive identification. Methylation with diazomethane is widely used but, especially for on-site analysis it has limitation due to the potential explosive and health hazards. Other methylation procedures like trimethylsilyldiazomethane (TMSD), thermally assisted methylation (TAM) by trimethylphenylammonium hydroxide (TMPAH) and trimethylsulfonium hydroxide (TMSH) are evaluated. Data for methylation for the alkyl alkylphosphonic acids, alkylphosphonic acids and benzilic acid are reported. In addition, TAM followed by the silylation in the same sample without any additional sample preparation is also reported. Several parameters such as solvent, temperature, amount of reagents, time, etc. were studied. The two commercially available reagents namely, TMPAH and TMSH for TAM and subsequent silylation were evaluated. The LOD with TMPAH was below 0.5 ng per injection since all of the acids were detected by GC-MS with the S/N of >3 in full scan mode by AMDIS and their inter day relative standard deviation was from 4.7% to 10.8%. PMID:21215410

Amphaisri, Kanchanavadee; Palit, Meehir; Mallard, Gary

2010-12-23

257

Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas

T. L. Donaldson; O. L. Culberson

1983-01-01

258

ASSESSING MATERNAL AND FETAL EXPOSURE TO CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

This data will fill key gaps in our understanding of exposure before birth and capacity to detoxify Bisphenol A (BPA) and could inform and strengthen future studies of the effects of BPA and other environmental chemicals on development. ...

259

ASSESSING THE BIODEGRADATION OF SEDIMENT ASSOCIATED CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Investigations of the fate of xenobiotic chemicals in laboratory systems that accommodate the microbial ecology of sediments are described. These systems permit examination of biochemical activities in the sediment bed with particular emphasis at the sediment-water interface. Sed...

260

Tactical Requirements Impact on Avionics/Weapon System Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The complexity of tactical weapon delivery has been greatly increased by the advent of new weapons, the enormity of enemy air defenses and the awesome capability of new digital technology. However, careful assessment of the tactical requirements becomes e...

T. E. Spink J. F. Patton

1983-01-01

261

Solid Phase Microextraction for the Analysis of Nuclear Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is a compendium of answers to commonly asked questions about solid phase microextraction as it relates to the analysis of nuclear weapons. We have also included a glossary of terms associated with this analytical method as well as pertinent weapons engineering terminology. Microextraction is a new collection technique being developed to nonintrusively sample chemicals from weapon headspace gases

2001-01-01

262

Weapons of Mass Destruction Transfers in AsiaAn Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weapons of mass destruction are spreading in the Asian region. Five countries in the region have nuclear weapons while some more are in the process of acquiring such capabilities. Several of them either have or are in the process of acquiring capabilities in ballistic missiles, chemical and biological weapons or technologies. Vertical or horizontal transfers to some extent have helped

Srikanth Kondapalli

2008-01-01

263

[Gas weapons as a variation on gas-propelled firearms].  

PubMed

Discusses the motion of gas weapons as defence weapons, including the group of gas barrel guns. Characterizes its design and ammunition. Presents arguments in favor of referring gas barrel guns to firearm devices. Shows the place of gas barrel guns in the general classification of ejecting devices and offers a classification of civil chemical weapons. PMID:8848809

Isakov, V D; Babakhanian, R V; Kuznetsov, Iu D; Katkov, I D; Dolinski?, V E

264

Combating the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reveals the growing threat posed to all countries by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Discusses the international effort combating this proliferation including the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties, Biological Weapons Convention, and Chemical Weapons Convention. Also considers regional arms…

Jenkins, Bonnie

1997-01-01

265

Assessment of the fiscal year 1997 Department of Defense budget and program activities for domestic defense against weapons of mass destruction. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis examines Department of Defense involvement in U.S. preparedness to manage the consequences of a nuclear, radiological, biological, or chemical terrorist attack against its cities. It analyzes the establishment and implementation of the Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act of 1996 which directed the Department of Defense to assist in the training of state and local emergency response agencies involved in consequence management activities. The historical analysis focuses on the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, major terrorist incidents since 1993, international standards, and legislative and executive efforts undertaken to combat terrorism up to 1996. The $150 million Nunn Lugar Domenici amendment to the FY-97 National Defense Authorization Bill is examined in detail from introduction on the Senate floor to eventual passage and enactment. Problems and policy issues associated with resourcing and implementing the resulting Domestic Preparedness Program are treated. Although the DoD was given responsibility for implementing city training, an interagency effort ensued involving the Public Health Service, Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Energy, and others. Potential weaknesses may materialize due to several characteristics of the Domestic Preparedness Program, including its novelty and uniqueness, the unorthodox legislative process by which it was established, and its complex organizational structure and temporary nature.

Guenther, G.R.

1997-12-01

266

Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Terrorist Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The continuing possibility of terrorist attacks using nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons is an ongoing concern in the national security policy arena in the face of a clear trend among terrorists to inflict greater numbers of casualties. Until the an...

S. Bowman

2002-01-01

267

Process improvement to the inspection readiness plan in chemical weapons convention challenge inspections. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis identified current Information Technology initiatives to help improve the Navy`s Inspection Readiness Plan for Chemical Warfare Convention (CWC) Challenge Inspection. The CWC is an intensive inspection. The Challenge Inspection allows for a team of international inspectors to inspect a naval facility suspected of violating the CWC on very short notice. This thesis begins with a review of the CWC Challenge Inspection timeline. It then describes the Navy`s Inspection Readiness Plan for CWC Challenge Inspections as well as the Navy Tiger Team that is sent to naval facilities to assist the Commanding Officer and base personnel during inspections. One of the initiatives evaluated by this analysis is the use of videoconferencing. To ascertain the feasibility of using videoconferencing in the CWC Challenge Inspection process, this thesis reviews the current videoconferencing systems and standards, and the results of a questionnaire that was sent to various naval commands. This thesis concludes with recommendations for inclusion of videoconferencing and various other Information Technology initiatives in the CWC Challenge Inspection process.

Triplett, W.M.

1997-09-01

268

Enhanced detectability of fluorinated derivatives of N, N-dialkylamino alcohols and precursors of nitrogen mustards by gas chromatography coupled to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis for verification of chemical weapons convention  

Microsoft Academic Search

N,N-Dialkylamino alcohols, N-methyldiethanolamine, N-ethyldiethanolamine and triethanolamine are the precursors of VX type nerve agents and three different nitrogen mustards respectively. Their detection and identification is of paramount importance for verification analysis of chemical weapons convention. GC–FTIR is used as complimentary technique to GC–MS analysis for identification of these analytes. One constraint of GC–FTIR, its low sensitivity, was overcome by converting

Prabhat Garg; Ajay Purohit; Vijay K. Tak; D. K. Dubey

2009-01-01

269

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis of N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides and trimethylsilyl derivatives of N,N-dialkylaminoethan-2-ols for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

PubMed

Gas chromatography/electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) of N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides (DAAECls) and trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of N,N-dialkylaminoethan-2-ols (DAAEAs) has been carried out. GC/EI-MS data of these compounds are of importance for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Based on these EI mass spectra, generalized fragmentation routes are proposed that rationalize most of the characteristic ions. PMID:16773673

Gupta, Arvinda K; Pardasani, Deepak; Kanaujia, Pankaj K; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, Devendra K

2006-01-01

270

RESRAD-CHEM: A computer code for chemical risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

RESRAD-CHEM is a computer code developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate chemically contaminated sites. The code is designed to predict human health risks from multipathway exposure to hazardous chemicals and to derive cleanup criteria for chemically contaminated soils. The method used in RESRAD-CHEM is based on the pathway analysis method in the RESRAD code and follows the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) guidance on chemical risk assessment. RESRAD-CHEM can be used to evaluate a chemically contaminated site and, in conjunction with the use of the RESRAD code, a mixed waste site.

Cheng, J.J.; Yu, C.; Hartmann, H.M.; Jones, L.G.; Biwer, B.M.; Dovel, E.S.

1993-10-01

271

Fragmentation energy index for universalization of fragmentation energy in ion trap mass spectrometers for the analysis of chemical weapon convention related chemicals by atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.  

PubMed

The use of mass spectra generated at 70 eV in electron ionization (EI) as a universal standard for EI has helped in the generation of searchable library databases and had a profound influence on the analytical applications of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), similarly for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), suggesting a novel method to normalize the collisional energy for the universalization of fragmentation energy for the analysis of Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC)-related chemicals by atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (API-MS(n)) using three-dimensional (3D) ion trap instruments. For normalizing fragmentation energy a "fragmentation energy index" (FEI) is proposed which is an arbitrary scale based on the fact of specific MS/MS fragmentation obtained at different collisional energies for the reference chemicals which are not CWC scheduled compounds. FEI 6 for the generation of an MS(n) library-searchable mass spectral database is recommended. PMID:19331429

Palit, Meehir; Mallard, Gary

2009-04-01

272

DRILLING MUD ASSESSMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSIS REFERENCE VOLUME  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents concentrations of specific metals and hydrocarbons in eleven drilling fluids (muds) taken from operating gas and oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico. Each drilling fluid was analyzed chemically for heavy metal and hydrocarbon content in three distinct phases: (1) ...

273

Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from

Sloss

1990-01-01

274

Risk assessment of chemicals: What about children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In regulatory toxicology there is increased awareness and concern that\\u000achildren and adults may differ in their susceptibility to xenobiotics. \\u000aIn this report a concise overview of the relevant data on the differences\\u000abetween adults and children with respect to the kinetics, dynamics and\\u000aexposure to chemicals is presented and adequacy of currently used\\u000atoxicological tests for regulatory purposes is

Wolterink G; Piersma AH; Engelen JGM van

2007-01-01

275

CONCEPT OF PROGNOSTIC MODEL ASSESSMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICAL FATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Prognostic assessment provides information on environmental behavior of chemicals when no direct information exists. The utility of this method of analysis depends on the way in which the prognostic modeling tools are used. When the environment and the properties of the chemical ...

276

ASSESSING THE NEUROTOXIC POTENTIAL OF CHEMICALS - A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Since 1981, the development of methodology to assess the neurotoxic potential of chemicals has been a high priority within the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). ollowing the completion of an in-depth review of the scientific principles and methods for the assessm...

277

Titan's Interior Chemical Composition: A Thermochemical Assessment*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the interior composition of Titan using thermal chemical equilibrium calculations that are valid to high pressures and temperatures. The equations of state are based on exponential-6 fluid theory and have been validated against experimental data up to a few Mbars in pressure and approximately 20000K in temperature. In addition to CHNO molecules, we account for multi-phases of carbon, water and a variety of metals such as Al and Fe, and their oxides. With these fluid equations of state, chemical equilibrium is calculated for a set of product species. As the temperature and pressure evolves for increasing depth in the interior, the chemical equilibrium shifts. We assume that Titan is initially composed of comet material, which we assume to be solar, except for hydrogen, which we take to be depleted by a factor 1/690. We find that a significant amount of nitrogen is in the form of n2, rather than nh3. Moreover, above 12 kbars, as is the interior pressure of Titan, a significant amount of the carbon is in the form of graphite, rather than co2 and ch4. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding the atmospheric and surface composition of Titan. • This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

Howard, Michael; Zaug, J. M.; Khare, B. N.; McKay, C. P.

2007-10-01

278

Assessing Chemical Retention Process Controls in Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small ponds are a ubiquitous component of the landscape and have earned a reputation as effective chemical retention devices. The most common characterization of pond chemical retention is the retention coefficient, Ri= ([Ci]inflow-[Ci] outflow)/[Ci]inflow. However, this parameter varies widely in one pond with time and among ponds. We have re-evaluated literature reported (Borden et al., 1998) monthly average retention coefficients for two ponds in North Carolina. Employing a simple first order model that includes water residence time, the first order process responsible for species removal have been separated from the water residence time over which it acts. Assuming the rate constant for species removal is constant within the pond (arguable at least), the annual average rate constant for species removal is generated. Using the annual mean rate constant for species removal and monthly water residence times results in a significantly enhanced predictive capability for Davis Pond during most months of the year. Predictive ability remains poor in Davis Pond during winter/unstratified periods when internal loading of P and N results in low to negative chemical retention. Predictive ability for Piedmont Pond (which has numerous negative chemical retention periods) is improved but not to the same extent as Davis Pond. In Davis Pond, the rate constant for sediment removal (each month) is faster than the rate constant for water and explains the good predictability for sediment retention. However, the removal rate constant for P and N is slower than the removal rate constant for sediment (longer water column residence time for P,N than for sediment). Thus sedimentation is not an overall control on nutrient retention. Additionally, the removal rate constant for P is slower than for TOC (TOC is not the dominate removal process for P) and N is removed slower than P (different in pond controls). For Piedmont Pond, sediment removal rate constants are slower than the removal rate constant for water indicating significant sediment resuspension episodes. It appears that these sediment resuspension events are aperiodic and control the loading and the chemical retention capability of Piedmont Pond for N,P,TOC. These calculated rate constants reflect the differing internal loading processes for each component and suggest means and mechanisms for the use of ponds in water quality management.

Torgersen, T.; Branco, B.; John, B.

2002-05-01

279

75 FR 4833 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Assessment Questionnaire-Voluntary Chemical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Programs Directorate; Assessment Questionnaire--Voluntary Chemical Assessment Tool...new collection request, Assessment Questionnaire--Voluntary Chemical Assessment Tool...be prompted with the VCAT Assessment questionnaire and will answer various questions...

2010-01-29

280

Quality of life in chemical warfare survivors with ophthalmologic injuries: the first results form Iran Chemical Warfare Victims Health Assessment Study  

PubMed Central

Background Iraq used chemical weapons extensively against the Iranians during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988). The aim of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQOL) in people who had ophthalmologic complications due to the sulfur mustard gas exposure during the war. Methods The Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF) database indicated that there were 196 patients with severe ophthalmologic complications due to chemical weapons exposure. Of these, those who gave consent (n = 147) entered into the study. Quality of life was measured using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and scores were compared to those of the general public. In addition logistic regression analysis was performed to indicate variables that contribute to physical and mental health related quality of life. Results The mean age of the patients was 44.8 (SD = 8.7) ranging from 21 to 75 years. About one-third of the cases (n= 50) reported exposure to chemical weapons more than once. The mean exposure duration to sulfur mustard gas was 21.6 years (SD = 1.2). The lowest scores on the SF-36 subscales were found to be: the role physical and the general health. Quality of life in chemical warfare victims who had ophthalmologic problems was significantly lower than the general public (P < 0.001). The results obtained from logistic regression analysis indicated that those who did not participate in sport activities suffer from a poorer physical health (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.36 to 6.30, P = 0.006). The analysis also showed that poor mental health was associated with longer time since exposure (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.39, P = 0.03) and lower education (OR = 3.03, 95% CI = 1.21 to 7.56, P = 0.01). Conclusion The study findings suggest that chemical warfare victims with ophthalmologic complications suffer from poor health related quality of life. It seems that the need for provision of health and support for this population is urgent. In addition, further research is necessary to measure health related quality of life in victims with different types of disabilities in order to support and enhance quality of life among this population.

Mousavi, Batool; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Montazeri, Ali

2009-01-01

281

Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical "Chemical" Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security, and way of life. One particular type of CI--that relating to chemicals--constitutes both an important element of our nation's infrastructure and a particularly attractive set of potential targets. This is primarily because of the large quantities of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) it employs in various operations and because of the essential economic functions it serves. This study attempts to minimize some of the ambiguities that presently impede chemical infrastructure threat assessments by providing new insight into the key motivational factors that affect terrorist organizations propensity to attack chemical facilities. Prepared as a companion piece to the Center for Nonproliferation Studies August 2004 study--''Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure''--it investigates three overarching research questions: (1) why do terrorists choose to attack chemical-related infrastructure over other targets; (2) what specific factors influence their target selection decisions concerning chemical facilities; and (3) which, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack chemical infrastructure targets? The study involved a multi-pronged research design, which made use of four discrete investigative techniques to answer the above questions as comprehensively as possible. These include: (1) a review of terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist interest in targeting chemical facilities; (2) the preparation of case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played a significant role in leading some terrorist groups to attack chemical facilities; (3) an examination of data from the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITIC) to further illuminate the nature of terrorist attacks against chemical facilities to date; and (4) the refinement of the DECIDe--the Determinants Effecting Critical Infrastructure Decisions--analytical framework to make the factors and dynamics identified by the study more ''usable'' in future efforts to assess terrorist intentions to target chemical-related infrastructure.

