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Sample records for chernobyl psychological factors

  1. Meeting psychological needs after Chernobyl: the Red Cross experience.

    PubMed

    Revel, J P

    2001-12-01

    The explosion that took place in reactor number 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on April 26, 1986 triggered the worst civilian nuclear disaster ever reported. Following requests for assistance by the Red Cross National Societies of Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia, the International Federation of Red Cross Societies set up the Chernobyl Humanitarian Assistance and Rehabilitation Program in 1990. Although the initial needs assessment mission mentioned psychological needs as an area of interest, it was not until 1997 that the first Psycho-Social Support pilot project started in Belarus. Objectives and strategy for the psycho-social support program are detailed, as well as the challenges currently faced by the program. The specific role of the media is also reviewed. Finally, the lessons learned from this experience are reviewed, and suggestions are made for future disaster planning. PMID:11778421

  2. The psychological well-being of Norwegian adolescents exposed in utero to radiation from the Chernobyl accident

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background On 26 April 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant suffered an accident. Several areas of central Norway were heavily affected by far field radioactive fallout. The present study focuses on the psychological well-being of adolescents who were exposed to this radiation as fetuses. Methods The adolescents (n = 53) and their mothers reported their perceptions of the adolescents' current psychological health as measured by the Youth Self Report and Child Behaviour Checklist. Results In spite of previous reports of subtle cognitive deficits in these exposed adolescents, there were few self-reported problems and fewer problems reported by the mothers. This contrasts with findings of studies of children from the former Soviet Union exposed in utero, in which objective measures are inconsistent, and self-reports, especially by mothers, express concern for adolescents' cognitive functioning and psychological well-being. Conclusion In the current paper, we explore possible explanations for this discrepancy and suggest that protective factors in Norway, in addition to perceived physical and psychological distance from the disaster, made the mothers less vulnerable to Chernobyl-related anxiety, thus preventing a negative effect on the psychological health of both mother and child. PMID:21496337

  3. Psychological Factors in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Asthma has long been considered a condition in which psychological factors have a role. As in many illnesses, psychological variables may affect outcome in asthma via their effects on treatment adherence and symptom reporting. Emerging evidence suggests that the relation between asthma and psychological factors may be more complex than that, however. Central cognitive processes may influence not only the interpretation of asthma symptoms but also the manifestation of measurable changes in immune and physiologic markers of asthma. Furthermore, asthma and major depressive disorder share several risk factors and have similar patterns of dysregulation in key biologic systems, including the neuroendocrine stress response, cytokines, and neuropeptides. Despite the evidence that depression is common in people with asthma and exerts a negative impact on outcome, few treatment studies have examined whether improving symptoms of depression do, in fact, result in better control of asthma symptoms or improved quality of life in patients with asthma. PMID:20525122

  4. A test of resuspension factor models against Chernobyl data

    SciTech Connect

    Garger, E.K.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Shinn, J.H.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1995-04-01

    After the accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP), stationary air samplers were operated at Chernobyl and Baryshevka, cities which are 16 km and 150 km, respectively, from the NPP. Other air samplers were operated simultaneously, but intermittently, at locations within the 30 km zone at distances of 4-25 km from the NPP. These data were used to check the validity of time dependent models of the resuspension factor K (m{sup -1}). Seven different models were examined, three of which are discussed in the paper. Data from the stationary air samplers were averaged over one day or one month; dam from the intermittent air samplers were averaged over three days in 1986 and over four hours in 1991. The concentrations of eight radionuclides were measured at ten points during the same time period (14-17 September 1986). The calculated resuspension factors range from 6 x 10{sup -9} m{sup -1} to 3 x 10{sup -6} m{sup -1}. Data for the spatial means of K are given for certain time periods in 1986 and 1991; also presented are the calculated values according to the models. The experimental data and the calculated values differ by up to more than one order of magnitude. Also analysed was the temporal change in experimental values of K and these values were compared with model predictions. The annual means of the resuspension factor as determined experimentally and as calculated with the models are presented. The model derived from empirical data measured in Neuherberg after the Chernobyl accident agrees best with the data. The Garland model systematically gives results lower than the experimental values, and the calculated values of K from the Linsley model are consistently conservative. Also considered were the uncertainty of K due to fluctuations in air concentrations and possible biological effects of episodic exposures.

  5. Psychological and perceived health effects of the Chernobyl disaster: a 20-year review.

    PubMed

    Bromet, Evelyn J; Havenaar, Johan M

    2007-11-01

    The mental health impact of Chernobyl is regarded by many experts as the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident to date. This paper reviews findings reported during the 20-y period after the accident regarding stress-related symptoms, effects on the developing brain, and cognitive and psychological impairments among highly exposed cleanup workers. With respect to stress-related symptoms, the rates of depressive, anxiety (especially post-traumatic stress symptoms), and medically unexplained physical symptoms are two to four times higher in Chernobyl-exposed populations compared to controls, although rates of diagnosable psychiatric disorders do not appear to be elevated. The symptom elevations were found as late as 11 y after the accident. Severity of symptomatology is significantly related to risk perceptions and being diagnosed with a Chernobyl-related health problem. In general, the morbidity patterns are consistent with the psychological impairments documented after other toxic events, such as the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Three Mile Island accident, and Bhopal. With respect to the developing brain of exposed children who were in utero or very young when the accident occurred, the World Health Organization as well as American and Israeli researchers have found no significant associations of radiation exposure with cognitive impairments. Cognitive impairments in highly exposed cleanup workers have been reported by Ukrainian researchers, but these findings have not been independently confirmed. A seminal study found a significant excess death rate from suicide in cleanup workers, suggesting a sizable emotional toll. Given the magnitude and persistence of the adverse mental health effects on the general population, long-term educational and psychosocial interventions should be initiated that target primary care physicians, local researchers, and high risk populations, including participants in ongoing cohort studies. PMID

  6. Risk factors for long-term mental and psychosomatic distress in Latvian Chernobyl liquidators.

    PubMed Central

    Viel, J F; Curbakova, E; Dzerve, B; Eglite, M; Zvagule, T; Vincent, C

    1997-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies on the health effects of the Chernobyl disaster have focused largely on physical health, whereas the psychological consequences have received little attention. The authors have assessed the associations of various exposure variables with mental and psychosomatic distress in a sample of 1412 Latvian liquidators drawn from the State Latvian Chernobyl Clean-up Workers Registry. The outcome was a mixed mental-psychosomatic disorder occurring during 1986 to 1995. Comparisons among subgroups of the cohort classified according to exposure type or level were based on the proportional hazards model. Length of work (> or = 28 days) in a 10-km radius from the reactor (relative risk [RR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.70), work (> 1 time) on the damaged reactor roof (RR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.02-2.09), forest work (RR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.19-1.68), fresh fruit consumption (> or = 1 time/day) (RR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.12-2.65) are risk factors for mixed mental-psychosomatic disorder. Construction of the sarcophagus (RR = 1.82, 95% CI 0.89-3.72) is also associated with this outcome, although nonsignificantly. Distinguishing stress-related from radiation-induced effects in this data set was difficult and these findings should provide a basis for later hypothesis testing in other cohorts. PMID:9467079

  7. Psychological factors in the antarctic.

    PubMed

    Rothblum, E D

    1990-05-01

    For the people who live and work in the Antarctic, isolation and extreme physical conditions cause considerable stress. This article reviews psychological research on Antarctic residents, focusing on factors related to the isolation (effective personnel selection, positive adjustment, conflict, and reintegration into the home environment) and factors related to the physical environment (the extreme cold, high altitude, increased radiation, sensory deprivation, and seasonal changes in activity level). Finally, Antarctic research has been applied to the study of future space travel and space station habitation. PMID:2189993

  8. Psychological Aid to the Children Who Suffered from the Chernobyl Catastrophe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnets, O. N.; And Others

    This document considers the problems faced by the children and adolescents who were affected by the 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the Ukraine. It discusses problems with psycho-physical, social, and spiritual development. It is noted that the Chernobyl children do not form a homogeneous population, but can be divided into…

  9. Psychological factors in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Gutenstein, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Human psychology, neuroscience and behavioural economics study the human mind, brain and behaviour. Scientific research has discovered a great deal about the factors that influence human perception, judgment and activity in the real world. In this article, I aim to provide an outline of the relationship between decision-making, cognition, emotion and behaviour. I propose that meta-cognition, or thinking-about-thinking, has the potential to inform how we practice emergency medicine. By accommodating human traits rather than trying to defy them, we can ultimately benefit our patients. PMID:24712897

  10. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident--findings from the International Atomic Energy Agency Study.

    PubMed Central

    Ginzburg, H M

    1993-01-01

    In October 1989, more than 3 years after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl, in the Ukraine, the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics requested that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) evaluate the medical and psychological health of residents living in areas identified as being contaminated with radioactive fallout. The IAEA designed and conducted a collaborative study to examine whether there were any measurable effects of exposure to the low levels of ionizing radiation resulting from the accident. The study, using structured interviews and IAEA laboratory equipment, collected data on more than 1,350 residents of 13 villages. IAEA clinical staff members concluded that they could not identify any health disorders in either the contaminated or nearby (uncontaminated) control villages that could be attributed directly to radiation exposure. The clinical staff, however, did note that the levels of anxiety and stress of the villagers appeared to be disproportionate to the biological significance of the levels of IAEA-measured radio-active contamination. Almost half the adults in all the villages were unsure if they had a radiation-related illness. More than 70 percent of persons in the contaminated villages wanted to move away, and approximately 83 percent believed that the government should relocate them. The IAEA effort indicates that the villagers need to be educated about their actual risks, and they need to understand what types of illnesses are, and are not, associated with exposure to radioactive contamination. Unfortunately, the villagers' needs may exceed the available resources of their local and central governments. PMID:8464974

  11. Psychological Factors in Solar Observing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, Ronald M.

    The report summarizes the aims of a 3-year program of work concerned with psychological factors in solar observing. Part I identifies several psychological factors which may affect solar observing and outlines a program of research. Part II is a report of a program of studies dealing with the application of visual perceptions in solar flare…

  12. Psychological Factors in Wilderness Rescue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogilvie, Bruce C.

    This presentation provides wilderness rescue workers with an overview of the psychological reactions of victims of accidents and natural disasters and suggested responses for rescuers and caregivers. A personal account of rescue and death in a drowning accident illustrates how the rescuer can also be traumatized by such an incident and may suffer…

  13. [Structure peculiarities, conditions and factors preceding the development of heart rhythm disorder in Chernobyl cleanup workers].

    PubMed

    Khomaziuk, I M; Zlatohors'ka, Zh M; Kursina, N V; Nastina, O M; Sydorenko, H V

    2008-01-01

    3595 participants of liquidation of consequences of Chernobyl accident (LCA) have been follow-upped since 1986. Structure and factors prior the development of heart rhythm derangements, results of physical examination, tonometry, ECG daily monitoring with taking into account the variability of heart rhythm, data of echocardiography with Doppler analysis have been established in 742 patients. Extrasystolic arrhythmia (50.8%) and atrium fibrillation prevailed in clinical structure of clinical structure of heart rhythm disorders (HRD). Etiological factors of HRD in 91.1% of cases were ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertension and especially their combination, in 4.6%--other disorders, 4.6%--idiopathic HRD. It is possible to address special significance among factors before the development of HRD the following ones: participation in LCA since 1986, shift team work, ionizing radiation > or = 25 c3B, negative thoughts and memory about these events, from style of living--smoking habit, professional contact with xenobiotics, increased levels of arterial pressure, cholesterin, body weight index. Especial attention should be given to as predictors of the development of HRD -increased myocardium weight index > or = 170 gr/M2, duration of common and painless myocardial ischemia, basal frequency of heart rhythm > or = 75 b./m. It was established reliable relation between ventricular extrasystole and decreased of common BCP (r = -0.57; P < 0.05), spectrum power, (r = -0.52; P < 0.05), correlation disorder between its components. It is logical there was influence caused by combination of factors arised in connection with Chernobyl accident, life style and structural and functional changes of myocardium, hypertension and ischemic heart disease which are often found in Chernobyl disaster fighters. PMID:19145816

  14. Psychological Factors Associated with Obtaining Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Elizabeth; Kroese, Biza Stenfert; Rose, John

    2007-01-01

    Background: Less than 10% of people with intellectual disabilities are employed. The aim of the present study was to investigate what psychological factors might predict employment outcome for people with intellectual disability who had received a placement in a supported employment service. Method: Sixty people were interviewed whilst they were…

  15. Factors Influencing Recruitment in Educational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Norah

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of the factors that educational psychologists in training (EPiTs) look for when applying for jobs in educational psychology services. Relevant literature on "job attraction" is reviewed and a three-stage research process employed. This involved a focus group approach to questionnaire generation followed by…

  16. Psychological Factors That Predict Reaction to Abortion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, D. T.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated demographic and psychological factors related to reactions to legal abortions in 62 females in an urban southern community. Results suggest that the social context and the degree of support from a series of significant persons rather than demographic variables were most predictive of a positive reaction. (Author)

  17. Psychological Factors Associated with Paranursing Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammer, Robert; Haller, Katherine

    The psychological factors associated with paranursing expertise were examined in a study of 135 certified nursing assistants (CNAs) at a geriatric nursing facility in Amarillo, Texas. Data were collected through a project-developed screening tool called the Geriatric Employee Screening Tool (GEST), which is a true-false instrument patterned after…

  18. Psychological Factors in Community College Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Chad; Redekop, Frederick; Burgin, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study explored psychological factors in the context of a community college population purported to impact decisions to remain in college from one semester to another. Researchers examined results from 1191 responses from students attending a community college in the Mid-Atlantic United States. The study further explored the predictive power…

  19. Psychological and Spiritual Factors in Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifer, Ron

    1996-01-01

    Asserts the importance of psychological and spiritual factors in the treatment of chronic illness. Discusses the inevitably of sickness, old age, and death, as well as the presence of the physician, patience, pain, and hope. Maintains that reflection on these qualities can benefit both the physician and patient. (MJP)

  20. The impact of information and communication factors on mitigation of workers health in the Chernobyl zone, 1986-1990.

    PubMed

    Mirnyi, S; Yastrzhembska, A

    2001-01-01

    Several important features of the Chernobyl disaster make it an outstanding event among the industrial accidents in the world s history. We want to draw the readers attention to three of them: 1) Chernobyl involved severe occupational injuries and caused chronic disorders in an unprecedented number of mitigation workers; 2) the health problems in question cannot be attributed solely to the specific radiation injury in the zone 1 ; and 3) the Chernobyl disaster has been a unique communication (media, in particular) event in terms of its international coverage, impact, and the controversies it has generated. The purpose of this article is to trace the links between these peculiarities of the accident and to suggest a framework for relating the communication and information factors to the health condition of the people who were occupationally involved in the Chernobyl disaster mitigation. We also will propose a number of ideas about how the factors in question can be managed within the Chernobyl disaster mitigation policy, which at present is critically shaped by the post-Soviet political, economic, and cultural context. PMID:17208703

  1. Improving the Factor Structure of Psychological Scales

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xijuan; Savalei, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Many psychological scales written in the Likert format include reverse worded (RW) items in order to control acquiescence bias. However, studies have shown that RW items often contaminate the factor structure of the scale by creating one or more method factors. The present study examines an alternative scale format, called the Expanded format, which replaces each response option in the Likert scale with a full sentence. We hypothesized that this format would result in a cleaner factor structure as compared with the Likert format. We tested this hypothesis on three popular psychological scales: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, the Conscientiousness subscale of the Big Five Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Scales in both formats showed comparable reliabilities. However, scales in the Expanded format had better (i.e., lower and more theoretically defensible) dimensionalities than scales in the Likert format, as assessed by both exploratory factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses. We encourage further study and wider use of the Expanded format, particularly when a scale’s dimensionality is of theoretical interest. PMID:27182074

  2. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  3. Clastogenic factors in the plasma of Chernobyl accident recovery workers: Anticlastogenic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract

    SciTech Connect

    Emerit, I.; Levy, A.; Cernjavski, L.

    1995-11-01

    Clastogenic factors are found in the plasma of persons irradiated accidentally or therapeutically. They persisted in the plasma of A-bomb survivors over 30 years. Clastogenic factors were found in 33 or 47 Chernobyl accident recovery workers (often referred to as liquidators) in a previous study. In the present study, we show that there is a positive correlation between clastogenic activity and dose and that these biomarkers of oxidative stress can be influenced successfully by appropriate antioxidant treatment. With the authorization of the Armenian Ministry of Health, 30 workers were treated with antioxidants from Ginkgo biloba leaves. The extract EGb 761 containing flavonoids and terpenoids was given at a daily dose of 3 x 40 mg (Tanakan, IPSEN, France) during 2 months. The clastogenic activity of the plasma was reduced to control levels on the first day after the end of the treatment. A 1-year follow-up showed that the benefit of the treatment persisted for at least 7 months. One-third of the workers again had clastogenic factors after 1 year, demonstrating that the process which produced clastogenic factors continued. However, the observation that antioxidants do not have to be given continuously is encouraging for intervention trials on a large-scale basis. These appear justified, since clastogenic factors are thought to be risk factors for the development of late effects of irradiation. 43 refs., 6 tabs.

  4. Impact of exercise training on psychological risk factors.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Carl J; Milani, Richard V; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Although the role of psychological risk factors has been underemphasized, considerable evidence indicates the adverse effects of various psychosocial stressors in the pathogenesis and recovery from cardiovascular diseases. Substantial data, especially from cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training programs, have demonstrated the role of physical activity, exercise training, and cardiorespiratory fitness, to improve psychological risk factors, including depression, anxiety, hostility, and total psychological stress, as well as stress-related mortality. PMID:21545933

  5. Time dependence of the {sup 137}Cs resuspension factor on the Romanian territory after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Mihaila, B.; Cuculeanu, V.

    1994-08-01

    On the basis of the radioactivity levels in aerosol and atmospheric deposition samples due to the Chernobyl accident, the resuspension factor of {sup 137}Cs as a four-parameter function has been inferred. The standard procedure to derive the dependence of resuspension on time assumes that the initial deposit is instantaneous. A simple method assuming a constant deposition rate over a fixed period has been proposed. Also, based on existing experimental data, an attempt was made to consider a realistic time dependence of the deposition rate to cope with the particular case of the Chernobyl accident. The differences between the two models are outlined. The Chernobyl direct deposit has been assumed to be the deposit measured between 30 April and 30 June 1986. The calculated values of the resuspension factor are consistent with the IAEA`s recommended model and depend on the rainfall that occurred in June 1986 and the site-specific disturbance conditions during the first 100 d following 1 July 1986 and only on artificial disturbance by humans and vehicles after that. 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Social Isolation, Psychological Health, and Protective Factors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…

  7. Peptic ulcer in childhood. Psychological factors.

    PubMed

    Christodoulou, G N; Gargoulas, A; Papaloukas, A; Marinopoulou, A; Rabavilas, A D

    1979-01-01

    Thirty children (20 girls and 10 boys, aged 6-16 years) with primary peptic ulcers, matched in paris for age, sex and socio-economic standard to a group of 30 ulcer-free controls, were submitted to a structured psychiatric interview, a structured 'present psychiatric state' examination and to personality and intelligence tests. With one exception all patients suffered from duodenal ulcer; 3 male patients had personalities with psychopathic elements, 7 patients had nicknames, 5 suffered from psychiatric disorders, 3 had attempted suicide in the past, and 3 had had homosexual experiences. These parameters were negative in all controls. The patients had lower mean IQ, worse scholastic adaptation, more anxious and overprotective parents, higher frequency of faddiness in food and lower frequency of nail-biting than the controls. Psychotraumatic events had preceded the onset of ulcer symptomatology in 11 cases. The findings are discussed and the contribution of psychological factors in the pathogenesis of childhood peptic ulcer is stressed. PMID:550183

  8. The Status of Cognitive Psychology Journals: An Impact Factor Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Togia, Aspasia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact factor of cognitive psychology journals indexed in the Science and Social Sciences edition of "Journal Citation Reports" ("JCR") database over a period of 10 consecutive years. Cognitive psychology journals were indexed in 11 different subject categories of the database. Their mean impact factor…

  9. Caretaker Psychological Factors Predicting Compliance with Children's Psychotherapy Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venable, William Mark; Thompson, Bruce

    The importance of ascertaining and effectively treating psychological problems in children is difficult to overstate. Since compliance is particularly important, the psychological factors associated with caretakers' compliance regarding children's psychotherapy were examined here. Data were collected on the 85 primary caretakers of 85 children who…

  10. Additional thyroid dose factor from transportation sources in Russia after the Chernobyl disaster.

    PubMed Central

    Parshkov, E M; Chebotareva, I V; Sokolov, V A; Dallas, C E

    1997-01-01

    Beginning approximately 4 years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident a steady increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer was observed in children and adolescents of the Bryansk Oblast, which received the highest level of radionuclide contaminants in Russia. We examined the spatial relationship between the residence location of patients with identified thyroid cancer (0-18 years old at the time of the accident) and a number of geographic parameters to better account for the etiology of thyroid cancer spatial distribution. Geographic parameters analyzed included spatial distribution of 137Cs and 131I in soil, population demographics, measurements and reconstructions. of absorbed thyroid 131I doses in the population, and maps of major transportation arteries. An interesting finding is the lack of a consistent correlation between the spatial distribution of radionuclides in the soil and thyroid cancer incidence. Instead, most of the thyroid cancer cases were diagnosed in settlements situated on major railways and roads. Correlating population with thyroid cancer cases and transportation arteries reveals a much higher cancer rate on or near major roads and railways than at a distance from them, again independent of radionuclide soil concentration. There are other important factors, of course, that must be considered in future evaluations of this phenomenon. These include the influence of iodine endemic zones, genetic predisposition to thyroid cancer, and duration of residence time in contaminated areas. The feasibility of radionuclide transport on railways and roads is discussed, together with the vectors for transfer of the contaminants to the human population. Developing a model to reconstruct the radiation dose to the thyroid over time in this geographic region is proposed in light of the impact of transportation arteries. Specific studies are outlined to provide the data necessary to develop this model as well as to better characterize the feasibility and

  11. The Role of Psychological Factors in the Process of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habibian, Maryam; Roslan, Samsilah; Idris, Khairuddin; Othman, Jamilah

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, psychological factors have become vital factors in literacy education. Existing research has indicated that these factors haves received special attention in the comprehension process. Moreover, in reading process and teaching curriculum understanding, the role of these factors could be beneficial for the students. This paper…

  12. Child Psychological Maltreatment and Its Correlated Factors in Chinese Families.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Ma, Yating; Chen, Jingqi

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the prevalence and frequency of child psychological maltreatment and its correlated factors in Chinese families. A cross-sectional investigation was conducted among 1,002 parents of primary school students in Yuncheng City, China. Data were collected using the self-report questionnaire anonymously. Results showed that 696 (69.5%) surveyed parents had different extents of psychological maltreatment toward their children in the past 3 months. The high prevalence of parental psychology maltreatment was significantly associated with high scores on parental over-reactivity and low scores on recognition of child psychology maltreatment. These findings indicate that it is urgent to develop cultural interventions to raise parents' awareness of preventing child psychological maltreatment and to help parents use nonviolent child rearing in China. PMID:27030213

  13. Impact of psychological factors in the experience of pain.

    PubMed

    Linton, Steven J; Shaw, William S

    2011-05-01

    This article reviews the role of psychological factors in the development of persistent pain and disability, with a focus on how basic psychological processes have been incorporated into theoretical models that have implications for physical therapy. To this end, the key psychological factors associated with the experience of pain are summarized, and an overview of how they have been integrated into the major models of pain and disability in the scientific literature is presented. Pain has clear emotional and behavioral consequences that influence the development of persistent problems and the outcome of treatment. Yet, these psychological factors are not routinely assessed in physical therapy clinics, nor are they sufficiently utilized to enhance treatment. Based on a review of the scientific evidence, a set of 10 principles that have likely implications for clinical practice is offered. Because psychological processes have an influence on both the experience of pain and the treatment outcome, the integration of psychological principles into physical therapy treatment would seem to have potential to enhance outcomes. PMID:21451097

  14. Iodine deficiency in Belarusian children as a possible factor stimulating the irradiation of the thyroid gland during the Chernobyl catastrophe.

    PubMed Central

    Gembicki, M; Stozharov, A N; Arinchin, A N; Moschik, K V; Petrenko, S; Khmara, I M; Baverstock, K F

    1997-01-01

    Ten years after the Chernobyl nuclear plant catastrophe more than 500 children in Belarus are suffering from thyroid cancer. The major cause of the high incidence of thyroid cancer in children under 15 years of age appears to be contamination resulting from that catastrophe, mainly with isotopes of radioactive iodine. Another important factor may be iodine deficiency in the environment. A countrywide program for investigation of goiter prevalence and iodine deficiency has been established in the Republic of Belarus with the assistance of the European World Health Organization office. The program will oversee the examination of 11,000 children and adolescents 6 to 18 years of age from 30 schools in urban and rural areas. The results obtained in a group of 824 children and adolescents (the pilot phase) are typical for significant iodine deficiency and moderate goiter endemism. It is clear that the present situation does not completely reflect the situation that existed at the time of the Chernobyl catastrophe. However, data from epidemiologic studies conducted many years before the accident showed high goiter prevalence in the contaminated areas, indicating that the prevalence of iodine deficiency at the time of the catastrophe was similar to the present one or even greater. Such an assumption could lead to a better understanding of the thyroid pathologies that have been observed. PMID:9467069

  15. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  16. [Sexual function of male rats exposed to the factors of the Chernobyl exclusion zone].

    PubMed

    Karpenko, N A

    2000-01-01

    The influence of chronic internal and external irradiation in low doses on sexual behavior and fertility of sexual active animals keeping within the 30-km Chernobyl exclusion zone was studied. After the 1.5 month consumption of drinking water containing radionuclides of natural Chernobyl spectrum the decrease in proportion of sexual active animals and suppression of sexual motivation and erection were observed. This deviations resulted in the reducing of the inseminated females number. The dependence between the magnitude of total absorbed dose and the working of the sexual behavior regulative mechanisms was obtained. In addition, the reduction of rat fertility took place because of the increase of preimplantation, but not post-implantation death in in irradiated females coupled with irradiated males. The irradiation of males with total absorbed dose on testis 0.23 cGy decreased the fertility because of sexual behavior disturbance, and this effect was intensified by negative influence of ionizing radiation in the range of 0.7-7.0 cGy on male gametes. PMID:10778442

  17. [Perception of health risks: psychological and social factors].

    PubMed

    Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals. PMID:19862487

  18. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on (137)Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP.

    PubMed

    Zarubina, N

    2016-09-01

    Levels of soil contamination with (137)Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of (137)Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of (137)Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi. PMID:26690320

  19. Caretaker Psychological Factors Predicting Premature Termination of Children's Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venable, William Mark; Thompson, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Caretakers' psychological factors are related to premature termination of counseling for their children (N=85). General hostility, anxiety, depression, and paranoia were studied. Descriptive statistics, correlations of variables, and a predictive discriminant analysis are reported. Effects of caretaker variables on early termination of treatment…

  20. Weight Perception, Academic Performance, and Psychological Factors in Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim; Clark, Florence; Palmer, Paula H.; Gallaher, Peggy; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate weight perception and related psychological factors in Chinese adolescents. Methods: A questionnaire on weight perception, academic performance, stress, hostility, and depression was completed by 6863 middle and high school students. Weight and height were measured. Results: Overweight perception was related to…

  1. Psychological Factors that Promote and Inhibit Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morasco, Benjamin J.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Ledgerwood, David M.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes qualitative data regarding psychological factors that may affect gambling behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Participants (n = 84) diagnosed with pathological gambling were treated in a clinical trial examining the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Qualitative data were collected from…

  2. The College Experience: Protective Factors and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midili, Gina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify protective factors in college student development as they relate to psychological well-being (PWB). Using archival data from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) dataset, this research was guided by a blend of models and constructs to capture the association between college student…

  3. The Hong Psychological Reactance Scale: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Adrian; Donnell, Alison J.; Buboltz, Walter C., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Study uses confirmatory factor analysis to assess four models of the Hong Psychological Reactance Scale (HPRS) and attempts to provide psychometric information about the subscales. Results found inadequate fit for Hong's four orthogonal models but sufficient fit for two nonorthogonal models. (Contains 29 references and 3 tables.) (GCP)

  4. Adolescents' Willingness to Seek Psychological Help: Promoting and Preventing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Jeanie K.; Fiorenza, Erika; Sofronoff, Kate

    2004-01-01

    Although a relatively high percentage of Australian adolescents experience mental health problems, many disturbed adolescents do not receive the help they require, and only a small proportion of adolescents seek professional psychological help. The present study examined adolescents' willingness to seek help and investigated factors that promote…

  5. Successful Aging: An Elaboration of Social and Psychological Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Wilbert M., II

    1981-01-01

    Assessed the relationships between a life satisfaction index and social/demographic/psychological factors in older adults. Results showed marital status, occupational prestige, years of formal education, race, annual income, and a variety of specific satisfaction with life measures were related to successful aging. (Author)

  6. Psychological Distress and Related Factors in Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez, Fernando L.; Otero, Patricia; Diaz, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the psychological distress in Spanish college women and analyzed it in relation to sociodemographic and academic factors. Participants and Methods: The authors selected a stratified random sampling of 1,043 college women (average age of 22.2 years). Sociodemographic and academic information were collected, and…

  7. Allergic to life: Psychological factors in environmental illness

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, G.E.; Katon, W.J.; Sparks, P.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Environmental illness is an increasingly frequent and medically unexplained syndrome of allergy to common environmental agents. A recent outbreak of chemical-induced illness allowed study of psychological factors in environmental illness. Thirty-seven symptomatic plastics workers completed structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures of somatization and psychopathology. The 13 subjects who developed environmental illness scored higher on all measures than those who did not. The greatest differences were in prior history of anxiety or depressive disorder (54% versus 4%) and number of medically unexplained physical symptoms before exposure (6.2 versus 2.9). These findings suggest that psychological vulnerability strongly influences chemical sensitivity following chemical exposure.

  8. [Psychological well-being and adolescence: associated factors].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pontes, Lívia Malta; Faria, Augusto Duarte; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Cruzeiro, Ana Laura Sica; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2007-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with psychological well-being among adolescents in a southern Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was performed with a representative sample (n = 960) of adolescents (15-18 years). Eighty-six households were visited in each of the 90 randomized census tracts. Parents signed a written consent form before the adolescent answered a self-reported questionnaire. Psychological well-being was evaluated with a scale containing seven figures representing expressions varying from extreme happiness to extreme sadness. Adolescents were asked to mark the figure that best resembled the way they felt about their lives, and 72.33% reported a high level of psychological well-being. Prevalence of psychological well-being was higher in families with better economic status and higher maternal schooling. Adolescents who practiced a religion, did not smoke or consume alcohol, and wished to lose weight showed a higher level of psychological well-being, suggesting an interrelationship between health behaviors. PMID:17486234

  9. Transfer factor of 131I from the fallout to human thyroid dose equivalent after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Beno, M; Mikulecký, M; Hrabina, J

    1992-01-01

    A similar pattern of variation with time in observed maxima of daily dose equivalent rates in human thyroids (TD - microSv.d-1) and of daily fallout radioactivities (FR - kBq.m-2) has been found after the Chernobyl accident. An estimate of the time-lag between the maxima in TD lines and the preceding FR peaks was made of about seven days for adult and nine days for juveniles. Applying this time-lag it was possible to estimate transfer factors from the fallout to thyroid dose equivalent: the highest estimated values were 221 microSv/kBq.m-2 for adult and 641 microSv/kBq.m-2 for juvenile thyroids. These values differ from those published by UNSCEAR (United Nations 1988), which have been calculated for various regions of Czechoslovakia, from ingestion and inhalation intake estimates. A broad variation of transfer factor values could be expected to result from such transfer calculations using ingestion and inhalation estimates. The findings also support the concept of a need for prolonged iodine prophylaxy after emissions of radioiodine into the environment. PMID:1609058

  10. Chronic Psychological Stress as a Risk Factor of Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Kagaku; Adachi, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Haruki; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-12-01

    Osteoporosis, the most common metabolic skeletal disease, is characterized by decreased bone mass and deteriorated bone quality, leading to increased fracture risk. With the aging of the population, osteoporotic fracture is an important public health issue. Organisms are constantly exposed to various stressful stimuli that affect physiological processes. Recent studies showed that chronic psychological stress is a risk factor for osteoporosis by various signaling pathways. The purpose of this article is to review the recent progress of the association between chronic psychological stress and osteoporosis. Increasing evidence confirms the physiological importance of the central nervous system, especially the hypothalamus, in the regulation of bone metabolism. Both animal and human studies indicate that chronic psychological stress induces a decrease of bone mass and deterioration of bone quality by influencing the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, sympathetic nervous system, and other endocrine, immune factors. Active mastication, proven to be an effective stress-coping behavior, can attenuate stress-induced neuroendocrine responses and ameliorate stress-induced bone loss. Therefore, active mastication may represent a useful approach in preventing and/or treating chronic stress-associated osteoporosis. We also discuss several potential mechanisms involved in the interaction between chronic stress, mastication and osteoporosis. Chronic stress activates the HPA axis and sympathetic nervous system, suppresses the secretion of gonadal hormone and growth hormone, and increases inflammatory cytokines, eventually leading to bone loss by inhibiting bone formation and stimulating bone resorption. PMID:26667192

  11. Acne vulgaris: nutritional factors may be influencing psychological sequelae.

    PubMed

    Katzman, Martin; Logan, Alan C

    2007-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a distressing skin condition which can carry with it significant psychological disability. Patients with acne are more likely to experience anger and are at increased risk of depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation. Certain nutrients which have been implicated as influencing the pathophysiology of acne have also been identified as important mediators of human cognition, behavior and emotions. Zinc, folic acid, selenium, chromium and omega-3 fatty acids are all examples of nutrients which have been shown to influence depression, anger and/or anxiety. These same nutrients, along with systemic oxidative stress and an altered intestinal microflora have been implicated in acne vulgaris. It is our contention that certain nutritional factors, a weakened antioxidant defense system and altered intestinal microflora may interplay to increase the risk of psychological sequelae in acne vulgaris. PMID:17448607

  12. Psychological, muscular and kinematic factors mediate performance under pressure.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Andrew; Kavussanu, Maria; McIntyre, David; Ring, Christopher

    2010-11-01

    It is well established that performance is influenced by pressure, but the underlying mechanisms of the pressure-performance relationship are poorly understood. To address this important issue, the current experiment evaluated psychological, physiological, and kinematic factors as mediators of the pressure-performance relationship. Psychological, physiological, and kinematic responses to three levels of competitive pressure were measured in 23 males and 35 females during a golf putting task. Pressure manipulations impaired putting performance. Self-reported anxiety, effort, and perceived pressure were increased. Heart rate, heart rate variability, muscle activity, and lateral clubhead acceleration were also elevated. Mediation analyses revealed that effort, muscle activity, and lateral acceleration partially mediated the decline in performance. Results confirmed that pressure elicits effects on performance through multiple pathways. PMID:20409012

  13. Chernobyl retrospective.

    PubMed

    Bonte, F J

    1988-01-01

    On April 28, 1986 heavy radioactive fallout from an unknown source was reported from Sweden. Later, it was discovered that two days earlier, a nuclear power reactor at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union, had exploded releasing an enormous cloud of effluent containing 40 million Ci of 131I, 3 million Ci of 137Cs, and 50 million Ci of xenon radioisotopes. This far exceeded the 15 Ci of 131I escape in the notorious Three Mile Island accident. Chernobyl reactor IV, of an antiquated design, was a graphite-moderated reactor which suffered a steam explosion when the operating staff attempted an experiment involving preservation of safety functions during a planned shutdown. Following the explosion, a fire started in the graphite core which required ten days to control. Thirty-one persons died, two in the initial explosion and 29 of various combinations of thermal and radiation burns, and gamma irradiation. Existing emergency plans were invoked involving treatment on the scene and evacuation of seriously injured patients to a special hospital in Moscow, as well as to nearby Kiev. Later, 135,000 residents of the immediate neighborhood were surveyed and evacuated after fallout radiation levels began to rise. Fallout patterns around Europe and the northern hemisphere were closely tracked. Consequences of the accident in human and monetary terms will require years of evaluation. Although the United States has no power reactors of the Chernobyl type, the country does have a radiation disaster management plan, often rehearsed at the state level. As a consequence of Chernobyl certain international agreements dealing with radiation disaster information and management have been forged. PMID:3278382

  14. Chernobyl bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time.

  15. Psychological Factors Associated With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Christino, Melissa A.; Fleming, Braden C.; Machan, Jason T.; Shalvoy, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psychological factors may have underappreciated effects on surgical outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between specific psychological factors, objective clinical data, and patient-oriented outcomes. Purpose: Psychological factors are significantly associated with patient perceptions and functional outcomes after ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate relationships between self-esteem, health locus of control, and psychological distress with objective clinical outcomes, patient-oriented outcomes, and return to sport. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Twenty-seven patients who were 6 to 24 months post–computer-assisted ACL reconstruction by a single surgeon consented to participate in the study (52% response rate). Participants had a 1-time visit with a physician consisting of: a physical examination, a single-leg hop test, KT-1000 arthrometer measurements, and survey completion. Psychological measures included the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Brief Profile of Mood States. Outcome measures included the Tegner activity scale, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score–Quality of Life subscale (KOOS-QOL), and Short Form–36 (SF-36). Patient charts were also reviewed for pertinent operative details. Results: The mean age of patients (±SD) was 25.7 ± 8.4 years, and the mean duration of time since surgery was 16.5 ± 5.9 months. The majority (89%) of the patients identified themselves as athletes, and of these, 65% reported returning to sports at a competitive level. Sport returners were found to have higher levels of self-esteem (P = .002) and higher reported KOOS-QOL scores (P = .02). Self-esteem was significantly associated with IKDC scores (r = 0.46, P < .05), KOOS-QOL scores (r = 0

  16. Association of Psychologic and Nonpsychologic Factors With Primary Dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Salmalian, Hajar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Primary dysmenorrhea seems to be one the most common gynecologic condition in women of childbearing age. Objectives: The aim of this research was to evaluate psychologic and nonpsychologic risk factors of primary dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on medical sciences students of Babol University of Medical Sciences. In this study, 180 females with dysmenorrhea and 180 females without dysmenorrhea were enrolled. Psychological risk factors were evaluated in four domains including affect, social support, personality, and alexithymia. Four questionnaires were used to assessed aforementioned domains, namely, Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), depression, anxiety, stress (DAS-21), 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and NEO-Five Factor Inventory of Personality (NEO-FFI). In addition, nonpsychologic factors were evaluated in three domains including demographic characteristics, habits, and gynecologic factors. Data were analyzed using the χ2 test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The strongest predictor of primary dysmenorrhea was low social support (OR = 4.25; 95% CI, 2.43-7.41). Risk of dysmenorrhea was approximately 3.3 times higher in women with alexithymia (OR = 3.26; 95% CI, 1.88-5.62), 3.1 times higher in women with menstrual bleeding duration ≥ 7 days (OR = 3.06; 95% CI, 1.73-5.41), 2.5 times higher in women with a neurotic character (OR = 2.53; 95% CI, 1.42-4.50), 2.4 times higher in women with a family history of dysmenorrhea (OR = 2.43; 95% CI, 1.42-4.50), and twice higher in women with high caffeine intake (OR = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.09-3.59). Conclusions: Low social support, alexithymia, neuroticism trait, long menstrual bleeding, family history of dysmenorrhea, and high-caffeine diet are important risk factors for women with primary dysmenorrhea. This study recommended considering psychologic factors as an adjuvant to medical risks in evaluation and treatment of primary dysmenorrhea

  17. The future of dynamic factor analysis in psychology and biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Molenaar, P C M

    2006-01-01

    The currently dominant approach to statistical analysis in psychology and biomedicine is based on analysis of inter-individual variation. Differences between subjects drawn from a population of subjects provide the information to make inferences about states of affairs at the population level (e.g., mean and/or covariance structure). Recently it has been shown that in general the inferred states of affairs at the population level do not apply at the level of intra-individual variation characterizing the life trajectories of individual subjects making up the population. This is a direct consequence of the so-called classical ergodic theorems of Birkhoff and Wiener which has important implications for the way in which psychological and biomedical processes have to be analyzed. The classical ergodic theorems are introduced below in order to show the necessity of using an alternative approach which is valid for the analysis of intra-individual variation. This approach has to be based on single-subject time series analysis. Next an overview is presented of dynamic factor models for the analysis of multivariate time series and the various ways to fit these models to the data. We then turn to an empirical application of factor analysis of personality data obtained in a replicated time series design, showing substantial heterogeneity in intra-individual factorial personality structure. The next topic is entirely innovative--for the first time I present my new dynamic factor model for the analysis of nonstationary time series. In the conclusion I will sketch some biomedical research initiatives in which this new model will be used. PMID:17124797

  18. Psychological Help-Seeking Attitudes of Helping Professional Candidates and Factors Influencing Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumcagiz, Hatice

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed as descriptive to identify psychological help-seeking attitudes of helping professional candidates and factors influencing them. The research population consisted of 447 first and fourth grade students studying in the Departments of Psychological Counselling and Guidance, Psychology or Nursing at Ondokuz Mayis University.…

  19. Psychological Factor Affecting English Speaking Performance for the English Learners in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haidara, Youssouf

    2016-01-01

    In every learning situation or environment, human psychology plays a significant role. English speaking is a language skill that is highly affected by human psychology. This research aimed at describing the psychological factor that affects negatively the English speaking performance for the English learners in Indonesia. A descriptive qualitative…

  20. Positive Psychology and Familial Factors as Predictors of Latina/o Students' Psychological Grit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vela, Javier C.; Lu, Ming-Tsan P.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Latina/o students' experiences. In the current study, we examined how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, and family importance influenced 128 Latina/o college students' psychological grit. We used the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), Subjective Happiness Scale,…

  1. Psychological factors in exceptional, extreme and torturous environments.

    PubMed

    Leach, John

    2016-01-01

    Our cognitive system has adapted to support goal-directed behaviour within a normal environment. An abnormal environment is one to which we are not optimally adapted but can accommodate through the development of coping strategies. These abnormal environments can be 'exceptional', e.g., polar base, space station, submarine, prison, intensive care unit, isolation ward etc.; 'extreme', marked by more intense environmental stimuli and a real or perceived lack of control over the situation, e.g., surviving at sea in a life-raft, harsh prison camp etc.; or 'tortuous', when specific environmental stimuli are used deliberately against a person in an attempt to undermine his will or resistance. The main factors in an abnormal environment are: psychological (isolation, sensory deprivation, sensory overload, sleep deprivation, temporal disorientation); psychophysiological (thermal, stress positions), and psychosocial (cultural humiliation, sexual degradation). Each single factor may not be considered tortuous, however, if deliberately structured into a systemic cluster may constitute torture under legal definition. The individual experience of extremis can be pathogenic or salutogenic and attempts are being made to capitalise on these positive experiences whilst ameliorating the more negative aspects of living in an abnormal environment. PMID:27257476

  2. Socio-Psychological Factors Driving Adult Vaccination: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wheelock, Ana; Parand, Anam; Rigole, Bruno; Thomson, Angus; Miraldo, Marisa; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background While immunization is one of the most effective and successful public health interventions, there are still up to 30,000 deaths in major developed economies each year due to vaccine-preventable diseases, almost all in adults. In the UK, despite comparatively high vaccination rates among ≧65 s (73%) and, to a lesser extent, at-risk ≤65 s (52%) in 2013/2014, over 10,000 excess deaths were reported the previous influenza season. Adult tetanus vaccines are not routinely recommended in the UK, but may be overly administered. Social influences and risk-perceptions of diseases and vaccines are known to affect vaccine uptake. We aimed to explore the socio-psychological factors that drive adult vaccination in the UK, specifically influenza and tetanus, and to evaluate whether these factors are comparable between vaccines. Methods 20 in-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with members of the UK public who represented a range of socio-demographic characteristics associated with vaccination uptake. We employed qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing adult vaccination decisions. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Participants were classified according to their vaccination status as regular, intermittent and non-vaccinators for influenza, and preventative, injury-led, mixed (both preventative and injury-led) and as non-vaccinators for tetanus. We present our finding around five overarching themes: 1) perceived health and health behaviors; 2) knowledge; 3) vaccination influences; 4) disease appraisal; and 5) vaccination appraisal. Conclusion The uptake of influenza and tetanus vaccines was largely driven by participants' risk perception of these diseases. The tetanus vaccine is perceived as safe and sufficiently tested, whereas the changing composition of the influenza vaccine is a cause of uncertainty and distrust. To maximize the public health impact of adult vaccines

  3. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Drozd, Valentina M.; Saenko, Vladimir A.; Brenner, Alina V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I.; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V.; Demidchik, Yuri E.; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I.; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer. PMID:26397978

  4. Comparison of Individual Factors in School Psychology Graduate Students: Why Do Students Pursue a Degree in School Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Scott L., Jr.; Wright, Lynda Brown

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what factors influenced students to enter the field of school psychology. Although numerous studies have documented the thoughts and perspectives of practitioners regarding why they have chosen to become school psychologists, attempts to recruit and retain an adequate number of school psychology…

  5. Psychological protective factors across the lifespan: implications for psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Vahia, Ipsit V; Chattillion, Elizabeth; Kavirajan, Harish; Depp, Colin A

    2011-03-01

    Although there are many challenges in operationally defining and measuring positive psychological constructs, there is accumulating evidence that optimism, resilience, positive attitudes toward aging, and spirituality are related to reduced risk for morbidity and mortality in older age. This article reviews the definition, measurement, associations, and putative mechanisms of selected positive psychological constructs on subjective and objective indicators of health with a focus on the latter half of the lifespan. PMID:21333850

  6. State of the art: psychotherapeutic interventions targeting the psychological factors involved in IBD.

    PubMed

    Leone, Daniela; Menichetti, Julia; Fiorino, Gionata; Vegni, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The present article aims to review the literature on the relationship between psychology and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In particular, the first section is dedicated to explore the role of psychological factors in the etiopathology of the disease, its development and the efficacy of treatments, while the second analyzes existing literature on the role of psychological interventions in the care of IBD patients. Although the role of psychological factors in IBD appears controversial, literature seems to distinguish between antecedents of the disease (stress and lifestyle behavior), potential mediators of disease course (family functioning, attachment style, coping strategies, and illness perception), outcomes of IBD and concurrent factors (anxiety, depression and quality of life). Four types of psychological interventions are described: Stress management, Psychodynamic, Cognitive behavioral and Hypnosis based. Data on the role and efficacy of psychological interventions in IBD patients show little evidence both on reduction of the disease activity and benefits on psychological variables. Psychological interventions seem to be beneficial in the short term especially for adolescents. The importance of considering the connections between psychology and IBD from a broader perspective reflecting the complexity of the phenomenon at multiple levels is discussed. PMID:24975400

  7. Chernobyl Birds Have Smaller Brains

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Anders Pape; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andea; Rudolfsen, Geir; Mousseau, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans. Methodology/Principal Finding Here we used an extensive sample of 550 birds belonging to 48 species to test the prediction that even in the absence of post-traumatic stress, there is a negative association between relative brain size and level of background radiation. We found a negative association between brain size as reflected by external head volume and level of background radiation, independent of structural body size and body mass. The observed reduction in brain size in relation to background radiation amounted to 5% across the range of almost a factor 5,000 in radiation level. Species differed significantly in reduction in brain size with increasing background radiation, and brain size was the only morphological character that showed a negative relationship with radiation. Brain size was significantly smaller in yearlings than in older individuals. Conclusions/Significance Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. The fact that brain size was smaller in yearlings than in older individuals implies that there was significant directional selection on brain size with individuals with larger brains experiencing a viability advantage. PMID:21390202

  8. Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  9. The Relationship of Factors of Academic Success and Psychological Well-Being for College Honors Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: This study was concerned with perceptions of academic facilitators, academic obstacles, and psychological well-being of college honors students. Differences in the way factors of academic success are perceived, and the relationship these perceptions have with psychological well-being were examined. College honors…

  10. Sense of Community as a Protective Factor against Long-Term Psychological Effects of Childhood Violence

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Marks, Nadine F.

    2010-01-01

    This study uses a risk and resilience framework for conceptualizing the long-term effects of childhood family violence on mental health. It examines sense of community as a protective factor against adult psychological distress associated with experiences of physical or psychological violence in childhood from parents. Regression models are estimated using data from the 1995 National Survey of Midlife Development in the U.S. and from the 1996–97 National Study of Daily Experiences. Reported experiences of frequent psychological violence, regardless of the frequency of physical violence, is found to be positively associated with adult psychological distress. Adults’ sense of community is found to moderate the association between reports of both frequent psychological and frequent physical violence in childhood from parents and adult psychological distress. PMID:20454550

  11. Chernobyl: What really happened

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W. )

    1989-07-01

    The author conducted interviews with Western analysts to reach a consensus view of the accident in 1986 at Chernobyl. This view is illustrated in this article. The Chernobyl RBMK reactor is described, as are the events surrounding the accident. Post-accident safety measures taken by the U.S.S.R. are discussed and critiques. Implications of the Chernobyl accident on RBMK reactor safety and on Soviet nuclear energy management capabilities are also addressed.

  12. GENDER AND PROFESSIONAL FACTORS OF MEDICAL STUDENTS' PSYCHOLOGICAL READINESS FOR PERFORMING PROFESSIONAL DUTIES.

    PubMed

    Omelchuk, S; Lymar, L

    2016-02-01

    The article describes the results of the psychological readiness for performing professional duties study performed in 2010-2015 among the O.Bogomolets' National medical university students; contains analysis of the gender and professional factors of the readiness. The authors have described the results obtained in motivation, cognitive, conative, emotional and communicative components of the psychological readiness by using the classic and author authentic methods. It has been estimated that the female respondents are characterized by a higher level of psychological readiness than the male ones, which may be explained due to higher female conformity resulting from higher demands for profession. The conducted analysis of professional factors of the psychological readiness has shown that the students of the "Preventive medicine" specialization exhibit higher level of psychological readiness than the "Pediatrics" and "Stomatology" specialization students due to dominating altruistic motivation of professional activity, independent career choice and higher level of the emotional component development. PMID:27001785

  13. Psychological factors in patients with peptic ulcerand functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Kheirkhah, Farzan; Shokri-Shirvani, Javad; Mosavi, Shokofeh; Zarini, Soroush

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of psychological factors in peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and functional dyspepsia (FD) has not been clearly determined. In this study the role of conflict management styles, psychiatric symptoms, and alexithymia were assessed in patients with PUD and FD and in the healthy individuals. Methods: Ninety subjects [30 PUD (15 women, 15 men), 30 FD (15 women, 15 men), and 30 healthy individuals (15 women, 15 men)] in two endoscopy wards of Babol University of Medical Sciences were evaluated. Three groups were matched with regard to demographic variables. Conflict management styles, psychiatric symptoms, and alexithymia were evaluated by appropriate questionnaires. Results: The patients with PUD reported less mean scores on psychiatric symptoms than the FD patients (depression 12.6±7.5 vs 28±9.5, anxiety 8.2±5.9 vs 18.7±6. obsessive-compulsive disorder 15.7±7.5 vs 21.8±8.4, interpersonal sensitivity 9.5±7.4 vs 16±7, psychoticism 8.03±4.5 vs 14.3±6.3, somatization 12.5±10.8 vs 20.7±8.1, and the total score of psychiatric symptoms 94.4±49.9 vs 160.1±46.6). The mean scores use of unconstructive conflict management styles in PUD patients were lower than FD (dominating 17.7±3.5 vs 20.2±2.7, avoiding 17.5±3 vs 23.8±4.4). Alexithymia symptoms were higher in FD patients than PUD individuals (difficulty in identifying feelings 23.5±6.3 vs 27.8±3.9, difficulty in describing feeling 16.5±4.4 vs 17.3±3.6). The PUD and FD patients had higher scores regarding these variables than the healthy subjects. Conclusion: The results show that both PUD and FD patients experienced more psychiatric symptoms, unconstructive conflict management styles, and alexithymia than the healthy subjects. FD patients had worse psychiatric problems than PUD. PMID:24778780

  14. Nuclear power after Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Ahearne, J F

    1987-05-01

    The causes and progress of the accident at Chernobyl are described, and a comparison between the Chernobyl accident and the 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station is made. Significant similarities between Chernobyl and Three Mile Island include complacency of operators and industry, deliberate negation of safety systems, and a lack of understanding of their plant on the part of the operators, which shows the critical importance of the human element. The Chernobyl accident has implications for nuclear power in the United States; it will affect the research program of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, regulation of Department of Energy reactors, new reactor designs, and public attitudes. PMID:3576192

  15. Factors Influencing the Spiritual Competency of Predoctoral Psychology Interns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haasz, Christine A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among spiritual competencies, personal spiritual beliefs, and clinical supervision in spirituality with professional psychology predoctoral interns. It was hypothesized personal spiritual beliefs and supervision in spirituality would be predictors of spiritual competencies in clinical practice. Social…

  16. Assessment of successful smoking cessation by psychological factors using the Bayesian network approach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Suyun; Pan, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Huijie; Han, Mingkui; Zhang, Nan; Jiang, Fan; Jia, Chongqi

    2016-07-01

    The association between psychological factors and smoking cessation is complicated and inconsistent in published researches, and the joint effect of psychological factors on smoking cessation is unclear. This study explored how psychological factors jointly affect the success of smoking cessation using a Bayesian network approach. A community-based case control study was designed with 642 adult male successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 700 adult male failed smoking quitters as the controls. General self-efficacy (GSE), trait coping style (positive-trait coping style (PTCS) and negative-trait coping style (NTCS)) and self-rating anxiety (SA) were evaluated by GSE Scale, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and SA Scale, respectively. Bayesian network was applied to evaluate the relationship between psychological factors and successful smoking cessation. The local conditional probability table of smoking cessation indicated that different joint conditions of psychological factors led to different outcomes for smoking cessation. Among smokers with high PTCS, high NTCS and low SA, only 36.40% successfully quitted smoking. However, among smokers with low pack-years of smoking, high GSE, high PTCS and high SA, 63.64% successfully quitted smoking. Our study indicates psychological factors jointly influence smoking cessation outcome. According to different joint situations, different solutions should be developed to control tobacco in practical intervention. PMID:26264661

  17. The Impact of Psychological Factors on Device Removal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Golbakhsh, Mohammadreza; Sadaat, Mirmostafa; Noughani, Fatemeh; Mirbolook, Ahmadreza; Gholizadeh, Amirmohammad; Abedi, Sadegh

    2016-01-01

    Background Implant removal is a common procedure in orthopedic surgery which can be associated with many complications such as scar formation, hematoma, nerve injury, infection, and refracture. Indications for orthopedic implant removal have declined in recent years. Most studies have considered orthopedic hardware removal as an unnecessary procedure in the absence of severe complications such as nonunion. Some studies have reported the complications of orthopedic hardware removal to be 24% to 50% dependent on their types and locations as well as on other factors such as patient’s condition and the orthopedist’s experience. Objectives The present study surveyed possible mental and psychological causes among patients who asked for removal procedures in spite of orthopedic surgeons’ advice and being aware of complications. Patients and Methods Patients who had undergone plating for the treatment of radius and ulna fractures from 2011 to 2013, were told that it is not necessary to remove the plate and they were warned of all the risks of removal surgery, such as anesthesia, possible nerve or vascular damage, and the cost of surgery. Then, their tendency to remove the plate was examined based on evaluation criteria scores. Patients were divided into two groups: patients who insisted on surgery despite all the risks and patients who had little tendency or gave up after explanations. Both groups were given visual analog pain scale (VAS), symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90), and pain catastrophizing scale (PCS) questionnaires. The questions were explained for patients by an expert trained in the clinic and in case of ambiguity further explanations were given to the patients. The data were then entered into statistical package for the social science (SPSS) version 20 for analysis. Results A total of 29 patients with plates were enrolled. The first group consisted of 16 male and 13 female patients. In the control group (group II), there were 30 patients with no tendency for

  18. New strategies in the assessment of psychological factors affecting medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Sirri, Laura; Fabbri, Stefania; Fava, Giovanni A; Sonino, Nicoletta

    2007-12-01

    In this article, we examine research that may lead to a better assessment of psychological factors affecting medical conditions. We performed a review of the psychosomatic literature using both Medline and manual searches. We selected papers that were judged to be relevant to new strategies of assessment, with particular reference to the use of the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research. We assessed 8 areas concerned with the assessment of psychological factors in the setting of medical disease: hypochondriasis, disease phobia, persistent somatization, conversion symptoms, illness denial, demoralization, irritable mood, and Type A behavior. A new subclassification of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-V]; not yet published) category of psychological factors affecting physical conditions appears to be feasible and may provide the clinician with better tools for identifying psychological distress. PMID:18001223

  19. In Harm's Way: Factors Related to Psychological Distress following Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collinsworth, Linda L.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.; Drasgow, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    The negative consequences for victims of sexual harassment are well documented. However, one area unexamined is the process that leads to harm. Researchers have proposed three influences (i.e., objective or stimulus factors, individual factors, and contextual factors) on the psychological, health-related, and organizational outcomes of sexual…

  20. Uses of Factor Analysis in Counseling Psychology Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Howard E. A.; Tinsley, Diane J.

