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Sample records for chernobyl psychological factors

  1. Meeting psychological needs after Chernobyl: the Red Cross experience.

    PubMed

    Revel, J P

    2001-12-01

    The explosion that took place in reactor number 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on April 26, 1986 triggered the worst civilian nuclear disaster ever reported. Following requests for assistance by the Red Cross National Societies of Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia, the International Federation of Red Cross Societies set up the Chernobyl Humanitarian Assistance and Rehabilitation Program in 1990. Although the initial needs assessment mission mentioned psychological needs as an area of interest, it was not until 1997 that the first Psycho-Social Support pilot project started in Belarus. Objectives and strategy for the psycho-social support program are detailed, as well as the challenges currently faced by the program. The specific role of the media is also reviewed. Finally, the lessons learned from this experience are reviewed, and suggestions are made for future disaster planning. PMID:11778421

  2. The psychological well-being of Norwegian adolescents exposed in utero to radiation from the Chernobyl accident

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background On 26 April 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant suffered an accident. Several areas of central Norway were heavily affected by far field radioactive fallout. The present study focuses on the psychological well-being of adolescents who were exposed to this radiation as fetuses. Methods The adolescents (n = 53) and their mothers reported their perceptions of the adolescents' current psychological health as measured by the Youth Self Report and Child Behaviour Checklist. Results In spite of previous reports of subtle cognitive deficits in these exposed adolescents, there were few self-reported problems and fewer problems reported by the mothers. This contrasts with findings of studies of children from the former Soviet Union exposed in utero, in which objective measures are inconsistent, and self-reports, especially by mothers, express concern for adolescents' cognitive functioning and psychological well-being. Conclusion In the current paper, we explore possible explanations for this discrepancy and suggest that protective factors in Norway, in addition to perceived physical and psychological distance from the disaster, made the mothers less vulnerable to Chernobyl-related anxiety, thus preventing a negative effect on the psychological health of both mother and child. PMID:21496337

  3. Psychological Factors in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Asthma has long been considered a condition in which psychological factors have a role. As in many illnesses, psychological variables may affect outcome in asthma via their effects on treatment adherence and symptom reporting. Emerging evidence suggests that the relation between asthma and psychological factors may be more complex than that, however. Central cognitive processes may influence not only the interpretation of asthma symptoms but also the manifestation of measurable changes in immune and physiologic markers of asthma. Furthermore, asthma and major depressive disorder share several risk factors and have similar patterns of dysregulation in key biologic systems, including the neuroendocrine stress response, cytokines, and neuropeptides. Despite the evidence that depression is common in people with asthma and exerts a negative impact on outcome, few treatment studies have examined whether improving symptoms of depression do, in fact, result in better control of asthma symptoms or improved quality of life in patients with asthma. PMID:20525122

  4. A test of resuspension factor models against Chernobyl data

    SciTech Connect

    Garger, E.K.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Shinn, J.H.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1995-04-01

    After the accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP), stationary air samplers were operated at Chernobyl and Baryshevka, cities which are 16 km and 150 km, respectively, from the NPP. Other air samplers were operated simultaneously, but intermittently, at locations within the 30 km zone at distances of 4-25 km from the NPP. These data were used to check the validity of time dependent models of the resuspension factor K (m{sup -1}). Seven different models were examined, three of which are discussed in the paper. Data from the stationary air samplers were averaged over one day or one month; dam from the intermittent air samplers were averaged over three days in 1986 and over four hours in 1991. The concentrations of eight radionuclides were measured at ten points during the same time period (14-17 September 1986). The calculated resuspension factors range from 6 x 10{sup -9} m{sup -1} to 3 x 10{sup -6} m{sup -1}. Data for the spatial means of K are given for certain time periods in 1986 and 1991; also presented are the calculated values according to the models. The experimental data and the calculated values differ by up to more than one order of magnitude. Also analysed was the temporal change in experimental values of K and these values were compared with model predictions. The annual means of the resuspension factor as determined experimentally and as calculated with the models are presented. The model derived from empirical data measured in Neuherberg after the Chernobyl accident agrees best with the data. The Garland model systematically gives results lower than the experimental values, and the calculated values of K from the Linsley model are consistently conservative. Also considered were the uncertainty of K due to fluctuations in air concentrations and possible biological effects of episodic exposures.

  5. Psychological and perceived health effects of the Chernobyl disaster: a 20-year review.

    PubMed

    Bromet, Evelyn J; Havenaar, Johan M

    2007-11-01

    The mental health impact of Chernobyl is regarded by many experts as the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident to date. This paper reviews findings reported during the 20-y period after the accident regarding stress-related symptoms, effects on the developing brain, and cognitive and psychological impairments among highly exposed cleanup workers. With respect to stress-related symptoms, the rates of depressive, anxiety (especially post-traumatic stress symptoms), and medically unexplained physical symptoms are two to four times higher in Chernobyl-exposed populations compared to controls, although rates of diagnosable psychiatric disorders do not appear to be elevated. The symptom elevations were found as late as 11 y after the accident. Severity of symptomatology is significantly related to risk perceptions and being diagnosed with a Chernobyl-related health problem. In general, the morbidity patterns are consistent with the psychological impairments documented after other toxic events, such as the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Three Mile Island accident, and Bhopal. With respect to the developing brain of exposed children who were in utero or very young when the accident occurred, the World Health Organization as well as American and Israeli researchers have found no significant associations of radiation exposure with cognitive impairments. Cognitive impairments in highly exposed cleanup workers have been reported by Ukrainian researchers, but these findings have not been independently confirmed. A seminal study found a significant excess death rate from suicide in cleanup workers, suggesting a sizable emotional toll. Given the magnitude and persistence of the adverse mental health effects on the general population, long-term educational and psychosocial interventions should be initiated that target primary care physicians, local researchers, and high risk populations, including participants in ongoing cohort studies. PMID

  6. Risk factors for long-term mental and psychosomatic distress in Latvian Chernobyl liquidators.

    PubMed Central

    Viel, J F; Curbakova, E; Dzerve, B; Eglite, M; Zvagule, T; Vincent, C

    1997-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies on the health effects of the Chernobyl disaster have focused largely on physical health, whereas the psychological consequences have received little attention. The authors have assessed the associations of various exposure variables with mental and psychosomatic distress in a sample of 1412 Latvian liquidators drawn from the State Latvian Chernobyl Clean-up Workers Registry. The outcome was a mixed mental-psychosomatic disorder occurring during 1986 to 1995. Comparisons among subgroups of the cohort classified according to exposure type or level were based on the proportional hazards model. Length of work (> or = 28 days) in a 10-km radius from the reactor (relative risk [RR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.70), work (> 1 time) on the damaged reactor roof (RR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.02-2.09), forest work (RR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.19-1.68), fresh fruit consumption (> or = 1 time/day) (RR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.12-2.65) are risk factors for mixed mental-psychosomatic disorder. Construction of the sarcophagus (RR = 1.82, 95% CI 0.89-3.72) is also associated with this outcome, although nonsignificantly. Distinguishing stress-related from radiation-induced effects in this data set was difficult and these findings should provide a basis for later hypothesis testing in other cohorts. PMID:9467079

  7. Psychological factors in the antarctic.

    PubMed

    Rothblum, E D

    1990-05-01

    For the people who live and work in the Antarctic, isolation and extreme physical conditions cause considerable stress. This article reviews psychological research on Antarctic residents, focusing on factors related to the isolation (effective personnel selection, positive adjustment, conflict, and reintegration into the home environment) and factors related to the physical environment (the extreme cold, high altitude, increased radiation, sensory deprivation, and seasonal changes in activity level). Finally, Antarctic research has been applied to the study of future space travel and space station habitation. PMID:2189993

  8. Psychological Aid to the Children Who Suffered from the Chernobyl Catastrophe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnets, O. N.; And Others

    This document considers the problems faced by the children and adolescents who were affected by the 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the Ukraine. It discusses problems with psycho-physical, social, and spiritual development. It is noted that the Chernobyl children do not form a homogeneous population, but can be divided into…

  9. Psychological factors in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Gutenstein, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Human psychology, neuroscience and behavioural economics study the human mind, brain and behaviour. Scientific research has discovered a great deal about the factors that influence human perception, judgment and activity in the real world. In this article, I aim to provide an outline of the relationship between decision-making, cognition, emotion and behaviour. I propose that meta-cognition, or thinking-about-thinking, has the potential to inform how we practice emergency medicine. By accommodating human traits rather than trying to defy them, we can ultimately benefit our patients. PMID:24712897

  10. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident--findings from the International Atomic Energy Agency Study.

    PubMed Central

    Ginzburg, H M

    1993-01-01

    In October 1989, more than 3 years after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl, in the Ukraine, the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics requested that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) evaluate the medical and psychological health of residents living in areas identified as being contaminated with radioactive fallout. The IAEA designed and conducted a collaborative study to examine whether there were any measurable effects of exposure to the low levels of ionizing radiation resulting from the accident. The study, using structured interviews and IAEA laboratory equipment, collected data on more than 1,350 residents of 13 villages. IAEA clinical staff members concluded that they could not identify any health disorders in either the contaminated or nearby (uncontaminated) control villages that could be attributed directly to radiation exposure. The clinical staff, however, did note that the levels of anxiety and stress of the villagers appeared to be disproportionate to the biological significance of the levels of IAEA-measured radio-active contamination. Almost half the adults in all the villages were unsure if they had a radiation-related illness. More than 70 percent of persons in the contaminated villages wanted to move away, and approximately 83 percent believed that the government should relocate them. The IAEA effort indicates that the villagers need to be educated about their actual risks, and they need to understand what types of illnesses are, and are not, associated with exposure to radioactive contamination. Unfortunately, the villagers' needs may exceed the available resources of their local and central governments. PMID:8464974

  11. Psychological Factors in Solar Observing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, Ronald M.

    The report summarizes the aims of a 3-year program of work concerned with psychological factors in solar observing. Part I identifies several psychological factors which may affect solar observing and outlines a program of research. Part II is a report of a program of studies dealing with the application of visual perceptions in solar flare…

  12. Psychological Factors in Wilderness Rescue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogilvie, Bruce C.

    This presentation provides wilderness rescue workers with an overview of the psychological reactions of victims of accidents and natural disasters and suggested responses for rescuers and caregivers. A personal account of rescue and death in a drowning accident illustrates how the rescuer can also be traumatized by such an incident and may suffer…

  13. [Structure peculiarities, conditions and factors preceding the development of heart rhythm disorder in Chernobyl cleanup workers].

    PubMed

    Khomaziuk, I M; Zlatohors'ka, Zh M; Kursina, N V; Nastina, O M; Sydorenko, H V

    2008-01-01

    3595 participants of liquidation of consequences of Chernobyl accident (LCA) have been follow-upped since 1986. Structure and factors prior the development of heart rhythm derangements, results of physical examination, tonometry, ECG daily monitoring with taking into account the variability of heart rhythm, data of echocardiography with Doppler analysis have been established in 742 patients. Extrasystolic arrhythmia (50.8%) and atrium fibrillation prevailed in clinical structure of clinical structure of heart rhythm disorders (HRD). Etiological factors of HRD in 91.1% of cases were ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertension and especially their combination, in 4.6%--other disorders, 4.6%--idiopathic HRD. It is possible to address special significance among factors before the development of HRD the following ones: participation in LCA since 1986, shift team work, ionizing radiation > or = 25 c3B, negative thoughts and memory about these events, from style of living--smoking habit, professional contact with xenobiotics, increased levels of arterial pressure, cholesterin, body weight index. Especial attention should be given to as predictors of the development of HRD -increased myocardium weight index > or = 170 gr/M2, duration of common and painless myocardial ischemia, basal frequency of heart rhythm > or = 75 b./m. It was established reliable relation between ventricular extrasystole and decreased of common BCP (r = -0.57; P < 0.05), spectrum power, (r = -0.52; P < 0.05), correlation disorder between its components. It is logical there was influence caused by combination of factors arised in connection with Chernobyl accident, life style and structural and functional changes of myocardium, hypertension and ischemic heart disease which are often found in Chernobyl disaster fighters. PMID:19145816

  14. Psychological and Spiritual Factors in Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifer, Ron

    1996-01-01

    Asserts the importance of psychological and spiritual factors in the treatment of chronic illness. Discusses the inevitably of sickness, old age, and death, as well as the presence of the physician, patience, pain, and hope. Maintains that reflection on these qualities can benefit both the physician and patient. (MJP)

  15. Psychological Factors That Predict Reaction to Abortion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, D. T.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated demographic and psychological factors related to reactions to legal abortions in 62 females in an urban southern community. Results suggest that the social context and the degree of support from a series of significant persons rather than demographic variables were most predictive of a positive reaction. (Author)

  16. Psychological Factors Associated with Paranursing Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammer, Robert; Haller, Katherine

    The psychological factors associated with paranursing expertise were examined in a study of 135 certified nursing assistants (CNAs) at a geriatric nursing facility in Amarillo, Texas. Data were collected through a project-developed screening tool called the Geriatric Employee Screening Tool (GEST), which is a true-false instrument patterned after…

  17. Psychological Factors Associated with Obtaining Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Elizabeth; Kroese, Biza Stenfert; Rose, John

    2007-01-01

    Background: Less than 10% of people with intellectual disabilities are employed. The aim of the present study was to investigate what psychological factors might predict employment outcome for people with intellectual disability who had received a placement in a supported employment service. Method: Sixty people were interviewed whilst they were…

  18. Factors Influencing Recruitment in Educational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Norah

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of the factors that educational psychologists in training (EPiTs) look for when applying for jobs in educational psychology services. Relevant literature on "job attraction" is reviewed and a three-stage research process employed. This involved a focus group approach to questionnaire generation followed by…

  19. Psychological Factors in Community College Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Chad; Redekop, Frederick; Burgin, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study explored psychological factors in the context of a community college population purported to impact decisions to remain in college from one semester to another. Researchers examined results from 1191 responses from students attending a community college in the Mid-Atlantic United States. The study further explored the predictive power…

  20. The impact of information and communication factors on mitigation of workers health in the Chernobyl zone, 1986-1990.

    PubMed

    Mirnyi, S; Yastrzhembska, A

    2001-01-01

    Several important features of the Chernobyl disaster make it an outstanding event among the industrial accidents in the world s history. We want to draw the readers attention to three of them: 1) Chernobyl involved severe occupational injuries and caused chronic disorders in an unprecedented number of mitigation workers; 2) the health problems in question cannot be attributed solely to the specific radiation injury in the zone 1 ; and 3) the Chernobyl disaster has been a unique communication (media, in particular) event in terms of its international coverage, impact, and the controversies it has generated. The purpose of this article is to trace the links between these peculiarities of the accident and to suggest a framework for relating the communication and information factors to the health condition of the people who were occupationally involved in the Chernobyl disaster mitigation. We also will propose a number of ideas about how the factors in question can be managed within the Chernobyl disaster mitigation policy, which at present is critically shaped by the post-Soviet political, economic, and cultural context. PMID:17208703

  1. Improving the Factor Structure of Psychological Scales

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xijuan; Savalei, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Many psychological scales written in the Likert format include reverse worded (RW) items in order to control acquiescence bias. However, studies have shown that RW items often contaminate the factor structure of the scale by creating one or more method factors. The present study examines an alternative scale format, called the Expanded format, which replaces each response option in the Likert scale with a full sentence. We hypothesized that this format would result in a cleaner factor structure as compared with the Likert format. We tested this hypothesis on three popular psychological scales: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, the Conscientiousness subscale of the Big Five Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Scales in both formats showed comparable reliabilities. However, scales in the Expanded format had better (i.e., lower and more theoretically defensible) dimensionalities than scales in the Likert format, as assessed by both exploratory factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses. We encourage further study and wider use of the Expanded format, particularly when a scale’s dimensionality is of theoretical interest. PMID:27182074

  2. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  3. Clastogenic factors in the plasma of Chernobyl accident recovery workers: Anticlastogenic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract

    SciTech Connect

    Emerit, I.; Levy, A.; Cernjavski, L.

    1995-11-01

    Clastogenic factors are found in the plasma of persons irradiated accidentally or therapeutically. They persisted in the plasma of A-bomb survivors over 30 years. Clastogenic factors were found in 33 or 47 Chernobyl accident recovery workers (often referred to as liquidators) in a previous study. In the present study, we show that there is a positive correlation between clastogenic activity and dose and that these biomarkers of oxidative stress can be influenced successfully by appropriate antioxidant treatment. With the authorization of the Armenian Ministry of Health, 30 workers were treated with antioxidants from Ginkgo biloba leaves. The extract EGb 761 containing flavonoids and terpenoids was given at a daily dose of 3 x 40 mg (Tanakan, IPSEN, France) during 2 months. The clastogenic activity of the plasma was reduced to control levels on the first day after the end of the treatment. A 1-year follow-up showed that the benefit of the treatment persisted for at least 7 months. One-third of the workers again had clastogenic factors after 1 year, demonstrating that the process which produced clastogenic factors continued. However, the observation that antioxidants do not have to be given continuously is encouraging for intervention trials on a large-scale basis. These appear justified, since clastogenic factors are thought to be risk factors for the development of late effects of irradiation. 43 refs., 6 tabs.

  4. Impact of exercise training on psychological risk factors.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Carl J; Milani, Richard V; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Although the role of psychological risk factors has been underemphasized, considerable evidence indicates the adverse effects of various psychosocial stressors in the pathogenesis and recovery from cardiovascular diseases. Substantial data, especially from cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training programs, have demonstrated the role of physical activity, exercise training, and cardiorespiratory fitness, to improve psychological risk factors, including depression, anxiety, hostility, and total psychological stress, as well as stress-related mortality. PMID:21545933

  5. Social Isolation, Psychological Health, and Protective Factors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…

  6. Time dependence of the {sup 137}Cs resuspension factor on the Romanian territory after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Mihaila, B.; Cuculeanu, V.

    1994-08-01

    On the basis of the radioactivity levels in aerosol and atmospheric deposition samples due to the Chernobyl accident, the resuspension factor of {sup 137}Cs as a four-parameter function has been inferred. The standard procedure to derive the dependence of resuspension on time assumes that the initial deposit is instantaneous. A simple method assuming a constant deposition rate over a fixed period has been proposed. Also, based on existing experimental data, an attempt was made to consider a realistic time dependence of the deposition rate to cope with the particular case of the Chernobyl accident. The differences between the two models are outlined. The Chernobyl direct deposit has been assumed to be the deposit measured between 30 April and 30 June 1986. The calculated values of the resuspension factor are consistent with the IAEA`s recommended model and depend on the rainfall that occurred in June 1986 and the site-specific disturbance conditions during the first 100 d following 1 July 1986 and only on artificial disturbance by humans and vehicles after that. 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Peptic ulcer in childhood. Psychological factors.

    PubMed

    Christodoulou, G N; Gargoulas, A; Papaloukas, A; Marinopoulou, A; Rabavilas, A D

    1979-01-01

    Thirty children (20 girls and 10 boys, aged 6-16 years) with primary peptic ulcers, matched in paris for age, sex and socio-economic standard to a group of 30 ulcer-free controls, were submitted to a structured psychiatric interview, a structured 'present psychiatric state' examination and to personality and intelligence tests. With one exception all patients suffered from duodenal ulcer; 3 male patients had personalities with psychopathic elements, 7 patients had nicknames, 5 suffered from psychiatric disorders, 3 had attempted suicide in the past, and 3 had had homosexual experiences. These parameters were negative in all controls. The patients had lower mean IQ, worse scholastic adaptation, more anxious and overprotective parents, higher frequency of faddiness in food and lower frequency of nail-biting than the controls. Psychotraumatic events had preceded the onset of ulcer symptomatology in 11 cases. The findings are discussed and the contribution of psychological factors in the pathogenesis of childhood peptic ulcer is stressed. PMID:550183

  8. Caretaker Psychological Factors Predicting Compliance with Children's Psychotherapy Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venable, William Mark; Thompson, Bruce

    The importance of ascertaining and effectively treating psychological problems in children is difficult to overstate. Since compliance is particularly important, the psychological factors associated with caretakers' compliance regarding children's psychotherapy were examined here. Data were collected on the 85 primary caretakers of 85 children who…

  9. The Status of Cognitive Psychology Journals: An Impact Factor Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Togia, Aspasia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact factor of cognitive psychology journals indexed in the Science and Social Sciences edition of "Journal Citation Reports" ("JCR") database over a period of 10 consecutive years. Cognitive psychology journals were indexed in 11 different subject categories of the database. Their mean impact factor…

  10. Additional thyroid dose factor from transportation sources in Russia after the Chernobyl disaster.

    PubMed Central

    Parshkov, E M; Chebotareva, I V; Sokolov, V A; Dallas, C E

    1997-01-01

    Beginning approximately 4 years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident a steady increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer was observed in children and adolescents of the Bryansk Oblast, which received the highest level of radionuclide contaminants in Russia. We examined the spatial relationship between the residence location of patients with identified thyroid cancer (0-18 years old at the time of the accident) and a number of geographic parameters to better account for the etiology of thyroid cancer spatial distribution. Geographic parameters analyzed included spatial distribution of 137Cs and 131I in soil, population demographics, measurements and reconstructions. of absorbed thyroid 131I doses in the population, and maps of major transportation arteries. An interesting finding is the lack of a consistent correlation between the spatial distribution of radionuclides in the soil and thyroid cancer incidence. Instead, most of the thyroid cancer cases were diagnosed in settlements situated on major railways and roads. Correlating population with thyroid cancer cases and transportation arteries reveals a much higher cancer rate on or near major roads and railways than at a distance from them, again independent of radionuclide soil concentration. There are other important factors, of course, that must be considered in future evaluations of this phenomenon. These include the influence of iodine endemic zones, genetic predisposition to thyroid cancer, and duration of residence time in contaminated areas. The feasibility of radionuclide transport on railways and roads is discussed, together with the vectors for transfer of the contaminants to the human population. Developing a model to reconstruct the radiation dose to the thyroid over time in this geographic region is proposed in light of the impact of transportation arteries. Specific studies are outlined to provide the data necessary to develop this model as well as to better characterize the feasibility and

  11. The Role of Psychological Factors in the Process of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habibian, Maryam; Roslan, Samsilah; Idris, Khairuddin; Othman, Jamilah

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, psychological factors have become vital factors in literacy education. Existing research has indicated that these factors haves received special attention in the comprehension process. Moreover, in reading process and teaching curriculum understanding, the role of these factors could be beneficial for the students. This paper…

  12. Child Psychological Maltreatment and Its Correlated Factors in Chinese Families.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Ma, Yating; Chen, Jingqi

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the prevalence and frequency of child psychological maltreatment and its correlated factors in Chinese families. A cross-sectional investigation was conducted among 1,002 parents of primary school students in Yuncheng City, China. Data were collected using the self-report questionnaire anonymously. Results showed that 696 (69.5%) surveyed parents had different extents of psychological maltreatment toward their children in the past 3 months. The high prevalence of parental psychology maltreatment was significantly associated with high scores on parental over-reactivity and low scores on recognition of child psychology maltreatment. These findings indicate that it is urgent to develop cultural interventions to raise parents' awareness of preventing child psychological maltreatment and to help parents use nonviolent child rearing in China. PMID:27030213

  13. Impact of psychological factors in the experience of pain.

    PubMed

    Linton, Steven J; Shaw, William S

    2011-05-01

    This article reviews the role of psychological factors in the development of persistent pain and disability, with a focus on how basic psychological processes have been incorporated into theoretical models that have implications for physical therapy. To this end, the key psychological factors associated with the experience of pain are summarized, and an overview of how they have been integrated into the major models of pain and disability in the scientific literature is presented. Pain has clear emotional and behavioral consequences that influence the development of persistent problems and the outcome of treatment. Yet, these psychological factors are not routinely assessed in physical therapy clinics, nor are they sufficiently utilized to enhance treatment. Based on a review of the scientific evidence, a set of 10 principles that have likely implications for clinical practice is offered. Because psychological processes have an influence on both the experience of pain and the treatment outcome, the integration of psychological principles into physical therapy treatment would seem to have potential to enhance outcomes. PMID:21451097

  14. Iodine deficiency in Belarusian children as a possible factor stimulating the irradiation of the thyroid gland during the Chernobyl catastrophe.

    PubMed Central

    Gembicki, M; Stozharov, A N; Arinchin, A N; Moschik, K V; Petrenko, S; Khmara, I M; Baverstock, K F

    1997-01-01

    Ten years after the Chernobyl nuclear plant catastrophe more than 500 children in Belarus are suffering from thyroid cancer. The major cause of the high incidence of thyroid cancer in children under 15 years of age appears to be contamination resulting from that catastrophe, mainly with isotopes of radioactive iodine. Another important factor may be iodine deficiency in the environment. A countrywide program for investigation of goiter prevalence and iodine deficiency has been established in the Republic of Belarus with the assistance of the European World Health Organization office. The program will oversee the examination of 11,000 children and adolescents 6 to 18 years of age from 30 schools in urban and rural areas. The results obtained in a group of 824 children and adolescents (the pilot phase) are typical for significant iodine deficiency and moderate goiter endemism. It is clear that the present situation does not completely reflect the situation that existed at the time of the Chernobyl catastrophe. However, data from epidemiologic studies conducted many years before the accident showed high goiter prevalence in the contaminated areas, indicating that the prevalence of iodine deficiency at the time of the catastrophe was similar to the present one or even greater. Such an assumption could lead to a better understanding of the thyroid pathologies that have been observed. PMID:9467069

  15. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  16. [Sexual function of male rats exposed to the factors of the Chernobyl exclusion zone].

    PubMed

    Karpenko, N A

    2000-01-01

    The influence of chronic internal and external irradiation in low doses on sexual behavior and fertility of sexual active animals keeping within the 30-km Chernobyl exclusion zone was studied. After the 1.5 month consumption of drinking water containing radionuclides of natural Chernobyl spectrum the decrease in proportion of sexual active animals and suppression of sexual motivation and erection were observed. This deviations resulted in the reducing of the inseminated females number. The dependence between the magnitude of total absorbed dose and the working of the sexual behavior regulative mechanisms was obtained. In addition, the reduction of rat fertility took place because of the increase of preimplantation, but not post-implantation death in in irradiated females coupled with irradiated males. The irradiation of males with total absorbed dose on testis 0.23 cGy decreased the fertility because of sexual behavior disturbance, and this effect was intensified by negative influence of ionizing radiation in the range of 0.7-7.0 cGy on male gametes. PMID:10778442

  17. [Perception of health risks: psychological and social factors].

    PubMed

    Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals. PMID:19862487

  18. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on (137)Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP.