Ackerman, G; Bale, J; Moran, K

2004-12-14

282

Methods for Assessing Exposure to Chemical Substances. Volume 5. Methods for Assessing Exposure to Chemical Substances in Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report, one of a series of reports concerning exposure assessment, describes methods for estimating exposure to chemical substances via drinking water. The report is organized to reflect the framework or flow of required information. Section 2 provide...

D. A. Dixon S. H. Nacht G. H. Dixon P. Jennings T. A. Faha

1985-01-01

283

On-flow pulsed field gradient heteronuclear correlation spectrometry in off-line LC-SPE-NMR analysis of chemicals related to the chemical weapons convention.  

PubMed

Hyphenation of liquid chromatography with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (LC-NMR) is a useful technique in the analysis of complex samples. However, application of on-flow 1H NMR spectrometry during the LC-NMR analysis usually suffers from high intensity of eluent resonances. The poor dynamic range can be improved either with use of deuterated eluents or with various signal suppression schemes. Deuterated eluents are expensive, and peak-selective signal suppression schemes are often unsatisfactory when detection of chemicals at low concentration is needed. If the analytes have a common heteronucleus, on-flow pulsed field gradient heteronuclear correlation spectrometry can offer several benefits. The analytes can be monitored selectively, while the intense nondeuterated eluent and impurity background can be effectively eliminated. In our study, on-flow one-dimensional (1D) 1H-31P heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) spectrometry was utilized in the analysis of characteristic organophosphorus degradation products of nerve agents sarin and soman during chromatographic separation. These chemicals were not detectable by UV, so their retention times were monitored using on-flow 1D 1H-31P HSQC. This enabled application of LC-NMR combined with solid-phase extraction (LC-SPE-NMR) in analysis of these organophosphorus chemicals in an alkaline decontamination solution. The analytes were extracted from the SPE cartridges with deuterated eluent, and the off-line NMR analysis was performed using a mass-sensitive microcoil probe head. The used on-flow 1D 1H-31P HSQC approach offered a high dynamic range and good detection limit (ca. 10 microg/55 nmol) with a high sampling frequency (1 point per 2 s) in the acquired pseudo-two-dimensional spectrum. No significant impurity background was present in the off-line NMR samples, and identification of the extracted analytes was straightforward. PMID:19128090

Koskela, Harri; Ervasti, Mia; Björk, Heikki; Vanninen, Paula

2009-02-01

284

Chemical risk assessment - the Navy occupational approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order for the Department of the Navy to withstand tests of its ability to manage occupational hazards, the essentials of risk assessment and risk management have been practiced for some time. A recent literature review indicates numerous citations dating from 1925 to the present.

Pierce

1993-01-01

285

78 FR 59679 - Antimony Trioxide TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunity To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9400-5] Antimony Trioxide TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunity...Substances Control Act (TSCA) chemical risk assessment, ``TSCA Workplan Chemical Risk Assessment for Antimony Trioxide.'' EPA will...

2013-09-27

286

A design assessment system to protect buildings from internal chemical and biological threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent world events involving chemical and biological (CB) attacks within critical infrastructure have highlighted a potential threat to buildings and their occupants. The March 1995 release of sarin gas in a Tokyo subway and the September 2001 mailing of letters containing anthrax spores have demonstrated the viability of using CB agents as weapons on critical infrastructure. These two attacks resulted

Victor Masano Nakano

2008-01-01

287

Biological weapons--the poor man`s nuke. Research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological warfare is one leg of the triad of weapons of mass destruction (coupled with nuclear and chemical weapons). Biological weapons pose a significant threat to the United States military and public population across the spectrum of conflict. There is, however, little common knowledge of the insidious yet devastating potential of these weapons. This paper is written for the lay

B. R. Schneider; T. N. Mayer

1995-01-01

288

Curriculum assessment as a direct tool in ABET outcomes assessment in a chemical engineering programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical engineering programme at the United Arab Emirates University is designed to fulfil the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) (A–K) EC2000 criteria. The Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering has established a well-defined process for outcomes assessment for the chemical engineering programme in order to ensure that its graduates achieve the programme educational objectives. Different direct and

Basim Abu-Jdayil; Hazim Al-Attar

2010-01-01

289

Combining analytical techniques, exposure assessment and biological effects for risk assessment of chemicals in food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans today are exposed to a plethora of chemicals in food whether of anthropogenic or natural origin, and public-health agencies have developed risk-assessment methods to derive safe levels of exposure and to prevent adverse health effects. This review highlights analytical techniques used to measure chemical contaminants in food, how human exposure to such contaminants is assessed, and how contamination and

P. Verger; J. L. C. M. Dorne; L. R. Bordajandi; B. Amzal; P. Ferrari

2009-01-01

290

Development of a risk assessment program for chemical terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study focuses on assessing the security risk of the terrorism in the chemical industry. This research modifies conventional\\u000a risk assessment methods for including terrorism and sabotage scenarios. The objective of this risk assessment is to identify\\u000a security hazards, threats and vulnerabilities facing each target facility, and to find the adequate countermeasures to protect\\u000a the public, workers, national interest, environment,

Younghee Lee; Jinkyung Kim; Junghwan Kim; Jiyong Kim; Il Moon

2010-01-01

291

Ecological Risk Assessment for Ascontaining Chemical Warfare Agents — Status and Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chemical Weapons Convention of 1992 does not regulate contaminations of soil and water by starting, by-products and degradation\\u000a products of chemical warfare agents that do not pose an acute danger but have harmful long-term effects. The financial means\\u000a for removing these risks are often missing. A solution for this problem could be the application of adapted microorganisms\\u000a that are

Tina Vollerthun; Wolfgang Spyra

292

Relative Importance of Modularity and Other Morphological Attributes on Different Types of Lithic Point Weapons: Assessing Functional Variations  

PubMed Central

The specific using of different prehistoric weapons is mainly determined by its physical properties, which provide a relative advantage or disadvantage to perform a given, particular function. Since these physical properties are integrated to accomplish that function, examining design variables and their pattern of integration or modularity is of interest to estimate the past function of a point. Here we analyze a composite sample of lithic points from southern Patagonia likely formed by arrows, thrown spears and hand-held points to test if they can be viewed as a two-module system formed by the blade and the stem, and to evaluate the degree in which shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle explain the observed variance and differentiation among points supposedly aimed to accomplish different functions. To do so we performed a geometric morphometric analysis on 118 lithic points, departing from 24 two-dimensional landmark and semi landmarks placed on the point's contour. Klingenberg's covariational modularity tests were used to evaluate different modularity hypotheses, and a composite PCA including shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle was used to estimate the importance of each attribute to explaining variation patterns. Results show that the blade and the stem can be seen as “near decomposable units” in the points integrating the studied sample. However, this modular pattern changes after removing the effects of reduction. Indeed, a resharpened point tends to show a tip/rest of the point modular pattern. The composite PCA analyses evidenced three different patterns of morphometric attributes compatible with arrows, thrown spears, and hand-held tools. Interestingly, when analyzed independently, these groups show differences in their modular organization. Our results indicate that stone tools can be approached as flexible designs, characterized by a composite set of interacting morphometric attributes, and evolving on a modular way.

Gonzalez-Jose, Rolando; Charlin, Judith

2012-01-01

293

Relative importance of modularity and other morphological attributes on different types of lithic point weapons: assessing functional variations.  

PubMed

The specific using of different prehistoric weapons is mainly determined by its physical properties, which provide a relative advantage or disadvantage to perform a given, particular function. Since these physical properties are integrated to accomplish that function, examining design variables and their pattern of integration or modularity is of interest to estimate the past function of a point. Here we analyze a composite sample of lithic points from southern Patagonia likely formed by arrows, thrown spears and hand-held points to test if they can be viewed as a two-module system formed by the blade and the stem, and to evaluate the degree in which shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle explain the observed variance and differentiation among points supposedly aimed to accomplish different functions. To do so we performed a geometric morphometric analysis on 118 lithic points, departing from 24 two-dimensional landmark and semi landmarks placed on the point's contour. Klingenberg's covariational modularity tests were used to evaluate different modularity hypotheses, and a composite PCA including shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle was used to estimate the importance of each attribute to explaining variation patterns. Results show that the blade and the stem can be seen as "near decomposable units" in the points integrating the studied sample. However, this modular pattern changes after removing the effects of reduction. Indeed, a resharpened point tends to show a tip/rest of the point modular pattern. The composite PCA analyses evidenced three different patterns of morphometric attributes compatible with arrows, thrown spears, and hand-held tools. Interestingly, when analyzed independently, these groups show differences in their modular organization. Our results indicate that stone tools can be approached as flexible designs, characterized by a composite set of interacting morphometric attributes, and evolving on a modular way. PMID:23094104

González-José, Rolando; Charlin, Judith

2012-10-19

294

A robustness screen for the rapid assessment of chemical reactions.  

PubMed

In contrast to the rapidity with which scientific information is published, the application of new knowledge often remains slow, and we believe this to be particularly true of newly developed synthetic organic chemistry methodology. Consequently, methods to assess and identify robust chemical reactions are desirable, and would directly facilitate the application of newly reported synthetic methodology to complex synthetic problems. Here, we describe a simple process for assessing the likely scope and limitations of a chemical reaction beyond the idealized reaction conditions initially reported. Using simple methods and common analytical techniques we demonstrate a rapid assessment of an established chemical reaction, and also propose a simplified analysis that may be reported alongside new synthetic methodology. PMID:23787750

Collins, Karl D; Glorius, Frank

2013-06-09

295

Pantex: safety in nuclear weapons processing.  

PubMed

The Pantex Plant, located in the Texas panhandle near Amarillo, is a major Department of Energy (DOE) participant in maintaining the safety of the nation's nuclear weapons resources and protecting the employees, public, and environment. With more than 168,000 person-years of operations involving nuclear materials, explosives, and hazardous chemicals, Pantex has maintained a notable safety record. This article overviews the nuclear weapon activities at Pantex and describes their safety culture. PMID:11045518

Johannesen, R E; Farrell, L M

2000-11-01

296

Combating Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available on Senator Arlen Specter's Website, this massive document is the fruit of the Commission to Assess the Organization of the Federal Government to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. In short, it's an assessment of the state of weapons proliferation in places the United States sees as potential national security threats, from insecure Russian stockpiles of nuclear weapons to Saddam Hussein's reputed supplies of Anthrax. While not all readers will agree with either the rather alarmist tone of the document's scenarios or its admittedly less alarmist recommendations, it is a good source for information concerning the intelligence community's assessment of the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) around the globe. The report offers a table of contents sidebar for easy access to portions of the document.

Destruction., United S.

297

Chemical footprint: A methodological framework for bridging life cycle assessment and planetary boundaries for chemical pollution.  

PubMed

The development and use of footprint methodologies for environmental assessment are increasingly important for both the scientific and political communities. Starting from the ecological footprint, developed at the beginning of the 1990s, several other footprints were defined, e.g., carbon and water footprint. These footprints-even though based on a different meaning of "footprint"-integrate life cycle thinking, and focus on some challenging environmental impacts including resource consumption, CO2 emission leading to climate change, and water consumption. However, they usually neglect relevant sources of impacts, as those related to the production and use of chemicals. This article presents and discusses the need and relevance of developing a methodology for assessing the chemical footprint, coupling a life cycle-based approach with methodologies developed in other contexts, such as ERA and sustainability science. Furthermore, different concepts underpin existing footprint and this could be the case also of chemical footprint. At least 2 different approaches and steps to chemical footprint could be envisaged, applicable at the micro- as well as at the meso- and macroscale. The first step (step 1) is related to the account of chemicals use and emissions along the life cycle of a product, sector, or entire economy, to assess potential impacts on ecosystems and human health. The second step (step 2) aims at assessing to which extent actual emission of chemicals harm the ecosystems above their capability to recover (carrying capacity of the system). The latter step might contribute to the wide discussion on planetary boundaries for chemical pollution: the thresholds that should not be surpassed to guarantee a sustainable use of chemicals from an environmental safety perspective. The definition of what the planetary boundaries for chemical pollution are and how the boundaries should be identified is an on-going scientific challenge for ecotoxicology and ecology. In this article, we present a case study at the macroscale for the European Union, in which the chemical footprint according to step 1 is calculated for the year 2005. A proposal for extending this approach toward step 2 is presented and discussed, complemented by a discussion on the challenges and the use of appropriate methodologies for assessing chemical footprints to stimulate further research and discussion on the topic. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2013;9:623-632. © 2013 SETAC. PMID:23907984

Sala, Serenella; Goralczyk, Malgorzata

2013-10-01

298

Terrorism, weapons of mass destruction and deterrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weapons of mass destruction emerge as a grim but inevitable topic whenever terrorism is discussed. Yet, the United States has thus far been spared a massive nuclear, chemical or biological attack. The older model of politically motivated, violent, but essentially rational terrorists who used some restraint in propagating their message is now defunct. This paper examines how biological and chemical

David Champion; Ronald Mattis

2003-01-01

299

Assessment of human exposure to chemical contaminants in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important factors in assessing risk to human health from potentially harmful chemicals in foods is the availability of good data on the exposure of the public to such substances. The means of acquiring these data generally involves monitoring programmes using appropriate sampling procedures and reliable analytical methods for measuring the compounds of concern in a variety

H. B. S. Conacher; J. Mes

1993-01-01

300

Assessment of food chemical intolerance in adult asthmatic subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Identification of food chemical intolerance in asthmatic subjects can be reliably assessed by changes in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in response to double blind, placebo controlled challenges on a strict elimination diet. However, this method is cumbersome and time consuming. A study was undertaken to determine whether changes in bronchial responsiveness to histamine following food

L. Hodge; K. Y. Yan; R. L. Loblay

1996-01-01

301

Methods for Assessing Exposure to Chemical Substances. Volume 1. Introduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document is the first in a series of volumes developed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Toxic Substances to assist in the assessment of exposure to chemical substances. This introductory volume discusses issues of general intere...

M. A. Callahan G. L. Dixon S. H. Nacht D. A. Dixon J. J. Doria

1985-01-01

302

ASSESSING TOXICITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS TO ANAEROBIC TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A screening protocol has been developed to provide a rapid but dependable and repeatable assessment of the effect of toxic organic chemicals on anaerobic treatment processes. his protocol provides information on the rate limiting biological reactions and the concentration of toxi...

303

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS Pastoor, Timothy1, Barton, Hugh2 1 Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC, USA. 2 EPA, Office of Research and Development-NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. A multi-stakeholder series of discussions d...

304

Unrecognized and Unwelcome? The Role of the EU in Preventing the Proliferation of CBRN Weapons, Materials and Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article assesses the role of the EU as an actor in the area of non-proliferation of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) weapons, materials and know-how. It focuses primarily on the Russian Federation. Russia's extensive CBRN programmes, combined with bad economy, weak security and high unemployment among CBRN scientists, have become a major source of concern for the international

Kamil Zwolski

2011-01-01

305

Predictive environmental risk assessment of chemical mixtures: a conceptual framework.  

PubMed

Environmental risks of chemicals are still often assessed substance-by-substance, neglecting mixture effects. This may result in risk underestimations, as the typical exposure is toward multicomponent chemical "cocktails". We use the two well established mixture toxicity concepts (Concentration Addition (CA) and Independent Action (IA)) for providing a tiered outline for environmental hazard and risk assessments of mixtures, focusing on general industrial chemicals and assuming that the "base set" of data (EC50s for algae, crustaceans, fish) is available. As mixture toxicities higher than predicted by CA are rare findings, we suggest applying CA as a precautious first tier, irrespective of the modes/mechanisms of action of the mixture components. In particular, we prove that summing up PEC/PNEC ratios might serve as a justifiable CA-approximation, in order to estimate in a first tier assessment whether there is a potential risk for an exposed ecosystem if only base-set data are available. This makes optimum use of existing single substance assessments as more demanding mixture investigations are requested only if there are first indications of an environmental risk. Finally we suggest to call for mode-of-action driven analyses only if error estimations indicate the possibility for substantial differences between CA- and IA-based assessments. PMID:22260322

Backhaus, Thomas; Faust, Michael

2012-02-22

306

Where Should Weapons Release Authority Reside for Space Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. has a huge reliance on space. This reliance, combined with a leaner more rapidly deployable military, makes space weapons an appealing prospect. Space weapons technology continues to advance, and as improvements occur, the weaponization of space ...