    1987-01-01

    Explains factor analysis, discussing its relation to other multivariate techniques and describing characteristics of the data to consider in determining the appropriateness of factor analysis. Reviews considerations in making decisions about communality estimates, factor extraction, the number of factors to rotate, methods of factor rotation,…

  1. Retrospective determination of 137Cs specific activity distribution in spruce bark and bark aggregated transfer factor in forests on the scale of the Czech Republic ten years after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Suchara, I; Rulík, P; Hůlka, J; Pilátová, H

    2011-04-15

    The (137)Cs specific activities (mean 32Bq kg(-1)) were determined in spruce bark samples that had been collected at 192 sampling plots throughout the Czech Republic in 1995, and were related to the sampling year. The (137)Cs specific activities in spruce bark correlated significantly with the (137)Cs depositions in areas affected by different precipitation sums operating at the time of the Chernobyl fallout in 1986. The ratio of the (137)Cs specific activities in bark and of the (137)Cs deposition levels yielded bark aggregated transfer factor T(ag) about 10.5×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1). Taking into account the residual specific activities of (137)Cs in bark 20Bq kg(-1) and the available pre-Chernobyl data on the (137)Cs deposition loads on the soil surface in the Czech Republic, the real aggregated transfer factor after and before the Chernobyl fallout proved to be T*(ag)=3.3×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1) and T**(ag)=4.0×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1), respectively. The aggregated transfer factors T*(ag) for (137)Cs and spruce bark did not differ significantly in areas unequally affected by the (137)Cs fallout in the Czech Republic in 1986, and the figures for these aggregated transfer factors were very similar to the mean bark T(ag) values published from the extensively affected areas near Chernobyl. The magnitude of the (137)Cs aggregated transfer factors for spruce bark for the pre-Chernobyl and post-Chernobyl period in the Czech Republic was also very similar. The variability in spruce bark acidity caused by the operation of local anthropogenic air pollution sources did not significantly influence the accumulation and retention of (137)Cs in spruce bark. Increasing elevation of the bark sampling plots had a significant effect on raising the remaining (137)Cs specific activities in bark in areas affected by precipitation at the time when the plumes crossed, because the sums of this precipitation increased with elevation (covariable). PMID:21377193

  2. Role of Human Factors and Engineering Psychology in Undergraduate and Graduate Engineering Curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Jesse Rebol

    2010-12-01

    The engineering discipline is a profession of acquiring and applying technical knowledge, and the focus of engineering psychology is to optimize the effectiveness and efficiency with which human activities are conducted. Having human factors and engineering psychology be a permanent part of the engineering curriculum will make students aware of them, so they can learn from past experiences and avoid making the same mistakes their peers made. (Should be close to 200 words)

  3. Breast implants and illness: a model of psychological factors

    PubMed Central

    Dush, D

    2001-01-01

    Studies of disease outcomes have not produced an explanation or an intervention for the symptoms and complaints that some women have attributed to breast implants. Reviews of the literature have found no increased risk of specific systemic disease, and no treatment recommendations have emerged. However, similar symptoms in fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue, and other contexts have been considered to be stress or behaviourally mediated, and a number of promising behavioural interventions have been developed. Aetiological, research, and treatment implications may follow from the consideration of such symptoms within a behavioural medicine model that allows for the interaction of physical and psychological influences. In the case of implants, a mass somatisation model may also help to discern the potential effects of litigation and other social influences.

 PMID:11406518

  4. Relationship between Psychological Factors and Cancer: An Update of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelman, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    There is a widely held perception that cancer is influenced by psychological factors, and that both the onset and progression of the disease are affected by factors such as stress, depression, social isolation and coping style. This article reviews the evidence for the mind-cancer link. Although hundreds of studies have reported on this issue,…

  5. Psychological factors mediate key symptoms of fibromyalgia through their influence on stress.

    PubMed

    Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey Owen

    2016-09-01

    The clinical features of fibromyalgia are associated with various psychological factors, including stress. We examined the hypothesis that the path that psychological factors follow in influencing fibromyalgia symptoms is through their direct effect on stress. Ninety-eight females with ACR 1990 classified fibromyalgia completed the following questionnaires: The Big 5 Personality Inventory, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Profile of Mood States, Mastery Scale, and Perceived Control of Internal States Scale. SPSS (PASW version 22) was used to perform basic t tests, means, and standard deviations to show difference between symptom characteristics. Pathway analysis using structural equation modelling (Laavan) examined the effect of stress on the relationships between psychological factors and the elements that define the fibromyalgia phenotype. The preferred model showed that the identified path clearly linked the psychological variables of anxiety, neuroticism and mastery, but not internal control, to the three key elements of fibromyalgia, namely pain, fatigue and sleep (p < 0.001), via the person's perceived stress. Confusion, however, did not fit the preferred model. This study confirms that stress is a necessary link in the pathway between certain identified, established and significant psychological factors and key fibromyalgia symptoms. This has implications for the understanding of contributing mechanisms and the clinical care of patients with fibromyalgia. PMID:27245234

  6. Analysis of psychological factors for quality assessment of interactive multimodal service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Kazuhisa; Hayashi, Takanori

    2005-03-01

    We proposed a subjective quality assessment model for interactive multimodal services. First, psychological factors of an audiovisual communication service were extracted by using the semantic differential (SD) technique and factor analysis. Forty subjects participated in subjective tests and performed point-to-point conversational tasks on a PC-based TV phone that exhibits various network qualities. The subjects assessed those qualities on the basis of 25 pairs of adjectives. Two psychological factors, i.e., an aesthetic feeling and a feeling of activity, were extracted from the results. Then, quality impairment factors affecting these two psychological factors were analyzed. We found that the aesthetic feeling is mainly affected by IP packet loss and video coding bit rate, and the feeling of activity depends on delay time and video frame rate. We then proposed an opinion model derived from the relationships among quality impairment factors, psychological factors, and overall quality. The results indicated that the estimation error of the proposed model is almost equivalent to the statistical reliability of the subjective score. Finally, using the proposed model, we discuss guidelines for quality design of interactive audiovisual communication services.

  7. The Psychological Mindedness Scale: factor structure, convergent validity and gender in a non-psychiatric sample.

    PubMed

    Shill, Merton A; Lumley, Mark A

    2002-06-01

    Although the concept of psychological mindedness (PM) originated in the psychoanalytic literature, its use has been expanding beyond the realm of assessing suitability for, or psychic change following, psychotherapy or psychoanalysis. For example, since PM bespeaks a capacity to tolerate psychological conflict and stress intrapsychically rather than by regressive means of conflict management or resolution such as somatization, its role, like that of alexithymia, in the genesis of psychosomatic illness is becoming evident. The Psychological Mindedness Scale (PMS), a 45-item self-report instrument intended to measure PM, was administered to a non-clinical sample of 397 undergraduates to assess the stability of its previously reported item-factor loadings and factor structure. Two main factors emerged, viz. Belief in the benefits of discussing one's problems and Access to feelings. Lower-order factors were Willingness to discuss problems with others, Interest in meaning and motivation of own and others' behaviour and Openness to change. Convergent validity of the PMS was also demonstrated by the negative correlations obtained between its total and factor/subscale scores with those of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The PMS needs further development to increase the congruence between its factor structure and the concept of PM. Females were also found to be more psychologically minded than males. The implications of these findings and the potential uses of this scale are discussed. PMID:12396760

  8. The children of Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Kidd, M R

    During the past twelve months much media attention has been focused on the plight of the children affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster in the Soviet Union. The visit to Australia by several groups of these children during 1991 has heightened community interest in the innocent victims of the world's worst nuclear accident. As medical adviser for one of these visits, I saw how some of the children of Chernobyl benefited from their holiday away from radioactivity. PMID:1745168

  9. Preliminary report on social psychological factors in long duration space flights: Review and directions for future research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Group dynamics, sociological and psychological factors are examined. Crew composition and compatibility are studied. Group dynamics analysis includes: leadership; cohesiveness; conformity; and conflict.

  10. Factors influencing psychological distress during a disease epidemic: Data from Australia's first outbreak of equine influenza

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Melanie R; Agho, Kingsley E; Stevens, Garry J; Raphael, Beverley

    2008-01-01

    Background In 2007 Australia experienced its first outbreak of highly infectious equine influenza. Government disease control measures were put in place to control, contain, and eradicate the disease; these measures included movement restrictions and quarantining of properties. This study was conducted to assess the psycho-social impacts of this disease, and this paper reports the prevalence of, and factors influencing, psychological distress during this outbreak. Methods Data were collected using an online survey, with a link directed to the affected population via a number of industry groups. Psychological distress, as determined by the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale, was the main outcome measure. Results In total, 2760 people participated in this study. Extremely high levels of non-specific psychological distress were reported by respondents in this study, with 34% reporting high psychological distress (K10 > 22), compared to levels of around 12% in the Australian general population. Analysis, using backward stepwise binary logistic regression analysis, revealed that those living in high risk infection (red) zones (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.57–2.55; p < 0.001) and disease buffer (amber) zones (OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.36–2.46; p < 0.001) were at much greater risk of high psychological distress than those living in uninfected (white zones). Although prevalence of high psychological distress was greater in infected EI zones and States, elevated levels of psychological distress were experienced in horse-owners nationally. Statistical analysis indicated that certain groups were more vulnerable to high psychological distress; specifically younger people, and those with lower levels of formal educational qualifications. Respondents whose principal source of income was from horse-related industry were more than twice as likely to have high psychological distress than those whose primary source of income was not linked to horse-related industry (OR = 2.23; 95% CI: 1

  11. Psychological Factors Explaining the Referral Behavior of Iranian Family Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Mohaghegh, Bahram; Seyedin, Hesam; Rashidian, Arash; Ravaghi, Hamid; Khalesi, Nader; Kazemeini, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: The recently developed policy of the family practice program in rural regions of Iran faced some challenges such as inefficient referral system. The health insurance organizations (purchaser) and health policy makers are concerned about the high rate of patient referrals from family physicians to specialists due to imposing unnecessary services and costs. Objectives: This study examined utility of the theory of planned behavior to explain intention of Iranian family physicians to reduce referral rate of patients with respiratory diseases to medical specialist. Patients and Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional study, employing a correlational design directed by the theory of planned behavior was conducted. A questionnaire was developed based on an eliciting study and review of literature. One hundred and seventy-four family physicians working at primary care centers in two provinces of Iran completed the questionnaire (response rate of 86%). Results: The finding revealed that intention of family physicians to reduce referral rate of patients to specialists was significantly related to two theory-based variables of subjective norms (r = 0.38, P < 0.001) and perceived behavioral control (r = 0.43, P < 0.001), and not to attitudes. A stepwise regression entering direct measures of the theory variables explained 35% of the variance on the intention, with perceived behavioral control being the strongest predictor. Adding background variables to the model achieved further 5% by variables of practice size and past referral rate behavior. Conclusions: The results indicated that psychological variables of the theory of planned behavior could explain a noticeable proportion of variance in family physician's intention to decrease the rate of referring patients with respiratory diseases to medical specialists. The intention is primarily influenced by normative and control considerations. These findings contribute to a better understanding of referral decisions by

  12. Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Students' Learning with Erroneous Worked Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopp, Eric; Stark, Robin; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of diagnostic competence is seen as a major goal during the course of study in medicine. One innovative method to foster this goal is problem-based learning with erroneous worked examples provided in a computer learning environment. The present study explores the relationship of attitudinal, emotional and cognitive factors for…

  13. Student Success Factors in Graduate Psychology Professional Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhouse, Noelle K.; Cerniak, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Research examining factors contributing to online students' success typically focuses on a single point in time or completion of a single course, as well as individual difference variables, such as learning style or motivation, that may predispose a student to succeed. However, research concerning longer term online student outcomes, such as…

  14. Challenging factors for enuresis treatment: Psychological problems and non-adherence.

    PubMed

    Van Herzeele, Charlotte; De Bruyne, Pauline; De Bruyne, Elke; Walle, Johan Vande

    2015-12-01

    The evidence for organic pathogenetic factors in enuresis and the discovery of effective therapies targeting the bladder and/or nocturnal diuresis have overwhelmed every potential role of psychological factors in pathogenesis and treatment. However, psychopathology is still important in enuresis because according to the document of the International Children's Continence Society (ICCS) 20-30% of the children with enuresis have at least one psychological/psychiatric disorder at rates two times higher than non-wetting children. The most common comorbid disorder with enuresis is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The aim of this review is to translate the existing evidence on the importance of a psychological screening into daily clinical practice of the medical practitioner. The use of the minimal psychological screening tool should be considered mandatory in each primary setting. If psychological problems are indicated, referral of the patient to a multidisciplinary setting should be considered, not only to allow psychological assessment to screen for a possible psychopathology, but also since therapy resistance might be expected. This review concentrates on two items from psychopathology/psychotherapy that might predict insufficient treatment response: the psychological comorbidities as described according to the DSM-5 criteria and the underestimated importance of therapy adherence. Adherence is a cornerstone of effective therapy in enuresis. It is a problem involving the doctor, the patient, and the parents. Increasing adherence takes effort and is time-consuming. But it is worthwhile knowing that several studies have demonstrated that high adherence is associated with high therapy success of enuresis. Eventually, this is the ultimate goal of treatment. PMID:26182849

  15. What Are the Social, Psychological, and Cognitive Factors That Drive Individuals to Entrepreneurship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMattina, Lina M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold; first, to uncover the social, psychological, and cognitive factors core to the entrepreneurial individual; and secondly, to provide accurate data to be used in curriculum development to fill the existing educational gap that exists in the current literature regarding understanding the inner workings of the…

  16. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS IN TRANSFER OF TRAINING, PHASE I. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STOLUROW, LAWRENCE M.

    A FINAL REPORT WAS MADE OF THE ACTIVITIES PURSUED IN PHASE 1 OF A 10-YEAR PROJECT DEALING WITH THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN TRANSFER OF TRAINING. PHASE I CONSISTED OF A SURVEY OF THE EXISTENT DATA AND CONCEPTS OF TRANSFER OF TRAINING IN AN ATTEMPT (1) TO SUMMARIZE, INTEGRATE, CONSOLIDATE, AND INTERPRET RESEARCH FINDINGS…

  17. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS IN TRANSFER OF TRAINING, PHASE I. QUARTERLY REPORTS 2 AND 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STOLUROW, LAWRENCE M.

    PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE TRANSFER OF TRAINING WERE STUDIED BY USE OF PROGRAMED SELF-INSTRUCTION USING TEACHING MACHINES. THIS MEDIUM WAS CHOSEN BECAUSE IT PROVIDES LABORATORY-LIKE CONDITIONS SUCH AS STABILIZED METHODS, AND STIMULUS CONTROL INCLUDING CONTROL OF TEACHER PERSONALITY, PLUS A STEP-BY-STEP RECORD OF THE…

  18. Entrepreneurship Education: How Psychological, Demographic and Behavioural Factors Predict the Entrepreneurial Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Carla S.; Ferreira, Joao J.; Gomes, Daniela N.; Rodrigues, Ricardo Gouveia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), the purpose of this paper is to approach entrepreneurial intention (EI) and the factors preceding the founding of EI among secondary students, both studying general academic and specific professional programs, and thereby establish causal relationships between psychological, demographic and…

  19. The Complex Relationship between Dependency and Domestic Violence: Converging Psychological Factors and Social Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    Research indicates that economic dependency in women and emotional dependency in men independently contribute to domestic-partner abuse risk and that high levels of emotional dependency in an abused partner may reduce the likelihood that the victimized person will terminate the relationship. An analysis of psychological factors and social forces…

  20. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  1. Students' Physical and Psychological Reactions to Forensic Dissection: Are There Risk Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N.; Papadodima, Stavroula A.; Evaggelakos, Christos I.; Mytilinaios, Dimitrios G.; Goutas, Nikolaos D.; Spiliopoulou, Chara A.

    2010-01-01

    The reactions of students to forensic dissection encompass psychologico-emotional and physical components. This exploratory study aimed to determine risk factors for students' adverse physical and psychological reactions to forensic dissection. All sixth-year medical students (n = 304) attending the compulsory practical course in forensic medicine…

  2. Ryff's Six-Factor Model of Psychological Well-Being, a Spanish Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dierendonck, Dirk; Diaz, Dario; Rodriguez-Carvajal, Raquel; Blanco, Amalio; Moreno-Jimenez, Bernardo

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to provide researchers interested in using Ryff's Scales of Psychological Wellbeing with additional information to make an informed decision on the scales and items to use. It builds on the discussion in the literature on the six factor structure of this measure. An alternative shortened version of this wellbeing measure (Van…

  3. Parental, Behavioral, and Psychological Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Secondary School Students in Nanjing, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaoming; Mao, Rong; Stanton, Bonita; Zhao, Qun

    2010-01-01

    We designed this study to assess parental, behavioral, and psychological factors associated with tobacco use among Chinese adolescents. The data were collected from 995 middle school students in Nanjing, China. Both smoking experimentation and current smoking (smoking in the past 30 days) were assessed among the study sample. Psychosocial measures…

  4. Psychological Factors in Risk Assessment and Management of Inappropriate Sexual Behaviour by Men with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mark; Willner, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Aim: This study examined the responses of care managers and direct care staff to vignettes of inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB) by a man with an intellectual disability. The aim was to identify psychological factors that influenced their assessment of risk and the perceived need for risk management strategies. Method: The vignettes varied in…

  5. The relationship between ambient illumination and psychological factors in viewing of display Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwanami, Takuya; Kikuchi, Ayano; Kaneko, Takashi; Hirai, Keita; Yano, Natsumi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we have clarified the relationship between ambient illumination and psychological factors in viewing of display images. Psychological factors were obtained by the factor analysis with the results of the semantic differential (SD) method. In the psychological experiments, subjects evaluated the impressions of displayed images with changing ambient illuminating conditions. The illumination conditions were controlled by a fluorescent ceiling light and a color LED illumination which was located behind the display. We experimented under two kinds of conditions. One was the experiment with changing brightness of the ambient illumination. The other was the experiment with changing the colors of the background illumination. In the results of the experiment, two factors "realistic sensation, dynamism" and "comfortable," were extracted under different brightness of the ambient illumination of the display surroundings. It was shown that the "comfortable" was improved by the brightness of display surroundings. On the other hand, when the illumination color of surroundings was changed, three factors "comfortable," "realistic sensation, dynamism" and "activity" were extracted. It was also shown that the value of "comfortable" and "realistic sensation, dynamism" increased when the display surroundings were illuminated by the average color of the image contents.

  6. Sustainable use of arsenic-removing sand filters in Vietnam: psychological and social factors.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Robert; Berg, Michael

    2011-04-15

    Elevated arsenic concentrations in drinking water pose a health threat to millions of people. Although point-of-use sand filters provide an effective technical solution for mitigating arsenic exposure, the actual reduction in health risk also depends on psychological factors that influence behaviors related to this device. For example, acquiring a sand filter must be preferred to competing options for investing effort and money and, once installed, the users must regularly maintain the filters. These key behaviors of sustainable use are related to psychological factors, such as problem awareness, benefits and costs, social and affective influences, and the perception of practical difficulties. This study investigated the sustainable use of arsenic-removing sand filters in Vietnam. Based on questionnaire surveys, data were gathered in 319 rural households and analyzed with regression models. Psychological factors explained significant variance in the investigated key behaviors. Significant factors included perceived improvements in water healthiness and taste, monetary costs, social norms, and affective influences. In questions with open answers, interviewees mentioned various practical problems, particularly those related to the inflexibility of the device and the effort of changing the sand. Interestingly, many interviewees operate the sand filters for removing iron from the water but are unaware of problems with arsenic. PMID:21443220

  7. Important factors governing exposure of the population and countermeasure application in rural settlements of the Russian Federation in the long-term after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Jacob, P; Alexakhin, R; Sanzharova, N I; Panov, A; Fesenko, G; Cecille, L

    2001-01-01

    Rural settlements located in areas of the Russian Federation contaminated after the Chernobyl accident and exceeding an annual dose of 1 mSv a-1 have been classified according to 137Cs contamination density, internal dose and the neighbourhood of forests. It has been shown that, with the exception of the most contaminated areas, the internal doses decreased in accordance with a decline in 137Cs availability for plant root uptake. An inverse tendency was observed in areas with 137Cs contamination above 555 kBq m-2 which can be explained by a reduction or even termination of countermeasure application and by an increasing consumption of forest products in areas where restrictive countermeasures are still implemented. Twenty-seven settlements have been studied to estimate the effectiveness of countermeasures applied previously and to identify the most important factors governing the radiation exposure to the population and its change with time. It has been shown that the effectiveness of countermeasures which resulted in a decrease of up to 40% of doses has a tendency to decline in the long term. The need for continuation of remediation in rural settlements was evaluated both for selected settlements and extrapolated to the whole contaminated area and it has been shown that the application of countermeasures will be of importance at least up to the year 2045. Rather high effectiveness in terms of internal dose reduction (factor of 2-2.5) of radical improvement (disking, ploughing and reseeding) and administration of Cs binders to animals (Ferrocyn) was demonstrated for the selected settlements. It could be demonstrated that for forest-remote settlements there is a linear dependence between internal dose normalised to the density of contamination and the proportion of peat soils around settlements. For near-forest settlements, this dependence was less pronounced which can be explained by the high contribution of forest food products to the internal dose. Milk is still

  8. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Finne, Live Bakke; Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2014-01-01

    Studies exploring psychological and social work factors in relation to mental health problems (anxiety and depression) have mainly focused on a limited set of exposures. The current study investigated prospectively a broad set of specific psychological and social work factors as predictors of potentially clinically relevant mental distress (anxiety and depression), i.e. “caseness” level of distress. Employees were recruited from 48 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 3644 employees responded at both baseline and at follow-up two years later. Respondents were distributed across 832 departments within the 48 organizations. Nineteen work factors were measured. Two prospective designs were tested: (i) with baseline predictors and (ii) with average exposure over time ([T1+T2]/2) as predictors. Random intercept logistic regressions were conducted to account for clustering of the data. Baseline “cases” were excluded (n = 432). Age, sex, skill level, and mental distress as a continuous variable at T1 were adjusted for. Fourteen of 19 factors showed some prospective association with mental distress. The most consistent risk factor was role conflict (highest odds ratio [OR] 2.08, 99% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45–3.00). The most consistent protective factors were support from immediate superior (lowest OR 0.56, 99% CI: 0.43–0.72), fair leadership (lowest OR 0.52, 99% CI: 0.40–0.68), and positive challenge (lowest OR 0.60, 99% CI: 0.41–0.86). The present study demonstrated that a broad set of psychological and social work factors predicted mental distress of potential clinical relevance. Some of the most consistent predictors were different from those traditionally studied. This highlights the importance of expanding the range of factors beyond commonly studied concepts like the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. PMID:25048033

  9. Social-psychological factors in the dietary quality of married and single elderly.

    PubMed

    Schafer, R B; Keith, P M

    1982-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the social-psychological correlates of diet quality of elderly married couples and elderly single women. The social-psychological factors included: personality, social interaction, and social influence variables. Eighty-two married couples (164 respondents) and 69 single women were randomly selected and interviewed. It was found that social influence variables were more important factors in determining quality of diet than either personality or social interaction variables. The elderly single women's higher quality diet was associated with more reliable sources of influence than those of the elderly married, a condition attributed to the independence and competencies required by their single living arrangements. For married couples, role dissatisfaction had negative consequences for wives' diets, and husbands' involvement in family food decisions had positive consequences for their own diet quality. PMID:7086013

  10. [Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: brief review of the main associated psychological factors].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Rico, I; Pérez-Marín, M; Montoya-Castilla, I

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a widespread chronic disease among children and adolescents. Diagnosis and evolution usually involves a significant burden on the patient, and their families must change various aspects of their lifestyle to fulfill the demands of treatment. This study aims to identify the main psychological, family, and adjustment to illness features of children and adolescents diagnosed with DM1 and, in particular to highlight the associated psychopathological factors. The methodology involved a systematic literature search in the main scientific databases. Due to the biopsychosocial impact of DM1 usually assumed in the life of the child and family, and how it may compromise the quality of life and emotional well-being of both, different studies have agreed on the importance of identifying the set of psychological factors involved in healthy adjustment to illness in the child and adolescent with DM1. PMID:24809830

  11. Comparison of familial and psychological factors in groups of encopresis patients with constipation and without constipation.

    PubMed

    Çengel-Kültür, S Ebru; Akdemir, Devrim; Saltık-Temizel, İnci N

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the differences between groups of encopresis patients with constipation and without constipation. The Symptom Checklist- 90-Revised, the COPE Questionnaire, the Relationship Scales Questionnaire, the McMaster Family Assessment Device and the Parenting Style Scale were used to evaluate, respectively, maternal psychiatric symptoms, coping abilities, attachment style, family functioning and children's perceptions of parenting behaviors. Psychiatric diagnoses were evaluated using the K-SADS. A higher level of maternal psychiatric symptoms, impaired role and affective involvement functioning of the family and less psychological autonomy were observed in the group of encopresis patients with constipation than in the group of encopresis patients without constipation. No significant differences were found between the groups in psychiatric comorbidities, maternal coping abilities and attachment style. The two groups had a similar pattern of comorbid psychiatric disorders and maternal psychological factors, although some familial factors-related mainly to parental authority-were differentiated in the encopresis with constipation group. PMID:26022589

  12. Treatment of psychological factors in a child with difficult asthma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Anbar, Ran D; Sachdeva, Shagun

    2011-07-01

    Difficult asthma is defined as the persistence of asthma symptoms, abnormal pulmonary function showing airway obstruction, and continued requirement for short-acting bronchodilator therapy, despite adequate treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. It calls for a thorough evaluation of the patient to look into alternate and complicating diagnoses. The authors report a case of a 9-year-old patient with difficult asthma who failed to respond to conventional therapy. Although it was recognized that he had a number of potential medical complicating factors including allergies, chronic sinusitis, and gastroesophageal reflux, a psychological intervention using hypnosis ultimately appeared to help alleviate his symptoms completely. Thus, psychological evaluation and intervention should be considered early in the course of management of a patient with difficult asthma, because it may help avoid time-consuming and expensive investigations of potential complicating factors, and it may yield rapid improvement in the patient's clinical condition. PMID:21922711

  13. Radiation exposure and breast cancer: lessons from Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Ogrodnik, Aleksandra; Hudon, Tyler W; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

    2013-04-01

    The lessons learned from the Chernobyl disaster have become increasingly important after the second anniversary of the Fukushima, Japan nuclear accident. Historically, data from the Chernobyl reactor accident 27 years ago demonstrated a strong correlation with thyroid cancer, but data on the radiation effects of Chernobyl on breast cancer incidence have remained inconclusive. We reviewed the published literature on the effects of the Chernobyl disaster on breast cancer incidence, using Medline and Scopus from the time of the accident to December of 2010. Our findings indicate limited data and statistical flaws. Other confounding factors, such as discrepancies in data collection, make interpretation of the results from the published literature difficult. Re-analyzing the data reveals that the incidence of breast cancer in Chernobyl-disaster-exposed women could be higher than previously thought. We have learned little of the consequences of radiation exposure at Chernobyl except for its effects on thyroid cancer incidence. Marking the 27th year after the Chernobyl event, this report sheds light on a specific, crucial and understudied aspect of the results of radiation from a gruesome nuclear power plant disaster. PMID:23691737

  14. Thyroid cancer around Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Beral, V.

    1997-03-01

    The author`s presentation on thyroid cancer around Chernobyl will focus on four different things. First will be the time trends, or the pattern of thyroid cancer occurrence before and after the accident. It is now very well known that the increase in thyroid cancer in children in several areas has been unprecedented. Second, the author discusses thyroid cancer in general and patterns of thyroid cancer around the world before the Chernobyl accident, including differences by age and pathology. Third, the author presents relatively crude analyses of risk according to dose to the thyroid gland. And last, the author attempts to contrast the findings for thyroid cancer in relation to the internal radioiodine dose in Chernobyl studies with analyses of the effects of external dose on thyroid cancer incidence. The bottom line to be developed is similar to that presented by Elaine Ron with regard to effects of external dose on thyroid cancer. The similarities between the childhood finding from Chernobyl studies and external radiation studies appear more remarkable than the differences.

  15. The truth about Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedev, G.

    1991-01-01

    This book is an account from the inside of the Soviet nuclear industry of the Chernobyl accident itself: who was there, what they were doing and how they responded. It quotes official statements of the reactor operators and others who were present, but also adds semi-fictional accounts of what people (who are not dead) might have said.

  16. Interacting with the public as a risk factor for employee psychological distress

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The 1-month prevalence of any mental disorder in employees ranges from 10.5% to 18.5%. Mental disorders are responsible for substantial losses in employee productivity in both absenteeism and presenteeism. Potential work related factors contributing to mental difficulties are of increasing interest to employers. Some data suggests that being sales staff, call centre operator, nurse or teacher increases psychological distress. One aspect of these occupations is that there is an interaction with the public. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether employees who interact with the public are at greater risk of psychological distress. Methods Data was collected from two studies. In study one 11,259 employees (60% female; mean age 40-years ± SD 10-years) from six employers responded to the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) which contained a measure of psychological distress, the Kessler 6 (K6). Employees were coded as to whether or not they interacted with the public. Binomial logistic regression was performed on this data to determine the odds ratio (OR) for moderate or high psychological distress in employees that interacted with the public. Study two administered the HPQ and K6 to sales employees of a large Australian bank (N = 2,129; 67% female; mean age 39-years SD 10-years). This questionnaire also probed how many contacts individuals had with the public in the past week. Analysis of variance was used to determine if the number of contacts was related to psychological distress. Results In study one the prevalence of psychological distress in those that interacted and did not interact with the public were 19% and 15% respectively (P < 0.001). Interacting with the public was associated with an increased OR of 1.3 (P < 0.001) for moderate to high levels of psychological distress. In study two employees with less than 25 contacts with the public per week had a lower K6 score than those who had ≥ 25 contacts per week (P = 0

  17. Psychological factors related to eating disordered behaviors: a study with Portuguese athletes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luiz; Gomes, A Rui; Martins, Carla

    2011-05-01

    This study analyzes eating disordered behaviors in a sample of Portuguese athletes and explores its relationship with some psychological dimensions. Two hundred and ninety nine athletes (153 male, 51.2%) practicing collective (65.2%) or individual sports (34.8%) were included. The assessment protocol included the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) (Fairburn & Beglin, 1994); the Sport Condition Questionnaire (Bruin et al., 2007; Hall et al., 2007); the Sport Anxiety Scale (Smith et al., 2006); the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Duda, 1992; Duda & Whitehead, 1998); the Cognitive Evaluation of Sport-Threat Perceptions (Cruz, 1994; Lazarus, 1991); and the Self-Presentation Exercise Questionnaire (Gammage et al., 2004). Results revealed that: i) no case of clinical significance was detected in the four dimensions of the EDE-Q simultaneously; ii) females scored higher on the EDE-Q Global Score, and athletes with the better sport results scored higher on the Restraint subscale; iii) athletes with a higher desire to weigh less scored higher on the EDE-Q Global Score; iv) athletes with lower scores on EDE-Q displayed more positive results on the psychological measures; v) several psychological dimensions were identified as predictors of eating disordered behaviors. In conclusion, the prevalence of eating disordered behaviors was negligible in this study, yet the relationship of this problem with personal, sport and psychological factors was evident. PMID:21568189

  18. Association of psychological factors, patients’ knowledge, and management among patients with erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Mat Sanusi, Nurul Diyana; Razack, Azad Hassan Abdul; Mark, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Background Erectile dysfunction (ED) is one of the most common health problems in men. ED can significantly affect a man’s psychological well-being and overall health. Purpose To investigate the association of psychological factors, patients’ knowledge, and management among ED patients. Patients and methods A total of 93 patients with an age range from 31 to 81 years who have undergone treatment for ED were included in this study. Results It was found that the feeling of blame (P=0.001), guilt (P=0.001), anger or bitterness (P=0.001), depression (P=0.001), feeling like a failure (P=0.001), and the feeling of letting down a partner during intercourse (P=0.001) were significantly associated with ED. Age was also found to be significantly associated with patients’ psychological scale (P=0.004). In addition, the majority of patients in this study practice the right method of administration of ED therapy. However, no significant correlation was found between patients’ knowledge of ED therapy and demographic characteristics. Conclusion This study concluded that ED does affect psychological well-being of people. In addition, patient’s knowledge about ED and its management is also crucial in ensuring that the patient achieves optimal therapeutic outcomes from ED therapy. PMID:27257374

  19. Determining the direction of causality between psychological factors and aircraft noise annoyance.

    PubMed

    Kroesen, Maarten; Molin, Eric J E; van Wee, Bert

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an attempt is made to establish the direction of causality between a range of psychological factors and aircraft noise annoyance. For this purpose, a panel model was estimated within a structural equation modeling approach. Data were gathered from two surveys conducted in April 2006 and April 2008, respectively, among the same residents living within the 45 Level day-evening-night contour of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, the largest airport in the Netherlands (n=250). A surprising result is that none of the paths from the psychological factors to aircraft noise annoyance were found to be significant. Yet 2 effects were significant the other way around: (1) from 'aircraft noise annoyance' to 'concern about the negative health effects of noise' and (2) from 'aircraft noise annoyance' to 'belief that noise can be prevented.' Hence aircraft noise annoyance measured at time 1 contained information that can effectively explain changes in these 2 variables at time 2, while controlling for their previous values. Secondary results show that (1) aircraft noise annoyance is very stable through time and (2) that changes in aircraft noise annoyance and the identified psychological factors are correlated. PMID:20160387

  20. Psychological risk factors of addiction to social networking sites among Chinese smartphone users

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anise M. S.; Cheung, Vivi I.; Ku, Lisbeth; Hung, Eva P. W.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Smartphones allow users to access social networking sites (SNSs) whenever and wherever they want. Such easy availability and accessibility may increase their vulnerability to addiction. Based on the social cognitive theory (SCT), we examined the impacts of outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and impulsivity on young Chinese smartphone users' addictive tendencies toward SNSs. Methods: Two hundred seventy-seven Macau young smartphone users (116 males and 161 females; mean age = 26.62) filled out an online Chinese questionnaire concerning their usage of social networking sites via smartphones, addiction tendencies toward SNSs, impulsivity trait, outcome expectancies toward the use, and Internet self-efficacy. Results: The findings revealed that those who spent more time on SNSs also reported higher addictive tendencies. Addictive tendencies were positively correlated with both outcome expectancies and impulsivity, but negatively associated with Internet self-efficacy. These three psychological variables explained 23% of the variance in addictive tendencies. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that, compared to demographics, psychological factors provide a better account for addictive tendencies towards SNSs among Chinese smartphone users in Macau. The three psychological risk factors were low Internet self-efficacy, favorable outcome expectancies, and high impulsivity trait. Educational campaigns with screening procedures for high-risk groups are recommended for effective prevention and treatment. PMID:25215198

  1. Aberrant expression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin in association with transforming growth factor-beta1 in urinary bladder lesions in humans after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Alina; Morimura, Keiichirou; Kinoshita, Anna; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Vozianov, Alexander; Fukushima, Shoji

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the molecular pathways of cell-cell communication in chronic inflammatory processes associated with long-term low-dose urinary bladder exposure to ionizing radiation in people without major disease living more than 19 years in radio-contaminated areas of Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident. Patterns of components of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin complex, and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression were immunohistochemically evaluated in urinary bladder biopsies from 52 males with benign prostate hyperplasia and 8 females with chronic cystitis (group 1). For comparison, 25 males and 6 females living in non-contaminated areas of Ukraine were also investigated (group 2). Fourteen patients with primary urothelial carcinomas, which were operated on before the Chernobyl accident, were included as a carcinoma group. Chronic proliferative atypical cystitis ('Chernobyl cystitis') was observed in group 1 patients. Foci of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ were found in 51 (85%) and 34 (57%) of the 60 cases, respectively. Chronic cystitis with areas of dysplasia was detected in only 4 (13%) cases of 31 group 2 patients. Statistically significant differences in immunohistochemical scores for TGF-beta1 in the urothelium and lamina propria, iNOS in the urothelium and both beta-catenin and E-cadherin in the cytoplasm were observed between groups 1 and 2 with marked expression in group 1. Furthermore, TGF-beta1 overexpression and alteration in E-cadherin/beta-catenin complexes in bladder urothelium might play a crucial role in urinary bladder carcinogenesis in humans exposed to long-term low-dose ionizing radiation. PMID:16367920

  2. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Other Psychological Factors in Patients with “Chronic Lyme Disease”

    PubMed Central

    Hassett, Afton L.; Radvanski, Diane C.; Buyske, Steven; Savage, Shantal V.; Sigal, Leonard H.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is no evidence of current or previous B. burgdorferi infection in most patients evaluated at University-based Lyme disease referral centers. Instead, psychological factors likely exacerbate the persistent diffuse symptoms or “Chronic Multisymptom Illness” incorrectly ascribed to an ongoing chronic infection with B. burgdorferi. The objective of this study was to assess the medical and psychiatric status of such patients and compare these findings to those from patients without CMI. Methods 240 consecutive patients undergoing medical evaluation at an academic Lyme disease referral center in New Jersey were screened for clinical disorders (e.g. depression and anxiety) with diagnoses confirmed by structured clinical interviews. Personality disorders, catastrophizing, and negative and positive affect were also evaluated and all factors were compared between groups and to functional outcomes. Results 60.4% of our sample had symptoms that could not be explained by current Lyme disease or another medical condition other than CMI. After adjusting for age and gender, clinical disorders were more common in CMI than in the comparison group (p<.001, OR 3.54, 95% CI, 1.97 to 6.55), but personality disorders were not significantly more common. CMI patients had higher negative affect, lower positive affect and a greater tendency to catastrophize pain (p<.001) than did the comparison group. Except for personality disorders, all psychological factors were related to worse functioning. Our explanatory model based on these factors was confirmed. Conclusions Psychiatric comorbidity and other psychological factors are prominent in the presentation and outcome of some patients who inaccurately ascribe long-standing symptoms to “chronic Lyme disease.” PMID:19699380

  3. A systematic review of factors affecting migrant attitudes towards seeking psychological help.

    PubMed

    Selkirk, Mhairi; Quayle, Ethel; Rothwell, Neil

    2014-02-01

    Research indicates that service utilization rates in migrant groups are low, although levels of distress appear high when compared with host populations. This paper systematically reviews quantitative and qualitative literature on factors associated with attitudes toward seeking psychological help among working age migrants. Data were extracted from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Science Direct and SAGE databases. Eight quantitative studies and 16 qualitative studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The majority of studies were conducted in North America (67%). Although results of quantitative studies were heterogeneous, stronger identification with host than heritage culture, fluency in host country language, psychological attributions of distress, higher educational levels, higher socioeconomic status, female gender, and older age were associated with more favourable attitudes toward help-seeking in some migrant groups. Three major themes emerged from the qualitative literature: logistical barriers, cultural mismatch between service providers and participants, and preferences for other sources of assistance. PMID:24509015

  4. Factors Predictive of Midlife Occupational Attainment and Psychological Functioning in Adults With Mild Intellectual Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Floyd, Frank J.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Doescher, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The life course of individuals with mild intellectual deficits and the factors that account for heterogeneity in their midlife outcomes were examined. Past research has shown that such individuals are at risk for poor occupational attainment in adulthood and more compromised psychological functioning, including increased depression. Although predictors varied for men and women, in general greater midlife occupational attainment was predicted by continuation of education beyond high school, having role models for achievement, and social participation earlier in adulthood. Midlife psychological functioning was predicted by having role models of achievement, having discussed plans for the future with parents and teachers, and achievement of aspirations set in high school. Implications for contemporary models of transition planning are discussed. PMID:19391672

  5. Turning men into machines? Scientific management, industrial psychology, and the "human factor".

    PubMed

    Derksen, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    In the controversy that broke out in 1911 over Frederick W. Taylor's scientific management, many critics contended that it ignored "the human factor" and reduced workers to machines. Psychologists succeeded in positioning themselves as experts of the human factor, and their instruments and expertise as the necessary complement of Taylor's psychologically deficient system. However, the conventional view that the increasing influence of psychologists and other social scientists "humanized" management theory and practice needs to be amended. Taylor's scientific management was not less human than later approaches such as Human Relations, but it articulated the human factor differently, and aligned it to its own instruments and practices in such a way that it was at once external to them and essential to their functioning. Industrial psychologists, on the other hand, at first presented themselves as engineers of the human factor and made the human mind an integral part of management. PMID:24615634

  6. Assessing social capacity and vulnerability of private households to natural hazards - integrating psychological and governance factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werg, J.; Grothmann, T.; Schmidt, P.

    2013-06-01

    People are unequally affected by extreme weather events in terms of mortality, morbidity and financial losses; this is the case not only for developing, but also for industrialized countries. Previous research has established indicators for identifying who is particularly vulnerable and why, focusing on socio-demographic factors such as income, age, gender, health and minority status. However, these factors can only partly explain the large disparities in the extent to which people are affected by natural hazards. Moreover, these factors are usually not alterable in the short to medium term, which limits their usefulness for strategies of reducing social vulnerability and building social capacity. Based on a literature review and an expert survey, we propose an approach for refining assessments of social vulnerability and building social capacity by integrating psychological and governance factors.

  7. Psychological factors and trimester-specific gestational weight gain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Mufiza Zia; Gaston, Anca; Van Blyderveen, Sherry; Schmidt, Louis; Beyene, Joseph; McDonald, Helen; McDonald, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Excess gestational weight gain (GWG), which has reached epidemic proportions, is associated with numerous adverse pregnancy outcomes. Early pregnancy provides a unique opportunity for counseling pregnant women since many women are motivated to engage in healthy behaviors. A systematic review was conducted to summarize the relation between psychological factors and trimester-specific GWG, i.e. GWG measured at the end of each trimester. Eight databases were searched for affect, cognition and personality factors. The guidelines on meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology were followed. The methodological quality of each study was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Of 3620 non-duplicate titles and abstracts, 74 articles underwent full-text review. Two cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. Distress was negatively associated with first trimester GWG among both adolescents and non-adolescents. Body image dissatisfaction was associated with second trimester GWG only among non-adolescents. No association emerged between perceived stress, state and trait anxiety and body image dissatisfaction among adolescents and trimester-specific GWG. The relation between trimester-specific GWG and a number of weight-related and dietary-related cognitions, affective states and personality traits remain unexplored. Given the limited number of studies, further high-quality evidence is required to examine the association between psychological factors and trimester-specific GWG, especially for cognitive and personality factors. PMID:25541218

  8. The relationship among psychological factors, neglect-like symptoms and postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Hara, Michiya; Fujiwara, Akira; Hanada, Hirofumi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postoperative pain has a significant relationship with patient health and satisfaction. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and association of neglect-like symptoms (NLS) and other psychological factors on postoperative pain in patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). NLS are defined as the loss of perception of the limb with pain and excessive effort required to move the limb. The authors hypothesized that NLS were an important contributor to postoperative pain. METHODS: The factors influencing pain were investigated using a longitudinal study with assessments at three and six weeks postsurgery. The relationships among demographic factors (age, body weight, body mass index), psychological factors (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS]) and NLS with postoperative pain were investigated in 90 patients after TKA. The associations among motor functions (muscle strength of knee extension, range of motion), sensory functions (joint position sense and two-point discrimination in the thigh) and NLS were also investigated. RESULTS: At three and six weeks after surgery, 36% and 19% of patients, respectively, experienced NLS. In hierarchical multiple regression analysis, NLS and PCS scores were significantly associated with postoperative pain, while joint position sense and range of motion were significantly associated with NLS. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that facilitation of sensory integration is important in rehabilitation after TKA because NLS appears to result from impaired sensory integration. The association of PCS scores with postoperative pain and NLS suggests the need to provide appropriate postoperative education to reduce persistent negative thoughts regarding future pain. PMID:25101335

  9. Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help: Factor Structure and Socio-Demographic Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Picco, Louisa; Abdin, Edimanysah; Chong, Siow Ann; Pang, Shirlene; Shafie, Saleha; Chua, Boon Yiang; Vaingankar, Janhavi A.; Ong, Lue Ping; Tay, Jenny; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (ATSPPH) are complex. Help seeking preferences are influenced by various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors and can often result in unmet needs, treatment gaps, and delays in help-seeking. The aims of the current study were to explore the factor structure of the ATSPPH short form (-SF) scale and determine whether any significant socio-demographic differences exist in terms of help-seeking attitudes. Data were extracted from a population-based survey conducted among Singapore residents aged 18–65 years. Respondents provided socio-demographic information and were administered the ATSPPH-SF. Weighted mean and standard error of the mean were calculated for continuous variables, and frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed to establish the validity of the factor structure of the ATSPPH-SF scale. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted to examine predictors of each of the ATSPPH-SF factors. The factor analysis revealed that the ATSPPH-SF formed three distinct dimensions: “Openness to seeking professional help,” “Value in seeking professional help,” and “Preference to cope on one's own.” Multiple linear regression analyses showed that age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and income were significantly associated with the ATSPPH-SF factors. Population subgroups that were less open to or saw less value in seeking psychological help should be targeted via culturally appropriate education campaigns and tailored and supportive interventions. PMID:27199794

  10. The chernobyl experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeschki, Wolfgang

    Numerous articles have been published about the events which occurred at Chernobyl and the radiological impact on the environment and the public. This article tries to find out which experience can be, should be or has already been gained from that accident. The fields which have been studied are: nuclear safety; radiation protection of rescue workers; medical treatment of overexposed persons; decontamination of agricultural land, buildings and cities; behaviour of radionuclides in ecosystems; effects of low doses on human beings.

  11. Chernobyl source term estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Harvey, T.F.; Lange, R.

    1990-09-01

    The Chernobyl source term available for long-range transport was estimated by integration of radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling and by reactor core radionuclide inventory estimation in conjunction with WASH-1400 release fractions associated with specific chemical groups. The model simulations revealed that the radioactive cloud became segmented during the first day, with the lower section heading toward Scandinavia and the upper part heading in a southeasterly direction with subsequent transport across Asia to Japan, the North Pacific, and the west coast of North America. By optimizing the agreement between the observed cloud arrival times and duration of peak concentrations measured over Europe, Japan, Kuwait, and the US with the model predicted concentrations, it was possible to derive source term estimates for those radionuclides measured in airborne radioactivity. This was extended to radionuclides that were largely unmeasured in the environment by performing a reactor core radionuclide inventory analysis to obtain release fractions for the various chemical transport groups. These analyses indicated that essentially all of the noble gases, 60% of the radioiodines, 40% of the radiocesium, 10% of the tellurium and about 1% or less of the more refractory elements were released. These estimates are in excellent agreement with those obtained on the basis of worldwide deposition measurements. The Chernobyl source term was several orders of magnitude greater than those associated with the Windscale and TMI reactor accidents. However, the {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl event is about 6% of that released by the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, while the {sup 131}I and {sup 90}Sr released by the Chernobyl accident was only about 0.1% of that released by the weapon tests. 13 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Psychological factors and DNA methylation of genes related to immune/inflammatory system markers: the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Kubzansky, Laura D; Baccarelli, Andrea; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Tarantini, Letizia; Cantone, Laura; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Although psychological factors have been associated with chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD), the underlying pathways for these associations have yet to be elucidated. DNA methylation has been posited as a mechanism linking psychological factors to CHD risk. In a cohort of community-dwelling elderly men, we explored the associations between positive and negative psychological factors with DNA methylation in promoter regions of multiple genes involved in immune/inflammatory processes related to atherosclerosis. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Greater Boston, Massachusetts area. Participants Samples of 538 to 669 men participating in the Normative Aging Study cohort with psychological measures and DNA methylation measures, collected on 1–4 visits between 1999 and 2006 (mean age=72.7 years at first visit). Outcome measures We examined anxiety, depression, hostility and life satisfaction as predictors of leucocyte gene-specific DNA methylation. We estimated repeated measures linear mixed models, controlling for age, smoking, education, history of heart disease, stroke or diabetes, % lymphocytes, % monocytes and plasma folate. Results Psychological distress measured by anxiety, depression and hostility was positively associated, and happiness and life satisfaction were inversely associated with average Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and coagulation factor III (F3) promoter methylation levels. There was some evidence that hostility was positively associated with toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) promoter methylation, and that life satisfaction was inversely associated with TLR-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) promoter methylation. We observed less consistent and significant associations between psychological factors and average methylation for promoters of the genes for glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Conclusions These findings suggest that positive and negative

  13. Psychological factors predicting the distress to female persistent genital arousal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana; Veríssimo, Ana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of persistent genital arousal are expected to negatively affect women's sexual and emotional well-being. However, not all women who experience persistent genital arousal complain about their genital condition. Against this background, this study aimed to evaluate psychological predictors of the distress associated with persistent genital arousal symptoms, as well as psychological moderators influencing the conditions under which persistent genital arousal causes distress. A total of 117 women reporting symptoms of persistent genital arousal answered to online questionnaires measuring personality traits, sexual beliefs, and dyadic adjustment. Women have also completed a checklist measuring the frequency/severity of persistent genital arousal symptoms and the distress/impairment caused by these symptoms. Results showed that neuroticism, (low) openness, sexual conservatism, and (low) dyadic adjustment significantly predicted distress associated with genital symptoms. Furthermore, sexual conservatism was found to moderate the relation between the symptoms' severity and the distress associated with those symptoms. Overall, sexual conservatism seems to be a key differentiator factor, influencing the psychological conditions under which women may report higher levels of distress caused by persistent genital arousal. Because such findings focus on the distress to genital arousal symptoms rather than on persistent genital arousal disorder as a clinical entity, the results under consideration may or may not characterize women formally assigned to the persistent genital arousal disorder label. PMID:24328817

  14. A study of the psychological factors in outcomes for officers who survive ballistic assault.

    PubMed

    Swaim, Jennifer C; McMullen, Mary J; Williams, Carolyn J; Moore, Jeffrey L; Gilbertson, Alan D

    2007-01-01

    Among law enforcement personnel, who are subject to assault with firearms, there has been a trend toward decreased mortality and physical morbidity associated with the use of personal protective armor (PPA). Although there has been an increase in the rate of survival, studies of the unique psychological factors associated with this type of assault are essentially nonexistent. The prevalence and nature of the negative psychological sequelae associated with this type of assault and psychological injury, along with effective prevention techniques, were studied through retrospective interviews of registrants in two "body armor survival clubs." Significant relationships were found between available interventions and behavioral health outcomes. In addition to reducing the likelihood of poor health outcomes, departmentally based interventions were related to officers' ability to develop positive interpretations of the event and engage in fewer high risk behaviors. These findings suggest that departmental interventions, such as debriefings, are meaningful and may help improve outcomes for officers fired upon, but not wounded, in the line of duty. PMID:18459531

  15. How Social Psychological Factors May Modulate Auditory and Cognitive Functioning During Listening.

    PubMed

    Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The framework for understanding effortful listening (FUEL) draws on psychological theories of cognition and motivation. In the present article, theories of social-cognitive psychology are related to the FUEL. Listening effort is defined in our consensus as the deliberate allocation of mental resources to overcome obstacles in goal pursuit when carrying out a task that involves listening. Listening effort depends not only on hearing difficulties and task demands but also on the listener's motivation to expend mental effort in challenging situations. Listeners' cost/benefit evaluations involve appraisals of listening demands, their own capacity, and the importance of listening goals. Social psychological factors can affect a listener's actual and self-perceived auditory and cognitive abilities, especially when those abilities may be insufficient to readily meet listening demands. Whether or not listeners experience stress depends not only on how demanding a situation is relative to their actual abilities but also on how they appraise their capacity to meet those demands. The self-perception or appraisal of one's abilities can be lowered by poor self-efficacy or negative stereotypes. Stress may affect performance in a given situation and chronic stress can have deleterious effects on many aspects of health, including auditory and cognitive functioning. Social support can offset demands and mitigate stress; however, the burden of providing support may stress the significant other. Some listeners cope by avoiding challenging situations and withdrawing from social participation. Extending the FUEL using social-cognitive psychological theories may provide valuable insights into how effortful listening could be reduced by adopting health-promoting approaches to rehabilitation. PMID:27355776

  16. Early childhood psychological factors and risk for bedwetting at school age in a UK cohort.

    PubMed

    Joinson, Carol; Sullivan, Sarah; von Gontard, Alexander; Heron, Jon

    2016-05-01

    There is evidence for a link between psychological factors and bedwetting, but the direction of this association is unclear. Using data on 8769 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we examined whether difficult temperament (Toddler Temperament Scale at 24 months; Emotionality Activity Sociability Questionnaire at 38 months) and psychological problems (Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children at 42 months) are linked to bedwetting at school age. We examined the association between these risk factors and different patterns of bedwetting from 4 to 9 years using multinomial regression. Difficult temperament and psychological problems in early childhood were associated with increased odds of bedwetting at 4-9 years. The strongest associations were most often found for the pattern of bedwetting that was both frequent (at least twice a week) and persistent (up to age 9) e.g. the temperament traits of 'adaptability' and 'mood' were associated with a 33 % increase (95 % confidence interval = 1.14-1.55) and a 27 % increase (1.10-1.47) respectively in the odds of persistent and frequent bedwetting per one standard deviation increase in risk score. Early behaviour problems (e.g. conduct problems [1.43 (1.25, 1.63)] and hyperactivity [1.29 (1.11, 1.50), p < 0.001]) were also associated with frequent and persistent bedwetting, but there was less evidence that early emotional difficulties were risk factors for bedwetting. Adjustment for confounders did not alter these conclusions. The presence of difficult temperament and behaviour problems in early childhood might help to identify children who will continue to experience bedwetting at school age. PMID:26294078

  17. The role of psychological and biological factors in postinfective gut dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Gwee, K; Leong, Y; Graham, C; McKendrick, M; Collins, S; Walters, S; Underwood, J; Read, N

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Both psychological and physiological disturbances have been implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). 
AIMS—To investigate how the psychological factors act, and the involvement of infective and physiological factors. 
METHODS—Consecutive patients hospitalised for gastroenteritis reported life events for the previous 12 months, and past illness experiences on standardised questionnaires. They also completed psychometric questionnaires for anxiety, neuroticism, somatisation, and hypochondriasis. In some patients, rectal biopsy specimens were obtained during the acute illness and at three months postinfection. 
RESULTS—Ninety four patients completed all questionnaires: 22 patients were diagnosed with IBS after their gastroenteritis (IBS+), and 72 patients returned to normal bowel habits (IBS−). IBS+ patients reported more life events and had higher hypochondriasis scores than IBS− patients. The predictive value of the life event and hypochondriasis measures was highly significant and independent of anxiety, neuroticism, and somatisation scores, which were also elevated in IBS+ patients. Rectal biopsy specimens from 29 patients showed a chronic inflammatory response in both IBS+ and IBS− patients. Three months later, specimens from IBS+ patients continued to show increased chronic inflammatory cell counts but those from IBS− patients had returned to normal levels. IBS+ and IBS− patients exhibited rectal hypersensitivity and hyper-reactivity and rapid colonic transit compared with normal controls, but there were no significant differences between IBS+ and IBS− patients for these physiological measurements. 
CONCLUSION—Psychological factors most clearly predict the development of IBS symptoms after gastroenteritis but biological mechanisms also contribute towards the expression of symptoms. 

 Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome; gastroenteritis; chronic inflammation; rectal sensitivity; intestinal

  18. Psychological and psychophysiological factors in prevention and treatment of cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Kappes, B; Mills, W; O'Malley, J

    1993-01-01

    Cold injured patients in Alaska come from many sources. Although sport and work continues to provide large numbers of cold injured, most severe repeat injuries tend to reflect other biopsychosocial consequences. Certain behaviors can increase the probability of injury, however all persons living in cold climates are potential candidates. One can decrease risk by education, knowledge and intelligent behavior. Proper respect for adequate protection and hydration seem to be critical factors. Understanding the psychological, physiological and psychophysiological aspects of the cold environment performer helps refine the prevention and treatment strategies for cold injury. Skill training with bio-behavioral methods, such as thermal biofeedback, and the value of medical psychotherapy appear to offer continued promise by facilitating physiologic recovery from injury, as well as assisting in long term rehabilitation. Both approaches increase the likelihood of a favorable healing response by soliciting active patient participation. Medical Psychotherapy for traumatic injuries can also help identify and manage cognitive emotional issues for families and patients faced with the permanent consequences of severe thermal injuries. Thermal biofeedback therapy has the potential benefit of encouraging greater self-reliance and responsibility for self-regulating overall health by integrating self-management skills regarding physiology, diet and lifestyle. Inpatient and outpatient biofeedback training offers specific influence over vascular responses for healing, as well as providing an effective tool for pain management. Interest in cold region habitation has continued to expand our study of human tolerance to harsh, extreme environments. Biological, psychological, sociological, and anthropological views on adaptation, habituation, acclimatization, and injury in cold environments acknowledges the role of development, learning and educated responses to cold environments. The study of

  19. [The Effect of Social-Psychological Factors on the Development of Occupational Stress].

    PubMed

    Kalinina, S A; Yushkova, O I

    2015-01-01

    The article presents data on social-psychological factors which cause the occupational stress. The results showed that there is a link between the level of work motivation and the physiological cost of work. We observed a number of peculiarities of occupational stress development caused by psychoemotional tension depending on the class of intensity of intellectual labor; we also studied biological age of the subjects. The speed of ageing of the employees who work under conditions of emotional stress (direct or indirect responsibility for the safety of other people) was found to increase. The study suggested promising directions of occupational stress prevention. PMID:26485788

  20. The Role of Communications, Socio-Psychological, and Personality Factors in the Maintenance of Crew Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. Clayton

    1982-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that many air transport incidents and accidents are the result of the improper or inadequate utilization of the resources accessible to flight dock crew members. These resources obviously include the hardware and technical information necessary for the safe and efficient conduct of the flight, but they also Include the human resources which must be coordinated effectively. The focus of this paper is upon the human resources, and how communication styles, socio-psychological factors, and personality characteristics can affect crew coordination.

  1. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model

    PubMed Central

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S.; Breen, Lauren J.; Witt, Regina R.; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care. PMID:27242567

  2. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S; Breen, Lauren J; Witt, Regina R; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care. PMID:27242567

  3. Radiation carcinogenesis: lessons from Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Williams, D

    2008-12-01

    Radiation is a carcinogen, interacting with DNA to produce a range of mutations. Irradiated cells also show genomic instability, as do adjacent non-irradiated cells (the bystander effect); the importance to carcinogenesis remains to be established. Current knowledge of radiation effects is largely dependent on evidence from exposure to atomic bomb whole body radiation, leading to increases in a wide range of malignancies. In contrast, millions of people were exposed to radioactive isotopes in the fallout from the Chernobyl accident, within the first 20 years there was a large increase in thyroid carcinoma incidence and a possible radiation-related increase in breast cancer, but as yet there is no general increase in malignancies. The increase in thyroid carcinoma, attributable to the very large amounts of iodine 131 released, was first noticed in children with a strong relationship between young age at exposure and risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The extent of the increase, the reasons for the relationship to age at exposure, the reduction in attributable fraction with increasing latency and the role of environmental factors are discussed. The large number of radiation-induced PTCs has allowed new observations. The subtype and molecular findings change with latency; most early cases were solid PTCs with RET-PTC3 rearrangements, later cases were classical PTCs with RET-PTC1 rearrangements. Small numbers of many other RET rearrangements have occurred in 'Chernobyl' PTCs, and also rearrangement of BRAF. Five of the N-terminal genes found in papillary carcinoma rearrangements are also involved in rearrangements in hematological malignancies; three are putative tumor suppressor genes, and two are further genes fused to RET in PTCs. Radiation causes double-strand breaks; the rearrangements common in these radiation-induced tumors reflect their etiology. It is suggested that oncogenic rearrangements may commonly involve both a tumor-suppressor gene

  4. Psychological Factors Predict Local and Referred Experimental Muscle Pain: A Cluster Analysis in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer E.; Watson, David; Frey-Law, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest an underlying three- or four-factor structure explains the conceptual overlap and distinctiveness of several negative emotionality and pain-related constructs. However, the validity of these latent factors for predicting pain has not been examined. Methods A cohort of 189 (99F; 90M) healthy volunteers completed eight self-report negative emotionality and pain-related measures (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised; Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; Pain Catastrophizing Scale; Fear of Pain Questionnaire; Somatosensory Amplification Scale; Anxiety Sensitivity Index; Whiteley Index). Using principal axis factoring, three primary latent factors were extracted: General Distress; Catastrophic Thinking; and Pain-Related Fear. Using these factors, individuals clustered into three subgroups of high, moderate, and low negative emotionality responses. Experimental pain was induced via intramuscular acidic infusion into the anterior tibialis muscle, producing local (infusion site) and/or referred (anterior ankle) pain and hyperalgesia. Results Pain outcomes differed between clusters (multivariate analysis of variance and multinomial regression), with individuals in the highest negative emotionality cluster reporting the greatest local pain (p = 0.05), mechanical hyperalgesia (pressure pain thresholds; p = 0.009) and greater odds (2.21 OR) of experiencing referred pain compared to the lowest negative emotionality cluster. Conclusion Our results provide support for three latent psychological factors explaining the majority of the variance between several pain-related psychological measures, and that individuals in the high negative emotionality subgroup are at increased risk for (1) acute local muscle pain; (2) local hyperalgesia; and (3) referred pain using a standardized nociceptive input. PMID:23165778

  5. The role of psychological factors in the career of the independent dancer.

    PubMed

    Aujla, Imogen; Farrer, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicates that psychological factors such as motivation and mental skills play an important role in relation to performance and to negotiating talent development stages. However, little is known about these factors in dance, particularly with regard to the independent dancer whose career may involve multiple roles, varied work patterns, and periods of instability. The aim of this study was to explore dancers' motivation to work in an independent capacity, and the extent to which dancers' psychological characteristics and skills enabled them to navigate a career in this demanding sector. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 dancers at different stages of their careers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analyzed. Analysis revealed that the dancers were intrinsically motivated and highly committed to the profession. Working in the independent sector offered dancers opportunities for growth and fulfillment; they appreciated the autonomy, flexibility and freedom that the independent career afforded, as well as working with new people across roles and disciplines. In order to overcome the various challenges associated with the independent role, optimism, self-belief, social support, and career management skills were crucial. The mental skills reported by the participants had developed gradually in response to the demands that they faced. Therefore, mental skills training could be invaluable for dancers to help them successfully negotiate the independent sector. PMID:26579059

  6. Commonalities in the psychological factors associated with problem gambling and Internet dependence.

    PubMed

    Dowling, N A; Brown, M

    2010-08-01

    The most commonly applied conceptual approach for excessive Internet use has been as a behavioral addiction, similar to pathological or problem gambling. In order to contribute to the understanding of Internet dependence as a disorder resembling problem gambling, the current study aimed to examine the relationship between problem gambling and Internet dependence and the degree to which psychological factors associated with problem gambling are relevant to the study of Internet dependence. The factors of depression, anxiety, student stressors, loneliness, and social support were examined in a sample of university students from several Australian universities. The findings revealed that there is no overlap between the populations reporting problem gambling and Internet dependence, but that individuals with these disorders report similar psychological profiles. Although requiring replication with larger community samples and longitudinal designs, these preliminary findings suggest that problem gambling and Internet dependence may be separate disorders with common underlying etiologies or consequences. The implications of the findings in relation to the conceptualization and management of these disorders are briefly discussed. PMID:20575708

  7. The role of psychological factors in the career of the independent dancer

    PubMed Central

    Aujla, Imogen; Farrer, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicates that psychological factors such as motivation and mental skills play an important role in relation to performance and to negotiating talent development stages. However, little is known about these factors in dance, particularly with regard to the independent dancer whose career may involve multiple roles, varied work patterns, and periods of instability. The aim of this study was to explore dancers’ motivation to work in an independent capacity, and the extent to which dancers’ psychological characteristics and skills enabled them to navigate a career in this demanding sector. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 dancers at different stages of their careers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analyzed. Analysis revealed that the dancers were intrinsically motivated and highly committed to the profession. Working in the independent sector offered dancers opportunities for growth and fulfillment; they appreciated the autonomy, flexibility and freedom that the independent career afforded, as well as working with new people across roles and disciplines. In order to overcome the various challenges associated with the independent role, optimism, self-belief, social support, and career management skills were crucial. The mental skills reported by the participants had developed gradually in response to the demands that they faced. Therefore, mental skills training could be invaluable for dancers to help them successfully negotiate the independent sector. PMID:26579059

  8. Chernobyl's lengthening shadow

    SciTech Connect

    Marples, D. )

    1993-09-01

    This article reviews the April 26, 1986 nuclear disaster at Chernobyl. The information presented was gathered through talks between the author and scientists, citizens, and hospital workers in Belarus and Ukraine, as well as from library research. What is currently believed to have occurred at the time of the accident is related. The short and long term health effects of the accident as they are now understood are analyzed. The numbers of people evacuated and the location and severity of land contamination are described. Political and economic consequences of the accident are also explored. 2 refs.

  9. The Association Between Psychological Factors and Orofacial Pain and Its Effect on Quality of Life: A Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajappa, Anil Kumar; Reddy, Sreedevi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the hypothesis that psychological factors of psychological distress and perception of unhappiness in childhood are associated with self reported orofacial pain and to examine whether such patients have a poorer perception of their oral health related quality of life and if so then to what extent. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted in Hitkarini Dental College and Hospital, Jabalpur amongst 400 cases and 400 controls. Patients were included based on Locker and Slade’s criteria. Patients were asked to complete 27 items Questionnaire which included the General Health Questionnaire to assess for psychological distress and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 for evaluating impact on quality of life. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the degree of association between psychological factors, unhappy childhood and quality of life. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results An increased propensity to report orofacial pain was seen for those individuals with higher levels of Psychological Distress and with perception of Unhappiness in Childhood. These individuals also reported with poorer perception of their oral health related Quality of Life. Conclusion The present study has shown relationship between Orofacial Pain, Quality of Life and Psychological Factors. PMID:26155560

  10. Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Burkart, W; Grosche, B; Schoetzau, A

    1997-03-01

    In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meioses, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. PMID:9052678

  11. Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Burkart, W.; Grosche, B.; Schoetzau, A.

    1997-03-01

    In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Salivary cortisol and psychological factors in women with chronic and acute oro-facial pain.

    PubMed

    Jasim, H; Louca, S; Christidis, N; Ernberg, M

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the salivary cortisol level, pain intensity and psychological factors between patients with chronic and acute oro-facial pain (OP) and pain-free subjects. Twenty-seven females with chronic OP (a diagnosis of myofascial pain according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders with at least 6 months duration), 24 females with acute OP (<10 days duration) and 27 pain-free females participated. Morning saliva was collected from all participants for analyses of the cortisol level. The pain intensity was assessed on a 0-10 numeric rating scale. The participants were evaluated by the Symptom Checklist 90-revised for levels of depression and somatisation, and the Perceived Stress Scale. The cortisol levels among the three patient groups were similar with no significant group differences. The median (interquartile range) current pain level did not differ between chronic and acute OP and was, respectively, 5 (4) and 5 (3). Patients with chronic OP showed significantly higher scores for depression, somatisation and perceived stress compared with patients with acute OP (Ps < 0.001), but there were no significant differences between acute OP and controls. To conclude, there were no differences in cortisol level between groups, despite significant higher levels of depression, somatisation and perceived stress in patients with chronic OP. This shows that psychological distress has a more important role in chronic than in acute OP. However, the relation between pain, adreno-cortical activity and psychological distress is complex and warrants further investigation. PMID:24313837

  13. Improving the Factor Structure of Psychological Scales: The Expanded Format as an Alternative to the Likert Scale Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xijuan; Savalei, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Many psychological scales written in the Likert format include reverse worded (RW) items in order to control acquiescence bias. However, studies have shown that RW items often contaminate the factor structure of the scale by creating one or more method factors. The present study examines an alternative scale format, called the Expanded format,…

  14. Impact of "JOBM": ISI Impact Factor Places the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management" Third in Applied Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, Donald A.

    2006-01-01

    The ISI Impact Factor for "JOBM" is 1.793, placing it third in the JCR rankings for journals in applied psychology with a sharply accelerating linear trend over the past 5 years. This article reviews the Impact Factor and raises questions regarding its reliability and validity and then considers a citation analysis of "JOBM" in light of the…

  15. Adults' Narratives of Growing up With a Cleft Lip and/or Palate: Factors Associated With Psychological Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Stock, Nicola Marie; Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Rumsey, Nichola

    2016-03-01

    Background Growing up with a cleft lip and/or palate presents a number of challenges for those affected and their families. Understanding why some individuals cope well while others struggle is key to psychological research in this field. A better appreciation of the factors and processes that contribute to psychological adjustment to cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) from the patient perspective would be of value to both researchers and clinicians. Design Qualitative data elicited from individual interviews with 52 adults born with CL/P. Results Inductive thematic analysis identified three main themes: "background" factors (age, gender, sexual orientation, culture, additional conditions, socioeconomic status, and adoption), "external" factors (treatment autonomy, familial coping and support, salience, public understanding, psychological input, and peer support), and "internal" psychological factors (perceptions of difference, noticeability and teasing, social confidence, internalization of beauty ideals, valence, expectations of treatment, responding to challenges, social comparisons, acceptance, faith, dispositional style, and recognition of strengths and positive growth). Conclusions The number and breadth of factors identified in this study are testament to the importance of psychology in the field of CL/P and may offer guidance in relation to developing and assessing the value of psychological interventions. There is a clear role for psychologists in tackling appearance-related concerns, designing materials, supporting patient decision making, and improving social interaction, as well as providing specialist psychological support. The findings illustrate the potential degree of individual variation in perspectives and offer insight into the conflicting results found within current literature. PMID:25650758

  16. Lessons from Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Noboru; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-01-01

    The Chernobyl disaster on April 26th, 1986, led to the emission of radioactive substances such as iodine-131 and radioactive cesium. As the Soviet Union did not control food distribution and intake, residents were exposed to high levels of internal radiation, leading to the internal radiation exposure of the thyroid gland by iodine-131. As a result, the number of people who had thyroid cancer increased drastically among those who had been under 15 years old at the time of the accident. The age predilection is about to move to 25 or older. However, there has been no scientific evidence of impacts for solid tumor other than thyroid cancer, leukemia, benign diseases, or inheritance including unborn babies. On the other hand, the accident was thought to have caused social unrest and mental damage which had far more impact than that caused by radiation exposure. In this paper, we would like to summarize the impacts on the health of the people in Chernobyl compared to those caused by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. PMID:22353657

  17. Going against the Herd: Psychological and Cultural Factors Underlying the 'Vaccination Confidence Gap'.

    PubMed

    Browne, Matthew; Thomson, Patricia; Rockloff, Matthew Justus; Pennycook, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    By far the most common strategy used in the attempt to modify negative attitudes toward vaccination is to appeal to evidence-based reasoning. We argue, however, that focusing on science comprehension is inconsistent with one of the key facts of cognitive psychology: Humans are biased information processors and often engage in motivated reasoning. On this basis, we hypothesised that negative attitudes can be explained primarily by factors unrelated to the empirical evidence for vaccination; including some shared attitudes that also attract people to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). In particular, we tested psychosocial factors associated with CAM endorsement in past research; including aspects of spirituality, intuitive (vs analytic) thinking styles, and the personality trait of openness to experience. These relationships were tested in a cross-sectional, stratified CATI survey (N = 1256, 624 Females). Whilst educational level and thinking style did not predict vaccination rejection, psychosocial factors including: preferring CAM to conventional medicine (OR .49, 95% CI .36-.66), endorsement of spirituality as a source of knowledge (OR .83, 95% CI .71-.96), and openness (OR .86, 95% CI .74-.99), all predicted negative attitudes to vaccination. Furthermore, for 9 of the 12 CAMs surveyed, utilisation in the last 12 months was associated with lower levels of vaccination endorsement. From this we suggest that vaccination scepticism appears to be the outcome of a particular cultural and psychological orientation leading to unwillingness to engage with the scientific evidence. Vaccination compliance might be increased either by building general confidence and understanding of evidence-based medicine, or by appealing to features usually associated with CAM, e.g. 'strengthening your natural resistance to disease'. PMID:26325522

  18. Factors associated with psychological and behavioral functioning in people with type 2 diabetes living in France

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To identify demographic and clinical factors associated with psychological and behavioral functioning (PBF) in people with type 2 diabetes living in France. Methods In March 2002, approximately 10,000 adults, who had been reimbursed for at least one hypoglycemic treatment or insulin dose during the last quarter of 2001, received a questionnaire about their health status and PBF (3,646 responders). For this analysis, the 3,090 persons with type 2 diabetes, aged 18-85 years old were selected. PBF was measured with the adapted version of the Diabetes Health Profile for people with type 2 diabetes. This permitted the calculation of three functional scores - psychological distress (PD), barriers to activity (BA), and disinhibited eating (DE) - from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). Results Major negative associations were observed with PBF for microvascular complications (a difference of 6.7 in the BA score between persons with and without microvascular complications) and severe hypoglycemia (difference of 7.9 in the BA score), insulin treatment (-8.5 & -9.5 in the PD & BA scores respectively, as compared to treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents), non-adherence to treatment (-12.3 in the DE score for persons forgetting their weekly treatment), increasing weight (-8.5 & -9.7 in the PD & DE scores respectively, as compared to stable weight), at least one psychiatrist visit in 2001 (-8.9 in the DE score), and universal medical insurance coverage (-7.9 in the PD score) (due to low income). Conclusion Prevention and management of microvascular complications or adherence to treatment (modifiable factors) could be essential to preserving or improving PBF among people with type 2 diabetes. A specific approach to type 2 diabetes management may be required in groups with a low socioeconomic profile (particularly people with universal medical insurance coverage), or other non modifiable factors. PMID:21044345

  19. Psychological consequences and associated risk factors among adult survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2008, a devastating earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Wenchuan, China. Following this disaster, several studies were conducted which assessed the degree of mental disorders in the affected population, but very few considered that several disorders may occur at the same time. This paper aims to investigate the psychological effects and risk factors among adult survivors one-year after the earthquake event. Methods 2080 adult earthquake survivors from 19 counties in the affected areas were interviewed. A stratified sampling strategy was used to collect the information. Earthquake survivors completed self-report questionnaires, which included a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) checklist, a self-rating depression scale and a self-rating anxiety scale. Results Fifty nine percent of the participants were male. The prevalence of probable PTSD in the sample was 40.1% (based on the DSM-IV criteria). Significant differences in the demographic variables were found in the levels of anxiety, depression, and PTSD. Anxiety levels were found to be positively correlated with depression (r = 0.438, p < 0.01) and PTSD (r = 0.322, p < 0.01). Risk factors for each symptom were also identified. Being female, having a low income level and having a low perceived level of social support were found to be the risk factors associated with anxiety, depression, and PTSD. There appeared to be no obvious relationship between the distance from the epicenter of the earthquake event and the severity of the psychological problems. Conclusions PTSD, anxiety, and depression were prevalent among the survivors. Most findings on the predictors were found to be consistent with current research. Positive adjustment and social support were found to be needed for the highest-risk population. PMID:24779914

  20. Going against the Herd: Psychological and Cultural Factors Underlying the ‘Vaccination Confidence Gap’

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    By far the most common strategy used in the attempt to modify negative attitudes toward vaccination is to appeal to evidence-based reasoning. We argue, however, that focusing on science comprehension is inconsistent with one of the key facts of cognitive psychology: Humans are biased information processors and often engage in motivated reasoning. On this basis, we hypothesised that negative attitudes can be explained primarily by factors unrelated to the empirical evidence for vaccination; including some shared attitudes that also attract people to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). In particular, we tested psychosocial factors associated with CAM endorsement in past research; including aspects of spirituality, intuitive (vs analytic) thinking styles, and the personality trait of openness to experience. These relationships were tested in a cross-sectional, stratified CATI survey (N = 1256, 624 Females). Whilst educational level and thinking style did not predict vaccination rejection, psychosocial factors including: preferring CAM to conventional medicine (OR .49, 95% CI .36–.66), endorsement of spirituality as a source of knowledge (OR .83, 95% CI .71–.96), and openness (OR .86, 95% CI .74–.99), all predicted negative attitudes to vaccination. Furthermore, for 9 of the 12 CAMs surveyed, utilisation in the last 12 months was associated with lower levels of vaccination endorsement. From this we suggest that vaccination scepticism appears to be the outcome of a particular cultural and psychological orientation leading to unwillingness to engage with the scientific evidence. Vaccination compliance might be increased either by building general confidence and understanding of evidence-based medicine, or by appealing to features usually associated with CAM, e.g. ‘strengthening your natural resistance to disease’. PMID:26325522

  1. Air Pollution and DNA Methylation: Interaction by Psychological Factors in the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Madrigano, Jaime; Baccarelli, Andrea; Mittleman, Murray A.; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Cantone, Laura; Kubzansky, Laura; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is a potential pathway linking air pollution to disease. Studies indicate that psychological functioning modifies the association between pollution and morbidity. The authors estimated the association of DNA methylation with ambient particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) and black carbon, using mixed models. DNA methylation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene, iNOS, and the glucocorticoid receptor gene, GCR, was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction pyrosequencing of 1,377 blood samples from 699 elderly male participants in the VA Normative Aging Study (1999–2009). The authors also investigated whether this association was modified by psychological factors including optimism or pessimism, anxiety, and depression. iNOS methylation was decreased after acute exposure to both black carbon and PM2.5. A 1-μg/m3 increase in exposure to black carbon in the 4 hours preceding the clinical examination was associated with a 0.9% decrease in 5-methylcytosine (95% CI: 0.4, 1.4) in iNOS, and a 10-μg/m3 increase in exposure to PM2.5 was associated with a 0.6% decrease in 5-methylcytosine (95% CI: 0.03, 1.1) in iNOS. Participants with low optimism and high anxiety had associations that were 3–4 times larger than those with high optimism or low anxiety. GCR methylation was not associated with particulate air pollution exposure. PMID:22798479

  2. Psychological factors influencing adoption of postural training devices: implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Fleiter, Judy; Walsh, Shari; Biggs, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    This paper details an exploratory investigation of psychological factors that may influence the adoption/rejection of postural training devices from the perspectives of two potential user groups (clients and practitioners). The aim was to elicit perceived advantages and disadvantages from potential users and to apply psychological principles to examine, and potentially counter perceived barriers to use. A small sample (50) of general public members, physiotherapists and occupational therapists were surveyed using open-ended questions designed to elicit information about current practices and attitudinal beliefs about postural training. Results suggested that members of the public fall into two categories according to whether they would use the device for prevention or treatment. This group identified issues such as lack of need, time consuming, and motivations to comply. Practitioners highlighted that lack of research, lack of ability to trial a product, and issues of cost and non-compliance by consumers and were seen as prohibitory to use. A number of theoretical principles of behaviour change were then related to the findings including: the stages of change model, behavioural learning, message framing, persuasion, attitude-behaviour relationships, motivations and impression management. Client cost objections to treatments and the need to integrate research findings into practice are also discussed. PMID:19276521

  3. Focal hand dystonia in musicians: phenomenology, etiology, and psychological trigger factors.

    PubMed

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Jabusch, Hans-Christian

    2009-01-01

    NARRATIVE REVIEW: Musician's dystonia is a task-specific movement disorder, which manifests itself as a loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. In many cases, the disorder terminates the careers of affected musicians. Approximately 1% of all professional musicians are affected. In the past, focal dystonia (FD) was classified as a psychological disorder. Over time, the problem was classified as a neurological problem. Although the specific pathophysiology of the disorder is still unclear, it appears the etiology is multifactorial. While there may be a family history, neurophysiological, physical, and environmental factors, trauma and stress contribute to the phenotypic development of FD. This manuscript analyzes the evidence supporting the potential contribution of the emotional brain systems in the etiology of focal hand dystonia in musicians. In addition, the psychological findings from a large descriptive study comparing healthy musicians, musicians with dystonia, and musicians with chronic pain. Information about psychogenic characteristics might be used to modify intervention strategies and music instruction to reduce the incidence of musician's dystonia. PMID:19278826

  4. Psychological distress as a mediator in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wan Ying; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Hazizi, Abu Saad

    2012-12-01

    The mechanism linking biopsychosocial factors to disordered eating among university students is not well understood especially among Malaysians. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of psychological distress in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students. A self-administered questionnaire measured self-esteem, body image, social pressures to be thin, weight-related teasing, psychological distress, and disordered eating in 584 university students (59.4% females and 40.6% males). Body weight and height were measured. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that the partial mediation model provided good fit to the data. Specifically, the relationships between self-esteem and weight-related teasing with disordered eating were mediated by psychological distress. In contrast, only direct relationships between body weight status, body image, and social pressures to be thin with disordered eating were found and were not mediated by psychological distress. Furthermore, multigroup analyses indicated that the model was equivalent for both genders but not for ethnic groups. There was a negative relationship between body weight status and psychological distress for Chinese students, whereas this was not the case among Malay students. Intervention and prevention programs on psychological distress may be beneficial in reducing disordered eating among Malaysian university students. PMID:22885453

  5. Observations on the Chernobyl Disaster and LNT.

    PubMed

    Jaworowski, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident was probably the worst possible catastrophe of a nuclear power station. It was the only such catastrophe since the advent of nuclear power 55 years ago. It resulted in a total meltdown of the reactor core, a vast emission of radionuclides, and early deaths of only 31 persons. Its enormous political, economic, social and psychological impact was mainly due to deeply rooted fear of radiation induced by the linear non-threshold hypothesis (LNT) assumption. It was a historic event that provided invaluable lessons for nuclear industry and risk philosophy. One of them is demonstration that counted per electricity units produced, early Chernobyl fatalities amounted to 0.86 death/GWe-year), and they were 47 times lower than from hydroelectric stations ( approximately 40 deaths/GWe-year). The accident demonstrated that using the LNT assumption as a basis for protection measures and radiation dose limitations was counterproductive, and lead to sufferings and pauperization of millions of inhabitants of contaminated areas. The projections of thousands of late cancer deaths based on LNT, are in conflict with observations that in comparison with general population of Russia, a 15% to 30% deficit of solid cancer mortality was found among the Russian emergency workers, and a 5% deficit solid cancer incidence among the population of most contaminated areas. PMID:20585443

  6. Observations on the Chernobyl Disaster and LNT

    PubMed Central

    Jaworowski, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident was probably the worst possible catastrophe of a nuclear power station. It was the only such catastrophe since the advent of nuclear power 55 years ago. It resulted in a total meltdown of the reactor core, a vast emission of radionuclides, and early deaths of only 31 persons. Its enormous political, economic, social and psychological impact was mainly due to deeply rooted fear of radiation induced by the linear non-threshold hypothesis (LNT) assumption. It was a historic event that provided invaluable lessons for nuclear industry and risk philosophy. One of them is demonstration that counted per electricity units produced, early Chernobyl fatalities amounted to 0.86 death/GWe-year), and they were 47 times lower than from hydroelectric stations (∼40 deaths/GWe-year). The accident demonstrated that using the LNT assumption as a basis for protection measures and radiation dose limitations was counterproductive, and lead to sufferings and pauperization of millions of inhabitants of contaminated areas. The projections of thousands of late cancer deaths based on LNT, are in conflict with observations that in comparison with general population of Russia, a 15% to 30% deficit of solid cancer mortality was found among the Russian emergency workers, and a 5% deficit solid cancer incidence among the population of most contaminated areas. PMID:20585443

  7. Generating Pedestrian Trajectories Consistent with the Fundamental Diagram Based on Physiological and Psychological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Sahil; Best, Andrew; Curtis, Sean; Manocha, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian crowds often have been modeled as many-particle system including microscopic multi-agent simulators. One of the key challenges is to unearth governing principles that can model pedestrian movement, and use them to reproduce paths and behaviors that are frequently observed in human crowds. To that effect, we present a novel crowd simulation algorithm that generates pedestrian trajectories that exhibit the speed-density relationships expressed by the Fundamental Diagram. Our approach is based on biomechanical principles and psychological factors. The overall formulation results in better utilization of free space by the pedestrians and can be easily combined with well-known multi-agent simulation techniques with little computational overhead. We are able to generate human-like dense crowd behaviors in large indoor and outdoor environments and validate the results with captured real-world crowd trajectories. PMID:25875932

  8. Some further studies on the prediction of experimental colds in volunteers by psychological factors.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, D E; Broadbent, M H; Phillpotts, R J; Wallace, J

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the incidence of colds in volunteers, exposed experimentally to various rhinovirus and influenza virus challenges, confirmed an earlier report that assessments of virus shedding show a higher degree of infection by rhinovirus in Introverts than they do in Extroverts. The influenza trials however did not show such an effect. In addition, people with higher scores on a widely used self-report inventory of mild psychoneurotic symptoms tended to show more evidence of increased nasal secretion after infection by either type of virus. The specific scale showing the latter effect most clearly was that of Obsessional Symptoms. Taking account of these psychological factors greatly increased the sensitivity of a study of the beneficial effects of interferon. PMID:6084061

  9. Understanding sociocultural and psychological factors affecting transgender people of color in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Bith-Melander, Pollie; Sheoran, Bhupendra; Sheth, Lina; Bermudez, Carlos; Drone, Jennifer; Wood, Woo; Schroeder, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic qualitative study explored the needs of transgender people of color, including biological transitioning issues, gender and group membership identity formation, HIV, and other health issues. The sample consisted of transgender youth and adults of color in San Francisco (N = 43). Data were collected from in-depth interviews with 20 youth and adults and focus groups with 23 individuals. The study focused on perspectives of racial and ethnic minorities from Asian/Pacific Islander, African American, and Latino backgrounds. The medical decision-making perspective was used to gain a deeper understanding of sociocultural and psychological factors affecting transgender individuals of color in San Francisco. The major themes that emerged were gender identity, group membership, transitioning and related issues, sex work, alcohol and drug use, mental health and health care, sense of community, HIV, resources, and other support. Key clinical considerations that health providers can use to improve care of transgender individuals of color are included. PMID:20416495

  10. The influence of psychologic factors on patient satisfaction with complete dentures.

    PubMed

    van Waas, M A

    1990-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between satisfaction with complete dentures and some psychologic factors. New dentures were made for 130 patients who were investigated during their treatment. A neuroticism scale and the Health Locus of Control scale were used to investigate the patient's personality. The patient-dentist relationship was evaluated by asking patients their opinions about the treatment, and patient attitude toward dentures in general and their expectation toward the new dentures were evaluated by means of a questionnaire. No relationship was found between dissatisfaction and patient personality. A low relationship was found between dissatisfaction and the patient's opinion about the treatment, and a moderate relationship was found between dissatisfaction and the patient's attitude toward dentures. A patient's attitude toward dentures, measured by the questionnaire before new dentures were received, is a prospective tool for patient satisfaction with new dentures. PMID:2187082

  11. Calculating Risk: Radiation and Chernobyl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Robert Peter

    1987-01-01

    Considers who is at risk in a disaster such as Chernobyl. Assesses the difficulty in translating information regarding radiation to the public and in determining the acceptability of technological risks. (NKA)

  12. Investigation of risk factors of psychological acceptance and burnout syndrome among nurses in China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yongcheng; Yao, Wu; Wang, Wei; Li, Hong; Lan, Yajia

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine reliability of Chinese version of Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), the relationship between psychological acceptance (PA), and burnout syndrome and their risk factors among nurses in China. The reliability of AAQ-II in Chinese was evaluated first by testing on 111 doctors and 108 nurses in China. On the number of 845 nurses selected from nine city hospitals by using stratified cluster sampling method, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was administered to establish the presence of burnout, and the AAQ-II was used to measure their PA. Results showed that the AAQ-II in Chinese had a good test-retest reliability. PA was statistically significantly negatively correlated to the three dimensionalities of burnout among nurses in China. Male and female nurses had a significant difference in PA. Risk factors for burnout were age (25-44 years), marital status (married), gender (male), hospital department (emergency) and position (primary title) as well as PA. The findings provide insights into the risk factors of burnout in Chinese nurses and may have clinical implications in preventing burnout in Chinese nurses. PMID:24093745

  13. Assessment of selected psychological factors in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaczówka, Anna; Jeżewska, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In the majority of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) mental health problems are demonstrated in the form of excessive anxiety and unstable emotional reactions. Emotional instability affects the wellbeing of these patients, and also their attitude towards the disease and the course of treatment. Aim The objective of the study is to evaluate psychological factors in patients with IBD, and to compare patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and patients suffering from Crohn's disease (CD) with respect to intensity of these factors. Material and methods The study included 108 patients with IBD. NEO-FFI and type-D Scale were used to evaluate personality traits. Anxiety level was measured with STAI. CECS was used to measure the patients’ tendency to suppress negative emotions. Results In the patients with CD 45% of subjects presented type D personality. In the group of patients with UC, type D personality was found in 38%. The higher levels of neuroticism and extraversion were observed in patients with UC, whereas the patients with CD exhibited a higher level of openness to experience and agreeableness. In patients with CD the levels of state anxiety were elevated, whereas in patients with UC higher scores were both for state and trait anxiety. Conclusions There were no statistically significant differences in terms of personality factors in a group of patients with CD and UC. It was found that the majority of patients with IBD suffer elevated or high sense of anxiety. PMID:27110311

  14. Ten years after Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, K.

    1996-12-31

    As was amply demonstrated during the EU/IAEA/WHO Summing-up-Conference in Vienna, Austria, April 8-12, 1996, the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident were, fortunately, not as serious as frequently presented in the media: 28 people died from acute radiation syndrome in 1986, 14 more of possibly radiation-related causes since. Of the <1000 thyroid cancers in children, 90 to 95% are curable. There have so far been no other demonstrable increases in the former Soviet Union, as well as in Western Europe, of leukemias, solid cancers, or genetic defects, nor are any to be expected in the future. Even among the {open_quotes}liquidators{close_quotes} with doses {approximately}100 mSv, of the {approximately}150 additional expected leukemias during the 10 yr after the accident, none have been observed. The economical, social, and political consequences, however, both in the former Soviet Union and in Western Europe, have been very substantial. Whole countries developed an hysterical `radiation sickness.` As A. Merkel, the German Minister of Environment and Reactor Safety, who chaired the conference, pointed out, `the radiation sensitivity of societies far exceeds that of individuals.` It is obvious that important groups in Ukraine, Belaurus, and Russia try to blame a large fraction of all economic, social, and health problems during the last decade, which are substantial ({approx} 6 yr less life expectancy, twice the homicides and traffic deaths, increased alcoholism, and so forth), on radiation of the Chernobyl accident in an effort to attract more support. Western scientists refute such claims but admit large non-radiation-related problems caused by the accident.

  15. Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-05-11

    The Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (Chernolit TM) provides bibliographic data in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the former Ukrainian Republic of the USSR in 1986. Chernolit TM is a portable and easy to use product. The bibliographic data is provided under the control of a graphical user interface so that the user may quickly and easily retrieve pertinent information from the large database. The usermore » may search the database for occurrences of words, names, or phrases; view bibliographic references on screen; and obtain reports of selected references. Reports may be viewed on the screen, printed, or accumulated in a folder that is written to a disk file when the user exits the software. Chernolit TM provides a cost-effective alternative to multiple, independent literature searches. Forty-five hundred references concerning the accident, including abstracts, are distributed with Chernolit TM. The data contained in the database were obtained from electronic literature searches and from requested donations from individuals and organizations. These literature searches interrogated the Energy Science and Technology database (formerly DOE ENERGY) of the DIALOG Information Retrieval Service. Energy Science and Technology, provided by the U.S. DOE, Washington, D.C., is a multi-disciplinary database containing references to the world''s scientific and technical literature on energy. All unclassified information processed at the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) of the U.S. DOE is included in the database. In addition, information on many documents has been manually added to Chernolit TM. Most of this information was obtained in response to requests for data sent to people and/or organizations throughout the world.« less

  16. Prevalence and associated factors in burnout and psychological morbidity among substance misuse professionals

    PubMed Central

    Oyefeso, Adenekan; Clancy, Carmel; Farmer, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies of psychological stress among substance misuse professionals rarely describe the nature of burnout and psychological morbidity. The main aim of this study was to determine the extent, pattern and predictors of psychological morbidity and burnout among substance misuse professionals. Methods This study was a cross-sectional mail survey of 194 clinical staff of substance misuse services in the former South Thames region of England, using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) as measures of psychological morbidity and burnout, respectively. Results Rates of psychological morbidity (82%: 95% CI = 76–87) and burnout (high emotional exhaustion – 33% [27–40]; high depersonalisation – 17% [12–23]; and diminished personal accomplishment – 36% [29–43]) were relatively high in the study sample. High levels of alienation and tension (job stressors) predicted emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation (burnout) but not psychological morbidity. Diminished personal accomplishment was associated with higher levels of psychological morbidity Conclusion In the sample of substance misuse professionals studied, rates of psychological morbidity and burnout were high, suggesting a higher level of vulnerability than in other health professionals. Furthermore, pathways to psychological morbidity and burnout are partially related. Therefore, targeted response is required to manage stress, burnout and psychological morbidity among substance misuse professionals. Such a response should be integral to workforce development. PMID:18261227

  17. Disentangling immigrant status in mental health: psychological protective and risk factors among Latino and Asian American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Leong, Frederick; Park, Yong S; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to disentangle the psychological mechanisms underlying immigrant status by testing a model of psychological protective and risk factors to predict the mental health prevalence rates among Latino and Asian American immigrants based on secondary analysis of the National Latino and Asian American Study. The first research question examined differences on the set of protective and risk factors between immigrants and their U.S.-born counterparts and found that immigrants reported higher levels of ethnic identity, family cohesion, native language proficiency, and limited English proficiency than their U.S.-born counterparts. The second research question examined the effect of the protective and risk factors on prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety, and substance-related disorders and found that social networking served as a protective factor. Discrimination, acculturative stress, and family conflict were risk factors on the mental health for both ethnic groups. Clinical implications and directions for future research are provided. PMID:23889027

  18. Chromosome aberrations in Norwegian reindeer following the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Røed, K H; Jacobsen, M

    1995-03-01

    Chromosome analyses were carried out on peripheral blood lymphocytes of semi-domestic reindeer in Norway which had been exposed to varying amounts of radiocesium emanating from the Chernobyl accident. The sampling was done in the period 1987-1990. The material included 192 reindeer, originating from four herds in central Norway, an area considerably affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and from three herds in northern Norway which was unaffected by fallout from the accident. Significant heterogeneity in the distribution of chromosome aberrations between herds was observed. The pattern of chromosome aberration frequencies between herds was not related to the variation in radiocesium exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Other factors than the Chernobyl accident appear therefore to be of importance for the distribution of aberration frequencies found among present herds. Within the most contaminated area the reindeer born in 1986 showed significantly more chromosome aberrations than those born both before and after 1986. This could suggest that the Chernobyl accident fallout created an effect particularly among calves, during the immediate post-accident period in the most exposed areas. PMID:7700280

  19. The Chernobyl NPP decommissioning: Current status and alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Mikolaitchouk, H.; Steinberg, N.

    1996-08-01

    After the Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986, many contradictory decisions were taken concerning the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) future. The principal source of contradictions was a deadline for a final shutdown of the Chernobyl NPP units. Alterations in a political and socioeconomic environment resulted in the latest decision of the Ukrainian Authorities about 2000 as a deadline for a beginning of the Chernobyl NPP decommissioning. The date seems a sound compromise among the parties concerned. However, in order to meet the data a lot of work should be done. First of all, a decommissioning strategy has to be established. The problem is complicated due to both site-specific aspects and an absence of proven solutions for the RBMK-type reactor decommissioning. In the paper the problem of decommissioning option selection is considered taking into account an influence of the following factors: relevant legislative and regulatory requirements; resources required to carry out decommissioning (man-power, equipment, technologies, waste management infrastructure, etc.); radiological and physical status of the plant, including structural integrity and predictable age and weather effects; impact of planned activities at the destroyed unit 4 and within the 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP; planed use of the site; socio-economic considerations.

  20. Coping strategies as psychological risk factor for antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression among Greek women.

    PubMed

    Gourounti, Kleanthi; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Lykeridou, Katerina

    2013-10-01

    A range of psychosocial, medical, and demographic variables may influence pregnant women's psychological status. However the association between coping strategies, anxiety, worries, and depression during pregnancy is a relatively neglected area of research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between coping strategies, antenatal anxiety, pregnancy worries, and depressive symptomatology after controlling for the effects of background variables. The study sample consisted of 163 pregnant women, with gestational age ranging from 11 to 26 weeks, attending antenatal screening at a Greek public hospital. Coping strategies were measured with Brief COPE, pregnancy worries were measured with Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS), anxiety was assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-X version), and depression was measured with Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated among all study variables, followed by hierarchical multiple linear regression. In the univariate analysis, low annual income, unemployment, conception after an IVF treatment, and a previous history of miscarriage were associated with anxiety, depression, and worries. Additionally, almost all coping strategies (denial, behavioral disengagement, self-blame, self-distraction, substance use, acceptance, positive reframing, active coping, and seeking emotional support) were significantly associated with antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression. Linear regression analysis showed that only previous history of miscarriage, conception after IVF, as well as denial, behavioral disengagement and acceptance coping strategies were significantly related to anxiety, worries and depressive symptomatology. The risk factors found in this study could help clinicians target anxiety and depression screening to high-risk populations of pregnant women. Provision of adequate training for obstetricians and midwives in the detection and

  1. Psychological factors and treatment effectiveness in resistant anxiety disorders in highly comorbid inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Ociskova, Marie; Prasko, Jan; Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Grambal, Ales

    2016-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are a group of various mental syndromes that have been related with generally poor treatment response. Several psychological factors may improve or hinder treatment effectiveness. Hope has a direct impact on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Also, dissociation is a significant factor influencing treatment efficiency in this group of disorders. Development of self-stigma could decrease treatment effectiveness, as well as several temperamental and character traits. The aim of this study was to explore a relationship between selected psychological factors and treatment efficacy in anxiety disorders. Subjects and methods A total of 109 inpatients suffering from anxiety disorders with high frequency of comorbidity with depression and/or personality disorder were evaluated at the start of the treatment by the following scales: the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and the Temperament and Character Inventory – revised. The participants, who sought treatment for anxiety disorders, completed the following scales at the beginning and end of an inpatient-therapy program: Clinical Global Impression (objective and subjective) the Beck Depression Inventory – second edition, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The treatment consisted of 25 group sessions and five individual sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy in combination with pharmacotherapy. There was no randomization to the type of group-therapy program. Results Greater improvement in psychopathology, assessed by relative change in objective Clinical Global Impression score, was connected with low initial dissociation level, harm avoidance, and self-stigma, and higher amounts of hope and self-directedness. Also, individuals without a comorbid personality disorder improved considerably more than comorbid patients. According to

  2. Positive Psychology and Familial Factors as Predictors of Latina/o Students' Hope and College Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos Vela, Javier; Lerma, Eunice; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina; Hernandez-Duque, Omar; Gonzalez, Stacey L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the contributions of positive psychology and familial factors as predictors of hope and academic performance among 166 Latina/o college students enrolled at a Hispanic Serving Institution of Higher Education. The results indicated that presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, daily spiritual experiences, and…

  3. Psychological Factors Associated with Weight Loss in Obese and Severely Obese Women in a Behavioral Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Whitaker, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    The behavioral processes of weight reduction are poorly understood, and responses to treatments based primarily on caloric restriction have been unfavorable. A theory-based path derived from proposed relations of physical activity, changes in psychological factors, and weight loss was separately tested with women with Class I and Class II obesity…

  4. The Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) Study: Biological and Psychological Factors Associated with Learning Performance in Adult Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Groot, Renate H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning is crucial for everyone. The association between biological (eg, sleep, nutrition) and psychological factors (eg, test anxiety, goal orientation) and learning performance has been well established for children, adolescents and college students in traditional education. Evidence for these associations for adult distance students is lacking…

  5. Risk Factors, Resilience, and Psychological Distress among Holocaust and Nonholocaust Survivors in the Post-9/11 Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamet, Ann; Szuchman, Lenore; Perkel, Linda; Walsh, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Many older adults have experienced or witnessed devastating life events including wars, hurricanes, and explosions. This study examined retraumatization and the relationship between certain risk factors, resilience, and psychological distress in the post-9/11 environment among 120 community-dwelling older adults. Results indicate that Holocaust…

  6. Psychological Factors Associated with Genetic Test Decision-Making among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Lei; Richman, Alice R.

    2015-01-01

    Making decisions to undergo Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) genetic testing can be challenging. It is important to understand how the perceptions of affected individuals might influence testing decision-making. Although evidence has shown that psychological factors are important in predicting testing decisions, affect-type variables have been…

  7. More than the "X" Factor! A Longitudinal Investigation of the Psychological Characteristics of Developing Excellence in Musical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macnamara, Aine; Collins, Dave

    2009-01-01

    Current findings in talent identification and development research have acknowledged that potential for future performance cannot be identified from single evaluations of performance or anthropometric factors (e.g. Abbott and Collins 2004). Recognising the role of psychological characteristics at elite levels, it is pertinent to consider the role…

  8. Stigmatization and Promotive Factors in Relation to Psychological Health and Life Satisfaction of Adolescents in Planned Lesbian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gelderen, Loes; Gartrell, Nanette N.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Hermanns, Jo M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether stigmatization was associated with psychological adjustment in adolescents from planned lesbian families and, if so, to examine whether individual and interpersonal promotive factors influenced this association. Seventy-eight adolescents (39 girls, 39 boys; mean age = 17.05 years) completed an…

  9. Psychological Factors in the Development of Football-Talent from the Perspective of an Integrative Sport-Talent Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orosz, Robert; Mezo, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a new, integrative model of sports talent. Following the theoretical part of the study a football-talent research is presented, in which a theoretical framework is provided by this new theory of sports talent. This research examines the role of psychological factors in football talent development. The sample was N = 425…

  10. The Specificity of Psychological Factors Associated with Binge Eating in Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    PubMed

    Sehm, Marie; Warschburger, Petra

    2015-11-01

    Low self-esteem, lack of interoceptive awareness, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, weight teasing, and internalization of the societal body ideal are known to be associated with binge eating (BE) in adolescents. The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate whether these attributes are BE-specific and whether different patterns exist for boys and girls. We assessed BE, internalizing symptoms and psychological factors in 1039 adolescents from a community sample by self-report. Using multinomial logistic regression and controlling for measured height and weight, we compared adolescents with BE with individuals from a healthy control group and adolescents reporting internalizing symptoms. Individuals from the BE-group reported a greater lack of interoceptive awareness and higher body dissatisfaction than individuals from the healthy control group. Additionally, we found a significant interaction between gender and body dissatisfaction. Internalization of the societal body ideal was related to BE when compared to internalizing symptoms. Results suggest, that the lack of interoceptive awareness and body dissatisfaction display substantial associations with BE, and that the latter effect is especially strong in boys. The internalization of societal standards of beauty emerged as a BE-specific factor and this finding emphasizes the role of the societal body ideal in the nature of eating pathology in boys and in girls. Increasing body satisfaction and the acceptance of realistic body ideals might be effective strategies in preventing eating pathology. PMID:25936287

  11. The Influence of Psychological and Lifestyle Factors on the Reporting of Postconcussion-Like Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Balasundaram, Arun P; Athens, Josie; Schneiders, Anthony G; McCrory, Paul; Sullivan, S John

    2016-05-01

    Self-reported symptoms are an integral part of the assessment and management of a sports-related concussion. However, postconcussion-like symptoms are reported by non-concussed individuals. Moreover, the current best practice in the reporting of symptoms does not take into account the potential influence of psychological and lifestyle factors. This study aimed to explore the influence of these factors on the reporting of postconcussion-like symptoms. University students (N= 603) completed the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 postconcussion symptom scale along with other predictor variables via a cross-sectional web-based survey. Linear regression analyses revealed six modifiers contributing to the total symptom score with the strongest being alcohol consumption (Estimate = 2.75, p < .001). Following these findings, clinicians need to exercise caution when interpreting the symptom scores for making decisions on the return-to-play (RTP). A failure to do so may lead the health professional to either prematurely RTP or not clear the concussed athlete to resume their sport. PMID:26891719

  12. [Psychological stress factors in erectile dysfunctions. Causal models and empirical results].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, U

    1998-09-01

    In this paper the role of psychosocial factors in erectile dysfunction is examined in two different ways: (1) Current approaches to the causation of psychogenic erectile dysfunctions are reviewed and discussed. (2) Empirical results from a large unselected sample of sexually dysfunctional men are presented and compared to a sample of functional men. Concerning etiological models the traditional unidimensional dichotomous concepts (psychogenic versus organic) of erectile dysfunction have to be abandoned and replaced by two-dimensional models that are able to take the clinical reality into account that many patients have both significant psychological and organic factors in their disorder. The main causes of psychogenic erectile disorders can be divided into three groups, each belonging to a different phase of time: (i) immediate factors (performance anxiety), (ii) antecedent life events from recent history, (iii) developmental vulnerabilities from childhood and adolescence. The specific interplay as well as the importance of the different groups is different in primary and secondary erectile disorders. The empirical results presented here are based on a sample of 751 patients from our interdisciplinary outpatient unit for sexually dysfunctional men and a group of 55 sexually functional men. Both groups completed a self-developed, multidimensional questionnaire addressing a variety of psychosocial and descriptive factors concerning erectile disorders. The results prove the heterogeneity of patients and their respective erectile problems and show a number of highly significant group differences. The frequent comorbidity of erectile disorders and premature ejaculation and disorders of desire is worth mentioning as well as the high prevalence of depression and the extreme extent of performance anxiety in the patient group. The results are discussed with respect to future treatment strategies. The necessity of combined psychosomatic approaches optimizing the efficacy of

  13. A longitudinal study of social, psychological and behavioural factors associated with drunken driving and public drunkenness.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, G; Romelsjö, A

    1997-04-01

    Studies on psychosocial conditions in drunken drivers have generally been cross-sectional and based on rather small selected samples. The objective of this study was to analyse, in a longitudinal perspective, the relationship, in young males, between social and psychological factors and indicators of alcohol abuse on one hand and the risk of subsequent drunken driving and public drunkenness on the other hand, in order to identify similarities and differences in risk factor patterns. Questionnaire information from 8122 military conscripts in 1969/70 was linked to data on drunken driving and public drunkenness for 495 males with offences registered up to 1977. Logistic regression analysis showed that the relative risk (RR) for high alcohol consumption, smoking, use of narcotics and sniffing of solvents had a statistically significant association to subsequent drunken driving and public drunkenness in univariate analyses. In multivariate logistic analyses, RR remained increased for those with fathers belonging to social class II and especially so for those coming from social class III. Smoking (RR 3.3, with a 95% confidence interval of 1.6-6.8) was significantly increased in drunken drivers with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.15% or more at apprehension, as was truancy or contact with police or juvenile authorities in drunken drivers with a BAC of 0.05-0.15%, and illicit drug use, intoxication drinking, contact with police or juvenile authorities and hangover with public drunkenness. Thus, we found that early social and behavioural factors, substance abuse and risky use of alcohol were predictors for both drunken driving and public drunkenness, with no marked differences in risk factor patterns. PMID:9177066

  14. Psychological factors mediating health-related quality of life in COPD.

    PubMed

    Popa-Velea, O; Purcarea, V L

    2014-03-15

    COPD is a chronic disease that has not only a high prevalence and social costs, but is tightly connected to a significant decrease of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative impact on HRQoL of two psychological factors (self-efficacy, optimism) vs. classical medical determinants (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), functional impairment). 26 women and 28 men, aged 45-64 years old (mean = 58.1; standard deviation = 9.7), diagnosed with COPD and with self-reported dyspnea requiring medication were administered COPD Self-Efficacy Scale, LOT-R (Life Orientation Test - Revised) to evaluate optimism, Quality of Well-Being (QWB) Scale, as an accepted measure of HRQoL and Functional Impairment Scale (FIS), used to assess the deterioration of functionality in respiratory diseases. Their respiratory parameters (FEV1, PEF) were also measured, via spirometry. Results showed that self-efficacy and optimism were positively correlated to HRQoL (r = .34 (p < .05) and r = .29 (p < .05), respectively). A reduced model that eliminated the direct influence of respiratory parameters on HRQoL proved to be equally satisfactory in terms of predictor value, compared to the full model (that contained all studied variables) (χ² = 0.067, ns). The functional impairment (FI) scores were inversely correlated with HRQoL (r = -.46, p < .01). These results have implications in considering self-efficacy and optimism as important factors when aiming HRQoL improvement in COPD, and for the inclusion of psychological interventions in the treatment plan of COPD patients. Abbreviations COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; WHO = World Health Organization; HRQoL = health-related quality of life; PEF = peak expiratory flow; FEV1 = forced expiratory flow in one second; LOT-R = Life Orientation Test - Revised; QWB = Quality of Well-Being; FI = functional impairment; SE = self-efficacy; Opt. = optimism. PMID

  15. Children of Chernobyl: A psycho-social empowerment project

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this research has been to design and implement a social action project, using a Freirian Methodology for popular mental health among the victims of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear meltown disaster living in Belarus. Although Chernobyl is in the Ukraine, only 35 kilometers from Kiev, 70% of the 50 million curies of radiation from the 1986 Chernobyl meltdown fell on the Republic of Belarus. This continues to directly affect 2.4 million of the total population of 10 million people. These people, 800,000 of whom are children, still live in the radiated zones. They live with the knowledge that the food, the water, and the ground are slowly poisoning them through continued and ongoing exposure to radiation. While there has been some significant research on the medical effects of the disaster in the Ukraine, much more research needs to be done in Belarus. Very little research or treatment has responded to the emotional, mental health and psychosocial impacts of the disaster on individuals, families and communities. Following the introduction to the problem, a rationale for a new paradigm in Mental Health Treatment is presented in a chapter titled Liberation Psychology'. This chapter integrates fields of psychology, psychotherapy, social work, education, and community organization from a Freirian perspective. The Social Action Project is outlined and described in specific detail. The Social Action Project has led to medical, computer and school supplies being sent to Belarus. Workshops and training have been designed and implemented. Texts and manuals have been translated and published. Further, there is documentation of a joint conceptualization and design of this Children of Chernobyl' project with signed letters of agreement and a report of a fact finding mission to Belaraus. The Social Action Project is then evaluated with Future Planning discussed in the conclusion.

