Science.gov

Sample records for chickens resembles late

  1. Acute paretic syndrome in juvenile White Leghorn chickens resembles late stages of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies in humans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sudden limb paresis is a common problem in White Leghorn flocks, affecting about 1% of the chicken population before achievement of sexual maturity. Previously, a similar clinical syndrome has been reported as being caused by inflammatory demyelination of peripheral nerve fibres. Here, we investigated in detail the immunopathology of this paretic syndrome and its possible resemblance to human neuropathies. Methods Neurologically affected chickens and control animals from one single flock underwent clinical and neuropathological examination. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) alterations were characterised using standard morphological techniques, including nerve fibre teasing and transmission electron microscopy. Infiltrating cells were phenotyped immunohistologically and quantified by flow cytometry. The cytokine expression pattern was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These investigations were accomplished by MHC genotyping and a PCR screen for Marek's disease virus (MDV). Results Spontaneous paresis of White Leghorns is caused by cell-mediated, inflammatory demyelination affecting multiple cranial and spinal nerves and nerve roots with a proximodistal tapering. Clinical manifestation coincides with the employment of humoral immune mechanisms, enrolling plasma cell recruitment, deposition of myelin-bound IgG and antibody-dependent macrophageal myelin-stripping. Disease development was significantly linked to a 539 bp microsatellite in MHC locus LEI0258. An aetiological role for MDV was excluded. Conclusions The paretic phase of avian inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis immunobiologically resembles the late-acute disease stages of human acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and is characterised by a Th1-to-Th2 shift. PMID:20109187

  2. Identification of candidate genes for chicken early- and late-feathering.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Yao, J; Li, F; Yang, Z; Sun, Z; Qu, L; Wang, K; Su, Y; Zhang, A; Montgomery, S A; Geng, T; Cui, H

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies suggest that prolactin receptor (Prlr) is a potential causative gene for chicken early- (EF) and late-feathering (LF) phenotypes. In this study, we evaluated candidate genes for this trait and determined the expression of 3 genes, including Prlr, sperm flagellar protein 2 (Spef2), and their fusion gene, in the skins of one-day-old EF and LF chicks using RT-qPCR. Data indicated that Prlr expression in the skin did not show significant difference between EF and LF chicks, suggesting Prlr may not be a suitable candidate gene. In contrast, Spef2 expression in the skin displayed a significant difference between EF and LF chicks (P < 0.01), suggesting that Spef2 may be a good candidate gene for chicken feathering. Moreover, dPrlr/dSpef2, the fusion gene, was also a good candidate gene as it was expressed only in LF chicks. However, the expression of the fusion gene was much lower than that of Prlr Additionally, using strand-specific primers, we found that the fusion gene was transcribed in 2 directions (one from dPrlr promoter, another from dSpef2 promoter), which could result in the formation of a double strand RNA. In conclusion, both Spef2 and the fusion gene are good candidate genes for chicken feathering, but Prlr is not. The research on the function and regulation of the candidate genes will help elucidate the molecular basis of the chicken feathering trait. PMID:27081197

  3. Different gene transfer methods at the very early, early, late and whole embryonic stages in chicken.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ping; Yang, Y P; Yang, Y; Feng, Yan P; Li, S J; Peng, Xiu L; Gong, Y Z

    2012-12-01

    New technologies in gene transfer combined with experimental embryology make the chicken embryo an excellent model system for gene function studies. The techniques of in ovo electroporation, in vitro culture for ex ovo electroporation and retrovirus-mediated gene transfer have already been fully developed in chicken. Yet to our knowledge, there are no definite descriptions on the features and application scopes of these techniques. The survival rates of different in vitro culture methods were compared and the EGFP expression areas of different gene transfer techniques were explored. It was that the optimal timings of removing embryo for EC culture and Petri dish system was at E1.5 and E2.5, respectively; and optimal timing of injecting retrovirus is at E0. Results indicated that the EC culture, in ovo electroporation, the Petri dish system and retrovirus-mediated method are, respectively, suitable for the very early, early, late and whole embryonic stages in chicken. Comparison of different gene transfer methods and establishment of optimal timings are expected to provide a better choice of the efficient method for a particular experiment. PMID:23134602

  4. Searching for a good model for systemic sclerosis: the molecular profile and vascular changes occurring in UCD-200 chickens strongly resemble the early phase of human systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Di Benedetto, Paola; Dietrich, Hermann; Ruscitti, Piero; Liakouli, Vasiliki; Carubbi, Francesco; Pantano, Ilenia; Berardicurti, Onorina; Sgonc, Roswitha; Giacomelli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vascular injury and endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis are the earliest events in systemic sclerosis (SSc), before the onset of fibrosis, and stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF-BB) represent the key molecules to study the link between vascular injury and fibrosis during SSc. The University of California at Davis line 200 (UCD-200) chickens display the same hallmarks of human SSc: vascular occlusion, perivascular lymphocytic infiltration and fibrosis of skin and internal organs. In this study we assessed both cytokines and growth factors involved in the early phases of the UCD-200 chickens’ skin lesions, to determine whether these animals might represent an appropriate experimental model to study the pathogenesis of SSc. Material and methods Immunofluorescence analysis was performed on human SSc skin, human healthy control (hHC) skin, UCD-200 combs and HC H.B15 chicken (cHC) combs, using anti-SDF-1, CXCR4, VEGFA, VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1), VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), ET-1, ET receptor A (ETAR), ET receptor B (ETBR), PDGF-BB, and PDGF receptor (PDGFR) antibodies. The plasma concentrations of SDF-1, VEGFA, ET-1 and PDGF-BB were determined by ELISA. Results All the molecules analyzed showed higher levels in SSc patients and UCD-200 chickens than in hHC and cHC. Furthermore, the levels of the assessed molecules paralleled the severity of comb involvement. Conclusions The molecular similarities between avian and human SSc, observed in this study, suggest that the UCD-200 chickens are an interesting model for translational approaches to SSc. PMID:27478465

  5. Marek's disease virus influences the core gut microbiome of the chicken during the early and late phases of viral replication.

    PubMed

    Perumbakkam, Sudeep; Hunt, Henry D; Cheng, Hans H

    2014-10-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is an important neoplastic disease of chickens caused by the Marek's disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus. In this study, dysbiosis induced by MDV on the core gut flora of chicken was assessed using next generation sequence (NGS) analysis. Total fecal and cecum-derived samples from individual birds were used to estimate the influence of MDV infection on the gut microbiome of chicken. Our analysis shows that MDV infection alters the core gut flora in the total fecal samples relatively early after infection (2-7 days) and in the late phase of viral infection (28-35 days) in cecal samples, corresponding well with the life cycle of MDV. Principle component analyses of total fecal and cecal samples showed clustering at the early and late time points, respectively. The genus Lactobacillus was exclusively present in the infected samples in both total fecal and cecal bird samples. The community colonization of core gut flora was altered by viral infection, which manifested in the enrichment of several genera during the early and late phases of MDV replication. The results suggest a relationship between viral infection and microbial composition of the intestinal tract that may influence inflammation and immunosuppression of T and B cells in the host. PMID:25065611

  6. Functional differences between the arteries perfusing gas exchange and nutritional membranes in the late chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Riazudin; Cavallaro, Giacomo; Kessels, Carolina G A; Villamor, Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    The chicken extraembryonic arterial system comprises the allantoic arteries, which irrigate the gas exchange organ (the chorioallantoic membrane, CAM) and the yolk sac (YS) artery, which irrigates the nutritional organ (the YS membrane). We compared, using wire myography, the reactivity of allantoic and YS arteries from 19-day chicken embryos (total incubation 21 days). The contractions induced by KCl, the adrenergic agonists norepinephrine (NE, nonselective), phenylephrine (α1), and oxymetazoline (α2), electric field stimulation (EFS), serotonin, U46619 (TP receptor agonist), and endothelin (ET)-1 and the relaxations induced by acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor), forskolin (adenylate cyclase activator), and isoproterenol (β-adrenergic agonist) were investigated. Extraembryonic allantoic arteries did not show α-adrenergic-mediated contraction (either elicited by exogenous agonists or EFS) or ACh-induced (endothelium-dependent) relaxation, whereas these responses were present in YS arteries. Interestingly, the intraembryonic segment of the allantoic artery showed EFS- and α-adrenergic-induced contraction and ACh-mediated relaxation. Moreover, glyoxylic acid staining showed the presence of catecholamine-containing nerves in the YS and the intraembryonic allantoic artery, but not in the extraembryonic allantoic artery. Isoproterenol- and forskolin-induced relaxation and ET-1-induced contraction were higher in YS than in allantoic arteries, whereas serotonin- and U46619-induced contraction and SNP-induced relaxation did not significantly differ between the two arteries. In conclusion, our study demonstrates a different pattern of reactivity in the arteries perfusing the gas exchange and the nutritional membranes of the chicken embryo. PMID:26119481

  7. Stratigraphy, fossils, and age of sediments at the upper pit of the Lost Chicken gold mine: new information on the late Pliocene environment of east central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, John V., Jr.; Westgate, J. A.; Ovenden, Lynn; Carter, L. David; Fouch, Thomas

    2003-07-01

    The "upper pit" at the Lost Chicken placer gold mine in east central Alaska contains fossils that provide information on the flora and insect fauna of interior Alaska just before the onset of global cooling at 2.5 myr. Fossils come from sediments interbedded with the Lost Chicken tephra (dated at 2.9 ± 0.4 myr—early Late Pliocene) and portray the floodplain and valley of a small creek within a region dominated by a coniferous forest richer in genera and species than the present one. Climate was wetter and less continental, and there was probably little or no permafrost. At least one other Pliocene tephra (the Fortymile tephra) occurs at the site and is also associated with plant and insect fossils. Among these fossils are extinct plants and insects like those found at other Tertiary sites in northern Canada and Alaska. The Lost Chicken sequence is the same age as the Beaufort Formation on Meighen Island, more than 1000 km to the north. Like Lost Chicken, Meighen Island sediments contain fossils representing a diverse boreal environment. This shows that the latitudinal climate gradient during early Late Pliocene time was shallower than at present and the boreal forest had a far greater latitudinal span than now.

  8. Higher levels of CO2 during late incubation alter the hatch time of chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Tong, Q; McGonnell, I M; Roulston, N; Bergoug, H; Romanini, C E B; Garain, P; Eterradossi, N; Exadaktylos, V; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Demmers, T G M

    2015-01-01

    1. It has been reported that the increasing CO2 tension triggers the embryo to pip the air cell and emerge from the egg. However, the mechanism by which higher CO2 concentrations during the last few days of incubation affect chick physiology and the hatching process is unclear. This study investigated the effect of CO2 concentrations up to 1% during pipping, on the onset and length of the hatch window (HW) and chick quality. 2. Four batches of Ross 308 broiler eggs (600 eggs per batch) were incubated in two small-scale custom-built incubators (Petersime NV). During the final 3 d of incubation, control eggs were exposed to a lower CO2 concentration (0.3%), while the test eggs experienced a higher CO2 concentration programme (peak of 1%). 3. There were no significant differences in blood values, organ weight and body weight. There was also no difference in hatchability between control and test groups. However, a small increase in the chick weight and the percentage of first class chicks was found in the test groups. Furthermore, plasma corticosterone profiles during hatching were altered in embryos exposed to higher CO2; however, they dropped to normal levels at d 21 of incubation. Importantly, the hatching process was delayed and synchronised in the test group, resulting in a narrowed HW which was 2.7 h shorter and 5.3 h later than the control group. 4. These results showed that exposing chicks to 1% CO2 concentration during pipping did not have negative impacts on physiological status of newly hatched chicks. In addition, it may have a significant impact on the physiological mechanisms controlling hatching and have benefits for the health and welfare of chickens by reducing the waiting time after hatching. PMID:25900009

  9. DNA methylation and histone modification patterns during the late embryonic and early postnatal development of chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Changwu; Guo, Shuangshuang; Zhang, Ming; Gao, Jing; Guo, Yuming

    2015-04-01

    Early mammalian embryonic cells have been proven to be essential for embryonic development and the health of neonates. A series of epigenetic reprogramming events, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, occur during early embryonic development. However, epigenetic marks in late embryos and neonates are not well understood, especially in avian species. To investigate the epigenetic patterns of developing embryos and posthatched chicks, embryos at embryonic day 5 (E5), E8, E11, E14, E17, and E20 and newly hatched chicks on day of life 1 (D1), D7, D14, D21 were collected. The levels of global DNA methylation and histone H3 at lysine 9 residue (H3K9) modifications were measured in samples of liver, jejunum, and breast skeletal muscles by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. According to our data, decreased levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression were found in the liver and a V-shaped pattern of proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression was found in the jejunum. The level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in muscle was relatively stable. Caspase 3 expression gradually decreased over time in liver, was stable in the jejunum, and increased in muscle. Levels of DNA methylation and H3K9 acetylation decreased in liver over time, while the pattern was N-shaped in jejunal tissue and W-shaped in pectoral muscles, and these changes were accompanied by dynamic changes of DNA methyltransferases, histone acetyltransferases 1, and histone deacetylase 2. Moreover, dimethylation, trimethylation, and acetylation of H3K9 were expressed in a time- and tissue-dependent manner. After birth, epigenetic marks were relatively stable and found at lower levels. These results indicate that spatiotemporal specific epigenetic alterations could be critical for the late development of chick embryos and neonates. PMID:25691759

  10. Exploring Early and Late Toxoplasma gondii Strain RH Infection by Two-Dimensional Immunoblots of Chicken Immunoglobulin G and M Profiles

    PubMed Central

    El-Ashram, Saeed; Sun, Ximeng; Yin, Qing; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular apicomplexan parasite infecting warm-blooded vertebrate hosts, with only early infection stage being contained with drugs. But diagnosis differencing early and late infection was not available. In the present investigation, 2-dimensional immunobloting was used to explore early and late infections in chickens. The protein expression of T. gondii was determined by image analysis of the tachyzoites proteome separated by standard-one and conventional two-dimentional gel polyacrylamide electrophoresis (2D- PAGE). Pooled gels were prepared from tachyzoites of T. gondii. A representative gel spanning a pH range of 3-10 of the tachyzoite proteome consisted of 1306 distinct polypeptide spots. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with 2-DE immunoblotting was used to resolve and compare immunoglobulins (Igs) M & G patterns against Toxoplasma gondii strain RH (mouse virulent strain). Total tachyzoite proteins of T. gondii were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and analyzed by Western blotting for their reactivity with the 7 and 56 days post-infection (dpi) SPF chicken antisera. Different antigenic determinant patterns were detected during analysis with M and G immunoglobulins. Of the total number of polypeptide spots analyzed (1306 differentially expressed protein spots), 6.97% were identified as having shared antigenic polypeptide spots on immunoblot profiles with IgG and IgM antibodies regardless the time after infection. Furthermore, some of the immunoreactive polypeptide spots seemed to be related to the stage of infection. Interestingly, we found natural antibodies to toxoplasmic antigens, in addition to the highly conserved antigenic determinants that reacted with non-specific secondary antibody; goat anti-chicken IgG antibodies conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. In conclusion, unique reactive polypeptide spots are promising candidates for designation of molecular markers to discriminate early and late

  11. Does Facial Resemblance Enhance Cooperation?

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Trang; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces). A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system. PMID:23094095

  12. Resemblance and investment in children.

    PubMed

    Dolinska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    According to evolutionary explanations men hardly ever are absolutely certain about their biological fatherhood therefore they must seek various sources of information to subjectively establish whether they are the genetic fathers of the children they raise. Apicella and Marlowe (2004) showed that fathers who perceived greater similarity between their children and themselves were willing to invest more resources (e.g., time, money, care) in their offspring presumably because the perceived resemblance indicated to the fathers their genetic relatedness with their children. The present study extended the design of Apicella and Marlowe's original study and included both fathers and mothers as participants. Parents were recruited by a female confederate at the airport and at the railway station in Wroclaw (Poland). Multiple regression analyses showed that perceived resemblance predicted parental investment in the child for both men and women. The fact that mothers' declarations of investment in their children also depended on the perceived resemblance factor is not consistent with evolutionary formulations delineated by Apicella and Marlowe (2004; 2007). Future studies must resolve the issue of whether the resemblance-investment relation in fathers results from men relaying on child's resemblance to themselves as an indicator of their own biological paternity, or whether it results from the more parsimonious phenomenon that people in general are attracted more to other people who are similar to them. PMID:22385106

  13. Localization of Cerebellin-2 in Late Embryonic Chicken Brain: Implications for a Role in Synapse Formation and for Brain Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, Anton; Yang, Mao; Cagle, Michael C.; Honig, Marcia G.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebellin-1 (Cbln1), the most studied member of the cerebellin family of secreted proteins, is necessary for the formation and maintenance of parallel fiber–Purkinje cell synapses. However, the roles of the other Cblns have received little attention. We previously identified the chicken homolog of Cbln2 and examined its expression in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord (Yang et al. [2010] J Comp Neurol 518:2818–2840). Interestingly, Cbln2 is expressed by mechanoreceptive and pro-prioceptive neurons and in regions of the spinal cord where those afferents terminate, as well as by pregan-glionic sympathetic neurons and their sympathetic ganglia targets. These findings suggest that Cbln2 may demonstrate a tendency to be expressed by synaptically connected neuronal populations. To further assess this possibility, we examined Cbln2 expression in chick brain. We indeed found that Cbln2 is frequently expressed by synaptically connected neurons, although there are exceptions, and we discuss the implications of these findings for Cbln2 function. Cbln2 expression tends to be more common in primary sensory neurons and in second-order sensory regions than it is in motor areas of the brain. Moreover, we found that the level of Cbln2 expression for many regions of the chicken brain is very similar to that of the mammalian homologs, consistent with the view that the expression patterns of molecules playing fundamental roles in processes such as neuronal communication are evolutionarily conserved. There are, however, large differences in the pattern of Cbln2 expression in avian as compared to mammalian telencephalon and in other regions that show the most divergence between the two lineages. PMID:21456003

  14. Children's Explanations of Family Resemblances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horobin, Karen D.

    Four studies investigated children's explanations for family resemblance and species-typical characteristics, under different conditions of biological parentage and rearing environment. Participating were 226 children between 3 and 11 years. Children Children were presented with a number of different tasks, some involving people and some domestic…

  15. Improved Method for Ex Ovo-Cultivation of Developing Chicken Embryos for Human Stem Cell Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Schomann, Timo; Qunneis, Firas; Widera, Darius; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Kaltschmidt, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of human stem cells for the usability in regenerative medicine is particularly based on investigations regarding their differentiation potential in vivo. In this regard, the chicken embryo model represents an ideal model organism. However, the access to the chicken embryo is only achievable by windowing the eggshell resulting in limited visibility and accessibility in subsequent experiments. On the contrary, ex ovo-culture systems avoid such negative side effects. Here, we present an improved ex ovo-cultivation method enabling the embryos to survive 13 days in vitro. Optimized cultivation of chicken embryos resulted in a normal development regarding their size and weight. Our ex ovo-approach closely resembles the development of chicken embryos in ovo, as demonstrated by properly developed nervous system, bones, and cartilage at expected time points. Finally, we investigated the usability of our method for trans-species transplantation of adult stem cells by injecting human neural crest-derived stem cells into late Hamburger and Hamilton stages (HH26–HH28/E5—E6) of ex ovo-incubated embryos. We demonstrated the integration of human cells allowing experimentally easy investigation of the differentiation potential in the proper developmental context. Taken together, this ex ovo-method supports the prolonged cultivation of properly developing chicken embryos enabling integration studies of xenografted mammalian stem cells at late developmental stages. PMID:23554818

  16. Marek’s Disease Virus influences the core gut microbiome of the chicken during the early and late phases of viral replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is an important neoplastic disease of chickens caused by the Marek’s disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus. In this study, dysbiosis induced by MDV on the core gut flora of chicken was assessed using next generation sequence (NGS) analysis. Total fecal and cecum-der...

  17. Archaic artifacts resembling celestial spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrakoudis, S.; Papaspyrou, P.; Petoussis, V.; Moussas, X.

    We present several bronze artifacts from the Archaic Age in Greece (750-480 BC) that resemble celestial spheres or forms of other astronomical significance. They are studied in the context of the Dark Age transition from Mycenaean Age astronomical themes to the philosophical and practical revival of astronomy in the Classical Age with its plethora of astronomical devices. These artifacts, mostly votive in nature are spherical in shape and appear in a variety of forms their most striking characteristic being the depiction of meridians and/or an equator. Most of those artifacts come from Thessaly, and more specifically from the temple of Itonia Athena at Philia, a religious center of pan-Hellenic significance. Celestial spheres, similar in form to the small artifacts presented in this study, could be used to measure latitudes, or estimate the time at a known place, and were thus very useful in navigation.

  18. Chicken Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  19. A unique element resembling a processed pseudogene.

    PubMed

    Robins, A J; Wang, S W; Smith, T F; Wells, J R

    1986-01-01

    We describe a unique DNA element with structural features of a processed pseudogene but with important differences. It is located within an 8.4-kilobase pair region of chicken DNA containing five histone genes, but it is not related to these genes. The presence of terminal repeats, an open reading frame (and stop codon), polyadenylation/processing signal, and a poly(A) rich region about 20 bases 3' to this, together with a lack of 5' promoter motifs all suggest a processed pseudogene. However, no parent gene can be detected in the genome by Southern blotting experiments and, in addition, codon boundary values and mid-base correlations are not consistent with a protein coding region of a eukaryotic gene. The element was detected in DNA from different chickens and in peafowl, but not in quail, pheasant, or turkey. PMID:3941070

  20. Social perception of facial resemblance in humans.

    PubMed

    DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C; Little, Anthony C; Perrett, David I

    2008-02-01

    Two lines of reasoning predict that highly social species will have mechanisms to influence behavior toward individuals depending on their degree of relatedness. First, inclusive fitness theory leads to the prediction that organisms will preferentially help closely related kin over more distantly related individuals. Second, evaluation of the relative costs and potential benefits of inbreeding suggests that the degree of kinship should also be considered when choosing a mate. In order to behaviorally discriminate between individuals with different levels of relatedness, organisms must be able to discriminate cues of kinship. Facial resemblance is one such potential cue in humans. Computer-graphic manipulation of face images has made it possible to experimentally test hypotheses about human kin recognition by facial phenotype matching. We review recent experimental evidence that humans respond to facial resemblance in ways consistent with inclusive fitness theory and considerations of the costs of inbreeding, namely by increasing prosocial behavior and positive attributions toward self-resembling images and selectively tempering attributions of attractiveness to other-sex faces in the context of a sexual relationship. PMID:18157627

  1. Familial resemblance for serum metabolite concentrations.

    PubMed

    Draisma, Harmen H M; Beekman, Marian; Pool, René; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Adamski, Jerzy; Prehn, Cornelia; Vaarhorst, Anika A M; de Craen, Anton J M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Slagboom, P Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2013-10-01

    Metabolomics is the comprehensive study of metabolites, which are the substrates, intermediate, and end products of cellular metabolism. The heritability of the concentrations of circulating metabolites bears relevance for evaluating their suitability as biomarkers for disease. We report aspects of familial resemblance for the concentrations in human serum of more than 100 metabolites, measured using a targeted metabolomics platform. Age- and sex-corrected monozygotic twin correlations, midparent-offspring regression coefficients, and spouse correlations in subjects from two independent cohorts (Netherlands Twin Register and Leiden Longevity Study) were estimated for each metabolite. In the Netherlands Twin Register subjects, who were largely fasting, we found significant monozygotic twin correlations for 121 out of 123 metabolites. Heritability was confirmed by midparent-offspring regression. For most detected metabolites, the correlations between spouses were considerably lower than those between twins, indicating a contribution of genetic effects to familial resemblance. Remarkably high heritability was observed for free carnitine (monozygotic twin correlation 0.66), for the amino acids serine (monozygotic twin correlation 0.77) and threonine (monozygotic twin correlation 0.64), and for phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C40:3 (monozygotic twin correlation 0.77). For octenoylcarnitine, a consistent point estimate of approximately 0.50 was found for the spouse correlations in the two cohorts as well as for the monozygotic twin correlation, suggesting that familiality for this metabolite is explained by shared environment. We conclude that for the majority of metabolites targeted by the used metabolomics platform, the familial resemblance of serum concentrations is largely genetic. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the heritability of fasting serum metabolite concentrations, which is relevant for biomarker research. PMID:23985338

  2. Late-Cainozoic climate change, erosion, and relief of mountain belts: 20 years of chickens and eggs (Ralph Alger Bagnold Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Beek, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Over the last two decades, the geoscience community has realized that surface erosion, considered for over a century to respond passively to tectonic forcing, in fact strongly interacts with tectonic processes to produce the variety of deformation styles and relief forms observed in nature. Multiple feedbacks between tectonics, climate and erosion have been identified. In particular, it has been proposed that Cainozoic uplift of mountain belts such as the Himalaya led to global cooling due to CO2 drawdown from the atmosphere by efficient silicate weathering and organic carbon burial. At the same time, however, late-Cainozoic climate change, characterized by overall cooling and increased climatic variability, has been suggested to be responsible for increased erosion rates as well as uplift of mountain peaks through the isostatic response to erosion. Some active mountain belts have even been argued to respond to late-Cainozoic climate change by tectonic reorganisation. Thus, the relative strengths of the tectonic and climatic controls on mountain-belt relief and erosion rates, and how to discriminate between these, have arisen as central questions in tectonic geomorphology since the start of this century. Pliocene-Pleistocene (post-5 Ma) increases in sediment flux have been reported from many major mountain belts such as the Himalaya and the European Alps. It has been suggested this is a global signal in response to increased climatic instability since the Pliocene, although recent work suggests that at least part of the signal may be intrinsic to the nature of the sedimentary record. Analysis of in-situ thermochronology data from the Alps appeared to support the Pliocene increase in erosion rates, which have been linked to increased precipitation subsequent to the Messinian Salinity Crisis and/or the onset of Gulf-Stream circulation. However, recent more detailed work, based on numerical inverse modelling and the use of new high-resolution thermochronometers

  3. Body elimination attitude family resemblance in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim; Awadalla, Abdelwahid; Arikawa, Hiroko; Templer, Donald I; Hutton, Shane

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the family resemblance of attitude toward body elimination in Kuwaiti participants. This study was conceptualized in the context of the theories of moral development, importance of cleanliness in the Muslim religion, cross-cultural differences in personal hygiene practices, previous research reporting an association between family attitudes and body elimination attitude, and health implications. The 24-item Likert-type format Body Elimination Attitude Scale-Revised was administered to 277 Kuwaiti high school students and 437 of their parents. Females scored higher, indicating greater disgust, than the males. Moreover, sons' body elimination attitude correlated more strongly with fathers' attitude (r = .85) than with that of the mothers (r = .64). Daughters' attitude was similarly associated with the fathers' (r = .89) and the mothers' attitude (r = .86). The high correlations were discussed within the context of Kuwait having a collectivistic culture with authoritarian parenting style. The higher adolescent correlations, and in particular the boys' correlation with fathers than with mothers, was explained in terms of the more dominant role of the Muslim father in the family. Public health and future research implications were suggested. A theoretical formulation was advanced in which "ideal" body elimination attitude is relative rather than absolute, and is a function of one's life circumstances, one's occupation, one's culture and subculture, and the society that one lives in. PMID:22029659

  4. CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken coops on the farm were used by both chickens and turkeys. The yards around the buildings were once fenced in to give the poultry brooding space. - Kineth Farm, Chicken Coop, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  5. Occurrence of cutaneous haemangiomas in chickens: Morphological aspects.

    PubMed

    Sola, S C; Borello, B; Castagnaro, M

    1997-01-01

    The occurrence of cutaneous haemangiomas in chickens is described. Macroscopi-cally these lesions appeared as a marked redness of the skin, affecting in particular the pericloacal area. Histologically, they resembled capillary haemangiomas, characterized by the proliferation of newly-formed blood vessels. The proliferating cells were of endothelial origin, as demonstrated by ultrastructural observations and by the positivity of the proliferating cells to staining with specific markers (lectins and anti factor VIII-related antigen antibodies). PMID:18483924

  6. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris. PMID:25782705

  7. ASL Nominal Constructions Involving Signs That Resemble Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Vivion Smith

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines six different types of noun phrases that commonly occur in American Sign Language. These noun phrases all include at least a head noun and one of four signs resembling a pronoun. Videos of natural ASL discourses are gathered, multiple instances of the six types of noun phrases are identified, and their meanings are…

  8. Carbonaceous objects resembling nannobacteria in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folk, Robert L.; Lynch, F. Leo

    1998-07-01

    The carbon in Allende consists of balls ranging form 30 to 150 nm in diameter.Most are spheres, but some ovoid to worm- like forms occur. Grape-like clumps and rosary-like chains are the most dramatic mimics of terrestrial bacterial colonies. We propose that the carbon balls in Allende represent roasted corpses of nanobacteria because of their resemblance to nanobacteria on earth.

  9. Steroid Dermatitis Resembling Rosacea: A Clinical Evaluation of 75 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Ammar F.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The use of topical steroids on the skin of the face should be carefully evaluated by the dermatologist; however, its misuse still occurs producing dermatological problem resembling rosacea. Objectives. To report the different clinical manifestations of steroid dermatitis resembling rosacea and to discover causes behind abusing topical steroids on the face. Methods. In this prospective observational study, 75 patients with steroid dermatitis resembling rosacea who had history of topical steroid use on their faces for at least 1–3 months were evaluated at the Department of Dermatology, Baghdad Teaching Hospital, between August 2010 and December 2012. Results. The majority of patients were young women who used a combinations of potent and very potent topical steroid for average period of 0.25–10 years. Facial redness and hotness, telangiectasia, and rebound phenomenon with papulopustular eruption were the main clinical presentations. The most common causes of using topical steroid on the face were pigmentary problems and acne through recommendations from nonmedical personnel. Conclusion. Topical steroid should not be used on the face unless it is under strict dermatological supervision. PMID:23691345

  10. The Chicken Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  11. Eggcited about Chickens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  12. Esophageal trichomoniasis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, D H; Bickford, A A; Charlton, B R; Cooper, G L

    1995-01-01

    Esophageal trichomoniasis has been rarely reported in chickens. At the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System-Turlock Branch, this disease was recently diagnosed in two cases submitted from backyard chicken flocks. The esophageal lesions observed were similar to those seen in several other important diseases of chickens. The causative trichomonad organisms were readily demonstrated on wet smears and by histologic studies. In both cases, the investigated flocks were afflicted with several concurrent diseases. California has experienced an increase in the number of small nontraditional chicken production operations. These facilities are sometimes in close proximity to commercial poultry operations and biosecurity barriers occasionally fail. The poor husbandry practices often used in these small flocks make them a potential reservoir for rare diseases such as trichomoniasis and also for disease organisms that are devastating to commercial poultry. PMID:8719231

  13. Characterisation of chicken viperin.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Kate E; Karpala, Adam J; Rohringer, Andreas; Ward, Alistair; Bean, Andrew G D

    2015-02-01

    The identification of immune pathways that protect against pathogens may lead to novel molecular therapies for both livestock and human health. Interferon (IFN) is a major response pathway that stimulates multiple genes targeted towards reducing virus. Viperin is one such interferon stimulated gene (ISG) that helps protect mammals from virus and may be critical to protecting chickens in the same way. In chickens, ISGs are not generally well characterised and viperin, in concert with other ISGs, may be important in protecting against virus. Here we identify chicken viperin (ch-viperin) and show that ch-viperin is upregulated in response to viral signature molecules. We further show that viperin is upregulated in response to virus infection in vivo. This data will benefit investigators targeting the antiviral pathways in the chicken. PMID:25311379

  14. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Complication of Chicken Pox

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Jitendra Kumar; Mohapatra, Satyakam

    2016-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is characterized by late onset (>3 years of age) of developmental delays in language, social function and motor skills. Commonly there is no antecedent physical disorder leading to childhood disintegrative disorder. The present case report describes a child who developed childhood disintegrative disorder at the age of 6 years after an episode of chicken pox. PMID:27011406

  15. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Complication of Chicken Pox.

    PubMed

    Verma, Jitendra Kumar; Mohapatra, Satyakam

    2016-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is characterized by late onset (>3 years of age) of developmental delays in language, social function and motor skills. Commonly there is no antecedent physical disorder leading to childhood disintegrative disorder. The present case report describes a child who developed childhood disintegrative disorder at the age of 6 years after an episode of chicken pox. PMID:27011406

  16. Carisoprodol withdrawal syndrome resembling neuroleptic malignant syndrome: Diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Gunchan; Parshotam, Gautam L; Garg, Rajneesh

    2016-01-01

    Soma (Carisoprodol) is N-isopropyl-2 methyl-2-propyl-1,3-propanediol dicarbamate; a commonly prescribed, centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a potentially life-threatening adverse effect of antipsychotic agents. Although diagnostic criteria for NMS have been established, it should be recognized that atypical presentations occur and more flexible diagnostic criteria than currently mandated, may be warranted. We wish to report a postoperative case of bilateral knee replacement who presented with carisoprodol (Soma) withdrawal resembling NMS that was a diagnostic dilemma. Subsequently, it was successfully treated with oral baclofen in absence of sodium dantrolene.

  17. Sequence of retrovirus provirus resembles that of bacterial transposable elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimotohno, Kunitada; Mizutani, Satoshi; Temin, Howard M.

    1980-06-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the terminal regions of an infectious integrated retrovirus cloned in the modified λ phage cloning vector Charon 4A have been elucidated. There is a 569-base pair direct repeat at both ends of the viral DNA. The cell-virus junctions at each end consist of a 5-base pair direct repeat of cell DNA next to a 3-base pair inverted repeat of viral DNA. This structure resembles that of a transposable element and is consistent with the protovirus hypothesis that retroviruses evolved from the cell genome.

  18. The family resemblance metaphor: some unfinished business of interpretive inquiry.

    PubMed

    Miller, S I; Fredericks, M

    2000-07-01

    The rapidly expanding discipline of interpretive inquiry, especially in its narrative analysis form, has not been fully cognizant of certain crucial epistemological and methodological assumptions that form the ultimate basis of its purpose. Even after abandoning traditional positivist views, the related disciplines within the human sciences that are engaged in interpretive inquiry have still not discovered the core implicit assumptions that militate against a full acceptance of this form of inquiry. This article outlines the locus of these implicit assumptions and then argues that the legitimacy of these enterprises must be grounded in a well-known but heretofore undiscovered perspective, namely, Wittgenstein's notion of a family resemblance. It is argued that this metaphoric phrase is the key to unlocking the real and unique nature of narrative analysis. PMID:11010071

  19. Copy Number Variation in Chickens: A Review and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofei; Byers, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    DNA sequence variations include nucleotide substitution, deletion, insertion, translocation and inversion. Deletion or insertion of a large DNA segment in the genome, referred to as copy number variation (CNV), has caught the attention of many researchers recently. It is believed that CNVs contribute significantly to genome variability, and thus contribute to phenotypic variability. In chickens, genome-wide surveys with array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH), SNP chip detection or whole genome sequencing have revealed a large number of CNVs. A large portion of chicken CNVs involves protein coding or regulatory sequences. A few CNVs have been demonstrated to be the determinant factors for single gene traits, such as late-feathering, pea-comb and dermal hyperpigmentation. The phenotypic effects of the majority of chicken CNVs are to be delineated.

  20. Musculoskeletal Hydatid Cysts Resembling Tumors: A Report of Five Cases.

    PubMed

    Toğral, Güray; Arıkan, Şefik M; Ekiz, Timur; Kekeç, Ahmet F; Ekşioğlu, Mehmet F

    2016-05-01

    Although challenges in treatment of musculoskeletal hydatid cysts (HC) lesions have been documented, data regarding the musculoskeletal HC lesions resembling tumor is scarce. This paper presented 5 patients (3 males, 2 females) with a mean age of 41.6 years with tumor-like lesions of HC. Three of them had left ilium and acetabulum involvement, one involved left femur, and one involved left thigh muscle compartments. Pain was the main symptom and was seen in all patients. Clinical examination, radiologic evaluation, and histologic analysis were performed for diagnosis. Patients were treated through different surgical options, including simple debridement, bone cement filling with or without internal fixation, hip arthrodesis, reconstruction using hemipelvic replantation with femoral prosthesis and distal femur endoprosthetic replacement. After surgery, the operation region was washed by 20% hypertonic saline, and debridement was performed carefully without contamination. All patients received albendazole treatment. Cases were followed up 1 to 9 years for the recurrence. Walking difficulty and pain were the main symptoms during the follow-up. One patient was symptom-free. A reoccurrence in the perioperative soft tissue was detected in only one patient and control visits with antihelmintic treatment were recommended. We would like to emphasize that HC should be kept in mind for the differential diagnosis of the cystic or tumoral lesions of the musculoskeletal system, particularly in the endemic regions. Prompt diagnosis is of paramount importance for preventing destruction and complications. PMID:27384735

  1. Islet1 deletion causes kidney agenesis and hydroureter resembling CAKUT.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Yusuke; Ohmori, Tomoko; Kudo, Kuniko; Fujimura, Sayoko; Suzuki, Kentaro; Evans, Sylvia M; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi

    2013-07-01

    Islet1 (Isl1) is a transcription factor transiently expressed in a subset of heart and limb progenitors. During studies of limb development, conditional Isl1 deletion produced unexpected kidney abnormalities. Here, we studied the renal expression of Isl1 and whether it has a role in kidney development. In situ hybridization revealed Isl1 expression in the mesenchymal cells surrounding the base of the ureteric bud in mice. Conditional deletion of Isl1 caused kidney agenesis or hypoplasia and hydroureter, a phenotype resembling human congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). The absence of Isl1 led to ectopic branching of the ureteric bud out from the nephric duct or to the formation of accessory buds, both of which could lead to obstruction of the ureter-bladder junction and consequent hydroureter. The abnormal elongation and poor branching of the ureteric buds were the likely causes of the kidney agenesis or hypoplasia. Furthermore, the lack of Isl1 reduced the expression of Bmp4, a gene implicated in the CAKUT-like phenotype, in the metanephric region before ureteric budding. In conclusion, Isl1 is essential for proper development of the kidney and ureter by repressing the aberrant formation of the ureteric bud. These observations call for further studies to investigate whether Isl1 may be a causative gene for human CAKUT. PMID:23641053

  2. A neural network dynamics that resembles protein evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrán, Edgardo A.; Ferrara, Pascual

    1992-06-01

    We use neutral networks to classify proteins according to their sequence similarities. A network composed by 7 × 7 neurons, was trained with the Kohonen unsupervised learning algorithm using, as inputs, matrix patterns derived from the bipeptide composition of cytochrome c proteins belonging to 76 different species. As a result of the training, the network self-organized the activation of its neurons into topologically ordered maps, wherein phylogenetically related sequences were positioned close to each other. The evolution of the topological map during learning, in a representative computational experiment, roughly resembles the way in which one species evolves into several others. For instance, sequences corresponding to vertebrates, initially grouped together into one neuron, were placed in a contiguous zone of the final neural map, with sequences of fishes, amphibia, reptiles, birds and mammals associated to different neurons. Some apparent wrong classifications are due to the fact that some proteins have a greater degree of sequence identity than the one expected by phylogenetics. In the final neural map, each synaptic vector may be considered as the pattern corresponding to the ancestor of all the proteins that are attached to that neuron. Although it may be also tempting to link real time with learning epochs and to use this relationship to calibrate the molecular evolutionary clock, this is not correct because the evolutionary time schedule obtained with the neural network depends highly on the discrete way in which the winner neighborhood is decreased during learning.