C. T. Anderson

2003-01-01

307

Negotiation Risk: Controlling Biological Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter examines the perception, communication, assessment, and management of risk associated with negotiations on the\\u000a control of biological weapons. After a brief introduction to the relevant theoretical issues concerning how risk affects negotiations,\\u000a it presents a brief history of negotiations to limit biological agents as instruments of warfare and terrorism, and then focuses\\u000a primarily on the negotiation of the

P. Terrence Hopmann

308

Adversary Use of NBC Weapons: A Neglected Challenge. Strategic Forum. Number 187, December 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Understanding has evolved in the last decade about how an adversary might use nuclear, radiological, biological, or chemical weapons against the United States. Increasingly, America is concluding that potential adversaries view these not as weapons of las...

J. F. Reichart

2001-01-01

309

New Nuclear Weapons and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some U.S. politicians and members of U.S. weapon laboratories are urging the United States to develop a new generation of precision low-yield nuclear weapons "mininukes," with equivalent yields of a few kilotons of TNT or less. Small nuclear weapons are necessary, they argue, to fill the gap between large conventional munitions and our existing high-yield nuclear weapons. They argue that low-yield earth penetrating nuclear weapons could destroy hardened underground command bunkers and storage sites for chemical or biological weapons while "limiting collateral damage." We have shown, however, that even a small nuclear weapon with a yield of 1 kiloton (less than 10% of the Hiroshima bomb) would produce a fatal dose of radioactive fallout over a radius of several kilometers. Moreover, low-yield nuclear weapons are unlikely to destroy buried stockpiles of chemical and biological weapons and may actually disperse active agents over the countryside. If new nuclear weapons require full underground testing, this would end the nuclear testing moratorium that the United States and Russia have maintained since 1992 and would likely destroy prospects for eventual entry into force of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

Nelson, Robert A.

2003-04-01

310

New Nuclear Weapons and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some U.S. politicians and members of U.S. weapon laboratories are urging the United States to develop a new generation of precision low-yield nuclear weapons—``mininukes," with equivalent yields of a few kilotons of TNT or less. Small nuclear weapons are necessary, they argue, to fill the gap between large conventional munitions and our existing high-yield nuclear weapons. They argue that low-yield earth penetrating nuclear weapons could destroy hardened underground command bunkers and storage sites for chemical or biological weapons while ``limiting collateral damage." We have shown, however, that even a small nuclear weapon with a yield of 1 kiloton (less than 10% of the Hiroshima bomb) would produce a fatal dose of radioactive fallout over a radius of several kilometers. Moreover, low-yield nuclear weapons are unlikely to destroy buried stockpiles of chemical and biological weapons—and may actually disperse active agents over the countryside. If new nuclear weapons require full underground testing, this would end the nuclear testing moratorium that the United States and Russia have maintained since 1992 and would likely destroy prospects for eventual entry into force of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. ct.

2003-03-01

311

Security with nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent improvements in East-West relations and the process of dramatic political change in Europe may result in unprecedented opportunities to reduce the global arsenal of nuclear weapons. Despite these welcome developments, the prospects for effectively controlling the spread of nuclear capability in the Third World have remained much less encouraging. The possibility of large reductions in nuclear weapons poses fundamental

Karp

1991-01-01

312

Space Weapons Earth Wars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Space weapons for terrestrial conflict have been the subject of intense debate twice in the modern history of space. The first time, at the beginning of the Cold War, was over the possibility of bombardment satellites carrying nuclear weapons. The second ...

B. Preston C. Shipbaugh D. J. Johnson M. Miller S. J. Edwards

2002-01-01

313

Precision-guided weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of this paper discusses enough about the mechanics of these weapons to give the reader a feel for how they work and provide brief descriptions of some of the more important weapons associated with non-nuclear land combat. The brief treatment here mentions only a fraction of current PGM developments; it is characteristic of the pace of development

J. F. Digby

1975-01-01

314

The nuclear weapons legacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the 50th anniversary of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, two new reports from the US DOE shed light on nuclear weapons production and its aftermath. This article summarizes and comments on the two reports: Closing the Circle on the Splitting of the Atom: the Environmental Legacy of Nuclear Weapons Production in the United States and What the Department

Stadie

1996-01-01

315

Enhanced-Radiation Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enhanced-radiation warhead is a particularly dangerous weapon insofar as it might mislead anyone into believing that its deployment would make it possible for nuclear warfare to be safely limited and tightly controlled; in this sense its very deployment could lower the threshold separating conventional warfare from nuclear warfare. Enhanced-radiation weapons are no more (and perhaps they are less) ''humane''

Fred M. Kaplan

1978-01-01

316

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis of N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-methoxyethyl ethers as the decontamination markers of N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

PubMed

The detection and identification of markers of scheduled chemicals plays an important role in verification analysis of Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). This paper describes the gas chromatography electron ionization mass spectrometric (GC/EI-MS) analysis of N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-methoxyethyl ethers (DAEMEs), which are identified as characteristic degradation markers of N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides. N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides produced DAEMEs on reacting with the universally used decontamination solution (DS-2). DAEMEs were prepared by condensation of N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides with 2-methoxy ethanol the active ingredient of DS-2. Based on the GC/EI-MS analysis of DAEMEs the generalized fragmentation routes are proposed which rationalize most of the characteristic ions in EI-MS. PMID:17057284

Gupta, Arvinda K; Pardasani, Deepak; Kanaujia, Pankaj K; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, Devendra K

2006-01-01

317

Regulatory Assessment of Chemicals within OECD Member Countries, EU and in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical risk assessment is essesntial part of new chemical legislation registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals (REACH). The article presents a review of chemical legislation policies in the European Union (EU) and in Russia, and changes in chemicals regulations to meet the requirement of REACH. The risk assessment paradigm, toxicological parameters, safe limits and classification criteria used by different

Natalja Fjodorova; Marjana Novich; Marjan Vrachko; Nina Kharchevnikova; Zoya Zholdakova; Oxana Sinitsyna; Emilio Benfenati

2008-01-01

318

Conventional weapons demilitarization: A health and environmental effects data base assessment: Propellants and their co-contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The demilitarization of propellants by open burning results in the deposition of residues on soils. Residues can consist of the main ingredients in propellant formulations, namely, nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, and nitroguanidine. Co-contaminants, consisting of plasticizers and stabilizers present in propellant formulations as well as environmental degradation products of the propellants, represent additional soil contaminants. These substances include nitrosoguanidine, dibutylphthlate, diethylphthlate, dipenylamine, and ethyl centralite. To support studies of the health and environmental risks of such by-products, this report presents assessments of data available on parameters that affect the risks posed by propellants and their principal co-contaminants. Specifically, data-base assessments cover factors that influence the transport and fate of the contaminants in environmental media (e.g., soils, water, etc.) and subsequently, human exposures via different pathways (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, and skin absorption). Importantly, information on dose-response relationships for various toxic effects in humans and laboratory animals is evaluated so that acceptable daily intakes for noncarcinogenic substances and virtually safe dose rates species are also addressed. 284 refs.

Mallon, B.; Layton, D.; Fish, R.; Hsieh, P.; Hall, L.; Perry, L.; Snyder, G.

1988-08-01

319

Responding to chemical attack. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In view of Iraq's stated intention of using chemical weapons in the Persian Gulf War, the Coalition forces must be prepared to respond. Iraq is capable of conducting such an attack. While the use of chemical weapons may not be militarily significant, the political effect of the use and the response to it may be very significant. Responses including the use of chemical and nuclear weapons are assessed in terms of their legality, political cost, and military effectiveness and found unacceptable. Reliance on diplomatic protests and on post-war criminal sanctions are judged ineffective. A response in the form of increased conventional attack on the Iraqi chemical infrastructure is recommended because that response will preserve the present Coalition, effectively counter the chemical attack, contribute to regional stability, and enhance the reputation of the United States for lawfulness and dependability.

Bagley, R.W.

1991-02-11

320

[Guides to chemical risk assessment in the construction industry].  

PubMed

The presence of chemical agents in construction is certainly relevant in terms of quality, quantity and toxicity. Their manipulation can result in potential exposure as inhaled and/or through the skin. It is therefore possible and necessary to identify a list of substances to be considered relevant for the risk assessment and the possible environmental monitoring to verify the adequacy of the estimate made. The many variables inherent in construction make it extremely difficult to apply the usual methods of the industrial hygiene because it would not very significant conclusions in terms of space-time representation. SIMLII in one of its guidelines have proposed a "indexes" method that can provide useful information to the figures of prevention for the actions of their competence. The subsequent introduction of the REACH Regulation and exposure scenarios may help to further sharpening the assessment of chemical hazards in construction. PMID:23213805

Cottica, D; Grignani, E; Scapellato, M L; Butera, R; Bartolucci, G B

321

Application of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models in Chemical Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Post-exposure risk assessment of chemical and environmental stressors is a public health challenge. Linking exposure to health outcomes is a 4-step process: exposure assessment, hazard identification, dose response assessment, and risk characterization. This process is increasingly adopting “in silico” tools such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to fine-tune exposure assessments and determine internal doses in target organs/tissues. Many excellent PBPK models have been developed. But most, because of their scientific sophistication, have found limited field application—health assessors rarely use them. Over the years, government agencies, stakeholders/partners, and the scientific community have attempted to use these models or their underlying principles in combination with other practical procedures. During the past two decades, through cooperative agreements and contracts at several research and higher education institutions, ATSDR funded translational research has encouraged the use of various types of models. Such collaborative efforts have led to the development and use of transparent and user-friendly models. The “human PBPK model toolkit” is one such project. While not necessarily state of the art, this toolkit is sufficiently accurate for screening purposes. Highlighted in this paper are some selected examples of environmental and occupational exposure assessments of chemicals and their mixtures.

Mumtaz, Moiz; Fisher, Jeffrey; Blount, Benjamin; Ruiz, Patricia

2012-01-01

322

The Chemical Accident Risk Assessment Thesaurus: A Tool for Analyzing and Comparing Diverse Risk Assessment Processes and Definitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chemical Accident Risk Assessment Thesaurus (CARAT) is a database of the laws, regulations, guidance documents and definitions of terms related to the risk assessment of accidental releases of chemicals from fixed installations. The database also contains information on the application of risk assessment methodologies to specific examples of potential chemical releases. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development urged

A. J. Ignatowski; I. Rosenthal

2001-01-01

323

International physical protection self-assessment tool for chemical facilities.  

SciTech Connect

This report is the final report for Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project No.130746, International Physical Protection Self-Assessment Tool for Chemical Facilities. The goal of the project was to develop an exportable, low-cost, computer-based risk assessment tool for small to medium size chemical facilities. The tool would assist facilities in improving their physical protection posture, while protecting their proprietary information. In FY2009, the project team proposed a comprehensive evaluation of safety and security regulations in the target geographical area, Southeast Asia. This approach was later modified and the team worked instead on developing a methodology for identifying potential targets at chemical facilities. Milestones proposed for FY2010 included characterizing the international/regional regulatory framework, finalizing the target identification and consequence analysis methodology, and developing, reviewing, and piloting the software tool. The project team accomplished the initial goal of developing potential target categories for chemical facilities; however, the additional milestones proposed for FY2010 were not pursued and the LDRD funding therefore was redirected.

Tewell, Craig R.; Burdick, Brent A.; Stiles, Linda L.; Lindgren, Eric Richard

2010-09-01

324

Human Exposure to Endocrine-Active Chemicals: Hazard Assessment Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial-derived endocrine disruptors or endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) have been identified and hypothesized to play a role in human disease. Most of the xeno-EACs which have been characterized bind to the estrogen receptor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, or androgen receptor. Hazard and risk assessment of xeno-EACs is complicated by several factors which include the following: (i) humans are exposed to relatively high

Stephen Safe; Kevin Connor; Kavita Ramamoorthy; Kevin Gaido; Susan Maness

1997-01-01

325

Advancing exposure characterization for chemical evaluation and risk assessment.  

PubMed

A new generation of scientific tools has emerged to rapidly measure signals from cells, tissues, and organisms following exposure to chemicals. High-visibility efforts to apply these tools for efficient toxicity testing raise important research questions in exposure science. As vast quantities of data from high-throughput screening (HTS) in vitro toxicity assays become available, this new toxicity information must be translated to assess potential risks to human health from environmental exposures. Exposure information is required to link information on potential toxicity of environmental contaminants to real-world health outcomes. In the immediate term, tools are required to characterize and classify thousands of environmental chemicals in a rapid and efficient manner to prioritize testing and assess potential for risk to human health. Rapid risk assessment requires prioritization based on both hazard and exposure dimensions of the problem. To address these immediate needs within the context of longer term objectives for chemical evaluation and risk management, a translation framework is presented for incorporating toxicity and exposure information to inform public health decisions at both the individual and population levels. Examples of required exposure science contributions are presented with a focus on early advances in tools for modeling important links across the source-to-outcome paradigm. ExpoCast, a new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) program aimed at developing novel approaches and metrics to screen and evaluate chemicals based on the potential for biologically relevant human exposures is introduced. The goal of ExpoCast is to advance characterization of exposure required to translate findings in computational toxicology to information that can be directly used to support exposure and risk assessment for decision making and improved public health. PMID:20574904

Cohen Hubal, Elaine A; Richard, Ann; Aylward, Lesa; Edwards, Steve; Gallagher, Jane; Goldsmith, Michael-Rock; Isukapalli, Sastry; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weber, Eric; Kavlock, Robert

2010-02-01

326

Nonproliferation and arms control assessment of weapons-usable fissile material storage and excess plutonium disposition alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (DOE-NN) with support from the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD). Its purpose is to analyze the nonproliferation and arms reduction implications of the alternatives for storage of plutonium and HEU, and disposition of excess plutonium, to aid policymakers and the public in making final decisions. While this assessment describes the benefits and risks associated with each option, it does not attempt to rank order the options or choose which ones are best. It does, however, identify steps which could maximize the benefits and mitigate any vulnerabilities of the various alternatives under consideration.

NONE

1997-01-01

327

Integrating pathway-based transcriptomic data into quantitative chemical risk assessment: a five chemical case study.  

PubMed

The traditional approach for performing a chemical risk assessment is time and resource intensive leading to a limited number of published assessments on which to base human health decisions. In comparison, most contaminated sites contain chemicals without published reference values or cancer slope factors that are not considered quantitatively in the overall hazard index calculation. The integration of transcriptomic technology into the risk assessment process may provide an efficient means to evaluate quantitatively the health risks associated with data poor chemicals. In a previous study, female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to multiple concentrations of five chemicals that were positive for lung and/or liver tumor formation in a two-year rodent cancer bioassay. The mice were exposed for a period of 13 weeks and the target tissues were analyzed for traditional histological and organ weight changes and transcriptional changes using microarrays. In this study, the dose-response changes in gene expression were analyzed using a benchmark dose (BMD) approach and the responses grouped based on pathways. A comparison of the transcriptional BMD values with those for the traditional non-cancer and cancer apical endpoints showed a high degree of correlation for specific pathways. Many of the correlated pathways have been implicated in non-cancer and cancer disease pathogenesis. The results demonstrate that transcriptomic changes in pathways can be used to estimate non-cancer and cancer points-of-departure for use in quantitative risk assessments and have identified potential toxicity pathways involved in chemically induced mouse lung and liver responses. PMID:22305970

Thomas, Russell S; Clewell, Harvey J; Allen, Bruce C; Yang, Longlong; Healy, Eric; Andersen, Melvin E

2012-01-25

328

Deterring weapons of mass destruction terrorism. Master`s thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines terrorist acts involving the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against unsuspecting civilians by the Aum Shinrikyo and Rajneesh cults. The proliferation of WMD (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) has created a concern that terrorists might use WMD. Despite obvious signs, these groups were not identified as terrorists until after they committed terrorist attacks. This

LeHardy

1997-01-01

329

Countering third world weapons of mass destruction: Desert storm as a prototype. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs)--nuclear, biological, and chemical--is occurring throughout the Third World. Desert Storm offers an excellent case study for assessing the various measures and operations which can be employed to protect U.S.. forces against an adversary possessing a WMD capability. The elements of Desert Storm's successful strategy can be categorized in three broad approaches--deterrence, denial,

1993-01-01

330

Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources  

SciTech Connect

This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas and petroleum-derived resources. Results from both parts of the assessment indicate that, in the absence of gas and petroleum, coal undoubtedly would be a major source of chemicals first, followed by biomass. The most attractive biomass resources are wood, agricultural residues, and sugar and starch crops. A reasonable approximation to the current product slate for the petrochemical industry could be manufactured using only renewable resources for feedstocks. Approximately 2.5 quads (10/sup 15/ Btu (1.055 x 10/sup 18/ joules)) per year of oil and gas would be released. Further use of biomass fuels in the industry could release up to an additional 1.5 quads. however, such an industry would be unprofitable under current economic conditions with existing or near-commercial technology. As fossil resources become more expensive and biotechnology becomes more efficient, the economics will be more favorable. Use of the chemicals industry model to evaluate process technologies is demonstrated. Processes are identified which have potential for significant added value to the system if process improvements can be made to improve the economics. Guidelines and recommendations for research and development programs to improve the attractiveness of chemicals from biomass are discussed.