  16. Journal Impact Factors and Self-Citations: Implications for Psychology Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anseel, Frederik; Duyck, Wouter; De Baene, Wouter; Brysbaert, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Comments on the study by J. G. Adair and N. Vohra (see record 2003-02034-002) of changes in the number of references and citations in psychology journals as a consequence of the current knowledge explosion. They made a striking observation of the sometimes excessive number of self-citations in psychology journals. However, after this illustration,…

  17. Hope as a Psychological Resilience Factor in Mothers and Fathers of Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, T. J.; Hastings, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Positive psychology is an area gaining credence within the field of intellectual disability (ID). Hope is one facet of positive psychology that is relatively unstudied in parents of children with ID. In the present study, we explore hope and its relationships with parental well-being in parents of school-aged children with ID. Method:…

  18. Impact of socio-psychological factors on treatment adherence of TB patients in Russia.

    PubMed

    Jakubowiak, W M; Bogorodskaya, E M; Borisov, S E; Danilova, I D; Lomakina, O B; Kourbatova, E V

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social and psychological factors on treatment adherence of patients with tuberculosis (TB). To this end a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among TB patients in four Russian regions (Orel, Vladimir, Belgorod oblasts, and Republic of Mari-El) from 01/04/2004 to 31/03/2005. A total of 87 non-adherent and 1302 adherent patients were interviewed. Compared to adherents, non-adherents were significantly more likely to be male, unemployed, have a technical college education, have a history of imprisonment, have a negative emotional status, consider themselves "not sick", not know the treatment period, have negative feelings and distrust for medical staff, not believe they will fully recover, and not want to continue treatment. Patients at highest risk for non-adherence should be identified at the start of treatment, and offered the services of a psychologist. A case management and patient-centered approach should be applied. PMID:18501675

  19. Children in planned lesbian families: stigmatisation, psychological adjustment and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Bos, Henny M W; van Balen, Frank

    2008-04-01

    The study assessed the extent to which children between eight and 12 years old in planned lesbian families in the Netherlands experience stigmatization, as well as the influence of protective factors (relationship with parents, social acceptance by peers, contact with children from other families headed by lesbian mothers or gay fathers) on their psychological adjustment (conduct problems, emotional symptoms, hyperactivity, self-esteem). Data were collected by questionnaires filled out by the mothers and by the children themselves. The children in the sample generally reported low levels of stigmatization. However, boys more often reported that, in their view, they were excluded by peers because of their non-traditional family situation. Girls more often reported that other children gossiped about the fact that they had two lesbian mothers. Higher levels of stigmatization were associated with more hyperactivity for boys and lower self-esteem for girls. Having frequent contact with other children who have a lesbian mother or gay father protects against the negative influence of stigmatization on self-esteem. Findings support the idea that children in planned lesbian families benefit from the experience of meeting other children from similar families. PMID:18432422

  20. Chernobyl Deconstruction ALARA Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shipler, Dillard B.; Batiy, Valeriy; Povlovsky, Leonid; Schmidt, John P.; Schmieman, Eric A.

    2004-03-24

    The Bechtel/EDF/Battelle Consortium has recently completed the conceptual design for the Chernobyl New Safe Confinement (NSC). Battelle has the scope of work related to environment and safety of the design. As part of the safety analysis, an ALARA analysis was performed for deconstruction of the major, unstable elements of the Shelter Object over the destroyed Unit 4 of the reactor complex. The major elements addressed in the analysis included the current roof sections and the major beams supporting the roof sections. The analysis was based on the existing configuration of the Shelter Object, the developing conceptual design of the NSC arch structure, the developing conceptual design of the facilities within and associated with the NSC (including handling and processing of deconstructed elements, and waste management), and existing Ukranian regulations and working processes and procedures. KSK (a Ukranian Consortium) is a subcontractor to the Bechtel/EDF/Battelle Consortium and performed much of the dose analysis. The analysis concluded that ALARA could be achieved with appropriate implementation of existing Ukrainian regulations and procedures, and developing conceptual design criteria and features.

  1. Psychological Factors as Predictors of Suicidal Ideation among Adolescents in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Norhayati; Amit, Noh; Suen, Melia Wong Yuin

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a drastic increase in the rate of suicides over the past 45 years in Malaysia. The statistics show that adolescents aged between 16 and 19 years old are at high risk of committing suicide. This could be attributed to issues relating to the developmental stage of adolescents. During this stage, adolescents face challenges and are exposed to various stressful experiences and risk factors relating to suicide. Method The present study examined psychological factors (i.e., depression, anxiety and stress) as predictors for suicidal ideation among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 190 students (103 males and 87 females), aged 15 to 19 years old from two different schools in Kuala Lumpur. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21-item version (DASS-21) was used to measure depression, anxiety and stress among the students, and the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) to measure suicidal ideation. The data were analysed using Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analysis. Results The results show that 11.10%, 10.00%, and 9.50% of the students reported that they were experiencing severe depression, anxiety and stress, respectively. There were significant correlations between depression, anxiety, and stress with suicidal ideation. However, only depression was identified as a predictor for suicidal ideation. Conclusion Hence, this study extends the role of depression in predicting suicidal ideation among adolescents in the Malaysian context. The findings imply that teenagers should be assisted in strengthening their positive coping strategies in managing distress to reduce depression and suicidal ideation. PMID:25340331

  2. Epidemiologic studies based on the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, G.

    1996-12-31

    There are great opportunities in the post-Chernobyl experience for significant epidemiologic research, perhaps even more in the area of disaster research than in the area of the human health effects of ionizing radiation. But the potential opportunity for learning the effects of radioiodine on the thyroid is very great and has aroused widespread national and international investigative interest. The opportunities for significant epidemiologic research are, however, severely limited currently by the worsening economic situation in Belarus and Ukraine, where the greatest exposure occurred, and by the lack of personnel trained in appropriate methods of study, the lack of modern equipment, the lack of supplies, the poor communication facilities, and the difficulties of accurate dose estimation. the disadvantages may or may not outweigh the obvious advantages of large numbers, the extensive direct thyroidal measurements made shortly after the accident in 1986, the magnitude of the releases of radioiodine, and the retention of the former Soviet system of universal medical care. Both the European Commission (EC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have been working actively to strengthen the infrastructure of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. New scientific knowledge has yet to emerge from the extensive epidemiologic work but information of considerable public health significance has begun to accumulate. The bulk of the thyroid cancer has been shown to be valid by international pathology review; both EC and WHO representatives have declared the increase in thyroid cancer among children to have been caused in large part by Chernobyl. No increase in leukemia has been seen in the general population. The WHO pilot studies have shown no evidence of an increase in psychologic or neurologic complications among those exposed in utero. Ongoing epidemiologic work can be described by review of the inventory that the WHO has begun to maintain and publish. 20 refs., 7 tabs.

  3. Psychological risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in patients with coronary heart disease: Findings from the Heart and Soul Study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Beth E.; Panguluri, Praveen; Na, Beeya; Whooley, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    Psychological factors, such as depression and anxiety, are independently associated with an increased risk of both diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, but the reasons for these associations are unknown. We sought to determine whether psychological factors were associated with a greater prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with coronary heart disease, and the extent to which such an association may be explained by socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and biological mediators. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1024 outpatients with stable coronary heart disease. Psychological factors, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, hostility, anger, and optimism–pessimism, were assessed using validated standardized questionnaires. The presence or absence of the metabolic syndrome was determined using the criteria outlined by the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Higher levels of depression, anger expression, hostility, and pessimism were significantly associated with increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. These associations were explained by differences in socioeconomic status and health behaviors. Additional adjustment for potential biological mediators had little impact. Further research is needed to determine whether addressing socioeconomic and behavioral factors in people with depression or high levels of anger or hostility could reduce the burden of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:19969373

  4. Are there any psychological factors in male patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax?

    PubMed Central

    Eryigit, Hatice; Ozkorumak, Evrim; Unaldi, Mehmet; Ozdemir, Attila; Cardak, Murat Ersin; Ozer, Kadir Burak

    2014-01-01

    Background: Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is usually seen in young male smokers. Pathophysiology of PSP remains unclear, and studies concerning emotional status are scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate psychological factors associated with primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Methods: The Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered. Results: A total of 40 patients and 40 healthy controls were included in this study. The mean age in the patient group was 24.60 years, while that in the control group was 26.45 years. The difference was not significant. The weight and body mass index of the patient group were significantly lower compared to those of the control group. The mean Beck Anxiety Inventory scores in the patient and control groups were 10.37 ± 11.34 and 8.25 ± 10.60, respectively. Anxiety levels did not differ between the groups (p = 0.389). The mean Beck Depression Inventory scores of the patient and control groups were 8.20 ± 8.37 and 6.80 ± 7.57, respectively, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.435). When the anger structures of the groups were compared, no difference was found in any sub-scale. Trait anxiety scores were higher in the patient group compared to those in the control group, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.369). Conclusions: This study’s findings indicated that anger, anxiety, and depression levels did not differ between the primary spontaneous pneumothorax and healthy groups. PMID:24955190

  5. Physical and psychological work demands as potential risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders among workers in weaving operations

    PubMed Central

    Telaprolu, Neeraja; Anne, Sharada Devi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to examine the relationship between perceived physical and psychological work demands and self reported musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among workers involved in weaving operations. Method: The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire and Work Demands Scale, developed and standardized for the present investigation were the tools for data collection. Chi square test was used to assess univariate associations between work demands and reported MSDs. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed for each of the outcome MSD retaining the variables in the model to adjust for potential confounding. Results: Women were significantly more affected than men in shoulders, wrists/hands, upper back, lower back, and ankle/feet. Perceived physical and psychological demands were significantly associated with MSDs of different body regions. Pulling, pushing, moving, lifting and lowering heavy objects, working while bent or twisted at the waist, and repetitive motions with hands/wrists were the main physical factors retained in the regression models with odds ratios greater than 2. Conflicting demands, work is not remunerative, and no sufficient time to get the job done were the main psychological factors retained in the regression models with odds ratios greater than 1.68. Gender was found to be a significant factor for shoulders, wrists/hands, lower back, and ankles/feet with odds ratios ranging from 1.71 to 2.14. MSDs occurrence was more probable in the mentioned regions among women as compared to men. Both physical and psychological work demands in the work environment were contributing factors for developing MSDs among workers involved in weaving operations. PMID:25598618

  6. The Nutrition Attitude Survey: associations with dietary habits, psychological and physical well-being, and coronary risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hollis, J F; Carmody, T P; Connor, S L; Fey, S G; Matarazzo, J D

    1986-01-01

    Attitudes play an important role in the adoption and maintenance of a variety of health habits. In the present study, the Nutrition Attitude Survey (NAS) was developed to measure attitudes pertaining to the adoption of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet. Factor analysis identified four primary attitudinal factors: Helpless and Unhealthy, Food Exploration, Meat Preference, and Health Consciousness. For a community sample of 415 healthy men and women, relationships were examined among these attitudinal factors and dietary habits, family food patterns, medical and psychological symptoms, and traditional coronary risk factors. For both men and women, the Helpless and Unhealthy factor was associated with increased meat consumption, weight, emotional distress, reported medical and psychological symptoms, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The Food Exploration factor was more characteristic of younger men and women and positively associated with men's reported involvement in family food preparation activities. For both sexes, Meat Preference scores were positively associated with meat consumption and inversely associated with consumption of meatless meals, beans, and fruit. Health Consciousness factor scores were associated with less meat consumption, more meatless meals, and better overall dietary adherence scores for both men and women. Overall, the findings provide initial support for the reliability and predictive validity of the NAS and underscore the importance of assessing and addressing the attitudes and preferences of participants in dietary intervention programs. PMID:3757988

  7. Investigating analgesic and psychological factors associated with risk of postpartum depression development: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Suhitharan, Thangavelautham; Pham, Thi Phuong Tu; Chen, Helen; Assam, Pryseley Nkouibert; Sultana, Rehena; Han, Nian-Lin Reena; Tan, Ene-Choo; Sng, Ban Leong

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the role of peripartum analgesic and psychological factors that may be related to postpartum depression (PPD). Methods This case–control study was conducted in pregnant females who delivered at KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital from November 2010 to October 2013 and had postpartum psychological assessment. Demographic, medical, and postpartum psychological status assessments, intrapartum data including method of induction of labor, mode of labor analgesia, duration of first and second stages of labor, mode of delivery, and pain intensity on hospital admission and after delivery were collected. PPD was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and clinical assessment by the psychiatrist. Results There were 62 cases of PPD and 417 controls after childbirth within 4–8 weeks. The odds of PPD was significantly lower (33 of 329 [10.0%]) in females who received epidural analgesia for labor compared with those who chose nonepidural analgesia (29 of 150 [19.3%]) ([odds ratio] 0.47 (0.27–0.8), P=0.0078). The multivariate analysis showed that absence of labor epidural analgesia, increasing age, family history of depression, history of depression, and previous history of PPD were independent risk factors for development of PPD. Conclusion The absence of labor epidural analgesia remained as an independent risk factor for development of PPD when adjusted for psychiatric predictors of PPD such as history of depression or PPD and family history of depression. PMID:27354803

  8. Chernobyl fallout on Alpine glaciers

    SciTech Connect

    Ambach, W.; Rehwald, W.; Blumthaler, M.; Eisner, H.; Brunner, P.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the gross beta activity of snow samples from four Alpine glaciers contaminated by radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident and a gamma-spectrum analysis of selected samples are reported. The results are discussed with respect to possible risks to the population from using meltwater from these glaciers as drinking water.

  9. Cell damage seen from Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-24

    The 30 kilometer radius forbidden zone around the Chernobyl atomic plant serves as a sobering reminder of the world's worst nuclear accident. But for former Soviet biologists, it's also a unique natural laboratory. And one scientist, Nadejda Gulaya of Kiev's Pallaguine Institute of Biochemistry, has been doing studies that she claims offer surprising evidence of Chernobyl's after-effects. Prolonged exposure to radioactive fallout from the 1986 accident, she says, has caused damage to cell membranes in both animals and humans. For the past year, Gulaya has been comparing tissues from animals such as mink, pigs, and rodents inhabiting the Chernobyl area with those from other parts of Ukraine. Her conclusion: Exposure to radiation has, in many cases, caused alterations to membrane phospholipids. These changes, are similar to those that disrupt cellular metabolism following exposure to oxidizing free radicals. Gulaya also has preliminary data from human studies. She claims to have found similar alterations in the neurons of people who have died since being exposed to Chernobyl radiation. That leads her to speculate that the frequent psychiatric disorders may not just be from mental stress or radiophobia, but might reflect actual damage to the central nervous system.

  10. Assessing Psychological Symptoms and Well-Being: Application of a Dual-Factor Mental Health Model to Understand College Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antaramian, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A dual-factor mental health model includes measures of positive psychological well-being in addition to traditional indicators of psychopathology to comprehensively determine mental health status. The current study examined the utility of this model in understanding the psychological adjustment and educational functioning of college students. A…

  11. Depression, Suicide Ideation, and Thyroid Tumors Among Ukrainian Adolescents Exposed as Children to Chernobyl Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Contis, George; Foley, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Chernobyl Childhood Illness Program (CCIP) was a humanitarian assistance effort funded by the United States Congress. Its purpose was to assist the Ukrainian Government to identify and treat adolescents who developed mental and physical problems following their exposure as young children to Chernobyl radiation. Thirteen years after the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident in 1986, the CCIP examined 116,655 Ukrainian adolescents for thyroid diseases. Of these, 115,191 were also screened for depression, suicide ideation, and psychological problems. The adolescents lived in five of Ukraine’s seven most Chernobyl radiation contaminated provinces. They were up to 6 years of age or in utero when exposed to nuclear fallout, or were born up to 45 months after Chernobyl. Methods Ukrainian endocrinologist and ultrasonographers used physical examination and ultrasonography of the neck to evaluate the adolescents for thyroid tumors. The adolescents were then screened for depression by the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI). After this, Ukrainian psychologists conducted individual psychological interviews to corroborate the adolescents’ CDI responses. Results Papillary thyroid carcinoma was diagnosed in eight adolescents, a high prevalence rate similar to that reported by other studies from the Soviet Union. Screening identified thyroid nodules in 1,967 adolescents (1.7%). Depression was diagnosed in 15,399 adolescents (13.2%), suicide ideation in 813 (5.3%), and attempted suicide in 354 (2.3%). Underlying components of the participants’ depression were negative mood, interpersonal difficulties, negative self-esteem, ineffectiveness, and anhedonia. Depression was greater in females (77%). Those with thyroid and psychological problems were referred for treatment. Conclusions The adolescents screened by CCIP represent the largest Ukrainian cohort exposed to Chernobyl radiation as children who were evaluated for both thyroid tumors and depression. The group

  12. Psychosocial factors associated with pain intensity, pain-related interference, and psychological functioning in persons with multiple sclerosis and pain.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Travis L; Jensen, Mark P; Ehde, Dawn M; Hanley, Marisol A; Kraft, George

    2007-01-01

    Biopsychosocial models of chronic pain that recognize psychological and environmental factors as important aspects of adjustment to pain have been proposed for understanding chronic pain and related suffering in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), but such models have not been empirically tested. The objective of this study was to test such a model by evaluating the associations of several psychosocial variables (i.e., pain-related catastrophizing, perceived social support, pain beliefs, and pain coping) with pain intensity, pain interference with functioning, and psychological functioning in persons with chronic pain and MS, after controlling for demographic and disease-related factors. Participants were 125 community-dwelling persons with MS and pain who completed a mailed questionnaire that included measures of pain intensity and interference, psychological functioning, catastrophizing, social support, and pain beliefs and coping. The psychosocial variables accounted for an additional 25% of the variance in average pain intensity after controlling for demographic and disease-related variables (p<.001). These variables explained an additional 22% of the variance in pain-related interference (p<.001) and 43% of the variance in psychological functioning (p<.001), after adjusting for demographic and MS-related variables and average pain intensity. Catastrophizing was consistently and independently associated with all criterion measures, whereas social support, pain beliefs, and pain coping were associated with some criterion measures but not others. The results provide empirical support for a biopsychosocial understanding of chronic pain in MS and suggest that specific psychosocial factors (e.g., catastrophizing) may be important regarding adjustment to pain in persons with MS. PMID:16950570

  13. Childhood verbal abuse: a risk factor for depression in pre-bariatric surgery psychological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Salwen, Jessica K; Hymowitz, Genna F; O'Leary, K Daniel; Pryor, Aurora D; Vivian, Dina

    2014-09-01

    The present study evaluated the importance of multimodal assessment of childhood verbal abuse (CVA) in pre-bariatric surgery psychological evaluations, and the role of CVA as a predictor of depression. Data from the psychological evaluations of 184 pre-bariatric surgery patients were retrospectively examined. Using two self-report measures and an interview-based screen, 52.2 % of participants reported experiencing some form of CVA; conversely, assessments of CVA based on only one measure yielded significantly lower prevalence rates. Endorsement of CVA on multiple measures was associated with more severe depressive symptomatology and greater likelihood of mood disorder diagnosis. Based on these data, a self-report measure and interview-based screen for CVA should be included in pre-bariatric psychological evaluations; either of these assessments may be conducted via a single-item screen. Lastly, patients who endorse CVA on multiple measures should be monitored closely for symptoms of depression post-surgery. PMID:24858597

  14. Factors That Help and Hinder Scientific Training in Counseling and Clinical Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Margaret M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to better understand scientific training within clinical and counseling psychology doctoral programs. A primary goal is to extend previous research by expanding the scientific training outcome variables from research interest and productivity to include additional characteristics of scientific mindedness such as…

  15. Family Stability as a Protective Factor against Psychopathology for Urban Children Receiving Psychological Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Israel, Allen C.

    2006-01-01

    Family stability, defined as the consistency of family activities and routines, was examined in a sample of urban families (n = 70) with children (ages 7 to 16) receiving psychological services. Parent-reported family stability was associated with lower parent-reported children's internalizing behavior problems. Child-reported family stability…

  16. Maintaining Large Weight Losses: The Role of Behavioral and Psychological Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Rena R.; Papandonatos, George; Fava, Joseph L.; Gorin, Amy A.; Phelan, Suzanne; McCaffery, Jeanne; Tate, Deborah F.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined predictors of weight regain after significant weight losses. This prospective study examined behavioral and psychological predictors of weight regain in 261 successful weight losers who completed an 18-month trial of weight regain prevention that compared a control condition with self-regulation interventions delivered…

  17. The Influence of Demographic/Psychological Factors and Preexisting Conditions on the Near-Death Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twemlow, Stuart W.; Gabbard, Glen O.

    1985-01-01

    Examined preexisting psychological, perceptual-cognitive, demographic, and physical differences between 34 adults reporting near-death experiences and 386 controls. Results indicated differences in perceptual-cognitive style in those reporting near-death experiences. Medical conditions have some effect on the experience. (JAC)

  18. Childhood Risk Factors for Alcohol Abuse and Psychological Distress among Adult Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Szalacha, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationships between childhood and family background variables, including sexual and physical abuse, and subsequent alcohol abuse and psychological distress in adult lesbians. Methodology: Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and parenting…

  19. Contribution of Psychological Factors in Dropping out from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Rehabilitation Programs

    PubMed Central

    Tselebis, Athanasios; Kosmas, Epaminondas; Bratis, Dionisios; Pachi, Argiro; Ilias, Ioannis; Harikiopoulou, Maria; Theodorakopoulou, Elpida; Velentzas, Konstantinos; Dumitru, Silvia; Moussas, Georgios; Siafakas, Nikolaos; Tzanakis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Significant positive effects, particularly on psychological state in patients who completed the follow-up pulmonary rehabilitation programs, are indicated by a large number of studies. Yet, a remarkable proportion of selected patients drop out from these programs. In this study, we investigated existing differences on psychological variables among COPD patients who complete and those who drop out from pulmonary rehabilitation programs. The study included 144 patients, 43 (29.9%) of whom did not complete the program. SCL-90 was used for the assessment of psychological symptoms. On the SCL-90-R scale 55.6% of patients had abnormal findings. Patients who discontinued the program had higher rates of depression and somatization compared to those who completed it. Regarding the psychopathology scales of SCL-90R, we found that patients who discontinued the program showed higher levels of psychopathology on the scales of somatization, depression, paranoid ideation, and psychotism compared to those who completed the program. The final regression model showed that patients with low educational status and psychotism were more likely to leave the program. In conclusion, psychopathology contributes to patients dropping out from a COPD rehabilitation program; thus, psychological assessment prior to inclusion in rehabilitation programs may reduce dropouts. PMID:24689040

  20. Psychological risk factors related to coronary heart disease. Prospective studies among policemen in Helsinki.

    PubMed

    Nirkko, O; Lauroma, M; Siltanen, P; Tuominen, H; Vanhala, K

    1982-01-01

    Psychological investigations carried out on 1326 Helsinki policemen showed that individuals with electrocardiogram (ECG) signs of coronary heart disease (CHD), and those showing symptoms, were more anxious, aggressive, defensive and inhibited than those free from signs or symptoms. It is suggested that the poor prognosis associated with angina pectoris may be related to the psychological characteristics of the patients who suffer from it. Studies of 5- and 10-year prospective data showed that subjects dying from myocardial infarction differed from survivors on six significant psychological characteristics, including optimism, inhibition and superego strength. Multiple logistic analysis showed an association of lowered self-esteem and high somatization with myocardial infarction. A particular statistical analysis ("ridit analysis") revealed the existence of 4 variables (inhibition, neuroticism, differentiation and certainty) which distinguished to some degree with different manifestations of CHD. The nature of these variables and the correlations involved are discussed. It is concluded that psychological variables have some predictive power not only for the risk of CHD, but also for the risk of clinically different CHD events. PMID:6958183

  1. Maternal Psychological Control and Child Internalizing Symptoms: Vulnerability and Protective Factors across Bioregulatory and Ecological Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Kelly, Ryan J.; Erath, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Background: We examined ecological (family socioeconomic status (SES)) and bioregulatory (sleep duration, sleep efficiency) moderators of the link between maternal psychological control and children's vulnerability to internalizing symptoms. Method: A large socioeconomically diverse sample of third graders (N = 141) and their mothers participated.…

  2. Toward Understanding School Psychology around the Globe: Economical, Educational, and Professional Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jacqueline A.; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2015-01-01

    Although the field of school psychology continues to develop rapidly, few recent studies have examined how it is directly affected by a country's economy and education. This study examined the effect of gross domestic product, public spending on education, and public support for education on the ratio of school psychologists to students, level of…

  3. Explanation in personality psychology: “Verbal magic” and the five-factor model

    PubMed Central

    Boag, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Scientific psychology involves both identifying and classifying phenomena of interest (description) and revealing the causes and mechanisms that contribute towards these phenomena arising (explanation). Within personality psychology, some propose that aspects of behavior and cognition can be explained with reference to personality traits. However, certain conceptual and logical issues cast doubt upon the adequacy of traits as coherent explanatory constructs. This paper discusses “explanation” in psychology and the problems of circularity and reification. An analysis of relations and intrinsic properties is then developed to address the logical requirements necessary for circumventing these problems. An examination of McCrae and Costa's defense of traits as explanatory constructs, in terms of “tendencies” and “dispositions” highlights logical issues that prevent traits, so defined, from explaining trait-like behaviors and cognitions. The logical requirements for a coherent trait-explanatory account are outlined and possible explanatory directions in trait-approaches are discussed. The ongoing tendency towards fallacious reasoning in psychology and suggestions for preventing this are further examined. PMID:25431525

  4. Psychological Distress as a Risk Factor for Re-Victimization in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Carlos A.; Finkelhor, David; Clifford, Cynthia; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study is to examine the role of psychological distress in predicting child re-victimization across various forms including conventional crime, peer/sibling violence, maltreatment, sexual violence, and witnessed violence. Methods: Longitudinal data from the Developmental Victimization Survey, which surveyed children…

  5. Factors Influencing College Student Health: Development of the Psychological Distress Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustman, Patrick J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the three-phase development of the Psychological Distress Inventory (PDI), an instrument designed primarily to measure life stress in college students. Standard psychometric information is presented, including reliability, validity, and some effects of response set. The PDI allows users to separately assess degree of depression, anxiety,…

  6. Psychological complaints among children in joint physical custody and other family types: Considering parental factors

    PubMed Central

    Fransson, Emma; Turunen, Jani; Hjern, Anders; Östberg, Viveca; Bergström, Malin

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Increasing proportions of Scandinavian children and children in other Western countries live in joint physical custody, moving between parents’ homes when parents live apart. Children and parents in non-intact families are at risk of worse mental health. The potential influence of parental ill-health on child well-being in the context of differing living arrangements has not been studied thoroughly. This study investigates the psychological complaints of children in joint physical custody in comparison to children in sole parental care and nuclear families, while controlling for socioeconomic differences and parental ill-health. Methods: Data were obtained from Statistics Sweden’s yearly Survey of Living Conditions 2007–2011 and child supplements with children 10–18 years, living in households of adult participants. Children in joint physical custody (n=391) were compared with children in sole parental care (n=654) and children in nuclear families (n=3,639), using a scale of psychological complaints as the outcome measure. Results: Multiple regression modelling showed that children in joint physical custody did not report higher levels of psychological complaints than those in nuclear families, while children in sole parental care reported elevated levels of complaints compared with those in joint physical custody. Adding socioeconomic variables and parental ill-health only marginally attenuated the coefficients for the living arrangement groups. Low parental education and parental worry/anxiety were however associated with higher levels of psychological complaints. Conclusions: Psychological complaints were lower among adolescents in joint physical custody than in adolescents in sole parental care. The difference was not explained by parental ill-health or socioeconomic variables. PMID:26553250

  7. US Department of Energy Chernobyl Database

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.A.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Smith, S.K.; Carr, F. Jr.

    1992-05-01

    The Chernobyl Database project is developing and maintaining an information to provide researchers with data and resource materials relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident of April 1986. The system is the official United States repository for Chernobyl data. The system includes a collection of Chernobyl-related documents, a database of bibliographic references, and a collection of radiological measurements records. In addition, projects have been developed to make the resources more accessible and easy to use. These products include a personal-computer-based bibliographic search system (ChernoLit{trademark}), two printed bibliographies, and a personal- computer-based radiological measurements database system (ChernoDat).

  8. Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Ginzburg, H.M.; Reis, E. )

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to measurable levels of radioactive fallout. Because of the effects of wind and rain, the radioactive nuclide fallout distribution patterns are not well defined, though they appear to be focused in three contiguous Soviet Republics: the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Further, because of the many radioactive nuclides (krypton, xenon, cesium, iodine, strontium, plutonium) released by the prolonged fires at Chernobyl, the long-term medical, psychological, social, and economic effects will require careful and prolonged study. Specifically, studies on the medical (leukemia, cancers, thyroid disease) and psychological (reactive depressions, post-traumatic stress disorders, family disorganization) consequences of continued low dose radiation exposure in the affected villages and towns need to be conducted so that a coherent, comprehensive, community-oriented plan may evolve that will not cause those already affected any additional harm and confusion.

  9. Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl.

    PubMed Central

    Ginzburg, H M; Reis, E

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to measurable levels of radioactive fallout. Because of the effects of wind and rain, the radioactive nuclide fallout distribution patterns are not well defined, though they appear to be focused in three contiguous Soviet Republics: the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Further, because of the many radioactive nuclides (krypton, xenon, cesium, iodine, strontium, plutonium) released by the prolonged fires at Chernobyl, the long-term medical, psychological, social, and economic effects will require careful and prolonged study. Specifically, studies on the medical (leukemia, cancers, thyroid disease) and psychological (reactive depressions, post-traumatic stress disorders, family disorganization) consequences of continued low dose radiation exposure in the affected villages and towns need to be conducted so that a coherent, comprehensive, community-oriented plan may evolve that will not cause those already affected any additional harm and confusion. Images p38-a p38-b PMID:1899937

  10. Psychological Considerations in the Assessment and Treatment of Pain in Neurorehabilitation and Psychological Factors Predictive of Therapeutic Response: Evidence and Recommendations from the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Giusti, Emanuele M.; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Saviola, Donatella; Gatti, Arianna; Gabrielli, Samantha; Lacerenza, Marco; Pietrabissa, Giada; Cattivelli, Roberto; Spatola, Chiara A. M.; Corti, Stefania; Novelli, Margherita; Villa, Valentina; Cottini, Andrea; Lai, Carlo; Pagnini, Francesco; Castelli, Lorys; Tavola, Mario; Torta, Riccardo; Arreghini, Marco; Zanini, Loredana; Brunani, Amelia; Capodaglio, Paolo; D'Aniello, Guido E.; Scarpina, Federica; Brioschi, Andrea; Priano, Lorenzo; Mauro, Alessandro; Riva, Giuseppe; Repetto, Claudia; Regalia, Camillo; Molinari, Enrico; Notaro, Paolo; Paolucci, Stefano; Sandrini, Giorgio; Simpson, Susan G.; Wiederhold, Brenda; Tamburin, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Background: In order to provide effective care to patients suffering from chronic pain secondary to neurological diseases, health professionals must appraise the role of the psychosocial factors in the genesis and maintenance of this condition whilst considering how emotions and cognitions influence the course of treatment. Furthermore, it is important not only to recognize the psychological reactions to pain that are common to the various conditions, but also to evaluate how these syndromes differ with regards to the psychological factors that may be involved. As an extensive evaluation of these factors is still lacking, the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation (ICCPN) aimed to collate the evidence available across these topics. Objectives: To determine the psychological factors which are associated with or predictive of pain secondary to neurological conditions and to assess the influence of these aspects on the outcome of neurorehabilitation. Methods: Two reviews were performed. In the first, a PUBMED search of the studies assessing the association between psychological factors and pain or the predictive value of these aspects with respect to chronic pain was conducted. The included papers were then rated with regards to their methodological quality and recommendations were made accordingly. In the second study, the same methodology was used to collect the available evidence on the predictive role of psychological factors on the therapeutic response to pain treatments in the setting of neurorehabilitation. Results: The first literature search identified 1170 results and the final database included 189 articles. Factors such as depression, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, coping strategies, and cognitive functions were found to be associated with pain across the various conditions. However, there are differences between chronic musculoskeletal pain, migraine, neuropathy, and conditions associated with complex disability with regards to the

  11. Psychosocial Work Factors, Blood Pressure and Psychological Strain in Male Bus Operators

    PubMed Central

    CENDALES, Boris; USECHE, Sergio; GÓMEZ, Viviola

    2014-01-01

    The research aim was to predict the bus operators’ blood pressure (BP) and psychological strain using a combination of the Job-Demand Control (JDC) and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models. The study was conducted with a sample of 139 bus operators in the city of Bogotá (Colombia), who answered a questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), the ERI Questionnaire, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Four consecutive BP readings taken in the workplace were averaged to calculate an estimation of the bus operators’ BP. By conducting multiple linear regressions it was found that, taken together, JDC and ERI models explain 10% (F(11,139)=2,502; p=0.00) of systolic BP variance, and 34% (F(6,139)=8,638; p=0.00) of psychological strain variance. These results suggest that the JDC and ERI predictors provide complementary information which increases the probability of accurately model the bus operators’ health. PMID:24869893

  12. Exploring mediating factors in the association between parental psychological distress and psychosocial maladjustment in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Campoy, Eric; Chaix, Basile; Chauvin, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Parental psychopathology is associated with increased psychosocial maladjustment in adolescents. We examined, from a psychosocial perspective, the association between parental psychological distress and psychosocial maladjustment in adolescents and assessed the mediating role of psychosocial covariates. This is a cross-sectional survey and the setting include representative sample of Quebec adolescents in 1999. The participants of the study include 13- and 16-year-old children (N = 2,346) in the Social and Health Survey of Quebec Children and Adolescents. The main outcome measures are internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, substance use, and alcohol consumption. For statistical analysis, we used structural equation modeling to test for mediation. Internalizing and externalizing disorders were significantly associated with parental psychological distress, but not substance use or alcohol consumption. The higher the parental distress, the higher the risk of adolescent mental health disorders. The association between parental psychological distress and internalizing disorders was mediated by adolescent self-esteem, parental emotional support and extrafamilial social support. As for externalizing disorders, these variables only had an independent effect. In conclusion, A family’s well being is a necessary condition for psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. Beyond the psychiatric approach, psychosocial considerations need to be taken into consideration to prevent negative mental health outcomes in children living in homes with distressed parents. PMID:20127380

  13. Applying psychological theory to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of taking intra-oral radiographs.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Debbie; Pitts, Nigel B; Eccles, Martin; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Johnston, Marie; Steen, Nick; Glidewell, Liz; Thomas, Ruth; Maclennan, Graeme; Clarkson, Jan E; Walker, Anne

    2006-10-01

    This study applies psychological theory to the implementation of evidence-based clinical practice. The first objective was to see if variables from psychological frameworks (developed to understand, predict and influence behaviour) could predict an evidence-based clinical behaviour. The second objective was to develop a scientific rationale to design or choose an implementation intervention. Variables from the Theory of Planned Behaviour, Social Cognitive Theory, Self-Regulation Model, Operant Conditioning, Implementation Intentions and the Precaution Adoption Process were measured, with data collection by postal survey. The primary outcome was the number of intra-oral radiographs taken per course of treatment collected from a central fee claims database. Participants were 214 Scottish General Dental Practitioners. At the theory level, the Theory of Planned Behaviour explained 13% variance in the number of radiographs taken, Social Cognitive Theory explained 7%, Operant Conditioning explained 8%, Implementation Intentions explained 11%. Self-Regulation and Stage Theory did not predict significant variance in radiographs taken. Perceived behavioural control, action planning and risk perception explained 16% of the variance in number of radiographs taken. Knowledge did not predict the number of radiographs taken. The results suggest an intervention targeting predictive psychological variables could increase the implementation of this evidence-based practice, while influencing knowledge is unlikely to do so. Measures which predicted number of radiographs taken also predicted intention to take radiographs, and intention accounted for significant variance in behaviour (adjusted R(2)=5%: F(1,166)=10.28, p<.01), suggesting intention may be a possible proxy for behavioural data when testing an intervention prior to a service-level trial. Since psychological frameworks incorporate methodologies to measure and change component variables, taking a theory-based approach

  14. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    PubMed

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  15. A systematic review of the factors associated with delays in medical and psychological help-seeking among men.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Omar; Grunfeld, Elizabeth A; Hunter, Myra S

    2015-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the factors associated with men's low rates of medical and psychological help-seeking, a systematic review of these is missing. Such an overview can help to inform health psychologists of the barriers to the performance of adaptive health behaviours, such as prompt help-seeking, and could inform theoretical advancements and the development of targeted interventions to facilitate prompt help-seeking among men. We systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative empirical papers on factors associated with delays in men's medical and psychological help-seeking. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed, and we used the databases PsycINFO, Medline, Embase and PsycARTICLES (with keywords: men/male*/gender*, help*/seek* and health*/service*/utili*[sation]) for papers in English. 41 citations (amounting to 21,787 participants aged 15-80 + ) met the inclusion criteria. Approximately half of these used qualitative methodologies (i.e., semi-structured interviews and focus groups), while half used quantitative methodologies (i.e., questionnaires). We identify a number of recurring cognitive, emotional, health-service related and socio-demographic help-seeking factors/predictors from the 41 papers. Of these, the most prominent barriers to help-seeking were disinclination to express emotions/concerns about health, embarrassment, anxiety and fear, and poor communication with health-care professionals. PMID:26209212

  16. Between the body and the mind: the involvement of psychological factors in the development of multifactorial diseases.

    PubMed

    Tomatis, L

    2001-10-01

    A possible aetiological role for psychological factors has been propounded in particular in relation to diseases of which the causes are only partially known and which are in most cases multifactorial, such as cancer. The long period between a possible first event and the point of no return, gives appeal to the belief that life events other than "material" causes may play a role in cancer. The evidence that the immune and the nervous system may produce the same substances has opened the way to a new area of research. However, a lack of standardised instruments and the difficulty of conducting systematic and adequate analyses of potential confounding variables have discouraged most qualified scientists from devoting time and effort to investigating the possible role of psychological factors in the aetiology of human diseases. A few studies have reported a positive association between severe life events and breast cancer, but the prevailing view of the medical establishment is that there is no true association between stress and the onset of breast cancer. Although many criticisms of the studies reporting a positive association are definitely based on solid arguments, at least some of the criticisms cling to the requirement for absolute certainty in establishing a cause-effect relationship, which epidemiological studies can rarely, if ever, provide. A challenge for the future of research will be to investigate and better understand the role of subjective factors on the course and outcome of various pathologies, and in modulating the risk of developing a pathology. PMID:11602380

  17. Prevalence, sociodemographic factors, psychological distress, and coping strategies related to compulsive buying: a cross sectional study in Galicia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Compulsive buying has become a serious problem affecting a growing number of people in contemporary consumer societies. Nevertheless, research examining its prevalence in representative samples from the general population is still scarce and mainly focused on the exploration of sociodemographic factors, neglecting other aspects like psychological distress and coping styles. Therefore, this study intends to contribute to the cumulative knowledge by assessing compulsive buying prevalence in a representative sample from the general population in the region of Galicia, in Spain. Sociodemographic determinants, psychological symptoms, and coping strategies are also analyzed to clarify their role in this phenomenon. Methods A random routes procedure was employed in the recruitment of the sample which was comprised of 2159 participants who were classified as either compulsive buyers or non-compulsive buyers. Both groups were compared regarding sociodemographic determinants, symptoms, and coping strategies through chi-square tests or analyses of variance. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine which of these determinants might play a part in the make up of a risk profile for compulsive buying. Results Estimated prevalence of compulsive buying was 7.1%. Compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers differed significantly in sex and age, with women and younger people showing a higher propensity for this phenomenon. Individuals with compulsive buying presented significantly higher scores on all the psychological symptoms considered. They also employed passive-avoidance coping strategies much more frequently and active strategies of problem solving and cognitive restructuring much less frequently. The logistic regression analysis results confirmed that being female, experiencing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and obsession-compulsion, and employing the passive-avoidance coping strategies of problem avoidance, wishful thinking, and self

  18. Family stability as a protective factor against psychopathology for urban children receiving psychological services.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Masha Y; Israel, Allen C

    2006-12-01

    Family stability, defined as the consistency of family activities and routines, was examined in a sample of urban families (n = 70) with children (ages 7 to 16) receiving psychological services. Parent-reported family stability was associated with lower parent-reported children's internalizing behavior problems. Child-reported family stability significantly attenuated the influence of parental depressive symptoms on parent-reported children's internalizing, externalizing, and total behavior problems, while controlling for the effect of children's age. Parental depressive symptoms were associated with problems in child adjustment only at the low level of family stability. PMID:17007601

  19. An exploration of factors affecting the long term psychological impact and deterioration of mental health in flooded households.

    PubMed

    Lamond, Jessica Elizabeth; Joseph, Rotimi D; Proverbs, David G

    2015-07-01

    The long term psychological effect of the distress and trauma caused by the memory of damage and losses associated with flooding of communities remains an under researched impact of flooding. This is particularly important for communities that are likely to be repeatedly flooded where levels of mental health disorder will damage long term resilience to future flooding. There are a variety of factors that affect the prevalence of mental health disorders in the aftermath of flooding including pre-existing mental health, socio-economic factors and flood severity. However previous research has tended to focus on the short term impacts immediately following the flood event and much less focus has been given to the longer terms effects of flooding. Understanding of factors affecting the longer term mental health outcomes for flooded households is critical in order to support communities in improving social resilience. Hence, the aim of this study was to explore the characteristics associated with psychological distress and mental health deterioration over the longer term. The research examined responses from a postal survey of households flooded during the 2007 flood event across England. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and binomial logistic regression were applied to data representing household characteristics, flood event characteristics and post-flood stressors and coping strategies. These factors were related to reported measures of stress, anxiety, depression and mental health deterioration. The results showed that household income, depth of flooding; having to move out during reinstatement and mitigating actions are related to the prevalence of psycho-social symptoms in previously flooded households. In particular relocation and household income were the most predictive factors. The practical implication of these findings for recovery after flooding are: to consider the preferences of households in terms of the need to move out during restorative

  20. The Association Between Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms among Older African Americans: The Role of Psychological and Social Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nadimpalli, S.B.; James, B.D.; Yu, L.; Cothran, F.; Barnes, L. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated a link between perceived discrimination and depression in ethnic minority groups, yet most have focused on younger or middle-aged African Americans and little is known about factors that may moderate the relationship. Methods Participants were 487 older African Americans (60-98) enrolled in the Minority Aging Research Study. Discrimination, depressive symptoms, and psychological and social resources were assessed via interview using validated measures. Ordinal logistic regression models were used to assess (1) the main relationship between discrimination and depression and (2) resilience, purpose in life, social isolation, and social networks as potential moderators of this relationship. Results In models adjusted for age, sex, education, and income, perceived discrimination was positively associated with depressive symptoms (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.31, p < .001). However, there was no evidence of effect modification by resilience, purpose in life, social isolation, or social networks (all ps ≤ .05). Conclusion and Implications Findings provide support for accumulating evidence on the adverse mental health effects of discrimination among older African Americans. Because the association was not modified by psychological or social factors, these findings do not support a role for a buffering effect of resources on discrimination and depressive symptoms. Further studies are needed to examine a wider range of coping resources among older adults. PMID:25494668

  1. Metabolic risk factors, coping with stress, and psychological well-being in patients with age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Cavar, Ivan; Lovrić, Sanjin; Vukojević, Mladenka; Sesar, Irena; Petric-Vicković, Ivanka; Sesar, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the risk factors (age, obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, consumption of alchohol and drugs, positive family history, and exposure to sunlight), coping with stress, psychological well-being and age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Forty patients with ARMD (case group) and 63 presbyopes (control group) participated in the study. Patient data were collected through general information questionnaire including patient habits, the COPE questionnaire that showed the way the patients handling stress, and the GHQ that analyzed the psychological aspects of their quality of life. These questionnaires were administered to the patients during ophthalmologic examination. The study involved 46 (44.66%) men and 57 (55.33%) women. Statistical analysis showed that the major risks for the development of ARMD were elevated cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol in plasma. A significantly higher number ofARMD patients had a positive family history when compared with presbyopes. This study showed presbyopes to cope with emotional problems significantly better and to have a lower level of social dysfunction when compared with ARMD patients. However, it is necessary to conduct further studies in a large number of patients to determine more accurately the pathophysiological mechanisms of metabolic factors as well as the impact of the disease on the quality of life in patients with ARMD. PMID:24974669

  2. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  3. Space psychology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  4. Behavioral differences of irradiated persons associated with the Kyshtym, Chelyabinsk, and Chernobyl nuclear accidents.

    PubMed

    Collins, D L

    1992-10-01

    Three nuclear accidents besides Chernobyl have occurred in the former Soviet Union. The accidents occurred around Kyshtym and Chelyabinsk in the Ural Mountains between 1949 and 1967 and contaminated over one-half million people. The health ministries are now interested in the data previously collected on these irradiated populations in order to examine the health (e.g., psychological, hereditary, genome damage, etc.) implications of long-term radiation exposure. PMID:1454181

  5. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress and Positive Affect: A Prospective, Multilevel Study

    PubMed Central

    Finne, Live Bakke; Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health research has mainly addressed determinants of negative health effects, typically employing individual-level self-report data. The present study investigated individual- and department-level (means of each work unit) effects of psychological/social work factors on mental distress and positive affect. Employees were recruited from 63 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 4158 employees, in 918 departments, responded at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Multilevel linear regressions estimated individual- and department-level effects simultaneously, and accounted for clustering of data. Baseline exposures and average exposures over time ([T1+T2]/2) were tested. All work factors; decision control, role conflict, positive challenge, support from immediate superior, fair leadership, predictability during the next month, commitment to organization, rumors of change, human resource primacy, and social climate, were related to mental distress and positive affect at the individual and department level. However, analyses of baseline exposures adjusted for baseline outcome, demonstrated significant associations at the individual level only. Baseline “rumors of change” was related to mental distress only and baseline “predictability during the next month” was not a statistical significant predictor of either outcome when adjusted for outcome at baseline. Psychological and social work factors were generally related to mental distress and positive affect in a mirrored way. Impact of exposures seemed most pervasive at the individual level. However, department-level relations were also discovered. Supplementing individual-level measures with aggregated measures may increase understanding of working conditions influence on employees`health and well-being. Organizational improvements focusing on the work factors in the current study should be able to reduce distress and enhance positive affect. Furthermore

  6. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress and Positive Affect: A Prospective, Multilevel Study.

    PubMed

    Finne, Live Bakke; Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health research has mainly addressed determinants of negative health effects, typically employing individual-level self-report data. The present study investigated individual- and department-level (means of each work unit) effects of psychological/social work factors on mental distress and positive affect. Employees were recruited from 63 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 4158 employees, in 918 departments, responded at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Multilevel linear regressions estimated individual- and department-level effects simultaneously, and accounted for clustering of data. Baseline exposures and average exposures over time ([T1+T2]/2) were tested. All work factors; decision control, role conflict, positive challenge, support from immediate superior, fair leadership, predictability during the next month, commitment to organization, rumors of change, human resource primacy, and social climate, were related to mental distress and positive affect at the individual and department level. However, analyses of baseline exposures adjusted for baseline outcome, demonstrated significant associations at the individual level only. Baseline "rumors of change" was related to mental distress only and baseline "predictability during the next month" was not a statistical significant predictor of either outcome when adjusted for outcome at baseline. Psychological and social work factors were generally related to mental distress and positive affect in a mirrored way. Impact of exposures seemed most pervasive at the individual level. However, department-level relations were also discovered. Supplementing individual-level measures with aggregated measures may increase understanding of working conditions influence on employees`health and well-being. Organizational improvements focusing on the work factors in the current study should be able to reduce distress and enhance positive affect. Furthermore, both

  7. Psychological Status and Associated Factors among Korean Cancer Survivors: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Sang Min

    2016-07-01

    It is important to assess psychological distress after a diagnosis for cancer survivors, a population with a high risk for psychological distress. The aim of this study is to assess psychological distress among cancer survivors and to clarify the associated factors. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from standardized questionnaires administered to 1,163 cancer survivors and 49,243 non-cancer survivors who participated in the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2012). We identified the adjusted rates for psychological distress and assessed factors associated with this kind of distress using multivariate logistic regression. Cancer survivors tended to have a higher adjusted rate of psychological distress than the general population. The current depressive symptom rate for cancer survivors was 16.69%, and the adjusted rate for history of depression in cancer survivors was 15.61%. The adjusted rate for higher level of stress was 25.51% in cancer survivors. Among the cancer survivors, younger subjects, female subjects, and those with limited social support were more prone to psychological distress. In addition, current smokers or risky drinkers, those with chronic diseases, and those with a poor self-perception of their health status were also identified as a high-risk group for psychological distress. As the number of cancer survivors has increased, the importance of assessing psychological distress after a cancer diagnosis should be emphasized among all cancer survivors. Further, psychological supportive care interventions for cancer survivors are needed to improve the survival rate and improve their quality of life. PMID:27366010

  8. Neuromuscular adaptations predict functional disability independently of clinical pain and psychological factors in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Abboud, Jacques; St-Pierre, Charles; Piché, Mathieu; Descarreaux, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Patients with chronic low back pain exhibit characteristics such as clinical pain, psychological symptoms and neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent contribution of clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations to disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Clinical pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety, neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain were assessed in 52 patients with chronic low back pain. Lumbar muscle electromyographic activity was assessed during a flexion-extension task (flexion relaxation phenomenon) to assess both chronic neuromuscular adaptations and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain during the task. Multiple regressions showed that independent predictors of disability included neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain (β=0.25, p=0.006, sr(2)=0.06), neuromuscular responses to experimental pain (β=-0.24, p=0.011, sr(2)=0.05), clinical pain intensity (β=0.28, p=0.002, sr(2)=0.08) and psychological factors (β=0.58, p<0.001, sr(2)=0.32). Together, these predictors accounted for 65% of variance in disability (R(2)=0.65 p<0.001). The current investigation revealed that neuromuscular adaptations are independent from clinical pain intensity and psychological factors, and contribute to inter-individual differences in patients' disability. This suggests that disability, in chronic low back pain patients, is determined by a combination of factors, including clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations. PMID:24837629

  9. Psychological detachment from work during off-job time: predictive role of work and non-work factors in Japanese employees.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Akihito; de Jonge, Jan; Kubota, Kazumi; Kawakami, Norito

    2014-01-01

    Psychological detachment from work, an off-job experience of "switching off" mentally, seems to be crucial for promoting employee's well-being. Previous studies on predictors of psychological detachment mainly focused on job-related factors, and only a few studies focused on family-related and personal factors. This study focuses not only on job-related factors (job demands, job control, workplace support) but also on family-related (family/friend support) and personal factors (workaholism), and examines the relation of these three factors with psychological detachment. Data of 2,520 Japanese employees was randomly split into two groups and then analyzed using cross-validation. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that family/friend support had a positive association with psychological detachment, whereas a subscale of workaholism (i.e. working compulsively) had negative associations with it across the two groups. Results suggest that family/friend support would facilitate psychological detachment whereas workaholism would inhibit it. PMID:24492761

  10. Psychological Detachment from Work during Off-job Time: Predictive Role of Work and Non-work Factors in Japanese Employees

    PubMed Central

    SHIMAZU, Akihito; DE JONGE, Jan; KUBOTA, Kazumi; KAWAKAMI, Norito

    2014-01-01

    Psychological detachment from work, an off-job experience of “switching off” mentally, seems to be crucial for promoting employee’s well-being. Previous studies on predictors of psychological detachment mainly focused on job-related factors, and only a few studies focused on family-related and personal factors. This study focuses not only on job-related factors (job demands, job control, workplace support) but also on family-related (family/friend support) and personal factors (workaholism), and examines the relation of these three factors with psychological detachment. Data of 2,520 Japanese employees was randomly split into two groups and then analyzed using cross-validation. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that family/friend support had a positive association with psychological detachment, whereas a subscale of workaholism (i.e. working compulsively) had negative associations with it across the two groups. Results suggest that family/friend support would facilitate psychological detachment whereas workaholism would inhibit it. PMID:24492761

  11. 13. Decorporation of Chernobyl radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Nesterenko, Vassily B; Nesterenko, Alexey V

    2009-11-01

    Tens of thousands of Chernobyl children (mostly from Belarus) annually leave to receive treatment and health care in other countries. Doctors from many countries gratuitously work in the Chernobyl contaminated territories, helping to minimize the consequences of this most terrible technologic catastrophe in history. But the scale and spectrum of the consequences are so high, that no country in the world can cope alone with the long-term consequences of such a catastrophe as Chernobyl. The countries that have suffered the most, especially Ukraine and Belarus, extend gratitude for the help that has come through the United Nations and other international organizations, as well as from private funds and initiatives. Twenty-two years after the Chernobyl releases, the annual individual dose limit in heavily contaminated territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and European Russia exceed 1 mSv/year just because of the unavoidable consumption of locally contaminated products. The 11-year experience of the BELRAD Institute shows that for effective radiation protection it is necessary to establish the interference level for children at 30% of the official dangerous limit (i.e., 15-20 Bq/kg). The direct whole body counting measurements of Cs-137 accumulation in the bodies of inhabitants of the heavily contaminated Belarussian region shows that the official Dose Catalogue underestimates the annual dose burdens by three to eight times. For practical reasons the curative-like use of apple-pectin food additives might be especially helpful for effective decorporation of Cs-137. From 1996 to 2007 a total of more than 160,000 Belarussian children received pectin food additives during 18 to 25 days of treatment (5 g twice a day). As a result, levels of Cs-137 in children's organs decreased after each course of pectin additives by an average of 30 to 40%. Manufacture and application of various pectin-based food additives and drinks (using apples, currants, grapes, sea seaweed, etc.) is one of

  12. Contribution of personal and environmental factors on positive psychological functioning in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fadda, Daniela; Scalas, L Francesca; Meleddu, Mauro

    2015-08-01

    This study examined self-esteem as mediator in the relations of personal (extraversion, neuroticism) and environmental (maternal, paternal, peer-relationships) variables with domains of positive psychological functioning (PPF) in adolescence (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigor, Social Interest, Social Cheerfulness). We compared one-sided and multidimensional models using a sample of 1193 high school students (592 males and 601 females). We examined variations in adolescent PPF as a function of parenting styles via independent examination of maternal and paternal bonding. Results supported the multidimensional models, which indicated direct effects of personality traits, maternal care and peer relationships, as well as indirect effects, mediated by self-esteem, of all predictors on most PPF dimensions. Overall, our study provided a broader picture of personal and environmental predictors on different dimensions of PPF, which supported the mediating role of self-esteem and emphasized the importance of considering multidimensional models to characterize PPF in adolescents. PMID:26093819

  13. Individual and community factors affecting psychological sense of community, attraction, and neighboring in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Derek

    2008-08-01

    One thousand nine hundred ninety-five individuals in 20 rural Canadian communities were measured on perceived social cohesion by the three Buckner scale subdimensions: psychological sense of community (PSOC), attraction, and neighboring. Number of household children, income over $20,000, age, birthplace in, and years lived in the community significantly positively influenced PSOC and Attraction. Number of household children (positive for income over $20,000; otherwise negative), income over $40,000, birthplace, and years in the community significantly influenced neighboring. Increased interaction generally increases individuals' social cohesion. As the only significant community variable was being on an island province, individual-oriented policies are recommended to increase cohesion. PMID:19579352

  14. Mixed-gender groups: coping strategies and factors of psychological adaptation in a polar environment.

    PubMed

    Rosnet, Elisabeth; Jurion, Sylvie; Cazes, Geneviève; Bachelard, Claude

    2004-07-01

    The polar environment is often seen as a good analog for long-term space missions in terms of isolation and confinement. This paper focuses on the psychological adaptation of both the men and women in mixed-gender groups in the French polar station Dumont d'Urville. The first 49 expeditions to this station were composed of men only in groups of 25-30. In 2000, two women were included in the first mixed-gender wintering group, followed by five women in 2001. This study on coping strategies and psychological adaptation was included in an end-of-mission debriefing performed by a psychologist. Data were collected using a few quantitative tools and a semi-structured interview, and focused on adaptation to wintering, coping strategies, and information on interpersonal relationships. Including women in a wintering group seems to have had positive effects on the general climate of the group by reducing men's rude behavior, but it also seems to be an important stressor for both men and women when the females' average age is close to the males' because seduction behaviors appear and rivalry, frustration, and sexual harassment frequently result. The use of problem-oriented strategies helps women to adapt. There are strong arguments indicating that living in an isolated and confined environment magnifies the usual difficulties that arise in mixed-gender relationships. Difficulties may be magnified in space since the group size is smaller and the confinement more extreme. This implies the need for rigorous select-in criteria for both men and women, especially for relational criteria, and for group training after selection. PMID:15267070

  15. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and psychological distress among Hispanics/Latinos: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Sheila F; Buelna, Christina; Giacinto, Rebeca Espinoza; Gallo, Linda C; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Gonzalez, Patricia; Fortmann, Addie L; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Gellman, Marc D; Giachello, Aida L; Talavera, Gregory A

    2016-06-01

    Studies show that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are correlated with psychological distress, yet research examining these relationships among Hispanic/Latinos is lacking. The population-based Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos enrolled a cohort of Hispanic/Latino adults (N=16,415) 18-74years of age at the time of recruitment, from four US metropolitan areas, between March 2008 and June 2011. Psychological distress (i.e., 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, 10 item Spielberger Trait Anxiety Scale, and a combined depression/anxiety score), socio-demographics (i.e., age, education, income, insurance, sex, and Hispanic/Latino background), acculturation (i.e., country of birth and language preference), and traditional CVD risk factors (i.e., dyslipidemia, obesity, current cigarette smoking, diabetes, and hypertension) were assessed at baseline. Associations between CVD risk factors and psychological distress measures by sex were examined using multiple linear regression models, accounting for complex survey design and sampling weights and controlling for socio-demographic and acculturation covariates. In adjusted analyses, all three psychological distress measures were significantly related to smoking. For females, greater psychological distress was significantly related to obesity and current smoking. For males, diabetes and current smoking were associated with psychological distress. For males and females, dyslipidemia and hypertension were not associated with psychological distress after adjusting for other factors. Elevated depression and anxiety symptoms were associated with CVD risk factors for Hispanic/Latino men and women. However, these results were not consistent across Hispanic/Latino groups. As promoted by the integrative care model, psychosocial concerns should be considered in research on CVD risk and chronic disease prevention. PMID:26921653

  16. Role of Socio-Psychological Factors in Perceived Quality of Care Rendered by Traditional Medical Practitioners in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adejumo, Adebayo; Faluyi, Moyolebi; Adejuwon, Adebukola

    2013-01-01

    Background: It was the aim of the current research to investigate perceived service quality rendered by traditional medical practitioners and the role of socio-psychological factors in the perception. Methods: The first part, a quantitative cross-sectional survey utilized a 93-item questionnaire to examine the influence of quality of life, general health perception, socio-economic status and personality factors on perceived service quality. The second part, a qualitative study utilized 5 FGDs and 2 KIIs to explore consumers’ evaluation of perceived service quality. Five research questions were raised. The 336 purposively-selected participants were attendees of traditional-health clinics/centers in Ibadan with a mean age of X̄=30.60±9.97. Findings: The FGD respondents opined that the scope of orthodox-medicine does not cover certain illnesses. 77.8% of the participants attested to the affordability and promptness of services in traditional hospitals; acknowledging that its perceived efficacy (i.e. 56.8%) motivate patronage of traditional-health service. The 2x2x3 ANOVA revealed significant main effect of quality of life (F[1,270]=41.05, p<.001) and socio-economic status (F[2,270]=36.34; p<.001); as well as interaction effect of quality of life, general health and socio-economic status (F[1,270]=9.624, p<.002); while the regression analysis showed independent influence of extraversion (β=0.31; p<.001), agreeableness (β=0.303; p<.001) and openness to experience (β=0.166; p<.01). Conclusion: This sample acknowledged that traditional health care met quality standards. The role of socio-psychological factors in the quality appraisal was established. The need for better regulation and validation of traditional health care in assuring evidence based care was suggested. PMID:24171887

  17. Cigarette Smoking in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions: The Role of Socioeconomic and Psychological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Brown, Dustin

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has long been a target of public health intervention because it substantially contributes to morbidity and mortality. Individuals in different-sex marriages have lower smoking risk (i.e., prevalence and frequency) than different-sex cohabiters. However, little is known about the smoking risk of individuals in same-sex cohabiting unions. We compare the smoking risk of individuals in different-sex marriages, same-sex cohabiting unions, and different-sex cohabiting unions using pooled cross-sectional data from the 1997–2010 National Health Interview Surveys (N = 168,514). We further examine the role of socioeconomic status (SES) and psychological distress in the relationship between union status and smoking. Estimates from multinomial logistic regression models reveal that same-sex and different-sex cohabiters experience similar smoking risk when compared to one another, and higher smoking risk when compared to the different-sex married. Results suggest that SES and psychological distress factors cannot fully explain smoking differences between the different-sex married and same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. Moreover, without same-sex cohabiter’s education advantage, same-sex cohabiters would experience even greater smoking risk relative to the different-sex married. Policy recommendations to reduce smoking disparities among same-sex and different-sex cohabiters are discussed. PMID:25346559

  18. Psychological aspects of risk appraisal in asphyxiation accidents: a review of the factors influencing children’s perception and behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Zigon, G; Corradetti, R; Morra, B; Snidero, S; Gregori, D; Passali, D

    2005-01-01

    Summary Psychological aspects determining children’s behaviour in response to asphyxiation risk due to ingestion of foreign matter have been rarely and non-systematically examined in the literature. Aim of this report is to highlight – through a review of the most significant psychological research in the literature – which factors influence the behaviour, perception and assessments of children 0 to 14 years of age, in a risk situation. In particular, attention is focused on the direct experience of a child at risk, assuming that this experience can play a significant role in future dangerous situations. Outcomes of studies taken into consideration have highlighted the influence of age, sex, socio-economic status, parents’ role, peer group, personal traits, television and personal experience. The latter refutes the initial hypotheses, showing an unexpected and clearly negative effect on future evaluation and behaviour in response to similar contexts of asphyxiation risk. The implications for research on asphyxiation due to ingestion of foreign matter are examined. PMID:16116832

  19. [Psychological, social and cultural factors of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in México].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Munguía, Carlos; Navarro-Contreras, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Child obesity is a serious problem of public health in México. If we don't reverse it quickly, it will generate unsustainable economical consequences to the health institutions in this country, as well as serious health problems. This article reviews some psychological, social and cultural factors in the health-illness process, in particular in relation to food choices, the function of the family, and the food-related parental practices, changes in physical activity, and the role of media. As a conclusion, we can say it is very important to take into account psychological and cultural aspects, as well as the family as a whole in the creation of public policies in the fight against the obesity epidemic. Other fundamental aspect to bear in mind is the generation and effective monitoring of regulations on food advertising, particularly that aimed to children, and also in regards to a labelling of edible products accessible to all people. An interdisciplinary work is essential to generate synergies that help us to control obesity in the first place, and then to be able to reverse this problem, without disregarding the role of prevention. PMID:24866315

  20. Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.