  3. Identification and analysis of a prepro-chicken gonadotropin releasing hormone II (preprocGnRH-II) precursor in the Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer, based on an EST-based assessment of its brain transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sik-Loo; Mohd-Adnan, Adura; Mohd-Yusof, Nurul Yuziana; Forstner, Michael R J; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2008-03-31

    Using a novel library of 5637 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the brain tissue of the Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer), we first characterized the brain transcriptome for this economically important species. The ESTs generated from the brain of L. calcarifer yielded 2410 unique transcripts (UTs) which comprise of 982 consensi and 1428 singletons. Based on database similarity, 1005 UTs (41.7%) can be assigned putative functions and were grouped into 12 functional categories related to the brain function. Amongst others, we have identified genes that are putatively involved in energy metabolism, ion pumps and channels, synapse related genes, neurotransmitter and its receptors, stress induced genes and hormone related genes. Subsequently we selected a putative preprocGnRH-II precursor for further characterization. The complete cDNA sequence of the gene obtained was found to code for an 85-amino acid polypeptide that significantly matched preprocGnRH-II precursor sequences from other vertebrates, and possesses structural characteristics that are similar to that of other species, consisting of a signal peptide (23 residues), a GnRH decapeptide (10 residues), an amidation/proteolytic-processing signal (glycine-lysine-argine) and a GnRH associated peptide (GAP) (49 residues). Phylogenetic analysis showed that this putative L. calcarifer preprocGnRH-II sequence is a member of the subcohort Euteleostei and divergent from the sequences of the subcohort Otocephalan. These findings provide compelling evidence that the putative L. calcarifer preprocGnRH-II precursor obtained in this study is orthologous to that of other vertebrates. The functional prediction of this preprocGnRH-II precursor sequence through in silico analyses emphasizes the effectiveness of the EST approach in gene identification in L. calcarifer. PMID:18280674

  4. Homodimerization of Marek's disease virus encoded Meq protein is not sufficient for transformation of lymphocytes in chicken

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV), the etiologic agent of Marek’s disease, is a potent oncogenic herpesvirus. MDV is highly contagious and elicits a rapid onset of malignant T-cell lymphomas in chickens within several weeks after infection. MDV codes for an oncoprotein, Meq, which shares resemblance wit...

  5. Clostridium perfringens in retail chicken.

    PubMed

    Nowell, Victoria J; Poppe, Cornelis; Parreira, Valeria R; Jiang, Yan-Fen; Reid-Smith, Richard; Prescott, John F

    2010-06-01

    Clostridium perfringens isolates were recovered by enrichment from retail grocery chicken samples (n = 88) in Ontario, Canada, with one sample per site. The gene associated with necrotic enteritis in chickens, netB, was found in 21% of the isolates. The tpeL gene was found in 2% and the cpb2 gene in 68% (95% "atypical" genes) of isolates. This study suggests that netB-positive C. perfringens can reach people through retail chicken. PMID:19961943

  6. Facial resemblance to emotions: group differences, impression effects, and race stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Kikuchi, Masako; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2010-02-01

    The authors used connectionist modeling to extend previous research on emotion overgeneralization effects. Study 1 demonstrated that neutral expression male faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than female faces do, female faces objectively resemble surprise expressions more than male faces do, White faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than Black or Korean faces do, and Black faces objectively resemble happy and surprise expressions more than White faces do. Study 2 demonstrated that objective resemblance to emotion expressions influences trait impressions even when statistically controlling possible confounding influences of attractiveness and babyfaceness. It further demonstrated that emotion overgeneralization is moderated by face race and that racial differences in emotion resemblance contribute to White perceivers' stereotypes of Blacks and Asians. These results suggest that intergroup relations may be strained not only by cultural stereotypes but also by adaptive responses to emotion expressions that are overgeneralized to groups whose faces subtly resemble particular emotions. PMID:20085393

  7. Late paternities.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jean

    2007-06-01

    Late paternities are frequent. Very often these couples ask for medically assisted procreation. In general, it is considered that the couple should not be treated differently from the couple where the father is younger. Recent studies show a certain number of specific risks linked to the late paternities. Doctors and society do not act in the same way towards men and women: a 'sensible age' for women to no longer attempt pregnancy has been set in many countries at 42 years of age, whereas men aged 80 can benefit from IVF attempts and be reimbursed by the state or insurance companies. This is an obvious inequity. PMID:17579995

  8. Meurigite, a new fibrous iron phosphate resembling kidwellite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birch, W.D.; Pring, A.; Self, P.G.; Gibbs, R.B.; Keck, E.; Jensen, M.C.; Foord, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    Meurigite is a new hydrated potassium iron phosphate related to kidwellite and with structural similarities to other late-stage fibrous ferric phosphate species. It has been found at four localities so far - the Santa Rita mine, New Mexico, U.S.A.; the Hagendorf-Sud pegmatite in Bavaria, Germany; granite pegmatite veins at Wycheproof, Victoria. Australia; and at the Gold Quarry Mine, Nevada, U.S.A. The Santa Rita mine is the designated type locality. Meurigite occurs as tabular, elongated crystals forming spherical and hemispherical clusters and drusy coatings. The colour ranges from creamy white to pale yellow and yellowish brown. At the type locality, the hemispheres may reach 2 mm across, but the maximum diameter reached in the other occurrences is usually less than 0.5 mm. A wide variety of secondary phosphate minerals accompanies meurigite at each locality, with dufrenite, cyrilovite. beraunite, rockbridgeite and leucophosphite amongst the most common. Vanadates and uranates occur with meurigite at the Gold Quarry mine. Electron microprobe analysis and separate determination of H2O and CO2 on meurigite from the type locality gave a composition for which several empirical formulae could be calculated. The preferred formula, obtained on the basis of 35 oxygen atoms, is (K0.85Na0.03)??0.88(Fe7.013+Al0.16Cu0.02)??7.19 (PO4)5.11(CO3)0.20(OH) 6.7??7-7.25H2O, which simplifies to KFe73+(PO4)5(OH) 7??8H2O. Qualitative analyses only were obtained for meurigite from the other localities, due to the softness and openness of the aggregates. Because of the fibrous nature of meurigite, it was not possible to determine the crystal structure, hence the exact stoichiometry remains uncertain. The lustre of meurigite varies from vitreous to waxy for the Santa Rita mine mineral, to silky for the more open sprays and internal surfaces elsewhere. The streak is very pale yellow to cream and the estimated Mohs hardness is about 3. Cleavage is perfect on {001] and fragments from the

  9. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  10. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  11. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  12. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  13. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  14. Pyknoachondrogenesis: an association of skeletal defects resembling achondrogenesis with generalized bone sclerosis. A new condition?

    PubMed

    Camera, G; Giordano, F; Mastroiacovo, P

    1986-10-01

    A stillborn male with skeletal anomalies resembling achondrogenesis with remarkably sclerotic bones is reported. The term "Pyknoachondrogenesis" is suggested for this hitherto undescribed condition. PMID:3791681

  15. Characterization of reticuloendotheliosis virus isolates obtained from chickens, turkeys and prairie chickens in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) isolates obtained from chickens, turkeys and prairie chickens in the United States were characterized using ploymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect immunofluoresence (IFA) assays. This study included five REV isolates from Prairie chickens in Texas, two ...

  16. Immunocompetence of chickens during early and tumorigenic stages of Rous-associated virus-1 infection.

    PubMed Central

    Fadly, A M; Lee, L F; Bacon, L D

    1982-01-01

    A study was designed to determine the effects of congenital infection with the Rous-associated virus-1 (RAV-1) on the immune function chickens during the early and late tumorigenic stages of infection. In another experiment, the effects of niridazole on the immune competence and the tumor incidence in chickens congenitally infected with RAV-1 were studied. Lymphocyte stimulation by phytohemagglutinin, the phytohemagglutinin skin test, the response to immunization with sheep erythrocytes and Brucella abortus, and histological evaluation of lymphoid organs were used to determine the immune competence in normal and infected chickens. Results indicated that both B- and T-cell immune functions during the early and late stages of RAV-1 infection were comparable to those of normal uninfected chickens. Administration of niridazole to congenitally infected chickens at 5 weeks of age for 7 or 21 days had no effect on the T-cell-mediated immunity; however, administration of the drug for 21 days eliminated lymphoma development. Unlike infection with other oncogenic viruses such as those causing Marek's disease and reticuloendotheliosis, infection with RAV-1 caused no detectable immunodepression during the early and late stages of infection. PMID:6290392

  17. The chicken gastrointestinal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Brian B; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Kogut, Michael H; Kim, Woo K; Maurer, John J; Pedroso, Adriana; Lee, Margie D; Collett, Stephen R; Johnson, Timothy J; Cox, Nelson A

    2014-11-01

    The domestic chicken is a common model organism for human biological research and of course also forms the basis of a global protein industry. Recent methodological advances have spurred the recognition of microbiomes as complex communities with important influences on the health and disease status of the host. In this minireview, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome focusing on spatial and temporal variability, the presence and importance of human pathogens, the influence of the microbiota on the immune system, and the importance of the microbiome for poultry nutrition. Review and meta-analysis of public data showed cecal communities dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroides at the phylum level, while at finer levels of taxonomic resolution, a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of microorganisms appears to have similar metabolic functions that provide important benefits to the host as inferred from metagenomic data. This observation of functional redundancy may have important implications for management of the microbiome. We foresee advances in strategies to improve gut health in commercial operations through management of the intestinal microbiota as an alternative to in-feed subtherapeutic antibiotics, improvements in pre- and probiotics, improved management of polymicrobial poultry diseases, and better control of human pathogens via colonization reduction or competitive exclusion strategies. PMID:25263745

  18. Implicit trustworthiness ratings of self-resembling faces activate brain centers involved in reward.

    PubMed

    Platek, Steven M; Krill, Austen L; Wilson, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of Hamilton's (Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behavior I, II. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 17-52) theory of inclusive fitness, self-facial resemblance is hypothesized as a mechanism for self-referent phenotypic matching by which humans can detect kin. To understand the mechanisms underlying pro-sociality toward self-resembling faces, we investigated the neural correlates of implicit trustworthiness ratings for self-resembling faces. Here we show that idiosyncratic trustworthiness ratings of self-resembling faces predict brain activation in the ventral inferior, middle and medial frontal gyri, substrates involved in reward processing. These findings demonstrate that neural reward centers are implicated in evaluating implicit pro-social behaviors toward self-resembling faces. These findings suggest that humans have evolved to use neurocomputational architecture dedicated to face processing and reward evaluation for the differentiation of kin, which drives implicit idiosyncratic affectively regulated social interactions. PMID:18761362

  19. Nonavian feathers in a late Triassic archosaur.

    PubMed

    Jones, T D; Ruben, J A; Martin, L D; Kurochkin, E N; Feduccia, A; Maderson, P F; Hillenius, W J; Geist, N R; Alifanov, V

    2000-06-23

    Longisquama insignis was an unusual archosaur from the Late Triassic of central Asia. Along its dorsal axis Longisquama bore a series of paired integumentary appendages that resembled avian feathers in many details, especially in the anatomy of the basal region. The latter is sufficiently similar to the calamus of modern feathers that each probably represents the culmination of virtually identical morphogenetic processes. The exact relationship of Longisquama to birds is uncertain. Nevertheless, we interpret Longisquama's elongate integumentary appendages as nonavian feathers and suggest that they are probably homologous with avian feathers. If so, they antedate the feathers of Archaeopteryx, the first known bird from the Late Jurassic. PMID:10864867

  20. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 CFR 381.170(a)(1). ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  1. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 CFR 381.170(a)(1). ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  2. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 CFR 381.170(a)(1). ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  3. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 CFR 381.170(a)(1). ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  4. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 CFR 381.170(a)(1). ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  5. Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...

  6. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We modelled the association between perceived parental warmth and rejection at age eleven and personality resemblance to parents at about age sixteen. Parenting experienced during early adolescence was related to the degree and direction in which adolescents resembled their parents five years later in life. Rejection, especially from fathers, significantly predicted a smaller resemblance to both the parents. Girls were more strongly affected by parental quality than boys, and there was some indication that adolescents responded in opposite ways to parenting from mothers and fathers. This study is a first step in uncovering the complex interplay between parenting, gender, and the current generation's ability to develop personality traits independent from the previous generation. PMID:27400032

  7. Who Resembles Whom? Mimetic and Coincidental Look-Alikes among Tropical Reef Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, D. Ross

    2013-01-01

    Studies of mimicry among tropical reef-fishes usually give little or no consideration to alternative explanations for behavioral associations between unrelated, look-alike species that benefit the supposed mimic. I propose and assess such an alternative explanation. With mimicry the mimic resembles its model, evolved to do so in response to selection by the mimicry target, and gains evolved benefits from that resemblance. In the alternative, the social-trap hypothesis, a coincidental resemblance of the model to the “mimic” inadvertently attracts the latter to it, and reinforcement of this social trapping by learned benefits leads to the “mimic” regularly associating with the model. I examine three well known cases of supposed aggressive mimicry among reef-fishes in relation to nine predictions from these hypotheses, and assess which hypothesis offers a better explanation for each. One case, involving precise and complex morphological and behavioral resemblance, is strongly consistent with mimicry, one is inconclusive, and one is more consistent with a social-trap based on coincidental, imprecise resemblance. Few cases of supposed interspecific mimicry among tropical reef fishes have been examined in depth, and many such associations may involve social traps arising from generalized, coincidental resemblance. Mimicry may be much less common among these fishes than is generally thought. PMID:23372795

  8. Incubation temperature alters thermal preference and response to heat stress of broiler chickens along the rearing phase.

    PubMed

    Morita, V S; Almeida, V R; Matos Junior, J B; Vicentini, T I; van den Brand, H; Boleli, I C

    2016-08-01

    The current study aimed to investigate whether embryonic temperature manipulation may alter thermal preference throughout the rearing phase of broiler chickens and how this manipulation may affect response to thermal challenge, metabolism, growth rate and feed intake rate. Eggs were exposed to a constant incubation temperature [machine temperatures: 36°C (Low), 37.5°C (Control), and 39°C (High); eggshell temperature of 37.4 ± 0.08°C, 37.8 ± 0.15°C, and 38.8 ± 0.33°C, respectively] from d 13 till hatching. Low treatment chickens showed lower plasma T3 and GH levels at d 1 of age and lower T3 level at d 42 of age compared to the Control treatment. Preferred ambient, rectal temperature, T4 level, growth rate, food intake rate, and response to thermal challenge were not altered in these chickens. On the other hand, High-treatment chickens exhibited high preferred ambient temperature and rectal temperature during the first 2 wk post-hatch, lower plasma T3 level at d 21 and 42 and a delayed increase in respiratory movement in response to thermal challenge compared to the Control treatment. However, chickens subjected to the Control and High treatments did not differ in T4 and GH level and performance. We conclude that exposure to high temperature during late embryonic development has long-lasting effects on the thermoregulatory system of broiler chickens by affecting the heat tolerance of these chickens. Moreover, the preferred ambient temperature of the chickens from heat-treated eggs correspond to those recommended for the strain under study, whereas for the cold-treated and control-chickens it was 1°C below, indicating that incubation temperature might have consequences on the ambient temperature chickens require during the rearing phase. PMID:26994196

  9. The origin and genetic diversity of Chinese native chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Niu, Dong; Fu, Yan; Luo, Jing; Ruan, Hui; Yu, Xu-Ping; Chen, Gong; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2002-06-01

    The first 539 bases of mitochondrial DNA D-loop region of six Chinese native chicken breeds (Gallus gallus domesticus) were sequenced and compared to those of the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus), the gray junglefowl (Gallus sonneratii), the green junglefowl (Gallus varius) and Lafayette's junglefowl (Gallus lafayettei) reported in GenBank, and the phylogenetic trees for the chickens were constructed based on the D-loop sequences. The results showed that the four species of the genus Gallus had great differences among each other the G. g. domesticus was closest to the red junglefowl in Thailand and its adjacent regions, suggesting the Chinese domestic fowl probably originatedfrom the red junglefowl in these regions. The two subspecies of Thailand, G. g. gallus and G. g. spadiceus, should belong to one subspecies because of their resemblance. In the case of native breeds, there existed a great difference between the egg breeds and general purpose breeds, which suggested different maternal origins of the two types. PMID:12137331

  10. Effect of Partnership Status on Preferences for Facial Self-Resemblance.

    PubMed

    Lindová, Jitka; Little, Anthony C; Havlíček, Jan; Roberts, S Craig; Rubešová, Anna; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Self-resemblance has been found to have a context-dependent effect when expressing preferences for faces. Whereas dissimilarity preference during mate choice in animals is often explained as an evolutionary adaptation to increase heterozygosity of offspring, self-resemblance can be also favored in humans, reflecting, e.g., preference for kinship cues. We performed two studies, using transformations of facial photographs to manipulate levels of resemblance with the rater, to examine the influence of self-resemblance in single vs. coupled individuals. Raters assessed facial attractiveness of other-sex and same-sex photographs according to both short-term and long-term relationship contexts. We found a preference for dissimilarity of other-sex and same-sex faces in single individuals, but no effect of self-resemblance in coupled raters. No effect of sex of participant or short-term vs. long-term attractiveness rating was observed. The results support the evolutionary interpretation that dissimilarity of other-sex faces is preferred by uncoupled individuals as an adaptive mechanism to avoid inbreeding. In contrast, lower dissimilarity preference of other-sex faces in coupled individuals may reflect suppressed attention to attractiveness cues in potential alternative partners as a relationship maintenance mechanism, and its substitution by attention to cues of kinship and psychological similarity connected with greater likelihood of prosocial behavior acquisition from such persons. PMID:27378970

  11. Effect of Partnership Status on Preferences for Facial Self-Resemblance

    PubMed Central

    Lindová, Jitka; Little, Anthony C.; Havlíček, Jan; Roberts, S. Craig; Rubešová, Anna; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Self-resemblance has been found to have a context-dependent effect when expressing preferences for faces. Whereas dissimilarity preference during mate choice in animals is often explained as an evolutionary adaptation to increase heterozygosity of offspring, self-resemblance can be also favored in humans, reflecting, e.g., preference for kinship cues. We performed two studies, using transformations of facial photographs to manipulate levels of resemblance with the rater, to examine the influence of self-resemblance in single vs. coupled individuals. Raters assessed facial attractiveness of other-sex and same-sex photographs according to both short-term and long-term relationship contexts. We found a preference for dissimilarity of other-sex and same-sex faces in single individuals, but no effect of self-resemblance in coupled raters. No effect of sex of participant or short-term vs. long-term attractiveness rating was observed. The results support the evolutionary interpretation that dissimilarity of other-sex faces is preferred by uncoupled individuals as an adaptive mechanism to avoid inbreeding. In contrast, lower dissimilarity preference of other-sex faces in coupled individuals may reflect suppressed attention to attractiveness cues in potential alternative partners as a relationship maintenance mechanism, and its substitution by attention to cues of kinship and psychological similarity connected with greater likelihood of prosocial behavior acquisition from such persons. PMID:27378970

  12. RNA Interference in Chicken Embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hateren, Nick J.; Jones, Rachel S.; Wilson, Stuart A.

    The chicken has played an important role in biological discoveries since the 17th century (Stern, 2005). Many investigations into vertebrate development have utilized the chicken due to the accessibility of the chick embryo and its ease of manipulation (Brown et al., 2003). However, the lack of genetic resources has often handicapped these studies and so the chick is frequently overlooked as a model organism for the analysis of vertebrate gene function in favor of mice or zebrafish. In the past six years this situation has altered dramatically with the generation of over half a million expressed sequence tags and >20,000 fully sequenced chicken cDNAs (Boardman et al. 2002; Caldwell et al., 2005; Hubbard et al., 2005) together with a 6X coverage genome sequence (Hillier et al., 2004). These resources have created a comprehensive catalogue of chicken genes with readily accessible cDNA and EST resources available via ARK-GENOMICS (www.ark-genomics.org) for the functional analysis of vertebrate gene function.

  13. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from the "Chicken…

  14. The Chicken and Egg Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  15. Chicken from Farm to Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... labeling is required on raw poultry stored at temperatures between 0 and 25 °F (-17.8 °C ... raw or undercooked chicken. They multiply rapidly at temperatures between 40 and 140 °F (4.4 and ...

  16. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention. PMID:24753566

  17. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  18. From similitude to success: The effects of facial resemblance on perceptions of team effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze; He, Xin; Liu, Fan

    2016-03-01

    Scant empirical research has focused on how impressions of teams are formed based on members' collective appearance, even though team photos are omnipresent in visual communications and teamwork is a common theme to elicit positive responses. Across 4 studies, we show that a subtle increase in the facial resemblance among team members enhances observers' evaluations of team effectiveness. This resemblance effect is mediated by perceived cooperative intent among team players. Furthermore, we demonstrate a reversal of the resemblance effect through the moderating role of information valence and extend the finding from team perception to behavioral intention. These results hold across different manipulations, contexts, stimuli, and sample characteristics. Collectively, this research presents the first empirical evidence that inferences based on facial morphology persist well beyond evaluations of individuals to influence the way a team, as a whole, is perceived. PMID:26752512

  19. Echocardiographic characteristics of chickens with ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Deng, G; Zhang, Y; Peng, X; Guo, D; Li, C

    2006-12-01

    1. B- and M-mode echocardiography was used to compare cardiac function in broilers with spontaneous ascites syndrome with that of normal chickens. 2. Thirty ascitic chickens and 15 normal chickens aged three, 4, 5, and 6 weeks from the same flock (180 birds in total) were examined. They were restrained gently in a natural standing position, and echocardiographs were obtained from a 7.0-MHz linear transducer placed on the left pectoral apterium. Indices of cardiac structure and functioning were calculated from the echocardiographs, and some were normalised to body weight. Heart rate was also measured. 3. All cardiac structural indices in both ascitic and normal chickens increased with age. Compared with normal chickens, right ventricular diameter at the end of systole in ascitic chickens was greater at 4, 5 and 6 weeks of age. Ventricular septal thickness at the end of both systole and diastole was greater in ascitic chickens at 5 and 6 weeks. Left ventricular free wall thickness at the end of diastole was less in ascitic chickens at 3 weeks. However, all the structural indices decreased with age after normalisation with body weight. 4. The heart rate of ascitic chickens was lower at 4, 5 and 6 weeks. Normalised left ventricular fractional shortening was lower in ascitic chickens at 4, 5 and 6 weeks, as was normalised right ventricular fractional shortening. Incrassation of the ventricular septum (Delta T), which changed little in normal chickens, was less at 4, 5 and 6 weeks in ascitic chickens. Left ventricular fractional shortening, right ventricular fractional shortening and Delta T were all negatively correlated with ascites heart index at all ages. 5. Taken together the results suggest heart failure of both ventricle, but that right ventricular dysfunction is more extensive than left ventricular dysfunction. We suggest that secondary pulmonary hypertension would result in these ascitic chickens due to volume overload. PMID:17190684

  20. Effects of chronic hypoxia on cardiac function measured by pressure-volume catheter in fetal chickens

    PubMed Central

    Giraud, George D.; Espinoza, Herbert M.; Davis, Erica N.; Crossley, Dane A.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common component of many developmental insults and has been studied in early-stage chicken development. However, its impact on cardiac function and arterial-ventricular coupling in late-stage chickens is relatively unknown. To test the hypothesis that hypoxic incubation would reduce baseline cardiac function but protect the heart during acute hypoxia in late-stage chickens, white Leghorn eggs were incubated at 21% O2 or 15% O2. At 90% of incubation (19 days), hypoxic incubation caused growth restriction (−20%) and increased the LV-to-body ratio (+41%). Left ventricular (LV) pressure-volume loops were measured in anesthetized chickens in normoxia and acute hypoxia (10% O2). Hypoxic incubation lowered the maximal rate of pressure generation (ΔP/ΔtMax; −22%) and output (−57%), whereas increasing end-systolic elastance (ELV; +31%) and arterial elastance (EA; +122%) at similar heart rates to normoxic incubation. Both hypoxic incubation and acute hypoxia lengthened the half-time of relaxation (τ; +24%). Acute hypoxia reduced heart rate (−8%) and increased end-diastolic pressure (+35%). Hearts were collected for mRNA analysis. Hypoxic incubation was marked by decreased mRNA expression of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1, phospholamban, and ryanodine receptor. In summary, hypoxic incubation reduces LV function in the late-stage chicken by slowing pressure generation and relaxation, which may be driven by altered intracellular excitation-contraction coupling. Cardiac efficiency is greatly reduced after hypoxic incubation. In both incubation groups acute hypoxia reduced diastolic function. PMID:25652537

  1. Phytochemicals reduce aflatoxin-induced toxicity in chicken embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasicitus, which frequently contaminate chicken feed ingredients. Ingestion of AF-contaminated feed by chickens leads to deleterious effects, including decreased chicken performance and reduced egg producti...

  2. Structural analysis of fibrinogen synthesized by cultured chicken hepatocytes in the presence or absence of dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Amrani, D L; Plant, P W; Pindyck, J; Mosesson, M W; Grieninger, G

    1983-03-30

    Hepatocyte monolayers, derived from chick embryos and cultured in chemically defined medium without hormones, synthesize and secrete fibrinogen that resembles chicken plasma fibrinogen immunochemically and structurally. Addition of a synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, to the cultured cells resulted in an appreciable and relatively selective increase in fibrinogen synthesis. Autoradiography of fibrinogen that had been metabolically labelled with [35S]methionine and then subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, unreduced or under disulfide-reducing conditions, revealed that only dimeric forms of fibrinogen, containing undegraded A alpha, B beta, and gamma chains, were secreted under stimulated and unstimulated culture conditions. PMID:6830818

  3. Chicken pox after pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Levitsky, Josh; Kalil, Andre C; Meza, Jane L; Hurst, Glenn E; Freifeld, Alison

    2005-12-01

    Previous case series have reported serious complications of chicken pox (CP) after pediatric liver transplantation (PLT), mainly due to visceral dissemination. The goal of our study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of CP after PLT. A case-control study of all CP infections in pediatric transplant recipients followed at our center from September 1993 to April 2004 was performed. Data were collected before and after infection and at the same time points in age-, gender-, and transplant year-matched controls. Potential risk factors prior to CP and adverse outcomes after infection were compared between cases and controls. Twenty (6.2%) developed CP at a median of 1.8 yr (0.6-4.8) after PLT. All CP infections were cutaneous, with no evidence of organ involvement. Twelve were hospitalized: 9 only to receive intravenous acyclovir and 3 stayed > or =2 weeks for other complications. Risk factors were not statistically different among cases and controls. Of the outcomes analyzed, cases were significantly more likely to develop non-CP infections within one year of CP than controls (Hazard Ratio = 12.6, 95% confidence interval = 3.1-51.7; P < 0.001). These infections were often bacterial and occurred long after CP infection. In conclusion, CP is uncommon after PLT and has a low likelihood of organ dissemination. No risk factors were identified. Some cases required prolonged hospitalizations. Close monitoring for the development of late bacterial infections is warranted. PMID:16315312

  4. An Analysis of the Claim that "Physical Education" Has Become a "Family Resemblance" Term.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeigler, Earle F.

    In this paper, the author examines the confusion that currently exists concerning the term "physical education." In particular, he analyzes the claim that"physical education" is a "family resemblance" term--a word or phrase which may be used to denote fundamentally different concepts, but concepts in which there is some overlapping of…

  5. Familial Resemblance for Measures of Reading Performance in Families of Reading-Disabled and Control Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alarcon, Maricela; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Finds that parent-offspring resemblance in families of reading-disabled probands does not differ substantially from that in families of controls; and correlations and regressions for monozygotic twins are greater than those for dizygotic twins, suggesting that individual differences in reading achievement are due in part to heritable influences.…

  6. Children and Adolescents' Understandings of Family Resemblance: A Study of Naive Inheritance Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide developmental data on two connected naive inheritance concepts and to explore the coherence of children's naive biology knowledge. Two tasks examined children and adolescents' (4, 7, 10, and 14 years) conceptions of phenotypic resemblance across kin (in physical characteristics, disabilities, and personality traits). The…

  7. Startle eye-blink modulation by facial self-resemblance and current mood.

    PubMed

    Finke, Johannes B; Larra, Mauro F; Schilling, Thomas M; Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2015-06-01

    Although salient stimuli are known to modulate startle eye-blink responses, and one's own face is considered of particular salience, effects of facial self-resemblance on startle responsiveness have not been systematically investigated. For the present study, pictures from the FACES database (rated as neutral) were digitally morphed to resemble the participants' (N=37) faces to varying degrees (25-50-75%). Perceptually matched geometrical shapes served as a control condition. At SOAs of either 300ms or 3000ms after picture onset, startle responses were elicited by white noise (50ms, 105dB), and recorded at the orbicularis oculi via EMG. Prior to the experiment, self-reported mood was assessed by means of the PANAS. Relative to non-face stimuli, the presentation of faces reduced startle magnitude at short, but not long, lead intervals. Furthermore, for probes presented at a SOA of 300ms, a linear decrease in startle magnitude with higher levels of self-resemblance was observed, presumably reflecting higher salience of the self-face. The startle modulating effect of self-resembling faces during longer lead intervals was moderated by the participants' current mood: negative affect predicted stronger patterns of attenuation, which might be interpreted as an increase in self-focus resulting from more negative mood. PMID:25913094

  8. Immunohistochemical localization in rabbit brain of a peptide resembling the COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin.

    PubMed Central

    Straus, E; Muller, J E; Choi, H S; Paronetto, F; Yalow, R S

    1977-01-01

    Immunohistochemical techniques were used to demonstrate the presence of a material resembling the COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin in rabbit cerebral cortical neurons. Deep staining was seen in cell bodies throughout the cortical grey matter and diffusely in the subcortical white matter. Images PMID:331325

  9. Isolation and characterization of six different chicken actin genes.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, K S; Zimmer, W E; Bergsma, D J; Dodgson, J B; Schwartz, R J

    1984-01-01

    Genes representing six different actin isoforms were isolated from a chicken genomic library. Cloned actin cDNAs as well as tissue-specific mRNAs enriched in different actin species were used as hybridization probes to group individual actin genomic clones by their relative thermal stability. Restriction maps showed that these actin genes were derived from separate and nonoverlapping regions of genomic DNA. Of the six isolated genes, five included sequences from both the 5' and 3' ends of the actin-coding area. Amino acid sequence analysis from both the NH2- and COOH-terminal regions provided for the unequivocal identification of these genes. The striated isoforms were represented by the isolated alpha-skeletal, alpha-cardiac, and alpha-smooth muscle actin genes. The nonmuscle isoforms included the beta-cytoplasmic actin gene and an actin gene fragment which lacked the 5' coding and flanking sequence; presumably, this region of DNA was removed from this gene during construction of the genomic library. Unexpectedly, a third nonmuscle chicken actin gene was found which resembled the amphibian type 5 actin isoform (J. Vandekerckhove, W. W. Franke, and K. Weber, J. Mol. Biol., 152:413-426). This nonmuscle actin type has not been previously detected in warm-blooded vertebrates. We showed that interspersed, repeated DNA sequences closely flanked the alpha-skeletal, alpha-cardiac, beta-, and type 5-like actin genes. The repeated DNA sequences which surround the alpha-skeletal actin-coding regions were not related to repetitious DNA located on the other actin genes. Analysis of genomic DNA blots showed that the chicken actin multigene family was represented by 8 to 10 separate coding loci. The six isolated actin genes corresponded to 7 of 11 genomic EcoRI fragments. Only the alpha-smooth muscle actin gene was shown to be split by an EcoRI site. Thus, in the chicken genome each actin isoform appeared to be encoded by a single gene. Images PMID:6513927

  10. Initial contamination of chicken parts with Salmonella at retail and cross-contamination of cooked chicken with Salmonella from raw chicken during meal preparation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study was undertaken to acquire data for initial contamination of chicken parts with Salmonella at retail and to acquire data for cross-contamination of cooked chicken with Salmonella from raw chicken during meal preparation. Whole raw chickens were obtained from local retail stores and...

  11. Isolation of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli from chicken and chicken-derived products.

    PubMed

    Alonso, M Z; Sanz, M E; Irino, K; Krüger, A; Lucchesi, P M A; Padola, N L

    2016-04-01

    Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains from chicken and chicken-derived products were isolated and characterised. The strains presented a wide variety of serotypes, some have been reported in other animal species (O2:H40, O5:H40) and in children with diarrhoea (O8:H-). Most of the strains carried intimin β. The results indicate that chicken and chicken products are important sources of atypical EPEC strains that could be associated with human disease, and highlight the need to improve hygiene practices in chicken slaughtering and meat handling. PMID:26810335

  12. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  13. [A case of a syndrome resembling PSP after aortic arch replacement under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest].

    PubMed

    Sakiyama, Yusuke; Michizono, Kumiko; Tomari, Shinya; Watanabe, Osamu; Nakahara, Keiichi; Takashima, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    A 57-year-old man presented with acute signs and symptoms mimicking PSP (bradykinesia, supranuclear ocular palsy, dysphagia, neck dystonia, and apraxic gait) on the day after a graft replacement surgery, which was performed for aortic arch aneurysm under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (rectal temperature, 18 degrees C). Dysphagia improved temporarily, but relapsed after a few months. Symptoms did not change during 2 years of antiparkinsonian drug administration. Brain images obtained before the surgery revealed slight atrophy of the midbrain tegmentum and frontal lobes, but the patient was asymptomatic. No findings of cerebral vascular disease and hypoxic encephalopathy were observed on brain images after the surgery. These clinical features resembling PSP might have been caused by deep hypothermia and the patient's predisposition for PSP. This is the first case report in Japan of a syndrome resembling PSP that occurred after aortic arch replacement under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. PMID:21387699

  14. Effects of moment of hatch and feed access on chicken development.

    PubMed

    Lamot, D M; van de Linde, I B; Molenaar, R; van der Pol, C W; Wijtten, P J A; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2014-10-01

    The current study evaluated effects of hatch moment and immediate feed and water access within a 24-h hatch window on chicken growth and development. Five hundred four male chickens obtained from a 49-wk-old Ross 308 breeder flock were assigned to 72 cages based on hatching moment (early, midterm, or late; selected during periods of 475 to 481, 483 to 487, and 489 to 493 h after onset of incubation). At the end of each hatching period, chickens were moved to the grow-out facility and one-half of the chickens received feed and water ad libitum immediately. Remaining chickens received feed and water from 504 h after onset of incubation (d 0). Body weight gain and feed intake for each cage were recorded at d 0, 1, 4, 7, 11, and 18. Chickens were sampled at d 4 and 18 for organ and carcass development. Early hatchers had lower BW at placement compared with midterm and late hatchers but compensated for this afterward, resulting in a higher BW at d 4 (112.8, 107.1, and 103.3 g, respectively). From d 0 to 18, early hatchers tended to have higher BW gain than both other groups. Relative breast meat yield at d 18, expressed as percentage of carcass weight, was higher for early (30.4%) than midterm (28.5%) and late hatchers (27.8%). Up to d 7, direct feed access resulted in higher BW gain (6.1%) and feed intake (4.2%) compared with delayed feed access. No effect of moment of feed access on feed efficiency or organ weights was found. Direct feed access resulted in a higher weight:length ratio of the jejunum (12.5%) and ileum (7.5%) at d 4 compared with delayed feed access. These results suggest that early hatchers have a different developmental and growth pattern than midterm or late hatchers within a 24-h hatch window. A mild delay in feed access after hatch affects growth and development during the first week after hatch. PMID:25071231

  15. “Groundsubstance” Resembling Amyloid Extracted from the Cervical Portion of Human Cervix Uteri

    PubMed Central

    Gröschel-Stewart, U.; Hermann, U.; Schwalm, H.

    1973-01-01

    A groundsubstance glycoprotein has been isolated from normal human cervix uteri that has a remarkable resemblance in its primary structure to a protein found in amyloid disease and to other acidic fibrous proteins found in mammalian tissue. Cervical groundsubstance, acidic fibrous protein from human uterus and the cardiac groundsubstance, which is significantly increased in amyloid disease, are immunologically identical or closely related. ImagesFigs. 1-4 PMID:4633712

  16. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax

    PubMed Central

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory. PMID:24766340

  17. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax.

    PubMed

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory. PMID:24766340

  18. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with chicken interleukin-17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our previous study chicken interleukin -17 (chIL-17) gene was cloned from the expressed sequence tag (EST) cDNA library and initially analyzed. To further investigate biological properties of chicken IL-17, six monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against bacterially expressed protein were produced and c...