Donaldson, T.L.; Culberson, O.L.

1983-06-01

331

Assessing culturally competent chemical dependence treatment services for Mexican Americans.  

PubMed

Mexican Americans struggling with chemical dependence are greatly underserved. Barriers to treatment include language, lack of culturally relevant services, lack of trust in programs, uninviting environments, and limited use and linkage with cultural resources in the community. This project aimed to develop a tool for assessing and planning culturally competent/relevant chemical dependence treatment services for Mexican Americans. Focus groups were conducted with experts in Mexican-American culture and chemical dependence from six substance abuse programs serving adult and adolescent Mexican Americans and their families. Sixty-two statements were developed describing characteristics of culturally competent/relevant organizations. Concept mapping was used to produce a conceptual map displaying dimensions of culturally competent/relevant organizations and Cronbach's alpha was calculated to assess the internal consistency of each dimension. Analysis resulted in seven reliable subscales: Spanish language (alpha = 0.84), counselor characteristics (alpha = 0.82), environment (alpha = 0.88), family (alpha = 0.84), linkage (alpha = 0.92), community (alpha = 0.86), and culture (alpha = 0.89). The resulting instrument based on these items and dimensions enable agencies to evaluate culturally competent/relevant services, set goals, and identify resources needed to implement desired services for both individual organizations and networks of regional services. PMID:18528760

Shorkey, Clayton; Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Spence, Richard

2008-06-05

332

Smart Weapons Encounter Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers the Smart Weapon Encounter Model (SWEM) developed to support the Tank Extended Range Munition (TERM) science and technology objective (STO) III G.3. The report describes the model's algorithm, input, and Output. SWEM uses solid geometry...

R. J. Pearson K. K. Chien

2000-01-01

333

Ballistic-missile defense weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ballistic missile defense (BMD) weapons are discussed in relation to the elements, functions, interception process and principles of control and guidance of the BMD weapon system. The defense penetration and countermeasures, and the structure and characteristics of antiballistic missiles are also discussed. Other means for intercepting guided missiles, such as stimulated light weapons and particle beam weapons are examined.

L. S. Chin; L. H. Lin

1982-01-01

334

Impurity Profiling of a Chemical Weapon Precursor for Possible Forensic Signatures by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography\\/Mass Spectrometry and Chemometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we present the feasibility of using analytical chemical and chemometric methodologies to reveal and exploit the organic impurity profiles from commercial dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) samples to illustrate the type of forensic information that may be obtained from chemical-attack evidence. Using DMMP as a model compound for a toxicant that may be used in a chemical attack, we

Jamin C. Hoggard; Jon H. Wahl; Robert E. Synovec; Gary M. Mong; Carlos G. Fraga

2010-01-01

335

Nuclear weapons complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to long-standing safety and environmental problems plaguing the nuclear weapons complex, this paper reports that the Department of Energy (DOE) faces a major new challenge-how to reconfigure the weapons complex to meet the nation's defense needs in the 21st century. Key decisions still need to be made about the size of the complex; where, if necessary, to relocate

Rezendes

1992-01-01

336

The nuclear weapons legacy  

SciTech Connect

On the 50th anniversary of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, two new reports from the US DOE shed light on nuclear weapons production and its aftermath. This article summarizes and comments on the two reports: Closing the Circle on the Splitting of the Atom: the Environmental Legacy of Nuclear Weapons Production in the United States and What the Department of Energy is Doing About it; and Estimating the Cold War Mortgage: the 1995 Baseline Environmental Management Report.

Stadie, K.B.

1996-01-01

337

The future of nuclear weapons without nuclear testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty on U.S. security concerns is assessed in this article. Three technical issues specific to nuclear weapons are addressed: (1) safety and reliability of the existing U.S. arsenal, (2) constraints on the development of new types of nuclear weapons by the U.S. and other nations, and (3) prevention of further proliferation of weapons.

Garwin

1997-01-01

338

METHODOLOGY FOR THE EVALUATION OF CUMULATIVE EPISODIC EXPOSURE TO CHEMICAL STRESSORS IN AQUATIC RISK ASSESSMENT.  

EPA Science Inventory

An ecological risk assessment method was developed to evaluate the magnitude, duration, and episodic nature of chemical stressors on aquatic communities. The percent of an ecosystem's species at risk from a designated chemical exposure scenario is generated. In effects assessment...

339

Fractionation Phenomena in Nuclear Weapons Debris  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was previously determined that a chemical fractionation of nuclear ; weapon debris takes place during the particle formation which occurs within the ; first few minutes after the explosion. Results are reported from studies of the ; distribution of different fission products in air-borne bomb debris and an ; attempt is made to interpret the results. (C.H.);

K. Edvarson; Kerstin Löw; J. Sisefsky

1959-01-01

340

Hazard and risk assessment of chemicals for terrestrial ecosystems.  

PubMed

Risk assessment for terrestrial ecosystems represents a great challenge due to their complexity. Pragmatic approaches, such as independent assessments for soil and 'above soil' organisms, are unrealistic. This communication presents a workable alternative, extending the role of the hazard identification. For each chemical, a set of selected ecological receptors and exposure routes is considered. Terrestrial vertebrates, soil-ground-foliar dwelling invertebrates, plants, and soil micro-organisms, are potential receptors subjected to direct and indirect exposures. Direct exposures cover those related to the emissions during the Life Cycle of the chemical. Indirect exposures focus on those occurring after the emission, related to the fate and behaviour of the molecule in the environment. Direct exposures are regulated by the production-use-disposal patterns. Indirect exposures are regulated by intrinsic (physicochemical, biological) properties. Hazard identification considers the toxicological profile and the exposure potential for each receptor, and selects the key receptors for the assessment. Risk analysis includes, for each receptor, all potential exposure routes and the corresponding timings. Food chain biomagnification is quantified on the basis of toxicokinetic data and a three vertebrate species model, suitable for top-predators and humans. A higher tier approach, considering the lack of homogeneity of the exposure and probabilistic assumptions, can also be conducted. PMID:12505308

Tarazona, J V; Vega, M M

2002-12-27

341

Task and Time-Dependent Weighting Factors in a Retrospective Exposure Assessment of Chemical Laboratory Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemical exposure assessment was conducted for a cohort mortality study of 6157 chemical laboratory workers employed between 1943 and 1998 at four Department of Energy sites in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Aiken, South Carolina. Previous studies of chemical laboratory workers have included members within professional societies where exposure assessment was either limited or not feasible, or chemical processing employees

Scott A. Henn; David F. Utterback; Kathleen M. Waters; Andrea M. Markey; William G. Tankersley

2007-01-01

342

Risk assessment is a developing science: Approaches to improve evaluation of single chemicals and chemical mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency is engaged in the development of risk-assessment guidelines and methodologies as part of the regulatory program of the Agency. The primary goal of the Agency was originally to accurately assess the effects of human exposure to single chemicals in a single medium (e.g. water) over a human lifetime. Assessment methods for estimating low-dose lifetime cancer risk for known or suspected human carcinogens, or long-term acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels for threshold-acting toxicants, were developed and successfully applied to meet this need. Now there is an increasing need for methods which address more complex exposure situations, including multichemical, multiroute, and partial-lifetime exposures. Improvements in the current methods are also needed. Several issues now under study are briefly described.

Stara, J.F.; Bruins, R.J.F.; Dourson, M.L.; Erdreich, L.S.; Hertzberg, R.C.

1989-01-01

343

Evaluation of EU risk assessments existing chemicals (EC Regulation 793\\/93)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation was performed on the first group (41) of completed risk assessments for chemicals of the EU priority lists (Existing Chemicals; EC Regulation 793\\/93). The evaluation focussed on the conclusions of the risk assessments. The EU risk assessment process detected a high number of substances of concern. Furthermore priority chemicals may pose potential risks to the whole range of

C. W. M. Bodar; F. Berthault; J. H. M. de Bruijn; C. J. van Leeuwen; M. E. J. Pronk; T. G. Vermeire

2003-01-01

344

Weapons of Mass Victimization, Radioactive Waste Shipments, and Environmental LawsPolicy Making and First Responders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transnational and domestic terrorists may employ unconventional weapons of mass destruction and\\/or mass contamination in their future operations against governments. These asymmetrical tactics may include nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons designed to produce panic and disruption in daily life. This article addresses several of the myriad legal and practical issues relative to potential radiological weapons. Several suggestions as to local-level

James David Ballard; Kristine Mullendore

2003-01-01

345

Military Role in Countering Terrorist Use of Weapons of Mass Destruction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction threatens Americans and our armed forces every day. To many nations and groups, their only means to counter the United States is with nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons. The terrorist use of weapons of ma...

L. E. Dickinson

1999-01-01

346

National policy for deterring the use of weapons of mass destruction. Research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the advent of the nuclear arms race, the US has developed and maintained a policy and associated capabilities to deter offensive use of these weapons against US forces, citizens and allies. With the end of the Cold War and the proliferation of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, the threat posed by weapons of mass destruction has changed dramatically. The

D. A. Blackburn; R. K. Brannum; D. R. Turmelle; G. T. Boyette; W. M. Napolitano

1996-01-01

347

In silico assessment of chemical mutagenesis in comparison with results of Salmonella microsome assay on 909 chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotoxicity is one of the important endpoints for risk assessment of environmental chemicals. Many short-term assays to evaluate genotoxicity have been developed and some of them are being used routinely. Although these assays can generally be completed within a short period, their throughput is not sufficient to assess the huge number of chemicals, which exist in our living environment without

Makoto Hayashi; Eiichi Kamata; Akihiko Hirose; Mika Takahashi; Takeshi Morita; Makoto Ema

2005-01-01

348

Pandora's Box Opened Wide: UAVs Carrying Genetic Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A recent Rand report on chemical and biological weapons (CBW) identifies unmanned aerial vehicles(UAVs) as a feasible CBW delivery means by potential adversaries like North Korea. With significant concern regarding the ability to defend against a delivery...

D. J. Hauck

2005-01-01

349

TERRACE - Terrestrial Runoff Modelling for Risk Assessment of Chemical Exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TERRACE (Terrestrial Runoff Modelling for Risk Assessment of Chemical Exposure) project is one of a number of studies funded by the European Chemical Industries Council (CEFIC) as part of their Long-range Research Initiative (LRI). The 4 LRI environmental modelling projects simulate atmospheric, catchment, river and estuary transport and fate of pollutants. In this context, the objective of TERRACE is to adapt and test a simulation model, SWAT2000, for the evaluation of diffuse-source chemical runoff at the regional scale across Europe and to integrate its results into GREAT-ER. TERRACE has been developed for application at the European level, using data sets available at this scale. It can also be applied using better resolution or more detailed data at the national or regional level. The poster outlines the developments that have been made to the databases within SWAT2000 for European and UK use and presents illustrative results from three catchments in the UK. The results highlight a range of model development issues and data monitoring concerns and suggest ways forward.

White, S.; Beaudin, I.; Cobby, D.; Hollis, J.; Worrall, F.; Hallett, S.; Whelan, M.

2003-04-01

350

Regulatory assessment of chemicals within OECD member countries, EU and in Russia.  

PubMed

The chemical risk assessment is essesntial part of new chemical legislation registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals (REACH). The article presents a review of chemical legislation policies in the European Union (EU) and in Russia, and changes in chemicals regulations to meet the requirement of REACH. The risk assessment paradigm, toxicological parameters, safe limits and classification criteria used by different agencies and authorities in different countries are reported. Our investigation also focuses on comparison of chemical risk assessment criteria used in OECD member countries and in Russia. Tendencies in harmonization in accordance with the globally harmonized system of classification and labeling of chemicals (GHS) are discussed. PMID:18322867

Fjodorova, Natalja; Novich, Marjana; Vrachko, Marjan; Kharchevnikova, Nina; Zholdakova, Zoya; Sinitsyna, Oxana; Benfenati, Emilio

351

DOE Nuclear Weapon Reliability Definition: History, Description, and Implementation  

SciTech Connect

The overarching goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapon reliability assessment process is to provide a quantitative metric that reflects the ability of the weapons to perform their intended function successfully. This white paper is intended to provide insight into the current and long-standing DOE definition of nuclear weapon reliability, which can be summarized as: The probability of achieving the specified yield, at the target, across the Stockpile-To-Target Sequence of environments, throughout the weapon's lifetime, assuming proper inputs.

Wright, D.L.; Cashen, J.J.; Sjulin, J.M.; Bierbaum, R.L.; Kerschen, T.J.

1999-04-01

352

Willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction.  

PubMed

A survey assessed the willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction. The results were evaluated according to the benefit to society. The results indicated preferences for increased spending on intelligence gathering, training, and equipment. We concluded that the United States is spending less for weapons of mass destruction defense than the sample population was willing to pay. PMID:11778446

Mulvaney, J M; LaBarre, D; Pastel, R; Landauer, M

2001-12-01

353

Weapons and hope  

SciTech Connect

The British-born physicist presents a full-blown critique of US weapons policy. His careful evaluation of opposing views leads him to endorse a live-and-let-live concept of arms control, which would reject both assured destruction and first use of nuclear weapons in favor of abolishing them. Dyson's faith in the humane progress of military technology and his tolerance of dangerous conventional weapons will not please dovish readers, while his denunciation of military idolatry and his support of a nuclear freeze will disappoint some hawks. Along with moving personal memories of war and pacifism, the most original sections of the book are the author's insightful comments about the Soviet Union and the issue of verification.

Dyson, F.

1984-01-01

354

Weaponeering the Future: Direct Energy Weapons Effectiveness Now and Tomorrow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Direct Energy weapons can exist on the battlefield of today, and the warfighter needs to know what Probability of Damage these weapons can attain. Currently, the Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manual calculates a Single Sortie Probability of Damage for con...

C. F. Fager

2007-01-01

355

Modeling Exposure to Persistent Chemicals in Hazard and Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Fate and exposure modeling has not thus far been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared to evaluate significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of POP and PBT chemicals in the environment. The goal of this paper is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include: (1) Benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk. (2) Directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota and humans to provide information to complement measurements, or where measurements are not available or are limited. (3) To identify the key processes and chemical and/or environmental parameters that determine the exposure; thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile. (4) Predicting future time trends including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and whether the assumptions and input data are relevant in the context of the application. It is possible to have confidence in the predictions of many of the existing models because of their fundamental physical and chemical mechanistic underpinnings and the extensive work already done to compare model predictions and empirical observations. The working group recommends that modeling tools be applied for benchmarking PBT/POPs according to exposure-to-emissions relationships, and that modeling tools be used to interpret emissions and monitoring data. The further development of models that couple fate, long-range transport, and bioaccumulation should be fostered, especially models that will allow time trends to be scientifically addressed in the risk profile.

Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E.; McLachlan, Michael S.; Arnot, Jon A.; MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Wania, Frank

2008-11-01

356

A framework for chemical plant safety assessment under uncertainty.  

SciTech Connect

We construct a framework for assessing the risk that the uncertainty in the plant feed and physical parameters may mask the loss of a reaction product. To model the plant, we use a nonlinear, quasi-steady-state model with stochastic input and parameters. We compute the probability that more than a certain product amount is diverted, given the statistics of the uncertainty in the plant feed, in the values of the chemical parameters, and in the output measurement. The uncertainty in the physical parameters is based on the one provided by the recently developed concept of thermochemical tables. We use Monte Carlo methods to compute the probabilities, based on a Cauchy-theorem-like approach to avoid making anything but the safest asymptotic assumptions, as well as to avoid the excessive noise in the region of low-probability events.

Zeng, X.; Anitescu, M.; Pereira, C.; Regalbuto, M.

2009-03-01

357

Life cycle assessment for chemical agent resistant coating. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report was developed to determine the optimum materials and equipment for applying chemical agent resistant coating (CARC) to vehicles at the Army Transportation Center at Fort Eustis, VA. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to identify the performance, cost, and environmental impacts of various combinations of CARC materials and equipment. The variables for the study were the primer, thinner, CARC topcoat, and spray application equipment. Combinations of the variables were grouped to develop five alternatives. The recommended alternative would change the existing primer and application equipment, but retain the existing thinner and topcoat. The alternative would maintain required performance characteristics, achieve cost objectives, and result in low environmental impacts in relation to the other alternatives.

NONE

1996-09-01

358

Simulation of chemical metabolism for fate and hazard assessment. V. Mammalian hazard assessment.  