    PubMed

    Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

    2012-09-01

    Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination. PMID:22853775

  1. Psychological, Cultural and Family Factors in Incest and Family Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews clinical experience and research evidence about father-daughter incest and family sexual abuse, and suggests six factors important in its etiology: the personal characteristics of the offender; the role of the mother; a milieu of abandonment; subcultural isolation; poor family sexual boundaries; and opportunity factors. (Author)

  2. Psychological, Family, and Social Factors Linked with Juvenile Theft in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, DongHun; Han, Yoonsun; Park, ManSik; Roh, SeakZoon

    2015-01-01

    The absence of an approach which encompasses several micro-systems in Korea may leave important factors of youth risk behaviors undetected. Thus, an examination of a broad set of ecological factors within the micro-system--including individual characteristics as well as immediate family, peer, and school environments surrounding the youth--that is…

  3. Placebo and nocebo effects: a complex interplay between psychological factors and neurochemical networks.

    PubMed

    Frisaldi, Elisa; Piedimonte, Alessandro; Benedetti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Placebo and nocebo effects have recently emerged as an interesting model to understand some of the intricate underpinnings of the mind-body interaction. A variety of psychological mechanisms, such as expectation, conditioning, anxiety modulation, and reward, have been identified, and a number of neurochemical networks have been characterized across different conditions, such as pain and motor disorders. What has emerged from the recent insights into the neurobiology of placebo and nocebo effects is that the psychosocial context around the patient and the therapy, which represents the ritual of the therapeutic act, may change the biochemistry and the neuronal circuitry of the patient's brain. Furthermore, the mechanisms activated by placebos and nocebos have been found to be the same as those activated by drugs, which suggests a cognitive/affective interference with drug action. Overall, these findings highlight the important role of therapeutic rituals in the overall therapeutic outcome, including hypnosis, which may have profound implications both in routine medical practice and in the clinical trials setting. PMID:25928679

  4. Unemployment as a risk factor for completed suicide: a psychological autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Innamorati, Marco; Di Vittorio, Cristina; Baratta, Stefano; Masotti, Vittoria; Badaracco, Annalisa; Wong, Paul; Lester, David; Yip, Paul; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario

    2014-01-01

    This study adopts a psychological autopsy method to compare (1) unemployed suicides, (2) other suicides who were either employed or not in the labor force, and (3) psychiatric outpatients without any prior suicidal behavior. A total of 245 consecutive suicides from Province of Parma (Italy) with recorded employment status were included in the analysis. The control group included 41 psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 64 years, who had not engaged in any previous suicidal act, and who were unemployed. The unemployed suicides had a risk 17 times higher to have had financial problems in the last 12 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0/149.5; p < 0.01) than other suicides. Unemployed suicides (compared to living unemployed controls) were 10 times more likely to have had poor social support (95% CI: 1.7/56.1; p < 0.01), 16 times more likely to have had any stressful life events in the past 12 months (95% CI: 2.5/103.9; p < 0.01), and 22 times more likely to have a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (95% CI: 2.4/203.2; p < 0.01). New suicide prevention strategies for those who are facing job loss need to focus on social support and personality disorders, as well as hopelessness and despair. PMID:24689509

  5. Factors affecting the psychological functioning of Australian adults with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Viggers, Lorna C; Caltabiano, Marie L

    2012-12-01

    The role of resilience, for adults facing ongoing adversity in the form of chronic medical conditions, has received little attention in the past. This research investigated the impact of resilience and coping strategies on the psychological functioning of 87 Australian adults with chronic pain, using a self-report questionnaire. It included the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. Using hierarchical regression, after the effects of pain severity, catastrophizing, and ignoring the pain were controlled for, resilience was significantly associated with mental health-related quality of life (β = 0.18, P < 0.05), depression (β = -0.31, P < 0.01), and anxiety (β = -0.20, P < 0.05). In the final model for depression, resilience had a stronger association than pain severity. Resilience did not, however, influence individual's perceptions of their physical health-related quality of life. The link between resilience and mental health-related quality of life outcomes provides initial evidence for the potential application of resilience related interventions to pain management programs. PMID:22994657

  6. Life satisfaction in patients with chronic pain – relation to pain intensity, disability, and psychological factors

    PubMed Central

    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Aims To investigate pain intensity, posttraumatic stress, depression, anxiety, disability, and life satisfaction in patients with injury-related chronic pain and to analyze differences in these variables regarding gender. Methods Questionnaires addressing pain intensity (visual analogue scale [VAS]), anxiety and depression (hospital anxiety and depression [HAD] scale), posttraumatic stress (impact of event scale), disability (disability rating index, and life satisfaction [LiSat-11]) were answered by 160 patients at assessment at the Pain Rehabilitation Clinic at the Umeå University Hospital (Umeå, Sweden). Results High level of pain intensity was scored on the VAS (mean value 64.5 ± 21.1 mm) together with high levels of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress. Activity limitations in everyday life and decreased life satisfaction were reported, especially on the items physical health and psychological health. A multivariate logistic regression model showed a statistically significant association between low scores on the overall life satisfaction on LiSat-11 and high scores on HAD-depression (odds ratio = 1.141, confidence interval 1.014–1.285). Few gender differences were found. Conclusion These findings highlight the value of a broad screening in patients with injury-related chronic pain with respect to the relationship of life satisfaction with pain intensity, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and disability. In addition, these findings support the biopsychosocial approach to assess and treat these patients optimally. PMID:22128253

  7. Reading, demographic, social and psychological factors related to pre-adolescent smoking and non-smoking behaviors and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Sunseri, A J; Alberti, J M; Kent, N D; Schoenberger, J A; Sunseri, J K; Amuwo, S; Vickers, P

    1983-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine reading, demographic, social and psychological factors related to pre-adolescent smoking and non-smoking behaviors and attitudes. The school-home humanistic education program was implemented in a large, urban public school system. It stressed responsible decision-making, increased self-esteem and the inter-relationships among the acquisition of knowledge of the consequences of smoking, personal feelings, family relationships and behavior. The results showed that family involvement was necessary to affect smoking attitudes and behaviors. Of all the variables studied, reading had a most pervasive relationship. Peer influence and self-esteem also were related to smoking knowledge, smoking attitude, future smoking intentions and the "purchase" of cigarettes. Two of several conclusions drawn from the results are: 1. Family involvement is necessary to affect attitudes and behaviors. 2. Health education research that does not investigate the relationship between program outcomes and reading achievement may be misleading. PMID:6552341

  8. Prevalence, psychological impact, and risk factors of erectile dysfunction in patients with Peyronie's disease: a retrospective analysis of 309 cases.

    PubMed

    Paulis, Gianni; Romano, Gennaro; Paulis, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Peyronie's disease (PD) is a chronic inflammatory disease involving the tunica albuginea of the penis. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a possible invalidating symptom of PD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, psychological impact, and risk factors of ED in patients with PD. The study was conducted by carrying out a retrospective analysis of the clinical records of 309 patients with PD who visited our andrology clinic. All patients underwent the following tests: body mass index, common blood tests and hormone assays, questionnaire for erectile function assessment, dynamic penile color Doppler ultrasonography, imaging of the penis at maximum erection with photographic poses according to Kelâmi, psychosexual impact evaluation with PD Questionnaire (symptom bother score), evaluation of depression symptoms with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and evaluation of the intensity of penile pain with the pain intensity numeric rating scale. ED was observed in 37.5% of the cases. We divided the cases into two groups: group A (PD + ED), 116 cases, and group B (PD without ED), 193 cases. After multivariate analysis, we concluded that the following comorbidities are independent risk factors for ED: dyslipidemia, obesity, chronic prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and autoimmune diseases. A depressive disorder was observed in 62.4%, and it was more frequent in patients with PD + ED (91.37% versus 45.07% group B). Sexual bother was greater in group A compared with group B (9.7 versus 7.6). Intensities of depressive symptoms and sexual bother were significantly higher compared with cases with no curvature when the bend angle was ≥30°. Our study confirms that an integrated psychological support with medical treatment is needed in patients with PD. PMID:27486570

  9. Model testing using Chernobyl data: III. Atmospheric resuspension of radionuclides in Ukrainian regions impacted by Chernobyl fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Garger, E.K.; Hoffman, F.O.; Miller, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    The {open_quotes}Resuspension{close_quotes} scenario is designed to test models for atmospheric resuspension of radionuclides from contaminated soils. Resuspension can be a secondary source of contamination after a release has stopped, as well as a source of contamination for people and areas not exposed to the original release. The test scenario describes three exposure situations: (1) locations within the highly contaminated 30-km zone at Chernobyl, where exposures to resuspended material are probably dominated by local processes; (2) an urban area (Kiev) outside the 30-km zone, where local processes include extensive vehicular traffic; and (3) a location 40 to 60 km west of the Chernobyl reactor, where upwind sources of contamination are important. Input data include characteristics of the {sup 137}Cs ground contamination around specific sites, climatological data for the sites, characteristics of the terrain and topography, and locations of the sampling sites. Predictions are requested for average air concentrations of {sup 137}Cs at specified locations due to resuspension of Chernobyl fallout and for specified resuspension factors and rates. Test data (field measurements) are available for all endpoints. 9 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Substance Use Behavior among Early-Adolescent Asian American Girls: The Impact of Psychological and Family Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lin; Barnes-Ceeney, Kevin; Schinke, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Confronting developmental tasks and challenges associated with bridging two different cultures, Asian American adolescent girls face increasing risks for substance use. Identifying risk and protective factors in this population is essential, particularly when those factors can inform preventive programs. Guided by family interaction theory, the present cross-sectional study explored the associations of psychological and familial factors with use of alcohol, prescription drugs, and other drugs among early-adolescent Asian American girls. Between August 2007 and March 2008, 135 pairs of Asian American girls (mean age 13.21 years, SD = 0.90) and their mothers (mean age 39.86 years, SD = 6.99) were recruited from 19 states that had significant Asian populations. Girls and mothers each completed an online survey. Relative to girls who did not use substances, girls who did had higher levels of depressive symptoms, perceived peer substance use, and maternal substance use. Multiple logistic regression modeling revealed that they also had significantly lower levels of body satisfaction, problem-solving ability, parental monitoring, mother-daughter communication, family involvement, and family rules about substance use. Household composition, acculturation, and academic achievement were not associated with girls’ substance use. These findings point to directions for substance abuse prevention programming among Asian American girls. PMID:22082244

  11. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Cancer.gov

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  12. Association of genetic and psychological factors with persistent pain after cosmetic thoracic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dimova, Violeta; Lötsch, Jörn; Hühne, Kathrin; Winterpacht, Andreas; Heesen, Michael; Parthum, Andreas; Weber, Peter G; Carbon, Roman; Griessinger, Norbert; Sittl, Reinhard; Lautenbacher, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The genetic control of pain has been repeatedly demonstrated in human association studies. In the present study, we assessed the relative contribution of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms in pain-related genes, such as cathechol-O-methyl transferase gene (COMT), fatty acid amino hydrolase gene (FAAH), transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 gene (TRPV1), and δ-opioid receptor gene (OPRD1), for postsurgical pain chronification. Ninety preoperatively pain-free male patients were assigned to good or poor outcome groups according to their intensity or disability score assessed at 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after funnel chest correction. The genetic effects were compared with those of two psychological predictors, the attentional bias toward positive words (dot-probe task) and the self-reported pain vigilance (Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire [PVAQ]), which were already shown to be the best predictors for pain intensity and disability at 6 months after surgery in the same sample, respectively. Cox regression analyses revealed no significant effects of any of the genetic predictors up to the end point of survival time at 1 year after surgery. Adding the genetics to the prediction by the attentional bias to positive words for pain intensity and the PVAQ for pain disability, again no significant additional explanation could be gained by the genetic predictors. In contrast, the preoperative PVAQ score was also, in the present enlarged sample, a meaningful predictor for lasting pain disability after surgery. Effect size measures suggested some genetic variables, for example, the polymorphism rs1800587G>A in the interleukin 1 alpha gene (IL1A) and the COMT haplotype rs4646312T>C/rs165722T>C/rs6269A>G/rs4633T>C/rs4818C>G/rs4680A>G, as possible relevant modulators of long-term postsurgical pain outcome. A comparison between pathophysiologically different predictor groups appears to be helpful in identifying clinically relevant

  13. Chernobyl operators: criminals or victims?

    PubMed

    Munipov, V M

    1992-10-01

    The blame for the 1986 Chernobyl disaster has been variously attributed to the operating personnel, the plant management, the design of the reactor, and the lack of adequate safety information in the Soviet nuclear industry. This paper considers a number of design faults, operational shortcomings and human errors that combined in the accident. It examines the sequence of events leading up to the accident, design problems in the reactor and cooling rods, and the course of the accident itself. It considers the ergonomics aspects, and expresses the view that the main cause of the accident was inadequate human-machine interaction. Finally, it stresses the continuing inadequacies of the Soviet nuclear system, and emphasizes that unless the ergonomics lessons are fully learned, a similar disaster could still occur. PMID:15676880

  14. Space Radar Image of Chernobyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its surroundings, centered at 51.17 north latitude and 30.15 west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 16th orbit on October 1, 1994. The area is located on the northern border of the Ukraine Republic and was produced by using the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The differences in the intensity are due to differences in vegetation cover, with brighter areas being indicative of more vegetation. These data were acquired as part of a collaboration between NASA and the National Space Agency of Ukraine in Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences. NASA has included several sites provided by the Ukrainian space agency as targets of opportunity during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The Ukrainian space agency also plans to conduct airborne surveys of these sites during the mission. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located toward the top of the image near the Pripyat River. The 12-kilometer (7.44-mile)-long cooling pond is easily distinguishable as an elongated dark shape in the center near the top of the image. The reactor complex is visible as the bright area to the extreme left of the cooling pond and the city of Chernobyl is the bright area just below the cooling pond next to the Pripyat River. The large dark area in the bottom right of the image is the Kiev Reservoir just north of Kiev. Also visible is the Dnieper River, which feeds into the Kiev Reservoir from the top of the image. The Soviet government evacuated 116,000 people within 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) of the Chernobyl reactor after the explosion and fire on April 26, 1986. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight

  15. Risk and Protective Factors for Psychological Adjustment among Low-Income, African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabalda, Megan K.; Thompson, Martie P.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation identifies unique risk and protective factors for internalizing and externalizing problems among 8- to 12-year-old, low-income, African American children and tests cumulative risk and protective models. A total of 152 mother-child dyads complete questionnaires. Receipt of food stamps, mother's distress, and child maltreatment…

  16. An Exploration of the Relationship between Social and Psychological Factors and Being Bullied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Kirk C.; Roberts, Roe

    2010-01-01

    Bullying in schools has received increasing attention since its implication in a number of school-based shooting incidents. A number of protective factors have been identified as reducing risk behaviors such as substance abuse among adolescents. This framework, however, has not been examined with respect to bullying victims. The results of a…

  17. Summary of Chernobyl followup research activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    In NUREG-1251, ``Implications of the Accident at Chernobyl for Safety Regulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants in the United States,`` April 1989, the NRC staff concluded that no immediate changes in NRC`s regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors were needed; however, it recommended that certain issues be considered further. NRC`s Chernobyl followup research program consisted of the research tasks undertaken in response to the recommendations in NUREG-1251. It included 23 tasks that addressed potential lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident. This report presents summaries of NRC`s Chernobyl followup research tasks. For each task, the Chernobyl-related issues are indicated, the work is described, and the staff`s findings and conclusions are presented. More detailed reports concerning the work are referenced where applicable. This report closes out NRC`s Chernobyl followup research program as such, but additional research will be conducted on some issues as needed. The report includes remarks concerning significant further activity with respect to the issues addressed.

  18. Summary of Chernobyl followup research activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    In NUREG-1251, Implications of the Accident at Chernobyl for Safety Regulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants in the United States,'' April 1989, the NRC staff concluded that no immediate changes in NRC's regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors were needed; however, it recommended that certain issues be considered further. NRC's Chernobyl followup research program consisted of the research tasks undertaken in response to the recommendations in NUREG-1251. It included 23 tasks that addressed potential lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident. This report presents summaries of NRC's Chernobyl followup research tasks. For each task, the Chernobyl-related issues are indicated, the work is described, and the staff's findings and conclusions are presented. More detailed reports concerning the work are referenced where applicable. This report closes out NRC's Chernobyl followup research program as such, but additional research will be conducted on some issues as needed. The report includes remarks concerning significant further activity with respect to the issues addressed.

  19. Differences and similarities between behavior of Fukushima-derived and Chernobyl-derived radiocesium in the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konoplev, Alexei; Nanba, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi; Golosov, Valentin; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Takase, Tsugiko; Yoschenko, Vasyl; Zheleznyak, Mark

    2016-04-01

    dissolved wash-off coefficients for Fukushima river watersheds are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than corresponding values for the Chernobyl zone. Normalized particulate wash-off coefficients are comparable for Fukushima and Chernobyl. The effective dispersion coefficients in the Fukushima soils were found to be relatively high (2-10 cm2/year) as compared to Chernobyl values. Investigation and analysis of Fukushima-derived r-Cs distribution in soils of Niida river catchment has led to identify accumulation zones of contaminated sediments on the floodplain. Contaminated sediment accumulation is one of the most important factors for predicting r-Cs redistribution on a catchment and its fluvial transport, and is also relevant for decision making on remediation options of contaminated territories.

  20. Feeling the blues of infertility in a South Asian context: psychological well-being and associated factors among Sri Lankan women with primary infertility.

    PubMed

    Lansakara, Nirosha; Wickramasinghe, Ananda Rajitha; Seneviratne, Harshalal Rukka

    2011-06-21

    Primary infertility may have a considerable impact on the psychological well-being of women. In the present study, the authors investigated the psychological well-being and its correlates among Sri Lankan women with primary infertility. A total of 177 women with primary infertility were compared with 177 fertile women matched for age and duration of marriage to identify differences in the psychological well-being between the two groups. They were recruited from a prevalence survey conducted in the district of Colombo, Sri Lanka from August 2005 to February 2006. The General Health Questionnaire-30 (GHQ-30) and Mental Health sub-components of the Short Form-36 (SF-36) were used to measure psychological well-being. In addition, infertile women with and without psychological distress were compared to identify the social, marital, treatment, and demographic factors independently associated with psychological distress. A significantly higher proportion of women with primary infertility (66.1%; 95% CI 58.6-73.0%) had psychological distress as compared to fertile women (18.6 %; 95% CI 13.2-25.2%; P < 0.001). After adjustment for confounding factors, infertile women who were psychologically distressed were significantly less educated (OR = 55.3; 95% CI 15.2-201.0), had poor marital communication (OR = 3.5; 95% CI 1.3-9.8), had a higher priority for having children (OR = 4.2; 95% CI 1.3-13.8), and had been previously (OR = 39.1; 95% CI 8.3-185.4) or currently (OR = 11.0; 95% CI 3.0-40.6) investigated/treated for infertility when compared with infertile women without distress. Women with primary infertility reported more distress as compared to fertile women. Psychological distress among infertile women was associated with poorer education, being previously/currently investigated/treated, placing higher importance on having children, and having poor marital communication. The need for psychological intervention targeting infertile women in clinics and community settings is

  1. Sport participation and its association with social and psychological factors known to predict substance use and abuse among youth: A scoping review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Heather J.; Camiré, Martin; Wade, Terrance J.; Cairney, John

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article presents the results of a scoping review of the sport literature (2000–2014) on psychological and social outcomes relevant to youth alcohol and illicit drug use. Prior reviews report that sport is related to increased alcohol use and reduced illicit drug use among youth, yet provide little guidance regarding the mechanisms that can explain this relationship. We reviewed the literature on sport participation and psychological and social outcomes to identify factors that could help explain this link. Psychological and social factors were selected as they play a paramount role in understanding youth alcohol and drug use. Fifty-nine articles were identified and included in the review. The literature generally supported connections between sport and positive psychological and social outcomes, including self-esteem, self-regulation, general life skills, and pro-social behaviour. Yet limitations in the methods and measures limit the ability to draw conclusions from the literature. In addition, the diversity of youth and sport was generally ignored in the literature. This article suggests a number of directions for future research that might improve our understanding of how sport impacts psychological and social outcomes along with alcohol and illicit drug use. PMID:26692895

  2. Association of biological, psychological and lifestyle risk factors for eating disturbances in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Teresa; Espinoza, Paola; Penelo, Eva; Mora, Marisol; González, Marcela L; Rosés, Rocío; Raich, Rosa M

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to assess the association of several risk factors for eating disturbances in adolescents. Participants were 448 girls and boys aged 12-15 years. Being female, higher body mass index, internalisation of standard of appearance, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, number of lifetime addictive behaviours and lower self-esteem were associated with higher eating disturbance scores, whereas frequency of sedentary behaviours and physical activity were not (R(2) ⩾ 41%). Findings suggest the need to guide prevention efforts towards the broad spectrum of individual potentially modifiable factors. A non-specific comprehensive perspective may be adequate to prevent problems related to weight, body image and drug use. PMID:26032800

  3. Consideration for solar system exploration - A system to Mars. [biomedical, environmental, and psychological factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Garshnek, Victoria

    1989-01-01

    Biomedical issues related to a manned mission to Mars are reviewed. Consideration is given to cardiovascular deconditioning, hematological and immunological changes, bone and muscle changes, nutritional issues, and the development of physiological countermeasures. Environmental issues are discussed, including radiation hazards, toxic chemical exposure, and the cabin environment. Also, human factors, performance and behavior, medical screening of the crew, disease prediction, and health maintenance are examined.

  4. The Role of Psychological and Physiological Factors in Decision Making under Risk and in a Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Fooken, Jonas; Schaffner, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Different methods to elicit risk attitudes of individuals often provide differing results despite a common theory. Reasons for such inconsistencies may be the different influence of underlying factors in risk-taking decisions. In order to evaluate this conjecture, a better understanding of underlying factors across methods and decision contexts is desirable. In this paper we study the difference in result of two different risk elicitation methods by linking estimates of risk attitudes to gender, age, and personality traits, which have been shown to be related. We also investigate the role of these factors during decision-making in a dilemma situation. For these two decision contexts we also investigate the decision-maker's physiological state during the decision, measured by heart rate variability (HRV), which we use as an indicator of emotional involvement. We found that the two elicitation methods provide different individual risk attitude measures which is partly reflected in a different gender effect between the methods. Personality traits explain only relatively little in terms of driving risk attitudes and the difference between methods. We also found that risk taking and the physiological state are related for one of the methods, suggesting that more emotionally involved individuals are more risk averse in the experiment. Finally, we found evidence that personality traits are connected to whether individuals made a decision in the dilemma situation, but risk attitudes and the physiological state were not indicative for the ability to decide in this decision context. PMID:26834591

  5. The Role of Psychological and Physiological Factors in Decision Making under Risk and in a Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Fooken, Jonas; Schaffner, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Different methods to elicit risk attitudes of individuals often provide differing results despite a common theory. Reasons for such inconsistencies may be the different influence of underlying factors in risk-taking decisions. In order to evaluate this conjecture, a better understanding of underlying factors across methods and decision contexts is desirable. In this paper we study the difference in result of two different risk elicitation methods by linking estimates of risk attitudes to gender, age, and personality traits, which have been shown to be related. We also investigate the role of these factors during decision-making in a dilemma situation. For these two decision contexts we also investigate the decision-maker's physiological state during the decision, measured by heart rate variability (HRV), which we use as an indicator of emotional involvement. We found that the two elicitation methods provide different individual risk attitude measures which is partly reflected in a different gender effect between the methods. Personality traits explain only relatively little in terms of driving risk attitudes and the difference between methods. We also found that risk taking and the physiological state are related for one of the methods, suggesting that more emotionally involved individuals are more risk averse in the experiment. Finally, we found evidence that personality traits are connected to whether individuals made a decision in the dilemma situation, but risk attitudes and the physiological state were not indicative for the ability to decide in this decision context. PMID:26834591

  6. Modular Sequence: English as a Second Language, Methods and Techniques. TTP 001.04 Psychology and Second-Language Teaching: Determining Factors of Success. Teachers Corps Bilingual Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Alberto; Melnick, Susan L.

    This learning module is designed to provide the prospective second-language teacher with an overview of the social and psychological factors affecting second-language learning and practical classroom application of this knowledge. The specific objectives of the module are to: (a) enable the student to explain the roles of attitude, age, aptitude,…

  7. Psychological Problems, Protective Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Youth Affected by Violence: The Burden of the Multiply Victimised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent…

  8. Factors Impacting the Psychological Adjustment of Saudi Arabian International Students in the United States: Self-Esteem, Social Support, and Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rundles, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    International populations face difficulties adjusting to a new culture. This is especially true for international students, who have to adjust to a new country and face academic demands concurrently. Research has explored various factors that impact psychological adjustment of international students and show the influence of self-esteem and social…

  9. Psychological factors related to physical education classes as predictors of students' intention to partake in leisure-time physical activity.

    PubMed

    Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Ponce-de-León-Elizondo, Ana; Sanz-Arazuri, Eva; Valdemoros-San-Emeterio, María de Los Ángeles; Martínez-Molina, Marina

    2016-04-01

    In view of the rise in sedentary lifestyle amongst young people, knowledge regarding their intention to partake in physical activity can be decisive when it comes to instilling physical activity habits to improve the current and future health of school students. Therefore, the object of this study was to find a predictive model of the intention to partake in leisure- time physical activity based on motivation, satisfaction and competence. The sample consisted of 347 Spanish, male, high school students and 411 female students aged between 13 and 18 years old. We used a questionnaire made up of the Sport Motivation Scale, Sport Satisfaction Instrument, and the competence factor in the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale and Intention to Partake in Leisure-Time Physical Activity, all of them adapted to school Physical Education. We carried out confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation models. The intention to partake in leisure-time physical activity was predicted by competence and the latter by satisfaction/fun. Intrinsic motivation was revealed to be the best predictor of satisfaction/fun. Intrinsic motivation should be enhanced in order to predict an intention to partake in physical activity in Physical Education students. PMID:27076009

  10. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Clinical Characteristics, Psychological Factors, and Peripheral Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hua; Fox, Mark; Zheng, Xia; Deng, Yanyong; Long, Yanqin; Huang, Zhihui; Du, Lijun; Xu, Fei; Dai, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Psychosocial factors and low-grade colonic mucosal immune activation have been suggested to play important roles in the pathophysiology of IBS. In total, 94 patients with IBS and 13 healthy volunteers underwent a 10 g lactulose hydrogen breath test (HBT) with concurrent (99m)Tc scintigraphy. All participants also completed a face-to-face questionnaire survey, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Life Event Stress (LES), and general information. Serum tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-8, and IL-10 levels were measured. The 89 enrolled patients with IBS and 13 healthy controls had no differences in baseline characteristics. The prevalence of SIBO in patients with IBS was higher than that in healthy controls (39% versus 8%, resp.; p = 0.026). Patients with IBS had higher anxiety, depression, and LES scores, but anxiety, depression, and LES scores were similar between the SIBO-positive and SIBO-negative groups. Psychological disorders were not associated with SIBO in patients with IBS. The serum IL-10 level was significantly lower in SIBO-positive than SIBO-negative patients with IBS. PMID:27379166

  11. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Clinical Characteristics, Psychological Factors, and Peripheral Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Hua; Fox, Mark; Zheng, Xia; Deng, Yanyong; Long, Yanqin; Huang, Zhihui; Du, Lijun; Xu, Fei; Dai, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Psychosocial factors and low-grade colonic mucosal immune activation have been suggested to play important roles in the pathophysiology of IBS. In total, 94 patients with IBS and 13 healthy volunteers underwent a 10 g lactulose hydrogen breath test (HBT) with concurrent 99mTc scintigraphy. All participants also completed a face-to-face questionnaire survey, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Life Event Stress (LES), and general information. Serum tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-8, and IL-10 levels were measured. The 89 enrolled patients with IBS and 13 healthy controls had no differences in baseline characteristics. The prevalence of SIBO in patients with IBS was higher than that in healthy controls (39% versus 8%, resp.; p = 0.026). Patients with IBS had higher anxiety, depression, and LES scores, but anxiety, depression, and LES scores were similar between the SIBO-positive and SIBO-negative groups. Psychological disorders were not associated with SIBO in patients with IBS. The serum IL-10 level was significantly lower in SIBO-positive than SIBO-negative patients with IBS. PMID:27379166

  12. Influence of Psychological Factors on Product Development. Lessons from Aerospace and other Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, E. S.

    2002-10-01

    Product development is a major determinant of quality and cost as companies throughout the world struggle to optimize product development processes. Engineering tasks are usually implicitly assumed to be a primarily technical activity, but in reality they feature numerous nontechnical factors as well. This book focuses on the interrelationships of social, technical, and organizational aspects of the product development process. Cases observed in industry and research laboratories are presented and interpreted based on the socio-technical system approach (Emery / Trist) of examining the reciprocal relationship between the technical and the social subsystems. This book is primarily intended for engineering and quality professionals who want to know the limitations of current methods used in product development, to examine the so-called soft factors by means of grounded studies of their effect on R&D performance, not only to acknowledge the influence of soft factors but to actively consider their potential to improve the work environment. Academic researchers of the topic will also find many references and material for advanced courses on project and quality management. In addition to numerous cases from the aerospace industry, its general solution concepts are generalizable to other industries in which the high degree of product complexity necessitates effective interaction among different disciplines. The historical evaluation is neither intended for introductory purposes nor to propose a return to the past, but as a survey of the relevant factors to be applied in present and future projects. The author holds a degree in Electronics Engineering from the Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronautica, Brazil, as well as a PhD in Administration Sciences from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland. He draws on profound academic research as well as a wealth of practical experience in avionics, telecommunications, systems control, and the space industry

  13. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: Identifying factors predictive of managing upper respiratory tract infections without antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Johnston, Marie; Steen, Nick; Pitts, Nigel B; Thomas, Ruth; Glidewell, Elizabeth; Maclennan, Graeme; Bonetti, Debbie; Walker, Anne

    2007-01-01

    use of antibiotics made significantly fewer scenario-based decisions to prescribe. In the cross theory analysis, perceived behavioural control (TPB), evidence of habitual behaviour (OLT), CS-SRM cause (chance/bad luck), and intention entered the equation, together explaining 36% of the variance. When predicting intention, at the theory level, the proportion of variance explained was: TPB, 30%; SCT, 29%; CS-SRM 27%; OLT, 43%. GPs who reported that they had already decided to change their management to try to avoid the use of antibiotics had a significantly higher intention to manage URTIs without prescribing antibiotics. In the cross theory analysis, OLT evidence of habitual behaviour, TPB attitudes, risk perception, CS-SRM control by doctor, TPB perceived behavioural control and CS-SRM control by treatment entered the equation, together explaining 49% of the variance in intention. Conclusion The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that predict clinical behaviour. However, a number of conceptual and methodological challenges remain. PMID:17683558

  14. The Chernobyl accident: Causes and consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Malinauskas, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Two explosions, one immediately following the other, in Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union signaled the worst disaster ever to befall the commercial nuclear power production industry. This accident, which occurred at 1:24 a.m. on April 26, 1986, resulted from an almost incredible series of operational errors associated, ironically, with an attempt to enhance the capability of the reactor to safely accommodate station blackout accidents (i.e., accidents arising from a loss of station electrical power). Disruption of the core, due to a prompt criticality excursion, resulted in the destruction of the core vault and reactor building and the sudden dispersal of about 3% of the fuel from the core region into the environment. Lesser but significant releases of radioactivity continued through May 6, 1986, before attempts to certain the radioactivity and cool the remnants of the core were successful. The amount and composition of material released in the course of the accident remain somewhat uncertain, and inconsistencies in the release estimates are evident. The Soviet estimates, in addition to the dispersal of about 3% of the fuel, include complete release of the noble gas core inventory, 20% of the fission product iodine inventory, 15% of the tellurium inventory, and 10 to 13% of the fission product cesium inventory. The iodine and cesium release estimates are not consistent with the noble gas values, and are as much as a factor of two less than some estimates made by experts outside the Soviet Union.

  15. Identifying psychological and socio-economic factors affecting motorcycle helmet use.

    PubMed

    Haqverdi, Mahdi Quchaniyan; Seyedabrishami, Seyedehsan; Groeger, John A

    2015-12-01

    Sixty percent of motorcyclist fatalities in traffic accidents of Iran are due to head injuries, but helmet use is low, despite it being a legal requirement. This study used face-to-face interviews to investigate the factors associated with helmet use among motorcycle riders in Mashhad city, the second largest city in Iran. Principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used for data reduction and identification of consistent features of the data. Ordered and multinomial logit analyses were used to quantify the influences on helmet use and non-use. The data show that 47% of the sample used a helmet, but a substantial proportion of these did not wear their helmet properly. In addition, 5% of motorcyclists believed that helmets reduced their safety. Norms, attitudes toward helmet use, risky traffic behavior and awareness of traffic rules were found to be the key determinants of helmet use, but perceptions of enforcement lacked influence. Duration of daily motorcycle trips, riding experience and type of job also affected helmet use. Results indicate that motorcyclist training, safety courses for offending motorcyclists and social programs to improve social norms and attitudes regarding helmet use are warranted, as are more effective law enforcement techniques, in order to increase proper use of helmets in Iranian motorcyclists. In addition, special safety courses should be considered for motorcyclists who have committed traffic violations. PMID:26410724

  16. Positive psychological factors are associated with lower PTSD symptoms among police officers: post Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    McCanlies, Erin C; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Andrew, Michael E; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Violanti, John M

    2014-12-01

    Following Hurricane Katrina, police officers in the New Orleans geographic area faced a number of challenges. This cross-sectional study examined the association between resilience, satisfaction with life, gratitude, posttraumatic growth, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in 84 male and 30 female police officers from Louisiana. Protective factors were measured using the Connor-Davidson Resilience scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Gratitude Questionnaire, and the Posttraumatic Growth inventory. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder were measured using the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist--Civilian (PCL-C). Potential associations were measured using linear regression and analysis of variance. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, and alcohol. Mean PCL-C symptoms were 29.5 ± 14.5 for females and 27.8 ± 12.1 for males. Adjusted mean levels of PCL-C symptoms significantly decreased as quartiles of resilience (p < .001), satisfaction with life (p < .001), and gratitude (p < .001) increased. In contrast, PCL-C symptoms were not associated with posttraumatic growth in this sample. These results indicate that positive factors such as resilience, satisfaction with life, and gratitude may help mitigate symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. To further explore these relationships, longitudinal follow-up in a larger population would be of interest. PMID:25476965

  17. Positive Psychological Factors are Associated with Lower PTSD Symptoms among Police Officers: Post Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    McCanlies, Erin C.; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Violanti, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Following Hurricane Katrina, police officers in the New Orleans geographic area faced a number of challenges. This cross-sectional study examined the association between resilience, satisfaction with life, gratitude, posttraumatic growth, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in 84 male and 30 female police officers from Louisiana. Protective factors were measured using the Connor–Davidson Resilience scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Gratitude Questionnaire, and the Posttraumatic Growth inventory. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder were measured using the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist—Civilian (PCL-C). Potential associations were measured using linear regression and analysis of variance. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, and alcohol. Mean PCL-C symptoms were 29.5 ± 14.5 for females and 27.8 ± 12.1 for males. Adjusted mean levels of PCL-C symptoms significantly decreased as quartiles of resilience (p <.001), satisfaction with life (p <.001), and gratitude (p <.001) increased. In contrast, PCL-C symptoms were not associated with posttraumatic growth in this sample. These results indicate that positive factors such as resilience, satisfaction with life, and gratitude may help mitigate symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. To further explore these relationships, longitudinal follow-up in a larger population would be of interest. PMID:25476965

  18. Can Psychological, Social and Demographical Factors Predict Clinical Characteristics Symptomatology of Bipolar Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Pawlak, Joanna; Kapelski, Pawel; Łabędzka, Magdalena; Skibinska, Maria; Zaremba, Dorota; Leszczynska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Hauser, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia (SCH) is a complex, psychiatric disorder affecting 1 % of population. Its clinical phenotype is heterogeneous with delusions, hallucinations, depression, disorganized behaviour and negative symptoms. Bipolar affective disorder (BD) refers to periodic changes in mood and activity from depression to mania. It affects 0.5-1.5 % of population. Two types of disorder (type I and type II) are distinguished by severity of mania episodes. In our analysis, we aimed to check if clinical and demographical characteristics of the sample are predictors of symptom dimensions occurrence in BD and SCH cases. We included total sample of 443 bipolar and 439 schizophrenia patients. Diagnosis was based on DSM-IV criteria using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. We applied regression models to analyse associations between clinical and demographical traits from OPCRIT and symptom dimensions. We used previously computed dimensions of schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder as quantitative traits for regression models. Male gender seemed protective factor for depression dimension in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder sample. Presence of definite psychosocial stressor prior disease seemed risk factor for depressive and suicidal domain in BD and SCH. OPCRIT items describing premorbid functioning seemed related with depression, positive and disorganised dimensions in schizophrenia and psychotic in BD. We proved clinical and demographical characteristics of the sample are predictors of symptom dimensions of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We also saw relation between clinical dimensions and course of disorder and impairment during disorder. PMID:26646576

  19. Physiological mechanisms, behavioral and psychological factors influencing the transfer of milk from mothers to their young.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Wibke; Woodside, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care".Producing milk to support the growth of their young is a central element of maternal care in mammals. In spite of the facts that ecological constraints influence nursing frequency, length of time until weaning and the composition of milk, there is considerable similarity in the anatomy and physiology of milk production and delivery across mammalian species. Here we provide an overview of cross species variation in nursing patterns and milk composition as well as the mechanisms underlying mammary gland development, milk production and letdown. Not all women breastfeed their infants, thus in later sections we review studies of factors that facilitate or impede the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. The results of these investigations suggest that the decisions to initiate and maintain breastfeeding are influenced by an array of personal, social and biological factors. Finally, studies comparing the development of breastfed and formula fed infants as well as those investigating associations between breastfeeding, maternal health and mother/infant interaction are reviewed. Leading health agencies including the World Health Organization and CDC advocate breastfeeding for at least the first 6months postpartum. To achieve these rates will require not only institutional support but also a focus on individual mother/infant dyads and their experience. PMID:26232032

  20. Individual Psychological Factors and Complex Interpersonal Conditions that Predict LGBT-Affirming Behavior.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul

    2015-08-01

    To counter homophobic behavior in schools, research is needed on heterosexual youth who act as allies to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth by engaging in LGBT-affirming behavior (e.g., voicing support, engaging in advocacy, countering homophobia). Among 624 heterosexual high school students (M age = 16.11; 53 % female; 88 % white), this study found that critical thinking, self-reflection, lower sexual prejudice, having more LGBT friends, and having sexual orientation-based discussions with peers were associated with engaging in more LGBT-affirming behavior. Several factors moderated the association between having sexual orientation-based discussions and LGBT-affirming behavior: the association was stronger among youth who described the tone of these discussions as more positive, who more often used positive problem-solving strategies, and who reported low sexual prejudice. The degree to which conversations were challenging did not moderate this association. Finally, having LGBT friends was more strongly associated with affirming behavior for youth who felt more connected and had more sexual orientation-based discussions with these friends. The findings underscore the need for research to identify other factors that prompt heterosexual youth to act as allies to LGBT youth. PMID:25663623

  1. Personality psychology and problem behaviors: HIV risk and the five-factor model.

    PubMed

    Trobst, K K; Wiggins, J S; Costa, P T; Herbst, J H; McCrae, R R; Masters, H L

    2000-12-01

    Studies of personality and problem behaviors may begin with analyses of the problem and develop hypotheses about personality traits that might be relevant; or they may begin with models of personality and explore links to behavior. Because it is well validated and relatively comprehensive, the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality lends itself to systematic exploratory studies that may sometimes lead to unanticipated findings. In this article, we review a program of research in a high-risk, disadvantaged population that illustrates the utility of the FFM in understanding health risk behavior. Previous analyses showed that behavior associated with the risk of HIV infection can be predicted from the personality dispositions of Neuroticism and (low) Conscientiousness. PMID:11130739

  2. Child and Family Psychiatric and Psychological Factors Associated With Child Physical Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jonathan M.; Ortega, Alexander N.; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne; Kuo, Alice A.; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-01-01

    To examine associations among Puerto Rican children's physical health problems and children's internalizing disorders, parental psychopathology and acculturative stress, and family factors. A population-based probability sample of 2491 Puerto Rican children, aged between 5 and 13 years, and caregivers from the South Bronx and the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico participated in this study. The parent version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV was used to assess children's internalizing disorders. Children's anxiety disorders, parental psychopathology, and acculturative stress were associated with childhood asthma, abdominal pain, and headaches. Children's depressive disorders, maternal acceptance, and family functioning were associated with abdominal pain and headaches. Parents of children living in Puerto Rico were more likely to report physical health problems in their children than in the Bronx. Children's internalizing disorders, parental psychopathology, and acculturative stress may be important areas to target among Puerto Rican children with physical health problems. PMID:20386256

  3. Determinants of early alcohol use in healthy adolescents: the differential contribution of neuroimaging and psychological factors.

    PubMed

    Nees, Frauke; Tzschoppe, Jelka; Patrick, Christopher J; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Steiner, Sabina; Poustka, Luise; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Gallinat, Jürgen; Lathrop, Mark; Mann, Karl; Artiges, Eric; Paus, Tomas; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Robbins, Trevor W; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Spanagel, Rainer; Struve, Maren; Loth, Eva; Schumann, Gunter; Flor, Herta

    2012-03-01

    Individual variation in reward sensitivity may have an important role in early substance use and subsequent development of substance abuse. This may be especially important during adolescence, a transition period marked by approach behavior and a propensity toward risk taking, novelty seeking and alteration of the social landscape. However, little is known about the relative contribution of personality, behavior, and brain responses for prediction of alcohol use in adolescents. In this study, we applied factor analyses and structural equation modeling to reward-related brain responses assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging during a monetary incentive delay task. In addition, novelty seeking, sensation seeking, impulsivity, extraversion, and behavioral measures of risk taking were entered as predictors of early onset of drinking in a sample of 14-year-old healthy adolescents (N=324). Reward-associated behavior, personality, and brain responses all contributed to alcohol intake with personality explaining a higher proportion of the variance than behavior and brain responses. When only the ventral striatum was used, a small non-significant contribution to the prediction of early alcohol use was found. These data suggest that the role of reward-related brain activation may be more important in addiction than initiation of early drinking, where personality traits and reward-related behaviors were more significant. With up to 26% of explained variance, the interrelation of reward-related personality traits, behavior, and neural response patterns may convey risk for later alcohol abuse in adolescence, and thus may be identified as a vulnerability factor for the development of substance use disorders. PMID:22113088

  4. Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

  5. The psychology of recycled water: Factors predicting disgust and willingness to use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wester, Julia; Timpano, Kiara R.; ćek, Demet; Broad, Kenneth

    2016-04-01

    Water recycling is increasingly recognized as a critical strategy to maintain sustainable water supplies. Yet public acceptance of water recycling often lags behind. It is unclear the degree to which individuals are aware of the role of disgust in their decisions about recycled water, how important anticipated disgust is to willingness to use when controlling for other factors, and what the most effective method of presenting information about water recycling would be to decrease disgust reactions and increase willingness to use. We used a two-pronged approach, combining a survey with open-ended and psychometric measures with an experimental manipulation, in a U.S., web-based sample (N = 428). Only 2% of participants self-identified disgust as important to their decisions about recycled water. When measured directly using a Likert scale, however, anticipated disgust was the strongest predictor of willingness to use recycled water when controlling for individual differences that have been shown to impact willingness to use, including a subscale of individual pathogen disgust sensitivity. Finally, participants were exposed to an educational brochure about water reuse framed either affectively or cognitively or were shown a simple, neutral definition. Exposure to either the affectively or cognitively framed brochures lowered anticipated disgust, but did not significantly affect willingness to use recycled water compared to the neutral condition.

  6. Anorexia nervosa in a girl of Chinese origin: psychological, somatic and transcultural factors.

    PubMed

    Demarque, Mélissa; Guzman, Gabriela; Morrison, Elodie; Ahovi, Jonathan; Moro, Marie Rose; Blanchet-Collet, Corinne

    2015-04-01

    The increased prevalence of anorexia nervosa reported in non-Western societies inevitably raises the issue of the influence of cultural factors in the genesis and the patterns of this disorder. Anorexia nervosa is not a straightforward Western culture-bound syndrome, although an influence of Western ideals of thinness does exist. The illness seems more related to rapid cultural shifts, either societal or individual, such as those occurring in the migratory process. Migrants and their children have to face the acculturation process and may experience a culture-clash. The pathology can also fulfil a positive acculturative function. This is a case study concerning a second-generation Chinese girl born in France presenting with anorexia nervosa. This case leads us to raise the issue of the choice of diagnostic criteria in relation to cultural background. We will also discuss the impact of the family's migratory history on the construction of identity in adolescence. Finally we will explore the specific features of care provision for anorexia nervosa in a transcultural setting. PMID:24363225

  7. The impact of psychological factors on self-reported sleep disturbance among people living in the vicinity of wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Leila; Nezhad-Ahmadi, Mohammad-Reza; Gohari, Mahmood; Bigelow, Philip; McColl, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    Canada's wind energy capacity has grown from approximately 137MW (MW) in 2000 to over 9700MW in 2014, and this progressive development has made Canada the fifth-largest market in the world for the installation of new wind turbines (WTs). Although wind energy is now one of the fastest growing sources of power in Canada and many other countries, the growth in both number and size of WTs has raised questions regarding potential health impacts on individuals who live close to such turbines. This study is the first published research using a prospective cohort design, with noise and sleep measurements obtained before and after installation of WTs to investigate effect of such turbines on self-reported sleep disturbances of nearby residents. Subjective assessment of sleep disturbance was conducted in Ontario, Canada through standard sleep and sleepiness scales, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Epworth daytime Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Both audible and infra-sound noises were also measured inside the bedroom. Descriptive and comparison analyses were performed to investigate the effect of WT exposure on sleep data. Results of the analysis show that participants reported poorer sleep quality if they had a negative attitude to WTs, if they had concerns related to property devaluation, and if they could see turbines from their properties. This study provides evidence for the role of individual differences and psychological factors in reports of sleep disturbance by people living in the vicinity of WTs. PMID:27131794

  8. Predictors of the risk factors for suicide identified by the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip James; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Donker, Tara; Soubelet, Andrea

    2014-10-30

    The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) has been supported by recent research. However, the nature of the models׳ three major constructs--perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and acquired capability - requires further investigation. In this paper, we test a number of hypotheses about the predictors and correlates of the IPTS constructs. Participants aged 32-38 from an Australian population-based longitudinal cohort study (n=1167) were assessed. IPTS constructs were measured by items from the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) and Acquired Capability for Suicide Scale (ACSS), alongside demographic and additional measures, measured concurrently or approximately 8 years earlier. Cross-sectional analyses evaluating the IPTS supported earlier work. Mental health was significantly related to all three IPTS constructs, but depression and anxiety caseness were associated only with perceived burdensomeness. Various social support measures were differentially associated with the three constructs. Stressful events and lifetime traumas had robust independent associations with acquired capability for suicide only. The IPTS model provides a useful framework for conceptualising suicide risk. The findings highlight the importance of perceived social support in suicide risk, identify the importance of personality and other factors as new avenues of research, and provide some validation for the independence of the constructs. PMID:24947914

  9. 1. Chernobyl contamination through time and space.