    PubMed

    Zarubina, N

    2016-09-01

    Levels of soil contamination with (137)Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of (137)Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of (137)Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi. PMID:26690320

  19. Psychological Factors that Promote and Inhibit Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morasco, Benjamin J.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Ledgerwood, David M.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes qualitative data regarding psychological factors that may affect gambling behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Participants (n = 84) diagnosed with pathological gambling were treated in a clinical trial examining the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Qualitative data were collected from…

  20. The College Experience: Protective Factors and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midili, Gina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify protective factors in college student development as they relate to psychological well-being (PWB). Using archival data from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) dataset, this research was guided by a blend of models and constructs to capture the association between college student…

  1. The Hong Psychological Reactance Scale: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Adrian; Donnell, Alison J.; Buboltz, Walter C., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Study uses confirmatory factor analysis to assess four models of the Hong Psychological Reactance Scale (HPRS) and attempts to provide psychometric information about the subscales. Results found inadequate fit for Hong's four orthogonal models but sufficient fit for two nonorthogonal models. (Contains 29 references and 3 tables.) (GCP)

  2. Caretaker Psychological Factors Predicting Premature Termination of Children's Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venable, William Mark; Thompson, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Caretakers' psychological factors are related to premature termination of counseling for their children (N=85). General hostility, anxiety, depression, and paranoia were studied. Descriptive statistics, correlations of variables, and a predictive discriminant analysis are reported. Effects of caretaker variables on early termination of treatment…

  3. Weight Perception, Academic Performance, and Psychological Factors in Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim; Clark, Florence; Palmer, Paula H.; Gallaher, Peggy; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate weight perception and related psychological factors in Chinese adolescents. Methods: A questionnaire on weight perception, academic performance, stress, hostility, and depression was completed by 6863 middle and high school students. Weight and height were measured. Results: Overweight perception was related to…

  4. Psychological Distress and Related Factors in Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez, Fernando L.; Otero, Patricia; Diaz, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the psychological distress in Spanish college women and analyzed it in relation to sociodemographic and academic factors. Participants and Methods: The authors selected a stratified random sampling of 1,043 college women (average age of 22.2 years). Sociodemographic and academic information were collected, and…

  5. Adolescents' Willingness to Seek Psychological Help: Promoting and Preventing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Jeanie K.; Fiorenza, Erika; Sofronoff, Kate

    2004-01-01

    Although a relatively high percentage of Australian adolescents experience mental health problems, many disturbed adolescents do not receive the help they require, and only a small proportion of adolescents seek professional psychological help. The present study examined adolescents' willingness to seek help and investigated factors that promote…

  6. Successful Aging: An Elaboration of Social and Psychological Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Wilbert M., II

    1981-01-01

    Assessed the relationships between a life satisfaction index and social/demographic/psychological factors in older adults. Results showed marital status, occupational prestige, years of formal education, race, annual income, and a variety of specific satisfaction with life measures were related to successful aging. (Author)

  7. Allergic to life: Psychological factors in environmental illness

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, G.E.; Katon, W.J.; Sparks, P.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Environmental illness is an increasingly frequent and medically unexplained syndrome of allergy to common environmental agents. A recent outbreak of chemical-induced illness allowed study of psychological factors in environmental illness. Thirty-seven symptomatic plastics workers completed structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures of somatization and psychopathology. The 13 subjects who developed environmental illness scored higher on all measures than those who did not. The greatest differences were in prior history of anxiety or depressive disorder (54% versus 4%) and number of medically unexplained physical symptoms before exposure (6.2 versus 2.9). These findings suggest that psychological vulnerability strongly influences chemical sensitivity following chemical exposure.

  8. [Psychological well-being and adolescence: associated factors].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pontes, Lívia Malta; Faria, Augusto Duarte; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Cruzeiro, Ana Laura Sica; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2007-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with psychological well-being among adolescents in a southern Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was performed with a representative sample (n = 960) of adolescents (15-18 years). Eighty-six households were visited in each of the 90 randomized census tracts. Parents signed a written consent form before the adolescent answered a self-reported questionnaire. Psychological well-being was evaluated with a scale containing seven figures representing expressions varying from extreme happiness to extreme sadness. Adolescents were asked to mark the figure that best resembled the way they felt about their lives, and 72.33% reported a high level of psychological well-being. Prevalence of psychological well-being was higher in families with better economic status and higher maternal schooling. Adolescents who practiced a religion, did not smoke or consume alcohol, and wished to lose weight showed a higher level of psychological well-being, suggesting an interrelationship between health behaviors. PMID:17486234

  9. Transfer factor of 131I from the fallout to human thyroid dose equivalent after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Beno, M; Mikulecký, M; Hrabina, J

    1992-01-01

    A similar pattern of variation with time in observed maxima of daily dose equivalent rates in human thyroids (TD - microSv.d-1) and of daily fallout radioactivities (FR - kBq.m-2) has been found after the Chernobyl accident. An estimate of the time-lag between the maxima in TD lines and the preceding FR peaks was made of about seven days for adult and nine days for juveniles. Applying this time-lag it was possible to estimate transfer factors from the fallout to thyroid dose equivalent: the highest estimated values were 221 microSv/kBq.m-2 for adult and 641 microSv/kBq.m-2 for juvenile thyroids. These values differ from those published by UNSCEAR (United Nations 1988), which have been calculated for various regions of Czechoslovakia, from ingestion and inhalation intake estimates. A broad variation of transfer factor values could be expected to result from such transfer calculations using ingestion and inhalation estimates. The findings also support the concept of a need for prolonged iodine prophylaxy after emissions of radioiodine into the environment. PMID:1609058

  10. Chronic Psychological Stress as a Risk Factor of Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Kagaku; Adachi, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Haruki; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-12-01

    Osteoporosis, the most common metabolic skeletal disease, is characterized by decreased bone mass and deteriorated bone quality, leading to increased fracture risk. With the aging of the population, osteoporotic fracture is an important public health issue. Organisms are constantly exposed to various stressful stimuli that affect physiological processes. Recent studies showed that chronic psychological stress is a risk factor for osteoporosis by various signaling pathways. The purpose of this article is to review the recent progress of the association between chronic psychological stress and osteoporosis. Increasing evidence confirms the physiological importance of the central nervous system, especially the hypothalamus, in the regulation of bone metabolism. Both animal and human studies indicate that chronic psychological stress induces a decrease of bone mass and deterioration of bone quality by influencing the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, sympathetic nervous system, and other endocrine, immune factors. Active mastication, proven to be an effective stress-coping behavior, can attenuate stress-induced neuroendocrine responses and ameliorate stress-induced bone loss. Therefore, active mastication may represent a useful approach in preventing and/or treating chronic stress-associated osteoporosis. We also discuss several potential mechanisms involved in the interaction between chronic stress, mastication and osteoporosis. Chronic stress activates the HPA axis and sympathetic nervous system, suppresses the secretion of gonadal hormone and growth hormone, and increases inflammatory cytokines, eventually leading to bone loss by inhibiting bone formation and stimulating bone resorption. PMID:26667192

  11. Psychological, muscular and kinematic factors mediate performance under pressure.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Andrew; Kavussanu, Maria; McIntyre, David; Ring, Christopher

    2010-11-01

    It is well established that performance is influenced by pressure, but the underlying mechanisms of the pressure-performance relationship are poorly understood. To address this important issue, the current experiment evaluated psychological, physiological, and kinematic factors as mediators of the pressure-performance relationship. Psychological, physiological, and kinematic responses to three levels of competitive pressure were measured in 23 males and 35 females during a golf putting task. Pressure manipulations impaired putting performance. Self-reported anxiety, effort, and perceived pressure were increased. Heart rate, heart rate variability, muscle activity, and lateral clubhead acceleration were also elevated. Mediation analyses revealed that effort, muscle activity, and lateral acceleration partially mediated the decline in performance. Results confirmed that pressure elicits effects on performance through multiple pathways. PMID:20409012

  12. Acne vulgaris: nutritional factors may be influencing psychological sequelae.

    PubMed

    Katzman, Martin; Logan, Alan C

    2007-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a distressing skin condition which can carry with it significant psychological disability. Patients with acne are more likely to experience anger and are at increased risk of depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation. Certain nutrients which have been implicated as influencing the pathophysiology of acne have also been identified as important mediators of human cognition, behavior and emotions. Zinc, folic acid, selenium, chromium and omega-3 fatty acids are all examples of nutrients which have been shown to influence depression, anger and/or anxiety. These same nutrients, along with systemic oxidative stress and an altered intestinal microflora have been implicated in acne vulgaris. It is our contention that certain nutritional factors, a weakened antioxidant defense system and altered intestinal microflora may interplay to increase the risk of psychological sequelae in acne vulgaris. PMID:17448607

  13. Chernobyl retrospective.

    PubMed

    Bonte, F J

    1988-01-01

    On April 28, 1986 heavy radioactive fallout from an unknown source was reported from Sweden. Later, it was discovered that two days earlier, a nuclear power reactor at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union, had exploded releasing an enormous cloud of effluent containing 40 million Ci of 131I, 3 million Ci of 137Cs, and 50 million Ci of xenon radioisotopes. This far exceeded the 15 Ci of 131I escape in the notorious Three Mile Island accident. Chernobyl reactor IV, of an antiquated design, was a graphite-moderated reactor which suffered a steam explosion when the operating staff attempted an experiment involving preservation of safety functions during a planned shutdown. Following the explosion, a fire started in the graphite core which required ten days to control. Thirty-one persons died, two in the initial explosion and 29 of various combinations of thermal and radiation burns, and gamma irradiation. Existing emergency plans were invoked involving treatment on the scene and evacuation of seriously injured patients to a special hospital in Moscow, as well as to nearby Kiev. Later, 135,000 residents of the immediate neighborhood were surveyed and evacuated after fallout radiation levels began to rise. Fallout patterns around Europe and the northern hemisphere were closely tracked. Consequences of the accident in human and monetary terms will require years of evaluation. Although the United States has no power reactors of the Chernobyl type, the country does have a radiation disaster management plan, often rehearsed at the state level. As a consequence of Chernobyl certain international agreements dealing with radiation disaster information and management have been forged. PMID:3278382

  14. Chernobyl bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time.

  15. Psychological Factors Associated With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Christino, Melissa A.; Fleming, Braden C.; Machan, Jason T.; Shalvoy, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psychological factors may have underappreciated effects on surgical outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between specific psychological factors, objective clinical data, and patient-oriented outcomes. Purpose: Psychological factors are significantly associated with patient perceptions and functional outcomes after ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate relationships between self-esteem, health locus of control, and psychological distress with objective clinical outcomes, patient-oriented outcomes, and return to sport. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Twenty-seven patients who were 6 to 24 months post–computer-assisted ACL reconstruction by a single surgeon consented to participate in the study (52% response rate). Participants had a 1-time visit with a physician consisting of: a physical examination, a single-leg hop test, KT-1000 arthrometer measurements, and survey completion. Psychological measures included the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Brief Profile of Mood States. Outcome measures included the Tegner activity scale, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score–Quality of Life subscale (KOOS-QOL), and Short Form–36 (SF-36). Patient charts were also reviewed for pertinent operative details. Results: The mean age of patients (±SD) was 25.7 ± 8.4 years, and the mean duration of time since surgery was 16.5 ± 5.9 months. The majority (89%) of the patients identified themselves as athletes, and of these, 65% reported returning to sports at a competitive level. Sport returners were found to have higher levels of self-esteem (P = .002) and higher reported KOOS-QOL scores (P = .02). Self-esteem was significantly associated with IKDC scores (r = 0.46, P < .05), KOOS-QOL scores (r = 0

  16. Association of Psychologic and Nonpsychologic Factors With Primary Dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Salmalian, Hajar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Primary dysmenorrhea seems to be one the most common gynecologic condition in women of childbearing age. Objectives: The aim of this research was to evaluate psychologic and nonpsychologic risk factors of primary dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on medical sciences students of Babol University of Medical Sciences. In this study, 180 females with dysmenorrhea and 180 females without dysmenorrhea were enrolled. Psychological risk factors were evaluated in four domains including affect, social support, personality, and alexithymia. Four questionnaires were used to assessed aforementioned domains, namely, Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), depression, anxiety, stress (DAS-21), 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and NEO-Five Factor Inventory of Personality (NEO-FFI). In addition, nonpsychologic factors were evaluated in three domains including demographic characteristics, habits, and gynecologic factors. Data were analyzed using the χ2 test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The strongest predictor of primary dysmenorrhea was low social support (OR = 4.25; 95% CI, 2.43-7.41). Risk of dysmenorrhea was approximately 3.3 times higher in women with alexithymia (OR = 3.26; 95% CI, 1.88-5.62), 3.1 times higher in women with menstrual bleeding duration ≥ 7 days (OR = 3.06; 95% CI, 1.73-5.41), 2.5 times higher in women with a neurotic character (OR = 2.53; 95% CI, 1.42-4.50), 2.4 times higher in women with a family history of dysmenorrhea (OR = 2.43; 95% CI, 1.42-4.50), and twice higher in women with high caffeine intake (OR = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.09-3.59). Conclusions: Low social support, alexithymia, neuroticism trait, long menstrual bleeding, family history of dysmenorrhea, and high-caffeine diet are important risk factors for women with primary dysmenorrhea. This study recommended considering psychologic factors as an adjuvant to medical risks in evaluation and treatment of primary dysmenorrhea

  17. The future of dynamic factor analysis in psychology and biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Molenaar, P C M

    2006-01-01

    The currently dominant approach to statistical analysis in psychology and biomedicine is based on analysis of inter-individual variation. Differences between subjects drawn from a population of subjects provide the information to make inferences about states of affairs at the population level (e.g., mean and/or covariance structure). Recently it has been shown that in general the inferred states of affairs at the population level do not apply at the level of intra-individual variation characterizing the life trajectories of individual subjects making up the population. This is a direct consequence of the so-called classical ergodic theorems of Birkhoff and Wiener which has important implications for the way in which psychological and biomedical processes have to be analyzed. The classical ergodic theorems are introduced below in order to show the necessity of using an alternative approach which is valid for the analysis of intra-individual variation. This approach has to be based on single-subject time series analysis. Next an overview is presented of dynamic factor models for the analysis of multivariate time series and the various ways to fit these models to the data. We then turn to an empirical application of factor analysis of personality data obtained in a replicated time series design, showing substantial heterogeneity in intra-individual factorial personality structure. The next topic is entirely innovative--for the first time I present my new dynamic factor model for the analysis of nonstationary time series. In the conclusion I will sketch some biomedical research initiatives in which this new model will be used. PMID:17124797

  18. Psychological Help-Seeking Attitudes of Helping Professional Candidates and Factors Influencing Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumcagiz, Hatice

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed as descriptive to identify psychological help-seeking attitudes of helping professional candidates and factors influencing them. The research population consisted of 447 first and fourth grade students studying in the Departments of Psychological Counselling and Guidance, Psychology or Nursing at Ondokuz Mayis University.…

  19. Psychological Factor Affecting English Speaking Performance for the English Learners in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haidara, Youssouf

    2016-01-01

    In every learning situation or environment, human psychology plays a significant role. English speaking is a language skill that is highly affected by human psychology. This research aimed at describing the psychological factor that affects negatively the English speaking performance for the English learners in Indonesia. A descriptive qualitative…

  20. Positive Psychology and Familial Factors as Predictors of Latina/o Students' Psychological Grit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vela, Javier C.; Lu, Ming-Tsan P.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Latina/o students' experiences. In the current study, we examined how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, and family importance influenced 128 Latina/o college students' psychological grit. We used the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), Subjective Happiness Scale,…

  1. Psychological factors in exceptional, extreme and torturous environments.

    PubMed

    Leach, John

    2016-01-01

    Our cognitive system has adapted to support goal-directed behaviour within a normal environment. An abnormal environment is one to which we are not optimally adapted but can accommodate through the development of coping strategies. These abnormal environments can be 'exceptional', e.g., polar base, space station, submarine, prison, intensive care unit, isolation ward etc.; 'extreme', marked by more intense environmental stimuli and a real or perceived lack of control over the situation, e.g., surviving at sea in a life-raft, harsh prison camp etc.; or 'tortuous', when specific environmental stimuli are used deliberately against a person in an attempt to undermine his will or resistance. The main factors in an abnormal environment are: psychological (isolation, sensory deprivation, sensory overload, sleep deprivation, temporal disorientation); psychophysiological (thermal, stress positions), and psychosocial (cultural humiliation, sexual degradation). Each single factor may not be considered tortuous, however, if deliberately structured into a systemic cluster may constitute torture under legal definition. The individual experience of extremis can be pathogenic or salutogenic and attempts are being made to capitalise on these positive experiences whilst ameliorating the more negative aspects of living in an abnormal environment. PMID:27257476

  2. Socio-Psychological Factors Driving Adult Vaccination: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wheelock, Ana; Parand, Anam; Rigole, Bruno; Thomson, Angus; Miraldo, Marisa; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background While immunization is one of the most effective and successful public health interventions, there are still up to 30,000 deaths in major developed economies each year due to vaccine-preventable diseases, almost all in adults. In the UK, despite comparatively high vaccination rates among ≧65 s (73%) and, to a lesser extent, at-risk ≤65 s (52%) in 2013/2014, over 10,000 excess deaths were reported the previous influenza season. Adult tetanus vaccines are not routinely recommended in the UK, but may be overly administered. Social influences and risk-perceptions of diseases and vaccines are known to affect vaccine uptake. We aimed to explore the socio-psychological factors that drive adult vaccination in the UK, specifically influenza and tetanus, and to evaluate whether these factors are comparable between vaccines. Methods 20 in-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with members of the UK public who represented a range of socio-demographic characteristics associated with vaccination uptake. We employed qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing adult vaccination decisions. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Participants were classified according to their vaccination status as regular, intermittent and non-vaccinators for influenza, and preventative, injury-led, mixed (both preventative and injury-led) and as non-vaccinators for tetanus. We present our finding around five overarching themes: 1) perceived health and health behaviors; 2) knowledge; 3) vaccination influences; 4) disease appraisal; and 5) vaccination appraisal. Conclusion The uptake of influenza and tetanus vaccines was largely driven by participants' risk perception of these diseases. The tetanus vaccine is perceived as safe and sufficiently tested, whereas the changing composition of the influenza vaccine is a cause of uncertainty and distrust. To maximize the public health impact of adult vaccines

  3. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Drozd, Valentina M.; Saenko, Vladimir A.; Brenner, Alina V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I.; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V.; Demidchik, Yuri E.; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I.; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer. PMID:26397978

  4. Comparison of Individual Factors in School Psychology Graduate Students: Why Do Students Pursue a Degree in School Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Scott L., Jr.; Wright, Lynda Brown

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what factors influenced students to enter the field of school psychology. Although numerous studies have documented the thoughts and perspectives of practitioners regarding why they have chosen to become school psychologists, attempts to recruit and retain an adequate number of school psychology…

  5. Psychological protective factors across the lifespan: implications for psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Vahia, Ipsit V; Chattillion, Elizabeth; Kavirajan, Harish; Depp, Colin A

    2011-03-01

    Although there are many challenges in operationally defining and measuring positive psychological constructs, there is accumulating evidence that optimism, resilience, positive attitudes toward aging, and spirituality are related to reduced risk for morbidity and mortality in older age. This article reviews the definition, measurement, associations, and putative mechanisms of selected positive psychological constructs on subjective and objective indicators of health with a focus on the latter half of the lifespan. PMID:21333850

  6. State of the art: psychotherapeutic interventions targeting the psychological factors involved in IBD.

    PubMed

    Leone, Daniela; Menichetti, Julia; Fiorino, Gionata; Vegni, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The present article aims to review the literature on the relationship between psychology and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In particular, the first section is dedicated to explore the role of psychological factors in the etiopathology of the disease, its development and the efficacy of treatments, while the second analyzes existing literature on the role of psychological interventions in the care of IBD patients. Although the role of psychological factors in IBD appears controversial, literature seems to distinguish between antecedents of the disease (stress and lifestyle behavior), potential mediators of disease course (family functioning, attachment style, coping strategies, and illness perception), outcomes of IBD and concurrent factors (anxiety, depression and quality of life). Four types of psychological interventions are described: Stress management, Psychodynamic, Cognitive behavioral and Hypnosis based. Data on the role and efficacy of psychological interventions in IBD patients show little evidence both on reduction of the disease activity and benefits on psychological variables. Psychological interventions seem to be beneficial in the short term especially for adolescents. The importance of considering the connections between psychology and IBD from a broader perspective reflecting the complexity of the phenomenon at multiple levels is discussed. PMID:24975400

  7. Chernobyl Birds Have Smaller Brains

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Anders Pape; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andea; Rudolfsen, Geir; Mousseau, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans. Methodology/Principal Finding Here we used an extensive sample of 550 birds belonging to 48 species to test the prediction that even in the absence of post-traumatic stress, there is a negative association between relative brain size and level of background radiation. We found a negative association between brain size as reflected by external head volume and level of background radiation, independent of structural body size and body mass. The observed reduction in brain size in relation to background radiation amounted to 5% across the range of almost a factor 5,000 in radiation level. Species differed significantly in reduction in brain size with increasing background radiation, and brain size was the only morphological character that showed a negative relationship with radiation. Brain size was significantly smaller in yearlings than in older individuals. Conclusions/Significance Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. The fact that brain size was smaller in yearlings than in older individuals implies that there was significant directional selection on brain size with individuals with larger brains experiencing a viability advantage. PMID:21390202

  8. Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  9. The Relationship of Factors of Academic Success and Psychological Well-Being for College Honors Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: This study was concerned with perceptions of academic facilitators, academic obstacles, and psychological well-being of college honors students. Differences in the way factors of academic success are perceived, and the relationship these perceptions have with psychological well-being were examined. College honors…

  10. Sense of Community as a Protective Factor against Long-Term Psychological Effects of Childhood Violence

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Marks, Nadine F.

    2010-01-01

    This study uses a risk and resilience framework for conceptualizing the long-term effects of childhood family violence on mental health. It examines sense of community as a protective factor against adult psychological distress associated with experiences of physical or psychological violence in childhood from parents. Regression models are estimated using data from the 1995 National Survey of Midlife Development in the U.S. and from the 1996–97 National Study of Daily Experiences. Reported experiences of frequent psychological violence, regardless of the frequency of physical violence, is found to be positively associated with adult psychological distress. Adults’ sense of community is found to moderate the association between reports of both frequent psychological and frequent physical violence in childhood from parents and adult psychological distress. PMID:20454550

  11. Chernobyl: What really happened

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W. )

    1989-07-01

    The author conducted interviews with Western analysts to reach a consensus view of the accident in 1986 at Chernobyl. This view is illustrated in this article. The Chernobyl RBMK reactor is described, as are the events surrounding the accident. Post-accident safety measures taken by the U.S.S.R. are discussed and critiques. Implications of the Chernobyl accident on RBMK reactor safety and on Soviet nuclear energy management capabilities are also addressed.

  12. GENDER AND PROFESSIONAL FACTORS OF MEDICAL STUDENTS' PSYCHOLOGICAL READINESS FOR PERFORMING PROFESSIONAL DUTIES.

    PubMed

    Omelchuk, S; Lymar, L

    2016-02-01

    The article describes the results of the psychological readiness for performing professional duties study performed in 2010-2015 among the O.Bogomolets' National medical university students; contains analysis of the gender and professional factors of the readiness. The authors have described the results obtained in motivation, cognitive, conative, emotional and communicative components of the psychological readiness by using the classic and author authentic methods. It has been estimated that the female respondents are characterized by a higher level of psychological readiness than the male ones, which may be explained due to higher female conformity resulting from higher demands for profession. The conducted analysis of professional factors of the psychological readiness has shown that the students of the "Preventive medicine" specialization exhibit higher level of psychological readiness than the "Pediatrics" and "Stomatology" specialization students due to dominating altruistic motivation of professional activity, independent career choice and higher level of the emotional component development. PMID:27001785

  13. Psychological factors in patients with peptic ulcerand functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Kheirkhah, Farzan; Shokri-Shirvani, Javad; Mosavi, Shokofeh; Zarini, Soroush

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of psychological factors in peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and functional dyspepsia (FD) has not been clearly determined. In this study the role of conflict management styles, psychiatric symptoms, and alexithymia were assessed in patients with PUD and FD and in the healthy individuals. Methods: Ninety subjects [30 PUD (15 women, 15 men), 30 FD (15 women, 15 men), and 30 healthy individuals (15 women, 15 men)] in two endoscopy wards of Babol University of Medical Sciences were evaluated. Three groups were matched with regard to demographic variables. Conflict management styles, psychiatric symptoms, and alexithymia were evaluated by appropriate questionnaires. Results: The patients with PUD reported less mean scores on psychiatric symptoms than the FD patients (depression 12.6±7.5 vs 28±9.5, anxiety 8.2±5.9 vs 18.7±6. obsessive-compulsive disorder 15.7±7.5 vs 21.8±8.4, interpersonal sensitivity 9.5±7.4 vs 16±7, psychoticism 8.03±4.5 vs 14.3±6.3, somatization 12.5±10.8 vs 20.7±8.1, and the total score of psychiatric symptoms 94.4±49.9 vs 160.1±46.6). The mean scores use of unconstructive conflict management styles in PUD patients were lower than FD (dominating 17.7±3.5 vs 20.2±2.7, avoiding 17.5±3 vs 23.8±4.4). Alexithymia symptoms were higher in FD patients than PUD individuals (difficulty in identifying feelings 23.5±6.3 vs 27.8±3.9, difficulty in describing feeling 16.5±4.4 vs 17.3±3.6). The PUD and FD patients had higher scores regarding these variables than the healthy subjects. Conclusion: The results show that both PUD and FD patients experienced more psychiatric symptoms, unconstructive conflict management styles, and alexithymia than the healthy subjects. FD patients had worse psychiatric problems than PUD. PMID:24778780

  14. Nuclear power after Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Ahearne, J F

    1987-05-01

    The causes and progress of the accident at Chernobyl are described, and a comparison between the Chernobyl accident and the 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station is made. Significant similarities between Chernobyl and Three Mile Island include complacency of operators and industry, deliberate negation of safety systems, and a lack of understanding of their plant on the part of the operators, which shows the critical importance of the human element. The Chernobyl accident has implications for nuclear power in the United States; it will affect the research program of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, regulation of Department of Energy reactors, new reactor designs, and public attitudes. PMID:3576192

  15. Factors Influencing the Spiritual Competency of Predoctoral Psychology Interns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haasz, Christine A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among spiritual competencies, personal spiritual beliefs, and clinical supervision in spirituality with professional psychology predoctoral interns. It was hypothesized personal spiritual beliefs and supervision in spirituality would be predictors of spiritual competencies in clinical practice. Social…

  16. Assessment of successful smoking cessation by psychological factors using the Bayesian network approach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Suyun; Pan, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Huijie; Han, Mingkui; Zhang, Nan; Jiang, Fan; Jia, Chongqi

    2016-07-01

    The association between psychological factors and smoking cessation is complicated and inconsistent in published researches, and the joint effect of psychological factors on smoking cessation is unclear. This study explored how psychological factors jointly affect the success of smoking cessation using a Bayesian network approach. A community-based case control study was designed with 642 adult male successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 700 adult male failed smoking quitters as the controls. General self-efficacy (GSE), trait coping style (positive-trait coping style (PTCS) and negative-trait coping style (NTCS)) and self-rating anxiety (SA) were evaluated by GSE Scale, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and SA Scale, respectively. Bayesian network was applied to evaluate the relationship between psychological factors and successful smoking cessation. The local conditional probability table of smoking cessation indicated that different joint conditions of psychological factors led to different outcomes for smoking cessation. Among smokers with high PTCS, high NTCS and low SA, only 36.40% successfully quitted smoking. However, among smokers with low pack-years of smoking, high GSE, high PTCS and high SA, 63.64% successfully quitted smoking. Our study indicates psychological factors jointly influence smoking cessation outcome. According to different joint situations, different solutions should be developed to control tobacco in practical intervention. PMID:26264661

  17. The Impact of Psychological Factors on Device Removal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Golbakhsh, Mohammadreza; Sadaat, Mirmostafa; Noughani, Fatemeh; Mirbolook, Ahmadreza; Gholizadeh, Amirmohammad; Abedi, Sadegh

    2016-01-01

    Background Implant removal is a common procedure in orthopedic surgery which can be associated with many complications such as scar formation, hematoma, nerve injury, infection, and refracture. Indications for orthopedic implant removal have declined in recent years. Most studies have considered orthopedic hardware removal as an unnecessary procedure in the absence of severe complications such as nonunion. Some studies have reported the complications of orthopedic hardware removal to be 24% to 50% dependent on their types and locations as well as on other factors such as patient’s condition and the orthopedist’s experience. Objectives The present study surveyed possible mental and psychological causes among patients who asked for removal procedures in spite of orthopedic surgeons’ advice and being aware of complications. Patients and Methods Patients who had undergone plating for the treatment of radius and ulna fractures from 2011 to 2013, were told that it is not necessary to remove the plate and they were warned of all the risks of removal surgery, such as anesthesia, possible nerve or vascular damage, and the cost of surgery. Then, their tendency to remove the plate was examined based on evaluation criteria scores. Patients were divided into two groups: patients who insisted on surgery despite all the risks and patients who had little tendency or gave up after explanations. Both groups were given visual analog pain scale (VAS), symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90), and pain catastrophizing scale (PCS) questionnaires. The questions were explained for patients by an expert trained in the clinic and in case of ambiguity further explanations were given to the patients. The data were then entered into statistical package for the social science (SPSS) version 20 for analysis. Results A total of 29 patients with plates were enrolled. The first group consisted of 16 male and 13 female patients. In the control group (group II), there were 30 patients with no tendency for

  18. New strategies in the assessment of psychological factors affecting medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Sirri, Laura; Fabbri, Stefania; Fava, Giovanni A; Sonino, Nicoletta

    2007-12-01

    In this article, we examine research that may lead to a better assessment of psychological factors affecting medical conditions. We performed a review of the psychosomatic literature using both Medline and manual searches. We selected papers that were judged to be relevant to new strategies of assessment, with particular reference to the use of the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research. We assessed 8 areas concerned with the assessment of psychological factors in the setting of medical disease: hypochondriasis, disease phobia, persistent somatization, conversion symptoms, illness denial, demoralization, irritable mood, and Type A behavior. A new subclassification of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-V]; not yet published) category of psychological factors affecting physical conditions appears to be feasible and may provide the clinician with better tools for identifying psychological distress. PMID:18001223

  19. In Harm's Way: Factors Related to Psychological Distress following Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collinsworth, Linda L.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.; Drasgow, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    The negative consequences for victims of sexual harassment are well documented. However, one area unexamined is the process that leads to harm. Researchers have proposed three influences (i.e., objective or stimulus factors, individual factors, and contextual factors) on the psychological, health-related, and organizational outcomes of sexual…

  20. Uses of Factor Analysis in Counseling Psychology Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Howard E. A.; Tinsley, Diane J.