  19. Exencephaly in araucana chickens and silkie bantams.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, G L; Softly, A

    1985-01-01

    Exencephaly and hydranencephaly were diagnosed in two 6-week-old araucana chickens (Gallus domesticus) and one adult silkie bantam (Gallus domesticus). The chickens were presented with large, subcutaneous, cranial soft-tissue masses and exhibited neurological signs. There was partial aplasia of the frontal bones, resulting in herniation of the cerebral hemispheres. PMID:4026741

  20. SALMONELLA ON FREE-RANGE CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many consumers assume that broiler chickens grown under traditional commercial conditions will have more salmonella than free-range chickens which are usually less crowded and have access to outside spaces during grow-out. However, because of the lack of published information about the microbiologi...

  1. Experiments with the Viability of Chicken Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garigliano, Leonard J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment designed to test two hypotheses: (1) a delay of two weeks at room temperature will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs and (2) refrigeration will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs. Experimenters were the author and two ninth-grade students. (PEB)

  2. Characterization of the chicken muscle insulin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Adamo, M.; Simon, J.; Rosebrough, R.W.; McMurtry, J.P.; Steele, N.C.; LeRoith, D.

    1987-12-01

    Insulin receptors are present in chicken skeletal muscle. Crude membrane preparations demonstrated specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding. The nonspecific binding was high (36-55% of total binding) and slightly lower affinity receptors were found than are typically observed for crude membrane insulin binding in other chicken tissues. Affinity crosslinking of /sup 125/I-insulin to crude membranes revealed insulin receptor alpha-subunits of Mr 128K, intermediate between those of liver (134K) and brain (124K). When solubilized and partially purified on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity columns, chicken muscle insulin receptors exhibited typical high affinity binding, with approximately 10(-10) M unlabeled insulin producing 50% inhibition of the specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding. WGA purified chicken muscle insulin receptors also exhibited insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the beta-subunit, which appeared as phosphorylated bands of 92- and 81K. Both bands were immunoprecipitated by anti-receptor antiserum (B10). WGA purified membranes also demonstrated dose-dependent insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the exogenous substrate poly(Glu,Tyr)4:1. However, unlike chicken liver, chicken muscle insulin receptor number and tyrosine kinase activity were unaltered by 48 hr of fasting or 48 hr of fasting and 24 hr of refeeding. Thus, despite the presence of insulin receptors in chicken muscle showing normal coupling to receptor tyrosine kinase activity, nutritional alterations modulate these parameters in a tissue-specific manner in chickens.

  3. Monoclonal antibodies against chicken interleukin-6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were produced against a recombinant (r) chicken interleukin-6 (IL-6). Eight mAbs that were produced were tested for isotype; ability to inhibit recombinant forms of chicken (ch), human (h) and murine (m) IL-6; and recognition of rchIL-6 by Western immunoblotting. The mA...

  4. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  5. What's so special about chicken immunology?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...

  6. ISOLATION OF CHICKEN FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which h...

  7. Colonization properties of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Pielsticker, C.; Glünder, G.; Rautenschlein, S.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to colonize the chicken varies significantly not only between Campylobacter strains but also depending on the original source of the infecting isolate. The data provides circumstantial evidence that early immune mechanisms in the gut may play an important role in the fate of Campylobacter in the host. PMID:24611122

  8. Quality Evaluation of Chicken Nugget Formulated with Various Contents of Chicken Skin and Wheat Fiber Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Kon-Joong; Lee, Jong-Wan; Kim, Gye-Woong; Choe, Ju-Hui; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of various mixtures of the chicken skin and wheat fiber on the properties of chicken nuggets. Two skin and fiber mixtures (SFM) were prepared using the following formulations; SFM-1: chicken skin (50%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (30%); and SFM-2: chicken skin (30%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (50%). Chicken nugget samples were prepared by adding the following amounts of either SFM-1 or SFM-2: 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. The water content for samples formulated with SFM-1 or SFM-2 was higher than in the control (p<0.05), and increased with increasing the concentrations of SFM-1 and SFM-2. The addition of SFM-1 and SFM-2 had no significant effect on the pH of the samples. The lightness value of uncooked chicken nuggets was higher than that of cooked chicken nuggets for all the samples tested. Chicken nuggets formulated with SFM-1 and SFM-2 displayed higher cooking yields than the control sample. The hardness of the control sample was also lower than the samples containing SFM-1 and SFM-2. The sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between the control and the samples containing SFM. Therefore, the incorporation of a chicken skin and wheat fiber mixture improved the quality of chicken nuggets. PMID:26761796

  9. "Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought": Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class.

    PubMed

    Hazel, Susan J; O'Dwyer, Lisel; Ryan, Terry

    2015-01-01

    A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1) the practical class changed students' attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2) any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals. PMID:26479388

  10. Progesterone receptor in chicken bursa of Fabricius and thymus: evidence for expression in B-lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Pasanen, S; Ylikomi, T; Palojoki, E; Syvälä, H; Pelto-Huikko, M; Tuohimaa, P

    1998-06-25

    In the present work constitutive progesterone receptor (PR) expression in the chicken bursa of Fabricius was detected in the stromal, smooth muscle and follicular medullary cells and smooth muscle cells of blood vessels. PR expression was increased during sexual maturation and after estrogen treatment. Bursal medullary PR-positive cells were further characterized to be B-lymphocytes by flow cytometric analysis. In addition, estrogen induced expression of PR in the bursal FAE-cells (follicle-associated epithelial cells). In the thymus PR was expressed constitutively in the connective tissue cells of the capsule and interfollicular septa, in a few medullary cells and in vascular smooth muscle. The PR-positive medullary cells consisted of epithelial cells, large polygonal cells resembling macrophages and plasma cells. T-lymphocytes were PR-negative. Estrogen up-regulated PR expression in the thymus. Immunoblotting studies revealed that both isoforms of PR, i.e. PR-A and PR-B, were expressed in the bursa of Fabricius and thymus with PR-B dominance. These results suggest that the chicken primary lymphoid organs bursa and thymus are under regulation of estrogen and progesterone. Expression of PR in B-lymphocytes, macrophages and plasma cells in the chicken is documented for the first time and suggests evidence for direct action of progesterone on immune responses. PMID:9723893

  11. Female meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in chicken.

    PubMed

    Schoenmakers, Sam; Wassenaar, Evelyne; Hoogerbrugge, Jos W; Laven, Joop S E; Grootegoed, J Anton; Baarends, Willy M

    2009-05-01

    During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW), whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription of Z- and W chromosomal genes during meiotic prophase. Herein, we show that the ZW pair is transiently silenced, from early pachytene to early diplotene using immunocytochemistry and gene expression analyses. We propose that ZW inactivation is most likely achieved via spreading of heterochromatin from the W on the Z chromosome. Also, persistent meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) may contribute to silencing of Z. Surprisingly, gammaH2AX, a marker of DSBs, and also the earliest histone modification that is associated with XY body formation in mammalian and marsupial spermatocytes, does not cover the ZW during the synapsed stage. However, when the ZW pair starts to desynapse, a second wave of gammaH2AX accumulates on the unsynapsed regions of Z, which also show a reappearance of the DSB repair protein RAD51. This indicates that repair of meiotic DSBs on the heterologous part of Z is postponed until late pachytene/diplotene, possibly to avoid recombination with regions on the heterologously synapsed W chromosome. Two days after entering diplotene, the Z looses gammaH2AX and shows reactivation. This is the first report of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in a species with female heterogamety, providing evidence that this mechanism is not specific to spermatogenesis. It also indicates the presence of an evolutionary force that drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation independent of the final achievement of synapsis. PMID:19461881

  12. Female Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation in Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Schoenmakers, Sam; Wassenaar, Evelyne; Hoogerbrugge, Jos W.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Grootegoed, J. Anton; Baarends, Willy M.

    2009-01-01

    During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW), whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription of Z- and W chromosomal genes during meiotic prophase. Herein, we show that the ZW pair is transiently silenced, from early pachytene to early diplotene using immunocytochemistry and gene expression analyses. We propose that ZW inactivation is most likely achieved via spreading of heterochromatin from the W on the Z chromosome. Also, persistent meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) may contribute to silencing of Z. Surprisingly, γH2AX, a marker of DSBs, and also the earliest histone modification that is associated with XY body formation in mammalian and marsupial spermatocytes, does not cover the ZW during the synapsed stage. However, when the ZW pair starts to desynapse, a second wave of γH2AX accumulates on the unsynapsed regions of Z, which also show a reappearance of the DSB repair protein RAD51. This indicates that repair of meiotic DSBs on the heterologous part of Z is postponed until late pachytene/diplotene, possibly to avoid recombination with regions on the heterologously synapsed W chromosome. Two days after entering diplotene, the Z looses γH2AX and shows reactivation. This is the first report of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in a species with female heterogamety, providing evidence that this mechanism is not specific to spermatogenesis. It also indicates the presence of an evolutionary force that drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation independent of the final achievement of synapsis. PMID:19461881

  13. Resembling a viper: implications of mimicry for conservation of the endangered smooth snake.

    PubMed

    Valkonen, Janne K; Mappes, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon of Batesian mimicry, where a palatable animal gains protection against predation by resembling an unpalatable model, has been a core interest of evolutionary biologists for 150 years. An extensive range of studies has focused on revealing mechanistic aspects of mimicry (shared education and generalization of predators) and the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems (co-operation vs. conflict) and revealed that protective mimicry is widespread and is important for individual fitness. However, according to our knowledge, there are no case studies where mimicry theories have been applied to conservation of mimetic species. Theoretically, mimicry affects, for example, frequency dependency of predator avoidance learning and human induced mortality. We examined the case of the protected, endangered, nonvenomous smooth snake (Coronella austriaca) that mimics the nonprotected venomous adder (Vipera berus), both of which occur in the Åland archipelago, Finland. To quantify the added predation risk on smooth snakes caused by the rarity of vipers, we calculated risk estimates from experimental data. Resemblance of vipers enhances survival of smooth snakes against bird predation because many predators avoid touching venomous vipers. Mimetic resemblance is however disadvantageous against human predators, who kill venomous vipers and accidentally kill endangered, protected smooth snakes. We found that the effective population size of the adders in Åland is very low relative to its smooth snake mimic (28.93 and 41.35, respectively).Because Batesian mimicry is advantageous for the mimic only if model species exist in sufficiently high numbers, it is likely that the conservation program for smooth snakes will fail if adders continue to be destroyed. Understanding the population consequences of mimetic species may be crucial to the success of endangered species conservation. We suggest that when a Batesian mimic requires protection, conservation planners should

  14. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-10-12

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  15. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  16. A case of secondary syphilis with HIV, resembling borderline lepromatous leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mohan Zachariah; Kanish, Bimal; Kwatra, Kanwardeep; Chaudhary, Paulina R.; Bhatia, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    We are reporting an unusual case of secondary syphilis, in a homosexual male patient, which resembled borderline lepromatous leprosy, and in whom the diagnosis was considered on clinical grounds. The patient also had concomitant HIV infection, with asymptomatic neurosyphilis. His rapid plasma reagin test was reactive in 1:128 dilution. He improved with three standard, weekly injections of benzathine penicillin, along with 2 g of intravenous ceftriaxone daily for 15 days. This case is being reported to highlight the need for a high index of suspicion in diagnosing unusual cases of secondary syphilis, especially in those with concomitant HIV infection. PMID:26692613

  17. A Drosophila gene encoding a protein resembling the human. beta. -amyloid protein precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, D.R.; Martin-Morris, L.; Luo, L.; White, K. )

    1989-04-01

    The authors have isolated genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila gene resembling the human {beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This gene produces a nervous system-enriched 6.5-kilobase transcript. Sequencing of cDNAs derived from the 6.5-kilobase transcript predicts an 886-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide contains a putative transmembrane domain and exhibits strong sequence similarity to cytoplasmic and extracellular regions of the human {beta}-amyloid precursor protein. There is a high probability that this Drosophila gene corresponds to the essential Drosophila locus vnd, a gene required for embryonic nervous system development.

  18. Vaccinia Virus N1l Protein Resembles a B Cell Lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) Family Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyagi, M.; Zhai, D.; Jin, C.; Aleshin, A.E.; Stec, B.; Reed, J.C.; Liddington, R.C.; /Burnham Inst.

    2007-07-03

    Poxviruses encode immuno-modulatory proteins capable of subverting host defenses. The poxvirus vaccinia expresses a small 14-kDa protein, N1L, that is critical for virulence. We report the crystal structure of N1L, which reveals an unexpected but striking resemblance to host apoptotic regulators of the B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family. Although N1L lacks detectable Bcl-2 homology (BH) motifs at the sequence level, we show that N1L binds with high affinity to the BH3 peptides of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins in vitro, consistent with a role for N1L in modulating host antiviral defenses.

  19. Spectral transformation of the unusual variable star MWC560 to resemble a nova

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, Stephen P.; Michalitsianos, Andrew G.; Oliversen, Ronald J.; Sonneborn, George

    1991-01-01

    A dramatic change has occurred in the ultraviolet spectrum of the emission-line star MWC560, so that it now closely resembles the spectrum of a nova shortly after outburst. This event may signal a major mass-ejection episode such as presumably occurred in past centuries in the symbiotic star R Aquarii to produce the well-known bipolar nebula, and it may herald the emergence of a standard symbiotic-star emission-line spectrum in MWC560, corresponding to a change in evolutionary state.

  20. Charge on luminous bodies resembling natural ball lightning produced via electrical arcs through lump silicon.

    PubMed

    Porter, Christina L; Miley, Galen P; Griffiths, David J; Sánchez, Erik

    2014-12-01

    A phenomenon resembling natural ball lightning can be produced via electrical arcing through silicon. We use lump silicon instead of silicon wafers to achieve higher production rates and larger, longer-lived luminous balls than previously reported. The luminous balls consist of a silicon core surrounded by a porous network of loosely bound silicon dioxide nanoparticles. We find that the balls carry a small net charge on the order of 10(-12) C and propose that the nanoparticles are electrostatically bound to the core due to this charge. PMID:25615201

  1. Charge on luminous bodies resembling natural ball lightning produced via electrical arcs through lump silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Christina L.; Miley, Galen P.; Griffiths, David J.; Sánchez, Erik

    2014-12-01

    A phenomenon resembling natural ball lightning can be produced via electrical arcing through silicon. We use lump silicon instead of silicon wafers to achieve higher production rates and larger, longer-lived luminous balls than previously reported. The luminous balls consist of a silicon core surrounded by a porous network of loosely bound silicon dioxide nanoparticles. We find that the balls carry a small net charge on the order of 10-12 C and propose that the nanoparticles are electrostatically bound to the core due to this charge.

  2. A colonization of basal cell carcinoma by malignant melanoma in situ resembling a malignant basomelanocytic tumor.

    PubMed

    Goeser, Megan; DiMaio, Dominick J

    2014-11-01

    We report a case of colonization of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) by malignant melanoma in situ (MIS) simulating a malignant basomelanocytic tumor. A biopsy of a pigmented lesion present on an 83-year-old man's scalp displayed intimate admixing of basaloid and melanocytic cells. This seemingly inseparable combination of BCC and neoplastic melanocytes has been referred to as a malignant basomelanocytic tumor. However, our case also displays an adjacent component of MIS, thus favoring colonization of BCC by MIS as the etiology. To our knowledge, this is the third case report of colonization of BCC by MIS resembling a malignant basomelanocytic tumor. PMID:24752214

  3. Temporary prenatal hyperglycemia leads to postnatal neuronal 'glucose-resistance' in the chicken hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Tzschentke, Barbara; Bogatyrev, Semjon; Schellong, Karen; Rancourt, Rebecca C; Plagemann, Andreas

    2015-08-27

    Prenatal exposures may have a distinct impact for long-term health. Exposure to maternal 'diabesity' during pregnancy increases offspring 'diabesity' risk, e.g. by malprogramming the central nervous regulation of body weight, food intake and metabolism. Critical mechanisms and concrete disrupting factors still remain unclear. Due to the independent development, from the mother, the chicken embryo could provide a valuable model to distinctively establish causal factors. Aim of this study was to determine effects of temporary prenatal hyperglycemia on postnatal hypothalamic neuronal glucose sensitivity in the chicken. To induce hyperglycemia in chicken embryos, 0.5 ml glucose solution (concentration 30 mmol/l) were daily administered via catheter into a vessel of the chorioallantoic egg membrane from days 14 to 17 of incubation. On day 21 of postnatal age, body weight, body fat content, blood glucose, neuroelectrophysiological glucose sensitivity as well as glucose transporter expression were determined in hypothalamic brain slices. No significant changes in morphometric and metabolic parameters were observed. However, strongly decreased neuronal glucose sensitivity and glucose transporter expression occurred, indicating prenatally acquired hypothalamic 'glucose-resistance'. In conclusion, temporary late prenatal hyperglycemia induces lasting changes in central glucose sensing. The prenatally glucose-treated chicken provides a valuable new model for investigating early central nervous origins of 'diabesity' and related disorders. PMID:26054304

  4. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Results Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds- Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken - the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds - the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD= 0.341, LK= 0.357, DA=0.349 and CH= 0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The FST values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The FST values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. Conclusion These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken

  5. Immune-related gene expression in response to H11N9 low pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in chicken and Pekin duck peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Adams, Sean C; Xing, Zheng; Li, Jinling; Cardona, Carol J

    2009-05-01

    The duck and chicken are important hosts of avian influenza virus (AIV) with distinctive responses to infection. Frequently, AIV infections in ducks are asymptomatic and long-lasting in contrast to the clinically apparent and transient infections observed in chickens. These differences may be due in part to the host response to AIV infection. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we examined the expression of immune-related genes in response to low pathogenic AIV H11N9 infection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from the blood of chickens and Pekin ducks. While chicken PBMC expressed IL-1beta and IL-6 at high levels similar to mammalian species, duck PBMC expression levels were minimal or unchanged. Similarly, duck IFN-beta expression was nearly unaffected, whereas chicken expression was highly upregulated. Chicken IFN-gamma was expressed to higher levels than duck IFN-gamma, while IFN-alpha was expressed similarly by both species. IL-2 was elevated early in infection in duck PBMC, but returned to baseline levels by the end of the experiment; in contrast, IL-2 was weakly induced in chicken PBMC at late time points. TLR-7 and MHC class I molecule expressions were conserved between species, whereas duck MHC class II expression was downregulated and chicken expression was unchanged. These results show distinct PBMC expression patterns of pro-inflammatory cytokines and IFNs between species. The differences in pro-inflammatory cytokine and IFN expression reflect the asymptomatic and lasting infection observed in ducks and the tendency towards clinical signs and rapid clearance seen in chickens. These results highlight important differences in the host response to AIV of two species thought to be critical in the genesis and maintenance of epidemic strains of AIV. PMID:19250679

  6. Proventriculitis and Proventicular dilation of broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible viral proventriculitis (TVP) is an infectious, transmissible viral disease of chickens that results in enlarged, fragile proventriculi. TVP is characterized by specific microscopic changes that include glandular epithelial cell necrosis, ductal epithelial cell hyperplasia, and lymphocy...

  7. Changes in apparent metabolizable energy and digestive tract of broiler chickens fed diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2003-05-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract.

  8. The magnetic compass of domestic chickens.

    PubMed

    Denzau, Susanne; Nießner, Christine; Rogers, Lesley J; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    In a recent paper, we showed that domestic chickens can be trained to search for a social stimulus in specific magnetic directions. Chickens can hardly fly and have only small home ranges, hence their having a functional magnetic compass may seem rather surprising. Yet considering the natural habitat of their ancestors and their lifestyle until recently, the advantages of a magnetic compass become evident. PMID:24753787

  9. Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment harms developing chicken embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kiessling, Maren C.; Milz, Stefan; Frank, Hans-Georg; Korbel, Rüdiger; Schmitz, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment (rESWT) has became one of the best investigated treatment modalities for cellulite, including the abdomen as a treatment site. Notably, pregnancy is considered a contraindication for rESWT, and concerns have been raised about possible harm to the embryo when a woman treated with rESWT for cellulite is not aware of her pregnancy. Here we tested the hypothesis that rESWT may cause serious physical harm to embryos. To this end, chicken embryos were exposed in ovo to various doses of radial shock waves on either day 3 or day 4 of development, resembling the developmental stage of four- to six-week-old human embryos. We found a dose-dependent increase in the number of embryos that died after radial shock wave exposure on either day 3 or day 4 of development. Among the embryos that survived the shock wave exposure a few showed severe congenital defects such as missing eyes. Evidently, our data cannot directly be used to draw conclusions about potential harm to the embryo of a pregnant woman treated for cellulite with rESWT. However, to avoid any risks we strongly recommend applying radial shock waves in the treatment of cellulite only if a pregnancy is ruled out. PMID:25655309

  10. Derivation and validation of murine histologic alterations resembling asthma, with two proposed histologic grade parameters

    PubMed Central

    Wachtel, Mitchell S; Shome, Goutam; Sutherland, Mhairi; McGlone, John J

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective was to define murine histologic alterations resembling asthma in a BALB/c OVA model and to suggest grading criteria. Identified were six salient histologic findings in lungs with putative allergic inflammation: 1) bronchoarterial space inflammation; 2) peri-venular inflammation; 3) inflammation about amuscular blood vessels; 4) inter-alveolar space inflammation, not about capillaries; 5) pleural inflammation; and 6) eosinophils within the inflammatory aggregates. An initial study comprised six groups of twelve mice each: 1) stressed, control; 2) stressed, sensitized; 3) stressed, challenged; 4) not physically stressed, control; 5) not physically stressed, sensitized; 6) not physically stressed, challenged. A second study comprised four experimental groups of twenty mice each: 1) stressed, control; 2) stressed, challenged; 3) not physically stressed, control; 4) not physically stressed, challenged. A third study evaluated two grading criteria, 1) the proportion of non-tracheal respiratory passages with inflammatory aggregates and 2) mitoses in the largest two non-tracheal respiratory passages, in five groups of five mice each, evaluated at different times after the last exposure. Results The first study suggested the six histological findings might reliably indicate the presence of alterations resembling asthma: whereas 82.4% of mice with a complete response had detectable interleukin (IL)-5, only 3.8% of mice without one did; whereas 77.8% of mice with a complete response were challenged mice, only 6.7% of mice without complete responses were. The second study revealed that the six histological findings provided a definition that was 97.4% sensitive and 100% specific. The third study found that the odds of a bronchial passage's having inflammation declined 1) when mitoses were present (OR = 0.73, 0.60 - 0.90), and 2) with one day increased time (OR = 0.75, 0.65 - 0.86). Conclusion A definition of murine histologic alterations resembling

  11. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-01-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China. PMID:25422439

  12. Characterization of the effects of three Lactobacillus species on the function of chicken macrophages.

    PubMed

    Brisbin, Jennifer T; Davidge, Lianne; Roshdieh, Ala; Sharif, Shayan

    2015-06-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus salivarius can influence the adaptive immune responses in chickens but vary in their ability to do so. The present study attempted to identify how these three bacteria alter the innate immune system. A chicken macrophage cell line, MQ-NCSU, was co-cultured with the three live Lactobacillus species, alone or in combination, grown at different temperatures for various durations of time. Late exponential growth phase bacteria were more immunostimulatory, while bacterial growth temperature had little effect. L. acidophilus and L. salivarius significantly increased nitric oxide (NO) production and phagocytosis, while L. reuteri did not. In fact, L reuteri was shown to inhibit NO production of macrophages when co-cultured with the other bacteria or when cells were pre-treated with LPS. The results demonstrate a possible molecular mechanism for the immunomodulatory effects of L. acidophilus and L. salivarius, and a unique immunomodulatory ability of L. reuteri. PMID:25847283

  13. Unique properties of the chicken TLR4/MD-2 complex: selective lipopolysaccharide activation of the MyD88-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Keestra, A Marijke; van Putten, Jos P M

    2008-09-15

    During evolution, mammals have evolved a powerful innate immune response to LPS. Chickens are much more resistant to LPS-induced septic shock. Herein we report that chickens sense LPS via orthologs of mammalian TLR4 and myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2) rather than the previously implicated chicken TLR2 isoform type 2 (chTLR2t2) receptor. Cloning and expression of recombinant chTLR4 and chMD-2 in HeLa 57A cells activated NF-kappaB at concentrations of LPS as low as 100 pg/ml. Differential pairing of chicken and mammalian TLR4 and MD-2 indicated that the protein interaction was species-specific in contrast to the formation of functional human and murine chimeric complexes. The chicken LPS receptor responded to a wide variety of LPS derivatives and to the synthetic lipid A compounds 406 and 506. The LPS specificity resembled the functionality of the murine rather than the human TLR4/MD-2 complex. Polymorphism in chTLR4 (Tyr(383)His and Gln(611)Arg) did not influence the LPS response. Interestingly, LPS consistently failed to activate the MyD88-independent induction of IFN-beta in chicken cells, in contrast to the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) that yielded a potent IFN-beta response. These results suggest that chicken lack a functional LPS-specific TRAM-TRIF (TRIF-related adapter molecule/TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-beta) signaling pathway, which may explain their aberrant response to LPS compared with the mammalian species. PMID:18768894

  14. A renal adenocarcinoma in a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) resembling human collecting duct carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chi-Fei; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Tsao, Wen-Tien; Lee, An-Hsing; Liu, Chen-Hsuan; Wang, Fun-In

    2016-09-01

    A 5-year-old male captive corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) with caudal coelomic swelling was admitted for surgical treatment. Laparotomy revealed a 5 × 4 × 2.5 cm, firm, expansile, irregularly shaped mass arising from the middle portion of the right kidney with a mild lobulated pattern and mottled white-to-tan. Microscopically, the mass was composed of numerous bizarre angulated tubules of polygonal neoplastic cells separated by a scirrhous stroma with remarkable heterophilic infiltrates. The neoplastic cells were nonciliated and mucin secreting, with abundant brightly eosinophilic cytoplasm. There were marked cellular and nuclear atypia, frequent cell individualization, and stromal invasion, indicative of malignant behavior, which was confirmed by metastasis to the left kidney 1.5 months postoperatively. Both neoplastic epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells contributing to the scirrhous stroma had variable immunopositivity for pan-cytokeratin. The neoplasm was considered a renal adenocarcinoma resembling human collecting duct carcinoma. PMID:27493139

  15. Biologically active polyketide metabolites from an undetermined fungicolous hyphomycete resembling Cladosporium.

    PubMed

    Höller, Ulrich; Gloer, James B; Wicklow, Donald T

    2002-06-01

    Eight new polyketide-derived metabolites [cladoacetals A and B (1 and 2), 3-(2-formyl-3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid (3), 3-deoxyisoochracinic acid (4), isoochracinol (5), 7-hydroxy-3-(2,3-dihydroxybutyl)-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone (6), (+)-cyclosordariolone (10), and altersolanol J (11)] and six known metabolites [two isomeric 1-(1,3-dihydro-4-hydroxy-1-isobenzofuranyl)butan-2,3-diols (7a/b), 7-hydroxy-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone (8), isoochracinic acid (9), altersolanol A (12), and macrosporin (13)] have been isolated from solid-substrate fermentation cultures of an undetermined fungicolous isolate (NRRL 29097) that resembles Cladosporium sp. All structures were assigned primarily by analysis of 1D and/or 2D NMR data. Five of the compounds showed antibacterial activity. PMID:12088431

  16. Multi-system progressive angiomatosis in a dog resembling blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome in humans.

    PubMed

    Ide, K; Uchida, N; Iyori, K; Mochizuki, T; Fukushima, R; Iwasaki, T; Nishifuji, K

    2013-04-01

    A six-year-old, neutered, female golden retriever was presented with generalised, dark purple to black cutaneous nodules and gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Histopathologically, all cutaneous nodules were diagnosed as benign cavernous haemangiomas. Endoscopic analysis revealed similar nodules in the oesophagus, stomach and duodenum. At laparotomy, similar nodules were seen on the visceral peritoneal lining of abdominal organs. Metastatic haemangiosarcoma was ruled out based on histological features and lack of primary tumour in spleen, liver or heart ultrasonographically. Blood loss associated with gastrointestinal haemorrhage was managed with blood transfusion. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first canine case of multi-system progressive angiomatosis resembling blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome in humans. PMID:23496103

  17. Pathological features of proteinuric nephropathy resembling Alport syndrome in a young Pyrenean Mountain dog

    PubMed Central

    SUGAHARA, Go; NAITO, Ichiro; MIYAGAWA, Yuichi; KOMIYAMA, Takaaki; TAKEMURA, Naoyuki; KOBAYASHI, Ryosuke; MINESHIGE, Takayuki; KAMIIE, Junichi; SHIROTA, Kinji

    2015-01-01

    The renal biopsy tissue from a 9-month-old, male Pyrenean Mountain dog with renal disorder and severe proteinuria was examined. Ultrastructural examination revealed multilaminar splitting and fragmentation of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and diffuse podocyte foot process effacement. Immunofluorescent staining for α(IV) chains revealed presence of α5(IV) and complete absence of α3(IV) and α4(IV) chains in the GBM. Immunohistochemistry also revealed decreased and altered expression of nephrin and podocin in the glomeruli compared with normal canine glomeruli. These results suggested that the glomerular disease of the present case might be consistent with canine hereditary nephropathy resembling human Alport syndrome caused by genetic defect of type IV collagen, and indicated possible contribution of podocyte injury to severe proteinuria in this case. PMID:25892536

  18. Westermarck, Freud, and the incest taboo: does familial resemblance activate sexual attraction?

    PubMed

    Fraley, R Chris; Marks, Michael J

    2010-09-01

    Evolutionary psychological theories assume that sexual aversions toward kin are triggered by a nonconscious mechanism that estimates the genetic relatedness between self and other. This article presents an alternative perspective that assumes that incest avoidance arises from consciously acknowledged taboos and that when awareness of the relationship between self and other is bypassed, people find individuals who resemble their kin more sexually appealing. Three experiments demonstrate that people find others more sexually attractive if they have just been subliminally exposed to an image of their opposite-sex parent (Experiment 1) or if the face being rated is a composite image based on the self (Experiment 2). This finding is reversed when people are aware of the implied genetic relationship (Experiment 3). These findings have implications for a century-old debate between E. Westermarck and S. Freud, as well as contemporary research on evolution, mate choice, and sexual imprinting. PMID:20647594

  19. UV detector from ZnO nanorods with electrodes resembling a wheatstone bridge pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Arun; Jung, Soyoun; Ji, Taeksoo

    2011-10-01

    Detectors currently used for UV detection are Si based and photomultiplier tubes, but these are bulky and less sensitive. ZnO based detector is an alternative to silicon and photomultiplier tubes due to its high sensitivity to UV light and can be fabricated cheaply and compactly. Here we attempt to increase the sensitivity of ZnO based detector by using electrode design that resembles a Wheatstone bridge and the detector has metal-semiconductor-metal structure. This new improved design enhances the collection of carriers and also miniaturization of the detector. The nanorods for the detector were grown by solution growth technique and the response of the detector on the length of the interdigitated fingers and spacing between the interdigitated fingers were also studied.49518

  20. Villous Tumor of the Urinary Bladder Resembling Low-grade Mucinous Neoplasm of the Appendix

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Ayako; Sakura, Yuma; Sugimoto, Mikio; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Kuroda, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Mucinous neoplasms of the urinary tract are very rare. We present a 63-year-old-women who had a sessile papillary villous tumor in urinary bladder. Although transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) was performed, the villous tumor repetitively recurred and gradually spread to the entire surface of bladder lumen. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination showed that the lesion was very similar to low-grade mucinous neoplasm arising in appendix vermiformis. There are no reports on appendiceal metaplasia of urinary bladder mucosa. In this case, we describe this unprecedented neoplasm as “villous tumor of the urinary bladder resembling low-grade mucinous neoplasm of the appendix.” PMID:27169015

  1. Frontal lobe epilepsy with atypical seizure semiology resembling shuddering attacks or wet dog shake seizures.

    PubMed

    Jahodova, Alena; Krsek, Pavel; Komarek, Vladimir; Kudr, Martin; Kyncl, Martin; Zamecnik, Josef; Tichy, Michal

    2012-03-01

    We report a girl with a drug-resistant frontal lobe epilepsy caused by focal cortical dysplasia, who exhibited uncommon seizures. The seizures consisted of shoulder or whole body shuddering after a short psychic aura and face grimacing. Consciousness was fully preserved. The seizures resembled "wet dog shake" seizures described in rat models of epilepsy or shuddering attacks in infants. EEG findings were inconclusive, however, MRI showed a clear dysplastic lesion in the right frontal mesial and polar structures. The patient underwent an extended lesionectomy guided by neuronavigation and intraoperative electrocorticography. Focal cortical dysplasia type Ib was histologically confirmed and the patient has been seizure-free for the three years following resection. [Published with video sequences]. PMID:22425715

  2. Anastellin, an FN3 Fragment with Fibronectin Polymerization Activity, Resembles Amyloid Fibril Precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Briknarova, Klara; Akermann, Maria; Hoyt, David W. ); Ruoslahti, Erkki; Ely, Kathryn R.

    2003-08-01

    Anastellin is a carboxy-terminal fragment of the 1st FN3 domain from human fibronectin. It is capable of polymerizing fibronectin in vitro, and it displays anti-tumor, antimetastatic and anti-angiogenic properties in vivo. We have determined the structure of anastellin using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and identified residues critical for its activity. Anastellin exhibits dynamic fluctuations and conformational exchange in solution. Its overall topology is very similar to the corresponding region of full-length FN3 domains. However, its hydrophobic core becomes solvent accessible and some of its -strands lose their protection against hydrogen bonding to -strands from other molecules. These features seem to be relevant for the fibronectin polymerization activity of anastellin and resemble the characteristics of amyloid fibril precursors. We suggest that this analogy is not random and may reflect similarities between fibronectin and amyloid fibril formation.

  3. A universal, easy-to-apply light-quality index based on natural light spectrum resemblance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Chou, Kun-Yi; Yang, Fu-Chin; Agrawal, Abhishek; Chen, Sun-Zen; Tseng, Jing-Ru; Lin, Ching-Chiao; Chen, Po-Wei; Wong, Ken-Tsung; Chi, Yun

    2014-05-01

    Light-quality is extremely crucial for any light source to be used for illumination. However, a proper light-quality index is still missing although numerous electricity-driven lighting measures have been introduced since past 150 yr. We present in this communication a universal and easy-to-apply index for quantifying the quality of any given lighting source, which is based on direct comparison of its lumen spectrum with the natural light counterpart having the same color temperature. A general principle for creating high quality pseudo-natural light is accordingly derived. By using organic light-emitting diode technology, for example, daylight-style emission with a 96% natural light resemblance is obtained as a high number of organic emitters with diffused colors spanning throughout the entire visible range are employed. The same principle can be extended to other lighting technology such as light-emitting diode to generate natural light-style emission.

  4. Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome Resembling Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex in a 10-Month-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Kavaklieva, S.; Yordanova, I.; Bruckner-Tuderman, L.; Has, C.

    2013-01-01

    The acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by asymptomatic desquamation of the skin limited to the hands and feet and histologically by cleavage at the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum level [Kiritsi et al.: J Invest Dermatol 2010;130:1741–1746]. We report on a 10-month-old boy with a history of skin peeling limited to the hands and feet since 2 months of age. Clinical examination revealed erythematous erosions with peripheral desquamation and flaccid blisters. DNA mutation analysis detected two heterozygous TGM5 mutations: c.2T>C, p.M1T in exon 1 and c.337G>T, p.G113C in exon 3 in keeping with the diagnosis of APSS. The clinical presentation of APSS alone might be confusing and strongly resemble epidermolysis bullosa simplex making the differential diagnosis difficult. PMID:24019772

  5. Potential nosocomial acquisition of epidemic Listeria monocytogenes presenting as multiple brain abscesses resembling nocardiosis.