PubMed

Animals and humans are exposed to a wide array of xenobiotics and have developed complex enzymatic mechanisms to detoxify these chemicals. Detoxification pathways involve a number of biotransformations, such as oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis and conjugation reactions. The intermediate substances created during the detoxification process can be extremely toxic compared with the original toxins, hence metabolism should be accounted for when hazard effects of chemicals are assessed. Alternatively, metabolic transformations could detoxify chemicals that are toxic as parents. The aim of the present paper is to describe specificity of eukaryotic metabolism and its simulation and incorporation in models for predicting skin sensitization, mutagenicity, chromosomal aberration, micronuclei formation and estrogen receptor binding affinity implemented in the TIMES software platform. The current progress in model refinement, data used to parameterize models, logic of simulating metabolism, applicability domain and interpretation of predictions are discussed. Examples illustrating the model predictions are also provided. PMID:22536822

Mekenyan, O; Dimitrov, S; Pavlov, T; Dimitrova, G; Todorov, M; Petkov, P; Kotov, S

2012-04-27

359

Nuclear weapons safety: The case of trident  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accidental detonation or ignition of propellant in a Trident missile, or of explosive material in one of the warheads, could lead to dispersal of toxic plutonium into a populated area. We examine the details of Trident nuclear weapons safety and assess the feasibility, cost and consequences of safety?enhancing modifications to the missiles and warheads. We find that the operational

John R. Harvey; Stefan Michalowski

1994-01-01

360

Computational Challenges in Nuclear Weapons Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a decade of experience, the Stockpile Stewardship Program continues to ensure the safety, security and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons. The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) program was established to provide leading edge, high-end simulation capabilities needed to meet the program's assessment and certification requirements. The great challenge of this program lies in developing the tools and resources

C F McMillain; T F Adams; M G McCoy; R B Christensen; B S Pudliner; M R Zika; P S Brantley; J S Vetter; J M May

2003-01-01

361

Multiple smart weapons employment mechanism  

SciTech Connect

A digital communications armament network adaptor is described for carrying multiple smart weapons on a single wing pylon station of an aircraft, comprising: an aircraft having a weapons controller configured in compliance with MIL-STD 1553; multiple wing-mounted pylons on said aircraft, each providing a weapons station with communications and ejection and release mechanisms electrically connected to said controller for the airborne launch of smart weapons; a multiple ejector rack affixed to at least one pylon, said rack holding a plurality of smart weapons; and an electronic digital network connected between the controller and said rack-mounted smart weapons, said network located in said rack and including circuitry which receives coded digital communications from said controller and selectively rebroadcasts said communications to one of said smart weapons on said rack designated by said coded communications, thereby controlling all required functions of said designated smart weapon.

McGlynn, M.P.; Meiklejohn, W.D.

1993-07-20

362

Improved method for in vitro assessment of dermal toxicity for volatile organic chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell culture methods are being developed to assess the dermal toxicity (irritancy and corrosion) of chemicals. These in vitro methods are being validated to categorize chemicals as irritating or non-irritating to humans. Currently, these cell culture tests are useful to assist in the ranking of chemicals for irritancy, but they are not useful for quantitative risk assessment for two reasons.

James V Rogers; James N McDougal

2002-01-01

363

Living with nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Harvard President Derek Bok's request, six Harvard professors explain nuclear arms issues to help citizens understand all sides of the national security debates. The goal is to encourage public participation in policy formulation. The book emphasizes that escapism will not improve security; that idealistic plans to eliminate nuclear weapons are a form of escapism. Learning to live with nuclear

A. Carnesale; P. Doty; S. Hoffmann; S. P. Huntington; J. S. Jr. Nye; S. D. Sagan

1983-01-01

364

Concealed Weapons Detection Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This effort considers the integration of an ultrasound sensor with an active radar sensor. The purpose of the active-radar sensor is to provide long-range detection of concealed weapons. The radar will then hand over the detection data to the ultrasound s...

F. Felber

1998-01-01

365

US weapons secrets revealed  

SciTech Connect

Extraordinary details have only recently been revealed about the struggle over the control of early U.S. nuclear weapons and their initial deployments abroad. The information comes from a newly declassified top secret report, part of a larger study, The History of the Strategic Arms Competition, 1945-1972, commissioned by Defense Secretary James R. Schlisinger in summer 1974.

Norris, R.S.; Arkin, W.M.

1993-03-01

366

Air weapon fatalities.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To describe characteristics of a series of people accidentally and deliberately killed by air powered weapons. METHODS: Five cases of fatal airgun injury were identified by forensic pathologists and histopathologists. The circumstances surrounding the case, radiological examination, and pathological findings are described. The weapon characteristics are also reported. RESULTS: Three of the victims were adult men, one was a 16 year old boy, and one an eight year old child. Four of the airguns were .22 air rifles, the other a .177 air rifle. Two committed suicide, one person shooting himself in the head, the other in the chest. In both cases the guns were fired at contact range. Three of the cases were classified as accidents: in two the pellet penetrated into the head and in one the chest. CONCLUSIONS: One person each year dies from an air powered weapon injury in the United Kingdom. In addition there is considerable morbidity from airgun injuries. Fatalities and injuries are most commonly accidents, but deliberately inflicted injuries occur. Airguns are dangerous weapons when inappropriately handled and should not be considered as toys. Children should not play with airguns unsupervised. Images

Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Rooney, N

1998-01-01

367

Nuclear weapons complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this book, GAO characterizes DOE's January 1991 Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Study as a starting point for reaching agreement on solutions to many of the complex's safety and environmental problems. Key decisions still need to be made about the size of the complex, where to relocate plutonium operations, what technologies to use for new tritium production, and what to

Rezendes

1991-01-01

368

US weapons secrets revealed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraordinary details have only recently been revealed about the struggle over the control of early U.S. nuclear weapons and their initial deployments abroad. The information comes from a newly declassified top secret report, part of a larger study, The History of the Strategic Arms Competition, 1945-1972, commissioned by Defense Secretary James R. Schlisinger in summer 1974.

R. S. Norris; W. M. Arkin

1993-01-01

369

Effects of nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most recent data concerning the effects associated with explosions of nuclear weapons are presented. The data have been obtained from observations made of effects of nuclear bombing in Japan and tests carried out at the Eniwetok Proving Grounds and Nevada Test Site, as well as from experiments with conventional explosives, and mathematical calculations. The volume is intended for use

Glasstone

1957-01-01

370

Are nuclear weapons obsolete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat of a nuclear winter and the hypothetical evidence from Carl Sagan and other scientists that even a relatively small and contained nuclear war could threaten the survival of the human species lead the author to urge a radical reduction in the number of nuclear weapons. The importance of this evidence, however, is in the reminder of how incomplete

Weissbourd

2009-01-01

371

Medicalized weapons & modern war.  

PubMed

"Medicalized" weapons--those that rely on advances in neuroscience, physiology, and pharmacology--offer the prospect of reducing casualties and protecting civilians. They could be especially useful in modern asymmetric wars in which conventional states are pitted against guerrilla or insurgent forces. But may physicians and other medical workers participate in their development? PMID:20166514

Gross, Michael L

372

Nuclear Weapons and Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The growing debate on nuclear weapons in recent years has begun to make inroads into school curricula. Elementary and secondary school teachers now face the important task of educating their students on issues relating to nuclear war without indoctrinating them to a particular point of view. (JBM)|

Howie, David I.

1984-01-01

373

Nuclear weapons in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents papers on the issue of the deployment of intermediate-range American nuclear missiles in Western Europe. Topics considered include an American view on the struggle for Europe, military strategy, nuclear deterrence, the illusion of NATO's nuclear defense, arms control, political aspects, national security, and a German Social Democrat's perspective on nuclear weapons in Europe.

1984-01-01

374

Ethics and nuclear weapons research  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear weapons are the ultimate weapons. Hence, many believe that in the realm of military research and development, research on nuclear weapons represents the ultimate. Those of us involved in nuclear weapon research are frequently asked why we do what we do, rather than get involved in the more ''peaceful'' endeavors open to scientists and engineers. There is a variety of answers to this question. 15 refs.

Brown, P.S.

1989-01-20

375

Weapons in the Lives of Battered Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed weapon use in intimate partner violence and perspectives on hypothetical firearm policies. Methods. We conducted structured in-person interviews with 417 women in 67 battered women’s shelters. Results. Words, hands/fists, and feet were the most common weapons used against and by battered women. About one third of the battered women had a firearm in the home. In two thirds of these households, the intimate partner used the gun(s) against the woman, usually threatening to shoot/kill her (71.4%) or to shoot at her (5.1%). Most battered women thought spousal notification/consultation regarding gun purchase would be useful and that a personalized firearm (“smart gun”) in the home would make things worse. Conclusions. A wide range of objects are used as weapons against intimate partners. Firearms, especially handguns, are more common in the homes of battered women than in households in the general population.

Sorenson, Susan B.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

2004-01-01

376

Determinants of Nuclear Weapons Proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear weapons proliferation is a topic of intense interest and concern among both academics and policy makers. Diverse opinions exist about the determinants of proliferation and the policy options to alter proliferation incentives. We evaluate a variety of explanations in two stages of nuclear proliferation, the presence of nuclear weapons production programs and the actual possession of nuclear weapons. We

Dong-Joon Jo; Erik Gartzke

2007-01-01

377

Third-Generation Nuclear Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today a third generation of nuclear weapons is technologically feasible. By altering the shape of the nuclear explosive and manipulating other design features, weapons could be built that generate and direct beams of radiation or streams of metallic pellets or droplets at such targets as missile-launch facilities on the ground, missiles in the air and satellites in space. These weapons

Theodore B. Taylor

1987-01-01

378

Nuclear weapons and international law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using two different perspectives, this collection of essays addresses the central legal question of whether the manufacture, deployment, and potential use of nuclear weapons is lawful. In addition, individual chapters focus on a variety of topical issues, including nuclear weapon free zones, nuclear testing, international law and regulations, nuclear weapons and nonproliferation, anti-ballistic missile systems, and the Strategic Defense Initiative.

Pogany

1987-01-01

379

Nuclear weapons are legal tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responding to an article by Elliot Meyrowitz stating that nuclear weapons are illegal threats, the author observes that international law does not forbid the possession or use of nuclear weapons, whose existence operates as part of the checks and balances process that maintains deterrence. Because nuclear weapons have never been identified among states as illegal, either by treaties or by

Almond; H. H. Jr

1985-01-01

380

Can nuclear weapons be abolished?  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the greatest threats to virtually all human rights is a global or regional nuclear war. For so long as nuclear weapons exist, there is a risk that they may be used. If nuclear war is to be avoided, therefore, nuclear weapons must be abolished. The abolition of nuclear weapons by international treaty is topical because for the first

Frank Barnaby

1998-01-01

381

Impurity profiling of a chemical weapon precursor for possible forensic signatures by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and chemometrics.  

PubMed

In this report we present the feasibility of using analytical and chemometric methodologies to reveal and exploit the chemical impurity profiles from commercial dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) samples to illustrate the type of forensic information that may be obtained from chemical-attack evidence. Using DMMP as a model compound of a toxicant that may be used in a chemical attack, we used comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC/TOF-MS) to detect and identify trace organic impurities in six samples of commercially acquired DMMP. The GC x GC/TOF-MS data was analyzed to produce impurity profiles for all six DMMP samples using 29 analyte impurities. The use of PARAFAC for the mathematical resolution of overlapped GC x GC peaks ensured clean spectra for the identification of many of the detected analytes by spectral library matching. The use of statistical pairwise comparison revealed that there were trace impurities that were quantitatively similar and different among five of the six DMMP samples. Two of the DMMP samples were revealed to have identical impurity profiles by this approach. The use of nonnegative matrix factorization indicated that there were five distinct DMMP sample types as illustrated by the clustering of the multiple DMMP analyses into five distinct clusters in the scores plots. The two indistinguishable DMMP samples were confirmed by their chemical supplier to be from the same bulk source. Sample information from the other chemical suppliers supported the idea that the other four DMMP samples were likely from different bulk sources. These results demonstrate that the matching of synthesized products from the same source is possible using impurity profiling. In addition, the identified impurities common to all six DMMP samples provide strong evidence that basic route information can be obtained from impurity profiles. Finally, impurities that may be unique to the sole bulk manufacturer of DMMP were found in some of the DMMP samples. PMID:20014817

Hoggard, Jamin C; Wahl, Jon H; Synovec, Robert E; Mong, Gary M; Fraga, Carlos G

2010-01-15

382

An approach for assessing human exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment  

SciTech Connect

Humans are exposed daily to multiple chemicals, including incidental exposures to complex chemical mixtures released into the environment and to combinations of chemicals that already co-exist in the environment because of previous releases from various sources. Exposures to chemical mixtures can occur through multiple pathways and across multiple routes. In this paper, we propose an iterative approach for assessing exposures to environmental chemical mixtures; it is similar to single-chemical approaches. Our approach encompasses two elements of the Risk Assessment Paradigm: Problem Formulation and Exposure Assessment. Multiple phases of the assessment occur in each element of the paradigm. During Problem Formulation, analysts identify and characterize the source(s) of the chemical mixture, ensure that dose-response and exposure assessment measures are concordant, and develop a preliminary evaluation of the mixture's fate. During Exposure Assessment, analysts evaluate the fate of the chemicals comprising the mixture using appropriate models and measurement data, characterize the exposure scenario, and estimate human exposure to the mixture. We also describe the utility of grouping the chemicals to be analyzed based on both physical-chemical properties and an understanding of environmental fate. In the article, we also highlight the need for understanding of changes in the mixture composition in the environment due to differential transport, differential degradation, and differential partitioning to other media. The section describes the application of the method to various chemical mixtures, highlighting issues associated with assessing exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment.

Rice, Glenn [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), National Center for Environmental Assessment, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)], E-mail: rice.glenn@epa.gov; MacDonell, Margaret [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division (United States); Hertzberg, Richard C. [Emory University, Rollins School of Public Health (United States); Teuschler, Linda [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), National Center for Environmental Assessment, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Picel, Kurt; Butler, Jim; Chang, Young-Soo; Hartmann, Heidi [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division (United States)

2008-11-15

383

Characterization and Detection of Biological Weapons with Atomic Force Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Critical gaps exist in our capabilities to rapidly characterize threat agents which could be used in attacks on facilities and military forces. DNA-based PCR and immunoassay-based techniques provide unique identification of species, strains and protein signatures of pathogens. However, differentiation between naturally occurring and weaponized bioagents and the identification of formulation signatures are beyond current technologies. One of the most effective and often the only definitive means to identify a threat agent is by its direct visualization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a rapid imaging technique that covers the size range of most biothreat agents (several nanometers to tens of microns), is capable of resolving pathogen morphology and structure, and could be developed into a portable device for biological weapons (BW) field characterization. AFM can detect pathogens in aerosol, liquid, surface and soil samples while concomitantly acquiring their weaponization and threat agent digital signatures. BW morphological and structural signatures, including modifications to pathogen microstructural architecture and topology that occur during formulation and weaponization, provide the means for their differentiation from crude or purified unformulated agent, processing signatures, as well as assessment of their potential for dispersion, inhalation and environmental persistence. AFM visualization of pathogen morphology and architecture often provides valuable digital signatures and allows direct detection and identification of threat agents. We have demonstrated that pathogens, spanning the size range from several nanometers for small agricultural satellite viruses to almost half micron for pox viruses, and to several microns for bacteria and bacterial spores, can be visualized by AFM under physiological conditions to a resolution of {approx}20-30 {angstrom}. We have also demonstrated that viruses from closely related families could be differentiated by AFM on the basis of their structural attributes. Similarly, we have shown3-5 that bacterial spore coat structures are phylogenetically and growth medium determined. These findings validate that AFM can identify species/formulation-specific signatures that could used to reconstruct production conditions. In addition, we showed that internal structures of pathogens could be revealed by chemical and enzymatic dissection, thus providing additional AFM threat agent signatures. We have developed AFM-based immunochemical labeling procedures for threat-specific epitope visualization, which extend the specificity of structural information that AFM can provide. AFM enables sensitive detection/identification/detection of threat agents (e.g Sterne. B. anthracis spore sample having a concentration of {approx}10{sup 6} spores/ml) and allows their identification in environmental cluttered samples. AFM analysis has the capacity for accessing forensically important data and rapid BW identification and weaponization characterization.

Malkin, A J; Plomp, M; Leighton, T J; McPherson, A

2006-09-25

384

Methods for Assessing Exposure to Chemical Substances. Volume 4. Methods for Enumerating and Characterizing Populations Exposed to Chemical Substances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report, one of a series of reports concerning exposure assessment, describes methods for estimating the sizes of populations potentially exposed to chemical substances. Five categories of exposed populations are covered: (1) populations exposed to che...