    1987-01-01

    Explains factor analysis, discussing its relation to other multivariate techniques and describing characteristics of the data to consider in determining the appropriateness of factor analysis. Reviews considerations in making decisions about communality estimates, factor extraction, the number of factors to rotate, methods of factor rotation,…

  1. Retrospective determination of 137Cs specific activity distribution in spruce bark and bark aggregated transfer factor in forests on the scale of the Czech Republic ten years after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Suchara, I; Rulík, P; Hůlka, J; Pilátová, H

    2011-04-15

    The (137)Cs specific activities (mean 32Bq kg(-1)) were determined in spruce bark samples that had been collected at 192 sampling plots throughout the Czech Republic in 1995, and were related to the sampling year. The (137)Cs specific activities in spruce bark correlated significantly with the (137)Cs depositions in areas affected by different precipitation sums operating at the time of the Chernobyl fallout in 1986. The ratio of the (137)Cs specific activities in bark and of the (137)Cs deposition levels yielded bark aggregated transfer factor T(ag) about 10.5×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1). Taking into account the residual specific activities of (137)Cs in bark 20Bq kg(-1) and the available pre-Chernobyl data on the (137)Cs deposition loads on the soil surface in the Czech Republic, the real aggregated transfer factor after and before the Chernobyl fallout proved to be T*(ag)=3.3×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1) and T**(ag)=4.0×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1), respectively. The aggregated transfer factors T*(ag) for (137)Cs and spruce bark did not differ significantly in areas unequally affected by the (137)Cs fallout in the Czech Republic in 1986, and the figures for these aggregated transfer factors were very similar to the mean bark T(ag) values published from the extensively affected areas near Chernobyl. The magnitude of the (137)Cs aggregated transfer factors for spruce bark for the pre-Chernobyl and post-Chernobyl period in the Czech Republic was also very similar. The variability in spruce bark acidity caused by the operation of local anthropogenic air pollution sources did not significantly influence the accumulation and retention of (137)Cs in spruce bark. Increasing elevation of the bark sampling plots had a significant effect on raising the remaining (137)Cs specific activities in bark in areas affected by precipitation at the time when the plumes crossed, because the sums of this precipitation increased with elevation (covariable). PMID:21377193

  2. Role of Human Factors and Engineering Psychology in Undergraduate and Graduate Engineering Curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Jesse Rebol

    2010-12-01

    The engineering discipline is a profession of acquiring and applying technical knowledge, and the focus of engineering psychology is to optimize the effectiveness and efficiency with which human activities are conducted. Having human factors and engineering psychology be a permanent part of the engineering curriculum will make students aware of them, so they can learn from past experiences and avoid making the same mistakes their peers made. (Should be close to 200 words)

  3. Breast implants and illness: a model of psychological factors

    PubMed Central

    Dush, D

    2001-01-01

    Studies of disease outcomes have not produced an explanation or an intervention for the symptoms and complaints that some women have attributed to breast implants. Reviews of the literature have found no increased risk of specific systemic disease, and no treatment recommendations have emerged. However, similar symptoms in fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue, and other contexts have been considered to be stress or behaviourally mediated, and a number of promising behavioural interventions have been developed. Aetiological, research, and treatment implications may follow from the consideration of such symptoms within a behavioural medicine model that allows for the interaction of physical and psychological influences. In the case of implants, a mass somatisation model may also help to discern the potential effects of litigation and other social influences.

 PMID:11406518

  4. Relationship between Psychological Factors and Cancer: An Update of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelman, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    There is a widely held perception that cancer is influenced by psychological factors, and that both the onset and progression of the disease are affected by factors such as stress, depression, social isolation and coping style. This article reviews the evidence for the mind-cancer link. Although hundreds of studies have reported on this issue,…

  5. Psychological factors mediate key symptoms of fibromyalgia through their influence on stress.

    PubMed

    Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey Owen

    2016-09-01

    The clinical features of fibromyalgia are associated with various psychological factors, including stress. We examined the hypothesis that the path that psychological factors follow in influencing fibromyalgia symptoms is through their direct effect on stress. Ninety-eight females with ACR 1990 classified fibromyalgia completed the following questionnaires: The Big 5 Personality Inventory, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Profile of Mood States, Mastery Scale, and Perceived Control of Internal States Scale. SPSS (PASW version 22) was used to perform basic t tests, means, and standard deviations to show difference between symptom characteristics. Pathway analysis using structural equation modelling (Laavan) examined the effect of stress on the relationships between psychological factors and the elements that define the fibromyalgia phenotype. The preferred model showed that the identified path clearly linked the psychological variables of anxiety, neuroticism and mastery, but not internal control, to the three key elements of fibromyalgia, namely pain, fatigue and sleep (p < 0.001), via the person's perceived stress. Confusion, however, did not fit the preferred model. This study confirms that stress is a necessary link in the pathway between certain identified, established and significant psychological factors and key fibromyalgia symptoms. This has implications for the understanding of contributing mechanisms and the clinical care of patients with fibromyalgia. PMID:27245234

  6. Analysis of psychological factors for quality assessment of interactive multimodal service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Kazuhisa; Hayashi, Takanori

    2005-03-01

    We proposed a subjective quality assessment model for interactive multimodal services. First, psychological factors of an audiovisual communication service were extracted by using the semantic differential (SD) technique and factor analysis. Forty subjects participated in subjective tests and performed point-to-point conversational tasks on a PC-based TV phone that exhibits various network qualities. The subjects assessed those qualities on the basis of 25 pairs of adjectives. Two psychological factors, i.e., an aesthetic feeling and a feeling of activity, were extracted from the results. Then, quality impairment factors affecting these two psychological factors were analyzed. We found that the aesthetic feeling is mainly affected by IP packet loss and video coding bit rate, and the feeling of activity depends on delay time and video frame rate. We then proposed an opinion model derived from the relationships among quality impairment factors, psychological factors, and overall quality. The results indicated that the estimation error of the proposed model is almost equivalent to the statistical reliability of the subjective score. Finally, using the proposed model, we discuss guidelines for quality design of interactive audiovisual communication services.

  7. The Psychological Mindedness Scale: factor structure, convergent validity and gender in a non-psychiatric sample.

    PubMed

    Shill, Merton A; Lumley, Mark A

    2002-06-01

    Although the concept of psychological mindedness (PM) originated in the psychoanalytic literature, its use has been expanding beyond the realm of assessing suitability for, or psychic change following, psychotherapy or psychoanalysis. For example, since PM bespeaks a capacity to tolerate psychological conflict and stress intrapsychically rather than by regressive means of conflict management or resolution such as somatization, its role, like that of alexithymia, in the genesis of psychosomatic illness is becoming evident. The Psychological Mindedness Scale (PMS), a 45-item self-report instrument intended to measure PM, was administered to a non-clinical sample of 397 undergraduates to assess the stability of its previously reported item-factor loadings and factor structure. Two main factors emerged, viz. Belief in the benefits of discussing one's problems and Access to feelings. Lower-order factors were Willingness to discuss problems with others, Interest in meaning and motivation of own and others' behaviour and Openness to change. Convergent validity of the PMS was also demonstrated by the negative correlations obtained between its total and factor/subscale scores with those of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The PMS needs further development to increase the congruence between its factor structure and the concept of PM. Females were also found to be more psychologically minded than males. The implications of these findings and the potential uses of this scale are discussed. PMID:12396760

  8. Preliminary report on social psychological factors in long duration space flights: Review and directions for future research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Group dynamics, sociological and psychological factors are examined. Crew composition and compatibility are studied. Group dynamics analysis includes: leadership; cohesiveness; conformity; and conflict.

  9. The children of Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Kidd, M R

    During the past twelve months much media attention has been focused on the plight of the children affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster in the Soviet Union. The visit to Australia by several groups of these children during 1991 has heightened community interest in the innocent victims of the world's worst nuclear accident. As medical adviser for one of these visits, I saw how some of the children of Chernobyl benefited from their holiday away from radioactivity. PMID:1745168

  10. Factors influencing psychological distress during a disease epidemic: Data from Australia's first outbreak of equine influenza

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Melanie R; Agho, Kingsley E; Stevens, Garry J; Raphael, Beverley

    2008-01-01

    Background In 2007 Australia experienced its first outbreak of highly infectious equine influenza. Government disease control measures were put in place to control, contain, and eradicate the disease; these measures included movement restrictions and quarantining of properties. This study was conducted to assess the psycho-social impacts of this disease, and this paper reports the prevalence of, and factors influencing, psychological distress during this outbreak. Methods Data were collected using an online survey, with a link directed to the affected population via a number of industry groups. Psychological distress, as determined by the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale, was the main outcome measure. Results In total, 2760 people participated in this study. Extremely high levels of non-specific psychological distress were reported by respondents in this study, with 34% reporting high psychological distress (K10 > 22), compared to levels of around 12% in the Australian general population. Analysis, using backward stepwise binary logistic regression analysis, revealed that those living in high risk infection (red) zones (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.57–2.55; p < 0.001) and disease buffer (amber) zones (OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.36–2.46; p < 0.001) were at much greater risk of high psychological distress than those living in uninfected (white zones). Although prevalence of high psychological distress was greater in infected EI zones and States, elevated levels of psychological distress were experienced in horse-owners nationally. Statistical analysis indicated that certain groups were more vulnerable to high psychological distress; specifically younger people, and those with lower levels of formal educational qualifications. Respondents whose principal source of income was from horse-related industry were more than twice as likely to have high psychological distress than those whose primary source of income was not linked to horse-related industry (OR = 2.23; 95% CI: 1

  11. Psychological Factors Explaining the Referral Behavior of Iranian Family Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Mohaghegh, Bahram; Seyedin, Hesam; Rashidian, Arash; Ravaghi, Hamid; Khalesi, Nader; Kazemeini, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: The recently developed policy of the family practice program in rural regions of Iran faced some challenges such as inefficient referral system. The health insurance organizations (purchaser) and health policy makers are concerned about the high rate of patient referrals from family physicians to specialists due to imposing unnecessary services and costs. Objectives: This study examined utility of the theory of planned behavior to explain intention of Iranian family physicians to reduce referral rate of patients with respiratory diseases to medical specialist. Patients and Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional study, employing a correlational design directed by the theory of planned behavior was conducted. A questionnaire was developed based on an eliciting study and review of literature. One hundred and seventy-four family physicians working at primary care centers in two provinces of Iran completed the questionnaire (response rate of 86%). Results: The finding revealed that intention of family physicians to reduce referral rate of patients to specialists was significantly related to two theory-based variables of subjective norms (r = 0.38, P < 0.001) and perceived behavioral control (r = 0.43, P < 0.001), and not to attitudes. A stepwise regression entering direct measures of the theory variables explained 35% of the variance on the intention, with perceived behavioral control being the strongest predictor. Adding background variables to the model achieved further 5% by variables of practice size and past referral rate behavior. Conclusions: The results indicated that psychological variables of the theory of planned behavior could explain a noticeable proportion of variance in family physician's intention to decrease the rate of referring patients with respiratory diseases to medical specialists. The intention is primarily influenced by normative and control considerations. These findings contribute to a better understanding of referral decisions by

  12. Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Students' Learning with Erroneous Worked Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopp, Eric; Stark, Robin; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of diagnostic competence is seen as a major goal during the course of study in medicine. One innovative method to foster this goal is problem-based learning with erroneous worked examples provided in a computer learning environment. The present study explores the relationship of attitudinal, emotional and cognitive factors for…

  13. Student Success Factors in Graduate Psychology Professional Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhouse, Noelle K.; Cerniak, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Research examining factors contributing to online students' success typically focuses on a single point in time or completion of a single course, as well as individual difference variables, such as learning style or motivation, that may predispose a student to succeed. However, research concerning longer term online student outcomes, such as…

  14. Challenging factors for enuresis treatment: Psychological problems and non-adherence.

    PubMed

    Van Herzeele, Charlotte; De Bruyne, Pauline; De Bruyne, Elke; Walle, Johan Vande

    2015-12-01

    The evidence for organic pathogenetic factors in enuresis and the discovery of effective therapies targeting the bladder and/or nocturnal diuresis have overwhelmed every potential role of psychological factors in pathogenesis and treatment. However, psychopathology is still important in enuresis because according to the document of the International Children's Continence Society (ICCS) 20-30% of the children with enuresis have at least one psychological/psychiatric disorder at rates two times higher than non-wetting children. The most common comorbid disorder with enuresis is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The aim of this review is to translate the existing evidence on the importance of a psychological screening into daily clinical practice of the medical practitioner. The use of the minimal psychological screening tool should be considered mandatory in each primary setting. If psychological problems are indicated, referral of the patient to a multidisciplinary setting should be considered, not only to allow psychological assessment to screen for a possible psychopathology, but also since therapy resistance might be expected. This review concentrates on two items from psychopathology/psychotherapy that might predict insufficient treatment response: the psychological comorbidities as described according to the DSM-5 criteria and the underestimated importance of therapy adherence. Adherence is a cornerstone of effective therapy in enuresis. It is a problem involving the doctor, the patient, and the parents. Increasing adherence takes effort and is time-consuming. But it is worthwhile knowing that several studies have demonstrated that high adherence is associated with high therapy success of enuresis. Eventually, this is the ultimate goal of treatment. PMID:26182849

  15. Entrepreneurship Education: How Psychological, Demographic and Behavioural Factors Predict the Entrepreneurial Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Carla S.; Ferreira, Joao J.; Gomes, Daniela N.; Rodrigues, Ricardo Gouveia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), the purpose of this paper is to approach entrepreneurial intention (EI) and the factors preceding the founding of EI among secondary students, both studying general academic and specific professional programs, and thereby establish causal relationships between psychological, demographic and…

  16. The Complex Relationship between Dependency and Domestic Violence: Converging Psychological Factors and Social Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    Research indicates that economic dependency in women and emotional dependency in men independently contribute to domestic-partner abuse risk and that high levels of emotional dependency in an abused partner may reduce the likelihood that the victimized person will terminate the relationship. An analysis of psychological factors and social forces…

  17. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  18. Students' Physical and Psychological Reactions to Forensic Dissection: Are There Risk Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N.; Papadodima, Stavroula A.; Evaggelakos, Christos I.; Mytilinaios, Dimitrios G.; Goutas, Nikolaos D.; Spiliopoulou, Chara A.

    2010-01-01

    The reactions of students to forensic dissection encompass psychologico-emotional and physical components. This exploratory study aimed to determine risk factors for students' adverse physical and psychological reactions to forensic dissection. All sixth-year medical students (n = 304) attending the compulsory practical course in forensic medicine…

  19. What Are the Social, Psychological, and Cognitive Factors That Drive Individuals to Entrepreneurship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMattina, Lina M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold; first, to uncover the social, psychological, and cognitive factors core to the entrepreneurial individual; and secondly, to provide accurate data to be used in curriculum development to fill the existing educational gap that exists in the current literature regarding understanding the inner workings of the…

  20. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS IN TRANSFER OF TRAINING, PHASE I. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STOLUROW, LAWRENCE M.

    A FINAL REPORT WAS MADE OF THE ACTIVITIES PURSUED IN PHASE 1 OF A 10-YEAR PROJECT DEALING WITH THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN TRANSFER OF TRAINING. PHASE I CONSISTED OF A SURVEY OF THE EXISTENT DATA AND CONCEPTS OF TRANSFER OF TRAINING IN AN ATTEMPT (1) TO SUMMARIZE, INTEGRATE, CONSOLIDATE, AND INTERPRET RESEARCH FINDINGS…

  1. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS IN TRANSFER OF TRAINING, PHASE I. QUARTERLY REPORTS 2 AND 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STOLUROW, LAWRENCE M.

    PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE TRANSFER OF TRAINING WERE STUDIED BY USE OF PROGRAMED SELF-INSTRUCTION USING TEACHING MACHINES. THIS MEDIUM WAS CHOSEN BECAUSE IT PROVIDES LABORATORY-LIKE CONDITIONS SUCH AS STABILIZED METHODS, AND STIMULUS CONTROL INCLUDING CONTROL OF TEACHER PERSONALITY, PLUS A STEP-BY-STEP RECORD OF THE…

  2. Parental, Behavioral, and Psychological Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Secondary School Students in Nanjing, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaoming; Mao, Rong; Stanton, Bonita; Zhao, Qun

    2010-01-01

    We designed this study to assess parental, behavioral, and psychological factors associated with tobacco use among Chinese adolescents. The data were collected from 995 middle school students in Nanjing, China. Both smoking experimentation and current smoking (smoking in the past 30 days) were assessed among the study sample. Psychosocial measures…

  3. Ryff's Six-Factor Model of Psychological Well-Being, a Spanish Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dierendonck, Dirk; Diaz, Dario; Rodriguez-Carvajal, Raquel; Blanco, Amalio; Moreno-Jimenez, Bernardo

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to provide researchers interested in using Ryff's Scales of Psychological Wellbeing with additional information to make an informed decision on the scales and items to use. It builds on the discussion in the literature on the six factor structure of this measure. An alternative shortened version of this wellbeing measure (Van…

  4. Psychological Factors in Risk Assessment and Management of Inappropriate Sexual Behaviour by Men with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mark; Willner, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Aim: This study examined the responses of care managers and direct care staff to vignettes of inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB) by a man with an intellectual disability. The aim was to identify psychological factors that influenced their assessment of risk and the perceived need for risk management strategies. Method: The vignettes varied in…

  5. The relationship between ambient illumination and psychological factors in viewing of display Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwanami, Takuya; Kikuchi, Ayano; Kaneko, Takashi; Hirai, Keita; Yano, Natsumi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we have clarified the relationship between ambient illumination and psychological factors in viewing of display images. Psychological factors were obtained by the factor analysis with the results of the semantic differential (SD) method. In the psychological experiments, subjects evaluated the impressions of displayed images with changing ambient illuminating conditions. The illumination conditions were controlled by a fluorescent ceiling light and a color LED illumination which was located behind the display. We experimented under two kinds of conditions. One was the experiment with changing brightness of the ambient illumination. The other was the experiment with changing the colors of the background illumination. In the results of the experiment, two factors "realistic sensation, dynamism" and "comfortable," were extracted under different brightness of the ambient illumination of the display surroundings. It was shown that the "comfortable" was improved by the brightness of display surroundings. On the other hand, when the illumination color of surroundings was changed, three factors "comfortable," "realistic sensation, dynamism" and "activity" were extracted. It was also shown that the value of "comfortable" and "realistic sensation, dynamism" increased when the display surroundings were illuminated by the average color of the image contents.

  6. Sustainable use of arsenic-removing sand filters in Vietnam: psychological and social factors.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Robert; Berg, Michael

    2011-04-15

    Elevated arsenic concentrations in drinking water pose a health threat to millions of people. Although point-of-use sand filters provide an effective technical solution for mitigating arsenic exposure, the actual reduction in health risk also depends on psychological factors that influence behaviors related to this device. For example, acquiring a sand filter must be preferred to competing options for investing effort and money and, once installed, the users must regularly maintain the filters. These key behaviors of sustainable use are related to psychological factors, such as problem awareness, benefits and costs, social and affective influences, and the perception of practical difficulties. This study investigated the sustainable use of arsenic-removing sand filters in Vietnam. Based on questionnaire surveys, data were gathered in 319 rural households and analyzed with regression models. Psychological factors explained significant variance in the investigated key behaviors. Significant factors included perceived improvements in water healthiness and taste, monetary costs, social norms, and affective influences. In questions with open answers, interviewees mentioned various practical problems, particularly those related to the inflexibility of the device and the effort of changing the sand. Interestingly, many interviewees operate the sand filters for removing iron from the water but are unaware of problems with arsenic. PMID:21443220

  7. Important factors governing exposure of the population and countermeasure application in rural settlements of the Russian Federation in the long-term after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Jacob, P; Alexakhin, R; Sanzharova, N I; Panov, A; Fesenko, G; Cecille, L

    2001-01-01

    Rural settlements located in areas of the Russian Federation contaminated after the Chernobyl accident and exceeding an annual dose of 1 mSv a-1 have been classified according to 137Cs contamination density, internal dose and the neighbourhood of forests. It has been shown that, with the exception of the most contaminated areas, the internal doses decreased in accordance with a decline in 137Cs availability for plant root uptake. An inverse tendency was observed in areas with 137Cs contamination above 555 kBq m-2 which can be explained by a reduction or even termination of countermeasure application and by an increasing consumption of forest products in areas where restrictive countermeasures are still implemented. Twenty-seven settlements have been studied to estimate the effectiveness of countermeasures applied previously and to identify the most important factors governing the radiation exposure to the population and its change with time. It has been shown that the effectiveness of countermeasures which resulted in a decrease of up to 40% of doses has a tendency to decline in the long term. The need for continuation of remediation in rural settlements was evaluated both for selected settlements and extrapolated to the whole contaminated area and it has been shown that the application of countermeasures will be of importance at least up to the year 2045. Rather high effectiveness in terms of internal dose reduction (factor of 2-2.5) of radical improvement (disking, ploughing and reseeding) and administration of Cs binders to animals (Ferrocyn) was demonstrated for the selected settlements. It could be demonstrated that for forest-remote settlements there is a linear dependence between internal dose normalised to the density of contamination and the proportion of peat soils around settlements. For near-forest settlements, this dependence was less pronounced which can be explained by the high contribution of forest food products to the internal dose. Milk is still

  8. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Finne, Live Bakke; Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2014-01-01

    Studies exploring psychological and social work factors in relation to mental health problems (anxiety and depression) have mainly focused on a limited set of exposures. The current study investigated prospectively a broad set of specific psychological and social work factors as predictors of potentially clinically relevant mental distress (anxiety and depression), i.e. “caseness” level of distress. Employees were recruited from 48 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 3644 employees responded at both baseline and at follow-up two years later. Respondents were distributed across 832 departments within the 48 organizations. Nineteen work factors were measured. Two prospective designs were tested: (i) with baseline predictors and (ii) with average exposure over time ([T1+T2]/2) as predictors. Random intercept logistic regressions were conducted to account for clustering of the data. Baseline “cases” were excluded (n = 432). Age, sex, skill level, and mental distress as a continuous variable at T1 were adjusted for. Fourteen of 19 factors showed some prospective association with mental distress. The most consistent risk factor was role conflict (highest odds ratio [OR] 2.08, 99% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45–3.00). The most consistent protective factors were support from immediate superior (lowest OR 0.56, 99% CI: 0.43–0.72), fair leadership (lowest OR 0.52, 99% CI: 0.40–0.68), and positive challenge (lowest OR 0.60, 99% CI: 0.41–0.86). The present study demonstrated that a broad set of psychological and social work factors predicted mental distress of potential clinical relevance. Some of the most consistent predictors were different from those traditionally studied. This highlights the importance of expanding the range of factors beyond commonly studied concepts like the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. PMID:25048033

  9. [Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: brief review of the main associated psychological factors].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Rico, I; Pérez-Marín, M; Montoya-Castilla, I

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a widespread chronic disease among children and adolescents. Diagnosis and evolution usually involves a significant burden on the patient, and their families must change various aspects of their lifestyle to fulfill the demands of treatment. This study aims to identify the main psychological, family, and adjustment to illness features of children and adolescents diagnosed with DM1 and, in particular to highlight the associated psychopathological factors. The methodology involved a systematic literature search in the main scientific databases. Due to the biopsychosocial impact of DM1 usually assumed in the life of the child and family, and how it may compromise the quality of life and emotional well-being of both, different studies have agreed on the importance of identifying the set of psychological factors involved in healthy adjustment to illness in the child and adolescent with DM1. PMID:24809830

  10. Social-psychological factors in the dietary quality of married and single elderly.

    PubMed

    Schafer, R B; Keith, P M

    1982-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the social-psychological correlates of diet quality of elderly married couples and elderly single women. The social-psychological factors included: personality, social interaction, and social influence variables. Eighty-two married couples (164 respondents) and 69 single women were randomly selected and interviewed. It was found that social influence variables were more important factors in determining quality of diet than either personality or social interaction variables. The elderly single women's higher quality diet was associated with more reliable sources of influence than those of the elderly married, a condition attributed to the independence and competencies required by their single living arrangements. For married couples, role dissatisfaction had negative consequences for wives' diets, and husbands' involvement in family food decisions had positive consequences for their own diet quality. PMID:7086013

  11. Treatment of psychological factors in a child with difficult asthma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Anbar, Ran D; Sachdeva, Shagun

    2011-07-01

    Difficult asthma is defined as the persistence of asthma symptoms, abnormal pulmonary function showing airway obstruction, and continued requirement for short-acting bronchodilator therapy, despite adequate treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. It calls for a thorough evaluation of the patient to look into alternate and complicating diagnoses. The authors report a case of a 9-year-old patient with difficult asthma who failed to respond to conventional therapy. Although it was recognized that he had a number of potential medical complicating factors including allergies, chronic sinusitis, and gastroesophageal reflux, a psychological intervention using hypnosis ultimately appeared to help alleviate his symptoms completely. Thus, psychological evaluation and intervention should be considered early in the course of management of a patient with difficult asthma, because it may help avoid time-consuming and expensive investigations of potential complicating factors, and it may yield rapid improvement in the patient's clinical condition. PMID:21922711

  12. Comparison of familial and psychological factors in groups of encopresis patients with constipation and without constipation.