    PubMed

    Stefanovic, Aleksandra; Reid, James; Nadon, A Celine; Grant, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Listerial brain abscesses are rare, and are found mostly in patients with underlying hematological malignancies or solid-organ transplants. A case of a patient with Crohn's disease and multiple brain abscesses involving the left cerebellum and right sylvian fissure is described. The Gram stain and histopathology of the cerebellar abscess revealed Gram-positive, beaded rods suggestive of Nocardia. However, on culture, Listeria monocytogenes was identified. Listeria may appear Gram-variable and has been misidentified as streptococci, enterococci and diphtheroids. The present case is the first reported case of L monocytogenes resembling Nocardia on both microbiological and histopathological assessment. Reported cases of listerial brain abscesses are sporadic, while the current case was part of a nationwide listerial outbreak linked to consumption of contaminated deli meats. Broad antimicrobial therapy (including antilisterial coverage) in immunosuppressed patients presenting with brain abscess is crucial, until cultures confirm the identification of the organism. PMID:21358887

  6. Congenital biliary tract malformation resembling biliary cystadenoma in a captive juvenile African lion (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Caliendo, Valentina; Bull, Andrew C J; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2012-12-01

    A captive 3-mo-old white African lion (Panthera leo) presented with clinical signs of acute pain and a distended abdomen. Despite emergency treatment, the lion died a few hours after presentation. Postmortem examination revealed gross changes in the liver, spleen, and lungs and an anomalous cystic structure in the bile duct. Histologic examination identified severe generalized multifocal to coalescent necrotizing and neutrophilic hepatitis, neutrophilic splenitis, and mild interstitial pneumonia, consistent with bacterial septicemia. The abnormal biliary structures resembled biliary cystadenoma. However, due to the age of the animal, they were presumed to be congenital in origin. Biliary tract anomalies and cystadenomas have been reported previously in adult lions, and this case suggests that at least some of these examples may have a congenital basis. It is unclear whether the lesion was an underlying factor in the development of hepatitis. PMID:23272363

  7. Familial resemblance of bone turnover rate in men aged 40 and over-the MINOS study.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Hoda; Feyt, Clément; Chapurlat, Roland; Szulc, Pawel

    2013-03-01

    Familial resemblance of bone mineral density (BMD) is well known in both sexes. Fewer data concern the familial resemblance of bone turnover markers (BTMs) and bone size in men. Our aim was to assess the correlation of BMD, bone size, BTM levels and hormones regulating bone turnover in 50 pairs of brothers aged ≥ 40 and 50 pairs of unrelated men matched for age, weight and height. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine, hip, forearm and whole body. We measured serum osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bone ALP), N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I) as well as urinary free and total deoxypyridinoline (DPD) and CTX-I. After adjustment for age, weight, bioavailable 17β-estradiol, and parathyroid hormone, all the BTMs (except bone ALP) were significantly correlated in the brothers (ICC = 0.36-0.64). Most of these correlations were significantly stronger than in the unrelated men. Bone size correlated significantly between the brothers (ICC = 0.55-0.65). These correlations were significantly stronger than in the unrelated men. BMD correlated between the brothers at most of the skeletal sites and, for some of them, more strongly than in the unrelated men. Serum levels of LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly correlated in the brothers, but not more strongly than in the unrelated men. BTM levels correlated independently in the brothers aged ≥ 40, when their shared environment was limited. These data suggest a substantial hereditary determinism of the BTM levels in men. PMID:23179229

  8. Familial resemblance of body composition, physical activity, and resting metabolic rate in pre-school children

    PubMed Central

    Djafarian, Kurosh; Speakman, John R; Stewart, Joanne; M Jackson, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although parental obesity is a well-established predisposing factor for the development of obesity, associations between regional body compositions, resting metabolic rates (RMR), and physical activity (PA) of parents and their pre-school children remain unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate parent-child correlations for total and regional body compositions, resting energy expenditures, and physical activity. Methods: Participants were 89 children aged 2-6 years and their parents, consisting of 61 families. Resting metabolic rate was assessed using indirect calorimetry. Total and regional body compositions were measured by both dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and deuterium dilution. Physical activity was assessed by an accelerometer. Results: There was a significant parent-offspring regression for total fat free mass (FFM) between children and their mothers (P=0.02), fathers (P=0.02), and mid-parent (average of father and mother value) (P=0.002) when measured by DXA. The same was true for fat mass (FM) between children and mothers (P<0.01), fathers (P=0.02), and mid-parent (P=0.001). There was no significant association between children and parents for physical activity during the entire week, weekend, weekdays, and different parts of days, except for morning activity, which was positively related to the mothers’ morning activities (P<0.01) and mid-parent (P=0.009). No association was found between RMR of children and parents before and after correction for FFM and FM. Conclusion: These data suggest a familial resemblance for total body composition between children and their parents. Our data showed no familial resemblance for PA and RMR between children and their parents. PMID:26989715

  9. Winter habitat use and survival of lesser prairie-chickens in West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pirius, Nicholas E.; Boal, Clint W.; Haukos, David A.; Wallace, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has experienced declines in population and occupied range since the late 1800s and is currently proposed for Federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. Populations and the distribution of lesser prairie-chickens in Texas, USA, are thought to be at or near all-time lows. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the wintering ecology of the species. We measured home range, habitat use, and survival of lesser prairie-chickens during the non-breeding seasons (1 Sep-28 Feb) of 2008-2009, 2009-2010, and 2010-2011 in sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) landscapes in the West Texas panhandle region. Home range size did not differ among years or between females (503 ha) andmales (489 ha). Over 97% of locations of both male and female prairie-chickens were within 3.2 km of the lek of capture, and 99.9% were within 3.2 km of an available water source (i.e., livestock water tank). Habitat cover types were not used proportional to occurrence within the home ranges; grassland-dominated areas with co-occurring sand shinnery oak were used more than available, but sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia)-dominated areas with grassland and sand sagebrush-dominated areas with bare ground were both used less than available. Survival rates during the first 2 non-breeding seasons (>80%) were among the highest reported for the species. However, survival during the third non-breeding season was only 57%, resulting in a 3-year average of 72%. It does not appear that non-breeding season mortality is a strong limiting factor in lesser prairie-chicken persistence in the study area.

  10. PATHOGENESIS OF CHICKEN-PASSAGED NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUSES ISOLATED FROM CHICKENS, WILD, AND EXOTIC BIRDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogenesis of six Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates recovered from chickens and wild (anhinga) and exotic (yellow nape parrot, pheasant, and dove isolate) birds was examined after four passages of the isolates in domestic chickens. Groups of four-week-old specific-pathogen-free White Legh...

  11. Rules and Resemblance: Their Changing Balance in the Category Learning of Humans (Homo sapiens) and Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Couchman, Justin J.; Coutinho, Mariana V. C.; Smith, J. David

    2010-01-01

    In an early dissociation between intentional and incidental category learning, Kemler Nelson (1984) gave participants a categorization task that could be performed by responding either to a single-dimensional rule or to overall family resemblance. Humans learning intentionally deliberately adopted rule-based strategies; humans learning incidentally adopted family-resemblance strategies. The present authors replicated Kemler Nelson’s human experiment and found a similar dissociation. They also extended her paradigm so as to evaluate the balance between rules and family-resemblance in determining the category decisions of rhesus monkeys. Monkeys heavily favored the family-resemblance strategy. Formal models showed that even after many sessions and thousands of trials, they spread attention across all stimulus dimensions rather than focus on a single, criterial dimension that could also produce perfect categorization. PMID:20384398

  12. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-01-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future. PMID:26323514

  13. Isolation of chicken astrovirus from specific pathogen-free chicken embryonated eggs.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Luis Fabian N; Parra, Silvana H Santander; Mettifogo, Elena; Catroxo, Márcia Helena B; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S; Piantino Ferreira, Antonio J

    2015-05-01

    Astroviruses have been associated with enteric disorders in many animal species, including chickens. Here, we describe the isolation, propagation, and pathological characteristics of chicken astrovirus (CAstV) in specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryonated eggs (CEE) from chickens with diarrhea and runting-stunting syndrome. The CEE were inoculated via the yolk sac route. Viral confirmation was carried out using PCR techniques and transmission electron microscopy negative staining with ammonium molybdate. The intestinal contents were screened for CAstV, and differential diagnostic testing was performed for avian nephritis virus, avian rotavirus, avian reovirus, chicken parvovirus, infectious bronchitis virus, and fowl adenovirus Group I to detect co-infection with other infectious agents. Seven- or 14-day-old CEEs presented with hemorrhages, edema, a gelatinous aspect, deformities, and dwarfism. The supporting membranes did not show any alterations. Here, we have described the isolation of CAstV and its pathological characteristics in SPF CEE. PMID:25805833

  14. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens - A Review.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-09-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future. PMID:26323514

  15. The use of genetically marked infection cohorts to study changes in establishment rates during the time course of a repeated Ascaridia galli infection in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ferdushy, Tania; Luna-Olivares, Luz Adilia; Nejsum, Peter; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the changes in establishment rates during the time course of a 6 week trickle infection of chickens with Ascaridia galli at two different dose levels, using a molecular marker. To differentiate early and late infection, two different egg cohorts (haplotype a and haplotype b, genetically identified using PCR-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism on the cox1 gene of the mitochondrial DNA) were used. Cohort-specific egg batches were produced by harvesting eggs from the uteri of female worms of the specific cohort. Fifty-six 8 week old Lohmann Brown Lite chickens were divided into seven groups and the infectivity of the egg batches was compared between two groups of chickens (P=0.6). The remaining chickens were allocated to four infection regimes and one control group. Group ab100 was trickle infected for 3 weeks with 100 eggs of haplotype a (twice weekly) followed by the same dose of eggs of haplotype b for another 3 weeks. Group ba100 was treated similarly but in the opposite order (haplotype b preceding a). A similar infection regime was applied for groups ab25 and ba25 but with a lower inoculation dose (25 eggs). All of the birds in these five groups (four infected and one control) were euthanased 2 weeks after the last inoculation. It was found that in the low-dose groups both the early and late infections established equally well, whereas in the high-dose groups the early infection was recovered in a significantly (P<0.001) higher proportion of chickens than the late infection, irrespective of genetic cohorts. Moreover, relatively higher proportions of the larvae from both the early and late infections were found in the posterior section of the small intestine. This result indicates the presence of dose-dependent resistance against reinfection and this resistance seems to act by reducing the establishment of late infection and by relocating the larvae from early infection. PMID:25812834

  16. The Effect of Perceived Parent–Child Facial Resemblance on Parents’ Trait Anxiety: The Moderating Effect of Parents’ Gender

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Quanlei; Zhang, Qiuying; Chen, Jianwen; Jin, Shenghua; Qiao, Yuanyuan; Cai, Weiting

    2016-01-01

    Father–child facial resemblance is an important cue for men to evaluate paternity. Previous studies found that fathers’ perceptions of low facial resemblance with offspring lead to low confidence of paternity. Fathers’ uncertainty of paternity could cause psychological stress and anxiety, which, after a long time, may further turn into trait anxiety. Conversely, females can ensure a biological connection with offspring because of internal fertilization. The purpose of this study was thus to examine the role of parents’ gender in the effect of parents’ perceived facial resemblance with child on their trait anxiety. In this study, 151 parents (father or mother) from one-child families reported their facial resemblance with child and their trait anxiety. Results showed that (i) males tended to perceive higher facial similarity with child than did females and (ii) males’ perceived facial resemblance with child significantly predicted trait anxiety, whereas females’ perceived facial resemblance did not. These findings suggested that the uncertainty of paternity contributed to the trait anxiety of fathers, but not mothers. PMID:27199876

  17. The Effect of Perceived Parent-Child Facial Resemblance on Parents' Trait Anxiety: The Moderating Effect of Parents' Gender.

    PubMed

    Yu, Quanlei; Zhang, Qiuying; Chen, Jianwen; Jin, Shenghua; Qiao, Yuanyuan; Cai, Weiting

    2016-01-01

    Father-child facial resemblance is an important cue for men to evaluate paternity. Previous studies found that fathers' perceptions of low facial resemblance with offspring lead to low confidence of paternity. Fathers' uncertainty of paternity could cause psychological stress and anxiety, which, after a long time, may further turn into trait anxiety. Conversely, females can ensure a biological connection with offspring because of internal fertilization. The purpose of this study was thus to examine the role of parents' gender in the effect of parents' perceived facial resemblance with child on their trait anxiety. In this study, 151 parents (father or mother) from one-child families reported their facial resemblance with child and their trait anxiety. Results showed that (i) males tended to perceive higher facial similarity with child than did females and (ii) males' perceived facial resemblance with child significantly predicted trait anxiety, whereas females' perceived facial resemblance did not. These findings suggested that the uncertainty of paternity contributed to the trait anxiety of fathers, but not mothers. PMID:27199876

  18. Survival of Cold-Stressed Campylobacter jejuni on Ground Chicken and Chicken Skin during Frozen Storage

    PubMed Central

    Bhaduri, Saumya; Cottrell, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is prevalent in poultry, but the effect of combined refrigerated and frozen storage on its survival, conditions relevant to poultry processing and storage, has not been evaluated. Therefore, the effects of refrigeration at 4°C, freezing at −20°C, and a combination of refrigeration and freezing on the survival of C. jejuni in ground chicken and on chicken skin were examined. Samples were enumerated using tryptic soy agar containing sheep's blood and modified cefoperazone charcoal deoxycholate agar. Refrigerated storage alone for 3 to 7 days produced a reduction in cell counts of 0.34 to 0.81 log10 CFU/g in ground chicken and a reduction in cell counts of 0.31 to 0.63 log10 CFU/g on chicken skin. Declines were comparable for each sample type using either plating medium. Frozen storage, alone and with prerefrigeration, produced a reduction in cell counts of 0.56 to 1.57 log10 CFU/g in ground chicken and a reduction in cell counts of 1.38 to 3.39 log10 CFU/g on chicken skin over a 2-week period. The recovery of C. jejuni following freezing was similar on both plating media. The survival following frozen storage was greater in ground chicken than on chicken skin with or without prerefrigeration. Cell counts after freezing were lower on chicken skin samples that had been prerefrigerated for 7 days than in those that had been prerefrigerated for 0, 1, or 3 days. This was not observed for ground chicken samples, possibly due to their composition. C. jejuni survived storage at 4 and −20°C with either sample type. This study indicates that, individually or in combination, refrigeration and freezing are not a substitute for safe handling and proper cooking of poultry. PMID:15574906

  19. Effect of antibiotic, Lacto-lase and probiotic addition in chicken feed on protein and fat content of chicken meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.

  20. 1. CHICKEN HOUSE. SOUTH AND WEST FACADES. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CHICKEN HOUSE. SOUTH AND WEST FACADES. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Thompson Falls Hydroelectric Project, Chicken House, On island between Forebay Channel & ClarkFord River, Thompson Falls, Sanders County, MT

  1. 3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, with smokehouse, cooling (well) house, and residence in background - Henry E. Williams Farmstead, Converted Chicken House, East of Residence & Smokehouse, Cedar Point, Chase County, KS

  2. The chicken alimentary tract and factors that influence feed passage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chicken alimentary track differs in several ways from most other domestic food production animals. Chickens are considered monogastric omnivores although their stomach consists of two adjacent segments; the chemical proventriculus followed by the mechanical ventriculus (gizzard). The names used ...

  3. Three geese resembling Gray-Bellied Brant/Lawrence's Brant from Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckley, P.A.; Mitra, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    Three oddly plumaged brant, intermediate in several respects between 'Atlantic' or 'Pale-bellied Brant' (hrota) and ?Black Brant? (nigricans) were photographed and described on western Long Island, New York during 2002 (two in March, the third in October). Their plumage corresponded to that of the little-studied, and apparently genetically distinctive small population known among goose biologists as 'Gray-bellied Brant,' which breeds only on a few islands in the western Canadian High Arctic, stages in migration in the inner Aleutians, and winters in a small portion of the Greater Puget Sound area. But Gray-bellied Brant also wander, having recently been found in winter as far from Puget Sound as Baja California in the west, and Iceland and the British Isles to the east?these strays presumably having migrated southwest with Pacific-wintering nigricans and southeast with Atlantic-wintering hrota, respectively. Despite their tendency to associate with locally wintering hrota and nigricans, mixed pairs or hybrid young involving these vagrants have never been demonstrated in North America?nor have mixed pairs or hybrid young between hrota and nigricans, despite widespread belief to the contrary. Complicating the picture is that the type specimen of nigricans, a distinctive New Jersey specimen collected in 1846, also differs from 'true' Pacific Coast Black Brant in several respects, in a manner qualitatively similar to the LI birds described herein. The appearance of the type, often referred to informally as 'Lawrence?s Brant,' differs from typical Black Brant to such an extent that Delacour and Zimmer (1952) rejected application of nigricans to Pacific Black Brant, to which the name orientalis would have to be applied instead. Recent examination of museum specimens of breeding- and winter-area Gray-bellies confirms that Lawrence?s Brant closely resembles some of them?as do these three Long Island birds. Whatever the ultimate statuses of Gray-bellied and Lawrence's Brant

  4. Complications in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Meguerdichian, David

    2012-11-01

    Complications of late pregnancy are managed infrequently in the emergency department and, thus, can pose a challenge when the emergency physician encounters acute presentations. An expert understanding of the anatomic and physiologic changes and possible complications of late pregnancy is vital to ensure proper evaluation and care for both mother and fetus. This article focuses on the late pregnancy issues that the emergency physician will face, from the bleeding and instability of abruptio placentae to the wide spectrum of complications and management strategies encountered with preterm labor. PMID:23137403

  5. Effect of facial self-resemblance on the startle response and subjective ratings of erotic stimuli in heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, Andre; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    Cues of kinship are predicted to increase prosocial behavior due to the benefits of inclusive fitness, but to decrease approach motivation due to the potential costs of inbreeding. Previous studies have shown that facial resemblance, a putative cue of kinship, increases prosocial behavior. However, the effects of facial resemblance on mating preferences are equivocal, with some studies finding that facial resemblance decreases sexual attractiveness ratings, while other studies show that individuals choose mates partly on the basis of similarity. To further investigate this issue, a psychophysiological measure of affective processing, the startle response, was used in this study, assuming that differences in approach motivation to erotic pictures will modulate startle. Male volunteers (n = 30) viewed 30 pictures of erotic female nudes while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by acoustic noise probes. The female nude pictures were digitally altered so that the face either resembled the male participant or another participant, or were not altered. Non-nude neutral pictures were also included. Importantly, the digital alteration was undetected by the participants. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant and clearly reduced startle eyeblink magnitude as compared to neutral pictures. Participants showed greater startle inhibition to self-resembling than to other-resembling or non-manipulated female nude pictures, but subjective pleasure and arousal ratings did not differ among the three erotic picture categories. Our data suggest that visual facial resemblance of opposite-sex nudes increases approach motivation in men, and that this effect was not due to their conscious evaluation of the erotic stimuli. PMID:20814814

  6. The Chicken Model of Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hawkridge, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    The chicken is a unique experimental model for studying the spontaneous onset and progression of ovarian cancer (OVC). The prevalence of OVC in chickens can range from 10–35% depending on age, genetic strain, reproductive history, and diet. Furthermore, the chicken presents epidemiological, morphological, and molecular traits that are similar to human OVC making it a relevant experimental model for translation research. Similarities to humans include associated increased risk of OVC with the number of ovulations, common histopathological sub-types including high-grade serous, and molecular-level markers or pathways such as CA-125 expression and p53 mutation frequency. Collectively, the similarities between chicken and human OVC combined with a tightly controlled genetic background and predictable onset window provides an outstanding experimental model for studying the early events and progression of spontaneous OVC tumors under controlled environmental conditions. This review will cover the existing literature on OVC in the chicken and highlight potential opportunities for further exploitation (e.g, biomarkers, prevention, treatment, and genomics). PMID:25130871

  7. MHC variability in heritage breeds of chickens.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J E; Lund, A R; McCarron, A M; Pinegar, K N; Korver, D R; Classen, H L; Aggrey, S; Utterbach, C; Anthony, N B; Berres, M E

    2016-02-01

    The chicken Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is very strongly associated with disease resistance and thus is a very important region of the chicken genome. Historically, MHC (B locus) has been identified by the use of serology with haplotype specific alloantisera. These antisera can be difficult to produce and frequently cross-react with multiple haplotypes and hence their application is generally limited to inbred and MHC-defined lines. As a consequence, very little information about MHC variability in heritage chicken breeds is available. DNA-based methods are now available for examining MHC variability in these previously uncharacterized populations. A high density SNP panel consisting of 101 SNP that span a 230,000 bp region of the chicken MHC was used to examine MHC variability in 17 heritage populations of chickens from five universities from Canada and the United States. The breeds included 6 heritage broiler lines, 3 Barred Plymouth Rock, 2 New Hampshire and one each of Rhode Island Red, Light Sussex, White Leghorn, Dark Brown Leghorn, and 2 synthetic lines. These heritage breeds contained from one to 11 haplotypes per line. A total of 52 unique MHC haplotypes were found with only 10 of them identical to serologically defined haplotypes. Furthermore, nine MHC recombinants with their respective parental haplotypes were identified. This survey confirms the value of these non-commercially utilized lines in maintaining genetic diversity. The identification of multiple MHC haplotypes and novel MHC recombinants indicates that diversity is being generated and maintained within these heritage populations. PMID:26827122

  8. Salmonella prevalence in free-range and certified organic chickens.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J S; Cosby, D E

    2005-11-01

    Many consumers assume that broiler chickens grownunder traditional commercial conditions will have more Salmonella than free-range or organic chickens, which usually are less crowded, have access to outside spaces during grow out, and are fed special diets. Despite these perceptions, there is a lack of published information about the microbiological status of free-range and organic chickens. A total of 135 processed free-range chickens from four different commercial free-range chicken producers were sampled in 14 different lots for the presence of Salmonella. Overall, 9 (64%) of 14 lots and 42 (31%) of 135 of the carcasses were positive for Salmonella. No Salmonella were detected in 5 of the 14 lots, and in one lot 100% of the chickens were positive for Salmonella. An additional 53 all-natural (no meat or poultry meal or antibiotics in the feed) processed chickens from eight lots were tested; 25% ofthe individual chickens from 37% of these lots tested positive for Salmonella. Three lots of chickens from a single organicfree-range producer were tested, and all three of the lots and 60% of the individual chickens were positive for Salmonella.The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service reported that commercial chickens processed from 2000 to 2003 had a Salmonella prevalence rate of 9.1 to 12.8%. Consumers should not assume that free-range or organicconditions will have anything to do with the Salmonella status of the chicken. PMID:16300088

  9. A chicken consultation with ramifications.

    PubMed

    Opitz, John M

    2005-04-15

    In Madison I once worked with two postdoctoral fellows who had spent their youth in New York City and who, when asked what birds they knew both responded "why, pigeons and LBJ's!" (little brown jobbies). Despite their undoubted brilliance, they clearly had an educational deficiency not fixed by buying eggs and poultry at a grocery store. Though of enormous economic and nutritional importance to humans, turkeys and chickens constitute only a minute fraction of the disappearing avian life in our ecology. One could easily teach an entire middle or high school biology course around the reproduction, embryology, evolution, genetics, anatomy, special adaptations, virology, bacteriology, taxonomy, behavior, and extinctions of birds, as paradigmatic of all of life. Where would developmental or evolutionary biology be without the Galapagos finches, chick embryo, or neurobiology without the Zebra Finch? The modifications of the original red jungle fowl of India and South East Asia into hundreds of races through artificial selection and breeding practices provide as beautiful an example of developmental plasticity, well-known to Darwin, as the domestic dog, cat, laboratory mice, and guinea pigs. In what follows I have begun to repay my indebtedness to my mentor Emil Witschi who introduced me to developmental biology, physiology, and genetics and its historical study on the basis of birds (and amphibians); and to Mark Leppert, Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Utah for collaborative support, and bird-watching fieldtrips. PMID:15666310

  10. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3-Ia+ B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens. PMID:25549222

  11. Neurogenesis in Aplysia californica resembles nervous system formation in vertebrates. [Sponges

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, M.H.

    1984-05-01

    The pattern of neurogenesis of the central nervous system of Aplysia californica was investigated by (/sup 3/H)thymidine autoradiography. Large numbers of animals at a series of early developmental stages were labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine for 24 or 48 hr and were subsequently sampled at specific intervals throughout the life cycle. I found that proliferative zones, consisting of columnar and placodal ectodermal cells, are established in regions of the body wall adjacent to underlying mesodermal cells. Mitosis in the proliferative zones generates a population of cells which leave the surface and migrate inward to join the nearby forming ganglia. Tracing specific (/sup 3/H)thymidine-labeled cells from the body wall to a particular ganglion and within the ganglion over time suggests that the final genomic replication of the neuronal precursors occurs before the cells join the ganglion while glial cell precursors and differentiating glial cells continue to divide within the ganglion for some time. Ultrastructural examination of the morphological features of the few mitosing cells observed within the Aplysia central nervous system supports this interpretation. The pattern of neurogenesis in the Aplysia central nervous system resembles the proliferation of cells in the neural tube and the migration of neural crest and ectodermal placode cells in the vertebrate nervous system but differs from the pattern described for other invertebrates.

  12. Microvesicular fatty liver in rats with resembling Reye's syndrome induced by 4-pentenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Sakaida, N; Senzaki, H; Shikata, N; Morii, S

    1990-09-01

    To produce an animal model of Reye's syndrome (RS), 20 adult male Wistar rats were given 10 repeated i.p. injections of 50 mg/kg 4-pentenoic acid (PA) each separated by an 8-h interval. Then, 90 min after the tenth dose, they were given a final i.p. injection of 150 mg/kg PA. Thirteen control animals were injected with vehicle only using the same time schedule. More than half the animals in each group were fed a common diet, but the others were fasted during the terminal 10-h stage. All rats were sacrificed 30 min after the last injection. At the terminal stage, in comparison with the vehicle-injected controls, hypolipemia, hypoglycemia and high titers of serum ammonia and urea N were estimated significantly in the PA-treated rats fed throughout the whole period. Hypolipemia and hypoglycemia were more prominent in the terminally fasted group than the group fed continuously. Only in the PA-treated rats fed throughout the whole period moderate morphological signs of microvesicular fatty liver were exhibited. Ultracytochemical findings and biochemical determinations showed that the major lipids in the microvesicular fatty livers were triglycerides. Morphometric analysis revealed distinct hepatic mitochondrial swelling in the PA-treated rats. Therefore, the above treatment with PA was able to induce microvesicular fatty liver in rats with resembling RS, which were fed throughout the treatment procedure, but not in the terminally fasted rats. PMID:2260472

  13. Tilting marks: Observations on tool marks resembling trace fossils and their morphological varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Tilting marks, defined here as linear tool marks having transverse ornamentation, are produced in shallow water when the oscillatory action of waves of short wavelength tilt grounded objects rhythmically in such a way that they move and push sediment aside. These tool marks can resemble trace fossils, particularly if they are bilaterally symmetrical. Even asymmetrical objects can produce symmetrical tilting marks because the shape of the mark only depends on the geometry of the ground-touching part of the object, which may be partially floating. Objects of either soft or hard consistency, such as jellyfish or wood, respectively, can produce tilting marks. Tilting marks are normally produced linearly parallel or at an angle to the direction of wave propagation and do not show sharp bends or curves. Tilting marks can be formed on plane beds as well as rippled surfaces. Tilting marks can be distinguished from trace fossils by taking into account the geometry (symmetry), the direction of movement, and the mainly linear course and the internal pattern.

  14. Survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposed to sunlight resembles the phenom of persistence.

    PubMed

    Forte Giacobone, Ana F; Oppezzo, Oscar J

    2015-01-01

    During exposure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stationary phase cells to natural solar radiation, a reduction in the rate of loss of bacterial viability was observed when survival fractions were lower than 1/10,000. This reduction was independent of the growth medium used and of the initial bacterial concentration, and was also observed when irradiation was performed with artificial UVA radiation (365nm, 47Wm(-2)). These results indicate the presence of a small bacterial subpopulation with increased tolerance to radiation. Such a tolerance is non-heritable, since survival curves comparable to those of the parental strain were obtained from survivors to long-term exposure to radiation. The radiation response described here resembles the phenomenon called persistence, which consists of the presence of a small subpopulation of slow-growing cells which are able to survive antibiotic treatment within a susceptible bacterial population. The condition of persister cells is acquired via a reversible switch and involves active defense systems towards oxidative stress. Persistence is probably responsible for biphasic responses of bacteria to several stress conditions, one of which may be exposure to sunlight. The models currently used to analyze the lethal action of sunlight overestimate the effect of high-dose irradiation. These models could be improved by including the potential formation of persister cells. PMID:25553385

  15. Manothermosonication of foods and food-resembling systems: effect on nutrient content and nonenzymatic browning.

    PubMed

    Vercet, A; Burgos, J; López-Buesa, P

    2001-01-01

    The effect of manothermosonication (MTS), an emergent technology for food preservation, on thiamin, riboflavin, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid was evaluated in milk and orange juice. The effect of both heat treatment and MTS on several compounds produced in nonenzymatic browning in model systems was also studied. MTS does not affect significantly the nutrient content studied. However, it changes the behavior of nonenzymatic browning. No formation of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfuraldehyde (HMF) was detected in fruit juice model systems after heat and MTS treatments at the experimental conditions used. In a milk-resembling system, free HMF formation by MTS is higher compared to that by heat treatment. As the MTS temperature increases, free HMF production by both treatments equaled on another. For bound HMF the production rate is lower by MTS than by heat treatment under the experimental conditions used. Formation kinetics of brown pigments and that of fluorescent compounds are different for both treatments. Fluorescence and brown pigment production are faster in MTS. PMID:11170615

  16. Small Cell Type of Esophageal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Resembling a Submucosal Tumor.

    PubMed

    Chino, Osamu; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu; Ozawa, Soji; Shimada, Hideo; Nishi, Takayuki; Kise, Yoshifumi; Hara, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Soichiro; Kazuno, Akihito; Kajiwara, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    We report a rare case of primary small cell type esophageal neuroendocrine carcinoma with a unusual endoscopic form similar to a submucosal tumor with the results of the histological and immunohistochemical analyses. A 57-year-old woman with dysphagia was referred to our hospital for further examination and treatment, and was diagnosed as type 1s esophageal carcinoma in the middle thoracic esophagus. Endoscopy revealed a protruding esophageal carcinoma resembling a submucosal tumor with an irregular and nodular surface covered by non-neoplastic epithelium stained with iodine. Analysis of the esophageal biopsy specimen revealed poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Based on a diagnosis of type 1s carcinoma in the middle thoracic esophagus that was 5 cm in size longitudinally, a radical esophagectomy with three-field lymph node dissection was performed. The pathological examination with histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the resected specimen revealed a small cell type neuroendocrine carcinoma overlaid by a non-neoplastic epithelium, extending into the adventitia without lymph node metastasis (T3, N0, M0, Stage II). However, multiple metastases in the brain and lung developed 3 months postoperatively, and the patient died of the cancer 7 months after the operation. This was a rare case of a highly malignant primary small cell type esophageal neuroendocrine carcinoma showing extremely rare form. PMID:26150181

  17. Microvascular MRI and unsupervised clustering yields histology-resembling images in two rat models of glioma

    PubMed Central

    Coquery, Nicolas; Francois, Olivier; Lemasson, Benjamin; Debacker, Clément; Farion, Régine; Rémy, Chantal; Barbier, Emmanuel Luc

    2014-01-01

    Imaging heterogeneous cancer lesions is a real challenge. For diagnosis, histology often remains the reference, but it is widely acknowledged that biopsies are not reliable. There is thus a strong interest in establishing a link between clinical in vivo imaging and the biologic properties of tissues. In this study, we propose to construct histology-resembling images based on tissue microvascularization, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accessible source of contrast. To integrate the large amount of information collected with microvascular MRI, we combined a manual delineation of a spatial region of interest with an unsupervised, model-based cluster analysis (Mclust). This approach was applied to two rat models of glioma (C6 and F98). Six MRI parameters were mapped: apparent diffusion coefficient, vessel wall permeability, cerebral blood volume fraction, cerebral blood flow, tissular oxygen saturation, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. Five clusters, defined by their MRI features, were found to correspond to specific histologic features, and revealed intratumoral spatial structures. These results suggest that the presence of a cluster within a tumor can be used to assess the presence of a tissue type. In addition, the cluster composition, i.e., a signature of the intratumoral structure, could be used to characterize tumor models as histology does. PMID:24849664

  18. Human endomembrane H sup + pump strongly resembles the ATP-synthetase of Archaebacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Suedhof, T.C.; Stone, D.K.; Johnston, P.A.; Xie, Xiaosong ); Fried, V.A. )

    1989-08-01

    Preparations of mammalian H{sup +} pumps that acidify intracellular vesicles contain eight or nine polypeptides, ranging in size from 116 to 17 kDa. Biochemical analysis indicates that the 70- and 58-kDa polypeptides are subunits critical for ATP hydrolysis. The amino acid sequences of the major catalytic subunits (58 and 70 kDa) of the endomembrane H{sup +} pump are unknown from animal cells. The authors report here the complete sequence of the 58-kDa subunit derived from a human kidney cDNA clone and partial sequences of the 70- and 58-kDa subunits purified from clathrin-coated vesicles of bovine brain. The amino acid sequences of both proteins strongly resemble the sequences of the corresponding subunits of the vacuolar H{sup +} pumps of Archaebacteria, plants, and fungi. The archaebacterial enzyme is believed to use a H{sup +} gradient to synthesize ATP. Thus, a common ancestral protein has given rise to a H{sup +} pump that synthesizes ATP in one organism and hydrolyzes it in another and is highly conserved from prokaryotes to humans. The same pump appears to mediate the acidification of intracellular organelles, including coated vesicles, lysosomes, and secretory granules, as well as extracellular fluids such as urine.

  19. Transformation of Face Transplants: Volumetric and Morphologic Graft Changes Resemble Aging After Facial Allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Kueckelhaus, M; Turk, M; Kumamaru, K K; Wo, L; Bueno, E M; Lian, C G; Alhefzi, M; Aycart, M A; Fischer, S; De Girolami, U; Murphy, G F; Rybicki, F J; Pomahac, B

    2016-03-01

    Facial allotransplantation restores normal anatomy to severely disfigured faces. Although >30 such operations performed worldwide have yielded promising short-term results, data on long-term outcomes remain scarce. Three full-face transplant recipients were followed for 40 months. Severe changes in volume and composition of the facial allografts were noted. Data from computed tomography performed 6, 18 and 36 months after transplantation were processed to separate allograft from recipient tissues and further into bone, fat and nonfat soft tissues. Skin and muscle biopsies underwent diagnostic evaluation. All three facial allografts sustained significant volume loss (mean 19.55%) between 6 and 36 months after transplant. Bone and nonfat soft tissue volumes decreased significantly over time (17.22% between months 6 and 18 and 25.56% between months 6 and 36, respectively), whereas fat did not. Histological evaluations showed atrophy of muscle fibers. Volumetric and morphometric changes in facial allografts have not been reported previously. The transformation of facial allografts in this study resembled aging through volume loss but differed substantially from regular aging. These findings have implications for risk-benefit assessment, donor selection and measures counteracting muscle and bone atrophy. Superior long-term outcomes of facial allotransplantation will be crucial to advance toward future clinical routine. PMID:26639618

  20. Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    CETINKAYA, NILUFER; BAS, SEVDA; CUYLAN, ZELIHA FIRAT; ERDEM, OZLEM; ERKAYA, SALIM; GUNGOR, TAYFUN

    2016-01-01

    Uterine tumors with ovarian sex cord-like elements are a rarely observed type of uterine body tumor with unknown etiology, and are divided into two groups: Endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements (ESTSCLEs) and uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCTs). While ESTSCLEs are commonly associated with metastasis and recurrence, there is limited data in the relevant literature concerning the behavior of UTROSCTs. However, UTROSCTs are typically benign in nature. Although case numbers are limited, extra-uterine or lymph node metastasis has been reported. Surgical approaches may be altered according to the patient's age and desire for future fertility. Hysterectomies with bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy or hysteroscopic tumor resection are reported to be safe surgical treatment options. However, in the current report, a case of UTROSCT initially misdiagnosed as adenosarcoma following hysteroscopic tumor resection is presented. Staging surgery revealed the precise diagnosis of the tumor using appropriate immunohistochemical evaluations, and led to the discovery of a secondary tumor focus in the myometrium, adjacent to the location of the previously excised tumor. Thus, hysteroscopic resection is questionable as a definitive surgical treatment in patients exhibiting UTROSCT. If hysteroscopic resection is the selected treatment, close follow-up with diagnostic imaging is recommended. PMID:26893767

  1. Chromosomal abnormalities resembling Joubert syndrome: two cases illustrating the diagnostic pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Kroes, Hester Y; Hochstenbach, Ron; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Den Hollander, Anneke I; Lugtenberg, Dorien T; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Onno; Lindhout, Dick; Poot, Martin

    2011-07-01

    We describe two patients with severe developmental delay, hypotonia and breathing abnormalities initially diagnosed with the autosomal recessive Joubert syndrome (JBS) who at a later stage appeared to carry chromosomal abnormalities. One case was due to a 4.8 Mb terminal 1q44 deletion, and the other due to a 15.5 Mb duplication of Xq27.2-qter containing the MECP2 gene. Critical evaluation of the clinical data showed that, retrospectively, the cases did not fulfil the diagnostic criteria for JBS, and that the diagnosis of JBS was incorrectly made. We discuss the diagnostic pitfalls and recommend adhering strictly to the JBS diagnostic criteria in the case of a negative molecular diagnosis. Critical assessment of the MRI findings by a specialized neuroradiologist is imperative. As chromosomal abnormalities may give rise to symptoms resembling JBS, we recommend array-based screening for segmental aneuploidies as an initial genetic test in all cases with a JBS-like phenotype. PMID:21527849

  2. Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor. Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Stefanovic, A; Jeremic, K; Kadija, S; Mitrovic, M; Filimonovic, D; Jankovic-Raznatovic, S; Tavcar, J

    2013-01-01

    A uterine tumor resembling an ovarian sex cord tumor (UTROSCT) shows a poly phenotypic immunophenotype with coexpression of epithelial, myoid, and sex cord markers, as well as hormone receptors. The authors present a case of a 59-year-old multiparous woman admitted to the Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinical Centre of Serbia in January 2010 due to prolonged vaginal bleeding and abdominal discomfort. The vaginal ultrasound showed an enlarged uterus size of 100 x 74 x 81 mm, with extended cavity with an unhomogenic content and myomas sized 54 x 69 mm located in fundus with secondary changes. She underwent abdominal hysterectomy with adnexectomy. Microscopic examination revealed submucosal uterine tumor with variabile histological organization that had anastomotic trabeculae with solid cellular grupations. Rare mitotic figures (2/10 HPF) were found. Additional imunohistochemistry showed immunophenotype: the sex cord areas were positive for vimentin(++), aSMA(++), AE1/AE3(+), PR(+), and ER(+). The poly phenotypic immunophenotype can be useful in differential diagnosis from other neoplasms but also suggests an origin of UTROSCT from uncommitted stem cell enabling for multidirectional differentiation. PMID:23967565

  3. Labeling and family resemblance in the discrimination of polymorphous categories by pigeons.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Elizabeth; Ryan, Catriona M E; Bryant, Catherine M L; Lea, Stephen E G

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether pigeons discriminate polymorphous categories on the basis of a single highly predictive feature or overall similarity. In the first experiment, pigeons were trained to discriminate between categories of photographs of complex real objects. Within these pictures, single features had been manipulated to produce a highly salient texture cue. Either the picture or the texture provided a reliable cue for discrimination during training, but in probe tests, the picture and texture cues were put into conflict. Some pigeons showed a significant tendency to discriminate on the basis of the picture cue (overall similarity or family resemblance), whereas others appeared to rely on the manipulated texture cue. The second experiment used artificial polymorphous categories in which one dimension of the stimulus provided a completely reliable cue to category membership, whereas three other dimensions provided cues that were individually unreliable but collectively provided a completely reliable basis for discrimination. Most pigeons came under the control of the reliable cue rather than the unreliable cues. A minority, however, came under the control of single dimensions from the unreliable set. We conclude that cue salience can be more important than cue reliability in determining what features will control behavior when multiple cues are available. PMID:20652343

  4. Vasopressin receptors from cultured mesangial cells resemble V/sub 1a/ type

    SciTech Connect

    Jard, S.; Lombard, C.; Marie, J.; Devilliers, G.