    PubMed

    Yablokov, Alexey V; Nesterenko, Vassily B

    2009-11-01

    Radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl meltdown spread over 40% of Europe (including Austria, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, Romania, Great Britain, Germany, Italy, France, Greece, Iceland, Slovenia) and wide territories in Asia (including Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Emirates, China), northern Africa, and North America. Nearly 400 million people resided in territories that were contaminated with radioactivity at a level higher than 4 kBq/m(2) (0.11 Ci/km(2)) from April to July 1986. Nearly 5 million people (including, more than 1 million children) still live with dangerous levels of radioactive contamination in Belarus, Ukraine, and European Russia. Claims that the Chernobyl radioactive fallout adds "only 2%" to the global radioactive background overshadows the fact that many affected territories had previously dangerously high levels of radiation. Even if the current level is low, there was high irradiation in the first days and weeks after the Chernobyl catastrophe. There is no reasonable explanation for the fact that the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization (Chernobyl Forum, 2005) have completely neglected the consequences of radioactive contamination in other countries, which received more than 50% of the Chernobyl radionuclides, and addressed concerns only in Belarus, Ukraine, and European Russia. PMID:20002040

  10. Introduction: geoscientific knowledgebase of Chernobyl and Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Voitsekhovych, Oleg; Korobova, Elena; Stohl, Andreas; Wotawa, Gerhard; Kita, Kazuyuki; Aoyama, Michio; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2013-04-01

    Radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011) accidents is a multi-disciplinary geoscience problem. Just this session (GI1.4) contains presentations of (i) atmospheric transport for both short and long distances, (ii) aerosol physics and chemistry, (ii) geophysical measurement method and logistics, (iv) inversion method to estimate the geophysical source term and decay, (v) transport, migration, and sedimentation in the surface water system, (vi) transport and sedimentation in the ocean, (vii) soil chemistry and physics, (viii) forest ecosystem, (ix) risk assessments, which are inter-related to each other. Because of rareness of a severe accident like Chernobyl and Fukushima, the Chernobyl's 27 years experience is the only knowledgebase that provides a good guidance for the Fukushima case in understanding the physical/chemical processes related to the environmental radioactive contamination and in providing future prospectives, e.g., what we should do next for the observation/remediation. Unfortunately, the multi-disciplinary nature of the radioactive contamination problem makes it very difficult for a single scientist to obtain the overview of all geoscientific aspects of the Chernobyl experience. The aim of this introductory talk is to give a comprehensive knowledge of the wide geoscientific aspects of the Chernobyl contamination to Fukushima-related geoscience community.

  11. Radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 25 years since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Oskolkov, Boris Y; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zinkevich, Lubov I; Proskura, Nikolai I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities in the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste-related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and, in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. PMID:21878768

  12. A cross-sectional study identifying the pattern of factors related to psychological intimate partner violence exposure in Slovenian family practice attendees: what hurt them the most

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is yet to be fully acknowledged as a public health problem in Slovenia. This study aimed to explore the health and other patient characteristics associated with psychological IPV exposure and gender-related specificity in family clinic attendees. Methods In a multi-centre cross-sectional study, 960 family practice attendees aged 18 years and above were recruited. In 689 interviews with currently- or previously-partnered patients, the short form of A Domestic Violence Exposure Questionnaire and additional questions about behavioural patterns of exposure to psychological abuse in the past year were given. General practitioners (GPs) reviewed the medical charts of 470 patients who met the IPV exposure criteria. The Domestic Violence Exposure Medical Chart Check List was used, collecting data on the patients’ lives and physical, sexual and reproductive, and psychological health status, as well as sick leave, hospitalisation, visits to family practices and referrals to other clinical specialists in the past year. In multivariate logistic regression modelling the factors associated with past year psychological IPV exposure were identified, with P < 0.05 set as the level of statistical significance. Results Of the participants (n = 470), 12.1% (n = 57) were exposed to psychological IPV in the previous year (46 women and 11 men). They expressed more complaints regarding sexual and reproductive (p = 0.011), and psychological and behavioural status (p <0.001), in the year prior to the survey. Unemployment or working part-time, a college degree, an intimate relationship of six years or more and a history of disputes in the intimate relationship, increased the odds of psychological IPV exposure in the sample, explaining 41% of the variance. In females, unemployment and a history of disputes in the intimate relationship explained 43% of the variance. Conclusions The prevalence of psychological IPV above 10% during the past year

  13. Factors Influencing Facebook Usage and Facebook Addictive Tendency in University Students: The Role of Online Psychological Privacy and Facebook Usage Motivation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Fu-Yuan; Chiu, Su-Lin

    2016-04-01

    There are few studies analysing the influence of personal traits and motivation factors on Facebook usage and Facebook addictive tendency as seen in university students. In this study, 225 Taiwanese university students completed a questionnaire to determine their online psychological privacy scale, Facebook usage motivation scale, Facebook usage scale and Facebook addictive tendency scale, in order to evaluate the items that can be conceptualized as the effect of university students' online psychological privacy personal trait and motive factors, and Facebook usage motivation with respect to Facebook usage and Facebook addictive tendency. The study found that a desire for more online psychological privacy correlates with a stronger motivation to use Facebook and more Facebook usage behaviour among university students who may become high-risk groups for Facebook addictive tendency. The study found that a desire for or an acceptance of a lower online psychological privacy correlates with a stronger motivation to use Facebook among university students who may have more Facebook usage behaviour. This study can help understand university students' Facebook usage and Facebook addictive tendency and provide feature indicators for those who may become high-risk groups for Facebook addictive tendency. Finally, this study conducts discussion and proposes relevant suggestions for future study. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24916923

  14. Risk Factors Linked to Psychological Distress, Productivity Losses, and Sick Leave in Low-Back-Pain Employees: A Three-Year Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Marchettini, Paolo; Zarbo, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background. Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common health problems worldwide. Purpose. To investigate the link between baseline demographic and occupational, medical, and lifestyle data with following psychological and occupational outcomes in a large sample of employees with LBP over a 3-year period. Study Design. Three-year prospective cohort study. Methods. Italian-speaking employees (N = 4492) with a diagnosis of LBP were included. Screening at Time 1 was done in order to collect information about severity and classification of LBP, demographic, lifestyle, and occupational status data. Psychological distress (PGWBI) and occupational burden were assessed after 3 years. Results. After 3 years, employees with LBP not due to organic causes had an increased risk of psychological distress. Gender appears to be an important variable for following occupational burden. Indeed, being a white-collar man with a LBP without organic causes seems to be a protective factor for following work outcomes, while being a white-collar woman with a LBP not due to organic causes appears to be a risk factor for subsequent sick leave. Moreover, LBP severity affects psychological and occupational outcomes. Conclusion. Our findings have several implications that could be considered in preventive and supportive programs for LBP employees.

  15. Behavioral differences of irradiated persons associated with the Kyshtym, Chelyabinsk, and Chernobyl Nuclear Accidents. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, D.L.

    1992-12-31

    Three nuclear accidents besides Chernobyl have occurred in the former Soviet Union. The accidents occurred around Kyshtym and Chelyabinsk in the Ural Mountains between 1949 and 1967 and contaminated over one-half million people. The health ministries are now interested in the data previously collected on these irradiated populations in order to examine the health (e.g., psychological, hereditary, genome damage, etc.) implications of long-term radiation exposure.

  16. Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

    1999-01-01

    The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

  17. Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

    1999-11-01

    The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

  18. Psychological violence against pregnant women in a prenatal care cohort: rates and associated factors in São Luís, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Violence against pregnant women has been associated with gestational and perinatal disorders. Psychological violence is the type least investigated and its associated factors have been little studied. The present study was conducted in order to estimate prevalence rates and analyze the factors associated with exclusive and recurrent psychological violence in the municipality of São Luís, Brazil. Methods Data regarding 982 pregnant women, aged from 14 to 45 years, interviewed in 2010 and 2011 in a prenatal cohort were used. A self-applied questionnaire was used to screen for violence. Pregnant women submitted to physical and sexual violence were excluded from the analysis of factors associated with exclusive psychological violence. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by a Poisson regression model with a hierarchical approach at three levels. At level 1 of the theoretical-conceptual model, we analyzed demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and variables that express gender inequalities; at level 2, we analyzed social support received by the women, and at level 3, the life experiences of the pregnant women. Results Prevalence rate of exclusive psychological violence was 41.6% and of recurrent violence was 32.6%. Exclusive psychological violence was associated with pregnant women’s age of 14 to 18 years (PR: 1.32 95% CI: 1.04 – 1.70), pregnant women’s schooling superior to that of her intimate partner (PR: 1.54 95% CI: 1.09 – 2.16), inadequate social affective support/positive social interaction (PR: 1.34 95% CI: 1.11 – 1.62), use of illicit drugs by the pregnant women (PR: 1.80 95% CI: 1.16 – 2.81) and having had six or more intimate partners in life (PR: 1.52 95% CI: 1.18 – 1.96). Recurrent exclusive psychological violence was associated with inadequate social affective support/positive social interaction (PR: 1.47 95% CI: 1.15 – 1.87), use of illicit drugs by the pregnant women (PR: 2,28 95% CI: 1

  19. Parental Hostility and Its Sources in Psychologically Abusive Mothers: A Test of the Three-Factor Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesnik-Oberstein, Max; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study of 44 psychologically abusing mothers and 128 nonabusing mothers determined that abusing mothers had higher levels of hostile feelings, associated with low marital coping skills, negative childhood upbringing, and high level of strain. (Author/JDD)

  20. Dose estimates from the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, R.; Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.

    1987-11-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) responded to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union by utilizing long-range atmospheric dispersion modeling to estimate the amount of radioactivity released (source term) and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. In later assessments, after the release of data on the accident by the Soviet Union, the ARAC team used their mesoscale to regional scale model to focus in on the radiation dose distribution within the Soviet Union and the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Higher cancer risk continues after Chernobyl

    Cancer.gov

    Nearly 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine, exposure to radioactive iodine-131(I-131, a radioactive isotope) from fallout may be responsible for thyroid cancers that are still occurring among people who lived in the Chernobyl area and were children or adolescents at the time of the accident, researchers say. An international team of researchers led by the NCI found a clear dose-response relationship, in which higher absorption of radiation from I-131 led to an increased risk for thyroid cancer that has not seemed to diminish over time.

  2. Online Interventions for Social Marketing Health Behavior Change Campaigns: A Meta-Analysis of Psychological Architectures and Adherence Factors

    PubMed Central

    Thelwall, Mike; Dawes, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Background Researchers and practitioners have developed numerous online interventions that encourage people to reduce their drinking, increase their exercise, and better manage their weight. Motivations to develop eHealth interventions may be driven by the Internet’s reach, interactivity, cost-effectiveness, and studies that show online interventions work. However, when designing online interventions suitable for public campaigns, there are few evidence-based guidelines, taxonomies are difficult to apply, many studies lack impact data, and prior meta-analyses are not applicable to large-scale public campaigns targeting voluntary behavioral change. Objectives This meta-analysis assessed online intervention design features in order to inform the development of online campaigns, such as those employed by social marketers, that seek to encourage voluntary health behavior change. A further objective was to increase understanding of the relationships between intervention adherence, study adherence, and behavioral outcomes. Methods Drawing on systematic review methods, a combination of 84 query terms were used in 5 bibliographic databases with additional gray literature searches. This resulted in 1271 abstracts and papers; 31 met the inclusion criteria. In total, 29 papers describing 30 interventions were included in the primary meta-analysis, with the 2 additional studies qualifying for the adherence analysis. Using a random effects model, the first analysis estimated the overall effect size, including groupings by control conditions and time factors. The second analysis assessed the impacts of psychological design features that were coded with taxonomies from evidence-based behavioral medicine, persuasive technology, and other behavioral influence fields. These separate systems were integrated into a coding framework model called the communication-based influence components model. Finally, the third analysis assessed the relationships between intervention adherence

  3. The influence of behavioural and psychological factors on medication adherence over time in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a study in the biologics era

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Catharine; McBeth, John; Cordingley, Lis; Watson, Kath; Hyrich, Kimme L.; Symmons, Deborah P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate levels of self-reported adherence to biologic treatment and establish the contribution of demographic, physical and psychological factors to biologic medication adherence in an RA cohort. Methods. Adalimumab-treated patients were recruited through the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for RA between May 2007 and April 2009. Demographic and baseline psychological measures including illness and medication beliefs were collected. Disease activity (28-item DAS), physical function (HAQ) and quality of life (36-item Short Form Health Survey) were also measured at baseline and at 6, 12 and 18 months. Adherence was assessed at each follow-up using the patient self-completed Compliance Questionnaire for Rheumatology (CQR). Multilevel mixed effects modelling analysis was performed to investigate predictors of adherence. Results. Of the 329 Adalimumab-treated patients included, low adherence (CQR score <65) was reported in 23%, with 41% reporting low adherence at at least one time point. After controlling for age and disease duration, factors independently predictive of increased adherence were increased belief in medication necessity, with baseline effect diminishing over time [β coefficient 1.68 (s.e. 0.19), P = 0.0001], lower medication concerns [0.50 (0.15), P = 0.001], with this effect remaining throughout follow-up, increased professional or family member support [0.81 (0.32), P = 0.01], strong views of illness being chronic [0.32 (0.14), P = 0.025] and increased treatment control [0.41 (0.19), P = 0.032]. Conclusion. Wider recognition of the importance of psychological factors, particularly medication beliefs, in driving medication adherence could have substantial clinical and health economic benefits in RA. The psychological factors we have identified are putative targets for strategies to improve adherence in RA. PMID:25972390

  4. The prevalence of exposure to domestic violence and the factors associated with co-occurrence of psychological and physical violence exposure: a sample from primary care patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since many health problems are associated with abuse and neglect at all ages, domestic violence victims may be considered as a group of primary care patients in need of special attention. Methods The aim of this multi-centre study was to assess the prevalence of domestic violence in primary care patients, and to identify those factors which influence the co-occurrence of psychological and physical violence exposure and their consequences (physical, sexual and reproductive and psychological) as obtained from medical records. A study was carried out in 28 family practices in Slovenia in 2009. Twenty-eight family physicians approached every fifth family practice attendee, regardless of gender, to be interviewed about their exposure to domestic violence and asked to specify the perpetrator and the frequency. Out of 840 patients asked, 829 individuals, 61.0% women (n = 506) and 39.0% men (n = 323) were assessed (98.7% response rate). They represented a randomised sample of general practice attendees, aged 18 years and above, who had visited their physician for health problems and who were given a physical examination. Visits for administrative purposes were excluded. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with exposure to both psychological and physical violence. Results Of 829 patients, 15.3% reported some type of domestic violence experienced during the previous five years; 5.9% reported physical and 9.4% psychological violence; of these 19.2% of men and 80.8% of women had been exposed to psychological violence, while 22.4% of men and 77.6% of women had been exposed to physical violence. The domestic violence victims were mostly women (p < 0.001) aged up to 35 years (p = 0.001). Exposure to psychological violence was more prevalent than exposure to physical violence. Of the women, 20.0% were exposed to either type of violence, compared to 8.0% of male participants, who reported they were rarely exposed

  5. Since Chernobyl: A World of Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clamp, Alice

    1991-01-01

    This article chronicles the international collaboration behind the technological review and the subsequent upgrading of operational safety procedures at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants within the Soviet Union and various Eastern European countries in the aftermath of the tragedy at Chernobyl. (JJK)

  6. Negatively biased emotion perception in depression as a contributing factor to psychological aggression perpetration: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Amy D; Sippel, Lauren M; Belleau, Emily L

    2011-01-01

    Based on research linking depressive symptoms and intimate partner aggression perpetration with negatively biased perception of social stimuli, the present authors examined biased perception of emotional expressions as a mechanism in the frequently observed relationship between depression and psychological aggression perpetration. In all, 30 university students made valence ratings (negative to positive) of emotional facial expressions and completed measures of depressive symptoms and psychological aggression perpetration. As expected, depressive symptoms were positively associated with psychological aggression perpetration in an individual's current relationship, and this relationship was mediated by ratings of negative emotional expressions. These findings suggest that negatively biased perception of emotional expressions within the context of elevated depressive symptoms may represent an early stage of information processing that leads to aggressive relationship behaviors. PMID:22208133

  7. Psychological factors related to physical, social, and mental dimensions of the SF-36: a population-based study of middle-aged women and men

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Evalill; Kristenson, Margareta

    2010-01-01

    Background: Measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are increasingly used as patient-reported outcome measures in routine health care. Research on determinants and correlates of HRQoL has, therefore, grown in importance. Earlier studies have generally been patient-based and few of them have examined differences between women and men. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between psychological factors and physical, social, and mental dimensions of HRQoL, as measured by the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), in a normal population and to see if observed relations were the same for women and men. Methods: Relations between scale scores for the eight scales of SF-36 and scale scores for Self-esteem, Sense of Coherence, Perceived Control, Depressed Mood (CES-D), and Cynicism were assessed through partial correlation and multiple linear regression analyses on a sample of 505 women and 502 men (aged 45–69 years), stratified for sex and adjusted for effects of age, presence of disease, back pain, lifestyle, and social support. Results: All psychological factors tested, except Cynicism, were significantly correlated to all scales of the SF-36 for women and men (Pearson product-moment partial correlation coefficient, |r| = 0.11–0.63 and |r| = 0.11–0.60, respectively). The addition of psychological factors into regression models resulted in significant total explained variance (R2) changes in all scales of the SF-36 for both sexes. Any discrepancies between women and men pertained more to the strength of relationships rather than the significance of different psychological factors. Conclusion: In this population-based study, psychological factors showed significant correlation, for women and men alike, with the physical and social scales of SF-36, as well as the mental scales. These findings suggest that assessments of HRQoL are not merely a measure of absolute function but are also dependent on people’s perception of

  8. Radiation ecology issues associated with murine rodents and shrews in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Gaschak, Sergey P; Maklyuk, Yulia A; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the "soil-to-plant" chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy h(-1) in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the "Red Forest"). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy h(-1), respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy h(-1), respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described. PMID:21878767

  9. RADIATION ECOLOGY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE RODENTS AND SHREWS IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals, and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the 'soil-to-plant' chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy hr{sup -1} in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the 'Red Forest'). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  10. Felt Obligation to Help Others as a Protective Factor Against Losses in Psychological Well-being Following Functional Decline in Middle and Later Life

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This study examined felt obligation to help others in two domains (close others and society) as protective factors against losses in psychological well-being following functional decline. Lagged-dependent regression models were estimated using data from 849 respondents aged 35–74 years and without any functional limitations at baseline in the 1995–2005 National Survey of Midlife in the United States. Greater felt obligation to help close others protected against declining self-acceptance in the face of more severe functional decline, and greater felt obligation to help society protected against declining personal growth and self-acceptance. Greater felt obligation to help close others and society protected against increasing depressive symptoms at younger ages in adulthood. Findings suggest the importance for additional research on how aspects of altruism can promote psychological adaptation to declining functional health in middle and later life. PMID:19825942

  11. Effects of a 10-Week High-Intensity Exercise Intervention on College Staff with Psychological Burnout and Multiple Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyer, Lukas; Dreyer, Sonja; Rankin, Dean

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a 10-week physical exercise program on the health status of college staff. Eighty-one participants were pre-tested on 22 variables including physical fitness, biochemical status, psychological health, and morphological measures. Participants in an experimental group (n = 61) received a 10-week intervention…

  12. When Distress Hits Home: The Role of Contextual Factors and Psychological Distress in Predicting Employees' Responses to Abusive Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.; Scott, Kristin L.; Zagenczyk, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    We developed a model of the relationships among aggressive norms, abusive supervision, psychological distress, family undermining, and supervisor-directed deviance. We tested the model in 2 studies using multisource data: a 3-wave investigation of 184 full-time employees (Study 1) and a 2-wave investigation of 188 restaurant workers (Study 2).…

  13. Factors Associated with Higher Sitting Time in General, Chronic Disease, and Psychologically-Distressed, Adult Populations: Findings from the 45 & Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Costigan, Sarah A.; Short, Camille; Grunseit, Anne; James, Erica; Johnson, Natalie; Bauman, Adrian; D’Este, Catherine; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Rhodes, Ryan E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with higher sitting time in general, chronic disease, and psychologically-distressed, adult populations (aged ≥45 years). A series of logistic regression models examined potential socio-demographic and health factors associated with higher sitting (≥6hrs/day) in adults from the 45 and Up Study (n = 227,187), including four separate subsamples for analysis comprising those who had ever had heart disease (n = 26,599), cancer (n = 36,381), diabetes (n = 19,550) or psychological distress (n = 48,334). Odds of higher sitting were significantly (p<.01) associated with a number of factors across these groups, with an effect size of ORs≥1.5 observed for the high-income ≥$70,000AUD, employed full-time and severe physical limitations demographics. Identification of key factors associated with higher sitting time in this population-based sample will assist development of broad-based, public health and targeted strategies to reduce sitting-time. In particular, those categorized as being high-income earners, full-time workers, as well as those with severe physical limitations need to be of priority, as higher sitting appears to be substantial across these groups. PMID:26039739

  14. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  15. Psychological Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Psychology has recently identified itself as a health care profession and codified this change in the bylaws of the American Psychological Association. Although psychologists make a number of contributions to the nation's health-and mental health-the most identifiable activity focuses on treating physical or psychological pathology with…

  16. Psychological abuse behavior exhibited by caregivers in the care of the elderly and correlated factors in long-term care facilities in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Jy

    2005-12-01

    This study explored the state and the correlated factors of psychological abuse behavior among caregivers in long-term care facilities in Taiwan. A cross-sectional design utilizing a descriptive-correlational approach was conducted. A sociodemographic sheet, Caregiver Psychological Elder Abuse Behavior Scale (CPEAB), and Caregiver's Burden Scale (CBS) were employed to collect data. A total of 114 caregivers completed the study, of whom 16.1% returned an CPEAB score greater than 40. The potential range of CPEAB scores ranged from 20 to 80, with the highest score indicating the greatest tendency toward psychological abuse behavior. Among the total of 20 CPEAB indicators, "Accuse him/her verbally", "Ignore his/her request", and "Insult him/her" received the highest item mean scores (M = 2.18, 2.12, 2.02; SD = 0.83, 0.84, 0.91). Significant relationships between the CPEAB and subject age, professional status, educational level, geriatric care training, and CBS score were found (p < .05 - .001). These results indicate that caregivers who are younger in age, less educated and lacking in geriatric training had a greater burden and displayed a tendency toward more abusive behavior. Another important finding was that nurses displayed more abusive behavior than their care attendant counterparts. Results of this study provide important information that may be used in medical and social interventions and policies aimed at improving quality of life for the institutionalized elderly. PMID:16372238

  17. Beyond expectation: a case for nonpersonal contextual factors in a more comprehensive approach to the placebo effect and the contribution of environmental psychology

    PubMed Central

    Sütterlin, Stefan; Egner, Lars E; Lugo, Ricardo G; Wojniusz, Slawomir

    2015-01-01

    Creating an optimized health care environment to maximize the probability and magnitude of placebo effects draws on a number of well-researched mechanisms such as the patient’s positive expectation toward treatment outcome. Patient-centered communication styles influence expectations and can thus be considered as a form of supplemental treatment. Unconsciously processed contextual triggering and facilitating placebo effects are omnipresent in clinical settings as well as in all other social and physical environments. Contextual cues in both the social and physical domain exert influences on the recipient’s emotional state and recreational experiences. While the majority of research focuses on improving the patients’ expectations, classical conditioning effects of nonsocial contextual factors have been largely neglected in discussions on practical implementation of placebo-enhancing environments. Built on the empirically well-supported argument that conditioning processes act as a powerful tool to mobilize self-healing resources just as verbally induced expectations do, we argue for a stronger consideration of the effects of permanent, nonsocial and nonverbal environmental contexts. Environmental psychology is a new field of research within the psychological domain and offers a toolbox of opportunities for medical psychological research and health care practitioners to improve the treatment outcomes and benefits of health care environments. PMID:26586970

  18. Beyond expectation: a case for nonpersonal contextual factors in a more comprehensive approach to the placebo effect and the contribution of environmental psychology.

    PubMed

    Sütterlin, Stefan; Egner, Lars E; Lugo, Ricardo G; Wojniusz, Slawomir

    2015-01-01

    Creating an optimized health care environment to maximize the probability and magnitude of placebo effects draws on a number of well-researched mechanisms such as the patient's positive expectation toward treatment outcome. Patient-centered communication styles influence expectations and can thus be considered as a form of supplemental treatment. Unconsciously processed contextual triggering and facilitating placebo effects are omnipresent in clinical settings as well as in all other social and physical environments. Contextual cues in both the social and physical domain exert influences on the recipient's emotional state and recreational experiences. While the majority of research focuses on improving the patients' expectations, classical conditioning effects of nonsocial contextual factors have been largely neglected in discussions on practical implementation of placebo-enhancing environments. Built on the empirically well-supported argument that conditioning processes act as a powerful tool to mobilize self-healing resources just as verbally induced expectations do, we argue for a stronger consideration of the effects of permanent, nonsocial and nonverbal environmental contexts. Environmental psychology is a new field of research within the psychological domain and offers a toolbox of opportunities for medical psychological research and health care practitioners to improve the treatment outcomes and benefits of health care environments. PMID:26586970

  19. Prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors in tuberculosis patients in public primary care clinics in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychological distress has been rarely investigated among tuberculosis patients in low-resource settings despite the fact that mental ill health has far-reaching consequences for the health outcome of tuberculosis (TB) patients. In this study, we assessed the prevalence and predictors of psychological distress as a proxy for common mental disorders among tuberculosis (TB) patients in South Africa, where over 60 % of the TB patients are co-infected with HIV. Methods We interviewed 4900 tuberculosis public primary care patients within one month of initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment for the presence of psychological distress using the Kessler-10 item scale (K-10), and identified predictors of distress using multiple logistic regressions. The Kessler scale contains items associated with anxiety and depression. Data on socio-demographic variables, health status, alcohol and tobacco use and adherence to anti-TB drugs and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) were collected using a structured questionnaire. Results Using a cut off score of ≥28 and ≥16 on the K-10, 32.9 % and 81 % of tuberculosis patients had symptoms of distress, respectively. In multivariable analysis older age (OR = 1.52; 95 % CI = 1.24-1.85), lower formal education (OR = 0.77; 95 % CI = 0.65-0.91), poverty (OR = 1.90; 95 % CI = 1.57-2.31) and not married, separated, divorced or widowed (OR = 0.74; 95 % CI = 0.62-0.87) were associated with psychological distress (K-10 ≥28), and older age (OR = 1.30; 95 % CI = 1.00-1.69), lower formal education (OR = 0.55; 95 % CI = 0.42-0.71), poverty (OR = 2.02; 95 % CI = 1.50-2.70) and being HIV positive (OR = 1.44; 95 % CI = 1.19-1.74) were associated with psychological distress (K-10 ≥16). In the final model mental illness co-morbidity (hazardous or harmful alcohol use) and non-adherence to anti-TB medication and/or antiretroviral therapy were not associated with

  20. The lesson of the Chernobyl disaster.

    PubMed

    Milhaud, G

    1991-01-01

    On April 26, 1986 a major nuclear disaster took place at 1 h 24 min local time, destroying the fourth reactor of the Chernobyl plant. Five years later the consequences of the disaster are still not fully known. Nevertheless the long term future of nuclear energy in the world is uncertain. Questions need to be answered by observing hard facts if emotional attitudes are not to prevail over reality. The reactor and its core were destroyed by an explosion, causing two radioactive jet emissions of iodine 131, followed by caesium 137. Both elements are mainly incorporated in the body via food. The Chernobyl disaster was a consequence of inadequate safety regulations and human error. Enforcement of strict regulations are likely to be highly effective in preventing a further catastrophe. However, governments should consider another possibility. What would be the consequences for public health if a terroristic act deliberately destroyed a nuclear power station? PMID:1912375

  1. Structural aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.C.; Cummings, G.E.

    1988-09-02

    On April 26, 1986 the world's worst nuclear power plant accident occurred at the Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the USSR. This paper presents a discussion of the design of the Chernobyl Power Plant, the sequence of events that led to the accident and the damage caused by the resulting explosion. The structural design features that contributed to the accident and resulting damage will be highlighted. Photographs and sketches obtained from various worldwide news agencies will be shown to try and gain a perspective of the extent of the damage. The aftermath, clean-up, and current situation will be discussed and the important lessons learned for the structural engineer will be presented. 15 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Factors Associated with the Anxiety, Subjective Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem of Parents of Blind Children.

    PubMed

    Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesús; López-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Góngora, David; Daza, María Teresa; Aguilar-Parra, José Manuel; Salido-Campos, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to examine the connection of the personal, social and family context, educational variables with the levels of anxiety, subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem in a sample of 61 parents of blind children. Results suggest that parents present less anxiety when they have only one child, possess a technical degree, receive remuneration for their work, their child's visual impairment is not progressive, their knowledge about their child's disability is appropriate, and their leisure and labour possibilities have not been affected. Their psychological well-being is higher when they are married in first nuptials and perceive that their health is good. Their well-being is negatively related to reduced leisure, and self-esteem is lower when labour possibilities have been affected. In order for these families to achieve a more pleasant life, with greater psychological well-being, lower anxiety and higher self-esteem, professionals should be aware of the aspects with a negative impact. PMID:27603670

  3. Building of Environmental Literacy among Middle School Students: The Role of In-School, Out of School, and Psychological Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Kathryn Tate

    Solving environmental challenges will require an environmentally literate citizenry, equipped with ecological knowledge, pro-environmental attitudes, problem-solving skills, and motivation toward environmentally responsible behaviors. This dissertation addresses three approaches to building environmental literacy (EL) among middle school students: through schools (Chapter 1), through activities outside of school (Chapter 2), and through understanding psychological factors that affect environmental perceptions (Chapter 3). Chapter 1. This study examined school-wide EE programs among middle schools in North Carolina, including the use of published EE curricula and time outdoors while controlling for teacher education level and experience, student demographics, and school attributes. Our sample included an EE group selected from schools with registered schoolwide EE programs, and a control group randomly selected from NC middle schools that were not registered as EE schools. Students were given an EL survey at the beginning and end of the spring 2012 semester. Use of published EE curricula, time outdoors, and having teachers with advanced degrees and mid-level teaching experience (between 3 and 5 years) were positively related with EL whereas minority status (Hispanic and black) was negatively related with EL. Results suggest that though school-wide EE programs may vary in effectiveness, the use of published EE curricula paired with time outdoors represents a promising strategy. Further, investments in both new and veteran teachers to build and maintain enthusiasm for EE may help to boost student EL levels. Middle school represents a pivotal time for influencing EL, as improvement was slower among older students. Differences in EL levels based on gender suggest boys and girls may possess complementary skills sets when approaching environmental issues. Our findings suggest ethnicity related disparities in EL levels may be mitigated by time spent in nature, especially

  4. Building of Environmental Literacy among Middle School Students: The Role of In-School, Out of School, and Psychological Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Kathryn Tate

    Solving environmental challenges will require an environmentally literate citizenry, equipped with ecological knowledge, pro-environmental attitudes, problem-solving skills, and motivation toward environmentally responsible behaviors. This dissertation addresses three approaches to building environmental literacy (EL) among middle school students: through schools (Chapter 1), through activities outside of school (Chapter 2), and through understanding psychological factors that affect environmental perceptions (Chapter 3). Chapter 1. This study examined school-wide EE programs among middle schools in North Carolina, including the use of published EE curricula and time outdoors while controlling for teacher education level and experience, student demographics, and school attributes. Our sample included an EE group selected from schools with registered schoolwide EE programs, and a control group randomly selected from NC middle schools that were not registered as EE schools. Students were given an EL survey at the beginning and end of the spring 2012 semester. Use of published EE curricula, time outdoors, and having teachers with advanced degrees and mid-level teaching experience (between 3 and 5 years) were positively related with EL whereas minority status (Hispanic and black) was negatively related with EL. Results suggest that though school-wide EE programs may vary in effectiveness, the use of published EE curricula paired with time outdoors represents a promising strategy. Further, investments in both new and veteran teachers to build and maintain enthusiasm for EE may help to boost student EL levels. Middle school represents a pivotal time for influencing EL, as improvement was slower among older students. Differences in EL levels based on gender suggest boys and girls may possess complementary skills sets when approaching environmental issues. Our findings suggest ethnicity related disparities in EL levels may be mitigated by time spent in nature, especially

  5. Ten years of the Chernobyl era

    SciTech Connect

    Shcherbak, Y.M.

    1996-04-01

    A decade ago reactor number 4 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant exploded, showering much of eastern Europe with radioactive debris. The Ukranian ambassador to the U.S., who was one of the medical researchers in Kiev and one of the first physicians to treat wounded, looks at the medical aftermath of the accident. He also contemplates what additional technological and political measures need to be taken to contain the lasting danger. 4 refs.

  6. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive /sup 131/I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of /sup 131/I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10/sup 6/ person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10/sup 7/ person-rem (2 x 10/sup 5/ Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

  7. Organizational stress and individual strain: A social-psychological study of risk factors in coronary heart disease among administrators, engineers, and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplan, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    It is hypothesized that organizational stresses, such as high quantitative work load, responsibility for persons, poor relations with role senders, and contact with alien organizational territories, may be associated with high levels of psychological and physiological strain which are risk factors in coronary heart disease. It is further hypothesized that persons with coronary-prone Type A personality characteristics are most likely to exhibit strain under conditions of organizational stress. Measures of these stresses, personality traits, and strains were obtained from 205 male NASA administrators, engineers, and scientists. Type A personality measures included sense of time urgency, persistence, involved striving, leadership, and preference for competitive and environmentally overburdening situations.

  8. Treating stimuli as a random factor in social psychology: a new and comprehensive solution to a pervasive but largely ignored problem.

    PubMed

    Judd, Charles M; Westfall, Jacob; Kenny, David A

    2012-07-01

    Throughout social and cognitive psychology, participants are routinely asked to respond in some way to experimental stimuli that are thought to represent categories of theoretical interest. For instance, in measures of implicit attitudes, participants are primed with pictures of specific African American and White stimulus persons sampled in some way from possible stimuli that might have been used. Yet seldom is the sampling of stimuli taken into account in the analysis of the resulting data, in spite of numerous warnings about the perils of ignoring stimulus variation (Clark, 1973; Kenny, 1985; Wells & Windschitl, 1999). Part of this failure to attend to stimulus variation is due to the demands imposed by traditional analysis of variance procedures for the analysis of data when both participants and stimuli are treated as random factors. In this article, we present a comprehensive solution using mixed models for the analysis of data with crossed random factors (e.g., participants and stimuli). We show the substantial biases inherent in analyses that ignore one or the other of the random factors, and we illustrate the substantial advantages of the mixed models approach with both hypothetical and actual, well-known data sets in social psychology (Bem, 2011; Blair, Chapleau, & Judd, 2005; Correll, Park, Judd, & Wittenbrink, 2002). PMID:22612667

  9. Chernobyl: an unbelievable failure to help.

    PubMed

    Bertell, Rosalie

    2008-01-01

    The disaster at the Chernobyl power reactor near Kiev, which began on April 26, 1986, was one of the world's worst industrial accidents. Yet the global community, usually most generous in its aid to a stricken community, has been slow to understand the scope of the disaster and reach out to the most devastated people of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. This article probes the causes of this confusion of perception and failure of response; clearly the problem is one of communication. Has the International Atomic Energy Agency betrayed the victims of the Chernobyl disaster because of its plans to promote the "peaceful atom" nuclear program in the developing world? Has the World Health Organization failed to provide clear, reliable information on the health effects resulting from the disaster? Are other historical problems or actors interfering with reasonable handling of the late effects of a nuclear disaster? Most importantly, what can be done to remedy this situation, to assist those most hurt by the late effects of Chernobyl and prevent such injustice in future? With the current promotion of nuclear energy as a "solution" to global climate change, we need to take a sober second look at the nuclear energy experiment and management of its hazards. PMID:18724581

  10. Trauma management: Chernobyl in Belarus and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Zhukova, Ekatherina

    2016-06-01

    Although the Chernobyl nuclear disaster happened in the Soviet Union in 1986, we still do not know how the most affected states - Ukraine and Belarus - have managed this tragedy since independence. Drawing on the concept of cultural trauma, this article compares Chernobyl narratives in Belarus and Ukraine over the past 28 years. It shows that national narratives of Chernobyl differ, representing the varying ways in which the state overcomes trauma. Our understanding of post-communist transformations can be improved by analysing trauma management narratives and their importance for new national identity construction. These narratives also bring new insights to our vision of cultural trauma by linking it to ontological insecurity. The article demonstrates how the state can become an arena of trauma process as it commands material and symbolic resources to deal with trauma. In general, it contributes to a better understanding of how the same traumatic event can become a source of solidarity in one community, but a source of hostility in another. PMID:27191056

  11. The Chernobyl accident — an epidemiological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cardis, E.; Hatch, M.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since radioactive releases from the Chernobyl nuclear accident led to exposure of millions of people in Europe. Studies of affected populations have provided important new data on the links between radiation and cancer – particularly the risk of thyroid tumours from exposure to iodine isotopes - that are important not only for a fuller scientific understanding of radiation effects, but also for radiation protection. It is now well-documented that children and adolescents exposed to radioiodines from Chernobyl fallout have a sizeable dose-related increase in thyroid cancer, with risk greatest in those youngest at exposure and with a suggestion that deficiency in stable iodine may increase the risk. Data on thyroid cancer risks to other age groups are somewhat less definitive. In addition, there have been reported increases in incidence and mortality from non-thyroid cancers and non-cancer endpoints. Although some studies are difficult to interpret because of methodological limitations, recent investigations of Chernobyl clean-up workers (“liquidators”) have provided evidence of increased risks of leukaemia and other hematological malignancies and of cataracts, and suggestions of an increase in risk of cardiovascular diseases, following low doses and low dose rates of radiation. Further careful follow-up of these populations, including establishment and long-term support of life-span study cohorts, could provide additional important information for the quantification of radiation risks and the protection of persons exposed to low doses of radiation. PMID:21396807

  12. Chernobyl lessons learned review of N Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, E.T.; McNeece, J.P.; Omberg, R.P.; Stepnewski, D.D.; Lutz, R.J.; Henry, R.E.; Bonser, K.D.; Miller, N.R.

    1987-10-01

    A broad-base review of the N Reactor plant, design characteristics, administrative controls and responses unique to upset conditions has been completed. The review was keyed to Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-defined issues associated with the Chernobyl accident. Physical features of N Reactor that preclude an accident like Chernobyl include: lack of autocatalytic reactivity insertion (i.e., negative coolant void and power coefficents) and two separate, fast-acting scram systems. Administrative controls in place at N Reactor would effectively protect against the operator errors and safety violations that set up the Chernobyl accident. Several items were identified where further near-term action is appropriate to ensure effectiveness of existing safety features: Resolve a question concerning the exact point at which Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) activation by manual actions should be implemented or deferred if automatic ECCS trip fails. Ensure appropriate revision of the Emergency Response Guides and full communication of the correct procedure to all Operations, Safety and cognizant Technology staff. Train reactor operators in the currently recognized significance of the Graphite and Shield Cooling System (GSCS) in severe accident situations and cover this appropriately in the Emergency Response Guides. Complete reviews which establish an independent verification that pressure tube rupture will not propagate to other tubes. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Thyroid consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Pacini, F; Vorontsova, T; Molinaro, E; Shavrova, E; Agate, L; Kuchinskaya, E; Elisei, R; Demidchik, E P; Pinchera, A

    1999-12-01

    It is well recognized that the use of external irradiation of the head and neck to treat patients with various non-thyroid disorders increases their risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma years after radiation exposure. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has also been reported in survivors of the atomic bombs in Japan, as well as in Marshall Island residents exposed to radiation during the testing of hydrogen bombs. More recently, exposure to radioactive fallout as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has clearly caused an enormous increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus, Ukraine, and, to a lesser extent, in the Russian Federation, starting in 1990. When clinical and epidemiological features of thyroid carcinomas diagnosed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident are compared with those of naturally occurring thyroid carcinomas in patients of the same age group in Italy and France, it becomes apparent that the post-Chernobyl thyroid carcinomas were much less influenced by gender, virtually always papillary (solid and follicular variants), more aggressive at presentation and more frequently associated with thyroid autoimmunity. Gene mutations involving the RET proto-oncogene, and less frequently TRK, have been shown to be causative events specific for papillary cancer. RET activation was found in nearly 70% of the patients who developed papillary thyroid carcinomas following the Chernobyl accident. In addition to thyroid cancer, radiation-induced thyroid diseases include benign thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, with or without thyroid insufficiency, as observed in populations after environmental exposure to radioisotopes of iodine and in the survivors of atomic bomb explosions. On this basis, the authors evaluated thyroid autoimmune phenomena in normal children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident. The results demonstrated an increased prevalence of circulating thyroid

  14. What are the psychological factors influencing attendance, non-attendance and re-attendance at a breast screening centre?

    PubMed Central

    Fallowfield, L J; Rodway, A; Baum, M

    1990-01-01

    We describe some preliminary findings from a pilot study using three recently developed questionnaires which assessed items such as the health beliefs, knowledge about cancer and attitudes to breast cancer screening in 242 women invited to attend for mammographic screening in South East London. We suggest that these questionnaires should be used in all regional centres both to monitor psychological variables and to identify local problems within the service which may be influencing the up-take of invitations to come for screening. PMID:2213798

  15. Finding the team for Mars: a psychological and human factors analysis of a Mars Desert Research Station crew.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Benjamin D; Hancock, P A; Deaton, John; Suedfeld, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A two-week mission in March and April of 2011 sent six team members to the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS). MDRS, a research facility in the high Utah desert, provides an analogue for the harsh and unusual working conditions that will be faced by men and women who one day explore Mars. During the mission a selection of quantitative and qualitative psychological tests were administered to the international, multidisciplinary team. A selection of the results are presented along with discussion. PMID:22317591

  16. Multilevel Causal Analysis of Socio-Psychological and Behavioral Factors of Health Providers and Clients That Affect Health Behavioral Modification in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Intarakamhang, Ungsinun; Intarakamhang, Patrawut

    2015-01-01

    The Comprehensive Lifestyle Intervention, which integrates behavioral therapy, is the main ideal management of the clients with obesity. Various socio-psychological factors can affect outcome of the program. The Purposes: To determine the socio-psychological factors at the client and provider groups that affect health behavior modification (HBM) in obese clients, and to investigate the cross-level interaction of factors that affect HBM. The samples included 87 health providers and 412 clients using stratified random sampling. Hierarchical Linear Model was used to analyze in a questionnaire with reliability of 0.8-0.9. Results: 1) for the clients: 1.1) Attitudes towards healthy behavior (AHB), health-related knowledge, and trust in the provider predicted self-efficacy at 49.40%; 1.2) AHB and support from the provider predicted self-regulation at 75.50%; and 1.3) AHB, trust in the provider and support from the provider predicted self-care at 26.6%. 2) for the health providers: 2.1) Health quotient (HQ), project management (PM), support from the team, and the team emotional quotient (EQ) predicted self-efficacy at 71.30%; 2.2) PM and HQ predicted self-regulation at 51.60%; and 2.3) PM, team EQ and HQ predicted self-care at 77.30%., 3) No cross-level interaction of factors between the clients and the providers was identified to affect HBM. Conclusion: The obese client’s AHB is the factor that significantly influenced self-efficacy, self-regulation and self-care (3SELF).At the health provider level, both HQ and PM significantly influenced 3SELF. Behavioral. PMID:26153178

  17. Reporting on Radiation: A Content Analysis of Chernobyl Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Evaluates how well the media guided readers and viewers through the Chernobyl disaster. Concludes that the press and television did not provide enough radiation and risk information in their coverage of the Chernobyl accident, but what was provided was appropriate, even-handed, and conservative. (NKA)

  18. [Psychological violences].

    PubMed

    Leray, M

    2014-12-01

    Among the various forms of violence inflicted on a child, psychological violence holds a significant place in terms of frequency, diversity and damage done, as serious and pervasive consequences can be observed on the child's development. This article highlights and assesses the psychological consequences provoked by psychological violences perpetrated by parents, teachers or other children in different situations, such as domestic violence, divorce and school bullying. It also gives some indications for intervention and prevention in those situations. PMID:25449447

  19. Some Restrictive Conditions for the Occurrence of Psychological Reactance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabitz-Gniech, Gisla

    1971-01-01

    Attempts to relate psychological reactance and conformity and concludes that the social situation and personality factors necessarily play a part in specifications of the psychological reactance concept. (MB)

  20. Impact of risk factors, activities and psychological disorders on the health of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often have organ dysfunction and resulting poor quality of life; however, in China little information is available regarding factors that affect their health. Here, the relationship between risk factors, activities and psychological disorders and health of patients with COPD in rural areas of Xuzhou, China was assessed. Methods A cross-sectional study of 7597 COPD patients randomly selected by place of residence from 24,641 COPD patients who had been identified by screening of the 1.10 million health records of all residents of the target area was carried out to evaluate the relationships between risk factors, activities, psychological disorders and the ADO index (age, dyspnea, and airflow obstruction). The participants were assessed by spirometry and by administering a newly designed face-to-face questionnaire, which included items on general factors, risk factors, activities and psychological disorders. Correlations between the ADO index and the items addressed by the questionnaire were calculated. Results The mean score of the ADO index was 3.7 ± 1.6. The ADO indices of current smokers, ex-smokers, and non-smokers were 3.9 ± 2.1, 3.7 ± 1.9, and 3.2 ± 1.5, respectively (P < 0.001). The ADO indices of cooks and non-cooks were 4.0 ± 2.2 and 3.5 ± 1.7, respectively (P < 0.001). The correlation coefficient between self-assessment of health status and ADO index was 0.976 (P < 0.001). Only 5.7% of patients reported no limitation of their daily living activities. The correlation coefficient between daily living activities and ADO index was 0.981 (P < 0.001). Only 5.5% of patients reported no limitation of social activities. The correlation coefficient between social activities and ADO index was 0.989 (P < 0.001), between the assessed anxiety score and ADO index 0.972 (P < 0.001), and between the assessed depression score and ADO index 0.989 (P

  1. [Political psychology].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects. PMID:23587541

  2. Obese parents – obese children? Psychological-psychiatric risk factors of parental behavior and experience for the development of obesity in children aged 0–3: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidences of childhood overweight and obesity have increased substantially and with them the prevalence of associated somatic and psychiatric health problems. Therefore, it is important to identify modifiable risk factors for early childhood overweight in order to develop effective prevention or intervention programs. Besides biological factors, familial interactions and parental behavioral patterns may influence children’s weight development. Longitudinal investigation of children at overweight risk could help to detect significant risk and protective factors. We aim to describe infants’ weight development over time and identify risk and protective factors for the incidence of childhood obesity. Based on our findings we will draw up a risk model that will lay the foundation for an intervention/prevention program. Methods/Design We present the protocol of a prospective longitudinal study in which we investigate families with children aged from 6 months to 47 months. In half of the families at least one parent is obese (risk group), in the other half both parents are normal weight (control group). Based on developmental and health-psychological models, we consider measurements at three levels: the child, the parents and parent–child-relationship. Three assessment points are approximately one year apart. At each assessment point we evaluate the psychological, social, and behavioral situation of the parents as well as the physical and psychosocial development of the child. Parents are interviewed, fill in questionnaires, and take part in standardized interaction tasks with their child in a feeding and in a playing context in our research laboratory. The quality of these video-taped parent–child interactions is assessed by analyzing them with standardized, validated instruments according to scientific standards. Discussion Strengths of the presented study are the prospective longitudinal design, the multi-informant approach, including the

  3. Radionuclide monitoring in Northern Ireland of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, B J; Cranley, K

    1987-01-01

    Northern Ireland received higher radiation doses due to the radionuclide contamination from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident than did the south of England. Levels of radioactive iodine (131I) and caesium (137Cs) in cows' milk in Northern Ireland increased to 166 and 120 Bq/l respectively in May 1986, but had decreased by factors of one million, and of twenty-five, respectively, by 1 September 1986. The resultant radiation doses represent less than one per cent of those received by a Northern Ireland individual over a period of 40 years from natural background radiation sources. The added risk to any individual from the Chernobyl accident will therefore be very small and may best be judged in the context of the enormously greater risk of death due to potentially preventable diseases, such as smoking-related lung cancer, and coronary heart disease. PMID:3590387

  4. Insomnia among patients with advanced disease during admission in a Palliative Care Unit: a prospective observational study on its frequency and association with psychological, physical and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were: 1) to assess the frequency of insomnia among patients during admission in a Palliative Care Unit (PCU); 2) to study the association between emotional distress and insomnia, taking physical, environmental and other psychological factors into account. Methods Prospective observational study including patients consecutively admitted to a PCU during eight months, excluding those with severe cognitive problems or too low performance status. Insomnia was assessed by asking a single question and by using the Sleep Disturbance Scale (SDS), and emotional distress using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Physical, environmental and other psychological factors potentially interfering with sleep quality were evaluated. Association between insomnia and the factors evaluated was studied using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results 61 patients were included (mean age 71.5 years; 95% with oncological disease); 38 (62%) answered “yes” to the insomnia single question and 29 (47%) showed moderate to severe insomnia according to the SDS. 65% showed clinically significant emotional distress and 79% had nocturnal rumination. The physical symptoms most often mentioned as interfering with sleep quality were pain (69%) and dyspnoea (36%). 77% reported at least one environmental disturbance. In the univariate analysis, answering “yes” to the insomnia single question was significantly associated with higher HADS score, anxiety, nocturnal rumination, clear knowledge of the diagnosis, higher performance status and dyspnoea; moderate to severe insomnia was significantly associated with nocturnal rumination, higher performance status, environmental disturbances and daytime sleepiness. In the multivariate regression analysis, answering “yes” to the single question was associated with dyspnoea (OR 7.2 [1.65-31.27]; p = 0.009), nocturnal rumination (OR 5.5 [1.05-28.49]; p = 0.04) and higher performance

  5. Risk of hematological malignancies among Chernobyl liquidators

    PubMed Central

    Kesminiene, Ausrele; Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Ivanov, Viktor K.; Malakhova, Irina V.; Kurtinaitis, Juozas; Stengrevics, Aivars; Tekkel, Mare; Anspaugh, Lynn R.; Bouville, André; Chekin, Sergei; Chumak, Vadim V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Gapanovich, Vladimir; Golovanov, Ivan; Hubert, Phillip; Illichev, Sergei V.; Khait, Svetlana E.; Krjuchkov, Viktor P.; Maceika, Evaldas; Maksyoutov, Marat; Mirkhaidarov, Anatoly K.; Polyakov, Semion; Shchukina, Natalia; Tenet, Vanessa; Tserakhovich, Tatyana I.; Tsykalo, Aleksandr; Tukov, Aleksandr R.; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    A case-control study of hematological malignancies was conducted among Chernobyl liquidators (accident recovery workers) from Belarus, Russia and Baltic countries in order to assess the effect of low-to-medium dose protracted radiation exposures on the relative risk of these diseases. The study was nested within cohorts of liquidators who had worked in 1986–87 around the Chernobyl plant. 117 cases (69 leukemia, 34 non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) and 14 other malignancies of lymphoid and hematopoietic tissue) and 481 matched controls were included in the study. Individual dose to the bone marrow and uncertainties were estimated for each subject. The main analyses were restricted to 70 cases (40 leukemia, 20 NHL and 10 other) and their 287 matched controls with reliable information on work in the Chernobyl area. Most subjects received very low doses (median 13 mGy). For all diagnoses combined, a significantly elevated OR was seen at doses of 200 mGy and above. The Excess Relative Risk (ERR) per 100 mGy was 0.60 (90% confidence interval (CI): −0.02, 2.35). The corresponding estimate for leukemia excluding chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) was 0.50 (90%CI −0.38, 5.7). It is slightly higher than, but statistically compatible with, those estimated from a-bomb survivors and recent low dose-rate studies. Although sensitivity analyses showed generally similar results, we cannot rule out the possibility that biases and uncertainties could have led to over or underestimation of the risk in this study. PMID:19138033

  6. Risk of hematological malignancies among Chernobyl liquidators.

    PubMed

    Kesminiene, Ausrele; Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Ivanov, Viktor K; Malakhova, Irina V; Kurtinaitis, Juozas; Stengrevics, Aivars; Tekkel, Mare; Anspaugh, Lynn R; Bouville, André; Chekin, Sergei; Chumak, Vadim V; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Gapanovich, Vladimir; Golovanov, Ivan; Hubert, Phillipe; Illichev, Sergei V; Khait, Svetlana E; Kryuchkov, Viktor P; Maceika, Evaldas; Maksyoutov, Marat; Mirkhaidarov, Anatoly K; Polyakov, Semion; Shchukina, Natalia; Tenet, Vanessa; Tserakhovich, Tatyana I; Tsykalo, Aleksandr; Tukov, Aleksandr R; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2008-12-01

    A case-control study of hematological malignancies was conducted among Chernobyl liquidators (accident recovery workers) from Belarus, Russia and Baltic countries to assess the effect of low- to medium-dose protracted radiation exposures on the relative risk of these diseases. The study was nested within cohorts of liquidators who had worked around the Chernobyl plant in 1986-1987. A total of 117 cases [69 leukemia, 34 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 14 other malignancies of lymphoid and hematopoietic tissue] and 481 matched controls were included in the study. Individual dose to the bone marrow and uncertainties were estimated for each subject. The main analyses were restricted to 70 cases (40 leukemia, 20 NHL and 10 other) and their 287 matched controls with reliable information on work in the Chernobyl area. Most subjects received very low doses (median 13 mGy). For all diagnoses combined, a significantly elevated OR was seen at doses of 200 mGy and above. The excess relative risk (ERR) per 100 mGy was 0.60 [90% confidence interval (CI) -0.02, 2.35]. The corresponding estimate for leukemia excluding chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) was 0.50 (90% CI -0.38, 5.7). It is slightly higher than but statistically compatible with those estimated from A-bomb survivors and recent low-dose-rate studies. Although sensitivity analyses showed generally similar results, we cannot rule out the possibility that biases and uncertainties could have led to over- or underestimation of the risk in this study. PMID:19138033

  7. Czech Republic 20 years after Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Rosina, Jozef; Kvasnák, Eugen; Suta, Daniel; Kostrhun, Tomás; Drábová, Dana

    2008-01-01

    The territory of the Czech Republic was contaminated as a result of the breakdown in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The Czech population received low doses of ionising radiation which, though it could not cause a deterministic impact, could have had stochastic effects expressed in the years following the accident. Twenty years after the accident is a long enough time to assess its stochastic effects, primarily tumours and genetic impairment. The moderate amount of radioactive fallout received by the Czech population in 1986 increased thyroid cancer in the following years; on the other hand, no obvious genetic impact was found. PMID:18375464

  8. Psychological issues in IVF.

    PubMed

    Dennerstein, L; Morse, C

    1985-12-01

    The role of psychological factors in IVF is complex. Psychological issues intertwine with physical ones, often with additive effects. The very diagnosis of infertility is likely to cause stress. In addition, the many investigations and procedures may have compounded distress. There are probably a small number of patients in whom psychological factors may induce infertility. But in the majority, psychological factors may exacerbate infertility and influence the patient's and partner's responses. Mental, sexual, marital and social adjustment may all be affected. The procedure of IVF is likely to have a further impact. A pilot study of couples entering an IVF programme revealed the women to be highly anxious and to conform strongly to feminine stereotypes. Many had received psychiatric help in the past. The idiopathic group appeared to cope less well with stress and had higher anxiety and neuroticism scores. Follow-up revealed that IVF had a profound impact on many of the women. Most had received no counselling in the interim. In those who completed questionnaires at follow-up, a differential effect was observed between the organic and idiopathic groups. State anxiety fell in the idiopathic group but so did marital adjustment. The clinician is advised to incorporate consideration of the psychological aspects of IVF into every aspect of the programme. The addition of a psycho-social team may assist the gynaecologist in this and help the couple to make an optimal adjustment. PMID:3833441

  9. Psychological as well as illness factors influence acceptance of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and gastrostomy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): a prospective population study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Naomi H; Landau, Sabine; Janssen, Anna; Lyall, Rebecca; Higginson, Irene; Burman, Rachel; McCrone, Paul; Sakel, Mohammed; Ellis, Catherine M; Shaw, Christopher E; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Leigh, P Nigel; Goldstein, Laura H

    2014-09-01

    Our objective was to identify factors associated with acceptance of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and gastrostomy in an exploratory population-based study. Seventy-eight people with ALS at least six months post-diagnosis, and 50 caregivers, were recruited from the South-East ALS Register. Baseline physical, cognitive and psychological measures were obtained. Three-monthly follow-ups monitored whether patients had accepted or refused NIV or gastrostomy. Following an intervention decision, post-decision interviews repeated baseline measures and included further intervention-specific questionnaires. Results showed that 32 people with ALS made at least one intervention decision and of these 10 decided about both NIV and gastrostomy. While illness factors predicted those needing to make an intervention decision, cognitive and education status, and level of executive dysfunction were associated with decision-making and acceptance or refusal of interventions. Patients' understanding of their illness, their early approach to considering interventions and carer-related factors were also associated with treatment decisions. In conclusion, our findings highlight the complexity of decision-making and provide a platform for designing further studies. Cognitive and psychosocial factors may assume a greater role in palliative care decisions for people with ALS than has been explicitly recognized. Future work must clarify how to ensure patients are not inadvertently being denied suitable interventions. PMID:24597488

  10. Psychological Resilience after Hurricane Sandy: The Influence of Individual- and Community-Level Factors on Mental Health after a Large-Scale Natural Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Sampson, Laura; Gruebner, Oliver; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Several individual-level factors are known to promote psychological resilience in the aftermath of disasters. Far less is known about the role of community-level factors in shaping postdisaster mental health. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of both individual- and community-level factors on resilience after Hurricane Sandy. A representative sample of household residents (N = 418) from 293 New York City census tracts that were most heavily affected by the storm completed telephone interviews approximately 13–16 months postdisaster. Multilevel multivariable models explored the independent and interactive contributions of individual- and community-level factors to posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms. At the individual-level, having experienced or witnessed any lifetime traumatic event was significantly associated with higher depression and posttraumatic stress, whereas demographic characteristics (e.g., older age, non-Hispanic Black race) and more disaster-related stressors were significantly associated with higher posttraumatic stress only. At the community-level, living in an area with higher social capital was significantly associated with higher posttraumatic stress. Additionally, higher community economic development was associated with lower risk of depression only among participants who did not experience any disaster-related stressors. These results provide evidence that individual- and community-level resources and exposure operate in tandem to shape postdisaster resilience. PMID:25962178

  11. Do Psychological Factors Increase the Risk for Low Back Pain Among Nurses? A Comparing According to Cross-sectional and Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghian, Farideh; Hosseinzadeh, Samaneh; Aliyari, Roqayeh

    2014-01-01

    Background This study assesses influences of baseline psychological risk factors on prevalence of low back pain (LBP) at baseline and follow-up among nurses. Methods A prospective longitudinal study was performed at two phases, baseline and 1-year follow-up among 246 nurses of university hospitals in Shahroud, Iran. A standardized Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability questionnaire was used for data collection. Logistic regression was performed for analysis. Results At the baseline of the study, 58.9% of nurses reported back pain in the previous 12 months. Age (p = 0.001), belief that work causes pain (p = 0.022), and somatization tendency (p = 0.002) significantly increased risk of LBP. At 1-year follow-up, prevalence of LBP was 45.7% and expectation of back pain at baseline (p = 0.016) significantly increased risk of LBP in this phase (p < 0.05). Conclusion Results indicate that risk factors for prevalence of back pain at baseline and 1-year follow-up are different. At baseline, the risk factors are age, belief that work causes pain, and somatization tendency, and at follow-up, expectation of pain is the major risk factor. PMID:24932414

  12. Factors underlying the psychological and behavioral characteristics of Office of Strategic Services candidates: the assessment of men data revisited.