    PubMed

    Çengel-Kültür, S Ebru; Akdemir, Devrim; Saltık-Temizel, İnci N

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the differences between groups of encopresis patients with constipation and without constipation. The Symptom Checklist- 90-Revised, the COPE Questionnaire, the Relationship Scales Questionnaire, the McMaster Family Assessment Device and the Parenting Style Scale were used to evaluate, respectively, maternal psychiatric symptoms, coping abilities, attachment style, family functioning and children's perceptions of parenting behaviors. Psychiatric diagnoses were evaluated using the K-SADS. A higher level of maternal psychiatric symptoms, impaired role and affective involvement functioning of the family and less psychological autonomy were observed in the group of encopresis patients with constipation than in the group of encopresis patients without constipation. No significant differences were found between the groups in psychiatric comorbidities, maternal coping abilities and attachment style. The two groups had a similar pattern of comorbid psychiatric disorders and maternal psychological factors, although some familial factors-related mainly to parental authority-were differentiated in the encopresis with constipation group. PMID:26022589

  13. Radiation exposure and breast cancer: lessons from Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Ogrodnik, Aleksandra; Hudon, Tyler W; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

    2013-04-01

    The lessons learned from the Chernobyl disaster have become increasingly important after the second anniversary of the Fukushima, Japan nuclear accident. Historically, data from the Chernobyl reactor accident 27 years ago demonstrated a strong correlation with thyroid cancer, but data on the radiation effects of Chernobyl on breast cancer incidence have remained inconclusive. We reviewed the published literature on the effects of the Chernobyl disaster on breast cancer incidence, using Medline and Scopus from the time of the accident to December of 2010. Our findings indicate limited data and statistical flaws. Other confounding factors, such as discrepancies in data collection, make interpretation of the results from the published literature difficult. Re-analyzing the data reveals that the incidence of breast cancer in Chernobyl-disaster-exposed women could be higher than previously thought. We have learned little of the consequences of radiation exposure at Chernobyl except for its effects on thyroid cancer incidence. Marking the 27th year after the Chernobyl event, this report sheds light on a specific, crucial and understudied aspect of the results of radiation from a gruesome nuclear power plant disaster. PMID:23691737

  14. Interacting with the public as a risk factor for employee psychological distress

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The 1-month prevalence of any mental disorder in employees ranges from 10.5% to 18.5%. Mental disorders are responsible for substantial losses in employee productivity in both absenteeism and presenteeism. Potential work related factors contributing to mental difficulties are of increasing interest to employers. Some data suggests that being sales staff, call centre operator, nurse or teacher increases psychological distress. One aspect of these occupations is that there is an interaction with the public. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether employees who interact with the public are at greater risk of psychological distress. Methods Data was collected from two studies. In study one 11,259 employees (60% female; mean age 40-years ± SD 10-years) from six employers responded to the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) which contained a measure of psychological distress, the Kessler 6 (K6). Employees were coded as to whether or not they interacted with the public. Binomial logistic regression was performed on this data to determine the odds ratio (OR) for moderate or high psychological distress in employees that interacted with the public. Study two administered the HPQ and K6 to sales employees of a large Australian bank (N = 2,129; 67% female; mean age 39-years SD 10-years). This questionnaire also probed how many contacts individuals had with the public in the past week. Analysis of variance was used to determine if the number of contacts was related to psychological distress. Results In study one the prevalence of psychological distress in those that interacted and did not interact with the public were 19% and 15% respectively (P < 0.001). Interacting with the public was associated with an increased OR of 1.3 (P < 0.001) for moderate to high levels of psychological distress. In study two employees with less than 25 contacts with the public per week had a lower K6 score than those who had ≥ 25 contacts per week (P = 0

  15. Thyroid cancer around Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Beral, V.

    1997-03-01

    The author`s presentation on thyroid cancer around Chernobyl will focus on four different things. First will be the time trends, or the pattern of thyroid cancer occurrence before and after the accident. It is now very well known that the increase in thyroid cancer in children in several areas has been unprecedented. Second, the author discusses thyroid cancer in general and patterns of thyroid cancer around the world before the Chernobyl accident, including differences by age and pathology. Third, the author presents relatively crude analyses of risk according to dose to the thyroid gland. And last, the author attempts to contrast the findings for thyroid cancer in relation to the internal radioiodine dose in Chernobyl studies with analyses of the effects of external dose on thyroid cancer incidence. The bottom line to be developed is similar to that presented by Elaine Ron with regard to effects of external dose on thyroid cancer. The similarities between the childhood finding from Chernobyl studies and external radiation studies appear more remarkable than the differences.

  16. The truth about Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedev, G.

    1991-01-01

    This book is an account from the inside of the Soviet nuclear industry of the Chernobyl accident itself: who was there, what they were doing and how they responded. It quotes official statements of the reactor operators and others who were present, but also adds semi-fictional accounts of what people (who are not dead) might have said.

  17. Psychological factors related to eating disordered behaviors: a study with Portuguese athletes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luiz; Gomes, A Rui; Martins, Carla

    2011-05-01

    This study analyzes eating disordered behaviors in a sample of Portuguese athletes and explores its relationship with some psychological dimensions. Two hundred and ninety nine athletes (153 male, 51.2%) practicing collective (65.2%) or individual sports (34.8%) were included. The assessment protocol included the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) (Fairburn & Beglin, 1994); the Sport Condition Questionnaire (Bruin et al., 2007; Hall et al., 2007); the Sport Anxiety Scale (Smith et al., 2006); the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Duda, 1992; Duda & Whitehead, 1998); the Cognitive Evaluation of Sport-Threat Perceptions (Cruz, 1994; Lazarus, 1991); and the Self-Presentation Exercise Questionnaire (Gammage et al., 2004). Results revealed that: i) no case of clinical significance was detected in the four dimensions of the EDE-Q simultaneously; ii) females scored higher on the EDE-Q Global Score, and athletes with the better sport results scored higher on the Restraint subscale; iii) athletes with a higher desire to weigh less scored higher on the EDE-Q Global Score; iv) athletes with lower scores on EDE-Q displayed more positive results on the psychological measures; v) several psychological dimensions were identified as predictors of eating disordered behaviors. In conclusion, the prevalence of eating disordered behaviors was negligible in this study, yet the relationship of this problem with personal, sport and psychological factors was evident. PMID:21568189

  18. Association of psychological factors, patients’ knowledge, and management among patients with erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Mat Sanusi, Nurul Diyana; Razack, Azad Hassan Abdul; Mark, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Background Erectile dysfunction (ED) is one of the most common health problems in men. ED can significantly affect a man’s psychological well-being and overall health. Purpose To investigate the association of psychological factors, patients’ knowledge, and management among ED patients. Patients and methods A total of 93 patients with an age range from 31 to 81 years who have undergone treatment for ED were included in this study. Results It was found that the feeling of blame (P=0.001), guilt (P=0.001), anger or bitterness (P=0.001), depression (P=0.001), feeling like a failure (P=0.001), and the feeling of letting down a partner during intercourse (P=0.001) were significantly associated with ED. Age was also found to be significantly associated with patients’ psychological scale (P=0.004). In addition, the majority of patients in this study practice the right method of administration of ED therapy. However, no significant correlation was found between patients’ knowledge of ED therapy and demographic characteristics. Conclusion This study concluded that ED does affect psychological well-being of people. In addition, patient’s knowledge about ED and its management is also crucial in ensuring that the patient achieves optimal therapeutic outcomes from ED therapy. PMID:27257374

  19. Determining the direction of causality between psychological factors and aircraft noise annoyance.

    PubMed

    Kroesen, Maarten; Molin, Eric J E; van Wee, Bert

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an attempt is made to establish the direction of causality between a range of psychological factors and aircraft noise annoyance. For this purpose, a panel model was estimated within a structural equation modeling approach. Data were gathered from two surveys conducted in April 2006 and April 2008, respectively, among the same residents living within the 45 Level day-evening-night contour of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, the largest airport in the Netherlands (n=250). A surprising result is that none of the paths from the psychological factors to aircraft noise annoyance were found to be significant. Yet 2 effects were significant the other way around: (1) from 'aircraft noise annoyance' to 'concern about the negative health effects of noise' and (2) from 'aircraft noise annoyance' to 'belief that noise can be prevented.' Hence aircraft noise annoyance measured at time 1 contained information that can effectively explain changes in these 2 variables at time 2, while controlling for their previous values. Secondary results show that (1) aircraft noise annoyance is very stable through time and (2) that changes in aircraft noise annoyance and the identified psychological factors are correlated. PMID:20160387

  20. Psychological risk factors of addiction to social networking sites among Chinese smartphone users

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anise M. S.; Cheung, Vivi I.; Ku, Lisbeth; Hung, Eva P. W.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Smartphones allow users to access social networking sites (SNSs) whenever and wherever they want. Such easy availability and accessibility may increase their vulnerability to addiction. Based on the social cognitive theory (SCT), we examined the impacts of outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and impulsivity on young Chinese smartphone users' addictive tendencies toward SNSs. Methods: Two hundred seventy-seven Macau young smartphone users (116 males and 161 females; mean age = 26.62) filled out an online Chinese questionnaire concerning their usage of social networking sites via smartphones, addiction tendencies toward SNSs, impulsivity trait, outcome expectancies toward the use, and Internet self-efficacy. Results: The findings revealed that those who spent more time on SNSs also reported higher addictive tendencies. Addictive tendencies were positively correlated with both outcome expectancies and impulsivity, but negatively associated with Internet self-efficacy. These three psychological variables explained 23% of the variance in addictive tendencies. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that, compared to demographics, psychological factors provide a better account for addictive tendencies towards SNSs among Chinese smartphone users in Macau. The three psychological risk factors were low Internet self-efficacy, favorable outcome expectancies, and high impulsivity trait. Educational campaigns with screening procedures for high-risk groups are recommended for effective prevention and treatment. PMID:25215198

  1. Aberrant expression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin in association with transforming growth factor-beta1 in urinary bladder lesions in humans after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Alina; Morimura, Keiichirou; Kinoshita, Anna; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Vozianov, Alexander; Fukushima, Shoji

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the molecular pathways of cell-cell communication in chronic inflammatory processes associated with long-term low-dose urinary bladder exposure to ionizing radiation in people without major disease living more than 19 years in radio-contaminated areas of Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident. Patterns of components of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin complex, and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression were immunohistochemically evaluated in urinary bladder biopsies from 52 males with benign prostate hyperplasia and 8 females with chronic cystitis (group 1). For comparison, 25 males and 6 females living in non-contaminated areas of Ukraine were also investigated (group 2). Fourteen patients with primary urothelial carcinomas, which were operated on before the Chernobyl accident, were included as a carcinoma group. Chronic proliferative atypical cystitis ('Chernobyl cystitis') was observed in group 1 patients. Foci of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ were found in 51 (85%) and 34 (57%) of the 60 cases, respectively. Chronic cystitis with areas of dysplasia was detected in only 4 (13%) cases of 31 group 2 patients. Statistically significant differences in immunohistochemical scores for TGF-beta1 in the urothelium and lamina propria, iNOS in the urothelium and both beta-catenin and E-cadherin in the cytoplasm were observed between groups 1 and 2 with marked expression in group 1. Furthermore, TGF-beta1 overexpression and alteration in E-cadherin/beta-catenin complexes in bladder urothelium might play a crucial role in urinary bladder carcinogenesis in humans exposed to long-term low-dose ionizing radiation. PMID:16367920

  2. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Other Psychological Factors in Patients with “Chronic Lyme Disease”

    PubMed Central

    Hassett, Afton L.; Radvanski, Diane C.; Buyske, Steven; Savage, Shantal V.; Sigal, Leonard H.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is no evidence of current or previous B. burgdorferi infection in most patients evaluated at University-based Lyme disease referral centers. Instead, psychological factors likely exacerbate the persistent diffuse symptoms or “Chronic Multisymptom Illness” incorrectly ascribed to an ongoing chronic infection with B. burgdorferi. The objective of this study was to assess the medical and psychiatric status of such patients and compare these findings to those from patients without CMI. Methods 240 consecutive patients undergoing medical evaluation at an academic Lyme disease referral center in New Jersey were screened for clinical disorders (e.g. depression and anxiety) with diagnoses confirmed by structured clinical interviews. Personality disorders, catastrophizing, and negative and positive affect were also evaluated and all factors were compared between groups and to functional outcomes. Results 60.4% of our sample had symptoms that could not be explained by current Lyme disease or another medical condition other than CMI. After adjusting for age and gender, clinical disorders were more common in CMI than in the comparison group (p<.001, OR 3.54, 95% CI, 1.97 to 6.55), but personality disorders were not significantly more common. CMI patients had higher negative affect, lower positive affect and a greater tendency to catastrophize pain (p<.001) than did the comparison group. Except for personality disorders, all psychological factors were related to worse functioning. Our explanatory model based on these factors was confirmed. Conclusions Psychiatric comorbidity and other psychological factors are prominent in the presentation and outcome of some patients who inaccurately ascribe long-standing symptoms to “chronic Lyme disease.” PMID:19699380

  3. A systematic review of factors affecting migrant attitudes towards seeking psychological help.

    PubMed

    Selkirk, Mhairi; Quayle, Ethel; Rothwell, Neil

    2014-02-01

    Research indicates that service utilization rates in migrant groups are low, although levels of distress appear high when compared with host populations. This paper systematically reviews quantitative and qualitative literature on factors associated with attitudes toward seeking psychological help among working age migrants. Data were extracted from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Science Direct and SAGE databases. Eight quantitative studies and 16 qualitative studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The majority of studies were conducted in North America (67%). Although results of quantitative studies were heterogeneous, stronger identification with host than heritage culture, fluency in host country language, psychological attributions of distress, higher educational levels, higher socioeconomic status, female gender, and older age were associated with more favourable attitudes toward help-seeking in some migrant groups. Three major themes emerged from the qualitative literature: logistical barriers, cultural mismatch between service providers and participants, and preferences for other sources of assistance. PMID:24509015

  4. Factors Predictive of Midlife Occupational Attainment and Psychological Functioning in Adults With Mild Intellectual Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Floyd, Frank J.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Doescher, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The life course of individuals with mild intellectual deficits and the factors that account for heterogeneity in their midlife outcomes were examined. Past research has shown that such individuals are at risk for poor occupational attainment in adulthood and more compromised psychological functioning, including increased depression. Although predictors varied for men and women, in general greater midlife occupational attainment was predicted by continuation of education beyond high school, having role models for achievement, and social participation earlier in adulthood. Midlife psychological functioning was predicted by having role models of achievement, having discussed plans for the future with parents and teachers, and achievement of aspirations set in high school. Implications for contemporary models of transition planning are discussed. PMID:19391672

  5. Turning men into machines? Scientific management, industrial psychology, and the "human factor".

    PubMed

    Derksen, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    In the controversy that broke out in 1911 over Frederick W. Taylor's scientific management, many critics contended that it ignored "the human factor" and reduced workers to machines. Psychologists succeeded in positioning themselves as experts of the human factor, and their instruments and expertise as the necessary complement of Taylor's psychologically deficient system. However, the conventional view that the increasing influence of psychologists and other social scientists "humanized" management theory and practice needs to be amended. Taylor's scientific management was not less human than later approaches such as Human Relations, but it articulated the human factor differently, and aligned it to its own instruments and practices in such a way that it was at once external to them and essential to their functioning. Industrial psychologists, on the other hand, at first presented themselves as engineers of the human factor and made the human mind an integral part of management. PMID:24615634

  6. Assessing social capacity and vulnerability of private households to natural hazards - integrating psychological and governance factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werg, J.; Grothmann, T.; Schmidt, P.

    2013-06-01

    People are unequally affected by extreme weather events in terms of mortality, morbidity and financial losses; this is the case not only for developing, but also for industrialized countries. Previous research has established indicators for identifying who is particularly vulnerable and why, focusing on socio-demographic factors such as income, age, gender, health and minority status. However, these factors can only partly explain the large disparities in the extent to which people are affected by natural hazards. Moreover, these factors are usually not alterable in the short to medium term, which limits their usefulness for strategies of reducing social vulnerability and building social capacity. Based on a literature review and an expert survey, we propose an approach for refining assessments of social vulnerability and building social capacity by integrating psychological and governance factors.

  7. Psychological factors and trimester-specific gestational weight gain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Mufiza Zia; Gaston, Anca; Van Blyderveen, Sherry; Schmidt, Louis; Beyene, Joseph; McDonald, Helen; McDonald, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Excess gestational weight gain (GWG), which has reached epidemic proportions, is associated with numerous adverse pregnancy outcomes. Early pregnancy provides a unique opportunity for counseling pregnant women since many women are motivated to engage in healthy behaviors. A systematic review was conducted to summarize the relation between psychological factors and trimester-specific GWG, i.e. GWG measured at the end of each trimester. Eight databases were searched for affect, cognition and personality factors. The guidelines on meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology were followed. The methodological quality of each study was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Of 3620 non-duplicate titles and abstracts, 74 articles underwent full-text review. Two cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. Distress was negatively associated with first trimester GWG among both adolescents and non-adolescents. Body image dissatisfaction was associated with second trimester GWG only among non-adolescents. No association emerged between perceived stress, state and trait anxiety and body image dissatisfaction among adolescents and trimester-specific GWG. The relation between trimester-specific GWG and a number of weight-related and dietary-related cognitions, affective states and personality traits remain unexplored. Given the limited number of studies, further high-quality evidence is required to examine the association between psychological factors and trimester-specific GWG, especially for cognitive and personality factors. PMID:25541218

  8. The relationship among psychological factors, neglect-like symptoms and postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Hara, Michiya; Fujiwara, Akira; Hanada, Hirofumi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postoperative pain has a significant relationship with patient health and satisfaction. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and association of neglect-like symptoms (NLS) and other psychological factors on postoperative pain in patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). NLS are defined as the loss of perception of the limb with pain and excessive effort required to move the limb. The authors hypothesized that NLS were an important contributor to postoperative pain. METHODS: The factors influencing pain were investigated using a longitudinal study with assessments at three and six weeks postsurgery. The relationships among demographic factors (age, body weight, body mass index), psychological factors (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS]) and NLS with postoperative pain were investigated in 90 patients after TKA. The associations among motor functions (muscle strength of knee extension, range of motion), sensory functions (joint position sense and two-point discrimination in the thigh) and NLS were also investigated. RESULTS: At three and six weeks after surgery, 36% and 19% of patients, respectively, experienced NLS. In hierarchical multiple regression analysis, NLS and PCS scores were significantly associated with postoperative pain, while joint position sense and range of motion were significantly associated with NLS. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that facilitation of sensory integration is important in rehabilitation after TKA because NLS appears to result from impaired sensory integration. The association of PCS scores with postoperative pain and NLS suggests the need to provide appropriate postoperative education to reduce persistent negative thoughts regarding future pain. PMID:25101335

  9. Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help: Factor Structure and Socio-Demographic Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Picco, Louisa; Abdin, Edimanysah; Chong, Siow Ann; Pang, Shirlene; Shafie, Saleha; Chua, Boon Yiang; Vaingankar, Janhavi A.; Ong, Lue Ping; Tay, Jenny; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (ATSPPH) are complex. Help seeking preferences are influenced by various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors and can often result in unmet needs, treatment gaps, and delays in help-seeking. The aims of the current study were to explore the factor structure of the ATSPPH short form (-SF) scale and determine whether any significant socio-demographic differences exist in terms of help-seeking attitudes. Data were extracted from a population-based survey conducted among Singapore residents aged 18–65 years. Respondents provided socio-demographic information and were administered the ATSPPH-SF. Weighted mean and standard error of the mean were calculated for continuous variables, and frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed to establish the validity of the factor structure of the ATSPPH-SF scale. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted to examine predictors of each of the ATSPPH-SF factors. The factor analysis revealed that the ATSPPH-SF formed three distinct dimensions: “Openness to seeking professional help,” “Value in seeking professional help,” and “Preference to cope on one's own.” Multiple linear regression analyses showed that age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and income were significantly associated with the ATSPPH-SF factors. Population subgroups that were less open to or saw less value in seeking psychological help should be targeted via culturally appropriate education campaigns and tailored and supportive interventions. PMID:27199794

  10. Chernobyl source term estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Harvey, T.F.; Lange, R.

    1990-09-01

    The Chernobyl source term available for long-range transport was estimated by integration of radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling and by reactor core radionuclide inventory estimation in conjunction with WASH-1400 release fractions associated with specific chemical groups. The model simulations revealed that the radioactive cloud became segmented during the first day, with the lower section heading toward Scandinavia and the upper part heading in a southeasterly direction with subsequent transport across Asia to Japan, the North Pacific, and the west coast of North America. By optimizing the agreement between the observed cloud arrival times and duration of peak concentrations measured over Europe, Japan, Kuwait, and the US with the model predicted concentrations, it was possible to derive source term estimates for those radionuclides measured in airborne radioactivity. This was extended to radionuclides that were largely unmeasured in the environment by performing a reactor core radionuclide inventory analysis to obtain release fractions for the various chemical transport groups. These analyses indicated that essentially all of the noble gases, 60% of the radioiodines, 40% of the radiocesium, 10% of the tellurium and about 1% or less of the more refractory elements were released. These estimates are in excellent agreement with those obtained on the basis of worldwide deposition measurements. The Chernobyl source term was several orders of magnitude greater than those associated with the Windscale and TMI reactor accidents. However, the {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl event is about 6% of that released by the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, while the {sup 131}I and {sup 90}Sr released by the Chernobyl accident was only about 0.1% of that released by the weapon tests. 13 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. The chernobyl experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeschki, Wolfgang

    Numerous articles have been published about the events which occurred at Chernobyl and the radiological impact on the environment and the public. This article tries to find out which experience can be, should be or has already been gained from that accident. The fields which have been studied are: nuclear safety; radiation protection of rescue workers; medical treatment of overexposed persons; decontamination of agricultural land, buildings and cities; behaviour of radionuclides in ecosystems; effects of low doses on human beings.

  12. Psychological factors and DNA methylation of genes related to immune/inflammatory system markers: the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Kubzansky, Laura D; Baccarelli, Andrea; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Tarantini, Letizia; Cantone, Laura; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Although psychological factors have been associated with chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD), the underlying pathways for these associations have yet to be elucidated. DNA methylation has been posited as a mechanism linking psychological factors to CHD risk. In a cohort of community-dwelling elderly men, we explored the associations between positive and negative psychological factors with DNA methylation in promoter regions of multiple genes involved in immune/inflammatory processes related to atherosclerosis. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Greater Boston, Massachusetts area. Participants Samples of 538 to 669 men participating in the Normative Aging Study cohort with psychological measures and DNA methylation measures, collected on 1–4 visits between 1999 and 2006 (mean age=72.7 years at first visit). Outcome measures We examined anxiety, depression, hostility and life satisfaction as predictors of leucocyte gene-specific DNA methylation. We estimated repeated measures linear mixed models, controlling for age, smoking, education, history of heart disease, stroke or diabetes, % lymphocytes, % monocytes and plasma folate. Results Psychological distress measured by anxiety, depression and hostility was positively associated, and happiness and life satisfaction were inversely associated with average Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and coagulation factor III (F3) promoter methylation levels. There was some evidence that hostility was positively associated with toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) promoter methylation, and that life satisfaction was inversely associated with TLR-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) promoter methylation. We observed less consistent and significant associations between psychological factors and average methylation for promoters of the genes for glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Conclusions These findings suggest that positive and negative

  13. Psychological factors predicting the distress to female persistent genital arousal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana; Veríssimo, Ana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of persistent genital arousal are expected to negatively affect women's sexual and emotional well-being. However, not all women who experience persistent genital arousal complain about their genital condition. Against this background, this study aimed to evaluate psychological predictors of the distress associated with persistent genital arousal symptoms, as well as psychological moderators influencing the conditions under which persistent genital arousal causes distress. A total of 117 women reporting symptoms of persistent genital arousal answered to online questionnaires measuring personality traits, sexual beliefs, and dyadic adjustment. Women have also completed a checklist measuring the frequency/severity of persistent genital arousal symptoms and the distress/impairment caused by these symptoms. Results showed that neuroticism, (low) openness, sexual conservatism, and (low) dyadic adjustment significantly predicted distress associated with genital symptoms. Furthermore, sexual conservatism was found to moderate the relation between the symptoms' severity and the distress associated with those symptoms. Overall, sexual conservatism seems to be a key differentiator factor, influencing the psychological conditions under which women may report higher levels of distress caused by persistent genital arousal. Because such findings focus on the distress to genital arousal symptoms rather than on persistent genital arousal disorder as a clinical entity, the results under consideration may or may not characterize women formally assigned to the persistent genital arousal disorder label. PMID:24328817

  14. A study of the psychological factors in outcomes for officers who survive ballistic assault.

    PubMed

    Swaim, Jennifer C; McMullen, Mary J; Williams, Carolyn J; Moore, Jeffrey L; Gilbertson, Alan D

    2007-01-01

    Among law enforcement personnel, who are subject to assault with firearms, there has been a trend toward decreased mortality and physical morbidity associated with the use of personal protective armor (PPA). Although there has been an increase in the rate of survival, studies of the unique psychological factors associated with this type of assault are essentially nonexistent. The prevalence and nature of the negative psychological sequelae associated with this type of assault and psychological injury, along with effective prevention techniques, were studied through retrospective interviews of registrants in two "body armor survival clubs." Significant relationships were found between available interventions and behavioral health outcomes. In addition to reducing the likelihood of poor health outcomes, departmentally based interventions were related to officers' ability to develop positive interpretations of the event and engage in fewer high risk behaviors. These findings suggest that departmental interventions, such as debriefings, are meaningful and may help improve outcomes for officers fired upon, but not wounded, in the line of duty. PMID:18459531

  15. How Social Psychological Factors May Modulate Auditory and Cognitive Functioning During Listening.

    PubMed

    Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The framework for understanding effortful listening (FUEL) draws on psychological theories of cognition and motivation. In the present article, theories of social-cognitive psychology are related to the FUEL. Listening effort is defined in our consensus as the deliberate allocation of mental resources to overcome obstacles in goal pursuit when carrying out a task that involves listening. Listening effort depends not only on hearing difficulties and task demands but also on the listener's motivation to expend mental effort in challenging situations. Listeners' cost/benefit evaluations involve appraisals of listening demands, their own capacity, and the importance of listening goals. Social psychological factors can affect a listener's actual and self-perceived auditory and cognitive abilities, especially when those abilities may be insufficient to readily meet listening demands. Whether or not listeners experience stress depends not only on how demanding a situation is relative to their actual abilities but also on how they appraise their capacity to meet those demands. The self-perception or appraisal of one's abilities can be lowered by poor self-efficacy or negative stereotypes. Stress may affect performance in a given situation and chronic stress can have deleterious effects on many aspects of health, including auditory and cognitive functioning. Social support can offset demands and mitigate stress; however, the burden of providing support may stress the significant other. Some listeners cope by avoiding challenging situations and withdrawing from social participation. Extending the FUEL using social-cognitive psychological theories may provide valuable insights into how effortful listening could be reduced by adopting health-promoting approaches to rehabilitation. PMID:27355776

  16. Early childhood psychological factors and risk for bedwetting at school age in a UK cohort.

    PubMed

    Joinson, Carol; Sullivan, Sarah; von Gontard, Alexander; Heron, Jon

    2016-05-01

    There is evidence for a link between psychological factors and bedwetting, but the direction of this association is unclear. Using data on 8769 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we examined whether difficult temperament (Toddler Temperament Scale at 24 months; Emotionality Activity Sociability Questionnaire at 38 months) and psychological problems (Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children at 42 months) are linked to bedwetting at school age. We examined the association between these risk factors and different patterns of bedwetting from 4 to 9 years using multinomial regression. Difficult temperament and psychological problems in early childhood were associated with increased odds of bedwetting at 4-9 years. The strongest associations were most often found for the pattern of bedwetting that was both frequent (at least twice a week) and persistent (up to age 9) e.g. the temperament traits of 'adaptability' and 'mood' were associated with a 33 % increase (95 % confidence interval = 1.14-1.55) and a 27 % increase (1.10-1.47) respectively in the odds of persistent and frequent bedwetting per one standard deviation increase in risk score. Early behaviour problems (e.g. conduct problems [1.43 (1.25, 1.63)] and hyperactivity [1.29 (1.11, 1.50), p < 0.001]) were also associated with frequent and persistent bedwetting, but there was less evidence that early emotional difficulties were risk factors for bedwetting. Adjustment for confounders did not alter these conclusions. The presence of difficult temperament and behaviour problems in early childhood might help to identify children who will continue to experience bedwetting at school age. PMID:26294078

  17. The role of psychological and biological factors in postinfective gut dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Gwee, K; Leong, Y; Graham, C; McKendrick, M; Collins, S; Walters, S; Underwood, J; Read, N

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Both psychological and physiological disturbances have been implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). 
AIMS—To investigate how the psychological factors act, and the involvement of infective and physiological factors. 
METHODS—Consecutive patients hospitalised for gastroenteritis reported life events for the previous 12 months, and past illness experiences on standardised questionnaires. They also completed psychometric questionnaires for anxiety, neuroticism, somatisation, and hypochondriasis. In some patients, rectal biopsy specimens were obtained during the acute illness and at three months postinfection. 
RESULTS—Ninety four patients completed all questionnaires: 22 patients were diagnosed with IBS after their gastroenteritis (IBS+), and 72 patients returned to normal bowel habits (IBS−). IBS+ patients reported more life events and had higher hypochondriasis scores than IBS− patients. The predictive value of the life event and hypochondriasis measures was highly significant and independent of anxiety, neuroticism, and somatisation scores, which were also elevated in IBS+ patients. Rectal biopsy specimens from 29 patients showed a chronic inflammatory response in both IBS+ and IBS− patients. Three months later, specimens from IBS+ patients continued to show increased chronic inflammatory cell counts but those from IBS− patients had returned to normal levels. IBS+ and IBS− patients exhibited rectal hypersensitivity and hyper-reactivity and rapid colonic transit compared with normal controls, but there were no significant differences between IBS+ and IBS− patients for these physiological measurements. 
CONCLUSION—Psychological factors most clearly predict the development of IBS symptoms after gastroenteritis but biological mechanisms also contribute towards the expression of symptoms. 

 Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome; gastroenteritis; chronic inflammation; rectal sensitivity; intestinal

  18. Psychological and psychophysiological factors in prevention and treatment of cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Kappes, B; Mills, W; O'Malley, J

    1993-01-01

    Cold injured patients in Alaska come from many sources. Although sport and work continues to provide large numbers of cold injured, most severe repeat injuries tend to reflect other biopsychosocial consequences. Certain behaviors can increase the probability of injury, however all persons living in cold climates are potential candidates. One can decrease risk by education, knowledge and intelligent behavior. Proper respect for adequate protection and hydration seem to be critical factors. Understanding the psychological, physiological and psychophysiological aspects of the cold environment performer helps refine the prevention and treatment strategies for cold injury. Skill training with bio-behavioral methods, such as thermal biofeedback, and the value of medical psychotherapy appear to offer continued promise by facilitating physiologic recovery from injury, as well as assisting in long term rehabilitation. Both approaches increase the likelihood of a favorable healing response by soliciting active patient participation. Medical Psychotherapy for traumatic injuries can also help identify and manage cognitive emotional issues for families and patients faced with the permanent consequences of severe thermal injuries. Thermal biofeedback therapy has the potential benefit of encouraging greater self-reliance and responsibility for self-regulating overall health by integrating self-management skills regarding physiology, diet and lifestyle. Inpatient and outpatient biofeedback training offers specific influence over vascular responses for healing, as well as providing an effective tool for pain management. Interest in cold region habitation has continued to expand our study of human tolerance to harsh, extreme environments. Biological, psychological, sociological, and anthropological views on adaptation, habituation, acclimatization, and injury in cold environments acknowledges the role of development, learning and educated responses to cold environments. The study of

  19. [The Effect of Social-Psychological Factors on the Development of Occupational Stress].

    PubMed

    Kalinina, S A; Yushkova, O I

    2015-01-01

    The article presents data on social-psychological factors which cause the occupational stress. The results showed that there is a link between the level of work motivation and the physiological cost of work. We observed a number of peculiarities of occupational stress development caused by psychoemotional tension depending on the class of intensity of intellectual labor; we also studied biological age of the subjects. The speed of ageing of the employees who work under conditions of emotional stress (direct or indirect responsibility for the safety of other people) was found to increase. The study suggested promising directions of occupational stress prevention. PMID:26485788

  20. The Role of Communications, Socio-Psychological, and Personality Factors in the Maintenance of Crew Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. Clayton

    1982-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that many air transport incidents and accidents are the result of the improper or inadequate utilization of the resources accessible to flight dock crew members. These resources obviously include the hardware and technical information necessary for the safe and efficient conduct of the flight, but they also Include the human resources which must be coordinated effectively. The focus of this paper is upon the human resources, and how communication styles, socio-psychological factors, and personality characteristics can affect crew coordination.

  1. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model

    PubMed Central

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S.; Breen, Lauren J.; Witt, Regina R.; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care. PMID:27242567

  2. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S; Breen, Lauren J; Witt, Regina R; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care. PMID:27242567

  3. Radiation carcinogenesis: lessons from Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Williams, D

    2008-12-01

    Radiation is a carcinogen, interacting with DNA to produce a range of mutations. Irradiated cells also show genomic instability, as do adjacent non-irradiated cells (the bystander effect); the importance to carcinogenesis remains to be established. Current knowledge of radiation effects is largely dependent on evidence from exposure to atomic bomb whole body radiation, leading to increases in a wide range of malignancies. In contrast, millions of people were exposed to radioactive isotopes in the fallout from the Chernobyl accident, within the first 20 years there was a large increase in thyroid carcinoma incidence and a possible radiation-related increase in breast cancer, but as yet there is no general increase in malignancies. The increase in thyroid carcinoma, attributable to the very large amounts of iodine 131 released, was first noticed in children with a strong relationship between young age at exposure and risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The extent of the increase, the reasons for the relationship to age at exposure, the reduction in attributable fraction with increasing latency and the role of environmental factors are discussed. The large number of radiation-induced PTCs has allowed new observations. The subtype and molecular findings change with latency; most early cases were solid PTCs with RET-PTC3 rearrangements, later cases were classical PTCs with RET-PTC1 rearrangements. Small numbers of many other RET rearrangements have occurred in 'Chernobyl' PTCs, and also rearrangement of BRAF. Five of the N-terminal genes found in papillary carcinoma rearrangements are also involved in rearrangements in hematological malignancies; three are putative tumor suppressor genes, and two are further genes fused to RET in PTCs. Radiation causes double-strand breaks; the rearrangements common in these radiation-induced tumors reflect their etiology. It is suggested that oncogenic rearrangements may commonly involve both a tumor-suppressor gene

  4. Psychological Factors Predict Local and Referred Experimental Muscle Pain: A Cluster Analysis in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer E.; Watson, David; Frey-Law, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest an underlying three- or four-factor structure explains the conceptual overlap and distinctiveness of several negative emotionality and pain-related constructs. However, the validity of these latent factors for predicting pain has not been examined. Methods A cohort of 189 (99F; 90M) healthy volunteers completed eight self-report negative emotionality and pain-related measures (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised; Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; Pain Catastrophizing Scale; Fear of Pain Questionnaire; Somatosensory Amplification Scale; Anxiety Sensitivity Index; Whiteley Index). Using principal axis factoring, three primary latent factors were extracted: General Distress; Catastrophic Thinking; and Pain-Related Fear. Using these factors, individuals clustered into three subgroups of high, moderate, and low negative emotionality responses. Experimental pain was induced via intramuscular acidic infusion into the anterior tibialis muscle, producing local (infusion site) and/or referred (anterior ankle) pain and hyperalgesia. Results Pain outcomes differed between clusters (multivariate analysis of variance and multinomial regression), with individuals in the highest negative emotionality cluster reporting the greatest local pain (p = 0.05), mechanical hyperalgesia (pressure pain thresholds; p = 0.009) and greater odds (2.21 OR) of experiencing referred pain compared to the lowest negative emotionality cluster. Conclusion Our results provide support for three latent psychological factors explaining the majority of the variance between several pain-related psychological measures, and that individuals in the high negative emotionality subgroup are at increased risk for (1) acute local muscle pain; (2) local hyperalgesia; and (3) referred pain using a standardized nociceptive input. PMID:23165778

  5. The role of psychological factors in the career of the independent dancer.

    PubMed

    Aujla, Imogen; Farrer, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicates that psychological factors such as motivation and mental skills play an important role in relation to performance and to negotiating talent development stages. However, little is known about these factors in dance, particularly with regard to the independent dancer whose career may involve multiple roles, varied work patterns, and periods of instability. The aim of this study was to explore dancers' motivation to work in an independent capacity, and the extent to which dancers' psychological characteristics and skills enabled them to navigate a career in this demanding sector. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 dancers at different stages of their careers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analyzed. Analysis revealed that the dancers were intrinsically motivated and highly committed to the profession. Working in the independent sector offered dancers opportunities for growth and fulfillment; they appreciated the autonomy, flexibility and freedom that the independent career afforded, as well as working with new people across roles and disciplines. In order to overcome the various challenges associated with the independent role, optimism, self-belief, social support, and career management skills were crucial. The mental skills reported by the participants had developed gradually in response to the demands that they faced. Therefore, mental skills training could be invaluable for dancers to help them successfully negotiate the independent sector. PMID:26579059

  6. Commonalities in the psychological factors associated with problem gambling and Internet dependence.

    PubMed

    Dowling, N A; Brown, M

    2010-08-01

    The most commonly applied conceptual approach for excessive Internet use has been as a behavioral addiction, similar to pathological or problem gambling. In order to contribute to the understanding of Internet dependence as a disorder resembling problem gambling, the current study aimed to examine the relationship between problem gambling and Internet dependence and the degree to which psychological factors associated with problem gambling are relevant to the study of Internet dependence. The factors of depression, anxiety, student stressors, loneliness, and social support were examined in a sample of university students from several Australian universities. The findings revealed that there is no overlap between the populations reporting problem gambling and Internet dependence, but that individuals with these disorders report similar psychological profiles. Although requiring replication with larger community samples and longitudinal designs, these preliminary findings suggest that problem gambling and Internet dependence may be separate disorders with common underlying etiologies or consequences. The implications of the findings in relation to the conceptualization and management of these disorders are briefly discussed. PMID:20575708

  7. The role of psychological factors in the career of the independent dancer

    PubMed Central

    Aujla, Imogen; Farrer, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicates that psychological factors such as motivation and mental skills play an important role in relation to performance and to negotiating talent development stages. However, little is known about these factors in dance, particularly with regard to the independent dancer whose career may involve multiple roles, varied work patterns, and periods of instability. The aim of this study was to explore dancers’ motivation to work in an independent capacity, and the extent to which dancers’ psychological characteristics and skills enabled them to navigate a career in this demanding sector. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 dancers at different stages of their careers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analyzed. Analysis revealed that the dancers were intrinsically motivated and highly committed to the profession. Working in the independent sector offered dancers opportunities for growth and fulfillment; they appreciated the autonomy, flexibility and freedom that the independent career afforded, as well as working with new people across roles and disciplines. In order to overcome the various challenges associated with the independent role, optimism, self-belief, social support, and career management skills were crucial. The mental skills reported by the participants had developed gradually in response to the demands that they faced. Therefore, mental skills training could be invaluable for dancers to help them successfully negotiate the independent sector. PMID:26579059

  8. The Association Between Psychological Factors and Orofacial Pain and Its Effect on Quality of Life: A Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajappa, Anil Kumar; Reddy, Sreedevi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the hypothesis that psychological factors of psychological distress and perception of unhappiness in childhood are associated with self reported orofacial pain and to examine whether such patients have a poorer perception of their oral health related quality of life and if so then to what extent. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted in Hitkarini Dental College and Hospital, Jabalpur amongst 400 cases and 400 controls. Patients were included based on Locker and Slade’s criteria. Patients were asked to complete 27 items Questionnaire which included the General Health Questionnaire to assess for psychological distress and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 for evaluating impact on quality of life. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the degree of association between psychological factors, unhappy childhood and quality of life. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results An increased propensity to report orofacial pain was seen for those individuals with higher levels of Psychological Distress and with perception of Unhappiness in Childhood. These individuals also reported with poorer perception of their oral health related Quality of Life. Conclusion The present study has shown relationship between Orofacial Pain, Quality of Life and Psychological Factors. PMID:26155560

  9. Chernobyl's lengthening shadow

    SciTech Connect

    Marples, D. )

    1993-09-01

    This article reviews the April 26, 1986 nuclear disaster at Chernobyl. The information presented was gathered through talks between the author and scientists, citizens, and hospital workers in Belarus and Ukraine, as well as from library research. What is currently believed to have occurred at the time of the accident is related. The short and long term health effects of the accident as they are now understood are analyzed. The numbers of people evacuated and the location and severity of land contamination are described. Political and economic consequences of the accident are also explored. 2 refs.

  10. Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Burkart, W; Grosche, B; Schoetzau, A

    1997-03-01

    In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meioses, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. PMID:9052678

  11. Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Burkart, W.; Grosche, B.; Schoetzau, A.

    1997-03-01

    In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Salivary cortisol and psychological factors in women with chronic and acute oro-facial pain.

    PubMed

    Jasim, H; Louca, S; Christidis, N; Ernberg, M

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the salivary cortisol level, pain intensity and psychological factors between patients with chronic and acute oro-facial pain (OP) and pain-free subjects. Twenty-seven females with chronic OP (a diagnosis of myofascial pain according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders with at least 6 months duration), 24 females with acute OP (<10 days duration) and 27 pain-free females participated. Morning saliva was collected from all participants for analyses of the cortisol level. The pain intensity was assessed on a 0-10 numeric rating scale. The participants were evaluated by the Symptom Checklist 90-revised for levels of depression and somatisation, and the Perceived Stress Scale. The cortisol levels among the three patient groups were similar with no significant group differences. The median (interquartile range) current pain level did not differ between chronic and acute OP and was, respectively, 5 (4) and 5 (3). Patients with chronic OP showed significantly higher scores for depression, somatisation and perceived stress compared with patients with acute OP (Ps < 0.001), but there were no significant differences between acute OP and controls. To conclude, there were no differences in cortisol level between groups, despite significant higher levels of depression, somatisation and perceived stress in patients with chronic OP. This shows that psychological distress has a more important role in chronic than in acute OP. However, the relation between pain, adreno-cortical activity and psychological distress is complex and warrants further investigation. PMID:24313837

  13. Impact of "JOBM": ISI Impact Factor Places the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management" Third in Applied Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, Donald A.

    2006-01-01

    The ISI Impact Factor for "JOBM" is 1.793, placing it third in the JCR rankings for journals in applied psychology with a sharply accelerating linear trend over the past 5 years. This article reviews the Impact Factor and raises questions regarding its reliability and validity and then considers a citation analysis of "JOBM" in light of the…

  14. Improving the Factor Structure of Psychological Scales: The Expanded Format as an Alternative to the Likert Scale Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xijuan; Savalei, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Many psychological scales written in the Likert format include reverse worded (RW) items in order to control acquiescence bias. However, studies have shown that RW items often contaminate the factor structure of the scale by creating one or more method factors. The present study examines an alternative scale format, called the Expanded format,…

  15. Adults' Narratives of Growing up With a Cleft Lip and/or Palate: Factors Associated With Psychological Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Stock, Nicola Marie; Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Rumsey, Nichola

    2016-03-01

    Background Growing up with a cleft lip and/or palate presents a number of challenges for those affected and their families. Understanding why some individuals cope well while others struggle is key to psychological research in this field. A better appreciation of the factors and processes that contribute to psychological adjustment to cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) from the patient perspective would be of value to both researchers and clinicians. Design Qualitative data elicited from individual interviews with 52 adults born with CL/P. Results Inductive thematic analysis identified three main themes: "background" factors (age, gender, sexual orientation, culture, additional conditions, socioeconomic status, and adoption), "external" factors (treatment autonomy, familial coping and support, salience, public understanding, psychological input, and peer support), and "internal" psychological factors (perceptions of difference, noticeability and teasing, social confidence, internalization of beauty ideals, valence, expectations of treatment, responding to challenges, social comparisons, acceptance, faith, dispositional style, and recognition of strengths and positive growth). Conclusions The number and breadth of factors identified in this study are testament to the importance of psychology in the field of CL/P and may offer guidance in relation to developing and assessing the value of psychological interventions. There is a clear role for psychologists in tackling appearance-related concerns, designing materials, supporting patient decision making, and improving social interaction, as well as providing specialist psychological support. The findings illustrate the potential degree of individual variation in perspectives and offer insight into the conflicting results found within current literature. PMID:25650758

  16. Going against the Herd: Psychological and Cultural Factors Underlying the 'Vaccination Confidence Gap'.

    PubMed

    Browne, Matthew; Thomson, Patricia; Rockloff, Matthew Justus; Pennycook, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    By far the most common strategy used in the attempt to modify negative attitudes toward vaccination is to appeal to evidence-based reasoning. We argue, however, that focusing on science comprehension is inconsistent with one of the key facts of cognitive psychology: Humans are biased information processors and often engage in motivated reasoning. On this basis, we hypothesised that negative attitudes can be explained primarily by factors unrelated to the empirical evidence for vaccination; including some shared attitudes that also attract people to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). In particular, we tested psychosocial factors associated with CAM endorsement in past research; including aspects of spirituality, intuitive (vs analytic) thinking styles, and the personality trait of openness to experience. These relationships were tested in a cross-sectional, stratified CATI survey (N = 1256, 624 Females). Whilst educational level and thinking style did not predict vaccination rejection, psychosocial factors including: preferring CAM to conventional medicine (OR .49, 95% CI .36-.66), endorsement of spirituality as a source of knowledge (OR .83, 95% CI .71-.96), and openness (OR .86, 95% CI .74-.99), all predicted negative attitudes to vaccination. Furthermore, for 9 of the 12 CAMs surveyed, utilisation in the last 12 months was associated with lower levels of vaccination endorsement. From this we suggest that vaccination scepticism appears to be the outcome of a particular cultural and psychological orientation leading to unwillingness to engage with the scientific evidence. Vaccination compliance might be increased either by building general confidence and understanding of evidence-based medicine, or by appealing to features usually associated with CAM, e.g. 'strengthening your natural resistance to disease'. PMID:26325522

  17. Factors associated with psychological and behavioral functioning in people with type 2 diabetes living in France

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To identify demographic and clinical factors associated with psychological and behavioral functioning (PBF) in people with type 2 diabetes living in France. Methods In March 2002, approximately 10,000 adults, who had been reimbursed for at least one hypoglycemic treatment or insulin dose during the last quarter of 2001, received a questionnaire about their health status and PBF (3,646 responders). For this analysis, the 3,090 persons with type 2 diabetes, aged 18-85 years old were selected. PBF was measured with the adapted version of the Diabetes Health Profile for people with type 2 diabetes. This permitted the calculation of three functional scores - psychological distress (PD), barriers to activity (BA), and disinhibited eating (DE) - from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). Results Major negative associations were observed with PBF for microvascular complications (a difference of 6.7 in the BA score between persons with and without microvascular complications) and severe hypoglycemia (difference of 7.9 in the BA score), insulin treatment (-8.5 & -9.5 in the PD & BA scores respectively, as compared to treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents), non-adherence to treatment (-12.3 in the DE score for persons forgetting their weekly treatment), increasing weight (-8.5 & -9.7 in the PD & DE scores respectively, as compared to stable weight), at least one psychiatrist visit in 2001 (-8.9 in the DE score), and universal medical insurance coverage (-7.9 in the PD score) (due to low income). Conclusion Prevention and management of microvascular complications or adherence to treatment (modifiable factors) could be essential to preserving or improving PBF among people with type 2 diabetes. A specific approach to type 2 diabetes management may be required in groups with a low socioeconomic profile (particularly people with universal medical insurance coverage), or other non modifiable factors. PMID:21044345

  18. Psychological consequences and associated risk factors among adult survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2008, a devastating earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Wenchuan, China. Following this disaster, several studies were conducted which assessed the degree of mental disorders in the affected population, but very few considered that several disorders may occur at the same time. This paper aims to investigate the psychological effects and risk factors among adult survivors one-year after the earthquake event. Methods 2080 adult earthquake survivors from 19 counties in the affected areas were interviewed. A stratified sampling strategy was used to collect the information. Earthquake survivors completed self-report questionnaires, which included a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) checklist, a self-rating depression scale and a self-rating anxiety scale. Results Fifty nine percent of the participants were male. The prevalence of probable PTSD in the sample was 40.1% (based on the DSM-IV criteria). Significant differences in the demographic variables were found in the levels of anxiety, depression, and PTSD. Anxiety levels were found to be positively correlated with depression (r = 0.438, p < 0.01) and PTSD (r = 0.322, p < 0.01). Risk factors for each symptom were also identified. Being female, having a low income level and having a low perceived level of social support were found to be the risk factors associated with anxiety, depression, and PTSD. There appeared to be no obvious relationship between the distance from the epicenter of the earthquake event and the severity of the psychological problems. Conclusions PTSD, anxiety, and depression were prevalent among the survivors. Most findings on the predictors were found to be consistent with current research. Positive adjustment and social support were found to be needed for the highest-risk population. PMID:24779914

  19. Going against the Herd: Psychological and Cultural Factors Underlying the ‘Vaccination Confidence Gap’

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    By far the most common strategy used in the attempt to modify negative attitudes toward vaccination is to appeal to evidence-based reasoning. We argue, however, that focusing on science comprehension is inconsistent with one of the key facts of cognitive psychology: Humans are biased information processors and often engage in motivated reasoning. On this basis, we hypothesised that negative attitudes can be explained primarily by factors unrelated to the empirical evidence for vaccination; including some shared attitudes that also attract people to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). In particular, we tested psychosocial factors associated with CAM endorsement in past research; including aspects of spirituality, intuitive (vs analytic) thinking styles, and the personality trait of openness to experience. These relationships were tested in a cross-sectional, stratified CATI survey (N = 1256, 624 Females). Whilst educational level and thinking style did not predict vaccination rejection, psychosocial factors including: preferring CAM to conventional medicine (OR .49, 95% CI .36–.66), endorsement of spirituality as a source of knowledge (OR .83, 95% CI .71–.96), and openness (OR .86, 95% CI .74–.99), all predicted negative attitudes to vaccination. Furthermore, for 9 of the 12 CAMs surveyed, utilisation in the last 12 months was associated with lower levels of vaccination endorsement. From this we suggest that vaccination scepticism appears to be the outcome of a particular cultural and psychological orientation leading to unwillingness to engage with the scientific evidence. Vaccination compliance might be increased either by building general confidence and understanding of evidence-based medicine, or by appealing to features usually associated with CAM, e.g. ‘strengthening your natural resistance to disease’. PMID:26325522

  20. Lessons from Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Noboru; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-01-01

    The Chernobyl disaster on April 26th, 1986, led to the emission of radioactive substances such as iodine-131 and radioactive cesium. As the Soviet Union did not control food distribution and intake, residents were exposed to high levels of internal radiation, leading to the internal radiation exposure of the thyroid gland by iodine-131. As a result, the number of people who had thyroid cancer increased drastically among those who had been under 15 years old at the time of the accident. The age predilection is about to move to 25 or older. However, there has been no scientific evidence of impacts for solid tumor other than thyroid cancer, leukemia, benign diseases, or inheritance including unborn babies. On the other hand, the accident was thought to have caused social unrest and mental damage which had far more impact than that caused by radiation exposure. In this paper, we would like to summarize the impacts on the health of the people in Chernobyl compared to those caused by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. PMID:22353657

  1. Focal hand dystonia in musicians: phenomenology, etiology, and psychological trigger factors.

    PubMed

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Jabusch, Hans-Christian

    2009-01-01

    NARRATIVE REVIEW: Musician's dystonia is a task-specific movement disorder, which manifests itself as a loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. In many cases, the disorder terminates the careers of affected musicians. Approximately 1% of all professional musicians are affected. In the past, focal dystonia (FD) was classified as a psychological disorder. Over time, the problem was classified as a neurological problem. Although the specific pathophysiology of the disorder is still unclear, it appears the etiology is multifactorial. While there may be a family history, neurophysiological, physical, and environmental factors, trauma and stress contribute to the phenotypic development of FD. This manuscript analyzes the evidence supporting the potential contribution of the emotional brain systems in the etiology of focal hand dystonia in musicians. In addition, the psychological findings from a large descriptive study comparing healthy musicians, musicians with dystonia, and musicians with chronic pain. Information about psychogenic characteristics might be used to modify intervention strategies and music instruction to reduce the incidence of musician's dystonia. PMID:19278826

  2. Air Pollution and DNA Methylation: Interaction by Psychological Factors in the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Madrigano, Jaime; Baccarelli, Andrea; Mittleman, Murray A.; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Cantone, Laura; Kubzansky, Laura; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is a potential pathway linking air pollution to disease. Studies indicate that psychological functioning modifies the association between pollution and morbidity. The authors estimated the association of DNA methylation with ambient particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) and black carbon, using mixed models. DNA methylation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene, iNOS, and the glucocorticoid receptor gene, GCR, was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction pyrosequencing of 1,377 blood samples from 699 elderly male participants in the VA Normative Aging Study (1999–2009). The authors also investigated whether this association was modified by psychological factors including optimism or pessimism, anxiety, and depression. iNOS methylation was decreased after acute exposure to both black carbon and PM2.5. A 1-μg/m3 increase in exposure to black carbon in the 4 hours preceding the clinical examination was associated with a 0.9% decrease in 5-methylcytosine (95% CI: 0.4, 1.4) in iNOS, and a 10-μg/m3 increase in exposure to PM2.5 was associated with a 0.6% decrease in 5-methylcytosine (95% CI: 0.03, 1.1) in iNOS. Participants with low optimism and high anxiety had associations that were 3–4 times larger than those with high optimism or low anxiety. GCR methylation was not associated with particulate air pollution exposure. PMID:22798479

  3. Psychological factors influencing adoption of postural training devices: implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Fleiter, Judy; Walsh, Shari; Biggs, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    This paper details an exploratory investigation of psychological factors that may influence the adoption/rejection of postural training devices from the perspectives of two potential user groups (clients and practitioners). The aim was to elicit perceived advantages and disadvantages from potential users and to apply psychological principles to examine, and potentially counter perceived barriers to use. A small sample (50) of general public members, physiotherapists and occupational therapists were surveyed using open-ended questions designed to elicit information about current practices and attitudinal beliefs about postural training. Results suggested that members of the public fall into two categories according to whether they would use the device for prevention or treatment. This group identified issues such as lack of need, time consuming, and motivations to comply. Practitioners highlighted that lack of research, lack of ability to trial a product, and issues of cost and non-compliance by consumers and were seen as prohibitory to use. A number of theoretical principles of behaviour change were then related to the findings including: the stages of change model, behavioural learning, message framing, persuasion, attitude-behaviour relationships, motivations and impression management. Client cost objections to treatments and the need to integrate research findings into practice are also discussed. PMID:19276521