    1987-07-01

    Mesangial cells respond to vasopressin by contraction and increased prostaglandin production. The purpose of the present study is to characterize vasopressin receptors from these cells. Glomeruli were isolated from rat kidneys and plated for explant growth of mesangial cells. Membranes were prepared from cells grown for 6 wk and tested for their ability to bind (/sup 3/H)vasopressin (lysine vasopressin). These membranes contained a single class of specific vasopressin binding sites. Vasopressin induced a dose-dependent accumulation of labeled inositol phosphates in myo(/sup 3/H)inositol-prelabeled mesangial cells incubated in the presence of 10 mM of Li. Conversely, vasopressin failed to alter the adenylate cyclase activity of mesangial cell membranes. Competition experiments with a series of vasopressin structural analogues that have different degrees affinity for V/sub 2/- (renal), V/sub 1a/- (vascular and hepatic), and V/sub 1b/- (adenohypohyseal) receptors, indicated that vasopressin receptors from rat glomerular mesangial cells resemble the V/sub 1a/-receptor subtype.

  5. Cortical dysplasia resembling human type 2 lissencephaly in mice lacking all three APP family members

    PubMed Central

    Herms, Jochen; Anliker, Brigitte; Heber, Sabine; Ring, Sabine; Fuhrmann, Martin; Kretzschmar, Hans; Sisodia, Sangram; Müller, Ulrike

    2004-01-01

    The Alzheimer's disease β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a member of a larger gene family that includes the amyloid precursor-like proteins, termed APLP1 and APLP2. We previously documented that APLP2−/−APLP1−/− and APLP2−/−APP−/− mice die postnatally, while APLP1−/−APP−/− mice and single mutants were viable. We now report that mice lacking all three APP/APLP family members survive through embryonic development, and die shortly after birth. In contrast to double-mutant animals with perinatal lethality, 81% of triple mutants showed cranial abnormalities. In 68% of triple mutants, we observed cortical dysplasias characterized by focal ectopic neuroblasts that had migrated through the basal lamina and pial membrane, a phenotype that resembles human type II lissencephaly. Moreover, at E18.5 triple mutants showed a partial loss of cortical Cajal Retzius (CR) cells, suggesting that APP/APLPs play a crucial role in the survival of CR cells and neuronal adhesion. Collectively, our data reveal an essential role for APP family members in normal brain development and early postnatal survival. PMID:15385965

  6. Evidence of environmental suppression of familial resemblance: height among US Civil War brothers.

    PubMed

    Lauderdale, D S; Rathouz, P J

    1999-01-01

    This study examines, with historical data, whether within family correlations in height varied across environments and whether variability in height was greater in worse environments. To investigate these hypotheses, brothers were identified who were mustered into the Union Army of the US Civil War, using linked records from the 1850 and 1860 censuses and military and medical records. Heights were available for 3898 men aged 18 and older, of whom 595 were further identified as belonging to 288 family sets of two, three or four brothers. Generalized estimating equations were used to concurrently model the mean height, the variance and the correlation between brothers as a function of county population. Heights decreased as county population size increased (p<0.001). The correlation between brothers' heights decreased significantly (p = 0.032) with increasing county population, and the variance increased (p = 0.026). The correlation ranged approximately from 0.63 in the least populous to 0.24 in the most populous counties. The degree of familial resemblance was lower in environments where mean height was lower, and the variability in height was greater, suggesting that the environmental contribution to the variability in height is of greater relative importance in populations reared, on average, in worse environments. PMID:10541404

  7. TiO2 nanofibers resembling 'yellow bristle grass' in morphology by a soft chemical transformation.

    PubMed

    Nandan, Sandeep; Deepak, T G; Nair, Shantikumar V; Nair, A Sreekumaran

    2015-05-28

    We synthesized a uniquely shaped one-dimensional (1-D) TiO2 nanostructure having the morphology of yellow bristle grass with high surface area by the titanate route under mild reaction conditions. The electrospun TiO2-SiO2 composite nanofibers upon treatment with concentrated NaOH at 80 °C under ambient pressure for 24 h resulted in sodium titanate (Na2Ti3O7) nanostructures. The Na2Ti3O7 nanostructures have an overall 1-D fibrous morphology but the highly porous fiber surfaces were decorated with layered thorn-like features (a morphology resembling that of yellow bristle grass) resulting in high surface area (113 m(2) g(-1)) and porosity. The Na2Ti3O7 nanostructures were converted into TiO2 nanostructures of the same morphology by acidification (0.1 N HCl) followed by low temperature sintering (110 °C) processes. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) constructed out of the material (cells of area 0.20 cm(2) and thickness 12 μm) showed a power conversion efficiency (η) of 8.02% in comparison with commercial P-25 TiO2 (η = 6.1%). PMID:25923133

  8. In vivo footprinting of the estrogen-inducible vitellogenin II gene from chicken.

    PubMed Central

    Philipsen, J N; Hennis, B C; Ab, G

    1988-01-01

    Protein-DNA interactions in the promoter region of the chicken vitellogenin II gene were analyzed by in vivo dimethylsulphate footprinting with expressing and non-expressing tissues. The reactivity of G-residues is essentially the same in erythrocytes, oviduct and control liver, not expressing the gene. In the expressing estrogen-induced liver we find a number of G-residues with altered reactivities. These G's are located within distinct sequences: the estrogen responsive elements, a sequence resembling the NF-1 recognition motive, and several elements which are conserved between yolk protein genes. The expression-dependent binding of proteins to these sites was confirmed by DNaseI footprinting applied to nuclei isolated from estrogen-induced and control liver. Estradiol appears to establish a transcription complex comprising a number of distinct proteins bound to different sites in the 5' flanking region of the vitellogenin II gene. Images PMID:3186442

  9. AA amyloidosis in vaccinated growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Inoshima, Y; Sakamoto, E; Fukushi, H; Sakai, H; Yanai, T; Ishiguro, N

    2013-01-01

    Systemic amyloid-A (AA) amyloidosis in birds occurs most frequently in waterfowl such as Pekin ducks. In chickens, AA amyloidosis is observed as amyloid arthropathy. Outbreaks of systemic amyloidosis in flocks of layers are known to be induced by repeated inflammatory stimulation, such as those resulting from multiple vaccinations with oil-emulsified bacterins. Outbreaks of fatal AA amyloidosis were observed in growing chickens in a large scale poultry farm within 3 weeks of vaccination with multiple co-administered vaccines. This study documents the histopathological changes in tissues from these birds. Amyloid deposits were also observed at a high rate in the tissues of apparently healthy chickens. Vaccination should therefore be considered as a potential risk factor for the development of AA amyloidosis in poultry. PMID:23570943

  10. Chicken domestication: from archeology to genomics.

    PubMed

    Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Rognon, Xavier

    2011-03-01

    Current knowledge on chicken domestication is reviewed on the basis of archaeological, historical and molecular data. Several domestication centres have been identified in South and South-East Asia. Gallus gallus is the major ancestor species, but Gallus sonneratii has also contributed to the genetic make-up of the domestic chicken. Genetic diversity is now distributed among traditional populations, standardized breeds and highly selected lines. Knowing the genome sequence has accelerated the identification of causal mutations determining major morphological differences between wild Gallus and domestic breeds. Comparative genome resequencing between Gallus and domestic chickens has identified 21 selective sweeps, one involving a non-synonymous mutation in the TSHR gene, which functional consequences remain to be explored. The resequencing approach could also identify candidate genes responsible of quantitative traits loci (QTL) effects in selected lines. Genomics is opening new ways to understand major switches that took place during domestication and subsequent selection. PMID:21377614

  11. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO). However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM) tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and will be updated on regular

  12. Molecular cloning of chicken aggrecan. Structural analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, L; Tanzer, M L

    1992-01-01

    The large, aggregating chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan of cartilage, aggrecan, has served as a generic model of proteoglycan structure. Molecular cloning of aggrecans has further defined their amino acid sequences and domain structures. In this study, we have obtained the complete coding sequence of chicken sternal cartilage aggrecan by a combination of cDNA and genomic DNA sequencing. The composite sequence is 6117 bp in length, encoding 1951 amino acids. Comparison of chicken aggrecan protein primary structure with rat, human and bovine aggrecans has disclosed both similarities and differences. The domains which are most highly conserved at 70-80% identity are the N-terminal domains G1 and G2 and the C-terminal domain G3. The chondroitin sulphate domain of chicken aggrecan is smaller than that of rat and human aggrecans and has very distinctive repeat sequences. It has two separate sections, one comprising 12 consecutive Ser-Gly-Glu repeats of 20 amino acids each, adjacent to the other which has 23 discontinuous Ser-Gly-Glu repeats of 10 amino acids each; this latter region, N-terminal to the former one, appears to be unique to chicken aggrecan. The two regions contain a total of 94 potential chondroitin sulphate attachment sites. Genomic comparison shows that, although chicken exons 11-14 are identical in size to the rat and human exons, chicken exon 10 is the smallest of the three species. This is also reflected in the size of its chondroitin sulphate coding region and in the total number of Ser-Gly pairs. The putative keratan sulphate domain shows 31-45% identity with the other species and lacks the repetitive sequences seen in the others. In summary, while the linear arrangement of specific domains of chicken aggrecan is identical to that in the aggrecans of other species, and while there is considerable identity of three separate domains, chicken aggrecan demonstrates unique features, notably in its chondroitin sulphate domain and its keratan sulphate

  13. Lymphopoiesis in the chicken pineal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Cogburn, L.A.; Glick, B.

    1981-10-01

    Pineal lymphoid development was studied in two breeds of chickens from hatching until sexual maturity. No lymphocytes were found in the pineal prior to 9 days of age (da). Lymphocytes migrate through the endothelium of venules into the pineal stroma. Lymphoid tissue reached its maximal accumulation in 32-da pineal glands of both breeds. At this age, the New Hampshire (NH) breed had a larger proportion of lymphoid volume to total pineal volume (32%) than did pineal glands from White Leghorn (WL) chickens (18%).

  14. Cloning and expression of chicken erythrocyte transglutaminase.

    PubMed Central

    Weraarchakul-Boonmark, N; Jeong, J M; Murthy, S N; Engel, J D; Lorand, L

    1992-01-01

    We report the sequences of cDNAs encoding chicken erythrocyte transglutaminase (EC 2.3.2.13). The complete mRNA consists of 3345/3349 nucleotides and predicts a single open reading frame. Nine peptide sequences derived from partial digests of the isolated protein agreed with the corresponding translation of the open reading frame. Approximately 60% identities between the avian protein and three related mammalian enzymes were found. Chicken erythrocyte transglutaminase mRNA is most abundant in red blood cells and kidney, and it accumulates during erythroid cell differentiation. Images PMID:1357669

  15. Mammographic texture resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Breast density has been established as a major risk factor for breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that mammographic texture resemblance (MTR), recognizing the local texture patterns of the mammogram, is also a risk factor for breast cancer, independent of percent breast density. We examine if these findings generalize to another population. Methods Texture patterns were recorded in digitalized pre-diagnosis (3.7 years) film mammograms of a nested case–control study within the Dutch screening program (S1) comprising of 245 breast cancers and 250 matched controls. The patterns were recognized in the same study using cross-validation to form resemblance scores associated with breast cancer. Texture patterns from S1 were examined in an independent nested case–control study within the Mayo Mammography Health Study cohort (S2) of 226 cases and 442 matched controls: mammograms on average 8.5 years prior to diagnosis, risk factor information and percent mammographic density (PD) estimated using Cumulus were available. MTR scores estimated from S1, S2 and S1 + S2 (the latter two as cross-validations) were evaluated in S2. MTR scores were analyzed as both quartiles and continuously for association with breast cancer using odds ratios (OR) and adjusting for known risk factors including age, body mass index (BMI), and hormone usage. Results The mean ages of S1 and S2 were 58.0 ± 5.7 years and 55.2 ± 10.5 years, respectively. The MTR scores on S1 showed significant capability to discriminate cancers from controls (area under the operator characteristics curve (AUC) = 0.63 ± 0.02, P <0.001), which persisted after adjustment for PD. S2 showed an AUC of 0.63, 0.61, and 0.60 based on PD, MTR scores trained on S2, and MTR scores trained on S1, respectively. When adjusted for PD, MTR scores of S2 trained on S1 showed an association with breast cancer for the highest quartile alone: OR in quartiles of controls as reference; 1

  16. Response of mice to continuous 5-day passive hyperthermia resembles human heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Sareh, Houtan; Tulapurkar, Mohan E; Shah, Nirav G; Singh, Ishwar S; Hasday, Jeffrey D

    2011-05-01

    Chronic repeated exposure to hyperthermia in humans results in heat acclimation (HA), an adaptive process that is attained in humans by repeated exposure to hyperthermia and is characterized by improved heat elimination and increased exercise capacity, and acquired thermal tolerance (ATT), a cellular response characterized by increased baseline heat shock protein (HSP) expression and blunting of the acute increase in HSP expression stimulated by re-exposure to thermal stress. Epidemiologic studies in military personnel operating in hot environments and elite athletes suggest that repeated exposure to hyperthermia may also exert long-term health effects. Animal models demonstrate that coincident exposure to mild hyperthermia or prior exposure to severe hyperthermia can profoundly affect the course of experimental infection and injury, but these models do not represent HA. In this study, we demonstrate that CD-1 mice continuously exposed to mild hyperthermia (ambient temperature ~37°C causing ~2°C increase in core temperature) for 5 days and then exposed to a thermal stress (42°C ambient temperature for 40 min) exhibited some of the salient features of human HA, including (1) slower warming during thermal stress and more rapid cooling during recovery and (2) increased activity during thermal stress, as well as some of the features of ATT, including (1) increased baseline expression of HSP72 and HSP90 in lung, heart, spleen, liver, and brain; and (2) blunted incremental increase in HSP72 expression following acute thermal stress. This study suggests that continuous 5-day exposure of CD-1 mice to mild hyperthermia induces a state that resembles the physiologic and cellular responses of human HA. This model may be useful for analyzing the molecular mechanisms of HA and its consequences on host responsiveness to subsequent stresses. PMID:21080137

  17. Melatonin-induced T-helper cell hematopoietic cytokines resembling both interleukin-4 and dynorphin.

    PubMed

    Maestroni, G J; Hertens, E; Galli, P; Conti, A; Pedrinis, E

    1996-10-01

    We have reported that melatonin exerts colony stimulating activity and rescues bone marrow cells from apoptosis induced either in vivo or in vitro by cancer chemotherapy compounds. We proposed that melatonin regulates interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in bone marrow T-helper cells and that IL-4 stimulates adherent stromal cells to produce colony stimulating factors (CSF). However, in further investigations we did not find any direct evidence of the ability of melatonin to stimulate IL4. We found that besides anti-IL4 monoclonal antibody (mAb), the opioid antagonist naltrexone also neutralized the colony stimulating activity and part of the hematopoietic protection exerted by melatonin. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis of supernatants of bone marrow T-helper cells incubated overnight with melatonin revealed the presence of two proteins with an apparent molecular weight of 15 and 67 kDa, which were recognized by both anti-common opioid sequence (Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe) and anti-IL4 mAbs. When Abs against known opioid peptides were tested, only anti-dynorphin B Ab labeled the 67 kDa but not the 15 kDa protein. These melatonin-induced-opioids (MIO) were separated by gel filtration. The lower molecular weight MIO (MIO15) seems to mediate the naltrexone-sensitive hematopoietic effects of melatonin. Consistently, we found the presence of opioid receptors in adherent bone marrow cells. Apparently, the higher molecular weight protein, MIO67, was responsible for the naltrexone-insensitive part of the melatonin-induced hematopoietic rescue. These melatonin-induced T-helper cell products which resemble both IL-4 and dynorphin B might represent a new family of opioid peptides with hematopoietic and immune functions. PMID:8981257

  18. Ventricular Tachycardia and Resembling Acute Coronary Syndrome During Pheochromocytoma Crisis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Jun; Wang, Tao; Wang, Lin; Pang, Zhan-Qi; Ma, Ben; Li, Ya-Wen; Yang, Jian; Dong, He

    2016-04-01

    Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors, and its cardiac involvement may include transient myocardial dysfunction, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and even ventricular arrhythmias.A patient was referred for evaluation of stuttering chest pain, and his electrocardiogram showed T-wave inversion over leads V1 to V4. Coronary angiography showed 90% stenosis in the mid-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), which was stented. Five days later, the patient had ventricular tachycardia, and severe hypertension, remarkable blood pressure fluctuation between 224/76 and 70/50 mm Hg. The patient felt abdominal pain and his abdominal ultrasound showed suspicious right adrenal gland tumor. Enhanced computed tomography of adrenal gland conformed that there was a tumor in right adrenal gland accompanied by an upset level of aldosterone.The tumor was removed by laparoscope, and the pathological examination showed pheochromocytoma. After the surgery, the blood pressure turned normal gradually. There was no T-wave inversion in lead V1-V4. Our case illustrates a rare pheochromocytoma presentation with a VT and resembling ACS. In our case, the serious stenosis in the mid of LAD could be explained by worsen the clinical course of myocardial ischemia or severe coronary vasospasm by the excessive amounts of catecholamines released from the tumor. Coronary vasospasm was possible because he had no classic coronary risk factors (e.g. family history and smoking habit, essential hypertension, hyperglycemia and abnormal serum lipoprotein, high body mass index). Thus, pheochromocytoma was missed until he revealed the association of his symptoms with abdominalgia.As phaeochromocytomas that present with cardiovascular complications can be fatal, it is necessary to screen for the disease when patients present with symptoms indicating catecholamine excess. PMID:27057898

  19. Parent–offspring resemblance in colony-specific adult survival of cliff swallows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Charles R.; Roche, Erin A.; Brown, Mary Bomberger

    2015-01-01

    Survival is a key component of fitness. Species that occupy discrete breeding colonies with different characteristics are often exposed to varying costs and benefits associated with group size or environmental conditions, and survival is an integrative net measure of these effects. We investigated the extent to which survival probability of adult (≥1-year old) cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) occupying different colonies resembled that of their parental cohort and thus whether the natal colony had long-term effects on individuals. Individuals were cross-fostered between colonies soon after hatching and their presence as breeders monitored at colonies in the western Nebraska study area for the subsequent decade. Colony-specific adult survival probabilities of offspring born and reared in the same colony, and those cross-fostered away from their natal colony soon after birth, were positively and significantly related to subsequent adult survival of the parental cohort from the natal colony. This result held when controlling for the effect of natal colony size and the age composition of the parental cohort. In contrast, colony-specific adult survival of offspring cross-fostered to a site was unrelated to that of their foster parent cohort or to the cohort of non-fostered offspring with whom they were reared. Adult survival at a colony varied inversely with fecundity, as measured by mean brood size, providing evidence for a survival–fecundity trade-off in this species. The results suggest some heritable variation in adult survival, likely maintained by negative correlations between fitness components. The study provides additional evidence that colonies represent non-random collections of individuals.

  20. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius expresses surface proteins that closely resemble those from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Joan A; Smith, Emma J; Speziale, Pietro; Foster, Timothy J

    2009-09-18

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a commensal of dogs that is implicated in the pathogenesis of canine pyoderma. This study aimed to determine if S. pseudintermedius expresses surface proteins resembling those from Staphylococcus aureus and to characterise them. S. pseudintermedius strain 326 was shown to adhere strongly to purified fibrinogen, fibronectin and cytokeratin 10. It adhered to the alpha-chain of fibrinogen which, along with binding to cytokeratin 10, is the hallmark of clumping factor B of S. aureus, a surface protein that is in part responsible for colonisation of the human nares. Ligand-affinity blotting with cell-wall extracts demonstrated that S. pseudintermedius 326 expressed a cell-wall anchored fibronectin binding protein which recognised the N-terminal 29kDa fragment. The ability to bind fibronectin is an important attribute of pathogenic S. aureus and is associated with the ability of S. aureus to colonise skin of human atopic dermatitis patients. S. pseudintermedius genomic DNA was probed with labelled DNA amplified from the serine-aspartate repeat encoding region of clfA of S. aureus. This probe hybridised to a single SpeI fragment of S. pseudintermedius DNA. In the cell-wall extract of S. pseudintermedius 326, a 180kDa protein was discovered which bound to fibrinogen by ligand-affinity blotting and reacted in a Western blot with antibodies raised against the serine-aspartate repeat region of ClfA and the B-repeats of SdrD of S. aureus. It is proposed that this is an Sdr protein with B-repeats that has an A domain that binds to fibrinogen. Whether it is the same protein that binds cytokeratin 10 is not clear. PMID:19372010

  1. Initial contamination of chicken parts with Salmonella at retail and cross-contamination of cooked chicken with Salmonella from raw chicken during meal preparation.

    PubMed

    Oscar, T P

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to acquire data on contamination of chicken parts with Salmonella at retail and to acquire data on cross-contamination of cooked chicken with Salmonella from raw chicken during meal preparation. Whole raw chickens (n = 31) were obtained from local retail stores and cut into two wings, two breasts without skin or bones, two thighs, and two drumsticks. Data for cross-contamination were obtained by cutting up a sterile, cooked chicken breast with the same board and knife used to cut up the raw chicken. The board, knife, and latex gloves used by the food handler were not rinsed or washed before cutting up the sterile, cooked chicken breast, thus providing a worst-case scenario for cross-contamination. Standard curves for the concentration of Salmonella bacteria in 400 ml of buffered peptone water after 6 h of incubation of chicken parts as a function of the initial log number of Salmonella bacteria inoculated onto chicken parts were developed and used to enumerate Salmonella bacteria. Standard curves were not affected by the type of chicken part but did differ (P < 0.05) among the five isolates of Salmonella examined. Consequently, Salmonella bacteria were enumerated on naturally contaminated chicken parts using a standard curve developed with the serotype of Salmonella that was isolated from the original sample. The prevalence of contamination was 3 % (4 of 132), whereas the incidence of cross-contamination was 1.8 % (1 of 57). The positive chicken parts were a thigh from chicken 4, which contained 3 CFU of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky, and both wings, one thigh, and one cooked breast portion from chicken 15, which all contained 1 CFU of serotype 8,20:-:z(6). These results indicated that the poultry industry is providing consumers in the studied area with chicken that has a low prevalence and low number of Salmonella bacteria at retail and that has a low incidence and low level of cross-contamination of cooked chicken with

  2. Embryonic development and inviability phenotype of chicken-Japanese quail F1 hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Ishishita, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Keiji; Nakano, Mikiharu; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybrid incompatibility, including inviability and sterility, is important in speciation; however, its genetic basis remains largely unknown in vertebrates. Crosses between male chickens and female Japanese quails using artificial insemination can generate intergeneric hybrids; however, the hatching rate is low, and hatched hybrids are only sterile males. Hybrid development is arrested frequently during the early embryonic stages, and the sex ratio of living embryos is male-biased. However, the development and sex ratio of hybrid embryos have not been comprehensively analyzed. In the present study, we observed delayed embryonic development of chicken-quail hybrids during the early stage, compared with that of chickens and quails. The survival rate of hybrids decreased markedly during the blastoderm-to-pre-circulation stage and then decreased gradually through the subsequent stages. Hybrid females were observed at more than 10 d of incubation; however, the sex ratio of hybrids became male-biased from 10 d of incubation. Severely malformed embryos were observed frequently in hybrids. These results suggest that developmental arrest occurs at various stages in hybrid embryos, including a sexually non-biased arrest during the early stage and a female-biased arrest during the late stage. We discuss the genetic basis for hybrid inviability and its sex bias. PMID:27199007

  3. Embryonic development and inviability phenotype of chicken-Japanese quail F1 hybrids.

    PubMed

    Ishishita, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Keiji; Nakano, Mikiharu; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybrid incompatibility, including inviability and sterility, is important in speciation; however, its genetic basis remains largely unknown in vertebrates. Crosses between male chickens and female Japanese quails using artificial insemination can generate intergeneric hybrids; however, the hatching rate is low, and hatched hybrids are only sterile males. Hybrid development is arrested frequently during the early embryonic stages, and the sex ratio of living embryos is male-biased. However, the development and sex ratio of hybrid embryos have not been comprehensively analyzed. In the present study, we observed delayed embryonic development of chicken-quail hybrids during the early stage, compared with that of chickens and quails. The survival rate of hybrids decreased markedly during the blastoderm-to-pre-circulation stage and then decreased gradually through the subsequent stages. Hybrid females were observed at more than 10 d of incubation; however, the sex ratio of hybrids became male-biased from 10 d of incubation. Severely malformed embryos were observed frequently in hybrids. These results suggest that developmental arrest occurs at various stages in hybrid embryos, including a sexually non-biased arrest during the early stage and a female-biased arrest during the late stage. We discuss the genetic basis for hybrid inviability and its sex bias. PMID:27199007

  4. West Nile virus circulation detected in northern Italy in sentinel chickens.

    PubMed

    Rizzoli, Annapaola; Rosà, Roberto; Rosso, Fausta; Buckley, Alan; Gould, Ernest

    2007-01-01

    Ninety percent (56/62) of sentinel chickens introduced to two regions within the Italian Alps seroconverted to West Nile virus (WNV) during the summer of 2005, showing a range of antibody titres from 1/20 to 1/320 in a virus neutralization test. Neutralization specificity for WNV antibodies was confirmed on an additional 34 sera that were tested in parallel against WNV (16/34 seropositivity), Usutu virus (3/34 seropositivity) and Koutango virus. The geometric mean neutralizing titre (GMT) calculated for WN-specific antibodies was 33.68 and did not differ significantly amongst sample sites, although the overall results indicate more active circulation of WNV at the higher elevations. Such high levels of seroconversion raise the possibility that many chickens may have been exposed to virus via routes other than mosquito transmission. No chickens or any other local animals were associated with illness due to WNV implying that WNV, and to a much lower extent Usutu virus, circulate harmlessly amongst wildlife species in northern Italy from late May onwards until early autumn. PMID:17767411

  5. Developmental regulation of chicken surfactant protein A and its localization in lung.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weidong; Cuperus, Tryntsje; van Dijk, Albert; Skjødt, Karsten; Hansen, Søren; Haagsman, Henk P; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A

    2016-08-01

    Surfactant Protein A (SP-A) is a collagenous C-type lectin (collectin) that plays an important role in the early stage of the host immune response. In chicken, SP-A (cSP-A) is expressed as a 26 kDa glycosylated protein in the lung. Using immunohistochemistry, cSP-A protein was detected mainly in the lung lining fluid covering the parabronchial epithelia. Specific cSP-A producing epithelial cells, resembling mammalian type II cells, were identified in the parabronchi. Gene expression of cSP-A markedly increased from embryonic day 14 onwards until the time of hatch, comparable to the SP-A homologue chicken lung lectin, while mannan binding lectin and collectins CL-L1 and CL-K1 only showed slightly changed expression during development. cSP-A protein could be detected as early as ED 18 in lung tissue using Western blotting, and expression increased steadily until day 28 post-hatch. Our observations are a first step towards understanding the role of this protein in vivo. PMID:26976230

  6. Infectious bursal disease virus changes the potassium current properties of chicken embryo fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Repp, H; Nieper, H; Draheim, H J; Koschinski, A; Müller, H; Dreyer, F

    1998-07-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of an economically significant poultry disease. IBDV infection leads to apoptosis in chicken embryos and cell cultures. Since changes in cellular ion fluxes during apoptosis have been reported, we investigated the membrane ion currents of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) inoculated with the Cu-1 strain of IBDV using the patch-clamp recording technique. Incubation of CEFs with IBDV led to marked changes in their K+ outward current properties, with respect to both the kinetics of activation and inactivation and the Ca2+ dependence of the activation. The changes occurred in a time-dependent manner and were complete after 8 h. UV-treated noninfectious virions induced the same K+ current changes as live IBDV. When CEFs were inoculated with IBDV after pretreatment with a neutralizing antibody, about 30% of the cells showed a normal K+ current, whereas the rest exhibited K+ current properties identical to or closely resembling those of IBDV-infected cells. Incubation of CEFs with culture supernatant from IBDV-infected cells from which the virus particles were removed had no influence on the K+ current. Our data strongly suggest that the K+ current changes induced by IBDV are not due to virus replication, but are the result of attachment and/or membrane penetration. Possibly, the altered K+ current may delay the apoptotic process in CEFs after IBDV infection. PMID:9657954

  7. Establishing the validity of domestication genes using DNA from ancient chickens

    PubMed Central

    Girdland Flink, Linus; Allen, Richard; Barnett, Ross; Malmström, Helena; Peters, Joris; Eriksson, Jonas; Andersson, Leif; Dobney, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Modern domestic plants and animals are subject to human-driven selection for desired phenotypic traits and behavior. Large-scale genetic studies of modern domestic populations and their wild relatives have revealed not only the genetic mechanisms underlying specific phenotypic traits, but also allowed for the identification of candidate domestication genes. Our understanding of the importance of these genes during the initial stages of the domestication process traditionally rests on the assumption that robust inferences about the past can be made on the basis of modern genetic datasets. A growing body of evidence from ancient DNA studies, however, has revealed that ancient and even historic populations often bear little resemblance to their modern counterparts. Here, we test the temporal context of selection on specific genetic loci known to differentiate modern domestic chickens from their extant wild ancestors. We extracted DNA from 80 ancient chickens excavated from 12 European archaeological sites, dated from ∼280 B.C. to the 18th century A.D. We targeted three unlinked genetic loci: the mitochondrial control region, a gene associated with yellow skin color (β-carotene dioxygenase 2), and a putative domestication gene thought to be linked to photoperiod and reproduction (thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor, TSHR). Our results reveal significant variability in both nuclear genes, suggesting that the commonality of yellow skin in Western breeds and the near fixation of TSHR in all modern chickens took place only in the past 500 y. In addition, mitochondrial variation has increased as a result of recent admixture with exotic breeds. We conclude by emphasizing the perils of inferring the past from modern genetic data alone. PMID:24753608

  8. Chicken IL-17F: Identification and comparative expression analysis in Eimeria-Infected chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interleukin-17F (IL-17F), belonging to the IL-17 family, is a proinflammatory cytokine and plays an important role in gut homeostasis. A full-length chicken IL-17F (chIL-17F) cDNA with a 510-bp coding region was first identified from ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes of chickens. The chIL-17F share...

  9. Late-term abortion.

    PubMed

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed. PMID:9728645

  10. Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Mössbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Prokopenko, P. G.; Malakheeva, L. I.

    2004-12-01

    A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Mössbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

  11. Characterization of glucagon-expressing neurons in the chicken retina

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Andy J.; Skorupa, Dana; Schonberg, David L.; Walton, Nathaniel A.

    2008-01-01

    We have recently identified large glucagon-expressing neurons that densely ramify neurites in the peripheral edge of the retina and regulate the proliferation of progenitors in the circumferential marginal zone (CMZ) of the postnatal chicken eye (Fischer et al., 2005). However, nothing is known about the transmitters and proteins that are expressed by the glucagon-expressing neurons in the avian retina. We used antibodies to cell-distinguishing markers to better characterize the different types of glucagon-expressing neurons. We found that the large glucagon-expressing neurons were immunoreactive for substance P, neurofilament, Pax6, AP2α, HuD, calretinin, trkB and trkC. Colocalization of glucagon and substance P in the large glucagon-expressing neurons indicates that these cells are the “bullwhip cells” that have been briefly described by Ehrlich, Keyser and Karten (1987). Similar to the bullwhip cells, the conventional glucagon-expressing amacrine cells were immunoreactive for calretinin, HuD, Pax6, and AP2α. Unlike bullwhip cells, the conventional glucagon-expressing amacrine cells were immunoreactive for GABA. While glucagon-immunoreactive amacrine cells were negative for substance P in central regions of the retina, a subset of this type of amacrine cell was immunoreactive for substance P in far peripheral regions of the retina. An additional type of glucagon/substance P-expressing neuron, resembling the bullwhip cells, was found in far peripheral and dorsal regions of the retina. Based on morphology, distribution within the retina, and histological markers, we conclude that there may be 4 different types of glucagon-expressing neurons in the avian retina. PMID:16572462

  12. Dielectric Spectroscopy of Fresh Chicken Breast Meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dielectric properties of fresh chicken breast meat were measured at temperatures from 5 to 85 'C over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz by dielectric spectroscopy techniques with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer. Samples were cut from both the Pectoralis major an...

  13. Dielectric Spectroscopy of Fresh Chicken Breast Meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical abstract The dielectric properties of fresh chicken breast meat were measured at temperatures from 5 to 85 degrees °C over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz by dielectric spectroscopy techniques with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer. Samples were cut from ...

  14. Zoonotic Public Health Hazards in Backyard Chickens.

    PubMed

    Pohjola, L; Nykäsenoja, S; Kivistö, R; Soveri, T; Huovilainen, A; Hänninen, M L; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M

    2016-08-01

    Backyard poultry has become increasingly popular in industrialized countries. In addition to keeping chickens for eggs and meat, owners often treat the birds as pets. However, several pathogenic enteric bacteria have the potential for zoonotic transmission from poultry to humans but very little is known about the occurrence of zoonotic pathogens in backyard flocks. The occurrence and the antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes and enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. was studied in 51 voluntary backyard chicken farms in Finland during October 2012 and January 2013. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli was investigated. The findings from this study indicate that backyard chickens are a reservoir of Campylobacter jejuni strains and a potential source of C. jejuni infection for humans. Backyard chickens can also carry L. monocytogenes, although their role as a primary reservoir is questionable. Campylobacter coli, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Salmonella enterica were only found sporadically in the faecal and environmental samples of backyard poultry in Finland. No Yersinia enterocolitica carrying the virulence plasmid was isolated. All pathogens were highly susceptible to most of the antimicrobials studied. Only a few AmpC- and no ESBL-producing E. coli were found. PMID:26752227

  15. Habitat management considerations for prairie chickens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirsch, L.M.

    1974-01-01

    Lack of nesting and brood rearing habitat appears to be the universal limiting factor for prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) throughout their range. Grasslands are essential to prairie chickens, but vary widely in quality and thus in their ability to support prairie chickens. High-quality habitat is grassland providing residual vegetation averaging about 20 inches in height in spring and sufficiently dense to completely conceal a nesting prairie chicken. Annually grazed, annually hayed, or long-term (10 years or more) idled habitats are undesirable. The most successful method for maintaining high-quality nest-brood habitat is prescribed burning at 3- to 5-year intervals; such habitat may be established by seeding grass or grass-legume mixtures. Seeded habitat may be maintained by prescribed burning at 3- to 5-year intervals. Management units should contain at least 2 square miles of high-quality habitat within an area not to exceed 8 square miles. High-quality habitat blocks should be at least 160 acres with a minimum width of one-half mile. Based on available evidence, funding to provide winter food or cover is not recommended.

  16. Expanding Teacher Understanding of Wisconsin's Prairie Chickens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Melinda S.; Sivek, Daniel J.; Thomas, Christine L.

    2008-01-01

    The principal author developed a workshop through the Becoming an Outdoors-Woman (BOW) program, based on central Wisconsin's prairie chicken population, to present teachers with the knowledge and skills needed to provide quality environmental education. Seventeen high school teachers attended the 2003 workshop. Pre-and post-workshop surveys were…

  17. Responsive Reading: Caring for Chicken Little

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maderazo, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Media images and news about current events have the potential to strike like acorns. In these moments, children, like Chicken Little, need caring adults who can help them understand what is happening. As early childhood educators, one must recognize and provide opportunities to guide children's social and emotional well-being in addition to…

  18. Triploid-diploid mosaic chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Bloom, S E; Buss, E G

    1966-08-12

    Cytological analysis of an underdeveloped chicken embryo at 6 days of incubation revealed a triploid-diploid mosaic condition. Of the 30 metaphases observed, 19 were triploid and 11 diploid. The triploid cells were 3A-ZZZ and diploid cells 2A-ZZ, as determined for the six largest pairs of chromnosomes. PMID:5328678

  19. Divergent Selection for Ascites Incidence in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken lines that were either resistant or susceptible to ascites syndrome were developed by using a hypobaric chamber to induce the disease. Birds were reared in a hypobaric chamber that simulated high altitude by operating under a partial vacuum, which thereby lowered the partial pressure of oxyg...

  20. Chicken rRNA Gene Cluster Structure

    PubMed Central

    Dyomin, Alexander G.; Koshel, Elena I.; Kiselev, Artem M.; Saifitdinova, Alsu F.; Galkina, Svetlana A.; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Kostareva, Anna A.

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, whose activity results in nucleolus formation, constitute an extremely important part of genome. Despite the extensive exploration into avian genomes, no complete description of avian rRNA gene primary structure has been offered so far. We publish a complete chicken rRNA gene cluster sequence here, including 5’ETS (1836 bp), 18S rRNA gene (1823 bp), ITS1 (2530 bp), 5.8S rRNA gene (157 bp), ITS2 (733 bp), 28S rRNA gene (4441 bp) and 3’ETS (343 bp). The rRNA gene cluster sequence of 11863 bp was assembled from raw reads and deposited to GenBank under KT445934 accession number. The assembly was validated through in situ fluorescent hybridization analysis on chicken metaphase chromosomes using computed and synthesized specific probes, as well as through the reference assembly against de novo assembled rRNA gene cluster sequence using sequenced fragments of BAC-clone containing chicken NOR (nucleolus organizer region). The results have confirmed the chicken rRNA gene cluster validity. PMID:27299357

  1. CHICKEN FEATHER FIBERS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary of Findings (Outputs/Outcomes):

    A Sievert’s apparatus for measuring the H2 storage capacities of adsorbents was built. The nitrogen adsorption and H2 storage test performed on the pyrolyzed chicken feather fibers (PCFF) prepared by a p...

  2. Characterization of chicken dendritic cell markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal and Natural Resources Institute, ARS-USDA, Beltsville, MD, USA. New mouse monoclonal antibodies which detect CD80 and CD83 were developed to characterize chicken dendritic cells (DCs). The characteristics of these molecules have been studied in human, swine, ovine, feline, and canine but not ...