A. Borenstein D. A. Dixon G. L. Hendrickson J. J. Doria K. A. Hammerstrom

1985-01-01

385

A Novel Approach: Chemical Relational Databases, and the Role of the ISSCAN Database on Assessing Chemical Carcinogenity  

EPA Science Inventory

Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity databases are crucial resources for toxicologists and regulators involved in chemicals risk assessment. Until recently, existing public toxicity databases have been constructed primarily as "look-up-tables" of existing data, and most often did no...

386

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Appendices; Appendix A: MECS Data for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries; Appendix B: Discussion of Assumptions Used in Assessing Energy Data in the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and ...

2003-01-01

387

Application of toxicokinetics to improve chemical risk assessment: Implications for the use of animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

While toxicokinetics has become an integral part of pharmaceutical safety assessment over the last two decades, its use in the chemical industry is relatively new. However, it is recognised as a potentially important tool in human health risk assessment and recent initiatives have advocated greater application of toxicokinetics as part of an improved assessment strategy for crop protection chemicals that

Stuart Creton; Richard Billington; Will Davies; Matthew P. Dent; Gabrielle M. Hawksworth; Simon Parry; Kim Z. Travis

2009-01-01

388

Characteristics of plutonium and americium contamination at the former U.K. atomic weapons test ranges at Maralinga and Emu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physico-chemical studies on environmental plutonium are described, which provide data integral to an assessment of dose for the inhalation of artificial actinides by Australian Aborigines living a semi-traditional lifestyle at Maralinga and Emu, sites of U.K. atomic weapons tests between 1953 and 1963. The most significant area, from a radiological perspective, is the area contaminated by plutonium in a series

P. A. Burns; M. B. Cooper; K. H. Lokan; M. J. Wilks; G. A. Williams

1995-01-01

389

Assessment of hazard of chemical accidental releases triggered by floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the number of accidents happened, when floods trigger the releases of hazardous materials and following environment contamination. Baia Mare (Romania), Spolana Neratovice (Czech Republic) and hurricane Katrina (USA) are well known examples. The importance of this kind of phenomenon as a type of so called NATECH events is expressed among others in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which reorganises water conservation in Europe. It requires programmes of protection measures to be drawn up not later than 2009, and in sub-article 11 (3) l b) to prevent and/or reduce the impact of accidental pollution incidents, for example as a result of floods. Effective measures demand the assessment of hazard and risk of accidental release triggered by floods and there is a need for the method which can be used for these purposes. Such a method is still missing and this is why the basic method for hazard assessment has been developed. Simple indexes-based method is composed of three segments (natural risks, technological risks and combined risk) and it has flexible, modular structure. First segment estimates the probability of flooding of installation, the second, based on the reference scenarios estimates the possibility of release of chemicals and the third classify consequences. The work on refining of parameters and method continues. Method can be used in prevention of major accidents in the framework of the Council Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances (Seveso II directive) and can help to complete the safety studies in classified establishments.

Simonova, M.; Danihelka, P.

2009-04-01

390

Bioterrorism: pathogens as weapons.  

PubMed

Biowarfare has been used for centuries. The use of biological weapons in terrorism remains a threat. Biological weapons include infectious agents (pathogens) and toxins. The most devastating bioterrorism scenario would be the airborne dispersal of pathogens over a concentrated population area. Characteristics that make a specific pathogen a high-risk for bioterrorism include a low infective dose, ability to be aerosolized, high contagiousness, and survival in a variety of environmental conditions. The most dangerous potential bioterrorism agents include the microorganisms that produce anthrax, plague, tularemia, and smallpox. Other diseases of interest to bioterrorism include brucellosis, glanders, melioidosis, Q fever, and viral encephalitis. Food safety and water safety threats are another area of concern. PMID:23011963

Anderson, Peter D; Bokor, Gyula

2012-10-01

391

Early retirement for weaponeers?  

SciTech Connect

Department of Energy`s Lawrence Livermore Laboratory`s once-vital nuclear weapons division is now in dire straits. The laboratory was established in 1952, during the titanic struggle over the hydrogen bomb, has grown steadily from $7 million to its peak of $1.1 billion in 1991. The future for key members of their most experienced weapons design team is uncertain. Over the past two years, Livermore`s operating budget has fallen by 12.5 percent or $127.6 million. Nearly 750 employees, 10 percent of the work force, accepted early retirement offers last year. Further budget cuts will force another 300 to 600 personnel out by the end of 1995. The future resides in the U.S. Congress.

Weisman, J.

1994-07-01

392

Application of Tryptophan Fluorescence to Assess Sensitizing Potentials of Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are too many chemical substances around our living space. However, the toxicity of most of them has not been reported,\\u000a especially regarding their sensitizing potentials. We aimed to develop a simple in vitro method to quantitatively predict\\u000a the sensitizing potentials of chemicals by measuring the fluorescence of chemical-human serum albumin (HSA) complexes. HSA\\u000a was treated with test chemicals and

Thi-Thu-Phuong Pham; Tsunehiro Oyama; Toyohi Isse; Toshihiro Kawamoto

2009-01-01

393

Weapons and Aggression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Craig Anderson of Iowa State University, this case study addresses the question: "Does the mere presence of a weapon increase the accessibility of aggressive thoughts?" It concerns the following concepts: quantile and box plots, stem and leaf displays, one-sample t test, confidence interval, within-subjects ANOVA, and consequences of violation of normality assumption. This is a great example of a case study that illustrates many different concepts of statistics.

Lane, David M.; Anderson, Craig

2009-03-06

394

Operational risk assessment of chemical industries by exploiting accident databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accident databases (NRC, RMP, and others) contain records of incidents (e.g., releases and spills) that have occurred in the USA chemical plants during recent years. For various chemical industries, [Kleindorfer, P. R., Belke, J. C., Elliott, M. R., Lee, K., Lowe, R. A., & Feldman, H. I. (2003). Accident epidemiology and the US chemical industry: Accident history and worst-case data

A. Meel; L. M. O’Neill; J. H. Levin; W. D. Seider; U. Oktem; N. Keren

2007-01-01

395

Direct toxicity assessment of toxic chemicals with electrochemical method.  

PubMed

Electrochemical measurement of respiratory chain activity is a rapid and reliable screening for the toxicity on microorganisms. Here, we investigated in-vitro effects of toxin on Escherichia coli (E. coli) that was taken as a model microorganism incubated with ferricyanide. The current signal of ferrocyanide effectively amplified by ultramicroelectrode array (UMEA), which was proven to be directly related to the toxicity. Accordingly, a direct toxicity assessment (DTA) based on chronoamperometry was proposed to detect the effect of toxic chemicals on microorganisms. The electrochemical responses to 3,5-dichlorophenol (DCP) under the incubation times revealed that the toxicity reached a stable level at 60 min, and its 50% inhibiting concentration (IC50) was estimated to be 8.0 mg L(-1). At 60 min incubation, the IC50 values for KCN and As2O3 in water samples were 4.9 mg L(-1) and 18.3 mg L(-1), respectively. But the heavy metal ions, such as Cu2+, Pb2+ and Ni2+, showed no obvious toxicity on E. coli. With the exception of Hg2+, it showed 40.0 mg L(-1) IC50 value when E. coli was exposed to its solution for 60 min. The lower sensitivity of DTA for the heavy metal ions could be attributed to the toxicological endpoint and the experimental conditions used. All results suggest that the DTA is a sensitive, rapid and inexpensive alternative to on-site water and wastewater toxic analysis. PMID:19393367

Liu, Chang; Sun, Ting; Xu, Xiaolong; Dong, Shaojun

2009-03-24

396

Chemical Warfare and Chemical Disarmament.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described are some of the technical, military, and political considerations that bear most directly on the choices facing the United States and its NATO allies on modern lethal chemical weapons. (BT)|

Meselson, Matthew; Robinson, Julian Perry

1980-01-01

397

Countering third world weapons of mass destruction: Desert storm as a prototype. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs)--nuclear, biological, and chemical--is occurring throughout the Third World. Desert Storm offers an excellent case study for assessing the various measures and operations which can be employed to protect U.S.. forces against an adversary possessing a WMD capability. The elements of Desert Storm's successful strategy can be categorized in three broad approaches--deterrence, denial, and defense. All three approaches were necessary and syngergistic. In the future, the ability to quickly deny or destroy an adversary's WMD capability will be increasingly important, due to the unacceptability of exposing forces to any type of NBC agent, the likelihood for increased uncertainty surrounding deterrent threats, and the diplomatic, political, and psychological dilemmas posed by an adversary's first use....Weapons of mass destruction, Desert Storm.

Nelson, S.M.

1993-02-19

398

Interactions between chemical and climate stressors: A role for mechanistic toxicology in assessing climate change risks  

EPA Science Inventory

Incorporation of global climate change (GCC) effects into regulatory assessments of chemical risk and injury requires an integrated examination of both chemical and non-chemical stressors. Environmental variables altered by GCC, such as temperature, precipitation, salinity and pH...

399

Challenges of exposure assessment for health studies in the aftermath of chemical incidents and disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure assessment during and after acute chemical incidents and disasters is essential for health studies that may follow. During chemical incidents, the focus usually lies on risk assessment and afterward attention shifts toward possible (long-term) health effects. This may lead to insufficient available data on exposure to study the association between exposure and health outcome, and collection of additional exposure

Sim Bongers; Nicole A H Janssen; B Reiss; L Grievink; E Lebret; H Kromhout

2008-01-01

400

A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

401

Handheld ultrasound concealed weapons detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a remove concealed weapons detector has been built and tested. The concealed weapons detector will enable law enforcement and security officers to detect metallic and nonmetallic weapons concealed beneath clothing remotely from beyond arm's length to about 20 feet. These detectors may be used to: (1) allow hands-off, stand-off frisking of suspects for metallic and

Franklin S. Felber; Norbert C. Wild; Scott Nunan; Dennis Breuner; Frank Doft

1998-01-01

402

Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector (CWD) has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 25 feet (8 meters). Applications include weapon detection in prison settings, by officers in

Norbert Wilde; Steve Niederhaus; Hon Lam; Chris Lum

2002-01-01

403

Evaluation of EU Risk assessments Existing Chemicals (EC Regulation 793\\/93)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation was performed on the first group (41) of completed risk\\u000aassessments for chemicals of the EU priority lists (Existing Chemicals; \\u000aEC Regulation 793\\/93). The evaluation focussed on the conclusions of the\\u000arisk assessments. The EU risk assessment process detected a high number\\u000aof substances of concern. Furthermore priority chemicals may pose\\u000a(potential) risks to the whole range of

Bodar CWM; Berthault F; Bruijn JHM de; Leeuwen CJ van; Pronk MEJ; Vermeire TG

2007-01-01

404

Estimates of radiological risk from depleted uranium weapons in war scenarios.  

PubMed

Several weapons used during the recent conflict in Yugoslavia contain depleted uranium, including missiles and armor-piercing incendiary rounds. Health concern is related to the use of these weapons, because of the heavy-metal toxicity and radioactivity of uranium. Although chemical toxicity is considered the more important source of health risk related to uranium, radiation exposure has been allegedly related to cancers among veterans of the Balkan conflict, and uranium munitions are a possible source of contamination in the environment. Actual measurements of radioactive contamination are needed to assess the risk. In this paper, a computer simulation is proposed to estimate radiological risk related to different exposure scenarios. Dose caused by inhalation of radioactive aerosols and ground contamination induced by Tomahawk missile impact are simulated using a Gaussian plume model (HOTSPOT code). Environmental contamination and committed dose to the population resident in contaminated areas are predicted by a food-web model (RESRAD code). Small values of committed effective dose equivalent appear to be associated with missile impacts (50-y CEDE < 5 mSv), or population exposure by water-independent pathways (50-y CEDE < 80 mSv). The greatest hazard is related to the water contamination in conditions of effective leaching of uranium in the groundwater (50-y CEDE < 400 mSv). Even in this worst case scenario, the chemical toxicity largely predominates over radiological risk. These computer simulations suggest that little radiological risk is associated to the use of depleted uranium weapons. PMID:11768794

Durante, Marco; Pugliese, Mariagabriella

2002-01-01

405

Assessment of chemical toxicity using mammalian mitochondrial electron transport particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

New spectrophotometric bioassay procedures have been developed for evaluating chemical toxicity, using electron transport particles isolated from bovine heart mitochondria, based on the ability of many toxic chemicals to interfere with the integrated function of electron transport enzymes. The sensitivity of the mitochondrial assays is compared to published sensitivities of otherin vivo andin vitro toxicity testing methods. Regression analysis of

L. M. Knobeloch; G. A. Blondin; H. W. Read; J. M. Harkin

1990-01-01

406

Public Health Assessment for Petitioned Public Health Assessment, Keil Chemical, Hammond, Lake County, Indiana, EPA Facility ID: IND005421755.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Residents of Hammond, Indiana petitioned the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) to conduct a health assessment in response to concerns of child brain cancer and emissions from the Keil Chemical plant. Specific concerns were the relea...

2001-01-01

407

Adjoint method for assessment and reduction of chemical risk in open spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical accidents and chemical terrorisms are threats to people's health and lives. To predict and assess the potential risk\\u000a of chemical leakage is of great importance for decision-makers to reduce risk and panic beforehand. When the chemical gas\\u000a releases into an open space, the transfer and diffusion of the poisonous aerosol is directly affected by meteorological factors,\\u000a so the atmospheric

Feng Liu; Yuanhang Zhang; Fei Hu

2005-01-01

408

Deciding which chemical mixtures risk assessment methods work best for what mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The most commonly used chemical mixtures risk assessment methods involve simple notions of additivity and toxicological similarity. Newer methods are emerging in response to the complexities of chemical mixture exposures and effects. Factors based on both science and policy drive decisions regarding whether to conduct a chemical mixtures risk assessment and, if so, which methods to employ. Scientific considerations are based on positive evidence of joint toxic action, elevated human exposure conditions or the potential for significant impacts on human health. Policy issues include legislative drivers that may mandate action even though adequate toxicity data on a specific mixture may not be available and risk assessment goals that impact the choice of risk assessment method to obtain the amount of health protection desired. This paper discusses three important concepts used to choose among available approaches for conducting a chemical mixtures risk assessment: (1) additive joint toxic action of mixture components; (2) toxicological interactions of mixture components; and (3) chemical composition of complex mixtures. It is proposed that scientific support for basic assumptions used in chemical mixtures risk assessment should be developed by expert panels, risk assessment methods experts, and laboratory toxicologists. This is imperative to further develop and refine quantitative methods and provide guidance on their appropriate applications. Risk assessors need scientific support for chemical mixtures risk assessment methods in the form of toxicological data on joint toxic action for high priority mixtures, statistical methods for analyzing dose-response for mixtures, and toxicological and statistical criteria for determining sufficient similarity of complex mixtures.

Teuschler, Linda K. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment, 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr. (MS-A110), Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)], E-mail: teuschler.linda@epa.gov

2007-09-01

409

Guidelines for the Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is today issuing five guidelines for assessing the health risks of environmental pollutants. These are: Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment; Guidelines for Estimating Exposures; Guidelines for Mutagenicity Ri...

1986-01-01

410

The Chemical Hazard Assessment Team of the Office of Food ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... protein that is most commonly referenced in the literature, and the ... of using chemical solubility properties as the basis of making delineations, the ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/scienceresearch

411

New Methods for the Assessment of Immunotoxicity of Chemical Substances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The immune system is a target of toxic insult following subchronic or chronic exposure to environmental chemicals, therapeutic drugs or abused drugs. Interaction of xenobiotics with the immune system may result in undesirable effects of three principal ty...

M. Pallardy H. Lebrec C. Blot G. R. Burleson C. Bohuon

1992-01-01

412

DEVELOPMENT OF CHEMICAL COMPATIBILITY CRITERIA FOR ASSESSING FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LINERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory testing was conducted to develop chemical resistance data using immersion tests. Six FML materials (polyvinylchloride, chlorinated polyethylene, chlorosulfonated polyethylene, high density polyethylene, epichlorohydrin and ethylene propylene diene terpolymer) were test...