  4. Psychological distress as a mediator in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wan Ying; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Hazizi, Abu Saad

    2012-12-01

    The mechanism linking biopsychosocial factors to disordered eating among university students is not well understood especially among Malaysians. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of psychological distress in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students. A self-administered questionnaire measured self-esteem, body image, social pressures to be thin, weight-related teasing, psychological distress, and disordered eating in 584 university students (59.4% females and 40.6% males). Body weight and height were measured. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that the partial mediation model provided good fit to the data. Specifically, the relationships between self-esteem and weight-related teasing with disordered eating were mediated by psychological distress. In contrast, only direct relationships between body weight status, body image, and social pressures to be thin with disordered eating were found and were not mediated by psychological distress. Furthermore, multigroup analyses indicated that the model was equivalent for both genders but not for ethnic groups. There was a negative relationship between body weight status and psychological distress for Chinese students, whereas this was not the case among Malay students. Intervention and prevention programs on psychological distress may be beneficial in reducing disordered eating among Malaysian university students. PMID:22885453

  5. Observations on the Chernobyl Disaster and LNT.

    PubMed

    Jaworowski, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident was probably the worst possible catastrophe of a nuclear power station. It was the only such catastrophe since the advent of nuclear power 55 years ago. It resulted in a total meltdown of the reactor core, a vast emission of radionuclides, and early deaths of only 31 persons. Its enormous political, economic, social and psychological impact was mainly due to deeply rooted fear of radiation induced by the linear non-threshold hypothesis (LNT) assumption. It was a historic event that provided invaluable lessons for nuclear industry and risk philosophy. One of them is demonstration that counted per electricity units produced, early Chernobyl fatalities amounted to 0.86 death/GWe-year), and they were 47 times lower than from hydroelectric stations ( approximately 40 deaths/GWe-year). The accident demonstrated that using the LNT assumption as a basis for protection measures and radiation dose limitations was counterproductive, and lead to sufferings and pauperization of millions of inhabitants of contaminated areas. The projections of thousands of late cancer deaths based on LNT, are in conflict with observations that in comparison with general population of Russia, a 15% to 30% deficit of solid cancer mortality was found among the Russian emergency workers, and a 5% deficit solid cancer incidence among the population of most contaminated areas. PMID:20585443

  6. Observations on the Chernobyl Disaster and LNT

    PubMed Central

    Jaworowski, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident was probably the worst possible catastrophe of a nuclear power station. It was the only such catastrophe since the advent of nuclear power 55 years ago. It resulted in a total meltdown of the reactor core, a vast emission of radionuclides, and early deaths of only 31 persons. Its enormous political, economic, social and psychological impact was mainly due to deeply rooted fear of radiation induced by the linear non-threshold hypothesis (LNT) assumption. It was a historic event that provided invaluable lessons for nuclear industry and risk philosophy. One of them is demonstration that counted per electricity units produced, early Chernobyl fatalities amounted to 0.86 death/GWe-year), and they were 47 times lower than from hydroelectric stations (∼40 deaths/GWe-year). The accident demonstrated that using the LNT assumption as a basis for protection measures and radiation dose limitations was counterproductive, and lead to sufferings and pauperization of millions of inhabitants of contaminated areas. The projections of thousands of late cancer deaths based on LNT, are in conflict with observations that in comparison with general population of Russia, a 15% to 30% deficit of solid cancer mortality was found among the Russian emergency workers, and a 5% deficit solid cancer incidence among the population of most contaminated areas. PMID:20585443

  7. Generating Pedestrian Trajectories Consistent with the Fundamental Diagram Based on Physiological and Psychological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Sahil; Best, Andrew; Curtis, Sean; Manocha, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian crowds often have been modeled as many-particle system including microscopic multi-agent simulators. One of the key challenges is to unearth governing principles that can model pedestrian movement, and use them to reproduce paths and behaviors that are frequently observed in human crowds. To that effect, we present a novel crowd simulation algorithm that generates pedestrian trajectories that exhibit the speed-density relationships expressed by the Fundamental Diagram. Our approach is based on biomechanical principles and psychological factors. The overall formulation results in better utilization of free space by the pedestrians and can be easily combined with well-known multi-agent simulation techniques with little computational overhead. We are able to generate human-like dense crowd behaviors in large indoor and outdoor environments and validate the results with captured real-world crowd trajectories. PMID:25875932

  8. Some further studies on the prediction of experimental colds in volunteers by psychological factors.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, D E; Broadbent, M H; Phillpotts, R J; Wallace, J

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the incidence of colds in volunteers, exposed experimentally to various rhinovirus and influenza virus challenges, confirmed an earlier report that assessments of virus shedding show a higher degree of infection by rhinovirus in Introverts than they do in Extroverts. The influenza trials however did not show such an effect. In addition, people with higher scores on a widely used self-report inventory of mild psychoneurotic symptoms tended to show more evidence of increased nasal secretion after infection by either type of virus. The specific scale showing the latter effect most clearly was that of Obsessional Symptoms. Taking account of these psychological factors greatly increased the sensitivity of a study of the beneficial effects of interferon. PMID:6084061

  9. Understanding sociocultural and psychological factors affecting transgender people of color in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Bith-Melander, Pollie; Sheoran, Bhupendra; Sheth, Lina; Bermudez, Carlos; Drone, Jennifer; Wood, Woo; Schroeder, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic qualitative study explored the needs of transgender people of color, including biological transitioning issues, gender and group membership identity formation, HIV, and other health issues. The sample consisted of transgender youth and adults of color in San Francisco (N = 43). Data were collected from in-depth interviews with 20 youth and adults and focus groups with 23 individuals. The study focused on perspectives of racial and ethnic minorities from Asian/Pacific Islander, African American, and Latino backgrounds. The medical decision-making perspective was used to gain a deeper understanding of sociocultural and psychological factors affecting transgender individuals of color in San Francisco. The major themes that emerged were gender identity, group membership, transitioning and related issues, sex work, alcohol and drug use, mental health and health care, sense of community, HIV, resources, and other support. Key clinical considerations that health providers can use to improve care of transgender individuals of color are included. PMID:20416495

  10. The influence of psychologic factors on patient satisfaction with complete dentures.

    PubMed

    van Waas, M A

    1990-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between satisfaction with complete dentures and some psychologic factors. New dentures were made for 130 patients who were investigated during their treatment. A neuroticism scale and the Health Locus of Control scale were used to investigate the patient's personality. The patient-dentist relationship was evaluated by asking patients their opinions about the treatment, and patient attitude toward dentures in general and their expectation toward the new dentures were evaluated by means of a questionnaire. No relationship was found between dissatisfaction and patient personality. A low relationship was found between dissatisfaction and the patient's opinion about the treatment, and a moderate relationship was found between dissatisfaction and the patient's attitude toward dentures. A patient's attitude toward dentures, measured by the questionnaire before new dentures were received, is a prospective tool for patient satisfaction with new dentures. PMID:2187082

  11. Calculating Risk: Radiation and Chernobyl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Robert Peter

    1987-01-01

    Considers who is at risk in a disaster such as Chernobyl. Assesses the difficulty in translating information regarding radiation to the public and in determining the acceptability of technological risks. (NKA)

  12. Investigation of risk factors of psychological acceptance and burnout syndrome among nurses in China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yongcheng; Yao, Wu; Wang, Wei; Li, Hong; Lan, Yajia

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine reliability of Chinese version of Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), the relationship between psychological acceptance (PA), and burnout syndrome and their risk factors among nurses in China. The reliability of AAQ-II in Chinese was evaluated first by testing on 111 doctors and 108 nurses in China. On the number of 845 nurses selected from nine city hospitals by using stratified cluster sampling method, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was administered to establish the presence of burnout, and the AAQ-II was used to measure their PA. Results showed that the AAQ-II in Chinese had a good test-retest reliability. PA was statistically significantly negatively correlated to the three dimensionalities of burnout among nurses in China. Male and female nurses had a significant difference in PA. Risk factors for burnout were age (25-44 years), marital status (married), gender (male), hospital department (emergency) and position (primary title) as well as PA. The findings provide insights into the risk factors of burnout in Chinese nurses and may have clinical implications in preventing burnout in Chinese nurses. PMID:24093745

  13. Assessment of selected psychological factors in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaczówka, Anna; Jeżewska, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In the majority of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) mental health problems are demonstrated in the form of excessive anxiety and unstable emotional reactions. Emotional instability affects the wellbeing of these patients, and also their attitude towards the disease and the course of treatment. Aim The objective of the study is to evaluate psychological factors in patients with IBD, and to compare patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and patients suffering from Crohn's disease (CD) with respect to intensity of these factors. Material and methods The study included 108 patients with IBD. NEO-FFI and type-D Scale were used to evaluate personality traits. Anxiety level was measured with STAI. CECS was used to measure the patients’ tendency to suppress negative emotions. Results In the patients with CD 45% of subjects presented type D personality. In the group of patients with UC, type D personality was found in 38%. The higher levels of neuroticism and extraversion were observed in patients with UC, whereas the patients with CD exhibited a higher level of openness to experience and agreeableness. In patients with CD the levels of state anxiety were elevated, whereas in patients with UC higher scores were both for state and trait anxiety. Conclusions There were no statistically significant differences in terms of personality factors in a group of patients with CD and UC. It was found that the majority of patients with IBD suffer elevated or high sense of anxiety. PMID:27110311

  14. Ten years after Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, K.

    1996-12-31

    As was amply demonstrated during the EU/IAEA/WHO Summing-up-Conference in Vienna, Austria, April 8-12, 1996, the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident were, fortunately, not as serious as frequently presented in the media: 28 people died from acute radiation syndrome in 1986, 14 more of possibly radiation-related causes since. Of the <1000 thyroid cancers in children, 90 to 95% are curable. There have so far been no other demonstrable increases in the former Soviet Union, as well as in Western Europe, of leukemias, solid cancers, or genetic defects, nor are any to be expected in the future. Even among the {open_quotes}liquidators{close_quotes} with doses {approximately}100 mSv, of the {approximately}150 additional expected leukemias during the 10 yr after the accident, none have been observed. The economical, social, and political consequences, however, both in the former Soviet Union and in Western Europe, have been very substantial. Whole countries developed an hysterical `radiation sickness.` As A. Merkel, the German Minister of Environment and Reactor Safety, who chaired the conference, pointed out, `the radiation sensitivity of societies far exceeds that of individuals.` It is obvious that important groups in Ukraine, Belaurus, and Russia try to blame a large fraction of all economic, social, and health problems during the last decade, which are substantial ({approx} 6 yr less life expectancy, twice the homicides and traffic deaths, increased alcoholism, and so forth), on radiation of the Chernobyl accident in an effort to attract more support. Western scientists refute such claims but admit large non-radiation-related problems caused by the accident.

  15. Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-05-11

    The Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (Chernolit TM) provides bibliographic data in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the former Ukrainian Republic of the USSR in 1986. Chernolit TM is a portable and easy to use product. The bibliographic data is provided under the control of a graphical user interface so that the user may quickly and easily retrieve pertinent information from the large database. The usermore » may search the database for occurrences of words, names, or phrases; view bibliographic references on screen; and obtain reports of selected references. Reports may be viewed on the screen, printed, or accumulated in a folder that is written to a disk file when the user exits the software. Chernolit TM provides a cost-effective alternative to multiple, independent literature searches. Forty-five hundred references concerning the accident, including abstracts, are distributed with Chernolit TM. The data contained in the database were obtained from electronic literature searches and from requested donations from individuals and organizations. These literature searches interrogated the Energy Science and Technology database (formerly DOE ENERGY) of the DIALOG Information Retrieval Service. Energy Science and Technology, provided by the U.S. DOE, Washington, D.C., is a multi-disciplinary database containing references to the world''s scientific and technical literature on energy. All unclassified information processed at the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) of the U.S. DOE is included in the database. In addition, information on many documents has been manually added to Chernolit TM. Most of this information was obtained in response to requests for data sent to people and/or organizations throughout the world.« less

  16. Disentangling immigrant status in mental health: psychological protective and risk factors among Latino and Asian American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Leong, Frederick; Park, Yong S; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to disentangle the psychological mechanisms underlying immigrant status by testing a model of psychological protective and risk factors to predict the mental health prevalence rates among Latino and Asian American immigrants based on secondary analysis of the National Latino and Asian American Study. The first research question examined differences on the set of protective and risk factors between immigrants and their U.S.-born counterparts and found that immigrants reported higher levels of ethnic identity, family cohesion, native language proficiency, and limited English proficiency than their U.S.-born counterparts. The second research question examined the effect of the protective and risk factors on prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety, and substance-related disorders and found that social networking served as a protective factor. Discrimination, acculturative stress, and family conflict were risk factors on the mental health for both ethnic groups. Clinical implications and directions for future research are provided. PMID:23889027

  17. Prevalence and associated factors in burnout and psychological morbidity among substance misuse professionals

    PubMed Central

    Oyefeso, Adenekan; Clancy, Carmel; Farmer, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies of psychological stress among substance misuse professionals rarely describe the nature of burnout and psychological morbidity. The main aim of this study was to determine the extent, pattern and predictors of psychological morbidity and burnout among substance misuse professionals. Methods This study was a cross-sectional mail survey of 194 clinical staff of substance misuse services in the former South Thames region of England, using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) as measures of psychological morbidity and burnout, respectively. Results Rates of psychological morbidity (82%: 95% CI = 76–87) and burnout (high emotional exhaustion – 33% [27–40]; high depersonalisation – 17% [12–23]; and diminished personal accomplishment – 36% [29–43]) were relatively high in the study sample. High levels of alienation and tension (job stressors) predicted emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation (burnout) but not psychological morbidity. Diminished personal accomplishment was associated with higher levels of psychological morbidity Conclusion In the sample of substance misuse professionals studied, rates of psychological morbidity and burnout were high, suggesting a higher level of vulnerability than in other health professionals. Furthermore, pathways to psychological morbidity and burnout are partially related. Therefore, targeted response is required to manage stress, burnout and psychological morbidity among substance misuse professionals. Such a response should be integral to workforce development. PMID:18261227

  18. The Chernobyl NPP decommissioning: Current status and alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Mikolaitchouk, H.; Steinberg, N.

    1996-08-01

    After the Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986, many contradictory decisions were taken concerning the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) future. The principal source of contradictions was a deadline for a final shutdown of the Chernobyl NPP units. Alterations in a political and socioeconomic environment resulted in the latest decision of the Ukrainian Authorities about 2000 as a deadline for a beginning of the Chernobyl NPP decommissioning. The date seems a sound compromise among the parties concerned. However, in order to meet the data a lot of work should be done. First of all, a decommissioning strategy has to be established. The problem is complicated due to both site-specific aspects and an absence of proven solutions for the RBMK-type reactor decommissioning. In the paper the problem of decommissioning option selection is considered taking into account an influence of the following factors: relevant legislative and regulatory requirements; resources required to carry out decommissioning (man-power, equipment, technologies, waste management infrastructure, etc.); radiological and physical status of the plant, including structural integrity and predictable age and weather effects; impact of planned activities at the destroyed unit 4 and within the 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP; planed use of the site; socio-economic considerations.

  19. Chromosome aberrations in Norwegian reindeer following the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Røed, K H; Jacobsen, M

    1995-03-01

    Chromosome analyses were carried out on peripheral blood lymphocytes of semi-domestic reindeer in Norway which had been exposed to varying amounts of radiocesium emanating from the Chernobyl accident. The sampling was done in the period 1987-1990. The material included 192 reindeer, originating from four herds in central Norway, an area considerably affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and from three herds in northern Norway which was unaffected by fallout from the accident. Significant heterogeneity in the distribution of chromosome aberrations between herds was observed. The pattern of chromosome aberration frequencies between herds was not related to the variation in radiocesium exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Other factors than the Chernobyl accident appear therefore to be of importance for the distribution of aberration frequencies found among present herds. Within the most contaminated area the reindeer born in 1986 showed significantly more chromosome aberrations than those born both before and after 1986. This could suggest that the Chernobyl accident fallout created an effect particularly among calves, during the immediate post-accident period in the most exposed areas. PMID:7700280

  20. Coping strategies as psychological risk factor for antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression among Greek women.

    PubMed

    Gourounti, Kleanthi; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Lykeridou, Katerina

    2013-10-01

    A range of psychosocial, medical, and demographic variables may influence pregnant women's psychological status. However the association between coping strategies, anxiety, worries, and depression during pregnancy is a relatively neglected area of research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between coping strategies, antenatal anxiety, pregnancy worries, and depressive symptomatology after controlling for the effects of background variables. The study sample consisted of 163 pregnant women, with gestational age ranging from 11 to 26 weeks, attending antenatal screening at a Greek public hospital. Coping strategies were measured with Brief COPE, pregnancy worries were measured with Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS), anxiety was assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-X version), and depression was measured with Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated among all study variables, followed by hierarchical multiple linear regression. In the univariate analysis, low annual income, unemployment, conception after an IVF treatment, and a previous history of miscarriage were associated with anxiety, depression, and worries. Additionally, almost all coping strategies (denial, behavioral disengagement, self-blame, self-distraction, substance use, acceptance, positive reframing, active coping, and seeking emotional support) were significantly associated with antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression. Linear regression analysis showed that only previous history of miscarriage, conception after IVF, as well as denial, behavioral disengagement and acceptance coping strategies were significantly related to anxiety, worries and depressive symptomatology. The risk factors found in this study could help clinicians target anxiety and depression screening to high-risk populations of pregnant women. Provision of adequate training for obstetricians and midwives in the detection and

  1. Psychological factors and treatment effectiveness in resistant anxiety disorders in highly comorbid inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Ociskova, Marie; Prasko, Jan; Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Grambal, Ales

    2016-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are a group of various mental syndromes that have been related with generally poor treatment response. Several psychological factors may improve or hinder treatment effectiveness. Hope has a direct impact on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Also, dissociation is a significant factor influencing treatment efficiency in this group of disorders. Development of self-stigma could decrease treatment effectiveness, as well as several temperamental and character traits. The aim of this study was to explore a relationship between selected psychological factors and treatment efficacy in anxiety disorders. Subjects and methods A total of 109 inpatients suffering from anxiety disorders with high frequency of comorbidity with depression and/or personality disorder were evaluated at the start of the treatment by the following scales: the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and the Temperament and Character Inventory – revised. The participants, who sought treatment for anxiety disorders, completed the following scales at the beginning and end of an inpatient-therapy program: Clinical Global Impression (objective and subjective) the Beck Depression Inventory – second edition, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The treatment consisted of 25 group sessions and five individual sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy in combination with pharmacotherapy. There was no randomization to the type of group-therapy program. Results Greater improvement in psychopathology, assessed by relative change in objective Clinical Global Impression score, was connected with low initial dissociation level, harm avoidance, and self-stigma, and higher amounts of hope and self-directedness. Also, individuals without a comorbid personality disorder improved considerably more than comorbid patients. According to

  2. Psychological Factors Associated with Genetic Test Decision-Making among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Lei; Richman, Alice R.

    2015-01-01

    Making decisions to undergo Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) genetic testing can be challenging. It is important to understand how the perceptions of affected individuals might influence testing decision-making. Although evidence has shown that psychological factors are important in predicting testing decisions, affect-type variables have been…

  3. Positive Psychology and Familial Factors as Predictors of Latina/o Students' Hope and College Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos Vela, Javier; Lerma, Eunice; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina; Hernandez-Duque, Omar; Gonzalez, Stacey L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the contributions of positive psychology and familial factors as predictors of hope and academic performance among 166 Latina/o college students enrolled at a Hispanic Serving Institution of Higher Education. The results indicated that presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, daily spiritual experiences, and…

  4. Psychological Factors Associated with Weight Loss in Obese and Severely Obese Women in a Behavioral Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Whitaker, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    The behavioral processes of weight reduction are poorly understood, and responses to treatments based primarily on caloric restriction have been unfavorable. A theory-based path derived from proposed relations of physical activity, changes in psychological factors, and weight loss was separately tested with women with Class I and Class II obesity…

  5. The Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) Study: Biological and Psychological Factors Associated with Learning Performance in Adult Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Groot, Renate H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning is crucial for everyone. The association between biological (eg, sleep, nutrition) and psychological factors (eg, test anxiety, goal orientation) and learning performance has been well established for children, adolescents and college students in traditional education. Evidence for these associations for adult distance students is lacking…

  6. Psychological Factors in the Development of Football-Talent from the Perspective of an Integrative Sport-Talent Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orosz, Robert; Mezo, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a new, integrative model of sports talent. Following the theoretical part of the study a football-talent research is presented, in which a theoretical framework is provided by this new theory of sports talent. This research examines the role of psychological factors in football talent development. The sample was N = 425…

  7. Risk Factors, Resilience, and Psychological Distress among Holocaust and Nonholocaust Survivors in the Post-9/11 Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamet, Ann; Szuchman, Lenore; Perkel, Linda; Walsh, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Many older adults have experienced or witnessed devastating life events including wars, hurricanes, and explosions. This study examined retraumatization and the relationship between certain risk factors, resilience, and psychological distress in the post-9/11 environment among 120 community-dwelling older adults. Results indicate that Holocaust…

  8. More than the "X" Factor! A Longitudinal Investigation of the Psychological Characteristics of Developing Excellence in Musical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macnamara, Aine; Collins, Dave

    2009-01-01

    Current findings in talent identification and development research have acknowledged that potential for future performance cannot be identified from single evaluations of performance or anthropometric factors (e.g. Abbott and Collins 2004). Recognising the role of psychological characteristics at elite levels, it is pertinent to consider the role…

  9. Stigmatization and Promotive Factors in Relation to Psychological Health and Life Satisfaction of Adolescents in Planned Lesbian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gelderen, Loes; Gartrell, Nanette N.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Hermanns, Jo M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether stigmatization was associated with psychological adjustment in adolescents from planned lesbian families and, if so, to examine whether individual and interpersonal promotive factors influenced this association. Seventy-eight adolescents (39 girls, 39 boys; mean age = 17.05 years) completed an…

  10. The Specificity of Psychological Factors Associated with Binge Eating in Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    PubMed

    Sehm, Marie; Warschburger, Petra

    2015-11-01

    Low self-esteem, lack of interoceptive awareness, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, weight teasing, and internalization of the societal body ideal are known to be associated with binge eating (BE) in adolescents. The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate whether these attributes are BE-specific and whether different patterns exist for boys and girls. We assessed BE, internalizing symptoms and psychological factors in 1039 adolescents from a community sample by self-report. Using multinomial logistic regression and controlling for measured height and weight, we compared adolescents with BE with individuals from a healthy control group and adolescents reporting internalizing symptoms. Individuals from the BE-group reported a greater lack of interoceptive awareness and higher body dissatisfaction than individuals from the healthy control group. Additionally, we found a significant interaction between gender and body dissatisfaction. Internalization of the societal body ideal was related to BE when compared to internalizing symptoms. Results suggest, that the lack of interoceptive awareness and body dissatisfaction display substantial associations with BE, and that the latter effect is especially strong in boys. The internalization of societal standards of beauty emerged as a BE-specific factor and this finding emphasizes the role of the societal body ideal in the nature of eating pathology in boys and in girls. Increasing body satisfaction and the acceptance of realistic body ideals might be effective strategies in preventing eating pathology. PMID:25936287

  11. The Influence of Psychological and Lifestyle Factors on the Reporting of Postconcussion-Like Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Balasundaram, Arun P; Athens, Josie; Schneiders, Anthony G; McCrory, Paul; Sullivan, S John

    2016-05-01

    Self-reported symptoms are an integral part of the assessment and management of a sports-related concussion. However, postconcussion-like symptoms are reported by non-concussed individuals. Moreover, the current best practice in the reporting of symptoms does not take into account the potential influence of psychological and lifestyle factors. This study aimed to explore the influence of these factors on the reporting of postconcussion-like symptoms. University students (N= 603) completed the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 postconcussion symptom scale along with other predictor variables via a cross-sectional web-based survey. Linear regression analyses revealed six modifiers contributing to the total symptom score with the strongest being alcohol consumption (Estimate = 2.75, p < .001). Following these findings, clinicians need to exercise caution when interpreting the symptom scores for making decisions on the return-to-play (RTP). A failure to do so may lead the health professional to either prematurely RTP or not clear the concussed athlete to resume their sport. PMID:26891719

  12. [Psychological stress factors in erectile dysfunctions. Causal models and empirical results].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, U

    1998-09-01

    In this paper the role of psychosocial factors in erectile dysfunction is examined in two different ways: (1) Current approaches to the causation of psychogenic erectile dysfunctions are reviewed and discussed. (2) Empirical results from a large unselected sample of sexually dysfunctional men are presented and compared to a sample of functional men. Concerning etiological models the traditional unidimensional dichotomous concepts (psychogenic versus organic) of erectile dysfunction have to be abandoned and replaced by two-dimensional models that are able to take the clinical reality into account that many patients have both significant psychological and organic factors in their disorder. The main causes of psychogenic erectile disorders can be divided into three groups, each belonging to a different phase of time: (i) immediate factors (performance anxiety), (ii) antecedent life events from recent history, (iii) developmental vulnerabilities from childhood and adolescence. The specific interplay as well as the importance of the different groups is different in primary and secondary erectile disorders. The empirical results presented here are based on a sample of 751 patients from our interdisciplinary outpatient unit for sexually dysfunctional men and a group of 55 sexually functional men. Both groups completed a self-developed, multidimensional questionnaire addressing a variety of psychosocial and descriptive factors concerning erectile disorders. The results prove the heterogeneity of patients and their respective erectile problems and show a number of highly significant group differences. The frequent comorbidity of erectile disorders and premature ejaculation and disorders of desire is worth mentioning as well as the high prevalence of depression and the extreme extent of performance anxiety in the patient group. The results are discussed with respect to future treatment strategies. The necessity of combined psychosomatic approaches optimizing the efficacy of

  13. A longitudinal study of social, psychological and behavioural factors associated with drunken driving and public drunkenness.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, G; Romelsjö, A

    1997-04-01

    Studies on psychosocial conditions in drunken drivers have generally been cross-sectional and based on rather small selected samples. The objective of this study was to analyse, in a longitudinal perspective, the relationship, in young males, between social and psychological factors and indicators of alcohol abuse on one hand and the risk of subsequent drunken driving and public drunkenness on the other hand, in order to identify similarities and differences in risk factor patterns. Questionnaire information from 8122 military conscripts in 1969/70 was linked to data on drunken driving and public drunkenness for 495 males with offences registered up to 1977. Logistic regression analysis showed that the relative risk (RR) for high alcohol consumption, smoking, use of narcotics and sniffing of solvents had a statistically significant association to subsequent drunken driving and public drunkenness in univariate analyses. In multivariate logistic analyses, RR remained increased for those with fathers belonging to social class II and especially so for those coming from social class III. Smoking (RR 3.3, with a 95% confidence interval of 1.6-6.8) was significantly increased in drunken drivers with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.15% or more at apprehension, as was truancy or contact with police or juvenile authorities in drunken drivers with a BAC of 0.05-0.15%, and illicit drug use, intoxication drinking, contact with police or juvenile authorities and hangover with public drunkenness. Thus, we found that early social and behavioural factors, substance abuse and risky use of alcohol were predictors for both drunken driving and public drunkenness, with no marked differences in risk factor patterns. PMID:9177066

  14. Psychological factors mediating health-related quality of life in COPD.

    PubMed

    Popa-Velea, O; Purcarea, V L

    2014-03-15

    COPD is a chronic disease that has not only a high prevalence and social costs, but is tightly connected to a significant decrease of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative impact on HRQoL of two psychological factors (self-efficacy, optimism) vs. classical medical determinants (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), functional impairment). 26 women and 28 men, aged 45-64 years old (mean = 58.1; standard deviation = 9.7), diagnosed with COPD and with self-reported dyspnea requiring medication were administered COPD Self-Efficacy Scale, LOT-R (Life Orientation Test - Revised) to evaluate optimism, Quality of Well-Being (QWB) Scale, as an accepted measure of HRQoL and Functional Impairment Scale (FIS), used to assess the deterioration of functionality in respiratory diseases. Their respiratory parameters (FEV1, PEF) were also measured, via spirometry. Results showed that self-efficacy and optimism were positively correlated to HRQoL (r = .34 (p < .05) and r = .29 (p < .05), respectively). A reduced model that eliminated the direct influence of respiratory parameters on HRQoL proved to be equally satisfactory in terms of predictor value, compared to the full model (that contained all studied variables) (χ² = 0.067, ns). The functional impairment (FI) scores were inversely correlated with HRQoL (r = -.46, p < .01). These results have implications in considering self-efficacy and optimism as important factors when aiming HRQoL improvement in COPD, and for the inclusion of psychological interventions in the treatment plan of COPD patients. Abbreviations COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; WHO = World Health Organization; HRQoL = health-related quality of life; PEF = peak expiratory flow; FEV1 = forced expiratory flow in one second; LOT-R = Life Orientation Test - Revised; QWB = Quality of Well-Being; FI = functional impairment; SE = self-efficacy; Opt. = optimism. PMID

  15. Children of Chernobyl: A psycho-social empowerment project

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this research has been to design and implement a social action project, using a Freirian Methodology for popular mental health among the victims of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear meltown disaster living in Belarus. Although Chernobyl is in the Ukraine, only 35 kilometers from Kiev, 70% of the 50 million curies of radiation from the 1986 Chernobyl meltdown fell on the Republic of Belarus. This continues to directly affect 2.4 million of the total population of 10 million people. These people, 800,000 of whom are children, still live in the radiated zones. They live with the knowledge that the food, the water, and the ground are slowly poisoning them through continued and ongoing exposure to radiation. While there has been some significant research on the medical effects of the disaster in the Ukraine, much more research needs to be done in Belarus. Very little research or treatment has responded to the emotional, mental health and psychosocial impacts of the disaster on individuals, families and communities. Following the introduction to the problem, a rationale for a new paradigm in Mental Health Treatment is presented in a chapter titled Liberation Psychology'. This chapter integrates fields of psychology, psychotherapy, social work, education, and community organization from a Freirian perspective. The Social Action Project is outlined and described in specific detail. The Social Action Project has led to medical, computer and school supplies being sent to Belarus. Workshops and training have been designed and implemented. Texts and manuals have been translated and published. Further, there is documentation of a joint conceptualization and design of this Children of Chernobyl' project with signed letters of agreement and a report of a fact finding mission to Belaraus. The Social Action Project is then evaluated with Future Planning discussed in the conclusion.