  3. Effects of Hatching Time on Behavior and Weight Development of Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Løtvedt, Pia; Jensen, Per

    2014-01-01

    The length of the embryonic period varies both among and within species and can affect the individual phenotype in many ways, both physiologically and behaviorally. In chickens, the hatch window may last 24–48 hours (up to 10% of the incubation time), and studies have shown that incubation length may affect post-hatch growth and physiology. However, little is known about effects on behavior. We therefore investigated how behavior variation correlates with hatching time in the early life of chickens. We also measured egg weight and egg weight loss in relation to hatching time, as well as post-hatch growth. For females, there was a negative correlation between hatch time and body weight from day 4 and throughout the experiment. For males, such a correlation was only observed when testing all hatched males up until day 10. The birds were exposed to a number of behavioral tests, and a principal components analysis was performed on the variables, resulting in four components. For the largest component, termed “Passivity”, a tendency of a difference was found between early and middle male hatchers. Furthermore, a significant difference between early and middle male hatchers was found in the second component, termed “Response to novelty”. In a spatial learning test, late hatchers tended to learn slower. The behavior of females was not significantly affected by hatching time in any of these tests. This study is among the first to demonstrate a link between time of hatching and early behavior in a precocial species like the chicken, and may help shedding light on the evolutionary trade-offs between incubation length and post-hatch traits. The results may also be relevant from a perspective of stress coping and therefore also for animal welfare and productivity in the chicken industry. The mechanisms linking hatching time with post-hatch phenotype remain to be investigated. PMID:25058654

  4. Lateness to School Remediation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugwuegbulam, Charles N.; Ibrahim, Haj. Naheed

    2015-01-01

    Primary and secondary school in Nigeria encourage punctuality to school yet a good number of the learners came late to school. This is especially true in the case of day students. Learners who come late to school are usually punished in one way or the other yet the lateness to school phenomenon still persist. Lateness to school behaviour affects…

  5. Late Mitochondrial Acquisition, Really?

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timely critique of a recent Nature paper by Pittis and Gabaldón that has suggested a late origin of mitochondria in eukaryote evolution. It shows that the inferred ancestry of many mitochondrial proteins has been incorrectly assigned by Pittis and Gabaldón to bacteria other than the aerobic proteobacteria from which the ancestor of mitochondria originates, thereby questioning the validity of their suggestion that mitochondrial acquisition may be a late event in eukaryote evolution. The analysis and approach presented here may guide future studies to resolve the true ancestry of mitochondria. PMID:27289097

  6. Winter ecology and habitat use of lesser prairie-chickens in west Texas, 2008-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boal, Clint W.; Pirius, Nicholas E.

    2012-01-01

    The lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has experienced declines in population and occupied range by more than 90 percent since the late 1800s. The lesser prairie-chicken has been listed as a candidate species for protection under the Endangered Species Act and is undergoing review for actual listing. Populations and distribution of lesser prairie-chickens in Texas are thought to be at or near all time lows. These factors have led to substantially increased concern for conservation of the species. It is apparent that sound management and conservation strategies for lesser prairie-chickens are necessary to ensure the long-term persistence of the species. To develop those strategies, basic ecological information is required. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the wintering ecology of the species. We examined home range, habitat use, and survival of lesser prairie-chickens during the winters of 2008–9, 2009–10, and 2010–11 in sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) landscapes in west Texas. We captured and radio-tagged 53 adult lesser prairie-chickens. We obtained sufficient locations to estimate winter home-range size for 23 individuals. Home-range size did not differ between years or by sex. Although female prairie-chickens had slightly larger home ranges (503.5 ± 34.9 ha) compared to males (489.1 ± 34.9 ha), the differences were not significant (t2 = 0.05, P = 0.96). During the nonbreeding season, we found that 97.2 percent of locations of male and female prairie-chickens alike were within 3.2 kilometers (km) of the lek of capture. Most locations (96.8%) were within 1.7 km of a known lek and almost all locations (99.9%) were within 3.2 km of an available water source. Habitat cover types were not used proportional to occurrence within the home ranges, grassland dominated areas with sand shinnery oak were used more than available, and sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia) areas dominated with grassland as well as sand sagebrush areas

  7. Ontogenic changes of kynurenine aminotransferase I activity and its expression in the chicken retina.

    PubMed

    Rejdak, Robert; Zielinska, Elzbieta; Shenk, Yana; Turski, Waldemar A; Okuno, Etsuo; Zarnowski, Tomasz; Zagorski, Zbigniew; Zrenner, Eberhart; Kohler, Konrad

    2003-06-01

    Kynurenine aminotransferases are key enzymes for the synthesis of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous glutamate receptor antagonist. The study described here examined ontogenic changes of kynurenine aminotransferase I (KAT I) activity and its expression in the chicken retina. KAT I activity measured on embryonic day 16 (E16) was significantly higher than at all other stages (E12, P0 and P7). Double labeling with antibodies against glutamine synthetase showed that on P7 KAT I was expressed in Müller cell endfeet and their processes in the inner retina. Since KAT I activity is high in the late embryonic stages, it is conceivable that it plays a neuromodulatory role in the retina during the late phase of embryogenesis. PMID:12782065

  8. The resemblance of an autocorrelation function to a power spectrum density for a spike train of an auditory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakov, Y. V.; Dubkov, A. A.; Spagnolo, B.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we develop an analytical approach for calculation of the all-order interspike interval density (AOISID), show its connection with the autocorrelation function, and try to explain the discovered resemblance of AOISID to the power spectrum of the same spike train.

  9. Resemblance of dinner meals consumption among mother and preschool-aged child dyads from families with limited incomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents’ eating habits are associated with food and nutrient intake of their children; yet, the associations have not always been very strong. The objective of this study was to expand the current literature to include an examination of resemblance in intakes of foods, within the context of a meal, ...

  10. Parallel Evolution of Polydactyly Traits in Chinese and European Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Runshen; Xia, Haijian; Lv, Xueze; Chen, Yu; Li, Junying; Li, Xianyao; Ning, Zhonghua; Xu, Guiyun; Chen, Jilan; Yang, Ning; Qu, Lujiang

    2016-01-01

    Polydactyly is one of the most common hereditary congenital limb malformations in chickens and other vertebrates. The zone of polarizing activity regulatory sequence (ZRS) is critical for the development of polydactyly. The causative mutation of polydactyly in the Silkie chicken has been mapped to the ZRS; however, the causative mutations of other chicken breeds are yet to be established. To understand whether the same mutation decides the polydactyly phenotype in other chicken breeds, we detected the single-nucleotide polymorphism in 26 different chicken breeds, specifically, 24 Chinese indigenous breeds and 2 European breeds. The mutation was found to have fully penetrated chickens with polydactyly in China, indicating that it is causative for polydactyly in Chinese indigenous chickens. In comparison, the mutation showed no association with polydactyly in Houdan chickens, which originate from France, Europe. Based on the different morphology of polydactyly in Chinese and European breeds, we assumed that the trait might be attributable to different genetic foundations. Therefore, we subsequently performed genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) to locate the region associated with polydactyly. As a result, a ~0.39 Mb genomic region on GGA2p was identified. The region contains six candidate genes, with the causative mutation found in Chinese indigenous breeds also being located in this region. Our results demonstrate that polydactyly in chickens from China and Europe is caused by two independent mutation events that are closely located in the chicken genome. PMID:26859147

  11. In ovo carbohydrate supplementation modulates growth and immunity-related genes in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bhanja, S K; Goel, A; Pandey, N; Mehra, M; Majumdar, S; Mandal, A B

    2015-02-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the role of in ovo administrated carbohydrates on the expression pattern of growth and immune-related genes. In ovo injections (n = 400) were carried out on the 14th day of incubation into the yolk sac/amnion of the broiler chicken embryos. Expression of growth-related genes: chicken growth hormone (cGH), insulin-like growth factor-I & II (IGF-I & II) and mucin were studied in hepatic and jejunum tissues of late-term embryo and early post-hatch chicks. Expression of candidate immune genes: Interleukin-2, 6, 10 and 12 (IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12), Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were studied in peripheral blood monocyte cells of in ovo-injected and control birds following antigenic stimulation with sheep RBC (SRBC) or mitogen concanavalin A (Con-A). Glucose injection significantly increased the expression of IGF-II gene during embryonic period and both cGH and IGF-II in early post-hatch period, while ribose-injected chicks had higher expression of IGF-II gene during embryonic stage. Enhanced mucin gene expression was also observed in fructose-injected chicks during embryonic age. Glucose-injected chicks had higher expression of IL-6 or IL-10, while those injected with fructose or ribose had higher expression of IL-2, IL-12 and IFN gamma. It is concluded that in ovo supplementation of carbohydrates might help in improving the growth of late-term embryos and chicks. In ovo glucose could modulate humoral-related immunity, while fructose or ribose might help in improving the cellular immunity in broiler chickens. PMID:24797673

  12. Adoptive transfer of natural antibodies to non-immunized chickens affects subsequent antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Aart; Klomp, Marcel E V; Nieuwland, Mike G B; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Parmentier, Henk K

    2004-01-01

    To determine a regulatory function of natural antibodies in the immune response of chickens, pooled plasma obtained from non-immunized (naïve) 15 months old hens was subjected to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) antigen-affinity chromatography. Purified KLH-binding antibodies were adoptively transferred intravenously to 5 weeks-old cocks that were subsequently immunized subcutaneously 24 h later with KLH. Control groups consisted of birds that were either adoptively transferred with KLH-binding antibodies purified from plasma of KLH-immunized chickens, or PBS, or a salt precipitated total immunoglobulin fraction obtained from the corresponding pooled nai;ve chicken plasma, respectively.Total, IgM and IgY antibody titers to KLH in the plasma of recipients adoptively transferred with KLH-NAb, but not in the plasma of the groups transferred with salt precipitate or KLH-binding specific antibodies, were significantly enhanced as compared to the non-treated, KLH immunized group. Titers of IgA antibodies binding KLH were decreased in the plasma of the group that received specific KLH-binding antibodies, but not in the plasma of the other groups. Proliferation from peripheral blood leucocytes in whole blood from the KLH-NAb treated group, the group treated with KLH-binding specific antibodies and the group treated with salt precipitate, respectively, to both concanavalin A and KLH were significantly decreased as compared to the group receiving PBS. Our data show that antigen-specific antibodies can be isolated from plasma obtained from non-immunized chickens. Such antibodies that resemble natural antibodies as described in mammals may perform an important role in the enhancement of subsequent antigen-specific antibody responses or the maturation of the immune system, which may differ from the role of specific antibodies. PMID:12962982

  13. Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought”: Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class

    PubMed Central

    Hazel, Susan J.; O’Dwyer, Lisel; Ryan, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Our attitudes to animals are linked to our beliefs about their cognitive abilities, such as intelligence and capacity to experience emotional states. In this study, undergraduate students were surveyed on their attitudes to chickens pre- and post- a practical class in which they learnt to clicker train chickens. Students were more likely to agree that chickens are intelligent and easy to teach tricks to, and that chickens feel emotions such as boredom, frustration and happiness, following the practical class. Similar workshops may be an effective method to improve animal training skills, and promote more positive attitudes to specific animal species. Abstract A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1) the practical class changed students’ attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2) any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals. PMID

  14. Ecdysteriod titers during the molt cycle of the blue crab resemble those of other crustacea

    SciTech Connect

    Soumoff, C.; Skinner, D.M.

    1983-08-01

    Callinectes sapidus is the only true crab (brachyuran) whose pattern of ecdysteroid titers has been described as departing from the pattern seen in other decapods. While ecdysteroids in other crabs reach a peak just prior to ecdysis, those of C. sapidus were claimed to reach their maxima after ecdysis. The data reported here challenge these findings. Ecdysteroids were measured in hemolymph, ovaries, and whole animal extracts of blue crabs using a radioimmunoassay. In hemolymph and whole animals, ecdysteroid levels rose during premolt to a maximum at stage D/sub 3/. Ecdysteroids declined rapidly from late premolt stage D/sub 4/ through postmolt stage A/sub 2/, increased slightly at postmolt stage B, and returned to low levels where they remained during intermolt stage C. Ecdysteroid levels in males and immature females were not significantly different but mature females, having reached a terminal anecdysis, had signifincatly lower ecdysteroid levels. Ovaries of mature females accumulated ecdysteroids during vitellogenesis while the concentration of ecdysteroids in hemolymph was low.

  15. Experimental inoculation of specific pathogen free broiler chickens with a thyroid homogenate, containing chicken astrovirus, which was collected from broiler chickens with runting-stunting syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thyroid glands were collected from field broiler chickens with clinical signs and lesions of Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS), submitted for histopathology and processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using chicken Astrovirus primers. One-day-old White Rock specific pathogen free (SPF) ...

  16. Phenotypic variation of native chicken populations in northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Halima, Hassen; Neser, F W C; van Marle-Koster, E; de Kock, A

    2007-10-01

    Seven indigenous chicken populations were identified and characterized from four administrative zones in northwest Ethiopia. A total of three hundred chickens were characterized under field conditions for qualitative and quantitative traits following standard chicken descriptors. Large phenotypic variability among chicken populations was observed for plumage color. About 25.49, 22.3, and 16.4 % of the chickens have white, grayish and red plumage colors, respectively. The rest showed a considerable heterogeneity like black, multicolor, black with white tips, red brownish and white with red striped plumage colors. The following characteristics were also displayed: plain head shape (51.18%), yellow shank color (64.42%) and pea comb (50.72%). About 97.52% of the chickens did not have feathers on their legs. Variations were also observed on quantitative characters such as shank length, egg size and body weight and other reproductive traits characterized on intensive management system. PMID:17969713

  17. Behavior of chickens prior to death from sudden death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Newberry, R C; Gardiner, E E; Hunt, J R

    1987-09-01

    A study was made to determine if chickens dying from sudden death syndrome (SDS) showed any unusual behavioral characteristics during the final 12 h preceding death. Continuous video recordings were made of floor pens of 50 to 120 individually marked male broiler chickens between 3 and 10 wk of age. Behavioral data were obtained from video tapes played back following death of chickens from SDS. Analysis of the video tapes revealed no significant differences between 10 SDS chickens and their matched controls in the frequencies or proportions of time spent in each of 19 different behavioral activities. All SDS chickens exhibited a sudden attack prior to death lasting an average of 53 s and characterized by loss of balance, violent flapping, and strong muscular contractions. There was no evidence that death was preceded by a particular environmental or behavioral event. It was concluded that there were no consistent behavioral symptoms which could be used to identify SDS chickens prior to death. PMID:3684869

  18. Phylogen of immunoglobulin structure and function. 3. Immunoglobulins of the chicken.

    PubMed

    Leslie, G A; Clem, L W

    1969-12-01

    Chicken 7.1S immunoglobulin was purified from whole chicken serum by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration. The macroglobulin was purified by a combination of salt precipitation and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration. Both immunoglobulin molecules yielded 75% heavy (H) chains and 25% light (L) chains when subjected to extensive reduction and alkylation followed by gel filtration in 5 M guanidine-HCl. Antigenically reactive H and L chains were obtained by partial reduction and alkylation followed by gel filtration in 5 M guanidine-HCl. The 7.1S and 16.7S immunoglobulin H chains were antigenically unrelated to each other, whereas the L chains were antigenically indistinguishable from one another. The 16.7S H chains were found to have a mass of approximately 70,000, and the 7.1S H chains had a mass of 67,500. The mass of the L chains was approximately 22,000. Sedimentation equilibrium studies of the 7.1S immunoglobulin molecule gave a mol wt of approximately 170,000 which is in good agreement with the 179,000 predicted on the basis of 2 H and 2 L polypeptide chains. The 16.7S molecule was shown to have a mol wt of approximately 890,000. A reductive subunit that has a mol wt of approximately 174,000 has been isolated from the 16.7S molecule. These values are consistent with the chicken macroglobulin having five subunits, each of which has 2 H and 2 L chains. The hexose contents of the chicken 7.1S and 16.7S immunoglobulins are 2.2% and 2.6%, respectively. The extinction coefficients of the 7.1S and 16.7S immunoglobulins were 13.18 +/- 0.04 and 12.72 +/- 0.77, respectively, when measured in 0.3 M KCl. Based upon physical-chemical and antigenic characteristics, the 16.7S immunoglobulin most closely resembles IgM of mammals. The 7.1S immunoglobulin definitely belongs to a different class than the 16,7S immunoglobulin, but it does not align itself very well with any of the mammalian immunoglobulins. We propose that this molecule be designated as Ig

  19. Late Babylonian Astrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John M.

    The last five centuries BC saw the development of several new forms of astrology in Babylonia. Key to these new astrological techniques was the invention of the zodiac in about 400 BC. These new forms of astrology include personal horoscopes, astral medicine, and the exploitation of geometrical relationships between the position of heavenly bodies. Several Late Babylonian astrological doctrines were later adopted within Greek astrology.

  20. Development of intestinal mucin 2, IgA, and polymeric Ig receptor expressions in broiler chickens and Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Eicher, Susan D; Applegate, Todd J

    2015-02-01

    Intestinal mucin 2 (MUC2), a major gel-forming mucin, represents a primary barrier component of mucus layers and a target site for secretory IgA. Polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR) expressed on the basolateral surface of epithelium is used to transport polymeric IgA from the lamina propria into luminal mucins to establish the first lines of intestinal defense. To determine the spatio-temporal expression of MUC2, IgA, and pIgR in broiler chickens and Pekin ducks, intestinal tissues (n=6/age) were dissected from late embryonic days up to 21 d posthatch. In the intestinal tissues, MUC2 was expressed with a rapid increase at hatching, followed by steady expression through 21 d posthatch both in chickens and ducks. IgA expression was low during the first week following hatching for both species. From the second week posthatch, IgA was rapidly expressed in the chickens, arriving at steady expression in the third week after hatching. However, in ducks, IgA expression during the 2 to 3 wk posthatch period was relatively slow. The expression of pIgR was greatly increased after hatching for both species, but its expression in ducks was relatively delayed. In addition, intestinal pIgR expression was highly correlated with MUC2 and IgA expressions in chickens but just moderately correlated in ducks. The relatively slow and late expression of IgA and pIgR as well as their moderate correlation may or may not account for the susceptibility of ducklings to mucosal pathogens at a young age. PMID:25589081

  1. NK-/T-cell lymphoma resembling hydroa vacciniforme with positive CD4 marker expression: a diagnostic difficulty.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guiying; Bai, Harrison X; Yang, Li; Ma, Michael H; Su, Yuwen; Luo, Yangyang; Wen, Haiquan; Lu, Qianjin; Xiao, Rong

    2013-02-01

    A 35-year-old Chinese woman presented with a 2.5-year history of facial swelling in the left lower quadrant and a 10-month history of relapsing red papules and vesicles in the perioral area resembling hydroa vacciniforme. Histologically, a tissue biopsy showed a dense infiltration of medium-sized atypical lymphocytic cells expressing CD4 and CD56. A diagnosis of cutaneous NK-/T-cell lymphoma was made. The patient was treated with alpha-interferon, valaciclovir hydrochloride, and low-dose prednisone for 2 months. Her skin lesions and lymphoadenopathy resolved initially, but she succumbed to the disease shortly after starting chemotherapy treatment 11 months later. To our knowledge, this is the first case of CD4CD56 NK-/T-cell lymphoma with clinical features resembling hydroa vacciniforme. PMID:22885552

  2. Genome-wide Association Study of Chicken Plumage Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Na; Choi, Jin Ae; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Tae-Hun; Cho, Seoae; Lee, Taeheon

    2013-11-01

    To increase plumage color uniformity and understand the genetic background of Korean chickens, we performed a genome-wide association study of different plumage color in Korean native chickens. We analyzed 60K SNP chips on 279 chickens with GEMMA methods for GWAS and estimated the genetic heritability for plumage color. The estimated heritability suggests that plumage coloration is a polygenic trait. We found new loci associated with feather pigmentation at the genome-wide level and from the results infer that there are additional genetic effect for plumage color. The results will be used for selecting and breeding chicken for plumage color uniformity. PMID:25049737

  3. Production of transgenic chickens using an avian retroviral vector

    SciTech Connect

    Kopchick, J.; Mills, E.; Rosenblum C.; Taylor, J.; Kelder, B.; Smith, J.; Chen, H.

    1987-05-01

    The authors efforts to insert genes into the chicken germ line are dependent upon the ability of exogenous avian retroviruses to infect chicken germ cells. They have used a transformation defective Schmidt Ruppin A strain of Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV-SRA) in their initial experiments. The general protocol involved generating RSV-SRA viremic female chickens (Go), which shed exogenous virus via the oviduct. As the fertilized egg passes through the oviduct, embryonic cells are exposed to the virus. If the germ cell precursors are infected by the virus, offspring (G1) should be generated which are capable of passing the viral DNA to the next generation (G2). Fifteen viremic G1 males were selected for breeding and progeny testing. Since male chickens do not congenitally pass retroviruses through semen, production of viremic G2 offspring indicates germ line DNA transmission. This is confirmed by DNA analysis of the experimental chickens. Using a specific probe for exogenous retrovirus, they have detected the presence of RSV-SRA DNA in viremic chickens. Southern DNA analysis revealed junction fragments for RSV-SRA DNA in viremic G2 chickens, but not in non-viremic siblings. Furthermore, DNA isolated from various tissues of a viremic G2 chicken showed an identical DNA junction fragment pattern, indicating all tissues were derived from the same embryonic cell which contained integrated provirus. To date they have generated 50 transgenic chickens.

  4. Radioiodination of chicken luteinizing hormone without affecting receptor binding potency

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, M.; Ishii, S. )

    1989-12-01

    By improving the currently used lactoperoxidase method, we were able to obtain radioiodinated chicken luteinizing hormone (LH) that shows high specific binding and low nonspecific binding to a crude plasma membrane fraction of testicular cells of the domestic fowl and the Japanese quail, and to the ovarian granulosa cells of the Japanese quail. The change we made from the original method consisted of (1) using chicken LH for radioiodination that was not only highly purified but also retained a high receptor binding potency; (2) controlling the level of incorporation of radioiodine into chicken LH molecules by employing a short reaction time and low temperature; and (3) fractionating radioiodinated chicken LH further by gel filtration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Specific radioactivity of the final {sup 125}I-labeled chicken LH preparation was 14 microCi/micrograms. When specific binding was 12-16%, nonspecific binding was as low as 2-4% in the gonadal receptors. {sup 125}I-Labeled chicken LH was displaced by chicken LH and ovine LH but not by chicken follicle-stimulating hormone. The equilibrium association constant of quail testicular receptor was 3.6 x 10(9) M-1. We concluded that chicken LH radioiodinated by the present method is useful for studies of avian LH receptors.

  5. Humanization of a chicken anti-IL-12 monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Tsurushita, Naoya; Park, Minha; Pakabunto, Kanokwan; Ong, Kelly; Avdalovic, Anamarija; Fu, Helen; Jia, Audrey; Vásquez, Max; Kumar, Shankar

    2004-12-01

    Chicken anti-IL-12 monoclonal antibodies were isolated by phage display using spleen cells from a chicken immunized with human and mouse IL-12 as a source for library construction. One of the chicken monoclonal antibodies, DD2, exhibited binding to both human and mouse IL-12 in the single-chain Fv form and also after conversion to chicken-human chimeric IgG1/lambda antibody. The chicken DD2 variable regions were humanized by transferring their CDRs and several framework amino acids onto human acceptor variable regions. In the Vlambda, six chicken framework amino acids were identified to be important for the conformation of the CDR structure by computer modeling and therefore were retained in the humanized form; likewise, five chicken amino acids in the VH framework regions were retained in the humanized VH. The affinities of humanized DD2 IgG1/lambda to human and mouse IL-12 measured by competitive binding were nearly identical to those of chicken-human chimeric DD2 IgG1/lambda. This work demonstrates that humanization of chicken monoclonal antibodies assisted by computer modeling is possible, leading to a new way to generate therapeutic humanized antibodies against antigens to which the rodent immune system may fail to efficiently raise high affinity antibodies. PMID:15627607

  6. Isolation and characterization of avian metapneumovirus from chickens in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ji-Sun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Jeong, Seung-Hwan; Park, Jeong-Yong; Hong, Young-Ho; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Youn, Ho-Sik; Lee, Dong-Woo; Do, Sun-Hee; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Joong-Bok

    2010-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes upper respiratory tract infections in chickens and turkeys. Although the swollen head syndrome (SHS) associated with aMPV in chickens has been reported in Korea since 1992, this is the study isolating aMPV from chickens in this country. We examined 780 oropharyngeal swab or nasal turbinate samples collected from 130 chicken flocks to investigate the prevalence of aMPV and to isolate aMPV from chickens from 2004-2008. Twelve aMPV subtype A and 13 subtype B strains were detected from clinical samples by the aMPV subtype A and B multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). Partial sequence analysis of the G glycoprotein gene confirmed that the detected aMPVs belonged to subtypes A and B. Two aMPVs subtype A out of the 25 detected aMPVs were isolated by Vero cell passage. In animal experiments with an aMPV isolate, viral RNA was detected in nasal discharge, although no clinical signs of SHS were observed in chickens. In contrast to chickens, turkeys showed severe nasal discharge and a relatively higher titer of viral excretion than chickens. Here, we reveal the co-circulation of aMPV subtypes A and B, and isolate aMPVs from chicken flocks in Korea. PMID:20195066

  7. [Psoas abscess as a chicken pox complication].

    PubMed

    Larcamon, Jorge E; Juanco, Gabriela; Alvarez, Lionel A; Pebe, Florián V

    2010-06-01

    Chicken pox is the most frequent exantematic illness; usually its course is self-limited and benign. Several bacterial complications are described due to the disruption of the skin as a defensive barrier because of the characteristics of the injuries and the associated inmunodepression. Psoas abscess is a rare illness and it's difficult to diagnose, with a general unspecified clinical presentation. We present the case of a 5-year-old girl, on her fifth day of chicken pox, who consults about a febrile convulsion, from which she recovers without any neurological symptoms, referring to functional impotence of her inferior left limb and pain in the lumbar and gluteal zone, which irradiates to the homolateral hip, making deambulation impossible. The definitive diagnosis was made with a CAT at hospital admission. The germ isolated was community-acquired methricillin-resistant Staphilococcus aureus. Treatment consisted in surgical drainage and endovenous antibiotics. PMID:20544129

  8. [Composition of chicken and quail eggs].

    PubMed

    Closa, S J; Marchesich, C; Cabrera, M; Morales, J C

    1999-06-01

    Qualified food composition data on lipids composition are needed to evaluate intakes as a risk factor in the development of heart disease. Proximal composition, cholesterol and fatty acid content of chicken and quail eggs, usually consumed or traded, were analysed. Proximal composition were determined using AOAC (1984) specific techniques; lipids were extracted by a Folch's modified technique and cholesterol and fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. Results corroborate the stability of eggs composition. Cholesterol content of quail eggs is similar to chicken eggs, but it is almost the half content of data registered in Handbook 8. Differences may be attributed to the analytical methodology used to obtain them. This study provides data obtained with up-date analytical techniques and accessory information useful for food composition tables. PMID:10488399

  9. Infection-interactions in Ethiopian village chickens.

    PubMed

    Bettridge, J M; Lynch, S E; Brena, M C; Melese, K; Dessie, T; Terfa, Z G; Desta, T T; Rushton, S; Hanotte, O; Kaiser, P; Wigley, P; Christley, R M

    2014-11-15

    Chickens raised under village production systems are exposed to a wide variety of pathogens, and current or previous infections may affect their susceptibility to further infections with another parasite, and/or can alter the manifestation of each infection. It is possible that co-infections may be as important as environmental risk factors. However, in cross-sectional studies, where the timing of infection is unknown, apparent associations between infections may be observed due to parasites sharing common risk factors. This study measured antibody titres to 3 viral (Newcastle disease, Marek's disease and infectious bursal disease) and 2 bacterial (Pasteurella multocida and Salmonella) diseases, and the infection prevalence of 3 families of endo- and ecto-parasites (Ascaridida, Eimeria and lice) in 1056 village chickens from two geographically distinct populations in Ethiopia. Samples were collected during 4 cross-sectional surveys, each approximately 6 months apart. Constrained ordination, a technique for analysis of ecological community data, was used to explore this complex dataset and enabled potential relationships to be uncovered and tested despite the different measurements used for the different parasites. It was found that only a small proportion of variation in the data could be explained by the risk factors measured. Very few birds (9/1280) were found to be seropositive to Newcastle disease. Positive relationships were identified between Pasteurella and Salmonella titres; and between Marek's disease and parasitic infections, and these two groups of diseases were correlated with females and males, respectively. This may suggest differences in the way that the immune systems of male and female chickens interact with these parasites. In conclusion, we find that a number of infectious pathogens and their interactions are likely to impact village chicken health and production. Control of these infections is likely to be of importance in future development

  10. Infection-interactions in Ethiopian village chickens

    PubMed Central

    Bettridge, J.M.; Lynch, S.E.; Brena, M.C.; Melese, K.; Dessie, T.; Terfa, Z.G.; Desta, T.T.; Rushton, S.; Hanotte, O.; Kaiser, P.; Wigley, P.; Christley, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Chickens raised under village production systems are exposed to a wide variety of pathogens, and current or previous infections may affect their susceptibility to further infections with another parasite, and/or can alter the manifestation of each infection. It is possible that co-infections may be as important as environmental risk factors. However, in cross-sectional studies, where the timing of infection is unknown, apparent associations between infections may be observed due to parasites sharing common risk factors. This study measured antibody titres to 3 viral (Newcastle disease, Marek's disease and infectious bursal disease) and 2 bacterial (Pasteurella multocida and Salmonella) diseases, and the infection prevalence of 3 families of endo- and ecto-parasites (Ascaridida, Eimeria and lice) in 1056 village chickens from two geographically distinct populations in Ethiopia. Samples were collected during 4 cross-sectional surveys, each approximately 6 months apart. Constrained ordination, a technique for analysis of ecological community data, was used to explore this complex dataset and enabled potential relationships to be uncovered and tested despite the different measurements used for the different parasites. It was found that only a small proportion of variation in the data could be explained by the risk factors measured. Very few birds (9/1280) were found to be seropositive to Newcastle disease. Positive relationships were identified between Pasteurella and Salmonella titres; and between Marek's disease and parasitic infections, and these two groups of diseases were correlated with females and males, respectively. This may suggest differences in the way that the immune systems of male and female chickens interact with these parasites. In conclusion, we find that a number of infectious pathogens and their interactions are likely to impact village chicken health and production. Control of these infections is likely to be of importance in future development

  11. Opposite-sex siblings decrease attraction, but not prosocial attributions, to self-resembling opposite-sex faces

    PubMed Central

    DeBruine, Lisa M.; Jones, Benedict C.; Watkins, Christopher D.; Roberts, S. Craig; Little, Anthony C.; Smith, Finlay G.; Quist, Michelle C.

    2011-01-01

    Contextual cues of genetic relatedness to familiar individuals, such as cosocialization and maternal–perinatal association, modulate prosocial and inbreeding-avoidance behaviors toward specific potential siblings. These findings have been interpreted as evidence that contextual cues of kinship indirectly influence social behavior by affecting the perceived probability of genetic relatedness to familiar individuals. Here, we test a more general alternative model in which contextual cues of kinship can influence the kin-recognition system more directly, changing how the mechanisms that regulate social behavior respond to cues of kinship, even in unfamiliar individuals for whom contextual cues of kinship are absent. We show that having opposite-sex siblings influences inbreeding-relevant perceptions of facial resemblance but not prosocial perceptions. Women with brothers were less attracted to self-resembling, unfamiliar male faces than were women without brothers, and both groups found self-resemblance to be equally trustworthy for the same faces. Further analyses suggest that this effect is driven by younger, rather than older, brothers, consistent with the proposal that only younger siblings exhibit the strong kinship cue of maternal–perinatal association. Our findings provide evidence that experience with opposite-sex siblings can directly influence inbreeding-avoidance mechanisms and demonstrate a striking functional dissociation between the mechanisms that regulate inbreeding and the mechanisms that regulate prosocial behavior toward kin. PMID:21709272

  12. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium in retail chicken meat and chicken giblets

    PubMed Central

    El-Aziz, Doaa M Abd

    2013-01-01

    Objective To detect Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), one of the most frequently isolated serovars from food borne outbreaks throughout the world, in retail raw chicken meat and giblets. Methods One hundred samples of retail raw chicken meat and giblets (Liver, heart and gizzard) which were collected from Assiut city markets for detection of the organism and by using Duplex PCR amplification of DNA using rfbJ and fliC genes. Results S. typhimurium was detected at rate of 44%, 40% and 48% in chicken meat, liver and heart, respectively, but not detected in gizzard. Conclusions The results showed high incidence of S. typhimurium in the examined samples and greater emphasis should be applied on prevention and control of contamination during processing for reducing food-borne risks to consumers. PMID:23998006

  13. Toxicoinfectious botulism in commercial caponized chickens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trampel, D.W.; Smith, S.R.; Rocke, T.E.

    2005-01-01

    During the summer of 2003, two flocks of commercial broiler chickens experienced unusually high death losses following caponizing at 3 wk of age and again between 8 and 14 wk of age. In September, fifteen 11-wk-old live capons were submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for assistance. In both flocks, the second episode of elevated mortality was associated with incoordination, flaccid paralysis of leg, wing, and neck muscles, a recumbent body posture characterized by neck extension, and diarrhea. No macroscopic or microscopic lesions were detected in affected chickens. Hearts containing clotted blood and ceca were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center in Madison, WI. Type C botulinum toxin was identified in heart blood and ceca by mouse bioassay tests. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests on heart blood samples were also positive for type C botulinum toxin. Clostridium botulinum was isolated from the ceca and genes encoding type C botulinum toxin were detected in cecal contents by a polymerase chain reaction test. Chickens are less susceptible to botulism as they age, and this disease has not previously been documented in broilers as old as 14 wk of age. Wound contamination by spores of C. botulinum may have contributed to the unusually high death losses following caponizing.

  14. India`s first solar chicken brooder

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, P.; Naryanaswamy, T.S.; Kumar, A.; Choudhary, U.; Sharma, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    A 1,200 bird solar chicken brooder was indigenously designed and operated by the Indian scientists for the first time in the country as a Project under funding by the Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources to the All India Women`s Conference. This multi disciplinary project was taken up on the International Sun Day, May 3, 1993 and completed on May, 1994. Data has been collected for the first nine months of operation. Its successful operation has justified multi disciplinary approach. The solar chicken brooder incorporates modern poultry concepts of breeding under controlled temperatures. In view of the mixed climate of Delhi, provision was made for heating and cooling both to take care of the 24 hour cycle. Comfort conditions have been identified and maintained (as is done in the their genetic characteristics) at different temperatures for a period of 8--10 weeks to grow them to a uniform weight of 2.0 kg. Growing them under controlled temperature for the first 4 weeks and then at room temperature was another new concept to grow hard stock. This development has opened avenues for new food industry based on processing of chicken utilizing internationally available technologies.

  15. Gastrointestinal parasites of free-range chickens.

    PubMed

    Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Tobiańska, Berenika; Tarasewicz, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of parasitic gastrointestinal infections in free-range chickens from the West Pomerania province. Experimental material for the study was taken from 10 farms. Breeds raised in farms participating in the study included miniature chickens called Polish Lilliputians and Green- legged Partridge. A total of 104 samples of faeces were examined. The Willis-Schlaff flotation method was used to assess the prevalence of infection, and McMaster's method to evaluate the intensity. The presence of gastrointestinal parasites was found in 9 of the 10 farms. Oocysts of the genus Eimeria and eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Trichostrongylus tenuis were isolated from the chicken faeces. Coccidiosis was found to be dominant parasitosis. The prevalence of infections on these farms with protozoa of Eimeria spp. was on average 32.7%, while for nematode species they amounted to 9.6% for Ascaridia galli, 5.7% for Heterakis gallinarum and 12.5% for Trichostrongylus tenuis. The results indicate the need to take preventive measures, designed to eliminate/reduce the risk of parasitoses in poultry from free-range systems. Focus should be placed on the hygiene of the farming conditions. PMID:25706430

  16. Screening for Salmonella in backyard chickens.

    PubMed

    Manning, Johanna; Gole, Vaibhav; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2015-06-15

    Salmonellosis is a significant zoonotic disease which has a considerable economic impact on the egg layer industry. There is limited information about the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in backyard chickens, and the associated virulence of any serovars identified. Hundred and fifteen pooled samples from 30 backyard flocks in South Australia were screened. Four flocks tested positive for Salmonella spp. The overall Salmonella isolation rate in the current study was 10.4%. The estimated prevalence at individual bird level was 0.02% (95% CI 0.025-0.975). The serovars isolated were Salmonella Agona, Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) and Salmonella Bovismorbificans. All Salmonella isolates tested positive for the prgH, orfL and spiC genes. The Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) had the most antibiotic resistance, being resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin and having intermediate resistance to florphenicol. All of the Salmonella Agona had intermediate resistance to the ampicillin, while the Salmonella Bovismorbificans were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the increased interest of keeping backyard chickens, the current study highlights the zoonotic risk from Salmonella spp. associated with home flocks. PMID:25899620

  17. Necrotic enteritis predisposing factors in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Moore, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    Necrotic enteritis in chickens develops as a result of infection with pathogenic strains of Clostridium perfringens and the presence of predisposing factors. Predisposing factors include elements that directly change the physical properties of the gut, either damaging the epithelial surface, inducing mucus production, or changing gut transit times; factors that disrupt the gut microbiota; and factors that alter the immune status of birds. In the past research into necrotic enteritis predisposing factors was directed by the simple hypothesis that low-level colonization of C. perfringens commonly occurred within the gut of healthy chickens and the predisposing factors lead to a proliferation of those bacteria to produce disease. More recently, with an increasing understanding of the major virulence factors of C. perfringens and the application of molecular techniques to define different clades of C. perfringens strains, it has become clear that the C. perfringens isolates commonly found in healthy chickens are generally not strains that have the potential to cause disease. Therefore, we need to re-evaluate hypotheses regarding the development of disease, the origin of disease causing isolates of C. perfringens, and the importance of interactions with other C. perfringens strains and with predisposing factors. Many predisposing factors that affect the physical and immunological characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract may also change the resident microbiota. Research directed towards defining the relative importance of each of these different actions of predisposing factors will improve the understanding of disease pathogenesis and may allow refinement of experiment disease models. PMID:26926926

  18. Optical diffusion property of chicken tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Patricia S.; Flamholz, Alex; Wong, Peter K.; Lieberman, David H.; Cheung, Tak D.; Itoka, Harriet; Minott, Troy; Quizhpi, Janie; Rodriguez, Jacquelin

    2004-11-01

    Chicken tissue acts as a turbid medium in optical wavelength. Optical characterization data of fresh chicken dark and white meat were studied using the theory of light diffusion. The gaussian-like transmission profile was used to determine the transport mean free path and absorption. The refractive index, a fundamental parameter, was extracted via transmission correlation function analysis without using index-matching fluid. The variation in refractive index also produced various small shifts in the oscillatory feature of the intensity spatial correlation function at distance shorter than the transport mean free path. The optical system was calibrated with porous silicate slabs containing different water contents and also with a solid alumina slab. The result suggested that the selective scattering/absorption of myoglobin and mitochondria in the dark tissues is consistent with the transmission data. The refractive index was similar for dark and white tissues at the He-Ne wavelength and suggested that the index could serve as a marker for quality control. Application to chicken lunchmeat samples revealed that higher protein and lower carbohydrate would shift the correlation toward smaller distance. The pure fat refractive index was different from that of the meat tissue. Application of refractive index as a fat marker is also discussed

  19. Inhibitor of DNA synthesis is present in normal chicken serum

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, R.A.; Davila, D.R.; Westly, H.J.; Kelley, K.W.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have found that heat-inactivated serum (57/sup 0/C for 1 hour) from normal chickens reduces the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated chicken and murine splenocytes as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines. Greater than a 50% reduction in /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation was observed when concanavalin A (Con A)-activated chicken splenocytes that were cultured in the presence of 10% autologous or heterologous serum were compared to mitogen-stimulated cells cultured in the absence of serum. Normal chicken serum (10%) also caused greater than 95% suppression of /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation by bovine (EBL-1 and BL-3) and gibbon ape (MLA 144) transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The only cell line tested that was not inhibited by chicken serum was an IL-2-dependent, murine cell line. Chicken serum also inhibited both /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation and IL-2 synthesis by Con A-activated murine splenocytes. Suppression was caused by actions other than cytotoxicity because viability of chicken splenocytes was unaffected by increasing levels of chicken serum. Furthermore, dialyzed serum retained its activity, which suggested that thymidine in the serum was not inhibiting uptake of radiolabeled thymidine. Suppressive activity was not due to adrenal glucocorticoids circulating in plasma because neither physiologic nor pharmacologic doses of corticosterone had inhibitory effects on mitogen-stimulated chicken splenocytes. These data demonstrate that an endogenous factor that is found in normal chicken serum inhibits proliferation of T-cells from chickens and mice as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines.