    PubMed

    Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2015-01-01

    During World War II, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the forerunner of the Central Intelligence Agency, sought the assistance of clinical psychologists and psychiatrists to establish an assessment program for evaluating candidates for the OSS. The assessment team developed a novel and rigorous program to evaluate OSS candidates. It is described in Assessment of Men: Selection of Personnel for the Office of Strategic Services (OSS Assessment Staff, 1948). This study examines the sole remaining multivariate data matrix that includes all final ratings for a group of candidates (n = 133) assessed near the end of the assessment program. It applies the modern statistical methods of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to this rich and highly unique data set. An exploratory factor analysis solution suggested 3 factors underlie the OSS assessment staff ratings. Confirmatory factor analysis results of multiple plausible substantive models reveal that a 3-factor model provides the best fit to these data. The 3 factors are emotional/interpersonal factors (social relations, emotional stability, security), intelligence processing (effective IQ, propaganda skills, observing and reporting), and agency/surgency (motivation, energy and initiative, leadership, physical ability). These factors are discussed in terms of their potential utility for personnel selection within the intelligence community. PMID:25036728

  13. Radiation-epidemiological Study of Cerebrovascular Diseases in the Cohort of Russian Recovery Operation Workers of the Chernobyl Accident.

    PubMed

    Kashcheev, V V; Chekin, S Yu; Maksioutov, M A; Tumanov, K A; Menyaylo, A N; Kochergina, E V; Kashcheeva, P V; Gorsky, A I; Shchukina, N V; Karpenko, S V; Ivanov, V K

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD) in the cohort of Russian workers involved in recovery tasks after the Chernobyl accident. The studied cohort consists of 53,772 recovery operation workers (liquidators) who arrived in the zone of the Chernobyl accident within the first year after this accident (26 April 1986-26 April 1987). The mean external whole body dose in the cohort was 0.161 Gy, while individual doses varied from 0.0001 Gy to 1.42 Gy. During the follow-up period 1986-2012, a total of 23,264 cases of CeVD were diagnosed as a result of annual health examinations. A Poisson regression model was applied for estimation of radiation risks and for an assessment of other risk factors of CeVD. The following factors were considered as risk factors for CeVD: the dose, duration of the liquidators' work in the Chernobyl zone, and the concomitant diseases (hypertension, ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, and diabetes). The baseline incidence of CeVD is statistically significantly (p < 0.001) associated with all studied concomitant diseases. The incidence of CeVD has revealed a statistically significant dose response with the lack of a latent period and with the average ERR/Gy = 0.45, 95% CI: (0.28, 0.62), p < 0.001. Radiation risks of CeVD statistically significantly (p = 0.03) varied with the duration of liquidators' stay in the Chernobyl zone; for those who stayed in the Chernobyl zone less than 6 wk, ERR/Gy = 0.64, 95% CI = (0.38; 0.93), p < 0.001. Among studied concomitant diseases, diabetes mellitus statistically significantly (p = 0.002) increases the radiation risk of CeVD: for liquidators with diagnosed diabetes, ERR/Gy = 1.29. PMID:27356064

  14. The social impact of the Chernobyl disaster

    SciTech Connect

    Marples, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    This book focuses on the broader ramifications of the Chernobyl disaster,such as the impact upon the environment, agriculture, health, the media and the arts. The author feels that there is much information not yet available about the accident, and he says the Soviet Government has essentially developed an official line that is patently untrue. Many of the key mistakes and short comings that figured prominently in the accident and that the Soviets have been reluctant to publicize are highlighted. The part that what might be termed the Soviet system played in the accident and events following the accident is explored. This is not limited just to the incompetence of the plant operators when the accident occurred but is extended to the system that placed unqualified operators on the staff of a nuclear power plant, produced the defective reactor design, was responsible for the poor quality of the initial construction, etc. The author contends that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) did not really press the Soviets for complete truthful reports because it was not expedient to do so as the Chernobyl accident threatened the global nuclear industry of which IAEA is a part.

  15. HIV Testing Among Spanish Youth: Analysis of the Mediating Role of the Big Five Personality and Other Psychological Factors.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Ruiz-Palomino, Estefanía; Gil-Llario, María Dolores

    2015-11-01

    Early diagnosis of HIV improves the effectiveness of treatments and stops the progression of the disease. The influence of personality and other psychological variables in testing for HIV is analyzed. The first part of the study is composed of 4,929 young people (M age = 20.45, SD = 2.16). For the second part, young heterosexuals who participated in a broader project on HIV prevention were selected (n = 240, M age = 20.78, SD = 2.29). Only 23.3 % of the total sample have ever been tested for HIV antibodies. The main reason for not testing was fear of positive result (25.4 %). Statistically significant differences in Agreeableness (p = .027), Trust (p = .022) and Straightforwardness (p = .024) were found between HIV-tested and not HIV-tested youth. Trust explained 3.3 % of variance of HIV-test. Knowing barriers to testing and individual differences could be useful in developing preventive campaigns. PMID:25969179

  16. [Psychological and emotional factors of work experience as an issue for occupational medicine practice in the hospital].

    PubMed

    Michaelis, M; Siegel, W; Hofmann, F

    2001-01-01

    The consideration of psychomental and psychological load of employees is not part of the traditional working sphere of occupational physicians. Medical diagnostics and check-up are still regarded as the primary area of responsibility. This fact might be seen as a drawback with regard to the increasing importance of work-related psychomental load on the one hand and the actual requirements for high-quality occupational medicine on the other. The goal of a study in 64 occupational physicians in hospitals was to find out how occupational physicians estimate their own competence for dealing with psychomental problems of their clients, whether employees trust them, and which personal attitudes can be found towards the importance of work-related psychomental strain. The self-estimation of personal competence was--in contradiction to the results of former studies focusing on employees' views--surprisingly positive. A significant influence is the amount of work within the health-care sector compared to others. This might be interpreted as a selective effect and leads to the need for large-scale studies. Agreement could be found concerning the lack of chances for qualification in this sphere. Hence, further education and training in professional work with psychomental problems at the workplace has to be extended. PMID:11272862

  17. Disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a racially/ethnically diverse population of college women

    PubMed Central

    Quick, Virginia M.; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures. PMID:24411747

  18. Disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a racially/ethnically diverse population of college women.

    PubMed

    Quick, Virginia M; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures. PMID:24411747

  19. Prevalence, psychological impact, and risk factors of erectile dysfunction in patients with Peyronie’s disease: a retrospective analysis of 309 cases

    PubMed Central

    Paulis, Gianni; Romano, Gennaro; Paulis, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Peyronie’s disease (PD) is a chronic inflammatory disease involving the tunica albuginea of the penis. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a possible invalidating symptom of PD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, psychological impact, and risk factors of ED in patients with PD. The study was conducted by carrying out a retrospective analysis of the clinical records of 309 patients with PD who visited our andrology clinic. All patients underwent the following tests: body mass index, common blood tests and hormone assays, questionnaire for erectile function assessment, dynamic penile color Doppler ultrasonography, imaging of the penis at maximum erection with photographic poses according to Kelâmi, psychosexual impact evaluation with PD Questionnaire (symptom bother score), evaluation of depression symptoms with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and evaluation of the intensity of penile pain with the pain intensity numeric rating scale. ED was observed in 37.5% of the cases. We divided the cases into two groups: group A (PD + ED), 116 cases, and group B (PD without ED), 193 cases. After multivariate analysis, we concluded that the following comorbidities are independent risk factors for ED: dyslipidemia, obesity, chronic prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and autoimmune diseases. A depressive disorder was observed in 62.4%, and it was more frequent in patients with PD + ED (91.37% versus 45.07% group B). Sexual bother was greater in group A compared with group B (9.7 versus 7.6). Intensities of depressive symptoms and sexual bother were significantly higher compared with cases with no curvature when the bend angle was ≥30°. Our study confirms that an integrated psychological support with medical treatment is needed in patients with PD. PMID:27486570

  20. Psychological and culturally-influenced risk factors for the incidence and persistence of low back pain and associated disability in Spanish workers: findings from the CUPID study

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Serra, Consol; Martínez, José Miguel; Ntani, Georgia; Delclos, George; Palmer, Keith T.; Coggon, David; Benavides, Fernando G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the importance of psychological and culturally-influenced factors as predictors of incidence and persistence of LBP in a Spanish working population. Methods As part of the international CUPID study, 1105 Spanish nurses and office workers, aged 20-59 years, answered questions at baseline about LBP in the past month and past year, associated disability, occupational lifting, smoking habits, health beliefs, mental health, and distress from common somatic symptoms. At follow-up 12 months later, they were asked again about LBP and associated disability in the past month. Associations with the incidence and persistence of LBP were assessed by log binomial regression, and characterised by prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results 971 participants (87.9%) completed follow-up. Among 579 with no LBP at baseline, 22.8% reported LBP at follow-up. After adjustment for sex, age and occupation, development of new LBP was predicted by poor mental health (PRR 1.5, 95%CI 1.0-2.2), somatising tendency (PRR 1.8, 95%CI 1.2-2.7), and presence of LBP for >1 month in the year before baseline (PRR 4.7, 95%CI 3.1-6.9). Among 392 subjects who had LBP at baseline, 59.4% reported persistence at follow-up. Persistence of LBP was associated with presence of symptoms for >1 month in the 12 months before baseline (PRR 1.4, 95%CI 1.2-1.7), and more weakly with somatising tendency, and with adverse beliefs about the work-relatedness and prognosis of LBP Conclusion In Spain, as in northern European countries, psychological and culturally-influenced factors have an important role in the development and persistence of LBP. PMID:22864247

  1. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: cohort description and related epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Tekkel, Mare; Veidebaum, Toomas; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Bigbee, William L; Hartshorne, Michael F; Inskip, Peter D; Boice, John D

    2015-12-01

    The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers was one of the first investigations to evaluate the possible health consequences of working in the Chernobyl area (the 30 km exclusion zone and/or adjacent territories) after the 1986 reactor accident. The cohort consists of 4831 men who were dispatched in 1986-1991 for tasks involving decontamination, construction of buildings, transport, radiation measurement, guard duty or other activities. By 31 December 2012, the follow-up of the cohort yielded 102 158 person-years of observation. Exposure and health data were collected by postal questionnaires, biodosimetry evaluations, thyroid screenings, and record-linkages with cancer, causes of death and health insurance reimbursement registers and databases. These data cover socio-demographic factors, employment history, aspects of health behaviour, medical history, work and living conditions in the Chernobyl area, biomarkers of exposure, cancer and non-cancer disease occurrence and causes of death. Cancer incidence data were obtained for 1986-2008, mortality data for 1986-2011 and non-cancer morbidity data for 2004-2012. Although the cohort is relatively small, it has been extensively examined and benefited from comprehensive nationwide population and health registers. The major finding was an increased risk of suicide. Thyroid examinations did not reveal an association with thyroid nodular disease and radiation dose, but did indicate the importance of accounting for screening when making comparisons with unscreened populations. No risk of leukaemia was observed and risks higher than 2.5-fold could be excluded with 95% confidence. Biodosimetry included GPA analyses and chromosomal translocation analyses and indicated that the Estonian cleanup workers experienced a relatively low mean exposure of the order of 0.1 Gy. One value of the Estonian study is in the methodologic processes brought to bear in addressing possible health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Twenty

  2. Sport Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  3. Determinants of contraceptive use among women of reproductive age in Great Britain and Germany. II: Psychological factors.

    PubMed

    Oddens, B J

    1997-10-01

    Psychological determinants of contraceptive use were investigated in Great Britain and Germany, using national data obtained in 1992. It was hypothesised that current contraceptive use among sexually active, fertile women aged 15-45 was related to their attitude towards the various contraceptive methods, social influences, perceptions of being able to use a method correctly and consistently, a correct estimation of fertility, and communication with their partner. Effects of age and country were also taken into account. The attitude of respondents towards the various contraceptive methods was ambivalent and no method was seen as ideal. On medical methods (OCs, IUDs and sterilisation) many respondents expressed doubts as to their safety for health. Social influences most frequently concerned the use of OCs. Respondents considered themselves able to use oral contraceptives correctly, but expressed general fear about intrauterine devices and sterilisation, and many women believed they were not able to use condoms and periodic abstinence consistently. Multifactorial analyses revealed that current contraceptive use was principally determined by social influences, attitude and self-efficacy with respect to medical methods. Age and country, and, for use of unreliable methods, fertility awareness also played a role. Communication with the partner was less relevant. Contraceptive choice (and the use of non-medical methods) depended greatly on encouragement to use and being in favour of medical methods. A lack of social support for use of medical methods and a negative attitude towards them was related to higher use rates of condoms, periodic abstinence, withdrawal and reliance on 'luck'. In the case of withdrawal and/or no method, underestimation of fertility played an additional role. Contraceptive choice appears to be determined more by a general like or dislike of medical methods rather than on a weighing of the merits of individual available methods. PMID:9881146

  4. Psychological Factors in Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women: Relevance and Application of the Fear-Avoidance Model of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain in women is a debilitating, costly condition often treated by physical therapists. The etiology of this condition is multifactorial and poorly understood, given the complex interplay of muscles, bones, and soft tissue that comprise the pelvis. There are few guidelines directing treatment interventions for this condition. In the last decade, several investigators have highlighted the role of psychological variables in conditions such as vulvodynia and painful bladder syndrome. Pain-related fear is the focus of the fear-avoidance model (FAM) of pain, which theorizes that some people are more likely to develop and maintain pain after an injury because of their emotional and behavioral responses to pain. The FAM groups people into 2 classes on the basis of how they respond to pain: people who have low fear, confront pain, and recover from injury and people who catastrophize pain—a response that leads to avoidance/escape behaviors, disuse, and disability. Given the presence of pain-related cognitions in women with chronic pelvic pain, including hypervigilance, catastrophizing, and anxiety, research directed toward the application of the FAM to guide therapeutic interventions is warranted. Isolated segments of the FAM have been studied to theorize why traditional approaches (ie, medications and surgery) may not lead to successful outcomes. However, the explicit application of the FAM to guide physical therapy interventions for women with chronic pelvic pain is not routine. Integrating the FAM might direct physical therapists' clinical decision making on the basis of the pain-related cognitions and behaviors of patients. The aims of this article are to provide information about the FAM of musculoskeletal pain and to provide evidence for the relevance of the FAM to chronic pelvic pain in women. PMID:21835893

  5. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events

    PubMed Central

    Kottorp, Anders; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-01-01

    Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653). An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com. PMID:27331907

  6. Sexual orientation and demographic, cultural, and psychological factors associated with the perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence among Hispanic men.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; De Santis, Joseph P; Vasquez, Elias P

    2013-02-01

    Hispanics are disproportionately affected by intimate partner violence (IPV). Most of the research describing factors associated with intimate partner violence among Hispanics has focused on Hispanic women or Hispanics in heterosexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship among sexual orientation (heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual), and demographic, cultural, and psychological factors and intimate partner violence among Hispanic men. A cross sectional questionnaire was administered to 160 Hispanic heterosexual men and men who have sex with men. Demographic factors (age, education, and income), acculturation, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem were assessed using standardized instruments. Data was analyzed using ANOVA, and simple and multiple logistical regression. Differences in education, income, and self-esteem were noted across participants identifying as heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual. Bisexual Hispanic men had almost four times greater odds of reporting the perpetration of IPV than homosexual Hispanic men, even when differences in education, income, and self-esteem were controlled for (AOR = 3.92, 95%CI = 1.11, 14.19). This study suggests the importance of specifically targeting bisexual Hispanic men in IPV research and services. PMID:23369121

  7. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events.

    PubMed

    Rozental, Alexander; Kottorp, Anders; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-01-01

    Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653). An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com. PMID:27331907

  8. ?Drop-out? in the Danish high school (gymnasium): An investigation of psychological, sociological and pedagogical factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohn, Helge

    1991-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate characteristics differentiating high-school students who had dropped out of school from those who remained. The study examined the relationship between drop-out and the following three clusters: (1) the effect of family background factors; (2) the effect of social factors in the educational milieu; and (3) the effect of motivation, achievement and ability. It was concluded that neither the effect of family background nor exposure to factors in the educational milieu were significant in the decision to finish school. One of the main conclusions of the investigation was that drop-out was associated with lack of motivation and achievement of the students.

  9. APA Educational Psychology Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "APA Educational Psychology Handbook" reflects the broad nature of the field today, with state-of-the-science reviews of the diverse critical theories driving research and practice; in-depth investigation of the range of individual differences and cultural/contextual factors that affect student achievement, motivation, and beliefs; and close…

  10. Earthshots: Satellite images of environmental change – Chernobyl, Ukraine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    The Landsat 5 image from April 29, 1986, was the first satellite image of the accident. The data from Landsat were used to help confirm that an explosion had happened at Chernobyl and that the plant had been shut down.

  11. Modeling the Dispersal and Deposition of Radionuclides: Lessons from Chernobyl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ApSimon, H. M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Described are theoretical models that simulate the dispersion of radionuclides on local and global scales following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Discusses the application of these results to nuclear weapons fallout. (CW)

  12. Life Events as a Risk Factor for Psychological Problems in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulbert-Williams, L.; Hastings, R. P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Stressful life events such as bereavement, moving house and changing jobs have repeatedly been implicated as risk factors for mental and physical ill health. Since the 1940s, researchers have demonstrated the negative effects of stressful life events, refined methods of recording such events and investigated the relative impact of…

  13. The Psychological Impact of Forced Displacement and Related Risk Factors on Eastern Congolese Adolescents Affected by War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mels, Cindy; Derluyn, Ilse; Broekaert, Eric; Rosseel, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Background: While the current knowledge base on the mental health effects of displacement is mainly limited to refugees residing in industrialised countries, this paper examines the impact of war-induced displacement and related risk factors on the mental health of Eastern Congolese adolescents, and compares currently internally displaced…

  14. Psychosocial factors and psychological well-being: a study from a nationally representative sample of Korean workers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bum-Joon; Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Jung, Dal-Young; Moon, So-Hyun; Kim, Seong-Jin; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2016-06-10

    This study was conducted to examine how each psychosocial factor on working conditions is related to a worker's well-being. Data from the 2011 Korean Working Conditions Survey were analyzed for 33,569 employed workers aged ≥15 years. Well-being was evaluated through the WHO-5 questionnaire and variables about occupational psychosocial factors were classified into eight categories. The prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression model. Overall, 44.3% of men and 57.4% of women were in a low well-being group. In a univariate analysis, most of the psychosocial factors on working conditions are significantly related with a worker's low well-being, except for insufficient job autonomy in both genders and job insecurity for males only. After adjusting for sociodemographic and structural factors on working conditions, job dissatisfaction, lack of reward, lack of social support, violence and discrimination at work still showed a statistically significant association with a worker's low well-being for both genders. We found that psychosocial working conditions were associated with the workers' well-being. PMID:26726830

  15. Psychosocial factors and psychological well-being: a study from a nationally representative sample of Korean workers

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Bum-Joon; LAMICHHANE, Dirga Kumar; JUNG, Dal-Young; MOON, So-Hyun; KIM, Seong-Jin; KIM, Hwan-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine how each psychosocial factor on working conditions is related to a worker’s well-being. Data from the 2011 Korean Working Conditions Survey were analyzed for 33,569 employed workers aged ≥15 years. Well-being was evaluated through the WHO-5 questionnaire and variables about occupational psychosocial factors were classified into eight categories. The prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression model. Overall, 44.3% of men and 57.4% of women were in a low well-being group. In a univariate analysis, most of the psychosocial factors on working conditions are significantly related with a worker’s low well-being, except for insufficient job autonomy in both genders and job insecurity for males only. After adjusting for sociodemographic and structural factors on working conditions, job dissatisfaction, lack of reward, lack of social support, violence and discrimination at work still showed a statistically significant association with a worker’s low well-being for both genders. We found that psychosocial working conditions were associated with the workers’ well-being. PMID:26726830

  16. Examining the Impact of Historical/Developmental, Sociodemographic, and Psychological Factors on Passive Suicide among African-American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Tameka M.

    2009-01-01

    Nationally published reports on death rates for substance abuse (drug-alcohol related), violence (homicide), and risky sexual behaviors (HIV/AIDS) among African-American men are deeply concerning. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between historical/developmental factors (masculine identity, racial identity, racism),…

  17. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of lumbar spine x-ray for low back pain in UK primary care practice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Psychological models predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological models to predict the health professional behaviour 'referral for lumbar spine x-ray in patients presenting with low back pain' by UK primary care physicians. Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random sample of primary care physicians in Scotland and north England. The outcome measures were clinical behaviour (referral rates for lumbar spine x-rays), behavioural simulation (lumbar spine x-ray referral decisions based upon scenarios), and behavioural intention (general intention to refer for lumbar spine x-rays in patients with low back pain). Explanatory variables were the constructs within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Weinstein's Stage Model termed the Precaution Adoption Process (PAP), and knowledge. For each of the outcome measures, a generalised linear model was used to examine the predictive value of each theory individually. Linear regression was used for the intention and simulation outcomes, and negative binomial regression was used for the behaviour outcome. Following this 'theory level' analysis, a 'cross-theoretical construct' analysis was conducted to investigate the combined predictive value of all individual constructs across theories. Results Constructs from TPB, SCT, CS-SRM, and OLT predicted behaviour; however, the theoretical models did not fit the data well. When predicting behavioural simulation, the proportion of variance explained by individual theories was TPB 11.6%, SCT 12.1%, OLT 8.1%, and II 1.5% of the variance, and in the cross-theory analysis constructs from TPB, CS-SRM and II explained 16.5% of the variance in simulated behaviours. When predicting intention, the proportion of variance

  18. Global impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Catlin, R.J.; Goldman, M.

    1988-12-16

    Radioactive material was deposited throughout the Northern Hemisphere as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station on 26 April 1986. On the basis of a large amount of environmental data and new integrated dose assessment and risk models, the collective dose commitment to the approximately 3 billion inhabitants is calculated to be 930,000 person-gray, with 97% in the western Soviet Union and Europe. The best estimates for the lifetime expectation of fatal radiogenic cancer would increase the risk from 0 to 0.02% in Europe and 0 to 0.003% in the Northern Hemisphere. By means of an integration of the environmental data, it is estimated that approximately 100 petabecquerels of cesium-137 (1 PBq = 10(15) Bq) were released during and subsequent to the accident.

  19. AMS applied to Hiroshima and Chernobyl dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Straume, T.; Marchetti, A.A.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1995-12-01

    Two projects employing AMS are summarized and updated. One project employs AMS to measure {sup 36}Cl in concrete and other mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki to help reconstruct neutron fluences received by the atom-bomb survivors. In this project, we have demonstrated a large discrepancy between the neutron activation measured in Hiroshima and predictions based on the current dosimetry system. This discrepancy has practical implications for radiation risk assessment and radiation protection standards. The other project employs AMS to measure {sup 129}I in soil and other environmental samples from Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. This is a proof-of-principle study to determine if the long lived {sup 129}I isotope (half life, 16 x 10{sup 6} y) measured by AMS can be used to reconstruct deposition of the short lived {sup 131}I isotope from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident. This is required because {sup 131}I disappeared before adequate measurements could be made.

  20. Living with rattlesnakes: Chernobyl and Dounreay.

    PubMed

    Roff, S R

    2000-01-01

    After the Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident in 1979, a local Pennsylvania resident told The New York Times 'You live with that plant over there for years and years and don't think much about it. But it's like living with a rattlesnake. Sooner or later it's going to bite you. You just don't know when.' As we enter the twenty-first century, many communities find themselves living with rattlesnakes--one at least of which has already bitten. This article considers the official responses to Chernobyl in the first decade after the accident and compares them to the statements surrounding the sudden 1998 decision to decommission the nuclear reprocessing plant at Dounreay in Scotland. PMID:10893942

  1. The Chernobyl accident ten years later

    SciTech Connect

    Squires, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    On April 26, 1986 at 1:23 AM a fire and explosion occurred at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Complex, located in the Ukraine, that resulted in the destruction of the reactor core and most of the building in which it was housed. Several environmental impacts resulting from the accident will be discussed in this paper, which will include the effects on plant and wild life, radioactive waste generated and stored or disposed of, effects of evacuations relating to residents within the subsequently established 10km and 30km control zones, impacts of the emergency containment structure (sarcophagus), and potential effects on world opinion and future development of nuclear power. As an immediate result of the fire, 31 people died (2 from the fire & smoke, and 29 from excessive radiation); 237 cases of acute radiation sickness occurred; the total fatalities based upon induced chronic diseases as a result of the accident is unknown: more than 100,000 people were evacuated from within the subsequently established 30 km control zone; in excess of 50 million curies of radionuclides that included finely dispersed nuclear fuel, fragments of graphite, concrete and other building materials were released from the reactor into the environment; an estimated one million cubic meters of radioactive waste were generated (LLW, ILW, HLW); more than 5000 tons of materials (sand, boron, dolomite, cement, and lead) were used to put the fire out by helicopter; shutdown of the adjacent power plants were performed; and other environmental impacts occurred. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit No 4 is an RBMK-1000. It initiated operations in 1983, it was a 1000 MWe with a power output of 3200 MW(th), the reactor core contained 190 MT of fuel, with 1659 assemblies (plus 211 control rods), the average burnup rate was 10.3 MWd/kg, and the reactor operated on a continuous basis with maintenance and fuel reload performed during operations.

  2. Editorial: Thyroid cancer and the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.

    1996-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl power station nearly 10 years ago was unprecedented in the exposure of a very large population to high levels of fallout including high levels of isotopes of iodine, predominantly {sup 131}I. An increase in incidence of childhood thyroid cancer was first observed in 1990 in Belarus and in the Ukraine, and the first reports in the Western literature were published in 1992. At a symposium in Nagasaki in June 1994, the numbers of cases that had occurred between 1990 and 1993 in Belarus, a country with a population of just over 10 million, was reported to be 233, and in the heavily contaminated northern parts of the Ukraine, with a population of about 7 million, 36 cases occurred in the same period. To put these figures into perspective, the number of childhood thyroid cancers registered in England and Wales over a 30-year period was 154, an average of 5 cases per yr in a population of 50 million people, with about 10 million children under 15 yr of age. The initial reports of such a great increase in childhood thyroid cancers in the areas exposed to fallout from Chernobyl were at first greeted in the West with some skepticism. The latent period between exposure and development of thyroid cancer was surprisingly short, based on experience with thyroid carcinomas developing after external radiation to the neck. The reliability of the figures based on the pathological diagnosis was questioned because the cases had not been confirmed by Western pathologists, and because the known high frequency of papillary microcarcinoms in adults raised the possibility that the reported incidence was resulted form increased ascertainment and not a true increase in incidence. 14 refs.

  3. The Influence of Gender, Age, Psychological Resilience and Family Interaction Factors upon Anxiety and Depression in Non-Autism Spectrum Disorder Siblings of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.; Mailli, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The influence of gender, age, Psychological resilience and family interaction factors upon generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) was investigated in 75 non-autism spectrum disorder (NASD) siblings who had a brother or sister with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). GAD and MDD were much more prevalent than in…

  4. Psychological maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, Roberta; Barlow, Jane; Macmillan, Harriet

    2012-08-01

    Psychological or emotional maltreatment of children may be the most challenging and prevalent form of child abuse and neglect. Caregiver behaviors include acts of omission (ignoring need for social interactions) or commission (spurning, terrorizing); may be verbal or nonverbal, active or passive, and with or without intent to harm; and negatively affect the child's cognitive, social, emotional, and/or physical development. Psychological maltreatment has been linked with disorders of attachment, developmental and educational problems, socialization problems, disruptive behavior, and later psychopathology. Although no evidence-based interventions that can prevent psychological maltreatment have been identified to date, it is possible that interventions shown to be effective in reducing overall types of child maltreatment, such as the Nurse Family Partnership, may have a role to play. Furthermore, prevention before occurrence will require both the use of universal interventions aimed at promoting the type of parenting that is now recognized to be necessary for optimal child development, alongside the use of targeted interventions directed at improving parental sensitivity to a child's cues during infancy and later parent-child interactions. Intervention should, first and foremost, focus on a thorough assessment and ensuring the child's safety. Potentially effective treatments include cognitive behavioral parenting programs and other psychotherapeutic interventions. The high prevalence of psychological abuse in advanced Western societies, along with the serious consequences, point to the importance of effective management. Pediatricians should be alert to the occurrence of psychological maltreatment and identify ways to support families who have risk indicators for, or evidence of, this problem. PMID:22848125

  5. Prospective study of the influence of psychological and medical factors on quality of life and severity of symptoms among patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rana, M; Kanatas, A; Herzberg, P Y; Khoschdell, M; Kokemueller, H; Gellrich, N-C; Rana, M

    2015-04-01

    About 400,000 people worldwide are diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) annually, and the incidence is increasing. Many advanced carcinomas of the oral cavity require radical surgical treatment that can impair patient's quality of life (QoL) and severity of symptoms. We therefore aimed to identify coping strategies and disease-specific medical factors that affect QoL and severity of symptoms. Patients with oral SCC were asked to complete the Freiburg Questionnaire on Coping with Illness (FQCI), the University of Washington Quality of life Questionnaire (UW-QOL version 4), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) to measure psychological stress. We also assessed the impact of various factors on QoL and severity of symptoms, including stage and site of tumour, method of reconstruction, time of diagnosis, and social structure (age, sex, marital status, living arrangements, level of education, and employment). We enrolled a consecutive sample of 104 patients over a period of one year. Stepwise linear regression analyses indicated that both depressive coping and size of tumour had an adverse effect on QoL and severity of symptoms. Patients with high educational attainment and those who lived alone reported impaired QoL, and women experienced increased severity of symptoms. Impaired QoL and increased severity of symptoms were associated with a depressive style of coping, size of tumour, educational attainment, and living arrangements. It is important to identify these patients during treatment as they could benefit from psycho-oncological counselling. PMID:25698550

  6. Problematic Internet Use among Greek university students: an ordinal logistic regression with risk factors of negative psychological beliefs, pornographic sites, and online games.

    PubMed

    Frangos, Christos C; Frangos, Constantinos C; Sotiropoulos, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationships between Problematic Internet Use (PIU) among university students in Greece and factors such as gender, age, family condition, academic performance in the last semester of their studies, enrollment in unemployment programs, amount of Internet use per week (in general and per application), additional personal habits or dependencies (number of coffees, alcoholic drinks drunk per day, taking substances, cigarettes smoked per day), and negative psychological beliefs. Data were gathered from 2,358 university students from across Greece. The prevalence of PIU was 34.7% in our sample, and PIU was significantly associated with gender, parental family status, grade of studies during the previous semester, staying or not with parents, enrollment of the student in an unemployment program, and whether the student paid a subscription to the Internet (p < 0.0001). On average, problematic Internet users use MSN, forums, YouTube, pornographic sites, chat rooms, advertisement sites, Google, Yahoo!, their e-mail, ftp, games, and blogs more than non-problematic Internet users. PIU was also associated with other potential addictive personal habits of smoking, drinking alcohol or coffee, and taking drugs. Significant risk factors for PIU were being male, enrolment in unemployment programs, presence of negative beliefs, visiting pornographic sites, and playing online games. Thus PIU is prevalent among Greek university students and attention should be given to it by health officials. PMID:21329443

  7. Psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life in youth affected by violence: the burden of the multiply victimised.

    PubMed

    Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n=6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent victimisation and violence perpetration were contrasted with non-involved comparisons. The results show that even low levels of violence involvement were associated with more problems, fewer protective factors and impaired HRQOL. Multiply victimised youth - not perpetrating victims - stood out with internalising, peer and hyperactivity/inattention problems. Discriminant function analysis separated non-involved from violence-affected youth, and multiply victimised from not multiply victimised youth. Externalising behaviours, family issues, male sex and school functioning predicted group separation on the first function (proportion variance explained 80.0%), while internalising and peer issues were predictive for the second function (PVE 14.2%). Implications for prevention, intervention and research are discussed. PMID:23582650

  8. Time-course of occupational psychological and social factors as predictors of new-onset and persistent neck pain: a three-wave prospective study over 4 years.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2014-07-01

    The current study estimated the impact of psychological and social work factors over time on neck pain. A sample of Norwegian employees (n=1250) was surveyed on 3 occasions spanning 4 years. Five exposures were studied: quantitative demands, decision control, social climate, empowering leadership, and role conflict. Group-based trajectory models suggested factors changed little over time-employees could be classified by mean levels of exposure into groups exhibiting stable "high", "middle", and "low" levels. The exception was decision control, for which a 4-level classification was derived: "high", "high-middle", "low-middle", and "low". Pain prevalence at the end of the study period was compared across groups. Risk and prognosis were also assessed separately by dividing the sample according to pain status at baseline. For all factors, distinct differences in risk were observed between exposure groups, controlled for pain at baseline, skill level, sex, and age. Statistically significant effects ranged from 0.38 (CI 0.20-0.73, P<0.01) for high social climate to 3.00 (CI 1.63-5.50, P<0.01) for high role conflict. The risk of new-onset pain was predicted by all factors. ORs ranged from 0.32 (CI 0.16-0.67, P<0.01) for high empowering leadership to 2.61 (CI 1.09-6.21, P<0.05) for high role conflict. Pain persistence was predicted by high role conflict (OR 3.26, CI 1.30-8.18, P<0.05), high quantitative demands (odds ratio [OR] 3.66, CI 1.58-8.49, P<0.01), and high-middle decision control (OR 0.45, CI 0.21-0.99, P<0.05). Future studies should collect information at multiple time points to clarify the impact of prolonged and changing exposure on musculoskeletal pain. PMID:24704365

  9. Psychological and educational factors: better predictors of work status than FEV1 in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Burker, Eileen J; Sedway, Jan; Carone, Stacia

    2004-11-01

    Now that more individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) are living into adulthood, vocational attainment is an increasingly important consideration. Work is a key factor in quality of life. The purpose of the present paper was to evaluate the factors that are associated with work status in 183 adults with CF. Approximately half of the participants were working at the time of evaluation, an impressive figure given that the mean forced expired volume in 1 sec (FEV1) was 31.9%. The average number of hours worked was 32.7 hr/week. The majority of individuals were employed in professional, technical, or managerial occupations (accounting, teaching, law, or social work). A third were employed in clerical and sales occupations, and the remaining individuals were employed in a wide range of other occupations (hotel manager, undercover shopper, artist, or dental technician). Interestingly, FEV1 and age did not differentiate between subjects who were working and those who were not. Individuals who were working had significantly lower depression scores and a higher educational level than those who were not working. Future research is needed to determine whether it is the increased socialization and the resulting social support that may come from a work environment, or a reduction in financial stress because of better income and health benefits that helps to explain this difference. Alternatively, work may serve as a distraction from the symptoms of CF. It is likely that those with higher educational levels had more professional jobs that were more easily modified as health declined. Future research needs to assess how career choices are made, and what factors into a patient's decision to keep working. PMID:15470683

  10. Why Psychology Cannot be an Empirical Science.

    PubMed

    Smedslund, Jan

    2016-06-01

    The current empirical paradigm for psychological research is criticized because it ignores the irreversibility of psychological processes, the infinite number of influential factors, the pseudo-empirical nature of many hypotheses, and the methodological implications of social interactivity. An additional point is that the differences and correlations usually found are much too small to be useful in psychological practice and in daily life. Together, these criticisms imply that an objective, accumulative, empirical and theoretical science of psychology is an impossible project. PMID:26712604

  11. Psychological and Social Factors Affecting Internet Searches on Suicide in Korea: A Big Data Analysis of Google Search Trends

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tae Min; Song, Juyoung; Hayman, Laura L.; Woo, Jong-Min

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The average mortality rate for death by suicide among OECD countries is 12.8 per 100000, and 33.5 for Korea. The present study analyzed big data extracted from Google to identify factors related to searches on suicide in Korea. Materials and Methods Google search trends for the search words of suicide, stress, exercise, and drinking were obtained for 2004-2010. Analyzing data by month, the relationship between the actual number of suicides and search words per year was examined using multi-level models. Results Both suicide rates and Google searches on suicide in Korea increased since 2007. An unconditional slope model indicated stress and suicide-related searches were positively related. A conditional model showed that factors associated with suicide by year directly affected suicide-related searches. The interaction between stress-related searches and the actual number of suicides was significant. Conclusion A positive relationship between stress- and suicide-related searches further confirmed that stress affects suicide. Taken together and viewed in context of the big data analysis, our results point to the need for a tailored prevention program. Real-time big data can be of use in indicating increases in suicidality when search words such as stress and suicide generate greater numbers of hits on portals and social network sites. PMID:24339315

  12. An Examination of Sociodemographic, Health, Psychological Factors, and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Overweight and Obese U.S. Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Linda K.; Allicok, Marlyn; Campbell, Marci K.; Valle, Carmina G.; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Carr, Carol; Dundon, Margaret; Anthony, Tammy

    2016-01-01

    A diet high in fruits and vegetables (F&Vs) is associated with decreased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. This study investigated the relationship between sociodemographic, health, and psychosocial factors and F&V consumption among overweight and obese U.S. veterans. Participants were recruited from two Veterans Affairs medical center sites in 2005. Two hundred eighty-nine participants completed a self-administered survey. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression models were built to examine the association between sociodemographic, health, and psychosocial variables and F&V consumption. Older age (B = 0.01; p < 0.001) and being Black (B = −0.18; p < 0.05) were related to increased F&V consumption. Reported tobacco use was inversely associated with F&V consumption (B = −0.30; p < 0.01). Greater self-efficacy (B = 0.07; p < 0.05), fewer perceived barriers (B = −0.14; p < 0.01), and correct knowledge of recommended daily F&V intake (B = 0.12; p < 0.05) were related to eating more F&Vs. U.S. veterans disproportionately experience overweight and obese conditions. Age, race, tobacco use, and psychosocial factors should be considered carefully when developing dietary interventions among overweight and obese U.S. veterans. PMID:22165657

  13. Psychological Factors Associated with Head and Neck Cancer Treatment and Survivorship: Evidence and Opportunities for Behavioral Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Howren, M. Bryant; Christensen, Alan J.; Karnell, Lucy Hynds; Funk, Gerry F.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with head and neck cancer (HNC) face not only a potentially life-threatening diagnosis, but must endure treatment that often results in significant, highly visible disfigurement and disruptions of essential functioning, such as deficits or complications in eating, swallowing, breathing, and speech. Each year, approximately 650,000 new cases are diagnosed, making HNC the sixth most common type of cancer in the world. Despite this, however, HNC remains understudied in behavioral medicine. In this article, the authors review available evidence regarding several important psychosocial and behavioral factors associated with HNC diagnosis, treatment, and recovery, as well as various psychosocial interventions conducted in this patient population, before concluding with opportunities for behavioral medicine research and practice. PMID:22963591

  14. Protection from Potential Exposure for the Chernobyl New Safe Confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Shipler, Dillard B.; Rudko, Vladimir; Batiy, Valeriy; Timmins, Douglas C.; Brothers, Alan J.; Schmidt, John P.; Swearingen, Gary L.; Schmieman, Eric A.

    2004-03-24

    The Bechtel/EDF/Battelle Consortium has recently completed developing the conceptual design for the Chernobyl New Safe Confinement (NSC). Battelle has the scope of work related to environment and safety of the design. As part of the safety analysis, an analysis was performed to determine the degree of protection to be provided during the construction and 100-year operation period for expected upsets and lower-probability events that would occur from errors, procedures, other human factors, and equipment failures, i.e., ''potential exposures'' other than normal operations. The analysis was based on results of the Preliminary Hazards Analysis. The potential exposure analysis was performed in accordance with existing Ukranian regulations and working processes and procedures in place at the Shelter Object. KSK (a Ukranian Consortium), a subcontractor to the Bechtel/EDF/Battelle Consortium, performed much of the dose analysis. The analysis concluded that potential exposures, outside of those expected during normal operations, would be acceptable and that design criteria and features, and preventative and mitigative measures currently in place at the Shelter would be sufficient to meet operating exposure limits.

  15. Simulation of atmospheric dispersion of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, R.; Sullivan, T.J.; Gudiksen, P.H. )

    1989-07-01

    Measurements of airborne radioactivity over Europe, Japan, and the United States indicated that the release from the Chernobyl reactor accident in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986 contained a wide spectrum of fission up to heights of 7 km or more within a few days after the initial explosion. This high-altitude presence of radioactivity would in part be attributable to atmospheric dynamics factors other than the thermal energy released in the initial explosion. Indications were that two types of releases had taken place -- an initial powerful explosion followed by days of a less energetic reactor fire. The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) utilized three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models to determine the characteristics of the source term (release) and the evolution of the spatial distributions of the airborne radioactivity as it was transported over Europe and subsequently over the northern hemisphere. This paper describes the ARAC involvement and the results of the hemispheric model calculations which graphically depict the extensive dispersal of radioactivity. 1 fig.

  16. Psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: risk factors and associations with birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Koen, Nastassja; Brittain, Kirsty; Donald, Kirsten A.; Barnett, Whitney; Koopowitz, Sheri; Maré, Karen; Zar, Heather J.; Stein, Dan J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prenatal and peripartum trauma may be associated with poor maternal–fetal outcomes. However, relatively few data on these associations exist from low-middle income countries, and populations in transition. Objective We investigated the prevalence and risk factors for maternal trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and their association with adverse birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study, a South African birth cohort study. Methods Pregnant women were recruited from two clinics in a peri-urban community outside Cape Town. Trauma exposure and PTSD were assessed using diagnostic interviews; validated self-report questionnaires measured other psychosocial characteristics. Gestational age at delivery was calculated and birth outcomes were assessed by trained staff. Multiple logistic regression explored risk factors for trauma and PTSD; associations with birth outcomes were investigated using linear regression. Potential confounders included study site, socioeconomic status (SES), and depression. Results A total of 544 mother–infant dyads were included. Lifetime trauma was reported in approximately two-thirds of mothers, with about a third exposed to past-year intimate partner violence (IPV). The prevalence of current/lifetime PTSD was 19%. In multiple logistic regression, recent life stressors were significantly associated with lifetime trauma, when controlling for SES, study site, and recent IPV. Childhood trauma and recent stressors were significantly associated with PTSD, controlling for SES and study site. While no association was observed between maternal PTSD and birth outcomes, maternal trauma was significantly associated with a 0.3 unit reduction (95% CI: 0.1; 0.5) in infant head-circumference-for-age z-scores (HCAZ scores) at birth in crude analysis, which remained significant when adjusted for study site and recent stressors in a multivariate regression model. Conclusions In this exploratory study, maternal trauma and

  17. Psychology Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

  18. Psychology Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderssen, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design of the University of Texas Austin's Seay Psychology and Child Development & Family Relationships building. With modern technique and materials, the Seay building adds to the established architectural language of the campus, offering a richly tactile structure and adjoining outdoor space embracing the tenets of successful…

  19. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  20. Sheep farming after Chernobyl, a case study in communicating scientific information

    SciTech Connect

    Wynne, B.

    1989-03-01

    The main cloud of radioactive contamination from Chernobyl passed over the United Kingdom on May 2-3, 1986. Rainfall was the major factor affecting local deposition of radioactivity, especially radioactive cesium. Sheep were being contaminated by ingesting grass contaminated with radioactive cesium. British government officials first reacted to this deposition by ignoring and denying the facts and then by recommending impractical solutions stemming from their ignorance of hill sheep farming. This study illustrates the need for improved, two-way communication between scientists and the involved public, particularly during national emergencies.

  1. Sources of Contradictions in the Evaluation of Population Genetic Consequences after the Chernobyl Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Glazko, V.I.; Glazko, T.T.

    2013-01-01

    The review covers the analysis of our own and published data pertaining to population and genetic consequences in various mammalian species under conditions of high levels of ionizing radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The findings indicate that these conditions have promoted the reproduction of heterozygotes in polyloci spectra of molecular genetic markers and animals with a relatively increased stability of the chromosomal apparatus. The prospects of using the reproductive “success” of the carriers of these characteristics as an integral indicator of the selective influence of environmental stress factors are discussed. PMID:23556130

  2. Weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, dieting and some psychological variables as risk factors for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Ezquerra-Cabrera, Mercedes; Carbonero-Carreño, Rocío; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada

    2013-11-01

    The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI) were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education. PMID:24232917

  3. Weight Misperception, Self-Reported Physical Fitness, Dieting and Some Psychological Variables as Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Ezquerra-Cabrera, Mercedes; Carbonero-Carreño, Rocío; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI) were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education. PMID:24232917

  4. Workplace Bullying as a Risk Factor for Musculoskeletal Disorders: The Mediating Role of Job-Related Psychological Strain

    PubMed Central

    Vignoli, Michela; Guglielmi, Dina; Balducci, Cristian; Bonfiglioli, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Workplace bullying is considered by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work one of the emerging psychosocial risk factors that could negatively affect workers' health. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the process that leads from bullying to negative health (such as musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)), testing the mediating role of job-related strain. Data were collected on 512 workers (62.9% female; mean age = 43.6 years) of a retail chain who filled in a self-report questionnaire after a one-hour training session on work-related stress. Data analyses were performed controlling for potentially confounding variables (i.e., gender, age, organizational role, type of contract, and perceived physical job demands). Preacher and Hayes analytical approach was used to test the indirect relationship between bullying and MSDs. Results showed that work-related strain mediates the relationship between bullying and MSDs considered (low back, upper back, and neck) except for MSDs of the shoulders. Our study confirms the role played by bullying and job-related strain in determining workers' MSDs. PMID:26557693

  5. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    2003-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

  6. Space Psychology and Psychiatry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

    2003-09-01

    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

  7. Awareness of physical activity in healthy middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional study of associations with sociodemographic, biological, behavioural, and psychological factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interventions to promote physical activity have had limited success. One reason may be that inactive adults are unaware that their level of physical activity is inadequate and do not perceive a need to change their behaviour. We aimed to assess awareness of physical activity, defined as the agreement between self-rated and objective physical activity, and to investigate associations with sociodemographic, biological, behavioural, and psychological factors. Methods We conducted an exploratory, cross-sectional analysis of awareness of physical activity using baseline data collected from 453 participants of the Feedback, Awareness and Behaviour study (Cambridgeshire, UK). Self-rated physical activity was measured dichotomously by asking participants if they believed they were achieving the recommended level of physical activity. Responses were compared to objective physical activity, measured using a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart®). Four awareness groups were created: overestimators, realistic inactives, underestimators, and realistic actives. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between awareness group and potential correlates. Results The mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 47.0 (6.9) years, 44.4% were male, and 65.1% were overweight (body mass index ≥ 25). Of the 258 (57.0%) who were objectively classified as inactive, 130 (50.4%) misperceived their physical activity by incorrectly stating that they were meeting the guidelines (overestimators). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for age and sex, those with a lower body mass index (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.95, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.90 to 1.00), higher physical activity energy expenditure (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.06) and self-reported physical activity (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.19), and lower intention to increase physical activity (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.99) and

  8. Environmental radionuclide distribution in Georgia after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Shoniya, N.I.; Katamadze, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric Chernobyl-released radioactivity, assessed at about 2 x 10{sup 18} Bq, caused global environmental contamination. Contaminated air masses appeared in the Transcaucasian region in early May, 1986. Rains that month promoted intense radionuclide deposition all over Georgia. The contamination level of western Georgia considerably exceeded the contamination level of eastern Georgia. The Black Sea coast of Georgia suffered from the Chernobyl accident as much as did strongly contaminated areas of the Ukraine and Belarus`. Unfortunately, governmental decrees on countermeasures against the consequences of the Chernobyl accident at that time did not even refer to the coast of Georgia. The authors observed the first increase in radioactivity background in rainfall samples collected on May 2, 1986, in Tbilisi. {gamma}-Spectrometric measurements of aerosol filters, vegetation, food stuffs, and other objects, in addition to rainfall, persistently confirmed the occurrence of short-lived radionuclides, including {sup 131}I. At first, this fact seemed unbelievable, because the Chernobyl accident had occurred only 4-5 days earlier and far from Georgia. However, these arguments proved to be faulty. Soon, environmental monitoring of radiation in Georgia became urgent. Environmental radionuclide distribution in Georgia shortly after the Chernobyl accident, as well as the methods of analysis, are reported in this paper.

  9. The psychology of suicidal behaviour.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Rory C; Nock, Matthew K

    2014-06-01

    The causes of suicidal behaviour are not fully understood; however, this behaviour clearly results from the complex interaction of many factors. Although many risk factors have been identified, they mostly do not account for why people try to end their lives. In this Review, we describe key recent developments in theoretical, clinical, and empirical psychological science about the emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviours, and emphasise the central importance of psychological factors. Personality and individual differences, cognitive factors, social aspects, and negative life events are key contributors to suicidal behaviour. Most people struggling with suicidal thoughts and behaviours do not receive treatment. Some evidence suggests that different forms of cognitive and behavioural therapies can reduce the risk of suicide reattempt, but hardly any evidence about factors that protect against suicide is available. The development of innovative psychological and psychosocial treatments needs urgent attention. PMID:26360404

  10. Radiation damage aspects of the chernobyl accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmentier, N.; Nenot, J. C.

    During the night of 25 to 26 April 1986, the most severe nuclear accident occurred at the Chernobyl power station, about 150km north of Kiev, in the Ukraine. It resulted in the irradiation of 237 workers at dose levels justifying medical care. The most severe cases (115) were hospitalized in Moscow, with 20 patients with doses higher than 6 Gy. In most cases, the treatment was classical, based on transfusion of red cells and platelets, and heavy supportive therapy. For 19 patients with severe aplasia, transplantations of bone marrow (13) or foetal liver (6) were decided. Of these patients only one survived, which justifies the statement from U.S.S.R. physicians: after an accident the indications of grafting are limited and its risks may not justify its use. Most of the complications were related to radiation burns which involved 56 victims and resulted in fatal outcomes in at least 19 patients. The population was evacuated from a 30 km zone around the site; based on direct measurements and calculations, the collective dose was evaluated at 1.6 × 10 4 man Sv, with an individual average lower than 250 mSv. The European part of U.S.S.R. with 75 million persons is supposed to have received a collective dose likely to increase the natural mortality by less than 0.1%. The numbers with cancer in the Northern Hemisphere might increase by 0.004% over the next 50 years.

  11. Reconsidering Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident led to major human suffering caused by the evacuation and other counter-measures. However, the direct health consequences of the accident-related radiation exposures, besides the acute effects and small number of thyroid cancers, have not been observed. This absence is challenged by some influential groups affecting public policies who claim that the true extent of radiogenic health consequences is covered up. We consider such claims. The most conservative (in this case – overestimating) linear no-threshold hypothesis was used to calculate excess cancer expectations for cleanup workers, the population of the contaminated areas and the global population. Statistical estimations were performed to verify whether such expected excess was detectable. The calculated cancer excess for each group is much less than uncertainties in number of cancer cases in epidemiological studies. Therefore the absence of detected radiation carcinogenesis is in full correspondence with the most conservative a priori expectations. Regarding the cover-up claims, rational choice analysis was performed. Such analysis shows that these claims are ill-founded. The present overcautious attitude to radiological hazards should be corrected in order to mitigate the present suffering and to avoid such suffering in the future. PMID:26674769

  12. Debate on the Chernobyl disaster: on the causes of Chernobyl overestimation.

    PubMed

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2012-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, many publications appeared that overestimated its medical consequences. Some of them are discussed in this article. Among the motives for the overestimation were anti-nuclear sentiments, widespread among some adherents of the Green movement; however, their attitude has not been wrong: nuclear facilities should have been prevented from spreading to overpopulated countries governed by unstable regimes and regions where conflicts and terrorism cannot be excluded. The Chernobyl accident has hindered worldwide development of atomic industry. Today, there are no alternatives to nuclear power: nonrenewable fossil fuels will become more and more expensive, contributing to affluence in the oil-producing countries and poverty in the rest of the world. Worldwide introduction of nuclear energy will become possible only after a concentration of authority within an efficient international executive. This will enable construction of nuclear power plants in optimally suitable places, considering all sociopolitical, geographic, geologic, and other preconditions. In this way, accidents such as that in Japan in 2011 will be prevented. PMID:22403906

  13. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  14. Significant increase in trisomy 21 in Berlin nine months after the Chernobyl reactor accident: temporal correlation or causal relation?