413

A multivariate chemical map of industrial chemicalsAssessment of various protocols for identification of chemicals of potential concern  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present study the Industrial chemical map was created, and investigated. Molecular descriptors were calculated for 56072 organic substances from the European inventory of existing commercial chemical substances (EINECS). The resulting multivariate dataset was subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), giving five principal components, mainly reflecting size, hydrophobicity, flexibility, halogenation and electronical properties. It is these five PCs that form

Mia Stenberg; Anna Linusson; Mats Tysklind; Patrik L. Andersson

2009-01-01

414

JPRS report: Proliferation issues. Russian federation: Foreign intelligence service report. A new challenge after the cold war: Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction  

SciTech Connect

This report contains foreign media information on issues related to worldwide proliferation and transfer activities in nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, including delivery systems and the transfer of weapons-relevant technologies.

NONE

1993-03-05

415

Interactions between chemical and climate stressors: a role for mechanistic toxicology in assessing climate change risks.  

PubMed

Incorporation of global climate change (GCC) effects into assessments of chemical risk and injury requires integrated examinations of chemical and nonchemical stressors. Environmental variables altered by GCC (temperature, precipitation, salinity, pH) can influence the toxicokinetics of chemical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion as well as toxicodynamic interactions between chemicals and target molecules. In addition, GCC challenges processes critical for coping with the external environment (water balance, thermoregulation, nutrition, and the immune, endocrine, and neurological systems), leaving organisms sensitive to even slight perturbations by chemicals when pushed to the limits of their physiological tolerance range. In simplest terms, GCC can make organisms more sensitive to chemical stressors, while alternatively, exposure to chemicals can make organisms more sensitive to GCC stressors. One challenge is to identify potential interactions between nonchemical and chemical stressors affecting key physiological processes in an organism. We employed adverse outcome pathways, constructs depicting linkages between mechanism-based molecular initiating events and impacts on individuals or populations, to assess how chemical- and climate-specific variables interact to lead to adverse outcomes. Case examples are presented for prospective scenarios, hypothesizing potential chemical-GCC interactions, and retrospective scenarios, proposing mechanisms for demonstrated chemical-climate interactions in natural populations. Understanding GCC interactions along adverse outcome pathways facilitates extrapolation between species or other levels of organization, development of hypotheses and focal areas for further research, and improved inputs for risk and resource injury assessments. PMID:23136056

Hooper, Michael J; Ankley, Gerald T; Cristol, Daniel A; Maryoung, Lindley A; Noyes, Pamela D; Pinkerton, Kent E

2013-01-01

416

Current Trends in Smart Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the last thirty years or so major advances have been made in the development of seekers and sensors for use on smart weapons. The American public had its first look at smart weapons when they watched guided bombs used against targets in North Vietnam...

R. Hayes

1997-01-01

417

Nuclear weapons and nuclear war  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear

C. Cassel; M. McCally; H. Abraham

1984-01-01

418

Weapons and Minority Youth Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Weapons violence is a major public health problem that especially impacts minority youth. Interventions designed to reduce weapon use by youth are categorized as educational/behavioral change, legal, and technological/environmental. Few educational programs currently exist, but those that do largely concern firearm safety courses, public…

Northrop, Daphne; Hamrick, Kim

419

Nuclear weapons and regional conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important national defense objective for the US in the post cold-war era -- according to Secretary of Defense, Cheney is to deter regional conflicts. To satisfy this objective there is more or less general agreement that nuclear weapons are not needed, especially against regional powers like Iraq that do not (as yet) have a nuclear capability. Modern conventional weapons

A. L. Latter; E. A. Martinelli

1993-01-01

420

Some facts about “weapon focus”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weapon focus” refers to the concentration of acrime witness's attention on a weapon, and the resultant reduction in ability to remember other details of the crime. We examined this phenomenon by presenting subject-witnesses with a series of slides depicting an event in a fast-food restaurant. Half of the subjects saw a customer point a gun at the cashier; the other

Elizabeth F. Loftus; Geoffrey R. Loftus; Jane Messot

1987-01-01

421

The Effects of Nuclear Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This handbook prepared by the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project of the Department of Defense in coordination with other cognizant government agencies and published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, is a comprehensive summary of current knowledge on the effects of nuclear weapons. The effects information contained herein is calculated for yields up to 20 megatons and the scaling

Glasstone; Samuel

1957-01-01

422

Future of Nuclear Weapon Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The next few years will bring decisions that are critical for the future of the nation's nuclear weapons program and for the role of the national weapons laboratories. To meet this challenge, the United States needs to develop both a clear, cohesive, nati...

G. H. Miller P. S. Brown P. T. Herman R. D. Neifert P. L. Chrzanowski

1988-01-01

423

Soviet Weapons Development and the Scientific Community.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics include: Development of the Soviet T-34 Tank, Organizations in Soviet Weapons R/D and Science, Soviet Weapons Acquisition Process, Characteristics of Soviet Weapon Design, Science Ties to the Soviet Military, Types of Linkages between Science and t...

A. J. Alexander

1985-01-01

424

The Effect of Non-Lethal Weapons on Police Officer Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1990 and 2000, there was an increase in the use of non-lethal weapons and a decline in the number and severity of attacks on police officers. Using longitudinal data on several hundred U.S. police agencies, I investigate the relationship between police officer safety and the adoption of non-lethal weapons. I find that the adoption of non-lethal chemical weapons had

Alex Yuskavage

425

What do weapons secure  

SciTech Connect

The iron triangle of the Defense Department, Congressional hawks, and the defense industry will fight any efforts to reduce President Reagan's plan to rearm America and will dominate any debate over national security and weapons procurement as they have done since 1945. American attitudes are changing, however, and pressing for a re-evaluation of this closed policy apparatus. The first step to be taken is a re-examination of global and national realities to see if current policy is appropriate. Reagan has reversed the trend toward arms control to more strategic arms competition which, by creating waste and distrust, will reduce security. It also narrows policy considerations to East-West rivalry and ignores the North-South changes that are taking place. US failures in Vietnam and Watergate and a negative response to US involvement in Central America are signs that the public is increasingly skeptical of the iron triangle. (DCK)

Adams, G.

1982-04-01

426

Immunogenicity of acrylate chemicals as assessed by antibody induction.  

PubMed

The immunogenicities of two acrylate chemicals, trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) and methyl acrylate (MeAc), and one related vinyl compound, 4-vinyl pyridine (4VP), were investigated by determining the in vivo induction of IgG antibodies in guinea pigs. The injection of the chemicals emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant resulted in the induction of serum antibody responses against MeAc and 4VP but not TMPTA. However, antibody with anti-TMPTA activity was produced following immunization of guinea pigs with TMPTA conjugated to protein, which allowed comparisons to be made of the immunogenic structural features of the compounds. PMID:3596820

Bull, J E; Henderson, D C; Turk, J L

1987-01-01

427

An Assessment of the Corrosive Potential of the Chemicals Used in Penetrant Testing Towards Aircraft Structural Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various chemicals are used in non-destructive penetrant testing for cracks in aircraft structural materials. Tests have been carried out to assess the corrosive effect of these chemicals on aircraft aluminium alloys. These tests showed that the chemicals ...

R. S. G. Devereux L. Wilson

1981-01-01

428

Assessing Risks of Endocrine-disrupting Chemicals: A Scientific Odyssey  

EPA Science Inventory

In the mid-90s there was a marked increase in public awareness of, and concern for, endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). There have been a number of purported impacts of EDCs on both human and wildlife health; however, in some instances it has been challenging to relate observ...

429

Applying RESRAD-CHEM for chemical risk assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

RESRAD-CHEM is a multiple pathway analysis computer code to evaluate chemically contaminated sites; it was developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The code is designed to predict human health risks from exposure to hazard...

J. J. Cheng C. Yu

1995-01-01

430

AN OVERVIEW OF THE USE OF QSARS FOR RANKING AND PRIORITIZING LARGE CHEMICAL INVENTORIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecological risk assessments for chemical stressors are used to establish linkages between likely exposure concentrations and adverse effects to ecological receptors. At times, it is useful to conduct screening risk assessments to assist in prioritizing or ranking chemicals on the...

431

Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from glasnost in that there now is more open debate about a range of issues in the Soviet Union, including defense issues. Thus, we now have a great deal of published material to draw upon in assessing Soviet views, and experts in the West can talk much more freely to Soviet experts. However, this information explosion makes it more difficult to discriminate signal from noise, particularly as there continues to be both propaganda and deception in Soviet statements about defense issues. Clearly, some Soviet statements about nuclear weapons are designed to influence attitudes and actions in the West. I shall cite some examples in this paper.

Sloss, L. (Sloss (Leon) Associates, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-10-01

432

Concealed weapon identification using terahertz imaging sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz imaging sensors are being considered for providing a concealed weapon identification capability for military and security applications. In this paper the difficulty of this task is assessed in a systematic way. Using imaging systems operating at 640 GHz, high resolution imagery of possible concealed weapons has been collected. Information in this imagery is removed in a controlled and systematic way and then used in a human observer perception experiment. From the perception data, a calibration factor describing the overall difficulty of this task was derived. This calibration factor is used with a general model of human observer performance developed at the US Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate to predict the task performance of observers using terahertz imaging sensors. Example performance calculations for a representative imaging sensor are shown.

Jacobs, Eddie L.; Moyer, Steve; Franck, Charmaine C.; DeLucia, Frank C.; Casto, Corey; Petkie, Douglas T.; Murrill, Steven R.; Halford, Carl E.

2006-06-01

433

Threat credibility and weapons of mass destruction.  

PubMed

Individual or collective preparedness for an attack involving weapons of mass destruction (WMD) must be based on an analysis of the threat. In threat assessment one takes many factors into account, including the physical and psychological parameters of the attacker. Although the potential devastation caused by WMD is significant, there are many limitations to the effective use of such weapons. Casualty rates will likely be measured in the thousands rather than millions because of factors that will be discussed. The psychological ramifications, it should be noted, the permutations of which have not yet been defined, will be much longer lasting. In this paper the author discusses these and other characteristics of the current threat. PMID:16212311

Moores, Leon E

2002-03-15

434

Not With Impunity: Assessing U.S. Policy for Retaliating to a Chemical or Biological Attack.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

How should the United States determine its response to a chemical or biological attack against American personnel or interests. This paper assesses the current U,S reprisal policy known as 'calculated ambiguity' and concludes that today's policy does not ...

H. W. Conley

2001-01-01

435

CHEMICAL MUTAGENESIS AND CARCINOGENESIS: INCORPORATION OF MECHANISTIC DATA INTO RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

CHEMICAL MUTAGENESIS AND CARCINOGENESIS: INCORPORATION OF MECHANISTIC DATA INTO RISK ASSESSMENT The current understanding of cancer as a genetic disease, requiring a specific set of genomic alterations for a normal cell to form a metastatic tumor, has provided the oppor...

436

Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other Environmental Impacts  

EPA Science Inventory

TRACI, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts, has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agencyâ??s National Risk Management Research Laboratory to facilitate the characterization of stressors that have potential effects, ...

437

Assessment and treatment of addictive sexual disorders: relevance for chemical dependency relapse.  

PubMed

Despite some skepticism about the existence of sexual addiction, the addiction model has proven very useful for treating compulsive sexual behaviors. Addictive sexual disorders often coexist with chemical dependency and are a frequently unrecognized cause of chemical dependency relapse. Sex addiction also contributes significantly to the spread of HIV disease. This paper reviews the differential diagnosis of addictive sexual disorders, their assessment. their treatment, and their interaction with chemical dependency, and provides information about 12-step (mutual-help) resources. PMID:11795580

Schneider, J P; Irons, R R

2001-12-01

438

Guidance manual for health risk assessment of chemically contaminated seafood. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report was written to assist in the evaluation and interpretation of the human health risks associated with chemical contaminate levels in seafood. High concentrations of toxic chemicals have been found in sediments and marine organisms in parts of Puget Sound. Since heavy consumption of contaminated seafood may pose a substantial human health risk, it's important that assessments of the risk associated with seafood consumption be conducted in a consistent, acceptable manner. The report provides an overview of risk assessment, and describes hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Guidance is provided on presentation and interpretation of results.

Pastorok, R.A.

1986-06-01

439

Risk Assessment for Chemical Spills in the River Rhine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Drinking water production based on riverbank filtration has a long tradition along the River Rhine. The river water quality\\u000a plays a crucial role in ensuring the safe supply of drinking water. Despite the successful restoration of the Rhine, the risk\\u000a of future chemical spills still remains. A prediction of the contaminant breakthrough at the reach of the river used for

Paul Eckert

440

Correlation Study on PhysicoChemical Parameters and Quality Assessment of Kosi River Water, Uttarakhand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present work deals with the assessment of physico-chemical parameters of water samples of Kosi river at Kosi sampling station during 2004 and 2005 in pre monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon seasons. Statistical studies have been carried out by calculating correlation coefficients between different pairs of parameters and t- test applied for checking significance. The observed values of various physico-chemical parameters

NARENDRA SINGH BHANDARI; KAPIL NAYAL

441

Chemical and microbiological assessment of pendimethalin-contaminated soil after treatment with Fenton's reagent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed chemical effects and microbial response after Fenton's treatment of pendimethalin contaminated soils. The efficiency of the rapid chemical transformation of pendimethalin varied from 25% to greater than 90%. The highest efficiency was associated with a soil having comparatively low organic matter and low acid neutralizing capacity. This is consistent with the role of organic matter as a

Christopher M. Miller; Richard L. Valentine; Marc E. Roehl; Pedro J. J. Alvarez

1996-01-01

442

ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING TECHNOLOGY: AN EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL COAL CLEANING PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report assembles and assesses technical and economic information on chemical coal cleaning processes. Sufficient data was located to evaluate 11 processes in detail. It was found that chemical coal cleaning processes can remove up to 99% of the pyritic sulfur and 40% of the o...

443

Development of a Standardized Laboratory Method for Assessing the Toxicity of Chemical Substances to Earthworms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An interlaboratory comparison of three tests developed to assess the toxicity of chemicals, using the earthworm as an indicator, has been carried out. The three methods involve the earthworm in contact with: (1) the chemical in a moist medium, (2) the che...

C. A. Edwards

1983-01-01

444

Assessment of environment-, health- and safety aspects of fine chemical processes during early design phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most environmental-, health- and safety problems (EHS) of a chemical process are fixed during the early stages of the design process, when the chemical reaction pathway and the reaction parameters (e.g. solvents, temperature) are selected. Although a large variety of methods exist for assessing EHS problems of existing processes, none of them can be applied as a general method during

Guntram Koller; Ulrich Fischer; Konrad Hungerbühler

1999-01-01

445

Dangers from weapons of mass destruction: Any different in South Asia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dangers are inherent in the very existence of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons. Yet, the sheer scale of destruction that nuclear weapons can cause and their reach over space and time make the dangers from them incomparable in a certain sense. The paper seeks to bring out their dangers at both the general, global level, as well as examine how

Manpreet Sethi

2001-01-01

446

Regional perspectives on the causes of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this article is the causes of proliferation of nuclear, biologic, and chemical weapons, and their means of delivery—collectively referred to simply as weapons of mass destruction—in the Middle East. It seeks to explain the quest to proliferate in terms of the motivations of the major regional powers, the interconnectivity of the region, and local perceptions as to

Sami G. Hajjar

2000-01-01

447

Biological weapons--the poor man`s nuke. Research report  

SciTech Connect

Biological warfare is one leg of the triad of weapons of mass destruction (coupled with nuclear and chemical weapons). Biological weapons pose a significant threat to the United States military and public population across the spectrum of conflict. There is, however, little common knowledge of the insidious yet devastating potential of these weapons. This paper is written for the lay (that is non-technical) reader, outlining the history, threat, and possible countermeasures related to biological warfare agents. The intent is to heighten the awareness level regarding biological warfare as a military and terrorist threat.

Schneider, B.R.; Mayer, T.N.

1995-04-01

448

ASSESSING CHEMICAL HAZARDS AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) FOR PLANNING FUTURE D&D  

SciTech Connect

This paper documents the fiscal year (FY) 2006 assessment to evaluate potential chemical and radiological hazards associated with vessels and piping in the former plutonium process areas at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Evaluations by PFP engineers as design authorities for specific systems and other subject-matter experts were conducted to identify the chemical hazards associated with transitioning the process areas for the long-term layup of PFP before its eventual final decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). D and D activities in the main process facilities were suspended in September 2005 for a period of between 5 and 10 years. A previous assessment conducted in FY 2003 found that certain activities to mitigate chemical hazards could be deferred safely until the D and D of PFP, which had been scheduled to result in a slab-on-grade condition by 2009. As a result of necessary planning changes, however, D and D activities at PFP will be delayed until after the 2009 time frame. Given the extended project and plant life, it was determined that a review of the plant chemical hazards should be conducted. This review to determine the extended life impact of chemicals is called the ''Plutonium Finishing Plant Chemical Hazards Assessment, FY 2006''. This FY 2006 assessment addresses potential chemical and radiological hazard areas identified by facility personnel and subject-matter experts who reevaluated all the chemical systems (items) from the FY 2003 assessment. This paper provides the results of the FY 2006 chemical hazards assessment and describes the methodology used to assign a hazard ranking to the items reviewed.