  20. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins

    PubMed Central

    Olvera-Carrillo, Yadira; Reyes, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate at the onset of seed desiccation and in response to water deficit in vegetative plant tissues. The typical LEA proteins are highly hydrophilic and intrinsically unstructured. They have been classified in different families, each one showing distinctive conserved motifs. In this manuscript we present and discuss some of the recent findings regarding their role in plant adaptation to water deficit, as well as those concerning to their possible function, and how it can be related to their intrinsic structural flexibility. PMID:21447997

  1. Late Washing efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-08-31

    Interim Waste Technology has demonstrated the Late Washing concept on the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. In two tests, washing reduced the [NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}] from 0.08 M to approximately 0.01 M on slurries with 2 year equivalent radiation exposures and 9.5 wt. % solids. For both washes, the [NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}] decreased at rates near theoretical for a constant volume stirred vessel, indicating approximately l00% washing efficiency. Permeate flux was greater than 0.05 gpm/ft{sup 2} for both washes at a transmembrane pressure of 50 psi and flow velocity of 9 ft/sec.

  2. Spontaneous locomotor activity in late-stage chicken embryos is modified by stretch of leg muscles.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Nina S; Ryu, Young U; Yeseta, Marie C

    2014-03-15

    Chicks initiate bilateral alternating steps several days before hatching and adaptively walk within hours of hatching, but emergence of precocious walking skills is not well understood. One of our aims was to determine whether interactions between environment and movement experience prior to hatching are instrumental in establishing precocious motor skills. However, physiological evidence of proprioceptor development in the chick has yet to be established; thus, one goal of this study was to determine when in embryogenesis proprioception circuits can code changes in muscle length. A second goal was to determine whether proprioception circuits can modulate leg muscle activity during repetitive limb movements for stepping (RLMs). We hypothesized that proprioception circuits code changes in muscle length and/or tension, and modulate locomotor circuits producing RLMs in anticipation of adaptive locomotion at hatching. To this end, leg muscle activity and kinematics were recorded in embryos during normal posture and after fitting one ankle with a restraint that supported the limb in an atypical posture. We tested the hypotheses by comparing leg muscle activity during spontaneous RLMs in control posture and ankle extension restraint. The results indicated that proprioceptors detect changes in muscle length and/or muscle tension 3 days before hatching. Ankle extension restraint produced autogenic excitation of the ankle flexor and reciprocal inhibition of the ankle extensor. Restraint also modified knee extensor activity during RLMs 1 day before hatching. We consider the strengths and limitations of these results and propose that proprioception contributes to precocious locomotor development during the final 3 days before hatching. PMID:24265423

  3. Identification and quantification of methanogenic archaea in adult chicken ceca

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methanogens, members of the domain Archaea, have been isolated from various animals but few reports exists regarding the isolation of methanogens from chicken, goose, and turkey feces. By using molecular methods for the identification and quantification of methanogenic archea in adult chicken ceca,...

  4. Chicken domestication: an updated perspective based on mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Y-W; Peng, M-S; Wu, G-S; Ouyang, Y-N; Yang, Z-Y; Yu, N; Liang, J-P; Pianchou, G; Beja-Pereira, A; Mitra, B; Palanichamy, M G; Baig, M; Chaudhuri, T K; Shen, Y-Y; Kong, Q-P; Murphy, R W; Yao, Y-G; Zhang, Y-P

    2013-01-01

    Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) fulfill various roles ranging from food and entertainment to religion and ornamentation. To survey its genetic diversity and trace the history of domestication, we investigated a total of 4938 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments including 2843 previously published and 2095 de novo units from 2044 domestic chickens and 51 red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). To obtain the highest possible level of molecular resolution, 50 representative samples were further selected for total mtDNA genome sequencing. A fine-gained mtDNA phylogeny was investigated by defining haplogroups A–I and W–Z. Common haplogroups A–G were shared by domestic chickens and red junglefowl. Rare haplogroups H–I and W–Z were specific to domestic chickens and red junglefowl, respectively. We re-evaluated the global mtDNA profiles of chickens. The geographic distribution for each of major haplogroups was examined. Our results revealed new complexities of history in chicken domestication because in the phylogeny lineages from the red junglefowl were mingled with those of the domestic chickens. Several local domestication events in South Asia, Southwest China and Southeast Asia were identified. The assessment of chicken mtDNA data also facilitated our understanding about the Austronesian settlement in the Pacific. PMID:23211792

  5. Chicken domestication: an updated perspective based on mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Miao, Y-W; Peng, M-S; Wu, G-S; Ouyang, Y-N; Yang, Z-Y; Yu, N; Liang, J-P; Pianchou, G; Beja-Pereira, A; Mitra, B; Palanichamy, M G; Baig, M; Chaudhuri, T K; Shen, Y-Y; Kong, Q-P; Murphy, R W; Yao, Y-G; Zhang, Y-P

    2013-03-01

    Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) fulfill various roles ranging from food and entertainment to religion and ornamentation. To survey its genetic diversity and trace the history of domestication, we investigated a total of 4938 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments including 2843 previously published and 2095 de novo units from 2044 domestic chickens and 51 red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). To obtain the highest possible level of molecular resolution, 50 representative samples were further selected for total mtDNA genome sequencing. A fine-gained mtDNA phylogeny was investigated by defining haplogroups A-I and W-Z. Common haplogroups A-G were shared by domestic chickens and red junglefowl. Rare haplogroups H-I and W-Z were specific to domestic chickens and red junglefowl, respectively. We re-evaluated the global mtDNA profiles of chickens. The geographic distribution for each of major haplogroups was examined. Our results revealed new complexities of history in chicken domestication because in the phylogeny lineages from the red junglefowl were mingled with those of the domestic chickens. Several local domestication events in South Asia, Southwest China and Southeast Asia were identified. The assessment of chicken mtDNA data also facilitated our understanding about the Austronesian settlement in the Pacific. PMID:23211792

  6. Antimicrobial activity of chicken NK-lysin against Eimeria sporozoites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NK-lysin is an antimicrobial and antitumor polypeptide that is considered to play an important role during innate immunity. Chicken NK-lysin is a member of the saposin-like protein family and exhibits potent antitumor cell activity. To evaluate the antimicrobial properties of chicken NK-lysin, we ex...

  7. Integrated genomic approaches to enhance genetic resistance in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chicken has led the way amongst agricultural animal species in infectious disease control and, in particular, selection for genetic resistance. The generation of the chicken genome sequence and the availability of other empowering tools and resources greatly enhance the ability to select for enh...

  8. Machine vision system for online inspection of freshly slaughtered chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A machine vision system was developed and evaluated for the automation of online inspection to differentiate freshly slaughtered wholesome chickens from systemically diseased chickens. The system consisted of an electron-multiplying charge-coupled-device camera used with an imaging spectrograph and ...

  9. HIGH THROUGHPUT SPECTRAL IMAGING SYSTEM FOR WHOLESOMENESS INSPECTION OF CHICKEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An online line-scan imaging system containing an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device detector and line-scan spectrograph was used for identifying wholesome and unwholesome freshly slaughtered chicken carcasses on high-speed commercial chicken processing lines. Hyperspectral images were acqui...

  10. Maternal genealogical patterns of chicken breeds sampled in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe. PMID:26059109

  11. Short-term effects of triiodothyronine on hypothyroid chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    These experiments determined relationships among certain indices of lipid metabolism and gene expression in chickens fed methimazole. Male, broiler chickens were fed diets containing 18% crude protein and either 0 or 1 g methimazole per kg of diet. At 28 days, these two groups were further subdivide...

  12. Immune responses in cecal tonsils of MDV-infected chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens that is caused by a highly cell-associated oncogenic '-herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4+ T cells. Clinical signs of MD include dep...

  13. Qualitative map of Salmonella contamination on the chicken carcass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella contamination of poultry is a global public health problem. The objective of this study was to map the distribution of Salmonella on the chicken carcass for the purpose of improving poultry inspection and food safety. Young chickens (n = 70) in the Cornish game hen class were obtained a...

  14. Lipoprotein metabolism differs between Marek's disease susceptible and resistant chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by MD virus and has an important impact on the poultry industry worldwide.There have been reports showing different physiological characteristics between MD susceptible and resistant chickens. However, little is known about whe...

  15. Art meets science: The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project.

    PubMed

    Stinckens, A; Vereijken, A; Ons, E; Konings, P; Van As, P; Cuppens, H; Moreau, Y; Sakai, R; Aerts, J; Goddeeris, B; Buys, N; Vanmechelen, K; Cassiman, J J

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmopolitan Chicken Project is an artistic undertaking of renowned artist Koen Vanmechelen. In this project, the artist interbreeds domestic chickens from different countries aiming at the creation of a true Cosmopolitan Chicken as a symbol for global diversity. The unifying theme is the chicken and the egg, symbols that link scientific, political, philosophical and ethical issues. The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project is the scientific component of this artwork. Based on state of the art genomic techniques, the project studies the effect of the crossing of chickens on the genetic diversity. Also, this research is potentially applicable to the human population. The setup of the CC®P is quite different from traditional breeding experiments: starting from the crossbreed of two purebred chickens (Mechelse Koekoek x Poule de Bresse), every generation is crossed with a few animals from another breed. For 26 of these purebred and crossbred populations, genetic diversity was measured (1) under the assumption that populations were sufficiently large to maintain all informative SNP within a generation and (2) under the circumstances of the CCP breeding experiment. Under the first assumption, a steady increase in genetic diversity was witnessed over the consecutive generations, thus indeed indicating the creation of a "Cosmopolitan Chicken Genome". However, under the conditions of the CCP, which reflects the reality within the human population, diversity is seen to fluctuate within given boundaries instead of steadily increasing. A reflection on this might be that this is because, in humans, an evolutionary optimum in genetic diversity is reached. Key words. PMID:26977265

  16. Polymorphisms of Chicken TLR3 and 7 in Different Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Wenke; An, Jian; Wu, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate immune responses via the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), thus playing important roles in host defense. Among the chicken (Ch) TLR family, ChTLR3 and 7 have been shown to recognize viral RNA. In our earlier studies, we have reported polymorphisms of TLR1, 2, 4, 5, 15 and 21. In the present study, we amplified TLR3 and 7 genes from different chicken breeds and analyzed their sequences. We identified 7 amino acid polymorphism sites in ChTLR3 with 6 outer part sites and 1 inner part site, and 4 amino acid polymorphism sites in ChTLR7 with 3 outer part sites and 1 inner part site. These results demonstrate that ChTLR genes are polymorphic among different chicken breeds, suggesting a varied resistance across numerous chicken breeds. This information might help improve chicken health by breeding and vaccination. PMID:25781886

  17. Targeted gene knockout in chickens mediated by TALENs.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae Sub; Lee, Hong Jo; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Han, Jae Yong

    2014-09-01

    Genetically modified animals are used for industrial applications as well as scientific research, and studies on these animals contribute to a better understanding of biological mechanisms. Gene targeting techniques have been developed to edit specific gene loci in the genome, but the conventional strategy of homologous recombination with a gene-targeted vector has low efficiency and many technical complications. Here, we generated specific gene knockout chickens through the use of transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated gene targeting. In this study, we accomplished targeted knockout of the ovalbumin (OV) gene in the chicken primordial germ cells, and OV gene mutant offspring were generated through test-cross analysis. TALENs successfully induced nucleotide deletion mutations of ORF shifts, resulting in loss of chicken OV gene function. Our results demonstrate that the TALEN technique used in the chicken primordial germ cell line is a powerful strategy to create specific genome-edited chickens safely for practical applications. PMID:25139993

  18. Targeted gene knockout in chickens mediated by TALENs

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tae Sub; Lee, Hong Jo; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Han, Jae Yong

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified animals are used for industrial applications as well as scientific research, and studies on these animals contribute to a better understanding of biological mechanisms. Gene targeting techniques have been developed to edit specific gene loci in the genome, but the conventional strategy of homologous recombination with a gene-targeted vector has low efficiency and many technical complications. Here, we generated specific gene knockout chickens through the use of transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated gene targeting. In this study, we accomplished targeted knockout of the ovalbumin (OV) gene in the chicken primordial germ cells, and OV gene mutant offspring were generated through test-cross analysis. TALENs successfully induced nucleotide deletion mutations of ORF shifts, resulting in loss of chicken OV gene function. Our results demonstrate that the TALEN technique used in the chicken primordial germ cell line is a powerful strategy to create specific genome-edited chickens safely for practical applications. PMID:25139993

  19. Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors for Spousal Resemblance in Obesity Status and Habitual Physical Activity in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yinghui; Wang, Youfa

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses' body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses' resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA) and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses' sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients) in body mass index (BMI) and HPA were estimated by couples' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses' BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI ≥ 30, overweight: 30 > BMI ≥ 25) was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women's husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women's husbands (OR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.53–0.89)). Men's unemployment status was associated with wives' greater odds of obesity (OR = 1.31 (95% CI = 1.01–1.71)). HPA was associated with men's employment status and income level, but not with women's. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors. PMID:25332834

  20. Embryonic Origin of the Islet1 and Pax6 Neurons of the Chicken Central Extended Amygdala Using Cell Migration Assays and Relation to Different Neuropeptide-Containing Cells.

    PubMed

    Vicario, Alba; Abellán, Antonio; Medina, Loreta

    2015-01-01

    In a recent study, we tentatively identified different subdivisions of the central extended amygdala (EAce) in chicken based on the expression of region-specific transcription factors (including Pax6 and Islet1) and several phenotypic markers during embryonic development. Such a proposal was partially based on the suggestion that, similarly to the subdivisions of the EAce of mammals, the Pax6 and Islet1 neurons of the comparable chicken subdivisions derive from the dorsal (Std) or ventral striatal embryonic domains (Stv), respectively. To investigate whether this is true, in the present study, we carried out cell migration assays from chicken Std or Stv combined with immunofluorescence for Pax6 or Islet1. Our results showed that the cells of the proposed chicken EAce truly originate in either Std (expressing Pax6) or Stv (expressing Islet1). This includes lateral subdivisions previously compared to the intercalated amygdalar cells and the central amygdala of mammals, also rich in Std-derived Pax6 cells and/or Stv-derived Islet1 cells. In the medial region of the chicken EAce, the dorsal part of the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTL) contains numerous cells expressing Nkx2.1 (mostly derived from the pallidal domain), but our migration assays showed that it also contains neuron subpopulations from the Stv (expressing Islet1) and Std (expressing Pax6), resembling the mouse BSTL. These findings, together with those previously published in different species of mammals, birds and reptiles, support the homology of the chicken EAce to that of other vertebrates, and reinforce the existence of several cell subcorridors inside the EAce. In addition, together with previously published data on neuropeptidergic cells, these results led us to propose the existence of at least seventeen neuron subtypes in the EAce in rodents and/or some birds (chicken and pigeon). The functional significance and the evolutionary origin of each subtype needs to be analyzed

  1. Metabolism of narasin in chickens and Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Catherman, D R; Szabo, J; Batson, D B; Cantor, A H; Tucker, R E; Mitchell, G E

    1991-01-01

    Thirty mature chicken hens and 60 mature Japanese quail hens were used to compare pathways of narasin excretion. Carbon-14-labeled narasin was injected into chickens (.7 microCi) and quail (.113 microCi) via cardiac puncture. Blood, sampled at varying times thereafter, and eggs and excreta collected daily for 28 days, were analyzed for 14C. Groups of six chickens and 12 quail were killed prior to [14C]narasin injection and on Days 1, 7, 14, and 28 postinjection to obtain tissue samples for 14C analysis. Blood rapidly cleared the label in both species. Less than 1% of the dose of [14C]narasin remained in blood plasma after 3 h postinjection in both chickens and quail. Label excretion peaked on Day 1 in both species, and most of the 14C was cleared via the excreta (76.7 and 93.6% of the dose for quail and chickens, respectively). Label appeared in the excreta more rapidly and cleared more quickly in quail than in chickens. After 24 h, 68 and 49% of the dose of [14C]narasin appeared in the excreta of quail and chickens, respectively. More label was recovered in the eggs of quail (4.18% of the dose) than in the eggs of chickens (1.32% of the dose). Liver, heart, fat, and ovarian tissues contained traces of radioactivity 1 day postinjection in both species. Muscle and kidney did not contain detectable amounts of label. By Day 7, all tissue had cleared 14C beyond detectable limits. The results indicate that chickens and quail metabolize [14C]narasin via similar pathways and that excretion in quail may be more rapid than in chickens. PMID:2017406

  2. Use of chicken cell line LSCC-H32 for titration of animal viruses and exogenous chicken interferon.

    PubMed

    Roth, S; Kaaden, O R

    1985-03-01

    The chicken embryo cell line LSCC-H32 was tested for the propagation and titration of several animal viruses of the families Toga-, Reo-, Rhabdo-, Herpeto-, Orthomyxo-, Paramyxo-, and Poxviridae and compared with secondary chicken embryo cells. The LSCC-H32 cells were demonstrated to be as susceptible for most of the tested viruses as were secondary chicken embryo cells. Both produced comparably sized virus plaques. The titers of Sindbis and Semliki Forest viruses in LSCC-H32 cells were 5- to 40-fold higher than in secondary chicken embryo cells or BHK-21 cells, respectively. Furthermore, exogenous chicken standard interferon was titrated in the LSCC-H32 cells, and a 50% plaque titer reduction of the challenging vesicular stomatitis virus was achieved by 0.12 IU of a standard chicken interferon preparation. Endogenous chicken interferon could not be induced by treatment of the cells with polyinosinic acid-polycytidylic acid. Due to its high plating efficiency and metabolic activities, the LSCC-H32 cell line provides a useful cell system for the titration and large-scale production of the tested animal viruses and for the titration of exogenous chicken interferon. PMID:2581511

  3. Creating leptin-like biofunctions by active immunization against chicken leptin receptor in growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Lei, M M; Wu, S Q; Shao, X B; Li, X W; Chen, Z; Ying, S J; Shi, Z D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, immunization against chicken leptin receptor (cLEPR) extracellular domain (ECD) was applied to investigate leptin regulation and LEPR biofunction in growing chicken pullets. A recombinant protein (cLEPR ECD) based on the cLEPR complemenary DNA sequence corresponding to the 582nd to 796th amino acid residues of cLEPR mature peptide was prepared and used as antigen. Immunization against cLEPR ECD in growing chickens increased anti-cLEPR ECD antibody titers in blood, enhanced proportions of phosphorylated janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and served as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein in liver tissue. Chicken live weight gain and abdominal fat mass were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), but feed intake was stimulated by cLEPR ECD immunization (P < 0.05). The treatment also upregulated the gene expression levels of lepR, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl CoA carboxylase-2 (ACC2), and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in liver, abdominal fat, and breast muscle (P < 0.05) but decreased fasn expression levels (P < 0.01). Apart from that of lepR, the expression of appetite-regulating genes, such as orexigenic genes, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), were upregulated (P < 0.01), whereas the anorexigenic gene proopiomelanocortin (POMC) was downregulated in the hypothalamic tissue of cLEPR-immunized pullets (P < 0.01). Blood concentrations of metabolic molecules, such as glucose, triglycerides, and very-low-density lipoprotein, were significantly decreased in cLEPR-immunized pullets but those of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein increased. These results demonstrate that antibodies to membrane proximal cLEPR ECD enhance cLEPR signal transduction, which stimulates metabolism and reduces fat deposition in chickens. PMID:25447880

  4. Influences of Maternal Care on Chicken Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Joanne; Held, Suzanne; Jones, Charlotte; Troisi, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary For a domestic chick, the mother hen is an important role model; chicks learn a great deal from their mother about what to peck, when to rest and how to behave when there is a threat. However, in large farms, natural brooding is not commercially viable and so chicks are hatched in large incubators and reared artificially. Chicks reared without a mother in this way are more fearful and more likely to develop behavioural problems, such as feather pecking. We discuss the important features of maternal care in chickens, the behavioural consequences of deprivation, and the welfare implications on commercial farms. We finish by suggesting ways to simulate natural maternal care to improve commercial chick rearing practice. Abstract In domestic chickens, the provision of maternal care strongly influences the behavioural development of chicks. Mother hens play an important role in directing their chicks’ behaviour and are able to buffer their chicks’ response to stressors. Chicks imprint upon their mother, who is key in directing the chicks’ behaviour and in allowing them to develop food preferences. Chicks reared by a mother hen are less fearful and show higher levels of behavioural synchronisation than chicks reared artificially. In a commercial setting, more fearful chicks with unsynchronised behaviour are more likely to develop behavioural problems, such as feather pecking. As well as being an inherent welfare problem, fear can also lead to panic responses, smothering, and fractured bones. Despite the beneficial effects of brooding, it is not commercially viable to allow natural brooding on farms and so chicks are hatched in large incubators and reared artificially, without a mother hen. In this review we cover the literature demonstrating the important features of maternal care in domestic chickens, the behavioural consequences of deprivation and the welfare implications on commercial farms. We finish by suggesting ways to use research in natural

  5. [Late postcontusion secondary glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Chiseliţă, D; Vancea, P; Filiman, O; Brănişteanu, D; Bredetean, M; Poiata, I

    1995-01-01

    The investigation of 33 patients with late postcontusional glaucoma subjected to surgery and followed up for 25 +/- 8.24 months has revealed: the interval accident-surgery is shorter in the close-angle combined forms; the essential mechanisms responsible for glaucoma occurrence are: the alteration of trabecular meshwork (for open-angle glaucoma) and pupillary block (for close angle glaucoma); simple cases required antiglaucoma surgery (trabeculectomy, peripheral iridectomy) and the mixed ones required combined (trabeculectomy, lens extraction, lens implant) or sequential surgeries (antiglaucoma surgery, vitrectomy etc); the glaucomatous process was stopped in 83.4% of the open-angle glaucoma cases and progressed in 23.5% of the close-angle glaucoma cases; the functional improvements post antiglaucoma surgery combined with removal of opacities are lessened by the higher frequency of severe per- and post-operative complication. PMID:7654676

  6. Molecular analysis of chicken embryo SPARC (osteonectin).

    PubMed

    Bassuk, J A; Iruela-Arispe, M L; Lane, T F; Benson, J M; Berg, R A; Sage, E H

    1993-11-15

    SPARC is a secreted glycoprotein that modulates cell shape and cell-matrix interactions. Levels of SPARC are increased at sites of somitogenesis, osteogenesis, and angiogenesis in the embryo and during wound repair in the adult. We have cloned and characterized SPARC from chicken embryo. A 2.2-kbp cDNA, obtained by a novel use of the polymerase chain reaction, was determined to encode a 298-residue protein that is 85% identical to human SPARC. Antigenic sites in particular appear to be highly conserved, as antibodies against C-terminal sequences of murine and bovine SPARC reacted with a 41-43 kDa protein in chicken embryo extracts. Chicken SPARC can be defined by four sequence signatures: (a) a conserved spacing of 11 cysteine residues in domain II, (b) the pentapeptide KKGHK in domain II, which is contained within a larger region of 31 identical residues, (c) a 100% conserved region of 10 residues in domain III, and (d) a C-terminal, calcium-binding EF-hand motif. SPARC mRNAs in the 10-day-old chicken embryo are represented by three sizes of 1.8, 2.2 and 3.0 kb. The relative steady-state levels for the 2.2-kb mRNA were determined as aorta > or = skeletal muscle > calvarium > vertebra > anterior limb > kidney > heart > brain > skin and lung > liver. The relative abundance of the 1.8-kb and 2.2-kb mRNAs varied among tissues and indicated that differential processing of SPARC mRNAs might occur. All three RNA species were detected by a cDNA probe for the N-terminal part of the coding region. Thus, the three mRNA species appear to arise from differential 3' splicing and/or polyadenylation. Collective evidence demonstrates that SPARC has been well-conserved during vertebrate evolution, a finding that indicates a fundamental role for this protein in development. PMID:7916692

  7. A comparative study of 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase in vertebrates: cDNA cloning and amino acid sequences for chicken and bullfrog enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kasama-Yoshida, H; Tohyama, Y; Kurihara, T; Sakuma, M; Kojima, H; Tamai, Y

    1997-10-01

    In mammalian brain, two 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.37) isoforms, CNP1 and CNP2, are translated, respectively, from the two mRNAs, which have been transcribed and processed by alternative use of the two transcription start points and by differential splicing. In the present study, the cDNAs encoding chicken CNP2 and bullfrog CNP1, respectively, were isolated, and the amino acid sequences of chicken CNP2 and bullfrog CNP1 were deduced. Western blot analysis showed that chicken brain contains a major CNP2-type protein together with a minor unidentified isoform, and bullfrog brain contains only a CNP1-type protein. All available amino acid sequences of vertebrate 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterases were aligned and compared. Three conserved motif sequences were noted: (a) an ATP-binding site near the amino terminus, (b) an isoprenylation site at the carboxyl terminus, and (c) a probable catalytic site resembling the active site of beta-ketoacyl synthase (EC 2.3.1.41). The second and the third motifs are conserved also in goldfish RICH (regeneration-induced 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase homologue), which has been shown recently to have 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase activity. The third motif (probably catalytic site) was assigned for the first time in the present report. PMID:9326261

  8. Origin and early development of the chicken adenohypophysis

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Arrones, Luisa; Ferrán, José L.; Hidalgo-Sanchez, Matías; Puelles, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The adenohypophysis (ADH) is an important endocrine organ involved in the regulation of many physiological processes. The late morphogenesis of this organ at neural tube stages is well known: the epithelial ADH primordium is recognized as an invagination of the stomodeal roof (Rathke’s pouch), whose walls later thicken and differentiate as the primordium becomes pediculated, and then fully separated from the stomodeum. The primordium attaches to the pial surface of the basal hypothalamus, next to the neurohypophyseal field (NH; future posterior pituitary), from which it was previously separated by migrating prechordal plate (pp) cells. Once the NH evaginates, the ADH surrounds it and jointly forms with it the pituitary gland. In contrast, little is known about the precise origin of the ADH precursors at neural plate stages and how the primordium reaches the stomodeum. For that reason, we produced in the chicken a specific ADH fate map at early neural plate stages, which was amplified with gene markers. By means of experiments labeling the mapped presumptive ADH, we were able to follow the initial anlage into its transformation into Rathke’s pouch. The ADH origin was corroborated to be strictly extraneural, i.e., to lie at stage HH4/5 outside of the anterior neural plate (anp) within the pre-placodal field. The ADH primordium is fully segregated from the anterior neural border cells and the neighboring olfactory placodes both in terms of precursor cells and molecular profile from head fold stages onwards. The placode becomes visible as a molecularly characteristic ectodermal thickening from stage HH10 onwards. The onset of ADH genoarchitectonic regionalization into intermediate and anterior lobes occurs at closed neural tube stages. PMID:25741242

  9. Effects of Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat (MDCM) and Collagen on the Quality Characteristics of Semi-dried Chicken Jerky.

    PubMed

    Song, Dong-Heon; Choi, Ji-Hun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of using mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) and collagen on quality characteristics of semi-dried chicken jerky. In experiment I, semi-dried chicken jerky was prepared with the replacement of chicken breast with MDCM (0, 10, 20, and 30%). The pH value of the jerky formulated with only chicken breast was 5.94, while the replacement of chicken breast with MDCM significantly increased the pH (p<0.05). The protein content and shear force of the jerkies decreased with increasing amounts of MDCM, whereas the fat, ash content and processing yield showed the opposite tendency (p<0.05). Replacement with up to 10% MDCM had no adverse effects on the sensory characteristics of the semi-dried chicken jerky. In experiment II, four levels of pork collagen (0, 1, 2, and 3%) were added to the semi-dried chicken jerky formulated with 90% chicken breast and 10% MDCM. The addition of collagen increased the moisture content, but decreased the ash content of the jerkies produced (p<0.05). The processing yield of the jerkies increased with increasing added amounts of collagen (p<0.05). It was found that the jerkies formulated with 0-2% collagen had significantly higher overall acceptance score than those prepared with 3% collagen (p<0.05). In conclusion, MDCM and collagen could be useful ingredients to reduce the production cost and improve the processing yield of semi-dried chicken jerky. The optimal levels of MDCM and collagen which could be added without adverse effects on the sensory characteristics were up to 10% and 2%, respectively. PMID:26761667

  10. Effects of Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat (MDCM) and Collagen on the Quality Characteristics of Semi-dried Chicken Jerky

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dong-Heon; Choi, Ji-Hun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of using mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) and collagen on quality characteristics of semi-dried chicken jerky. In experiment I, semi-dried chicken jerky was prepared with the replacement of chicken breast with MDCM (0, 10, 20, and 30%). The pH value of the jerky formulated with only chicken breast was 5.94, while the replacement of chicken breast with MDCM significantly increased the pH (p<0.05). The protein content and shear force of the jerkies decreased with increasing amounts of MDCM, whereas the fat, ash content and processing yield showed the opposite tendency (p<0.05). Replacement with up to 10% MDCM had no adverse effects on the sensory characteristics of the semi-dried chicken jerky. In experiment II, four levels of pork collagen (0, 1, 2, and 3%) were added to the semi-dried chicken jerky formulated with 90% chicken breast and 10% MDCM. The addition of collagen increased the moisture content, but decreased the ash content of the jerkies produced (p<0.05). The processing yield of the jerkies increased with increasing added amounts of collagen (p<0.05). It was found that the jerkies formulated with 0-2% collagen had significantly higher overall acceptance score than those prepared with 3% collagen (p<0.05). In conclusion, MDCM and collagen could be useful ingredients to reduce the production cost and improve the processing yield of semi-dried chicken jerky. The optimal levels of MDCM and collagen which could be added without adverse effects on the sensory characteristics were up to 10% and 2%, respectively. PMID:26761667

  11. Vaginal Microbiota of Adolescent Girls Prior to the Onset of Menarche Resemble Those of Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, Roxana J.; Zhou, Xia; Settles, Matthew L.; Erb, Julie; Malone, Kristin; Hansmann, Melanie A.; Shew, Marcia L.; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Puberty is an important developmental stage wherein hormonal shifts mediate the physical and physiological changes that lead to menarche, but until now, the bacterial composition of vaginal microbiota during this period has been poorly characterized. We performed a prospective longitudinal study of perimenarcheal girls to gain insight into the timing and sequence of changes that occur in the vaginal and vulvar microbiota during puberty. The study enrolled 31 healthy, premenarcheal girls between the ages of 10 and 12 years and collected vaginal and vulvar swabs quarterly for up to 3 years. Bacterial composition was characterized by Roche 454 pyrosequencing and classification of regions V1 to V3 of 16S rRNA genes. Contrary to expectations, lactic acid bacteria, primarily Lactobacillus spp., were dominant in the microbiota of most girls well before the onset of menarche in the early to middle stages of puberty. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected at appreciable levels in approximately one-third of subjects, a notable finding considering that this organism is commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis in adults. Vulvar microbiota closely resembled vaginal microbiota but often exhibited additional taxa typically associated with skin microbiota. Our findings suggest that the vaginal microbiota of girls begin to resemble those of adults well before the onset of menarche. PMID:25805726

  12. Familial resemblance for cognitive abilities in families with P-type dyslexic, L-type dyslexic, or normal reading boys.