    PubMed Central

    Sperling, K.; Pelz, J.; Wegner, R. D.; Dörries, A.; Grüters, A.; Mikkelsen, M.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess whether the increased prevalence of trisomy 21 in West Berlin in January 1987 might have been causally related to exposure to ionising radiation as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident or was merely a chance event. DESIGN--Analysis of monthly prevalence of trisomy 21 in West Berlin from January 1980 to December 1989. SETTING--Confines of West Berlin. RESULTS--Owing to the former "island" situation of West Berlin and its well organised health services, ascertainment of trisomy 21 was thought to be almost complete. A cluster of 12 cases occurred in January 1987 as compared with two or three expected. After exclusion of factors that might have explained the increase, including maternal age distribution, only exposure to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident remained. In six of seven cases that could be studied cytogenetically the extra chromosome was of maternal origin, confirming that nondisjunction had occurred at about the time of conception. CONCLUSION--On the basis of two assumptions--(a) that maternal meiosis is an error prone process susceptible to exogenous factors at the time of conception; (b) that owing to the high prevalence of iodine deficiency in Berlin a large amount of iodine-131 would have been accumulated over a short period--it is concluded that the increased prevalence of trisomy 21 in West Berlin in January 1987 was causally related to a short period of exposure to ionising radiation as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident. PMID:8044094

  15. Thyroid nodularity and cancer among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Inskip, P.D.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Tekkel, M.

    1997-02-01

    Thyroid examinations, including palpation, ultrasound and, selectively, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, were conducted on nearly 2,000 Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia to evaluate the occurrence of thyroid cancer and nodular thyroid disease among men with protracted exposure to ionizing radiation. The examinations were conducted in four cities in Estonia during March-April 1995, 9 years after the reactor accident. The study population was selected from a predefined cohort of 4,833 cleanup workers from Estonia under surveillance for cancer incidence. These men had been sent to Chernobyl between 1986 and 1991 to entomb the damaged reactor, remove radioactive debris and perform related cleanup activities. A total of 2,997 men were invited for thyroid screening and 1,984 (66%) were examined. Estimates of radiation dose from external sources were obtained from military or other institutional records, and details about service dates and types of work performed while at Chernobyl were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected for assay of chromosomal translocations in circulating lymphocytes and loss of expression of the glycophorin A (GPA) gene in erythrocytes. The primary outcome measure was the presence or absence of thyroid nodules as determined by the ultrasound examination. Of the screened workers, 1,247 (63%) were sent to Chernobyl in 1986, including 603 (30%) sent in April or May, soon after the accident. Workers served at Chernobyl for an average of 3 months. The average age was 32 years at the time of arrival at Chernobyl and 40 years at the time of thyroid examination. The mean documented radiation dose from external sources was 10.8 cGy. Biological indicators of exposure showed low correlations with documented dose, but did not indicate that the mean dose for the population was higher than the average documented dose. 47 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  16. Psychological Factors in Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vellutino, Frank R.

    Reviewed are three types of etiological theories of dyslexia: theories of visual perceptual deficit, theories of difficulties with sensory integration, and theories of verbal deficiencies. The author concludes that recent findings weigh heavily against perceptual deficit theories of reading disability as suggested by S. Orton and others; that the…

  17. Increase of regional total cancer incidence in north Sweden due to the Chernobyl accident?

    PubMed Central

    Tondel, M.; Hjalmarsson, P.; Hardell, L.; Carlsson, G.; Axelson, O.

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: Is there any epidemiologically visible influence on the cancer incidence after the Chernobyl fallout in Sweden? Design: A cohort study was focused on the fallout of caesium-137 in relation to cancer incidence 1988–1996. Setting: In northern Sweden, affected by the Chernobyl accident in 1986, 450 parishes were categorised by caesium-137 deposition: <3 (reference), 3–29, 30–39, 40–59, 60–79, and 80–120 kiloBecquerel/m2. Participants: All people 0–60 years living in these parishes in 1986 to 1987 were identified and enrolled in a cohort of 1 143 182 persons. In the follow up 22 409 incident cancer cases were retrieved in 1988–1996. A further analysis focused on the secular trend. Main results: Taking age and population density as confounding factors, and lung cancer incidence in 1988–1996 and total cancer incidence in 1986–1987 by municipality as proxy confounders for smoking and time trends, respectively, the adjusted relative risks for the deposition categories were 1.00 (reference <3 kiloBecquerel/m2), 1.05, 1.03, 1.08, 1.10, and 1.21. The excess relative risk was 0.11 per 100 kiloBecquerel/m2 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.20). Considering the secular trend, directly age standardised cancer incidence rate differences per 100 000 person years between 1988 to 1996 and the reference period 1986–1987, were 30.3 (indicating a time trend in the reference category), 36.8, 42.0, 45.8, 50.1, and 56.4. No clear excess occurred for leukaemia or thyroid cancer. Conclusions: Unless attributable to chance or remaining uncontrolled confounding, a slight exposure related increase in total cancer incidence has occurred in northern Sweden after the Chernobyl accident. PMID:15547062

  18. Behavior of accidentally released radiocesium in soil-water environment: Looking at Fukushima from a Chernobyl perspective.

    PubMed

    Konoplev, A; Golosov, V; Laptev, G; Nanba, K; Onda, Y; Takase, T; Wakiyama, Y; Yoshimura, K

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative characteristics of dissolved and particulate radiocesium wash-off from contaminated watersheds after the FDNPP accident are calculated based on published monitoring data. Comparative analysis is provided for radiocesium wash-off parameters and distribution coefficients, Kd, between suspended matter and water in rivers and surface runoff on Fukushima and Chernobyl contaminated areas for the first years after the accidents. It was found that radiocesium distribution coefficient in Fukushima rivers is essentially higher (1-2 orders of magnitude) than corresponding values for rivers and surface runoff within the Chernobyl zone. This can be associated with two factors: first, the high fraction of clays in the predominant soils and sediments of the Fukushima area and accordingly a higher value of the radiocesium Interception Potential, RIP, in general, and secondly the presence of water insoluble glassy particles containing radiocesium in the accidental fallout at Fukushima. It was found also that normalized dissolved wash-off coefficients for Fukushima catchments are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than corresponding values for the Chernobyl zone. Normalized particulate wash-off coefficients are comparable for Fukushima and Chernobyl. Results of the investigation of radiocesium's ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) vertical distribution in soils of the close-in area of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP - Okuma town and floodplain of the Niida river are presented. The radiocesium migration in undisturbed forest and grassland soils at Fukushima contaminated area has been shown to be faster as compared to the Chernobyl 30-km zone during the first three years after the accidents. This may be associated with higher annual precipitation (by about 2.5 times) in Fukushima as compared to the Chernobyl zone, as well as the differences in the soil characteristics and temperature regime throughout a year. Investigation and analysis of Fukushima's radiocesium distribution in soils of Niida

  19. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    PubMed

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power. PMID:22514916

  20. Modeling the resuspension of radionuclides in Ukranian regions impacted by Chernobyl fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, S.K.; Thiessen, K.M.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1997-01-01

    Following the 1986 Chernobyl event, large amounts of radioactive materials were deposited in nearby areas. Concentrations of various radionuclides were measured in air and surface soil. To study the resuspension of radioactive particulate, three different exposure situations were developed on the basis of the collected data under the auspices of the international BIOMOVS II (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) project. Modelers were asked to predict seasonal air concentrations and resuspension factors at several locations at different distances from Chernobyl for six successive years following the accident. Measurements of radionuclide deposition on topsoil were provided for each site along with information on soil, vegetation, land use, surface roughness, meteorology, and climate. In this paper, the three exposure situations are described, along with the initial data set provided to the modelers; two modeling approaches used to make the endpoint predictions are also presented. After the model predictions were submitted, the measured air concentrations and resuspension factors were released to the modelers. Generally, the predictions were well within an order of magnitude of the measured values. Time-dependent trends in predictions and measurements were in good agreement with one of the models, which (a) explicitly accounted for loss processes in soil and (b) used calibration to improve its predictive capabilities. Reasons for variations between predictions and measurements, suggestions for the improvement of models, and conclusions from the model validation study are presented. 12 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Psychological issues in pediatric obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Gurvinder; De Sousa, Avinash; Sonavane, Sushma; Shah, Nilesh

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the growth and development of a child. The present review focuses on the role of developmental psychological factors in the pathogenesis of pediatric obesity and highlights the developmental factors that must be kept in mind when evaluating a case of pediatric obesity. PMID:23766572

  2. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  3. [Chernobyl--practical experiences exemplified by the Salzburg crisis staff].

    PubMed

    Galvan, G

    1986-01-01

    After Chernobyl the situation in Salzburg was characterized by several particular factors: Here the amount of radiation was higher than in all the other country capitals, there was an exceptionally intensive interest in news, from the very beginning the public was very critical, private initiative groups were organized. Moreover, several mass events took place in this period, as for instance the Pongau-rallye, the international football match with Sweden and the "Dult"-fun-fair. All this and the immediate access to current measurement data was reason for a partly deviating attitude towards the instructions issued by the ministry of health and pollution control. Thus the forbidden grass-feeding of cattle--already turned out to pasture--was not kept, the prohibition of whey fodder was issued very early and whey had to be thickened. For a short period the action "school-milk" was stopped. In order to avoid the unnecessary slaughtering of higher contaminated cattle a screening method was established. The order not to sell salad and vegetable was cancelled but a full week later than in the rest of Austria. An evaluation of the contaminated area could be obtained nation-wide with the project "map square". On the part of the city of Salzburg a register of the radiation amount of the streets was provided. Detailed instructions for the behaviour of the population were made public. The penal responsibility of responsible politicians and representatives of the authorities, according to the opinion of Prof. Dr. O. Triffterer was mentioned. PMID:3577634

  4. Crowd psychology in South African murder trials.

    PubMed

    Colman, A M

    1991-10-01

    South African courts have recently accepted social psychological phenomena as extenuating factors in murder trials. In one important case, eight railway workers were convicted of murdering four strike breakers during an industrial dispute. The court accepted conformity, obedience, group polarization, deindividuation, bystander apathy, and other well-established psychological phenomena as extenuating factors for four of the eight defendants, but sentenced the others to death. In a second trial, death sentences of five defendants for the "necklace" killing of a young woman were reduced to 20 months imprisonment in the light of similar social psychological evidence. Practical and ethical issues arising from expert psychological testimony are discussed. PMID:1746773

  5. A Coaching Psychology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    In "Psychology in its place" (2008), John Radford considers "what is or should be the "place" of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education". In this article, the author looks at the possible inclusion of coaching psychology within undergraduate psychology programmes. Coaching psychology as an applied area of psychology…

  6. On protecting the inexperienced reader from Chernobyl myths.

    PubMed

    Balonov, M I

    2012-06-01

    The health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident continue to attract the attention of experts, decision-makers and the general public, and now these consequences have been given added relevance by the similar accident in 2011 at the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant (NPP) in Japan. Expert analysis of radiation levels and effects has been conducted by international bodies--UNSCEAR in 2008 and the Chernobyl Forum during 2003-5. At the same time, three Russian and Belarusian scientists, Yablokov, Nesterenko and Nesterenko (2009 Chernobyl. Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences)) published both in Russian and English a substantial review of the consequences of Chernobyl based mostly on Russian-language papers. In this book, they suggested a departure from analytical epidemiological studies in favour of ecological ones. This erroneous approach resulted in the overestimation of the number of accident victims by more than 800 000 deaths during 1987-2004. This paper investigates the mistakes in methodology made by Yablokov et al and concludes that these errors led to a clear exaggeration of radiation-induced health effects. Should similar mistakes be made following the 2011 accident at Fukushima-1 NPP this could lead quite unnecessarily to a panic reaction by the public about possible health effects and to erroneous decisions by the authorities in Japan. PMID:22569279

  7. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Beiriger, J.M.; Failor, R.A.; Marsh, K.V.; Shaw, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes the detection of fallout in the United States from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. As part of its environmental surveillance program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintained detectors for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Following the reactor accident, additional air filters were set out. Several uncommon isotopes were detected at the time the plume passed into the US. (TEM)

  8. AQUATIC ASSESSMENT OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR ACCIDENT AND ITS REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Yasuo; Kivva, Sergey L.; Zheleznyak, Mark J.; Voitsekhovitch, Oleg V.

    2007-11-01

    This modeling study evaluated aquatic environment affected by the Chernobyl nuclear accident and the effectiveness of remediation efforts. Study results indicate that radionuclide concentrations in the Pripyat and Dnieper rivers were well above the drinking water limits immediately after the Chernobyl accident, but have decreased significantly in subsequent years due to flashing, burying, and decay. Because high concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs, the major radionuclides affecting human health through aquatic pathways, are associated with flooding, an earthen dike was constructed along the Pripyat River in its most contaminated floodplain. The dike was successful in reducing the 90Sr influx to the river by half. A 100-m-high movable dome called the New Safe Confinement is planned to cover the Chernobyl Shelter (formally called the sarcophagus) that was erected shortly after the accident. The NSC will reduce radionuclide contamination further in these rivers and nearby groundwater; however, even if the Chernobyl Shelter collapses before the NSC is built, the resulting peak concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in the Dnieper River would still be below the drinking water limits.

  9. Redefining Glasnost in the Soviet Media: The Recontextualization of Chernobyl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Marilyn J.; Launer, Michael K.

    1991-01-01

    Demonstrates that a review of news coverage and an analysis of two documentary films in the context of Soviet cultural values and political stakes suggests that the rhetorical reconstruction of Chernobyl contributed to the legitimation of nuclear power and the environment as public issues. (PRA)

  10. Chernobyl radionuclides in a Black Sea sediment trap.

    PubMed

    Buesseler, K O; Livingston, H D; Honjo, S; Hay, B J; Manganini, S J; Degens, E; Ittekkot, V; Izdar, E; Konuk, T

    The Chernobyl nuclear power station accident released large quantities of vaporized radionuclides, and, to a lesser extent, mechanically released small (less than 1-10 micron) aerosol particles. The total release of radioactivity is estimated to be out of the order of 1-2 x 10(18) Bq (3-5 x 10(7) Ci) not allowing for releases of the xenon and krypton gases. The 137Cs releases of 3.8 x 10(16) Bq from Chernobyl can be compared to 1.3 x 10(18) Bq 137Cs released due to atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Chernobyl-derived radionuclides can be used as transient tracers to study physical and biogeochemical processes. Initial measurements of fallout Chernobyl radionuclides from a time-series sediment trap at 1,071 m during June-September 1986 in the southern Black Sea are presented. The specific activities of 137Cs, 144Ce and 106Ru in the trap samples (0.5-2, 4-12 and 6-13 Bq g-1) are independent of the particle flux while their relative activities reflect their rates of scavenging in the order Ce greater than Ru greater than Cs. PMID:3670387

  11. Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Kouts, H.

    1986-09-24

    This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

  12. [Radioecological problems of aquatic ecosystems of the Chernobyl exclusion zone].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, D I; Kuz'menko, M I; Kireev, S I; Nazarov, A B; Shevtsova, N L; Dziubenko, E V; Kaglian, A E

    2009-01-01

    The results of radioactive contamination dynamics in the main components of aquatic ecosystems and the absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts within the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone was analysed. Some cytogenetical and haematological effects of long-term irradiation on aquatic organisms as well as damage of higher aquatic plants by parasitic fungi and gall-producing arthropods were considered. PMID:19507688

  13. Reassessing Nuclear Power: The Fallout from Chernobyl. Worldwatch Paper 75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Christopher

    The Chernobyl nuclear plant explosion on April 26, 1986, was the world's most serious nuclear power accident to date. This document examines the accident's impact on the world from a variety of perspectives. The first major section of the book provides a step-by-step account of the accident itself, beginning with the special testing that…

  14. The Psychology of Working Theory.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Ryan D; Blustein, David L; Diemer, Matthew A; Autin, Kelsey L

    2016-03-01

    In the current article, we build on research from vocational psychology, multicultural psychology, intersectionality, and the sociology of work to construct an empirically testable Psychology of Working Theory (PWT). Our central aim is to explain the work experiences of all individuals, but particularly people near or in poverty, people who face discrimination and marginalization in their lives, and people facing challenging work-based transitions for which contextual factors are often the primary drivers of the ability to secure decent work. The concept of decent work is defined and positioned as the central variable within the theory. A series of propositions is offered concerning (a) contextual predictors of securing decent work, (b) psychological and economic mediators and moderators of these relations, and (c) outcomes of securing decent work. Recommendations are suggested for researchers seeking to use the theory and practical implications are offered concerning counseling, advocacy, and public policy. PMID:26937788

  15. Chernobyl and iodine deficiency in the Russian Federation: an environmental disaster leading to a public health opportunity.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Richard J; DeLozier, David M; Gerasimov, Gregory; Borisova, Olga; Garbe, Paul L; Goultchenko, Lioudmila; Shakarishvili, George; Hollowell, Joseph G; Miller, Dayton T

    2002-01-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear disaster of April 26, 1986, triggered a chain of devastating events that later included an unexpected increase in childhood thyroid cancer and evidence of iodine deficiency (ID) in Russia. For the Russian people the Chernobyl event had profound psychological impacts, provoking anxiety about nuclear technology and mistrust of governmental control efforts. Frequently in public health a crisis is required to create the political will to manage longstanding problems, and public health officials must rapidly mobilize to take advantage of the opportunity. In this case, ID, previously not seen as a problem in Russia, was recognized to be potentially serious, and the Russian Federation, assisted by the catalytic bi-national effort of the U.S.-Russian Joint Commission on Economic and Technological Cooperation (Gore-Chernomyrdin Commission (GCC)) established a model salt iodization policy, developed a planning process, and implemented a program to prevent ID through a systematic approach that included the people, government, and private groups using open communication, dissemination of the findings, and action plans. By 1999, political will had been mobilized and over 20% of the nation's salt was being iodized, up from about 1% in 1996. Universal iodization of salt was not a specific objective of the GCC; however, the increasing availability of iodized salt is leading to the elimination of ID, which is now a political goal in Russia. The full realization of this goal will require more time for education, marketing, and possibly legislative action. PMID:12532684

  16. The results of selective cytogenetic monitoring of Chernobyl accident victims in the Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Pilinskaya, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    Selective cytogenetic monitoring of the highest priority groups of Chernobyl disaster victims has been carried out since 1987. In 1992-1993, 125 liquidators (irradiated mainly in 1986) and 42 persons recovering from acute radiation sickness of the second and third degrees of severity were examined. Cytogenetic effects (an elevated level of unstable as well as stable markers of radiation exposure) were found in all groups, which showed a positive correlation with the initial degree of irradiation severity even 6-7 y after the accident. Comparative scoring of conventional staining vs. G-banding in 10 liquidators showed the identical rate of unstable aberrations. At the same time, the yield of stable aberrations for G-banded slides exceeded the frequency for conventional staining. In order to study possible mutagenic activity of chronic low levels of irradiation, the cytogenetic monitoring of some critical groups of the population (especially children and occupational groups-tractor drivers and foresters) living in areas of the Ukraine contaminated by radionuclides was carried out. In all the examined groups, a significant increase in the frequency of aberrant metaphases, chromosome aberrations (both unstable and stable), an chromatid aberrations was observed. Data gathered from groups of children reflect the intensity of mutagenic impact on the studied populations and demonstrate a positive correlation with the duration of exposure. Results of cytogenetic examination of adults confirmed the importance of considering the contribution of occupational radiation exposure to genetic effects of Chernobyl accident factors on the population of contaminated areas. 17 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. VERTICAL MIGRATION OF RADIONUCLIDES IN THE VICINITY OF THE CHERNOBYL CONFINEMENT SHELTER

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Marra, J.

    2011-10-01

    Studies on vertical migration of Chernobyl-origin radionuclides in the 5-km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the area of the Red Forest experimental site were completed. Measurements were made by gamma spectrometric methods using high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors with beryllium windows. Alpha-emitting isotopes of plutonium were determined by the measurement of the x-rays from their uranium progeny. The presence of {sup 60}Co, {sup 134,137}Cs, {sup 154,155}Eu, and {sup 241}Am in all soil layers down to a depth of 30 cm was observed. The presence of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am were noted in the area containing automorphous soils to a depth of 60 cm. In addition, the upper soil layers at the test site were found to contain {sup 243}Am and {sup 243}Cm. Over the past ten years, the {sup 241}Am/{sup 137}Cs ratio in soil at the experimental site has increased by a factor of 3.4, nearly twice as much as would be predicted based solely on radioactive decay. This may be due to 'fresh' fallout emanating from the ChNPP Confinement Shelter.

  18. Vertical migration of radionuclides in the vicinity of the chernobyl confinement shelter.

    PubMed

    Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zheltonozhsky, Viktor A; Zheltonozhskaya, Maryna V; Kulich, Nadezhda V; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy; Marra, James C

    2011-10-01

    Studies of vertical migration of Chernobyl-origin radionuclides in the 5-km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the area of the Red Forest experimental site were completed. Measurements were made by gamma spectrometric methods using high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors with beryllium windows. Alpha-emitting isotopes of plutonium were determined by the measurement of the x-rays from their uranium progeny. The presence of 60Co, 134,137Cs, 154,155Eu, and 241Am in all soil layers down to a depth of 30 cm was observed. The presence of 137Cs and 241Am was noted in the area containing automorphous soils to a depth of 60 cm. In addition, the upper soil layers at the test site were found to contain 243Am and 243Ñm. Over the past 10 years, the 241Am/137Cs ratio in soil at the experimental site has increased by a factor of 3.4, nearly twice as much as would be predicted based solely on radioactive decay. This may be due to "fresh" fallout emanating from the ChNPP Confinement Shelter. PMID:21878761

  19. Polycultural psychology.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness. PMID:25251481

  20. Commentary on "The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)": Army STARRS: a Framingham-like study of psychological health risk factors in soldiers.

    PubMed

    Ressler, Kerry J; Schoomaker, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    Although historically the Army suicide rate has been significantly lower than the civilian rate, in 2004, the suicide and accidental death rates began trending upward. By 2008, the Army suicide rate had risen above the national average (20.2 per 100,000). In 2009, 160 active duty Soldiers took their lives, making suicide the third leading cause of death among the Army population. If accidental death, frequently the result of high-risk behavior, is included, then more Soldiers died by their own actions than in combat in 2009. The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) was thus created in 2009 to begin to address these problems. The Army STARRS project is a large consortium of seven different studies to develop data-driven methods for mitigating or preventing suicide behaviors and improving the overall mental health and behavioral functioning of Army Soldiers during and after their Army service. The first research articles from the Army STARRS project were published in late 2013 and early 2014. This work has already begun to outline important facets of risk in the military, and it is helping to drive an empirically derived approach to improvements in understanding mental disorders and risk behavior and to improve prevention and support of mental health and resilience. The Framingham Heart Study, started in the 1940s, marked a watershed event in utilizing large cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal collaborative research to identify and understand risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The Army STARRS project, through its collaborative, prospective, and robust innovative design and implementation, may provide the beginning of a similar scientific cohort in mental disorders. The work of this project will help understand biological and psychological aspects of military service, including those leading to suicide. When coupled with timely feedback to Army leadership, it permits near real-time steps to diagnose, mitigate, and

  1. Role of gender, family, lifestyle and psychological factors in self-rated health among urban adolescents in Peru: a school-based cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bimala; Nam, Eun Woo; Kim, Dohyeong; Yoon, Young Min; Kim, Yeunju; Kim, Ha Yun

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined the role of gender, family, lifestyle and psychological factors in self-rated health. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A total of 970 randomly selected students from 11 secondary schools in Lima and Callao, Peru, participated in 2014. Main outcome measure Self-rated health was measured with a single item: ‘In general, how would you rate your health?’ Responses were arranged along a five-point Likert-type scale: ‘excellent’, ‘very good’, ‘good’, ‘fair’ and ‘poor’. The outcome variable was dichotomised as ‘good’ (excellent, very good or good) or ‘poor/fair’ (poor or fair). Methods We calculated adjusted ORs (AORs) and 95% CIs for poor/fair self-rated health using multivariate logistic regression analyses at 3-graded levels. Results 32.5% of the respondents had fair/poor self-rated health, 23.7% of the total males and 40.0% of the total female samples. Males were less likely to have poor/fair self-rated health (AOR 0.61; CI 0.41 to 0.91). Poor family support strongly increased the likelihood of having poor/fair self-rated health (no support, (AOR 3.15; CI 1.63 to 6.09); low support, (AOR 2.50; CI 1.29 to 4.85)). The other associated variables were missed meals due to a shortage of food (AOR 1.97; CI 1.15 to 3.36), television watching during leisure time (AOR 1.70; CI 1.09 to 2.67), low physical activity (AOR 1.49; CI 1.03 to 2.15), school absenteeism (AOR 1.54; CI 1.03 to 2.31) and perceived life satisfaction (AOR 0.28; CI 0.15 to 0.25). Conclusions Gender, missing meals due to a shortage of food, family support, physical activity and life satisfaction influenced self-rated health among adolescents in Peru. Interventions that focus on promoting physical activity for at least 1 h each day for 3 or more days per week, food security and strengthening supportive family roles may improve self-rated health during adolescence. PMID:26842274

  2. Ecological lessons from the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Bell, J N B; Shaw, G

    2005-08-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 not only caused serious ecological problems in both the Ukraine and Belarus, which continue to the present day, but also contaminated a large part of the higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere. In this paper an overview is given of the latter problems in upland UK, where ecological problems still remain some 17 years after initial contamination. Following deposition of radiocaesium and radioiodine in May 1986, measurements of radioactivity in grass and soil indicated a rapidly declining problem as the radioiodine decayed and the radiocaesium became immobilised by attachment to clay particles. However, these studies, as well as the advice received by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, were based on lowland agricultural soils, with high clay and low organic matter contents. The behaviour of radiocaesium in upland UK turned out to be dominated by high and persistent levels of mobility and bioavailability. This resulted in the free passage of radiocaesium through the food chain and into sheep. Consequently the Ministry banned the sale and movement of sheep over large areas of upland Britain, with bans remaining on some farms to the present day. Present day predictions suggest that these bans will continue in some cases for some years to come. The causes of radiocaesium mobility in upland areas have subsequently been the subject of intense investigation centred around vegetation and, in particular, soil characteristics. Soil types were identified which were particularly vulnerable in this respect and, where these coincided with high levels of deposition, sheep bans tended to be imposed. While much of the earlier work suggested that a low clay content was the main reason for continuing mobility, a very high organic matter content is now also believed to play a major role, this being a characteristic of wet and acidic upland UK soils. The overall message from this affair is the importance of a fundamental

  3. Myelodysplastic syndromes in Chernobyl clean-up workers.

    PubMed

    Gluzman, Daniil F; Sklyarenko, Lilia M; Koval, Stella V; Rodionova, Nataliia K; Zavelevich, Michael P; Ivanivskaya, Tetiana S; Poludnenko, Liudmyla Yu; Ukrainskaya, Nataliia I

    2015-10-01

    The studies of the recent decades posed the question of the association between radiation exposure and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). This association has been proved in secondary MDS originating upon exposure to chemotherapeutics and/or radiation therapy. The long-term study in Japanese atomic (A)-bomb survivors demonstrated the significant linear dose-response for MDS confirming the link between radiation exposure and this form of hematopoietic malignancies. All these findings provide the strong basis for studying MDS in the persons exposed to radiation following the Chernobyl disaster, especially those in the cohort of Chernobyl clean-up workers of 1986-1987. The data on MDS among Chernobyl clean-up workers (1986-1987) diagnosed in 1996-2012 at the reference laboratory of RE Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology are summarized. MDS cases were diagnosed in 23 persons (21 males and 2 females) having been exposed to radiation as clean-up workers of 1986-1987. Refractory anemia (RA) has been detected in 13, refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS)-in 2, and refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB)-in 8 patients. The median age of those MDS patients was 62.0 years. In addition, 5 cases of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) were recorded in the group of Chernobyl clean-up workers with the median time of 14.8 years from 1986-1987 to diagnosis. The association between radiation exposure and MDS is discussed. The suggested life-long risk for myelodysplastic syndromes among A-bomb survivors in Japan highlights the importance of the continuing follow-up studies in the affected populations in the post-Chernobyl period. PMID:26208666

  4. Manned Mars mission psychological issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.

    1986-01-01

    The research on isolated environments over the last thirty years suggests that psychological factors associated with such environments will lead to negative changes in individual and group performance. A mission to Mars will be the greatest undertaking ever devised by the human species. The members of such a mission will be in an environment whose potential dangers are not even completely known at this time. The psychological factors generated by such an environment, and which might adversely affect accomplishment of mission goals, can be minimized or planned for in advance. It is hoped that these issues will not be ignored in planning for this great adventure.

  5. Increasing Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention in Comparison to the Effects of Therapeutic Alliance, Youth Factors, and Expectancy for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Jessica Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the variance in subjective well-being (SWB) of early adolescents ( n = 54) exposed to a positive psychology intervention aimed at increasing positive affect and life satisfaction as well as decreasing negative affect through intentional activities (e.g., gratitude journals, acts of kindness, use of character strengths,…

  6. Socioeconomic Status, Psychological Distress, and Other Maternal Risk Factors for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among American Indians of the Northern Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Phyllis Trujillo; Shipman, Virginia C.; May, Philip A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship of selected demographic, socioeconomic status (SES), and psychological characteristics was examined in interviews with 176 Northern Plains American Indian mothers whose children were referred to diagnostic clinics for evaluation of developmental disabilities, including fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Thirty-nine mothers…

  7. Influence of Psychological and Social Factors on Bystanders' Roles in School Bullying among Korean-American Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sumi; Cho, Young Il

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the associations of psychological and social variables with the likelihood of exhibiting three different behaviors as a bystander in a bullying situation. The sample comprised 238 Korean-American and Korean students, from the 3rd to 12th grades, studying in the USA. Students receiving classmate support showed a lower…

  8. The Componential Model of Reading: Predicting First Grade Reading Performance of Culturally Diverse Students from Ecological, Psychological, and Cognitive Factors Assessed at Kindergarten Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Miriam; Folsom, Jessica S.; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Greulich, Luana; Thomas-Tate, Shurita; Connor, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    This study, framed by the component model of reading (CMR), examined the relative importance of kindergarten-entry predictors of first grade reading performance. Specifically, elements within the ecological domain included dialect, maternal education, amount of preschool, and home literacy; elements within the psychological domain included…

  9. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  10. Gender, Psychological Type and Conflict Style Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Paula S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Surveys experienced managers regarding gender, psychological type, and conflict style preference. Finds that males are "thinkers," and females are "feelers." Cautions that while results indicated psychological type may be a better indicator of conflict style preference than is gender, neither factor accounted for a substantial amount of variance.…

  11. School Psychology in Indiana to 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Rutherford B.; Walker, Kenneth P.

    The history of school psychology in Indiana is presented in this booklet, which also provides insight into how the profession came to be and how it was developed and documents many of the professional and political issues that impacted program development. General factors influencing the development of school psychology, including army…

  12. Eliminating the possibility at Chernobyl 4 of recriticality with positive feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, C.D.

    1996-04-29

    We have recently published an article in which we discuss means by which plutonium and other fissile material stored underground could reach criticality with positive feedback and therefore explosive potential. The Chernobyl rubble involving hundreds of tons of material is similar in some respects to the systems analyzed in the paper, and the practices there to control criticality may well increase the probability of a second event at Chernobyl 4. This paper explores the Chernobyl situation and remedial actions are recommended.

  13. Introduction to Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an overview of…

  14. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  15. A prospective study of effects of psychological factors and sleep on obstetric interventions, mode of birth, and neonatal outcomes among low-risk British Columbian women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obstetrical interventions, including caesarean sections, are increasing in Canada. Canadian women’s psychological states, fatigue, and sleep have not been examined prospectively for contributions to obstetric interventions and adverse neonatal outcomes. Context and purpose of the study: The prospective study was conducted in British Columbia (BC), Canada with 650 low-risk pregnant women. Of those women, 624 were included in this study. Women were recruited through providers’ offices, media, posters, and pregnancy fairs. We examined associations between pregnant women’s fatigue, sleep deprivation, and psychological states (anxiety and childbirth fear) and women’s exposure to obstetrical interventions and adverse neonatal outcomes (preterm, admission to NICU, low APGARS, and low birth weight). Methods Data from our cross-sectional survey were linked, using women’s personal health numbers, to birth outcomes from the Perinatal Services BC database. After stratifying for parity, we used Pearson’s Chi-square to examine associations between psychological states, fatigue, sleep deprivation and maternal characteristics. We used hierarchical logistic regression modeling to test 9 hypotheses comparing women with high and low childbirth fear and anxiety on likelihood of having epidural anaesthetic, a caesarean section (stratified for parity), assisted vaginal delivery, and adverse neonatal outcomes and women with and without sleep deprivation and high levels of fatigue on likelihood of giving birth by caesarean section, while controlling for maternal, obstetrical (e.g., infant macrosomia), and psychological variables. Results Significantly higher proportions of multiparas, reporting difficult and upsetting labours and births, expectations of childbirth interventions, and health stressors, reported high levels of childbirth fear. Women who reported antenatal relationship, housing, financial, and health stressors and multiparas reporting low family incomes

  16. Causal Inference and Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, E. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Causal inference is of central importance to developmental psychology. Many key questions in the field revolve around improving the lives of children and their families. These include identifying risk factors that if manipulated in some way would foster child development. Such a task inherently involves causal inference: One wants to know whether…

  17. Ecological aspects of the chernobyl nuclear plant disaster.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, Z A

    1986-07-01

    The partial meltdown of the 1000MW reactor in Chernobyl and the massive release of radionuclides into the environment is the first large-scale contamination of a geographically significant area by a power-generating civilian nuclear plant. It will have a long term effect on the human population, agriculture and the environment. Previous cases of accidental contamination of the environment on such a scale were connected with the disposal of reprocessed nuclear waste or the release of radioactivity from atmospheric and underground tests of nuclear weapons. One such contamination, which provides important lessons in the wake of the Chernobyl disaster, was linked with the explosion of the nuclear waste storage facility near Kyshtym in the Cheliabinsk region of the Soviet Union in 1958. It resulted in the creation of a special 'exclusion zone', resettlement of local populations and special construction projects designed to prevent the distribution of radioactivity over even larger areas. PMID:21227774

  18. Chernobyl team seeks aid for fallout cleanup studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    British nuclear experts have begun raising international aid agency interest in financing studies into cleaning up vast areas of the Ukraine still contaminated with fallout from the Chernobyl reactor explosion in April 1986. In a new 11-month investigation of the area outside an 18.6-mile radius of Chernobyl, the experts identified 80 necessary studies estimated to cost $62 million. [open quotes]That's just to get the system up and running. The total cost is much larger, but the authors don't yet know how much,[close quotes] says investigation coordinator Alan Eggleton of AEA Technology Ltd., Harwell, which led the study team. According to the report, radioactivity contaminated 19,000 sq miles of the Ukraine. The government is now spending some 12% of its income on mitigating the contamination, although most spending is for victim compensation and resettlement.

  19. Source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Mourad, R.; Snell, V.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the source term and to evaluate the maximum hypothetical individual doses in European countries (including the Soviet Union) from the Chernobyl accident through the analyses of measurements of meteorological data, radiation fields, and airborne and deposited activity in these countries. Applying this information to deduce the source term involves a reversal of the techniques of nuclear accident analysis, which estimate the off-site consequences of postulated accidents. In this study the authors predict the quantities of radionuclides that, if released at Chernobyl and following the calculated trajectories, would explain and unify the observed radiation levels and radionuclide concentrations as measured by European countries and the Soviet Union. The simulation uses the PEAR microcomputer program following the methodology described in Canadian Standards Association standard N288.2. The study was performed before the Soviets published their estimate of the source term and the two results are compared.

  20. Immediate medical consequences of nuclear accidents: lessons from Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, R.P.

    1987-08-07

    The immediate medical response to the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station involved containment of the radioactivity and evacuation of the nearby population. The next step consisted of assessment of the radiation dose received by individuals, based on biological dosimetry, and treatment of those exposed. Medical care involved treatment of skin burns; measures to support bone marrow failure, gastrointestinal tract injury, and other organ damage (i.e., infection prophylaxis and transfusions) for those with lower radiation dose exposure; and bone marrow transplantation for those exposed to a high dose of radiation. At Chernobyl, two victims died immediately and 29 died of radiation or thermal injuries in the next three months. The remaining victims of the accident are currently well. A nuclear accident anywhere is a nuclear accident everywhere. Prevention and cooperation in response to these accidents are essential goals.

  1. The measurement of psychological literacy: a first approximation

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Heritage, Brody; Gasson, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Psychological literacy, the ability to apply psychological knowledge to personal, family, occupational, community and societal challenges, is promoted as the primary outcome of an undergraduate education in psychology. As the concept of psychological literacy becomes increasingly adopted as the core business of undergraduate psychology training courses world-wide, there is urgent need for the construct to be accurately measured so that student and institutional level progress can be assessed and monitored. Key to the measurement of psychological literacy is determining the underlying factor-structure of psychological literacy. In this paper we provide a first approximation of the measurement of psychological literacy by identifying and evaluating self-report measures for psychological literacy. Multi-item and single-item self-report measures of each of the proposed nine dimensions of psychological literacy were completed by two samples (N = 218 and N = 381) of undergraduate psychology students at an Australian university. Single and multi-item measures of each dimension were weakly to moderately correlated. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of multi-item measures indicated a higher order three factor solution best represented the construct of psychological literacy. The three factors were reflective processes, generic graduate attributes, and psychology as a helping profession. For the measurement of psychological literacy to progress there is a need to further develop self-report measures and to identify/develop and evaluate objective measures of psychological literacy. Further approximations of the measurement of psychological literacy remain an imperative, given the construct's ties to measuring institutional efficacy in teaching psychology to an undergraduate audience. PMID:25741300

  2. Transfer of 137Cs from Chernobyl debris and nuclear weapons fallout to different Swedish population groups.

    PubMed

    Rääf, C L; Hubbard, L; Falk, R; Agren, G; Vesanen, R

    2006-08-15

    Data from measurements on the body burden of (134)Cs, (137)Cs and (40)K in various Swedish populations between 1959 and 2001 has been compiled into a national database. The compilation is a co-operation between the Departments of Radiation Physics in Malmö and Göteborg, the National Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) and the Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI). In a previous study the effective ecological half time and the associated effective dose to various Swedish populations due to internal contamination of (134)Cs and (137)Cs have been assessed using the database. In this study values of human body burden have been combined with data on the local and regional ground deposition of fallout from nuclear weapons tests (only (137)Cs) and Chernobyl debris (both (134)Cs and (137)Cs), which have enabled estimates of the radioecological transfer in the studied populations. The assessment of the database shows that the transfer of radiocesium from Chernobyl fallout to humans varies considerably between various populations in Sweden. In terms of committed effective dose over a 70 y period from internal contamination per unit activity deposition, the general (predominantly urban) Swedish population obtains 20-30 microSv/kBq m(-2). Four categories of populations exhibit higher radioecological transfer than the general population; i.) reindeer herders ( approximately 700 microSv/kBq m(-2)), ii.) hunters in the counties dominated by forest vegetation ( approximately 100 microSv/kBq m(-2)), iii.) rural non-farming populations living in sub-arctic areas (40-150 microSv/kBq m(-2)), and iv.) farmers ( approximately 50 microSv/kBq m(-2)). Two important factors determine the aggregate transfer from ground deposition to man; i.) dietary habits (intakes of foodstuff originating from natural and semi-natural ecosystems), and ii.) inclination to follow the recommended food restriction by the authorities. The transfer to the general population is considerably lower

  3. Chernobyl accident and the problem of {sup 241}Am

    SciTech Connect

    Pazukhin, E.M.; Drozd, I.P.; Tokarevskii, V.V.

    1995-07-01

    The accumulation and decay of {sup 241}Am formed in the reactor of the fourth block of the Chernobyl atomic energy station at the time of the accident of April 26, 1986 are analyzed. Possible pathways for {sup 241}Am uptake in man are examined. The maximum equivalent dose after 70 years is estimated for a critical population living at the edge of the exclusion zone.

  4. Aspermy, Sperm Quality and Radiation in Chernobyl Birds

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Anders Pape; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Rudolfsen, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Background Following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, large amounts of radionuclides were emitted and spread in the environment. Animals living in such contaminated areas are predicted to suffer fitness costs including reductions in the quality and quantity of gametes. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied whether aspermy and sperm quality were affected by radioactive contamination by examining ejaculates from wild caught birds breeding in areas varying in background radiation level by more than three orders of magnitude around Chernobyl, Ukraine. The frequency of males with aspermy increased logarithmically with radiation level. While 18.4% of males from contaminated areas had no sperm that was only the case for 3.0% of males from uncontaminated control areas. Furthermore, there were negative relationships between sperm quality as reflected by reduced sperm velocity and motility, respectively, and radiation. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that radioactive contamination around Chernobyl affects sperm production and quality. We are the first to report an interspecific difference in sperm quality in relation to radioactive contamination. PMID:24963711

  5. Chernobyl fallout and outcome of pregnancy in Finland.

    PubMed Central

    Auvinen, A; Vahteristo, M; Arvela, H; Suomela, M; Rahola, T; Hakama, M; Rytömaa, T

    2001-01-01

    Possible effects of Chernobyl fallout on outcome of pregnancy in Finland were evaluated in a nationwide follow-up study. The outcomes were the rate of live births and stillbirths, pregnancy loss, and induced abortions by municipality. Exposure was assessed based on nationwide surveys of radiation dose rate from the Chernobyl fallout, from both external and internal exposures. Using these measurements, we estimated the monthly dose rate for each of the 455 Finnish municipalities. On average, the dose rate from Chernobyl fallout reached 50 microSv per month in May 1986--a doubling of the natural background radiation. In the most heavily affected area, 4 times the normal background dose rates were recorded. Given the underlying regional differences in live birth, stillbirth, and abortion rates, we used longitudinal analysis comparing changes over time within municipalities. A temporary decline in the live birth rate had already begun before 1986, with no clear relationship to the level of fallout. A statistically significant increase in spontaneous abortions with dose of radiation was observed. No marked changes in induced abortions or stillbirths were observed. The decrease in the live birth rate is probably not a biological effect of radiation, but more likely related to public concerns of the fallout. The effect on spontaneous abortions should be interpreted with caution, because of potential bias or confounding. Further, there is little support in the epidemiologic literature on effects of very low doses of radiation on pregnancy outcome. PMID:11266330

  6. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on animal husbandry and production, from a Swedish perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.E.

    1989-04-01

    About 20% of the Swedish land area was considerably contaminated by radionuclides released by the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine, in April 1986. However, less than 10% of the arable land was contaminated. The heavy contamination was closely correlated with the amount of rain received during the first days of May 1986. Immediate restrictions on grazing limited the early uptake of contaminants in animal products. Changes in management of animals, especially sheep, goats, and reindeer in the contaminated areas have effectively reduced the transfer of radionuclides to human beings. One important factor was the possibility of obtaining uncontaminated feeds from unaffected parts of the country. The direct costs during the first 2 years after the accident were approximately +10 million for analyses and +90 million for compensation to farmers for condemned products (milk, mutton, and reindeer meat) and reimbursement for purchase of uncontaminated feeds from other parts of the country.

  7. The chernobyl fallout in Greece and its effects on the dating of archaeological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liritzis, Y.

    1987-10-01

    The effects of the fallout from the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl have been monitored at various sites in Greece. Here we present the first estimates of gamma dose rates, an essential parameter in the dating of archaeological materials by thermoluminescence (TL) and ESR methods. The dose rates are derived from the long-lived radionuclides of 137Cs, 134Cs, 106Ru and 144Ce (with t {1}/{2} ⩾ 1 yr). The present dose rates vary between 30 and 60 mrad/yr, but maximum values of around 811 mrad/yr have also been recorded, for ground-surface exposures. These dose rate values must be regarded as very significant to TL and ESR dating of samples from now on and a correction factor should be applied.

  8. Career Psychology in South Africa: Addressing and Redressing Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the definition of social justice in career psychology and how this might be understood in the South African context. In particular, macro-contextual factors that define social justice issues in South African career psychology are described. The extent to which the discipline of career psychology in South Africa has addressed…

  9. Overview of the mental health research among residents of contaminated territories and Chernobyl clean up workers/"liquidators" in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Igumnov, S A; Lapanau, P S

    2015-12-01

    This review deals with the latest information concerning the studies of the effect of the Chernobyl accident on the mental health of different population groups of Belarus. Observed the pathogenesis of mental disorders, develop ing in individuals living in the contaminated territories. Reviewed different factors affecting the mental health of such population group as the liquidators. Disclosed is a phenomenon of squatters ("samosely") - people who vol untarily returned to their homes in the exclusion zone after the forced relocation. The data studies, including its own, mental disorders in children, exposed to radioactive exposure in different periods of development. PMID:26695894

  10. [Change in neutrophils in liquidators of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station].

    PubMed

    Zhiliaev, E G; Grebeniuk, A N; Antushevich, A E; Legeza, V I; Smirnov, N A

    1998-02-01

    In result of own researches and analysis of the literature? the information about high sensitivity of neutrophils of peripheric blood to infringements of constancy of internal state of body, arising as reply to radiating influence, are received. Ionized radiation modulates greatly properties and functions of neutrophilic granulocytes, which are the most sensitive and high-modulated cells of non-specific resistance system. The changes of the functional-metabolic status of neutrophils in participants of liquidation of consequences of Chernobyl disaster have been saving during 10 years after influence of the extreme, including radiating, factors of failure. PMID:9567724

  11. [Regularities of changes in 137Cs content in milk in the long term after the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident].

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S V; Pakhomov, A Iu; Pasternak, A D; Goriainov, V A; Fesenko, G A; Panov, A V

    2004-01-01

    Regularities of changes in 137Cs content in cattle milk in the long term after the Chernobyl accident have been analyzed. Contamination levels of haylands and pastures, soil properties, specific features of agricultural production and time after the fallout play a crucial role in 137Cs concentration changes in animal products. Trends have been studied that reflect the influence of these factors and their significance assessed. The half-life periods of 137Cs decay in milk vary over the period of 1994 to 2000 between 7.1 and 14.8 years and approach similar periods calculated for the long term after global radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests. PMID:15287266

  12. [On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: medical consequences in Armenia].

    PubMed

    Oganesian, N M; Petrosian, Sh M; Miridzhanian, M I; Asrian, K V; Pogosian, A S; Oganesian, A N; Abramian, A K; Arutiunian, G R; Karapetian, A G; Gevorkian, E G; Petrosian, Zh G; Arutiunian, N K

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is the analysis of the indices of the health and of the structure of the sicknesses of the inhabitants of Armenia who took part in the liquidation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Also it is the determination of possible dependence of the frequency of diseases for the most widespread classes of sicknesses on the received dose of the irradiation, according to the data of the clinical examination and dispensarysation; and also it is the revelation of the role of other factors influenced on the health indexes. PMID:16869166

  13. Prediction of radionuclide aging in soils from the Chernobyl and Mediterranean areas.

    PubMed

    Roig, M; Vidal, M; Rauret, G; Rigol, A

    2007-01-01

    The aging of soil-pollutant interaction, which may lead to an increase in pollutant fixation, is the main driving force in the natural attenuation of contaminated soils. Here a test was evaluated to predict the aging of radiostrontium and radiocesium in soils from the Chernobyl and Mediterranean areas. After contamination, soils were maintained at various temperatures for up to 12 mo, with or without drying-wetting (DW) cycles. Changes in the quantity of radionuclide reversibly sorbed over time were monitored using an extraction test (1 mol L(-1) NH(4)Cl; 10 mL g(-1); 16 h). The fixed fraction could not be predicted from soil properties controlling the sorption step. Aging was not as relevant for Sr as for Cs. The time elapsed since contamination was the main factor responsible for the slight (up to 1.3-fold) decreases in Sr extraction yields. The additional effect of DW cycles was negligible. Instead, all factors accelerated Cs aging due to the enhancement of Cs trapping by clay interlayer collapse, with up to 20-fold increases in Cs fixation. The DW cycles also caused secondary effects on the Cs-specific sorption pool, which were beneficial or detrimental depending on the soil type. Extraction yields from laboratory aged samples agreed with those from field samples taken a few years after the Chernobyl accident. These results confirm the prediction capacity of the laboratory test and its usefulness in risk assessment exercises and in the design of intervention actions, particularly because neither fixation nor aging were related to the soil properties, such as clay content. PMID:17526873

  14. [Functional-ecological and age-specific regularities in radionuclide concentration in freshwater molluscs from the Chernobyl Atomic Energy Station exclusion zone].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, D I; Derevets, V V; Kuz'menko, M I; Nazarov, A B

    2001-01-01

    The results of the studies on 90Sr and 137Cs content in the tissues of bivalve and gastropod mollusks of water basins in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP have been analyzed. The dependence of radionuclide accumulation factors on the peculiarities of morphological structure, functional ecology and nutrition type was found. The age dynamics of 137Cs content in some species of Gastropoda was studied. PMID:11458648

  15. The human sex odds at birth after the atmospheric atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities: comment.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Walter

    2012-05-01

    The recent claim made in this journal that nuclear bomb tests and the Chernobyl disaster caused distortions in the secondary sex ratio is shown to be a likely artifact of data mining, misused statistics, and misreading of the evidence. In particular, the concept of statistical "significance" and its limitations do not seem to be fully understood, and important confounding factors have not been accounted for. PMID:22076251

  16. External dose assessment in the Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Remi Jordan Lesartre

    While the physiological effects of radiation exposure have been well characterized in general, it remains unclear what the relationship is between large-scale radiological events and psychosocial behavior outcomes in individuals or populations. To investigate this, the National Science Foundation funded a research project in 2008 at the University of Colorado in collaboration with Colorado State University to expand the knowledge of complex interactions between radiation exposure, perception of risk, and psychosocial behavior outcomes by modeling outcomes for a representative sample of the population of the Ukraine which had been exposed to radiocontaminant materials released by the reactor accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986. In service of this project, a methodology (based substantially on previously published models specific to the Chernobyl disaster and the Ukrainian population) was developed for daily cumulative effective external dose and dose rate assessment for individuals in the Ukraine for as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. A software platform was designed and produced to estimate effective external dose and dose rate for individuals based on their age, occupation, and location of residence on each day between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009. A methodology was developed to transform published 137Cs soil deposition contour maps from the Comprehensive Atlas of Caesium Deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl Accident into a geospatial database to access these data as a radiological source term. Cumulative effective external dose and dose rate were computed for each individual in a 703-member cohort of Ukrainians randomly selected to be representative of the population of the country as a whole. Error was estimated for the resulting individual dose and dose rate values with Monte Carlo simulations. Distributions of input parameters for the dose assessment methodology were compared to computed dose and dose rate estimates to determine which

  17. Natural and man-made radioactivity: Chernobyl soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Flowers, Alan

    2014-05-01

    In 1986 a reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant suffered a large explosion. The result had wide-ranging impacts. 31 severely exposed emergency workers died from acute radiation syndrome and 19 more later died from different causes. The perhaps controversial prediction by some authors is that around 4,000 will eventually die as a result of the increased cancer risk. A 19-mile restriction zone exists around the former reactor, but during the past 25 years radiation levels have fallen and it is now possible to take part in conducted tours of the deserted city of Pripyat, and the Chernobyl reactor site. Soil levels, however, remain highly radioactive, particularly in the restricted area. Kingston University holds:- • Soil profile sets from 3 locations in Belarus, with repeats at same location 1996 and 2000. • Lake sediment core samples. • Soil profiles at forestry sites. • Surface samples in a region suspected to have actinide content at 200km from Chernobyl. In addition to the above the impact of naturally occurring radon on human health around Chernobyl should not be ignored. About 23 per cent of homes in Ukraine are estimated to have radon levels above 100 Bq m-3, whilst concentrations of 10,000 Bq m-3 or more are known to exist in public water supplies. Some researchers have also suggested that mean annual doses of irradiation of the population caused by radon and it's progeny in air in buildings exceeds the doses received now by inhabitants of settlements located in the territories polluted by Chernobyl-derived nuclides in the Mogilev and Gomel regions in Belarus. This project incorporates a temporal comparison of transport results in undisturbed soils variously over a number of years, demonstrating relative measurements using both the original and new samples. This project will also focus on lake sediments from Southern Belarus and is a 'work in progress'. However, what we can say at this stage is that it is notable that the long lived isotopes of Cs-137

  18. Psychological distress among homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Gelberg, L; Linn, L S

    1989-05-01

    Recent studies have reported a high prevalence of mental illness among the homeless. As part of a community-based survey of 529 homeless adults, we developed and tested a model to increase our understanding of the factors related to their psychological distress. Using a previously validated and reliable scale of perceived psychological distress, we found that homeless adults were more likely to report psychological distress than the general population (80% vs. 49%). Distress levels were not associated with most demographic or homeless characteristics or general appearance. However, distress was related to unemployment, greater cigarette and alcohol use, worse physical health, fewer social supports, and perceived barriers to obtaining needed medical care. Since mental, physical, and social health are strongly related among homeless adults, alleviating distress among them may be most effectively done by implementing a broad-based health services package coupled with employment programs provided in an accessible service delivery setting. PMID:2785158

  19. The psychology of suicide terrorism.

    PubMed

    Post, Jerrold M; Ali, Farhana; Henderson, Schuyler W; Shanfield, Steven; Victoroff, Jeff; Weine, Stevan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews current understandings of the psychology of suicide terrorism for psychiatrists and other mental health professionals to help them better understand this terrifying phenomenon. After discussing key concepts and definitions, the paper reviews both group and individual models for explaining the development of suicide terrorists, with an emphasis on "collective identity." Stressing the importance of social psychology, it emphasizes the "normality" and absence of individual psychopathology of the suicide bombers. It will discuss the broad range of terrorisms, but will particularly emphasize terrorism associated with militant Islam. The article emphasizes that comprehending suicide terrorism requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes anthropological, economic, historical, and political factors as well as psychological ones. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for research, policy, and prevention, reviewing the manner in which social psychiatric knowledge and understandings applied to this phenomenon in an interdisciplinary framework can assist in developing approaches to counter this deadly strategy. PMID:19366292

  20. Improving the Understanding of Psychological Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accident and Injury: Context, Loss of Focus, Cognitive Errors and Rigidity.

    PubMed

    DeAraugo, Jodi; McLaren, Suzanne; McManus, Phil; McGreevy, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    While the role of the horse in riding hazards is well recognised, little attention has been paid to the role of specific theoretical psychological processes of humans in contributing to and mitigating risk. The injury, mortality or compensation claim rates for participants in the horse-racing industry, veterinary medicine and equestrian disciplines provide compelling evidence for improving risk mitigation models. There is a paucity of theoretical principles regarding the risk of injury and mortality associated with human-horse interactions. In this paper we introduce and apply the four psychological principles of context, loss of focus, global cognitive style and the application of self as the frame of reference as a potential approach for assessing and managing human-horse risks. When these principles produce errors that are combined with a rigid self-referenced point, it becomes clear how rapidly risk emerges and how other people and animals may repeatedly become at risk over time. Here, with a focus on the thoroughbred racing industry, veterinary practice and equestrian disciplines, we review the merits of contextually applied strategies, an evolving reappraisal of risk, flexibility, and focused specifics of situations that may serve to modify human behaviour and mitigate risk. PMID:26891333