HOPKINS, A.M.; KLOS, D.B.; MINETT, M.J.

2007-01-25

449

Role of Metabolomics in Environmental Chemical Exposure and Risk Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

The increasing demand for the reduction, replacement, and refinement of the use of animal models in exposure assessments has stimulated the pursuit of alternative methods. This has included not only the use of the in vitro systems (e.g., cell cultures) in lieu of in vivo whole an...

450

Toxicokinetic modeling and its applications in chemical risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling has found frequent application in risk assessments where PBPK models serve as important adjuncts to studies on modes of action of xenobiotics. In this regard, studies on mode of action provide insight into both the sites\\/mechanisms of action and the form of the xenobiotic associated with toxic responses. Validated PBPK models permit

Melvin E. Andersen

2003-01-01

451

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist mall- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

452

VALIDATION METHODS FOR CHEMICAL EXPOSURE AND HAZARD ASSESSMENT MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Mathematical models and computer simulation codes designed to aid in hazard assessment for environmental protection must be verified and validated before they can be used with confidence in a decision-making or priority-setting context. Operational validation, or full-scale testi...

453

Chemical Speciation Dynamics and Toxicity Assessment in Aquatic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key to risk assessment of contaminant effects in the environment (water, sediments, soil) is the ability to document cause-and-effect relationships. In ecotoxicological research, biotic responses are related to quantified contaminant concentrations, which in most cases are still expressed in terms of “total elemental concentration” and not in terms of “elemental species.” However, it becomes evident that the abundance and

H. E. Witters

1998-01-01

454

How electroshock weapons kill!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

Lundquist, Marjorie

2010-03-01

455

Risk in the Weapons Stockpile  

SciTech Connect

When it comes to the nuclear weapons stockpile, risk must be as low as possible. Design and care to keep the stockpile healthy involves all aspects of risk management. Design diversity is a method that helps to mitigate risk.

Noone, Bailey C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-14

456

Corrosion Resistance of Weapon Lubricants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

INTRODUCTION: Used animal fat for lubrication as far back as 1400BC * Oils became available as lubricants in 1859 * Dry lubricant formulations became available in the 1950's. WEAPON SYSTEM LUBRICATION CHARACTERISTICS - LUBRICITY - VISCOSITY - CORROSION RE...

J. Menke

2010-01-01

457

Nuclear Weapons and Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides suggestions on how science teachers can, and should, deal with the nuclear weapons debate in a balanced and critical way. Includes a table outlining points for and against deterrence and disarmament. (JN)|

Wellington, J. J.

1984-01-01

458

15 CFR 710.4 - Overview of scheduled chemicals and examples of affected industries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Overview of scheduled chemicals and examples of affected industries...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

2013-01-01

459

Concealed weapons detection using electromagnetic resonances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concealed weapons pose a significant threat to both law enforcement and security agency personnel. The uncontrolled environments associated with peacekeeping and the move toward relaxation of concealed weapons laws here in the U.S. provide a strong motivation for developing weapons detection technologies which are noninvasive and can function noncooperatively. Existing weapons detection systems are primarily oriented to detecting metal and

Allan R. Hunt; R. Douglas Hogg; William Foreman

1998-01-01

460

Nuclear weapon-free zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature dealing with nuclear weapon-free zones is not as prominent as is that on arms control and reduction negotiations, confidence-building measures, and a variety of other security-related issues. Documentary sources are relatively scarce and they are widely scattered. Yet on close scrutiny, it becomes apparent that nuclear weapon-free zones have been the object of widespread, intense interest in most

Zinner

1988-01-01

461

A SUBSPACESIGNALPROCESSINGTECHNIQUEFOR CONCEALED WEAPONS DETECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concealed weapons detection isoneofthegreatest challenges facing national security nowadays. Recently, ithasbeenshown that each weapon canhave auniquefingerprint, which isaset ofelectromagnetic (EM)resonant frequencies determined by its size, shape, andphysical composition. Extracting theres- onantfrequencies ofeachweaponisoneofthemajor tasks ofanydetection system. Inthis paper, wemodelthereflected signal fromeachobject asasummation ofsinusoidal signals, eachatcertain frequency equal tooneoftheobject's reso- nantfrequencies. Usingthis model, wepropose adetection approach that isbased onamodified version oftheMUlti- pleSIgnal

K. JRayLiu

462

Nuclear weapons and nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

Cassel, C.; McCally, M.; Abraham, H.

1984-01-01

463

Meteor Beliefs Project: meteoritic weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A discussion of meteoritic iron weapons and weapon-like tools is given, drawing on fictional, mythological, and real-world examples. The evidence suggests that no great significance was attached to such metal purely because of its "heavenly" provenance prior to the early 19th century AD, despite later assumptions, including during the period of increased interest in meteorites, cratering events and the early usage of meteoritic iron, beginning in the early 20th century.

Kristine Larsen, K.; McBeath, A.

2012-01-01

464

Developing Computer Model-Based Assessment of Chemical Reasoning: A Feasibility Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports a feasibility study on developing computer model-based assessments of chemical reasoning at the high school level. Computer models are flash and NetLogo environments to make simultaneously available three domains in chemistry: macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic. Students interact with computer models to answer assessment

Liu, Xiufeng; Waight, Noemi; Gregorius, Roberto; Smith, Erica; Park, Mihwa

2012-01-01

465

ADVANCES IN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT FOR SYSTEMIC TOXICANTS AND CHEMICAL MIXTURES: AN INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The symposium focuses on improvement of techniques and evaluation of newly developed techniques in risk assessment of systemic toxicants and toxic mixtures of chemicals. The goal of the symposium is to review the risk assessment procedures for systemic toxicants now in use and to...

466

In ovo exposure quail assay for risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there are in vivo assays using various organisms for the risk assessment of chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties, effective experimental methods for avian species are still under debate. We have developed an in ovo exposure assay using Japanese quail eggs, aimed at assessing disrupting effects on avian reproductive development and function. Hybrid eggs from Brazilian Brown male and White

Ryo Kamata; Shinji Takahashi; Akira Shimizu; Masatoshi Morita; Fujio Shiraishi

2006-01-01

467

TSARINA: A computer model for assessing conventional and chemical attacks on air bases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Note describes the latest version of the TSARINA (TSAR INputs using AIDA) airbase damage assessment computer program that has been developed to estimate the on-base concentration of toxic agents that would be deposited by a chemical attack and to assess losses to various on-base resources from conventional attacks, as well as the physical damage to runways, taxiways, buildings, and

D. E. Emerson; L. H. Wegner

1990-01-01

468

Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Learning and Developmental Disorders: Epidemiology and Exposure Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation has two areas of focus: learning and developmental disorders (LDDs) and polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs). Epidemiological and exposure assessment methods are applied to each. The first paper used geographic location as a surrogate for exposure and broadly assesses the effect of the environment, both physical and social, on…

Hoffman, Jennifer Kate

2010-01-01

469

APPROACHES FOR INCORPORATING NON-CHEMICAL STRESSORS INTO CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past twenty years, the risk assessment paradigm has gradually shifted from an individual chemical approach to a community-based model. Inherent in community-based risk assessment is consideration of the totality of stressors affecting a defined population including both ...

470

Counterproliferation of biological weapons. Master`s thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first chapter evaluates the utility of biological warfare in a tactical battlefield scenario: a strategic scenario; and a special forces or terrorist scenario. The second chapter examines the stages in the development of an offensive program and how the biotechnology revolution has facilitated them. Chapter three examines the decision to use biological and chemical weapons and what can be

1995-01-01

471

Life cycle assessment of biomass conversion to feedstock chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was applied to the comparative analysis of two processes for producing 1,4-butanediol. The first process is the conventional hydrocarbon feedstock-based approach, utilizing methane to produce formaldehyde, and acetylene with synthesis under conditions of heat and pressure. The second is a biomass-based feedstock approach where glucose derived from corn is fermented. When evaluated from the standpoint

Bruce W. Vigon; Duane A. Tolle; David P. Evers; Scott L. Freeman; Kenneth K. Humphreys; Christopher F. Wend; Ronald Landucci

1996-01-01

472

Climate-based archetypes for the environmental fate assessment of chemicals.  

PubMed

Emissions of chemicals have been on the rise for years, and their impacts are greatly influenced by spatial differentiation. Chemicals are usually emitted locally but their impact can be felt both locally and globally, due to their chemical properties and persistence. The variability of environmental parameters in the emission compartment may affect the chemicals' fate and the exposure at different orders of magnitude. The assessment of the environmental fate of chemicals and the inherent spatial differentiation requires the use of multimedia models at various levels of complexity (from a simple box model to complex computational and high-spatial-resolution models). The objective of these models is to support ecological and human health risk assessment, by reducing the uncertainty of chemical impact assessments. The parameterisation of spatially resolved multimedia models is usually based on scenarios of evaluative environments, or on geographical resolutions related to administrative boundaries (e.g. countries/continents) or landscape areas (e.g. watersheds, eco-regions). The choice of the most appropriate scale and scenario is important from a management perspective, as a balance should be reached between a simplified approach and computationally intensive multimedia models. In this paper, which aims to go beyond the more traditional approach based on scale/resolution (cell, country, and basin), we propose and assess climate-based archetypes for the impact assessment of chemicals released in air. We define the archetypes based on the main drivers of spatial variability, which we systematically identify by adopting global sensitivity analysis techniques. A case study that uses the high resolution multimedia model MAPPE (Multimedia Assessment of Pollutant Pathways in the Environment) is presented. Results of the analysis showed that suitable archetypes should be both climate- and chemical-specific, as different chemicals (or groups of them) have different traits that influence their spatial variability. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the variability of the output of MAPPE for four different climatic zones on four different continents for four different chemicals (which represent different combinations of physical and chemical properties). Results showed the high suitability of climate-based archetypes in assessing the impacts of chemicals released in air. However, further research work is still necessary to test these findings. PMID:23999273

Ciuffo, Biagio; Sala, Serenella

2013-08-31

473

Prioritizing Chemicals and Data Requirements for Screening-Level Exposure and Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background: Scientists and regulatory agencies strive to identify chemicals that may cause harmful effects to humans and the environment; however, prioritization is challenging because of the large number of chemicals requiring evaluation and limited data and resources. Objectives: We aimed to prioritize chemicals for exposure and exposure potential and obtain a quantitative perspective on research needs to better address uncertainty in screening assessments. Methods: We used a multimedia mass balance model to prioritize > 12,000 organic chemicals using four far-field human exposure metrics. The propagation of variance (uncertainty) in key chemical information used as model input for calculating exposure metrics was quantified. Results: Modeled human concentrations and intake rates span approximately 17 and 15 orders of magnitude, respectively. Estimates of exposure potential using human concentrations and a unit emission rate span approximately 13 orders of magnitude, and intake fractions span 7 orders of magnitude. The actual chemical emission rate contributes the greatest variance (uncertainty) in exposure estimates. The human biotransformation half-life is the second greatest source of uncertainty in estimated concentrations. In general, biotransformation and biodegradation half-lives are greater sources of uncertainty in modeled exposure and exposure potential than chemical partition coefficients. Conclusions: Mechanistic exposure modeling is suitable for screening and prioritizing large numbers of chemicals. By including uncertainty analysis and uncertainty in chemical information in the exposure estimates, these methods can help identify and address the important sources of uncertainty in human exposure and risk assessment in a systematic manner.

Brown, Trevor N.; Wania, Frank; Breivik, Knut; McLachlan, Michael S.

2012-01-01

474

Using Drawing Technology to Assess Students' Visualizations of Chemical Reaction Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigated how students used a drawing tool to visualize their ideas of chemical reaction processes. We interviewed 30 students using thinking-aloud and retrospective methods and provided them with a drawing tool. We identified four types of connections the students made as they used the tool: drawing on existing knowledge, incorporating dynamic aspects of chemical processes, linking a visualization to the associated chemical phenomenon, and connecting between the visualization and chemistry concepts. We also compared students who were able to create dynamic visualizations with those who only created static visualizations. The results indicated a relationship between students constructing a dynamic view of chemical reaction processes and their understanding of chemical reactions. This study provides insights into the use of visualizations to support instruction and assessment to facilitate students' integrated understanding of chemical reactions.

Chang, Hsin-Yi; Quintana, Chris; Krajcik, Joseph

2013-09-01

475

Problems in testing and risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals with regard to developmental toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may affect mammalian development either indirectly (by impairing implantation, placental development, lactation, etc.) or directly, altering the maturation of target tissues. Current regulatory tests for reproductive\\/developmental toxicity should be carefully evaluated with regard to risk assessment of EDCs, considering hazard identification (are relevant endpoints being assessed?) and dose-response assessment (are sensitive NOEL\\/dose-response curves being provided?). Many

A. Mantovani; A. V. Stazi; C. Macri; F. Maranghi; C. Ricciardi

1999-01-01

476

Radiological and chemical assessment of phosphate rocks in some countries.  

PubMed

In this study, the radiological, structural and chemical characterizations of Mardin-Mazida?i phosphate rock, which is an important phosphate fertilizer source in Turkey were investigated and compared to those of several different phosphate rocks of Tunisia, Egypt, Morocco, Algeria and Syria using gamma spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurement techniques. Elemental analysis results of phosphate samples showed that they were mainly composed of CaO, P(2)O(5), SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), SO(3) and Fe(2)O(3). Elemental concentrations of U and Th were calculated using (226)Ra and (232)Th activity concentrations, respectively. As a result of XRD analysis, the main peaks of the samples were found to be Fluorapatite (Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)F). The radioactivity concentration levels for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in all phosphate samples ranged from 250 to 1029 Bq kg(-1) with a mean of 535 Bq kg(-1), from 5 to 50 Bq kg(-1) with a mean of 20 Bq kg(-1) and from 117 to 186 Bq kg(-1) with a mean of 148 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The computed values of annual effective doses ranged from 0.17 to 0.59 mSv, with a mean value of 0.33 mSv, which is lower than the recommended limit of 1 mSv y(-1) by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. PMID:20630655

Cevik, U; Baltas, H; Tabak, A; Damla, N

2010-06-22

477

Chemical analysis of human blood for assessment of environmental exposure to semivolatile organochlorine chemical contaminants.  

PubMed

A chemical method for the quantitative analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues present in human blood was scaled-up to provide increased sensitivity and extended to include organochlorine industrial chemicals. Whole blood samples were extracted with hexane, concentrated, and analyzed without further cleanup by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The methodology used was validated by conducting recovery studies at 1 and 10 ng/g (ppb) levels. Screening and confirmational analyses were performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry on samples collected from potentially exposed residents of the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York and from volunteers in the Research Triangle Park area of North Carolina for 25 specific semivolatile organochlorine contaminants including chlorobenzene and chlorotoluene congeners, hexachloro-1,3-butadiene, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls as Aroclor 1260. Dichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane residues fell in the range of 0.1 to 26 ppb in a high percentage of both the field and volunteer blood samples analyzed. Levels of other organochlorine compounds were either non-detectable or present in sub-ppb ranges. PMID:6819409

Bristol, D W; Crist, H L; Lewis, R G; MacLeod, K E; Sovocool, G W

478

Deterring weapons of mass destruction terrorism. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis examines terrorist acts involving the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against unsuspecting civilians by the Aum Shinrikyo and Rajneesh cults. The proliferation of WMD (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) has created a concern that terrorists might use WMD. Despite obvious signs, these groups were not identified as terrorists until after they committed terrorist attacks. This thesis identifies common characteristics of terrorists that have used WMD in the past and generates indicators of non-state actors that might commit WMD terrorism in the future.

LeHardy, F.A.

1997-12-01

479

Better Oversight Needed for the National Guard's Weapons of Mass Destruction Civil Support Teams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We evaluated the planning and reporting of the National Guard's Weapons of Mass Destruction Civil Support Teams (WMD CSTs) in response to intentional or unintentional release of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or high-yield explosives and nat...

A. F. Carey

2012-01-01

480

Shoring Up the Homeland Defense: The Joint Medical Task Force and Weapons of Mass Destruction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

America is no longer safe within her borders. At any time, a determined group of foreign or domestic terrorists will target American citizens and institutions with Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) composed primarily of lethal biological or chemical agent...

B. G. Feril

1999-01-01