  16. Journal Impact Factors and Self-Citations: Implications for Psychology Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anseel, Frederik; Duyck, Wouter; De Baene, Wouter; Brysbaert, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Comments on the study by J. G. Adair and N. Vohra (see record 2003-02034-002) of changes in the number of references and citations in psychology journals as a consequence of the current knowledge explosion. They made a striking observation of the sometimes excessive number of self-citations in psychology journals. However, after this illustration,…

  17. Hope as a Psychological Resilience Factor in Mothers and Fathers of Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, T. J.; Hastings, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Positive psychology is an area gaining credence within the field of intellectual disability (ID). Hope is one facet of positive psychology that is relatively unstudied in parents of children with ID. In the present study, we explore hope and its relationships with parental well-being in parents of school-aged children with ID. Method:…

  18. Impact of socio-psychological factors on treatment adherence of TB patients in Russia.

    PubMed

    Jakubowiak, W M; Bogorodskaya, E M; Borisov, S E; Danilova, I D; Lomakina, O B; Kourbatova, E V

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social and psychological factors on treatment adherence of patients with tuberculosis (TB). To this end a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among TB patients in four Russian regions (Orel, Vladimir, Belgorod oblasts, and Republic of Mari-El) from 01/04/2004 to 31/03/2005. A total of 87 non-adherent and 1302 adherent patients were interviewed. Compared to adherents, non-adherents were significantly more likely to be male, unemployed, have a technical college education, have a history of imprisonment, have a negative emotional status, consider themselves "not sick", not know the treatment period, have negative feelings and distrust for medical staff, not believe they will fully recover, and not want to continue treatment. Patients at highest risk for non-adherence should be identified at the start of treatment, and offered the services of a psychologist. A case management and patient-centered approach should be applied. PMID:18501675

  19. Children in planned lesbian families: stigmatisation, psychological adjustment and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Bos, Henny M W; van Balen, Frank

    2008-04-01

    The study assessed the extent to which children between eight and 12 years old in planned lesbian families in the Netherlands experience stigmatization, as well as the influence of protective factors (relationship with parents, social acceptance by peers, contact with children from other families headed by lesbian mothers or gay fathers) on their psychological adjustment (conduct problems, emotional symptoms, hyperactivity, self-esteem). Data were collected by questionnaires filled out by the mothers and by the children themselves. The children in the sample generally reported low levels of stigmatization. However, boys more often reported that, in their view, they were excluded by peers because of their non-traditional family situation. Girls more often reported that other children gossiped about the fact that they had two lesbian mothers. Higher levels of stigmatization were associated with more hyperactivity for boys and lower self-esteem for girls. Having frequent contact with other children who have a lesbian mother or gay father protects against the negative influence of stigmatization on self-esteem. Findings support the idea that children in planned lesbian families benefit from the experience of meeting other children from similar families. PMID:18432422

  20. Chernobyl Deconstruction ALARA Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shipler, Dillard B.; Batiy, Valeriy; Povlovsky, Leonid; Schmidt, John P.; Schmieman, Eric A.

    2004-03-24

    The Bechtel/EDF/Battelle Consortium has recently completed the conceptual design for the Chernobyl New Safe Confinement (NSC). Battelle has the scope of work related to environment and safety of the design. As part of the safety analysis, an ALARA analysis was performed for deconstruction of the major, unstable elements of the Shelter Object over the destroyed Unit 4 of the reactor complex. The major elements addressed in the analysis included the current roof sections and the major beams supporting the roof sections. The analysis was based on the existing configuration of the Shelter Object, the developing conceptual design of the NSC arch structure, the developing conceptual design of the facilities within and associated with the NSC (including handling and processing of deconstructed elements, and waste management), and existing Ukranian regulations and working processes and procedures. KSK (a Ukranian Consortium) is a subcontractor to the Bechtel/EDF/Battelle Consortium and performed much of the dose analysis. The analysis concluded that ALARA could be achieved with appropriate implementation of existing Ukrainian regulations and procedures, and developing conceptual design criteria and features.

  1. Psychological Factors as Predictors of Suicidal Ideation among Adolescents in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Norhayati; Amit, Noh; Suen, Melia Wong Yuin

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a drastic increase in the rate of suicides over the past 45 years in Malaysia. The statistics show that adolescents aged between 16 and 19 years old are at high risk of committing suicide. This could be attributed to issues relating to the developmental stage of adolescents. During this stage, adolescents face challenges and are exposed to various stressful experiences and risk factors relating to suicide. Method The present study examined psychological factors (i.e., depression, anxiety and stress) as predictors for suicidal ideation among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 190 students (103 males and 87 females), aged 15 to 19 years old from two different schools in Kuala Lumpur. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21-item version (DASS-21) was used to measure depression, anxiety and stress among the students, and the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) to measure suicidal ideation. The data were analysed using Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analysis. Results The results show that 11.10%, 10.00%, and 9.50% of the students reported that they were experiencing severe depression, anxiety and stress, respectively. There were significant correlations between depression, anxiety, and stress with suicidal ideation. However, only depression was identified as a predictor for suicidal ideation. Conclusion Hence, this study extends the role of depression in predicting suicidal ideation among adolescents in the Malaysian context. The findings imply that teenagers should be assisted in strengthening their positive coping strategies in managing distress to reduce depression and suicidal ideation. PMID:25340331

  2. Epidemiologic studies based on the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, G.

    1996-12-31

    There are great opportunities in the post-Chernobyl experience for significant epidemiologic research, perhaps even more in the area of disaster research than in the area of the human health effects of ionizing radiation. But the potential opportunity for learning the effects of radioiodine on the thyroid is very great and has aroused widespread national and international investigative interest. The opportunities for significant epidemiologic research are, however, severely limited currently by the worsening economic situation in Belarus and Ukraine, where the greatest exposure occurred, and by the lack of personnel trained in appropriate methods of study, the lack of modern equipment, the lack of supplies, the poor communication facilities, and the difficulties of accurate dose estimation. the disadvantages may or may not outweigh the obvious advantages of large numbers, the extensive direct thyroidal measurements made shortly after the accident in 1986, the magnitude of the releases of radioiodine, and the retention of the former Soviet system of universal medical care. Both the European Commission (EC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have been working actively to strengthen the infrastructure of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. New scientific knowledge has yet to emerge from the extensive epidemiologic work but information of considerable public health significance has begun to accumulate. The bulk of the thyroid cancer has been shown to be valid by international pathology review; both EC and WHO representatives have declared the increase in thyroid cancer among children to have been caused in large part by Chernobyl. No increase in leukemia has been seen in the general population. The WHO pilot studies have shown no evidence of an increase in psychologic or neurologic complications among those exposed in utero. Ongoing epidemiologic work can be described by review of the inventory that the WHO has begun to maintain and publish. 20 refs., 7 tabs.

  3. Psychological risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in patients with coronary heart disease: Findings from the Heart and Soul Study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Beth E.; Panguluri, Praveen; Na, Beeya; Whooley, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    Psychological factors, such as depression and anxiety, are independently associated with an increased risk of both diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, but the reasons for these associations are unknown. We sought to determine whether psychological factors were associated with a greater prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with coronary heart disease, and the extent to which such an association may be explained by socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and biological mediators. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1024 outpatients with stable coronary heart disease. Psychological factors, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, hostility, anger, and optimism–pessimism, were assessed using validated standardized questionnaires. The presence or absence of the metabolic syndrome was determined using the criteria outlined by the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Higher levels of depression, anger expression, hostility, and pessimism were significantly associated with increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. These associations were explained by differences in socioeconomic status and health behaviors. Additional adjustment for potential biological mediators had little impact. Further research is needed to determine whether addressing socioeconomic and behavioral factors in people with depression or high levels of anger or hostility could reduce the burden of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:19969373

  4. Are there any psychological factors in male patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax?

    PubMed Central

    Eryigit, Hatice; Ozkorumak, Evrim; Unaldi, Mehmet; Ozdemir, Attila; Cardak, Murat Ersin; Ozer, Kadir Burak

    2014-01-01

    Background: Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is usually seen in young male smokers. Pathophysiology of PSP remains unclear, and studies concerning emotional status are scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate psychological factors associated with primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Methods: The Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered. Results: A total of 40 patients and 40 healthy controls were included in this study. The mean age in the patient group was 24.60 years, while that in the control group was 26.45 years. The difference was not significant. The weight and body mass index of the patient group were significantly lower compared to those of the control group. The mean Beck Anxiety Inventory scores in the patient and control groups were 10.37 ± 11.34 and 8.25 ± 10.60, respectively. Anxiety levels did not differ between the groups (p = 0.389). The mean Beck Depression Inventory scores of the patient and control groups were 8.20 ± 8.37 and 6.80 ± 7.57, respectively, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.435). When the anger structures of the groups were compared, no difference was found in any sub-scale. Trait anxiety scores were higher in the patient group compared to those in the control group, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.369). Conclusions: This study’s findings indicated that anger, anxiety, and depression levels did not differ between the primary spontaneous pneumothorax and healthy groups. PMID:24955190

  5. Physical and psychological work demands as potential risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders among workers in weaving operations

    PubMed Central

    Telaprolu, Neeraja; Anne, Sharada Devi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to examine the relationship between perceived physical and psychological work demands and self reported musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among workers involved in weaving operations. Method: The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire and Work Demands Scale, developed and standardized for the present investigation were the tools for data collection. Chi square test was used to assess univariate associations between work demands and reported MSDs. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed for each of the outcome MSD retaining the variables in the model to adjust for potential confounding. Results: Women were significantly more affected than men in shoulders, wrists/hands, upper back, lower back, and ankle/feet. Perceived physical and psychological demands were significantly associated with MSDs of different body regions. Pulling, pushing, moving, lifting and lowering heavy objects, working while bent or twisted at the waist, and repetitive motions with hands/wrists were the main physical factors retained in the regression models with odds ratios greater than 2. Conflicting demands, work is not remunerative, and no sufficient time to get the job done were the main psychological factors retained in the regression models with odds ratios greater than 1.68. Gender was found to be a significant factor for shoulders, wrists/hands, lower back, and ankles/feet with odds ratios ranging from 1.71 to 2.14. MSDs occurrence was more probable in the mentioned regions among women as compared to men. Both physical and psychological work demands in the work environment were contributing factors for developing MSDs among workers involved in weaving operations. PMID:25598618

  6. The Nutrition Attitude Survey: associations with dietary habits, psychological and physical well-being, and coronary risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hollis, J F; Carmody, T P; Connor, S L; Fey, S G; Matarazzo, J D

    1986-01-01

    Attitudes play an important role in the adoption and maintenance of a variety of health habits. In the present study, the Nutrition Attitude Survey (NAS) was developed to measure attitudes pertaining to the adoption of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet. Factor analysis identified four primary attitudinal factors: Helpless and Unhealthy, Food Exploration, Meat Preference, and Health Consciousness. For a community sample of 415 healthy men and women, relationships were examined among these attitudinal factors and dietary habits, family food patterns, medical and psychological symptoms, and traditional coronary risk factors. For both men and women, the Helpless and Unhealthy factor was associated with increased meat consumption, weight, emotional distress, reported medical and psychological symptoms, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The Food Exploration factor was more characteristic of younger men and women and positively associated with men's reported involvement in family food preparation activities. For both sexes, Meat Preference scores were positively associated with meat consumption and inversely associated with consumption of meatless meals, beans, and fruit. Health Consciousness factor scores were associated with less meat consumption, more meatless meals, and better overall dietary adherence scores for both men and women. Overall, the findings provide initial support for the reliability and predictive validity of the NAS and underscore the importance of assessing and addressing the attitudes and preferences of participants in dietary intervention programs. PMID:3757988

  7. Investigating analgesic and psychological factors associated with risk of postpartum depression development: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Suhitharan, Thangavelautham; Pham, Thi Phuong Tu; Chen, Helen; Assam, Pryseley Nkouibert; Sultana, Rehena; Han, Nian-Lin Reena; Tan, Ene-Choo; Sng, Ban Leong

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the role of peripartum analgesic and psychological factors that may be related to postpartum depression (PPD). Methods This case–control study was conducted in pregnant females who delivered at KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital from November 2010 to October 2013 and had postpartum psychological assessment. Demographic, medical, and postpartum psychological status assessments, intrapartum data including method of induction of labor, mode of labor analgesia, duration of first and second stages of labor, mode of delivery, and pain intensity on hospital admission and after delivery were collected. PPD was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and clinical assessment by the psychiatrist. Results There were 62 cases of PPD and 417 controls after childbirth within 4–8 weeks. The odds of PPD was significantly lower (33 of 329 [10.0%]) in females who received epidural analgesia for labor compared with those who chose nonepidural analgesia (29 of 150 [19.3%]) ([odds ratio] 0.47 (0.27–0.8), P=0.0078). The multivariate analysis showed that absence of labor epidural analgesia, increasing age, family history of depression, history of depression, and previous history of PPD were independent risk factors for development of PPD. Conclusion The absence of labor epidural analgesia remained as an independent risk factor for development of PPD when adjusted for psychiatric predictors of PPD such as history of depression or PPD and family history of depression. PMID:27354803

  8. Assessing Psychological Symptoms and Well-Being: Application of a Dual-Factor Mental Health Model to Understand College Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antaramian, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A dual-factor mental health model includes measures of positive psychological well-being in addition to traditional indicators of psychopathology to comprehensively determine mental health status. The current study examined the utility of this model in understanding the psychological adjustment and educational functioning of college students. A…

  9. Chernobyl fallout on Alpine glaciers

    SciTech Connect

    Ambach, W.; Rehwald, W.; Blumthaler, M.; Eisner, H.; Brunner, P.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the gross beta activity of snow samples from four Alpine glaciers contaminated by radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident and a gamma-spectrum analysis of selected samples are reported. The results are discussed with respect to possible risks to the population from using meltwater from these glaciers as drinking water.

  10. Cell damage seen from Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-24

    The 30 kilometer radius forbidden zone around the Chernobyl atomic plant serves as a sobering reminder of the world's worst nuclear accident. But for former Soviet biologists, it's also a unique natural laboratory. And one scientist, Nadejda Gulaya of Kiev's Pallaguine Institute of Biochemistry, has been doing studies that she claims offer surprising evidence of Chernobyl's after-effects. Prolonged exposure to radioactive fallout from the 1986 accident, she says, has caused damage to cell membranes in both animals and humans. For the past year, Gulaya has been comparing tissues from animals such as mink, pigs, and rodents inhabiting the Chernobyl area with those from other parts of Ukraine. Her conclusion: Exposure to radiation has, in many cases, caused alterations to membrane phospholipids. These changes, are similar to those that disrupt cellular metabolism following exposure to oxidizing free radicals. Gulaya also has preliminary data from human studies. She claims to have found similar alterations in the neurons of people who have died since being exposed to Chernobyl radiation. That leads her to speculate that the frequent psychiatric disorders may not just be from mental stress or radiophobia, but might reflect actual damage to the central nervous system.

  11. Depression, Suicide Ideation, and Thyroid Tumors Among Ukrainian Adolescents Exposed as Children to Chernobyl Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Contis, George; Foley, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Chernobyl Childhood Illness Program (CCIP) was a humanitarian assistance effort funded by the United States Congress. Its purpose was to assist the Ukrainian Government to identify and treat adolescents who developed mental and physical problems following their exposure as young children to Chernobyl radiation. Thirteen years after the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident in 1986, the CCIP examined 116,655 Ukrainian adolescents for thyroid diseases. Of these, 115,191 were also screened for depression, suicide ideation, and psychological problems. The adolescents lived in five of Ukraine’s seven most Chernobyl radiation contaminated provinces. They were up to 6 years of age or in utero when exposed to nuclear fallout, or were born up to 45 months after Chernobyl. Methods Ukrainian endocrinologist and ultrasonographers used physical examination and ultrasonography of the neck to evaluate the adolescents for thyroid tumors. The adolescents were then screened for depression by the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI). After this, Ukrainian psychologists conducted individual psychological interviews to corroborate the adolescents’ CDI responses. Results Papillary thyroid carcinoma was diagnosed in eight adolescents, a high prevalence rate similar to that reported by other studies from the Soviet Union. Screening identified thyroid nodules in 1,967 adolescents (1.7%). Depression was diagnosed in 15,399 adolescents (13.2%), suicide ideation in 813 (5.3%), and attempted suicide in 354 (2.3%). Underlying components of the participants’ depression were negative mood, interpersonal difficulties, negative self-esteem, ineffectiveness, and anhedonia. Depression was greater in females (77%). Those with thyroid and psychological problems were referred for treatment. Conclusions The adolescents screened by CCIP represent the largest Ukrainian cohort exposed to Chernobyl radiation as children who were evaluated for both thyroid tumors and depression. The group

  12. Psychosocial factors associated with pain intensity, pain-related interference, and psychological functioning in persons with multiple sclerosis and pain.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Travis L; Jensen, Mark P; Ehde, Dawn M; Hanley, Marisol A; Kraft, George

    2007-01-01

    Biopsychosocial models of chronic pain that recognize psychological and environmental factors as important aspects of adjustment to pain have been proposed for understanding chronic pain and related suffering in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), but such models have not been empirically tested. The objective of this study was to test such a model by evaluating the associations of several psychosocial variables (i.e., pain-related catastrophizing, perceived social support, pain beliefs, and pain coping) with pain intensity, pain interference with functioning, and psychological functioning in persons with chronic pain and MS, after controlling for demographic and disease-related factors. Participants were 125 community-dwelling persons with MS and pain who completed a mailed questionnaire that included measures of pain intensity and interference, psychological functioning, catastrophizing, social support, and pain beliefs and coping. The psychosocial variables accounted for an additional 25% of the variance in average pain intensity after controlling for demographic and disease-related variables (p<.001). These variables explained an additional 22% of the variance in pain-related interference (p<.001) and 43% of the variance in psychological functioning (p<.001), after adjusting for demographic and MS-related variables and average pain intensity. Catastrophizing was consistently and independently associated with all criterion measures, whereas social support, pain beliefs, and pain coping were associated with some criterion measures but not others. The results provide empirical support for a biopsychosocial understanding of chronic pain in MS and suggest that specific psychosocial factors (e.g., catastrophizing) may be important regarding adjustment to pain in persons with MS. PMID:16950570

  13. Childhood verbal abuse: a risk factor for depression in pre-bariatric surgery psychological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Salwen, Jessica K; Hymowitz, Genna F; O'Leary, K Daniel; Pryor, Aurora D; Vivian, Dina

    2014-09-01

    The present study evaluated the importance of multimodal assessment of childhood verbal abuse (CVA) in pre-bariatric surgery psychological evaluations, and the role of CVA as a predictor of depression. Data from the psychological evaluations of 184 pre-bariatric surgery patients were retrospectively examined. Using two self-report measures and an interview-based screen, 52.2 % of participants reported experiencing some form of CVA; conversely, assessments of CVA based on only one measure yielded significantly lower prevalence rates. Endorsement of CVA on multiple measures was associated with more severe depressive symptomatology and greater likelihood of mood disorder diagnosis. Based on these data, a self-report measure and interview-based screen for CVA should be included in pre-bariatric psychological evaluations; either of these assessments may be conducted via a single-item screen. Lastly, patients who endorse CVA on multiple measures should be monitored closely for symptoms of depression post-surgery. PMID:24858597

  14. Psychological Distress as a Risk Factor for Re-Victimization in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Carlos A.; Finkelhor, David; Clifford, Cynthia; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study is to examine the role of psychological distress in predicting child re-victimization across various forms including conventional crime, peer/sibling violence, maltreatment, sexual violence, and witnessed violence. Methods: Longitudinal data from the Developmental Victimization Survey, which surveyed children…

  15. The Influence of Demographic/Psychological Factors and Preexisting Conditions on the Near-Death Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twemlow, Stuart W.; Gabbard, Glen O.

    1985-01-01

    Examined preexisting psychological, perceptual-cognitive, demographic, and physical differences between 34 adults reporting near-death experiences and 386 controls. Results indicated differences in perceptual-cognitive style in those reporting near-death experiences. Medical conditions have some effect on the experience. (JAC)

  16. Childhood Risk Factors for Alcohol Abuse and Psychological Distress among Adult Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Szalacha, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationships between childhood and family background variables, including sexual and physical abuse, and subsequent alcohol abuse and psychological distress in adult lesbians. Methodology: Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and parenting…

  17. Contribution of Psychological Factors in Dropping out from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Rehabilitation Programs

    PubMed Central

    Tselebis, Athanasios; Kosmas, Epaminondas; Bratis, Dionisios; Pachi, Argiro; Ilias, Ioannis; Harikiopoulou, Maria; Theodorakopoulou, Elpida; Velentzas, Konstantinos; Dumitru, Silvia; Moussas, Georgios; Siafakas, Nikolaos; Tzanakis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Significant positive effects, particularly on psychological state in patients who completed the follow-up pulmonary rehabilitation programs, are indicated by a large number of studies. Yet, a remarkable proportion of selected patients drop out from these programs. In this study, we investigated existing differences on psychological variables among COPD patients who complete and those who drop out from pulmonary rehabilitation programs. The study included 144 patients, 43 (29.9%) of whom did not complete the program. SCL-90 was used for the assessment of psychological symptoms. On the SCL-90-R scale 55.6% of patients had abnormal findings. Patients who discontinued the program had higher rates of depression and somatization compared to those who completed it. Regarding the psychopathology scales of SCL-90R, we found that patients who discontinued the program showed higher levels of psychopathology on the scales of somatization, depression, paranoid ideation, and psychotism compared to those who completed the program. The final regression model showed that patients with low educational status and psychotism were more likely to leave the program. In conclusion, psychopathology contributes to patients dropping out from a COPD rehabilitation program; thus, psychological assessment prior to inclusion in rehabilitation programs may reduce dropouts. PMID:24689040

  18. Psychological risk factors related to coronary heart disease. Prospective studies among policemen in Helsinki.

    PubMed

    Nirkko, O; Lauroma, M; Siltanen, P; Tuominen, H; Vanhala, K

    1982-01-01

    Psychological investigations carried out on 1326 Helsinki policemen showed that individuals with electrocardiogram (ECG) signs of coronary heart disease (CHD), and those showing symptoms, were more anxious, aggressive, defensive and inhibited than those free from signs or symptoms. It is suggested that the poor prognosis associated with angina pectoris may be related to the psychological characteristics of the patients who suffer from it. Studies of 5- and 10-year prospective data showed that subjects dying from myocardial infarction differed from survivors on six significant psychological characteristics, including optimism, inhibition and superego strength. Multiple logistic analysis showed an association of lowered self-esteem and high somatization with myocardial infarction. A particular statistical analysis ("ridit analysis") revealed the existence of 4 variables (inhibition, neuroticism, differentiation and certainty) which distinguished to some degree with different manifestations of CHD. The nature of these variables and the correlations involved are discussed. It is concluded that psychological variables have some predictive power not only for the risk of CHD, but also for the risk of clinically different CHD events. PMID:6958183

  19. Maternal Psychological Control and Child Internalizing Symptoms: Vulnerability and Protective Factors across Bioregulatory and Ecological Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Kelly, Ryan J.; Erath, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Background: We examined ecological (family socioeconomic status (SES)) and bioregulatory (sleep duration, sleep efficiency) moderators of the link between maternal psychological control and children's vulnerability to internalizing symptoms. Method: A large socioeconomically diverse sample of third graders (N = 141) and their mothers participated.…

  20. Factors That Help and Hinder Scientific Training in Counseling and Clinical Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Margaret M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to better understand scientific training within clinical and counseling psychology doctoral programs. A primary goal is to extend previous research by expanding the scientific training outcome variables from research interest and productivity to include additional characteristics of scientific mindedness such as…

  1. Family Stability as a Protective Factor against Psychopathology for Urban Children Receiving Psychological Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Israel, Allen C.

    2006-01-01

    Family stability, defined as the consistency of family activities and routines, was examined in a sample of urban families (n = 70) with children (ages 7 to 16) receiving psychological services. Parent-reported family stability was associated with lower parent-reported children's internalizing behavior problems. Child-reported family stability…

  2. Maintaining Large Weight Losses: The Role of Behavioral and Psychological Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Rena R.; Papandonatos, George; Fava, Joseph L.; Gorin, Amy A.; Phelan, Suzanne; McCaffery, Jeanne; Tate, Deborah F.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined predictors of weight regain after significant weight losses. This prospective study examined behavioral and psychological predictors of weight regain in 261 successful weight losers who completed an 18-month trial of weight regain prevention that compared a control condition with self-regulation interventions delivered…

  3. Factors Influencing College Student Health: Development of the Psychological Distress Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustman, Patrick J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the three-phase development of the Psychological Distress Inventory (PDI), an instrument designed primarily to measure life stress in college students. Standard psychometric information is presented, including reliability, validity, and some effects of response set. The PDI allows users to separately assess degree of depression, anxiety,…

  4. Explanation in personality psychology: “Verbal magic” and the five-factor model

    PubMed Central

    Boag, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Scientific psychology involves both identifying and classifying phenomena of interest (description) and revealing the causes and mechanisms that contribute towards these phenomena arising (explanation). Within personality psychology, some propose that aspects of behavior and cognition can be explained with reference to personality traits. However, certain conceptual and logical issues cast doubt upon the adequacy of traits as coherent explanatory constructs. This paper discusses “explanation” in psychology and the problems of circularity and reification. An analysis of relations and intrinsic properties is then developed to address the logical requirements necessary for circumventing these problems. An examination of McCrae and Costa's defense of traits as explanatory constructs, in terms of “tendencies” and “dispositions” highlights logical issues that prevent traits, so defined, from explaining trait-like behaviors and cognitions. The logical requirements for a coherent trait-explanatory account are outlined and possible explanatory directions in trait-approaches are discussed. The ongoing tendency towards fallacious reasoning in psychology and suggestions for preventing this are further examined. PMID:25431525

  5. Toward Understanding School Psychology around the Globe: Economical, Educational, and Professional Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jacqueline A.; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2015-01-01

    Although the field of school psychology continues to develop rapidly, few recent studies have examined how it is directly affected by a country's economy and education. This study examined the effect of gross domestic product, public spending on education, and public support for education on the ratio of school psychologists to students, level of…

  6. Psychological complaints among children in joint physical custody and other family types: Considering parental factors

    PubMed Central

    Fransson, Emma; Turunen, Jani; Hjern, Anders; Östberg, Viveca; Bergström, Malin

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Increasing proportions of Scandinavian children and children in other Western countries live in joint physical custody, moving between parents’ homes when parents live apart. Children and parents in non-intact families are at risk of worse mental health. The potential influence of parental ill-health on child well-being in the context of differing living arrangements has not been studied thoroughly. This study investigates the psychological complaints of children in joint physical custody in comparison to children in sole parental care and nuclear families, while controlling for socioeconomic differences and parental ill-health. Methods: Data were obtained from Statistics Sweden’s yearly Survey of Living Conditions 2007–2011 and child supplements with children 10–18 years, living in households of adult participants. Children in joint physical custody (n=391) were compared with children in sole parental care (n=654) and children in nuclear families (n=3,639), using a scale of psychological complaints as the outcome measure. Results: Multiple regression modelling showed that children in joint physical custody did not report higher levels of psychological complaints than those in nuclear families, while children in sole parental care reported elevated levels of complaints compared with those in joint physical custody. Adding socioeconomic variables and parental ill-health only marginally attenuated the coefficients for the living arrangement groups. Low parental education and parental worry/anxiety were however associated with higher levels of psychological complaints. Conclusions: Psychological complaints were lower among adolescents in joint physical custody than in adolescents in sole parental care. The difference was not explained by parental ill-health or socioeconomic variables. PMID:26553250

  7. US Department of Energy Chernobyl Database

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.A.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Smith, S.K.; Carr, F. Jr.

    1992-05-01

    The Chernobyl Database project is developing and maintaining an information to provide researchers with data and resource materials relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident of April 1986. The system is the official United States repository for Chernobyl data. The system includes a collection of Chernobyl-related documents, a database of bibliographic references, and a collection of radiological measurements records. In addition, projects have been developed to make the resources more accessible and easy to use. These products include a personal-computer-based bibliographic search system (ChernoLit{trademark}), two printed bibliographies, and a personal- computer-based radiological measurements database system (ChernoDat).

  8. Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Ginzburg, H.M.; Reis, E. )

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to measurable levels of radioactive fallout. Because of the effects of wind and rain, the radioactive nuclide fallout distribution patterns are not well defined, though they appear to be focused in three contiguous Soviet Republics: the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Further, because of the many radioactive nuclides (krypton, xenon, cesium, iodine, strontium, plutonium) released by the prolonged fires at Chernobyl, the long-term medical, psychological, social, and economic effects will require careful and prolonged study. Specifically, studies on the medical (leukemia, cancers, thyroid disease) and psychological (reactive depressions, post-traumatic stress disorders, family disorganization) consequences of continued low dose radiation exposure in the affected villages and towns need to be conducted so that a coherent, comprehensive, community-oriented plan may evolve that will not cause those already affected any additional harm and confusion.

  9. Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl.

    PubMed Central

    Ginzburg, H M; Reis, E

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to measurable levels of radioactive fallout. Because of the effects of wind and rain, the radioactive nuclide fallout distribution patterns are not well defined, though they appear to be focused in three contiguous Soviet Republics: the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Further, because of the many radioactive nuclides (krypton, xenon, cesium, iodine, strontium, plutonium) released by the prolonged fires at Chernobyl, the long-term medical, psychological, social, and economic effects will require careful and prolonged study. Specifically, studies on the medical (leukemia, cancers, thyroid disease) and psychological (reactive depressions, post-traumatic stress disorders, family disorganization) consequences of continued low dose radiation exposure in the affected villages and towns need to be conducted so that a coherent, comprehensive, community-oriented plan may evolve that will not cause those already affected any additional harm and confusion. Images p38-a p38-b PMID:1899937

  10. Psychological Considerations in the Assessment and Treatment of Pain in Neurorehabilitation and Psychological Factors Predictive of Therapeutic Response: Evidence and Recommendations from the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Giusti, Emanuele M.; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Saviola, Donatella; Gatti, Arianna; Gabrielli, Samantha; Lacerenza, Marco; Pietrabissa, Giada; Cattivelli, Roberto; Spatola, Chiara A. M.; Corti, Stefania; Novelli, Margherita; Villa, Valentina; Cottini, Andrea; Lai, Carlo; Pagnini, Francesco; Castelli, Lorys; Tavola, Mario; Torta, Riccardo; Arreghini, Marco; Zanini, Loredana; Brunani, Amelia; Capodaglio, Paolo; D'Aniello, Guido E.; Scarpina, Federica; Brioschi, Andrea; Priano, Lorenzo; Mauro, Alessandro; Riva, Giuseppe; Repetto, Claudia; Regalia, Camillo; Molinari, Enrico; Notaro, Paolo; Paolucci, Stefano; Sandrini, Giorgio; Simpson, Susan G.; Wiederhold, Brenda; Tamburin, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Background: In order to provide effective care to patients suffering from chronic pain secondary to neurological diseases, health professionals must appraise the role of the psychosocial factors in the genesis and maintenance of this condition whilst considering how emotions and cognitions influence the course of treatment. Furthermore, it is important not only to recognize the psychological reactions to pain that are common to the various conditions, but also to evaluate how these syndromes differ with regards to the psychological factors that may be involved. As an extensive evaluation of these factors is still lacking, the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation (ICCPN) aimed to collate the evidence available across these topics. Objectives: To determine the psychological factors which are associated with or predictive of pain secondary to neurological conditions and to assess the influence of these aspects on the outcome of neurorehabilitation. Methods: Two reviews were performed. In the first, a PUBMED search of the studies assessing the association between psychological factors and pain or the predictive value of these aspects with respect to chronic pain was conducted. The included papers were then rated with regards to their methodological quality and recommendations were made accordingly. In the second study, the same methodology was used to collect the available evidence on the predictive role of psychological factors on the therapeutic response to pain treatments in the setting of neurorehabilitation. Results: The first literature search identified 1170 results and the final database included 189 articles. Factors such as depression, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, coping strategies, and cognitive functions were found to be associated with pain across the various conditions. However, there are differences between chronic musculoskeletal pain, migraine, neuropathy, and conditions associated with complex disability with regards to the

  11. Psychosocial Work Factors, Blood Pressure and Psychological Strain in Male Bus Operators

    PubMed Central

    CENDALES, Boris; USECHE, Sergio; GÓMEZ, Viviola

    2014-01-01

    The research aim was to predict the bus operators’ blood pressure (BP) and psychological strain using a combination of the Job-Demand Control (JDC) and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models. The study was conducted with a sample of 139 bus operators in the city of Bogotá (Colombia), who answered a questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), the ERI Questionnaire, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Four consecutive BP readings taken in the workplace were averaged to calculate an estimation of the bus operators’ BP. By conducting multiple linear regressions it was found that, taken together, JDC and ERI models explain 10% (F(11,139)=2,502; p=0.00) of systolic BP variance, and 34% (F(6,139)=8,638; p=0.00) of psychological strain variance. These results suggest that the JDC and ERI predictors provide complementary information which increases the probability of accurately model the bus operators’ health. PMID:24869893

  12. Exploring mediating factors in the association between parental psychological distress and psychosocial maladjustment in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Campoy, Eric; Chaix, Basile; Chauvin, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Parental psychopathology is associated with increased psychosocial maladjustment in adolescents. We examined, from a psychosocial perspective, the association between parental psychological distress and psychosocial maladjustment in adolescents and assessed the mediating role of psychosocial covariates. This is a cross-sectional survey and the setting include representative sample of Quebec adolescents in 1999. The participants of the study include 13- and 16-year-old children (N = 2,346) in the Social and Health Survey of Quebec Children and Adolescents. The main outcome measures are internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, substance use, and alcohol consumption. For statistical analysis, we used structural equation modeling to test for mediation. Internalizing and externalizing disorders were significantly associated with parental psychological distress, but not substance use or alcohol consumption. The higher the parental distress, the higher the risk of adolescent mental health disorders. The association between parental psychological distress and internalizing disorders was mediated by adolescent self-esteem, parental emotional support and extrafamilial social support. As for externalizing disorders, these variables only had an independent effect. In conclusion, A family’s well being is a necessary condition for psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. Beyond the psychiatric approach, psychosocial considerations need to be taken into consideration to prevent negative mental health outcomes in children living in homes with distressed parents. PMID:20127380

  13. Applying psychological theory to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of taking intra-oral radiographs.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Debbie; Pitts, Nigel B; Eccles, Martin; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Johnston, Marie; Steen, Nick; Glidewell, Liz; Thomas, Ruth; Maclennan, Graeme; Clarkson, Jan E; Walker, Anne

    2006-10-01

    This study applies psychological theory to the implementation of evidence-based clinical practice. The first objective was to see if variables from psychological frameworks (developed to understand, predict and influence behaviour) could predict an evidence-based clinical behaviour. The second objective was to develop a scientific rationale to design or choose an implementation intervention. Variables from the Theory of Planned Behaviour, Social Cognitive Theory, Self-Regulation Model, Operant Conditioning, Implementation Intentions and the Precaution Adoption Process were measured, with data collection by postal survey. The primary outcome was the number of intra-oral radiographs taken per course of treatment collected from a central fee claims database. Participants were 214 Scottish General Dental Practitioners. At the theory level, the Theory of Planned Behaviour explained 13% variance in the number of radiographs taken, Social Cognitive Theory explained 7%, Operant Conditioning explained 8%, Implementation Intentions explained 11%. Self-Regulation and Stage Theory did not predict significant variance in radiographs taken. Perceived behavioural control, action planning and risk perception explained 16% of the variance in number of radiographs taken. Knowledge did not predict the number of radiographs taken. The results suggest an intervention targeting predictive psychological variables could increase the implementation of this evidence-based practice, while influencing knowledge is unlikely to do so. Measures which predicted number of radiographs taken also predicted intention to take radiographs, and intention accounted for significant variance in behaviour (adjusted R(2)=5%: F(1,166)=10.28, p<.01), suggesting intention may be a possible proxy for behavioural data when testing an intervention prior to a service-level trial. Since psychological frameworks incorporate methodologies to measure and change component variables, taking a theory-based approach

  14. A systematic review of the factors associated with delays in medical and psychological help-seeking among men.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Omar; Grunfeld, Elizabeth A; Hunter, Myra S

    2015-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the factors associated with men's low rates of medical and psychological help-seeking, a systematic review of these is missing. Such an overview can help to inform health psychologists of the barriers to the performance of adaptive health behaviours, such as prompt help-seeking, and could inform theoretical advancements and the development of targeted interventions to facilitate prompt help-seeking among men. We systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative empirical papers on factors associated with delays in men's medical and psychological help-seeking. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed, and we used the databases PsycINFO, Medline, Embase and PsycARTICLES (with keywords: men/male*/gender*, help*/seek* and health*/service*/utili*[sation]) for papers in English. 41 citations (amounting to 21,787 participants aged 15-80 + ) met the inclusion criteria. Approximately half of these used qualitative methodologies (i.e., semi-structured interviews and focus groups), while half used quantitative methodologies (i.e., questionnaires). We identify a number of recurring cognitive, emotional, health-service related and socio-demographic help-seeking factors/predictors from the 41 papers. Of these, the most prominent barriers to help-seeking were disinclination to express emotions/concerns about health, embarrassment, anxiety and fear, and poor communication with health-care professionals. PMID:26209212

  15. Between the body and the mind: the involvement of psychological factors in the development of multifactorial diseases.

    PubMed

    Tomatis, L

    2001-10-01

    A possible aetiological role for psychological factors has been propounded in particular in relation to diseases of which the causes are only partially known and which are in most cases multifactorial, such as cancer. The long period between a possible first event and the point of no return, gives appeal to the belief that life events other than "material" causes may play a role in cancer. The evidence that the immune and the nervous system may produce the same substances has opened the way to a new area of research. However, a lack of standardised instruments and the difficulty of conducting systematic and adequate analyses of potential confounding variables have discouraged most qualified scientists from devoting time and effort to investigating the possible role of psychological factors in the aetiology of human diseases. A few studies have reported a positive association between severe life events and breast cancer, but the prevailing view of the medical establishment is that there is no true association between stress and the onset of breast cancer. Although many criticisms of the studies reporting a positive association are definitely based on solid arguments, at least some of the criticisms cling to the requirement for absolute certainty in establishing a cause-effect relationship, which epidemiological studies can rarely, if ever, provide. A challenge for the future of research will be to investigate and better understand the role of subjective factors on the course and outcome of various pathologies, and in modulating the risk of developing a pathology. PMID:11602380

  16. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    PubMed

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  17. Prevalence, sociodemographic factors, psychological distress, and coping strategies related to compulsive buying: a cross sectional study in Galicia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Compulsive buying has become a serious problem affecting a growing number of people in contemporary consumer societies. Nevertheless, research examining its prevalence in representative samples from the general population is still scarce and mainly focused on the exploration of sociodemographic factors, neglecting other aspects like psychological distress and coping styles. Therefore, this study intends to contribute to the cumulative knowledge by assessing compulsive buying prevalence in a representative sample from the general population in the region of Galicia, in Spain. Sociodemographic determinants, psychological symptoms, and coping strategies are also analyzed to clarify their role in this phenomenon. Methods A random routes procedure was employed in the recruitment of the sample which was comprised of 2159 participants who were classified as either compulsive buyers or non-compulsive buyers. Both groups were compared regarding sociodemographic determinants, symptoms, and coping strategies through chi-square tests or analyses of variance. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine which of these determinants might play a part in the make up of a risk profile for compulsive buying. Results Estimated prevalence of compulsive buying was 7.1%. Compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers differed significantly in sex and age, with women and younger people showing a higher propensity for this phenomenon. Individuals with compulsive buying presented significantly higher scores on all the psychological symptoms considered. They also employed passive-avoidance coping strategies much more frequently and active strategies of problem solving and cognitive restructuring much less frequently. The logistic regression analysis results confirmed that being female, experiencing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and obsession-compulsion, and employing the passive-avoidance coping strategies of problem avoidance, wishful thinking, and self

  18. Family stability as a protective factor against psychopathology for urban children receiving psychological services.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Masha Y; Israel, Allen C

    2006-12-01

    Family stability, defined as the consistency of family activities and routines, was examined in a sample of urban families (n = 70) with children (ages 7 to 16) receiving psychological services. Parent-reported family stability was associated with lower parent-reported children's internalizing behavior problems. Child-reported family stability significantly attenuated the influence of parental depressive symptoms on parent-reported children's internalizing, externalizing, and total behavior problems, while controlling for the effect of children's age. Parental depressive symptoms were associated with problems in child adjustment only at the low level of family stability. PMID:17007601

  19. An exploration of factors affecting the long term psychological impact and deterioration of mental health in flooded households.

    PubMed

    Lamond, Jessica Elizabeth; Joseph, Rotimi D; Proverbs, David G

    2015-07-01

    The long term psychological effect of the distress and trauma caused by the memory of damage and losses associated with flooding of communities remains an under researched impact of flooding. This is particularly important for communities that are likely to be repeatedly flooded where levels of mental health disorder will damage long term resilience to future flooding. There are a variety of factors that affect the prevalence of mental health disorders in the aftermath of flooding including pre-existing mental health, socio-economic factors and flood severity. However previous research has tended to focus on the short term impacts immediately following the flood event and much less focus has been given to the longer terms effects of flooding. Understanding of factors affecting the longer term mental health outcomes for flooded households is critical in order to support communities in improving social resilience. Hence, the aim of this study was to explore the characteristics associated with psychological distress and mental health deterioration over the longer term. The research examined responses from a postal survey of households flooded during the 2007 flood event across England. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and binomial logistic regression were applied to data representing household characteristics, flood event characteristics and post-flood stressors and coping strategies. These factors were related to reported measures of stress, anxiety, depression and mental health deterioration. The results showed that household income, depth of flooding; having to move out during reinstatement and mitigating actions are related to the prevalence of psycho-social symptoms in previously flooded households. In particular relocation and household income were the most predictive factors. The practical implication of these findings for recovery after flooding are: to consider the preferences of households in terms of the need to move out during restorative

  20. Metabolic risk factors, coping with stress, and psychological well-being in patients with age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Cavar, Ivan; Lovrić, Sanjin; Vukojević, Mladenka; Sesar, Irena; Petric-Vicković, Ivanka; Sesar, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the risk factors (age, obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, consumption of alchohol and drugs, positive family history, and exposure to sunlight), coping with stress, psychological well-being and age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Forty patients with ARMD (case group) and 63 presbyopes (control group) participated in the study. Patient data were collected through general information questionnaire including patient habits, the COPE questionnaire that showed the way the patients handling stress, and the GHQ that analyzed the psychological aspects of their quality of life. These questionnaires were administered to the patients during ophthalmologic examination. The study involved 46 (44.66%) men and 57 (55.33%) women. Statistical analysis showed that the major risks for the development of ARMD were elevated cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol in plasma. A significantly higher number ofARMD patients had a positive family history when compared with presbyopes. This study showed presbyopes to cope with emotional problems significantly better and to have a lower level of social dysfunction when compared with ARMD patients. However, it is necessary to conduct further studies in a large number of patients to determine more accurately the pathophysiological mechanisms of metabolic factors as well as the impact of the disease on the quality of life in patients with ARMD. PMID:24974669

  1. The Association Between Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms among Older African Americans: The Role of Psychological and Social Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nadimpalli, S.B.; James, B.D.; Yu, L.; Cothran, F.; Barnes, L. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated a link between perceived discrimination and depression in ethnic minority groups, yet most have focused on younger or middle-aged African Americans and little is known about factors that may moderate the relationship. Methods Participants were 487 older African Americans (60-98) enrolled in the Minority Aging Research Study. Discrimination, depressive symptoms, and psychological and social resources were assessed via interview using validated measures. Ordinal logistic regression models were used to assess (1) the main relationship between discrimination and depression and (2) resilience, purpose in life, social isolation, and social networks as potential moderators of this relationship. Results In models adjusted for age, sex, education, and income, perceived discrimination was positively associated with depressive symptoms (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.31, p < .001). However, there was no evidence of effect modification by resilience, purpose in life, social isolation, or social networks (all ps ≤ .05). Conclusion and Implications Findings provide support for accumulating evidence on the adverse mental health effects of discrimination among older African Americans. Because the association was not modified by psychological or social factors, these findings do not support a role for a buffering effect of resources on discrimination and depressive symptoms. Further studies are needed to examine a wider range of coping resources among older adults. PMID:25494668

  2. Space psychology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  3. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  4. Behavioral differences of irradiated persons associated with the Kyshtym, Chelyabinsk, and Chernobyl nuclear accidents.

    PubMed

    Collins, D L

    1992-10-01

    Three nuclear accidents besides Chernobyl have occurred in the former Soviet Union. The accidents occurred around Kyshtym and Chelyabinsk in the Ural Mountains between 1949 and 1967 and contaminated over one-half million people. The health ministries are now interested in the data previously collected on these irradiated populations in order to examine the health (e.g., psychological, hereditary, genome damage, etc.) implications of long-term radiation exposure. PMID:1454181

  5. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress and Positive Affect: A Prospective, Multilevel Study.

    PubMed

    Finne, Live Bakke; Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health research has mainly addressed determinants of negative health effects, typically employing individual-level self-report data. The present study investigated individual- and department-level (means of each work unit) effects of psychological/social work factors on mental distress and positive affect. Employees were recruited from 63 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 4158 employees, in 918 departments, responded at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Multilevel linear regressions estimated individual- and department-level effects simultaneously, and accounted for clustering of data. Baseline exposures and average exposures over time ([T1+T2]/2) were tested. All work factors; decision control, role conflict, positive challenge, support from immediate superior, fair leadership, predictability during the next month, commitment to organization, rumors of change, human resource primacy, and social climate, were related to mental distress and positive affect at the individual and department level. However, analyses of baseline exposures adjusted for baseline outcome, demonstrated significant associations at the individual level only. Baseline "rumors of change" was related to mental distress only and baseline "predictability during the next month" was not a statistical significant predictor of either outcome when adjusted for outcome at baseline. Psychological and social work factors were generally related to mental distress and positive affect in a mirrored way. Impact of exposures seemed most pervasive at the individual level. However, department-level relations were also discovered. Supplementing individual-level measures with aggregated measures may increase understanding of working conditions influence on employees`health and well-being. Organizational improvements focusing on the work factors in the current study should be able to reduce distress and enhance positive affect. Furthermore, both

  6. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress and Positive Affect: A Prospective, Multilevel Study

    PubMed Central

    Finne, Live Bakke; Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health research has mainly addressed determinants of negative health effects, typically employing individual-level self-report data. The present study investigated individual- and department-level (means of each work unit) effects of psychological/social work factors on mental distress and positive affect. Employees were recruited from 63 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 4158 employees, in 918 departments, responded at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Multilevel linear regressions estimated individual- and department-level effects simultaneously, and accounted for clustering of data. Baseline exposures and average exposures over time ([T1+T2]/2) were tested. All work factors; decision control, role conflict, positive challenge, support from immediate superior, fair leadership, predictability during the next month, commitment to organization, rumors of change, human resource primacy, and social climate, were related to mental distress and positive affect at the individual and department level. However, analyses of baseline exposures adjusted for baseline outcome, demonstrated significant associations at the individual level only. Baseline “rumors of change” was related to mental distress only and baseline “predictability during the next month” was not a statistical significant predictor of either outcome when adjusted for outcome at baseline. Psychological and social work factors were generally related to mental distress and positive affect in a mirrored way. Impact of exposures seemed most pervasive at the individual level. However, department-level relations were also discovered. Supplementing individual-level measures with aggregated measures may increase understanding of working conditions influence on employees`health and well-being. Organizational improvements focusing on the work factors in the current study should be able to reduce distress and enhance positive affect. Furthermore

  7. Psychological Status and Associated Factors among Korean Cancer Survivors: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Sang Min

    2016-07-01

    It is important to assess psychological distress after a diagnosis for cancer survivors, a population with a high risk for psychological distress. The aim of this study is to assess psychological distress among cancer survivors and to clarify the associated factors. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from standardized questionnaires administered to 1,163 cancer survivors and 49,243 non-cancer survivors who participated in the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2012). We identified the adjusted rates for psychological distress and assessed factors associated with this kind of distress using multivariate logistic regression. Cancer survivors tended to have a higher adjusted rate of psychological distress than the general population. The current depressive symptom rate for cancer survivors was 16.69%, and the adjusted rate for history of depression in cancer survivors was 15.61%. The adjusted rate for higher level of stress was 25.51% in cancer survivors. Among the cancer survivors, younger subjects, female subjects, and those with limited social support were more prone to psychological distress. In addition, current smokers or risky drinkers, those with chronic diseases, and those with a poor self-perception of their health status were also identified as a high-risk group for psychological distress. As the number of cancer survivors has increased, the importance of assessing psychological distress after a cancer diagnosis should be emphasized among all cancer survivors. Further, psychological supportive care interventions for cancer survivors are needed to improve the survival rate and improve their quality of life. PMID:27366010

  8. Psychological detachment from work during off-job time: predictive role of work and non-work factors in Japanese employees.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Akihito; de Jonge, Jan; Kubota, Kazumi; Kawakami, Norito

    2014-01-01

    Psychological detachment from work, an off-job experience of "switching off" mentally, seems to be crucial for promoting employee's well-being. Previous studies on predictors of psychological detachment mainly focused on job-related factors, and only a few studies focused on family-related and personal factors. This study focuses not only on job-related factors (job demands, job control, workplace support) but also on family-related (family/friend support) and personal factors (workaholism), and examines the relation of these three factors with psychological detachment. Data of 2,520 Japanese employees was randomly split into two groups and then analyzed using cross-validation. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that family/friend support had a positive association with psychological detachment, whereas a subscale of workaholism (i.e. working compulsively) had negative associations with it across the two groups. Results suggest that family/friend support would facilitate psychological detachment whereas workaholism would inhibit it. PMID:24492761

  9. Psychological Detachment from Work during Off-job Time: Predictive Role of Work and Non-work Factors in Japanese Employees

    PubMed Central

    SHIMAZU, Akihito; DE JONGE, Jan; KUBOTA, Kazumi; KAWAKAMI, Norito

    2014-01-01

    Psychological detachment from work, an off-job experience of “switching off” mentally, seems to be crucial for promoting employee’s well-being. Previous studies on predictors of psychological detachment mainly focused on job-related factors, and only a few studies focused on family-related and personal factors. This study focuses not only on job-related factors (job demands, job control, workplace support) but also on family-related (family/friend support) and personal factors (workaholism), and examines the relation of these three factors with psychological detachment. Data of 2,520 Japanese employees was randomly split into two groups and then analyzed using cross-validation. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that family/friend support had a positive association with psychological detachment, whereas a subscale of workaholism (i.e. working compulsively) had negative associations with it across the two groups. Results suggest that family/friend support would facilitate psychological detachment whereas workaholism would inhibit it. PMID:24492761

  10. Neuromuscular adaptations predict functional disability independently of clinical pain and psychological factors in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Abboud, Jacques; St-Pierre, Charles; Piché, Mathieu; Descarreaux, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Patients with chronic low back pain exhibit characteristics such as clinical pain, psychological symptoms and neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent contribution of clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations to disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Clinical pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety, neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain were assessed in 52 patients with chronic low back pain. Lumbar muscle electromyographic activity was assessed during a flexion-extension task (flexion relaxation phenomenon) to assess both chronic neuromuscular adaptations and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain during the task. Multiple regressions showed that independent predictors of disability included neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain (β=0.25, p=0.006, sr(2)=0.06), neuromuscular responses to experimental pain (β=-0.24, p=0.011, sr(2)=0.05), clinical pain intensity (β=0.28, p=0.002, sr(2)=0.08) and psychological factors (β=0.58, p<0.001, sr(2)=0.32). Together, these predictors accounted for 65% of variance in disability (R(2)=0.65 p<0.001). The current investigation revealed that neuromuscular adaptations are independent from clinical pain intensity and psychological factors, and contribute to inter-individual differences in patients' disability. This suggests that disability, in chronic low back pain patients, is determined by a combination of factors, including clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations. PMID:24837629