    PubMed

    Van Strien, J W; Bakker, D J; Bouma, A; Koops, W

    1990-12-01

    P-type dyslexic, L-type dyslexic, and normal reading boys, and their parents were administered a number of cognitive tasks. The P- and L-type dyslexic boys showed impaired performances on tasks representing a verbal/memory dimension. In addition, L-type dyslexics performed worse on a figure-rotation task, a result that supported the notion of a visuospatial deficit in this type of reading disturbance. The parents of P- and L-type dyslexics exhibited lowered performances on verbal/memory tasks, but they showed no evidence of impaired visuospatial functioning. Indices of familial resemblance revealed differential familial resemblances in the three types of families. In the families of P-type dyslexics, a high father-son effect was found for the visuospatial dimension. In the families of L-type dyslexics, moderately high single-parent/child effects were found for both fathers and mothers and for both the verbal/memory dimension and the visuospatial dimension. In the families of normal readers, only small single-parent/child effects were found. PMID:2286650

  13. Multicentric Histiocytosis Related to Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J (ALV-J)-Infection in Meat-Type Local Chickens

    PubMed Central

    FURUKAWA, Seiko; TSUKAMOTO, Kenji; MAEDA, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gross lesions characterized by swollen livers and spleens accompanied by diffuse white miliary spots, which resembled those of Marek’s disease, were detected in two flocks of local meat-type chickens at a Japanese poultry processing plant in June and August 2010. The microscopic examinations revealed proliferative foci consisting of spindle or polymorphic cells in the interstitium of livers, splenic follicles and the interstitium of kidneys. These cells were positive immunohistochemically with Iba1 antibody, indicating they were histiocytic cells. Some of them contained antigens of avian leukosis virus (ALV) by immunohistochemistry,and the env gene of ALV subgroup J was detected from the spleens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Phylogenetic analysis of the PCR product indicated that the env gene might be descended from the American ADOL-7501 strain of ALV-J. These results suggest that the swollen livers and spleens of the meat-type chickens may come from histiocytic proliferation caused by ALV-J infection. PMID:23978900

  14. Some pathological and biochemical studies on experimental ascaridiasis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, H H; Abou Znada, N Y

    1991-01-01

    During studying the pathogenicity of Ascaridia galli for young Ross-Broiler chickens fed with single doses of 100, 200 and 500 infective eggs, it was found that the infected chickens showed variable decreases in body weight gain and increases in the ratio of liver weight relative to body weight when compared with the control. Both decrease and increase was proportionally related with the number of infective eggs given to the chickens. Biochemical analysis of muscle and liver tissue of the previous groups of chickens showed a decrease in both glycogen and protein content and an increase in fat content of muscle and liver of infected chickens when compared with those of normal tissues. The decrease in the glycogen content due to ascaridiasis was mostly apparent in case of 500 egg dose and that of the protein content was noted with the egg doses of 200 and 500. Each of the three egg doses showed a significant increase in the fat content of the muscle and liver of infected chickens when compared with the control. After the sixth week of infection chickens fed with 500 eggs showed emaciation, loss of colour of combs and legs and of brightness of plumage, diarrhoea, drooping wings, ruffled feathers and a gradual loss of strength manifested by leg weakness. At autopsy, the small intestine showed external macroscopic lesions of haemorrhage and congestion. Intestinal obstruction with adult Ascaridia galli was also found in the infected birds. PMID:1865892

  15. Maintenance of chicken embryonic stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Furusawa, Shuichi; Matsuda, Haruo

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the methods we have used to show that chicken leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) maintains chicken embryonic stem (ES) cells in an undifferentiated state in culture. Recombinant chicken LIF (rchLIF) was expressed as a fusion protein linked to glutathione S-transferase (GST) and purified to greater than 90% purity in two chromatography stages, the first an affinity step using the GST tail, which was cleaved before further purification by gel chromatography. Chicken ES cells were obtained by culturing chicken blastodermal cells isolated from stage X embryos of freshly laid chicken eggs. These cells can be maintained in media containing rchLIF for at least 9 d without any other cytokines or feeder cells. Chicken ES cells were characterized by the expression of alkaline phosphatase activity, stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-1 and embryonal carcinoma cell monoclonal antibody-1. In addition, the phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 by LIF, which is sufficient to maintain the undifferentiated state of ES cells, was detected by Western blotting analysis. PMID:16845981

  16. Formation of heterocyclic amines in cooked chicken legs.

    PubMed

    Chiu, C P; Yang, D Y; Chen, B H

    1998-06-01

    The effects of frying and microwave cooking on generation of heterocyclic amines (HAs) in chicken legs with skin and without skin were studied. Chicken legs were microwave-cooked at 2,450 MHz for 5, 10, and 15 min with an output power of 700 W. Frying of chicken legs was conducted at 100 and 150 degrees C for 15 min and at 200 degrees C for 5, 10, and 15 min. The various HAs were analyzed by HPLC with diode-array detection. Results showed that both the varieties and contents of HAs and the weight losses of chicken legs increased along with increasing cooking temperature and time. With skin both the amounts of HAs and weight losses of chicken legs were less than those without skin under the same heating conditions. The weight losses of microwave-cooked chicken legs were higher than those of fried chicken legs. The formation of the aminomethylimidazoquinoline type of HAs could be reduced by choosing microwave cooking in place of frying. Frying led to the formation of both the aminomethylimidazoquinoline and the carboline types of HAs. PMID:9709255

  17. Chicken wing training model for endoscopic microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Jusue-Torres, Ignacio; Sivakanthan, Sananthan; Pinheiro-Neto, Carlos Diogenes; Gardner, Paul A; Snyderman, Carl H; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C

    2013-10-01

    Objectives To present and validate a chicken wing model for endoscopic endonasal microsurgical skill development. Setting A surgical environment was constructed using a Styrofoam box and measurements from radiological studies. Endoscopic visualization and instrumentation were utilized in a manner to mimic operative setting. Design Five participants were instructed to complete four sequential tasks: (1) opening the skin, (2) exposing the main artery in its neurovascular sheath, (3) opening the neurovascular sheath, and (4) separating the nerve from the artery. Time to completion of each task was recorded. Participants Three junior attendings, one senior resident, and one medical student were recruited internally. Main Outcome Measures Time to perform the surgical tasks measured in seconds. Results The average time of the first training session was 48.8 minutes; by the 10th training session, the average time was 22.4 minutes. The range of improvement was 25.7 minutes to 72.4 minutes. All five participants exhibited statistically significant decrease in time after 10 trials. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that an improvement of 50% was achieved by an average of five attempts at the 95% confidence interval. Conclusions The ex vivo chicken wing model is an inexpensive and relatively realistic model to train endoscopic dissection using microsurgical techniques. PMID:24436926

  18. Analysis of chicken primordial germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Motono, Makoto; Ohashi, Takuya; Iijima, Shinji

    2008-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are precursors of germline cells. Although avian PGCs have been used to produce transgenic birds, their characteristics largely remain unknown. In this study, we isolated PGCs from chicken embryos at various developmental stages and analyzed the gene expression. Using the expression of stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1) as a marker of chicken PGCs, we purified PGCs from embryos by fluorescence-activated cell sorting after incubation for 2.5–8.5 days. The number of SSEA-1+ cells was almost unchanged during days 2.5–8.5 of incubation in females but continuously increased in male. Expression of several genes, including Blimp1, SOX2, and CXCR4, was observed in SSEA-1+ cells but not in SSEA-1− cells in both female and male embryos. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR analysis revealed that the expression of CXCR4, a chemokine receptor essential for migration of PGCs from the bloodstream to the gonads, was reduced after the circulating PGC stage (day 2.5). PMID:19003166

  19. Hyperspectral Imaging of fecal contamination on chickens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    ProVision Technologies, a NASA research partnership center at Sternis Space Center in Mississippi, has developed a new hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system that is much smaller than the original large units used aboard remote sensing aircraft and satellites. The new apparatus is about the size of a breadbox. Health-related applications of HSI include scanning chickens during processing to help prevent contaminated food from getting to the table. ProVision is working with Sanderson Farms of Mississippi and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. ProVision has a record in its spectral library of the unique spectral signature of fecal contamination, so chickens can be scanned and those with a positive reading can be separated. HSI sensors can also determine the quantity of surface contamination. Research in this application is quite advanced, and ProVision is working on a licensing agreement for the technology. The potential for future use of this equipment in food processing and food safety is enormous.

  20. Toxicity of vanadium in female Leghorn chickens.

    PubMed

    Kubena, L F; Phillips, T D

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary vanadium, fed after the onset of production, on hen day egg production, body weight changes, and mortality in laying breed chickens. Calcium orthovanadate was fed to 29-week-old female laying breed chickens at calculated levels of 0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 ppm dietary vanadium for five consecutive 28-day laying periods. Hen-day egg production and hen body weights were not influenced by the addition of 12.5 or 25 ppm dietary vanadium. Overall hen body weights and the hen day egg production were decreased in hens fed diets to which 50 ppm vanadium was added with a severe reduction in both parameters at 100 ppm. There were no mortalities during the experiment in the groups fed the 0, 12.5, 25, or 50 ppm vanadium diets. Mortality in the group fed the 100 ppm vanadium diet was 11, 39, and 56% at the end of the 28-day Periods 3, 4, and 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in egg weights, although a trend existed for lower egg weights with increasing levels of dietary vanadium. PMID:6828413

  1. Decay of maternal antibodies in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Mahmoud, Kamel

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the decay rate of maternal antibodies against major broiler chicken pathogens. A total of 30 one-day-old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and reared in isolation. These chicks were retrieved from a parent flock that received a routine vaccination program. Chicks were bled at hatch and sequentially thereafter every 5 d through 30 d of age. Maternal antibody titers were measured by ELISA for avian encephalomyelitis (AEV), avian influenza virus (AIV), chicken anemia virus (CAV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), and reovirus (Reo). Maternal antibody titers for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were measured using a hemagglutination inhibition test. Half-life estimates of maternal antibody titers were 5.3, 4.2, 7, 5.1, 3.9, 3.8, 4.9, 4.1, 6.3, and 4.7 d for AEV, AIV, CAV, IBDV, IBV, ILTV, MG, MS, NDV, and Reo, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences among half-lives of maternal antibody titers against certain pathogens. Furthermore, all maternal antibody titers were depleted by 10 d of age except for IBDV. PMID:23960115

  2. Prebiotics and gut microbiota in chickens.

    PubMed

    Pourabedin, Mohsen; Zhao, Xin

    2015-08-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible feed ingredients that are metabolized by specific members of intestinal microbiota and provide health benefits for the host. Fermentable oligosaccharides are best known prebiotics that have received increasing attention in poultry production. They act through diverse mechanisms, such as providing nutrients, preventing pathogen adhesion to host cells, interacting with host immune systems and affecting gut morphological structure, all presumably through modulation of intestinal microbiota. Currently, fructooligosaccharides, inulin and mannanoligosaccharides have shown promising results while other prebiotic candidates such as xylooligosaccharides are still at an early development stage. Despite a growing body of evidence reporting health benefits of prebiotics in chickens, very limited studies have been conducted to directly link health improvements to prebiotic-dependent changes in the gut microbiota. This article visits the current knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiota and reviews most recent publications related to the roles played by prebiotics in modulation of the gut microbiota and immune functions. Progress in this field will help us better understand how the gut microbiota contributes to poultry health and productivity, and support the development of new prebiotic products as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics. PMID:26208530

  3. Monitoring leptin activity using the chicken leptin receptor.

    PubMed

    Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sera; Ronin, Ana; Einat, Paz; Rosenblum, Charles I; Denver, Robert J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2008-05-01

    We report on the construction of a leptin bioassay based on the activation of chicken leptin receptor in cultured cells. A human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cell line, stably transfected with the full-length cDNA of chicken leptin receptor together with a STAT3-responsive reporter gene specifically responded to recombinant human and Xenopus leptins. The observed higher sensitivity of chicken leptin receptor to the former is in agreement with the degree of sequence similarity among these species (about 60 and 38% identical amino acids between humans and chickens, and between humans and Xenopus respectively). The specific activation of signal transduction through the chicken leptin receptor, shown here for the first time, suggests that the transition of Gln269 (implicated in the Gln-to-Pro Zucker fatty mutation in rats) to Glu in chickens does not impair its activity. Analysis of leptin-like activity in human serum samples of obese and lean subjects coincided well with leptin levels determined by RIA. Serum samples of pre- and post partum cows showed a tight correlation with the degree of adiposity. However, specific activation of the chicken leptin receptor in this assay was not observed with serum samples from broiler or layer chickens (representing fat and lean phenotypes respectively) or with those from turkey. Similar leptin receptor activation profiles were observed with cells transfected with human leptin receptor. Further work is needed to determine whether the lack of leptin-like activity in the chicken serum samples is due to a lack of leptin in this species or simply to a serum level of leptin that is below the detection threshold. PMID:18434362

  4. Modeling late Paleozoic glaciation

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, T.J.; Baum, S.K. )

    1992-06-01

    Late Paleozoic glaciation on Gondwana is associated with changes in geography, solar luminosity, and estimated CO{sub 2} levels. To assess the relative importance of these boundary conditions, the authors conducted a suite of climate model simulations for the periods before, during, and after peak mid-Carboniferous ({approximately}300 Ma) glaciation (340, 300, and 255 and 225 Ma, respectively). Orbital insolation values favorable for glaciation and interglaciation were used for each time interval. Results indicate that changes in geography cause significant changes in snow area, but the temporal trend is not consistent with the geologic record for glaciation. Combined CO{sub 2}-plus-geography changes yield the best agreement with observations. In addition, interglacial orbital configurations result in almost ice-free conditions for the glacial interval at 300 Ma, at a time of low CO{sub 2}. The large simulated glacial-interglacial snowline fluctuations for Permian-Carboniferous time may explain cyclothem fluctuations at these times. Overall, results support the importance of the CO{sub 2} paradigm, but also indicate that a fuller understanding of past climate change requires consideration of paleogeographic, luminosity, and orbital insolation changes.

  5. Chicken glucagon: sequence and potency in receptor assay.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Eng, J; Yalow, R S

    1987-11-01

    Glucagon is a 29 amino acid peptide that is generally highly conserved. Among mammalian glucagons the only one that has been shown to differ significantly is that of the guinea pig which differs from the others in 5 of the 9 COOH-terminus amino acids. The amino acid content and partial sequencing of chicken glucagon had been reported earlier. This report describes the purification and complete amino acid sequencing of chicken glucagon and demonstrates that it differs from the usual mammalian glucagon by the replacement of asparagine at position 28 with serine. Chicken glucagon is indistinguishable from porcine glucagon in the rat liver receptor assay system. PMID:2828209

  6. Thecamoebians from Late Permian Gondwana sediments of peninsular India.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Anjum; Aggarwal, Neha; Jha, Neerja

    2014-02-01

    The evolutionary history of thecamoebians (testate amoebae) extends back to the Neoproterozoic Era. However, until now, these have had a restricted, discontinuous and modest record across the world. The studied sediment of Raniganj Formation (Godavari Graben), Andhra Pradesh, India has been assigned as Late Permian on the basis of co-occurring age-diagnostic Late Permian palynomorphs. About sixteen thecamoebian species and one taxon incertae sedis have been recorded here in the palynological slides on the basis of shell morphology and morphometry. Out of these, five belong to the family Arcellidae, seven to Centropyxidae, two to Trigonopyxidae, one to Difflugiidae, one to Plagiopyxidae, and one is regarded incertae sedis. The morphometric characteristics of fossil forms resemble their corresponding extant species studied from ecologically diverse fresh water wetlands in India. In general, the ratio of shell diameter and aperture diameter of Late Permian fossil and extant specimens show significant correlation in all the studied species. Except that, the ratio of shell length and breadth is the distinguishing feature between Centropyxis aerophila and C. aerophila 'sylvatica', rather than the ratio of shell length and longest diameter of the shell aperture in both fossil and extant forms. The study elucidates the minimal morphological evolution in thecamoebians and their survival during mass extinction periods and stressful environmental conditions over the geological timescale. PMID:23876495

  7. A skeletal disorder in a dog resembling the Klippel-Feil Syndrome with Sprengel's Deformity in humans.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, G; Trotta, M; Caldin, M

    2015-03-01

    A five-year-old intact male golden retriever dog was evaluated for cervical pain and right hemiparesis. Clinical and computed tomography features suggested a caudal cervical instability and myelopathy due to a cervicoscapular malformation resembling the human Klippel-Feil Syndrome with Sprengel Deformity, a rare complex congenital disorder. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing of MEOX1, PAX1 and FGFR3 genes were performed in this dog to investigate a possible underlying genetic predisposition, but no mutations were detected in the coding regions of the three target genes evaluated. Other genes can be involved in this condition in dogs and require further investigation. This report describes a cervical vertebral fusion and complex scapular anomaly in a dog. The presence of an omovertebral bone should be considered in the setting of signs characteristic of myelopathy in dogs with or without obvious skeletal deformity. PMID:25196886

  8. An enigmatic fossil fungus from the 410 Ma Rhynie chert that resembles Macrochytrium (Chytridiomycota) and Blastocladiella (Blastocladiomycota).

    PubMed

    Krings, Michael; Taylor, Thomas N; Martin, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Litter layers in the Lower Devonian (~ 410 Ma) Rhynie chert were inhabited by a wide variety of saprotrophic fungi, however, only a few of these organisms have been described formally. A new microfungus, Trewinomyces annulifer gen. et sp. nov., occurs as tufts on decaying land plant axes from the Rhynie chert. The fungus consists of an intramatrical rhizoidal system and an erect extramatrical hypha (stalk) that bears a single, terminal sporangium. One or two successive rings often are present in the stalk immediately below the sporangium base. Overall morphology of T. annulifer resembles the extant genera Macrochytrium (Chytridiomycota) and Blastocladiella (Blastocladiomycota). However, the rhizoids are septate or pseudoseptate, a feature not known in extant zoosporic fungi, and thus render the systematic affinities of T. annulifer unresolved. Trewinomyces annulifer offers a rare view of the morphology of a distinctive Early Devonian saprotrophic microfungus. PMID:26740543

  9. Transgenic Expression of the Chemokine Receptor Encoded by Human Herpesvirus 8 Induces an Angioproliferative Disease Resembling Kaposi's Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tong-Yuan; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Leach, Michael W.; Manfra, Denise; Homey, Bernhard; Wiekowski, Maria; Sullivan, Lee; Jenh, Chung-Her; Narula, Satwant K.; Chensue, Stephen W.; Lira, Sergio A.

    2000-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8, also known as Kaposi's sarcoma [KS]-associated herpesvirus) has been implicated as an etiologic agent for KS, an angiogenic tumor composed of endothelial, inflammatory, and spindle cells. Here, we report that transgenic mice expressing the HHV8-encoded chemokine receptor (viral G protein–coupled receptor) within hematopoietic cells develop angioproliferative lesions in multiple organs that morphologically resemble KS lesions. These lesions are characterized by a spectrum of changes ranging from erythematous maculae to vascular tumors, by the presence of spindle and inflammatory cells, and by expression of vGPCR, CD34, and vascular endothelial growth factor. We conclude that vGPCR contributes to the development of the angioproliferative lesions observed in these mice and suggest that this chemokine receptor may play a role in the pathogenesis of KS in humans. PMID:10662790

  10. Transgenic expression of the chemokine receptor encoded by human herpesvirus 8 induces an angioproliferative disease resembling Kaposi's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, T Y; Chen, S C; Leach, M W; Manfra, D; Homey, B; Wiekowski, M; Sullivan, L; Jenh, C H; Narula, S K; Chensue, S W; Lira, S A

    2000-02-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8, also known as Kaposi's sarcoma [KS]-associated herpesvirus) has been implicated as an etiologic agent for KS, an angiogenic tumor composed of endothelial, inflammatory, and spindle cells. Here, we report that transgenic mice expressing the HHV8-encoded chemokine receptor (viral G protein-coupled receptor) within hematopoietic cells develop angioproliferative lesions in multiple organs that morphologically resemble KS lesions. These lesions are characterized by a spectrum of changes ranging from erythematous maculae to vascular tumors, by the presence of spindle and inflammatory cells, and by expression of vGPCR, CD34, and vascular endothelial growth factor. We conclude that vGPCR contributes to the development of the angioproliferative lesions observed in these mice and suggest that this chemokine receptor may play a role in the pathogenesis of KS in humans. PMID:10662790

  11. [A case of pulmonary asbestosis with slightly increased serum IgE concentration and histopathological changes resembling DIP].

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Y; Asai, S; Mashimoto, H; Shimokawa, I; Iwasaki, K; Matsuo, T; Ikeda, T; Minami, H

    1993-02-01

    A 68-year-old male presented with cough and sputum. He had suffered from these symptoms for ten years prior to admission. Chest roentgenogram revealed reticulonodular shadows in the lower fields of both lungs. CT scan of the chest revealed an interstitial pattern in the lower field of both lungs. Honeycombing and bullous pattern were also present in the subpleural area. The patient had a history of dust and asbestos inhalation while working as an electrician. Eosinophilia of the peripheral blood and BALF, and a slightly increased serum IgE concentration were noted. Open lung biopsy revealed interstitial fibrosis with intra-alveolar macrophage accumulation and asbestos bodies. The histopathological features resembled UIP and DIP, although DIP is uncommon in pulmonary asbestosis. The slightly increased serum IgE concentration was considered to be an additional effect of asbestos. This is a case of pulmonary asbestosis with intriguing immunological and histopathological features. PMID:8515602

  12. Synthesis of a 10,000-membered library of molecules resembling carpanone and discovery of vesicular traffic inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Goess, Brian C; Hannoush, Rami N; Chan, Lawrence K; Kirchhausen, Tomas; Shair, Matthew D

    2006-04-26

    Split-and-pool synthesis of a 10,000-membered library of molecules resembling the natural product carpanone has been achieved. The synthesis features development of solid-phase multicomponent reactions between nitrogen nucleophiles, enones, and hydroxylamines, and a solid-phase application of the Huisgen cycloaddition affording substituted triazoles. The synthesis was performed in high-capacity (500 microm) polystyrene beads using a one bead-one stock solution strategy that enabled phenotypic screens of the resulting library. Using whole-cell fluorescence imaging, we discovered a series of molecules from the carpanone-based library that inhibit exocytosis from the Golgi apparatus. The most potent member of this series has an IC(50) of 14 microM. We also report structure-activity relationships for the molecules exhibiting this interesting phenotype. These inhibitors of exocytosis may be useful reagents for the study of vesicular traffic. PMID:16620111

  13. Isolation of gram-positive rods that resemble but are clearly distinct from Actinomyces pyogenes from mixed wound infections.

    PubMed Central

    Wüst, J; Lucchini, G M; Lüthy-Hottenstein, J; Brun, F; Altwegg, M

    1993-01-01

    Beginning in 1990, gram-positive rods resembling Actinomyces pyogenes were found with increasing frequency in mixed cultures from various infectious processes, most of them from patients with otitis, empyema, pilonidal cysts, perianal abscesses, and decubitus ulcers. Ribotyping and hybridization showed that these gram-positive rods could be divided into five groups not related to known Actinomyces species. Biochemical markers for reliable differentiation into these groups, however, could not be found. Therefore, naming new species is not warranted unless parameters are discovered that allow identification without DNA hybridization. These gram-positive rods have been isolated only in mixed cultures with anaerobes, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus "milleri," enterococci, and gram-negative rods. Their exact role in these possibly synergistic infections needs further investigation. Images PMID:8501213

  14. Nicotine Delivery to Rats via Lung Alveolar Region-Targeted Aerosol Technology Produces Blood Pharmacokinetics Resembling Human Smoking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nicotine is a heavily used addictive drug acquired through smoking tobacco. Nicotine in cigarette smoke is deposited and absorbed in the lungs, which results in a rapidly peaked slowly declining arterial concentration. This pattern plays an important role in initiation of nicotine addiction. Methods: A method and device were developed for delivering nicotine to rodents with lung alveolar region-targeted aerosol technology. The dose of delivery can be controlled by the nicotine aerosol concentration and duration of exposure. Results: Our data showed that, in the breathing zone of the nose-only exposure chamber, the aerosol droplet size distribution was within the respirable diameter range. Rats were exposed to nicotine aerosol for 2min. The arterial blood nicotine concentration reached 43.2±15.7ng/ml (mean ± SD) within 1–4min and declined over the next 20min, closely resembling the magnitude and early pharmacokinetics of a human smoking a cigarette. The acute inhalation toxicity of nicotine: LC50 = 2.3mg/L was determined; it was affected by pH, suggesting that acidification decreases nicotine absorption and/or bioavailability. Conclusions: A noninvasive method and toolkit were developed for delivering nicotine to rodents that enable rapid delivery of a controllable amount of nicotine into the systemic circulation and brain-inducing dose-dependent pharmacological effects, even a lethal dose. Aerosol inhalation can produce nicotine kinetics in both arterial and venous blood resembling human smoking. This method can be applied to studies of the effects of chronic intermittent nicotine exposure, nicotine addiction, toxicology, tobacco-related diseases, teratogenicity, and for discovery of pharmacological therapeutics. PMID:23239844

  15. Effect of catheter placement on 3-D velocity profiles in curved tubes resembling the human coronary system.

    PubMed

    Krams, R; Wentzel, J J; Cespedes, I; Vinke, R; Carlier, S; van der Steen, A F; Lancee, C T; Slager, C J

    1999-06-01

    Novel measurement techniques based on intravenous ultrasound (IVUS) technology ('IVUS-Flowmetry') require the location of a catheter inside the coronary bed. The present study quantifies disturbances in the 3-D velocity profile induced by catheter placement inside a tube, applying computational fluid dynamics. Two curved, circular meshes (radius K = 0.025 m and K = 0.035 m) with and without a catheter inside the lumen were applied. The catheter was located at the inner curve, the outer curve and at the top position. Boundary conditions were: no slip on the wall, zero stress at the outlet, uniform inflow with entrance velocities of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 m/s. Curvature-associated centrifugal forces shifted the maximal velocity to the outer curve and introduced two symmetrical vortices. Additional catheter placement redistributed the 3-D axial velocity field away from the catheter, which was accompanied by the appearance of multiple low-strength vortices. In addition, peak axial velocity increased, peak secondary velocities decreased, axial pressure drop increased and shear stress increased. Flow calculations simulated to resemble IVUS-based flowmetry changed by only 1% after considering secondary velocity. In conclusion, placement of a catheter inside a curved tube resembling the human coronary system changes the velocity field and reduces secondary patterns. The present study supports the usefulness of catheter-based flowmetry during resting flow conditions. During hyperemic flow conditions, flow measurements might be accompanied by large axial pressure drops because the catheter, itself, might act as a significant stenosis. PMID:10414897

  16. Gene expression in the liver of female, but not male mice treated with rapamycin resembles changes observed under dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhen; Sunchu, Bharath; Fok, Wilson C; Alshaikh, Nahla; Pérez, Viviana I

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that in mice the extension in lifespan by rapamycin is sexually dimorphic, in that it has a larger effect in females than males. In a previous study we showed that in male C57BL6 mice, rapamycin had less profound effects in both gene expression and liver metabolites when compared to dietary restriction (DR), but no data was available in females. Because recent studies showed that rapamycin increases longevity in a dose dependent manner and at every dose tested the effect remains larger in females than in males, we hypothesized that rapamycin should have a stronger effect on gene expression in females, and this effect could be dose dependent. To test this hypothesis, we measured the changes in liver gene expression induced by rapamycin (14 ppm) with a focus on several genes involved in pathways known to play a role in aging and that are altered by DR. To investigate whether any effects are dose dependent, we also analyzed females treated with two additional doses of rapamycin (22 and 42 ppm). We observed striking differences between male and female in gene expression at 14 ppm, where females have a larger response to rapamycin than males, and the effects of rapamycin in females resemble what we observed under DR. However, these effects were generally not dose dependent. These data support the notion that female mice respond better to rapamycin, and at least with the set of genes studied here, the effect of rapamycin in females resemble the effect of DR. PMID:26034704

  17. Early and Late Onset Sepsis in Late Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Cotten, C. Michael; Clark, Reese H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P. Brian

    2009-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is increasing worldwide, and late preterm births, which comprise more than 70% of all preterm births, account for much of the increase. Early and late onset sepsis results in significant mortality in extremely preterm infants, but little is known about sepsis outcomes in late preterm infants. Methods This is an observational cohort study of infants < 121 days of age (119,130 infants less than or equal to 3 days of life and 106,142 infants between 4 and 120 days of life) with estimated gestational age at birth between 34 and 36 weeks, admitted to 248 neonatal intensive care units in the United States between 1996 and 2007. Results During the study period, the cumulative incidence of early and late onset sepsis was 4.42 and 6.30 episodes per 1000 admissions, respectively. Gram-positive organisms caused the majority of early and late onset sepsis episodes. Infants with early onset sepsis caused by Gram-negative rods and infants with late onset sepsis were more likely to die than their peers with sterile blood cultures (OR 4.39, 95% CI 1.71–11.23, P=0.002; and OR 3.37, 95% CI 2.35–4.84, P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion Late preterm infants demonstrate specific infection rates, pathogen distribution, and mortality associated with early and late onset sepsis. The results of this study are generalizable to late preterm infants admitted to the special care nursery or neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:19953725

  18. T. GONDII IN FREE-RANGE CHICKENS SEROPREVALENCE AND ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM FREE-RANGE CHICKENS FROM GHANA, INDONESIA, ITALY, POLAND, AND VIETNAM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Ghana, Indonesia, Italy, Poland, and Vietnam was determin...

  19. Innate Immune Responses in ALV-J Infected Chicks and Chickens with Hemangioma In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Min; Dai, Manman; Xie, Tingting; Li, Zhenhui; Shi, Meiqing; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression. Since the precise mechanism of the innate immune response induced by ALV-J is unknown, we investigated the antiviral innate immune responses induced by ALV-J in chicks and chickens that had developed tumors. Spleen levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, IL-1β, and interferon-β (IFN-β) were not significantly different between the infected chick groups and the control groups from 1 day post hatch to 7 days post hatch. However, IL-6, IL-1β, and IFN-β protein levels in the three clinical samples with hemangiomas were dramatically increased compared to the healthy samples. In addition, the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased sharply in two of three clinical samples. We also found a more than 20-fold up-regulation of ISG12-1 mRNA at 1 day post infection (d.p.i.) and a twofold up-regulation of ZC3HAV1 mRNA at 4 d.p.i. However, there were no statistical differences in ISG12-1 and ZC3HAV1 mRNA expression levels in the tumorigenesis phase. ALV-J infection induced a significant increase of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR-7) at 1 d.p.i. and dramatically increased the mRNA levels of melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) in the tumorigenesis phase. Moreover, the protein levels of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) were decreased in chickens with tumors. These results suggest that ALV-J was primarily recognized by chicken TLR7 and MDA5 at early and late in vivo infection stages, respectively. ALV-J strain SCAU-HN06 did not induce any significant antiviral innate immune response in 1 week old chicks. However, interferon-stimulated genes were not induced normally during the late phase of ALV-J infection due to a reduction of IRF1 and STAT1 expression. PMID:27252695

  20. Sciencing with Mother Goose: Observation Activities with Chicken Little.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Carolyn

    1996-01-01

    Provides sample observation activities to accompany the nursery tale of Chicken Little. Includes five activities that involve the skills of observing, communicating, comparing, ordering, and categorizing to engage students in hands-on science. (DDR)

  1. Acute pancreatitis : complication of chicken pox in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Roy, Pinaki; Maity, Pranab; Basu, Arindam; Dey, Somitra; Das, Biman; Ghosh, U S

    2012-12-01

    Chicken pox is a benign self limited disease. But it may rarely be complicated with acute pancreatitis in otherwise healthy patient. We present a case of varicella pancreatitis and its marked recovery with acyclovir. PMID:23781673

  2. CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, LOOKING NORTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  3. 1. Relationship of chicken house, claim house, residence, east tool ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Relationship of chicken house, claim house, residence, east tool shed, garage, and barn to overall farmstead site, looking north - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  4. 10. Relationship of residence, claim house, chicken house, west tool ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Relationship of residence, claim house, chicken house, west tool shed, and east tool shed to each other and immediate surroundings, looking west - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  5. 5. Relationship of chicken house, privy, claim house, and residence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Relationship of chicken house, privy, claim house, and residence to each other and immediate surroundings, looking northeast - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  6. Loeffler's Syndrome Induced by Ingestion of Urushiol Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Shin-Ok; Oh, Ji-Hyun; Kwak, Yun-Mi; Jang, An-Soo; Kim, Do-Jin; Park, Choon-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic lung diseases are heterogeneous disorders characterized by varying degrees of pulmonary parenchyma or blood eosinophilia. Causes of eosinophilic lung diseases range from drug ingestion to parasitic or fungal infection as well as idiopathic. The exact pathogenesis of eosinophilic lung disease remains unknown. Urushiol chicken can frequently cause allergic reactions. Contact dermatitis (both local and systemic) represents the most-common side effect of urushiol chicken ingestion. However, there has been no previous report of lung involvement following urushiol chicken ingestion until now. A 66-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with exertional dyspnea. Serial chest X-ray revealed multiple migrating infiltrations in both lung fields, with eosinophilic infiltration revealed by lung biopsy. The patient had ingested urushiol chicken on two occasions within the 2 weeks immediately prior to disease onset. His symptoms and migrating lung lesions were resolved following administration of oral corticosteroids. PMID:26175781

  7. Regional expression of ADAM19 during chicken embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xin; Lin, Juntang; Markus, Annett; Rolfs, Arndt; Luo, Jiankai

    2011-04-01

    ADAM19 (also named meltrin β) is a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family of metalloproteases and is involved in morphogenesis and tissue formation during embryonic development. In the present study, chicken ADAM19 is cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and identified by sequencing. Its expression patterns in different parts of the developing chicken embryo are investigated by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Results show that ADAM19 protein is widely expressed in chicken embryos. It is detectable in the central nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, cochlea, and retina. Furthermore, ADAM19 protein is also found in other tissues and organs such as digestive organs, the thymus, the lung bud, the dorsal aorta, the kidney, the gonad, muscles, and in the feather buds. All these data suggest that ADAM19 plays an important role in the embryonic development of chicken. PMID:21492148

  8. View northwest, overview of building group: chicken house (HABS No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest, overview of building group: chicken house (HABS No. WV-267-D), wash house (267-C), Albert Thacker House (267-A), coal house (267-B) (left to right in photograph) - 3249 Cyrus Road (House), Cyrus, Wayne County, WV

  9. Overall view, Chicken Coop and Windmill, looking northwest Thomas ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall view, Chicken Coop and Windmill, looking northwest - Thomas Perry Homestead, East side of Mormon Row Road, approximately .6 miles south of Antelope Flats Road, bounded on the north by Ditch Creek, Kelly, Teton County, WY

  10. Andy Chambers Homestead, Chicken Coop, Saddle Shop, and Granary, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Andy Chambers Homestead, Chicken Coop, Saddle Shop, and Granary, looking northeast - Andy Chambers Homestead, 0.4 mile south of Antelope Flats Road on the east side of Mormon Row Road, Kelly, Teton County, WY

  11. Skin transcriptome profiles associated with skin color in chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianqin; Liu, Fuzhu; Cao, Junting; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional and medicinal benefits have been attributed to the consumption of tissues from the black-boned chickens in oriental countries. Lueyang black-boned chicken is one of the native chicken breeds. However, some birds may instead have white or lighter skin, which directly causes economic losses every year. Previous studies of pigmentation have focused on a number of genes that may play important roles in coat color regulation. Illumina2000 sequencing technology was used to catalog the global gene expression profiles in the skin of the Lueyang chicken with white versus black skin. A total of 18,608 unigenes were assembled from the reads obtained from the skin of the white and black chickens. A total of 649 known genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, with 314 genes that were up regulated and 335 genes that were down-regulated, and a total of 162 novel genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, consisting of 73 genes that were up-regulated (including 4 highly expressed genes that were expressed exclusively in the skin of the black chickens) and 89 genes that were down-regulated. There were also a total of 8 known coat-color genes expressed in previous studies (ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R). In this study, 4 of which showed greater expression in the black chickens, and several were up-regulated, such as KIT, ASIP, TYR and OCA2. To our surprise, KITLG, MITF and MC1R showed no significant difference in expression between the black- and white-skinned chickens, and the expression of TYRP1 was not detected in either skin color. The expression of ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R was validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and the results of the qPCR were consistent with the RNA-seq. This study provides several candidate genes that may be associated with the development of black versus white skin. More importantly, the fact that the MC1R

  12. Skin Transcriptome Profiles Associated with Skin Color in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianqin; Liu, Fuzhu; Cao, Junting; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional and medicinal benefits have been attributed to the consumption of tissues from the black-boned chickens in oriental countries. Lueyang black-boned chicken is one of the native chicken breeds. However, some birds may instead have white or lighter skin, which directly causes economic losses every year. Previous studies of pigmentation have focused on a number of genes that may play important roles in coat color regulation. Illumina2000 sequencing technology was used to catalog the global gene expression profiles in the skin of the Lueyang chicken with white versus black skin. A total of 18,608 unigenes were assembled from the reads obtained from the skin of the white and black chickens. A total of 649 known genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, with 314 genes that were up regulated and 335 genes that were down-regulated, and a total of 162 novel genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, consisting of 73 genes that were up-regulated (including 4 highly expressed genes that were expressed exclusively in the skin of the black chickens) and 89 genes that were down-regulated. There were also a total of 8 known coat-color genes expressed in previous studies (ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R). In this study, 4 of which showed greater expression in the black chickens, and several were up-regulated, such as KIT, ASIP, TYR and OCA2. To our surprise, KITLG, MITF and MC1R showed no significant difference in expression between the black- and white-skinned chickens, and the expression of TYRP1 was not detected in either skin color. The expression of ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R was validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and the results of the qPCR were consistent with the RNA-seq. This study provides several candidate genes that may be associated with the development of black versus white skin. More importantly, the fact that the MC1R

  13. Late Afternoon at Taruntius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    : 462 x 400 pix - 66k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1250 x 1082 pix - 656k] Caption : PR Photo 19b/02 is a computer-processed version of PR Photo 19a/02 , in which the lunar surface is now viewed directly "from above". Located at 46° East lunar longitude, 6° North lunar latitude, this area is viewed from the VLT at an inclined angle and the craters therefore all appear as ellipses in the NACO image. However, taking into account the direction of the line-of-sight at the time of the observation [2], this view can be "rectified" by simple image processing. The corresponding "view from above" is shown in PR Photo 19b/02 ; most of the craters in the field now appear quite round. Many different types of lunar surface formations are visible in the VLT photo. In addition to the numerous impact craters of all sizes, there are also hills and ridges of a great variety of shapes, as well as a prominent "valley" (a "Rima", or fissure) that stretches nearly 50 km through the photo in East-West direction. It has been identified on earlier photos and as it is situated inside that crater, it was given the name "Rimae Taruntius" in 1985. It is very well resolved in this photo and resembles "Rima Hadley" that was visited by the Apollo 15 astronauts in 1971, but is much smaller. The mean width is about 600 metres (12 pixels). The bottom is in the shadows and the depth is therefore unknown. It is overlapped by several smaller craters that must have been caused by impacts after this depression was formed. Measuring the length of the shadows, it is possible to infer the height of some of the formations. For instance, the shadows of the two peaks at the lower centre of the photo are about 4 km long, indicating that these formations are about 500 metres tall. The surroundings ESO PR Photo 19c/02 ESO PR Photo 19c/02 [Preview - JPEG: 482 x 400 pix - 77k] [Normal - JPEG: 964 x 800 pix - 440k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 2408 x 1998 pix - 1.6M] Caption : Where is the NACO field at the Taruntius crater located on the

  14. DNA content of a functioning chicken kinetochore.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Susana Abreu; Vagnarelli, Paola; Earnshaw, William C

    2014-04-01

    In order to understand the three-dimensional structure of the functional kinetochore in vertebrates, we require a complete list and stoichiometry for the protein components of the kinetochore, which can be provided by genetic and proteomic experiments. We also need to know how the chromatin-containing CENP-A, which makes up the structural foundation for the kinetochore, is folded, and how much of that DNA is involved in assembling the kinetochore. In this MS, we demonstrate that functioning metaphase kinetochores in chicken DT40 cells contain roughly 50 kb of DNA, an amount that corresponds extremely closely to the length of chromosomal DNA associated with CENP-A in ChIP-seq experiments. Thus, during kinetochore assembly, CENP-A chromatin is compacted into the inner kinetochore plate without including significant amounts of flanking pericentromeric heterochromatin. PMID:24633498

  15. Embryonal feather growth in the chicken

    PubMed Central

    MEYER, WILFRIED; BAUMGÄRTNER, GEORG

    1998-01-01

    Prenatal feather growth development in the chicken was studied in 7 body regions in HH stages 27–45, using direct measurements, specific histological and immunohistochemical methods, and scanning electron microscopy. The results from measurements of absolute length values, and, particularly, growth rate development in each HH stage revealed a distinct phase of most intensive growth in HH stage 40–41, which was preceded by feather follicle insertion and accompanied by the occurrence of α-keratins in barbule cells. Specific regional evaluation demonstrated that growth in the feather follicles of abdominal skin generally showed the slowest progression from absolute values and that in the feather filaments of the developing wings the most rapid progression occurred during HH stage 40–41 from growth rate values. PMID:10029194

  16. Scoliosis and tibiotarsal deformities in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Droual, R; Bickford, A A; Farver, T B

    1991-01-01

    The incidence and degree of scoliosis were investigated in broiler chickens with and without intertarsal deformities associated with slipped gastrocnemius tendons. In both groups, the incidence of scoliosis was similar and there was a significant tendency for scoliosis to be convex on the right side. However, scoliosis was significantly greater in birds with intertarsal deformities, and in a significant proportion of these the joint with a slipped tendon was on the convex side of scoliosis. In birds with deformities, inequalities between right and left tibiotarsi were significantly greater, and tibiotarsi with greater length, narrower condyles and trochleae, and shallower trochlear grooves were significantly more often on the convex side of scoliosis. Significant positive correlations were found between scoliosis and rotational and bending deformities of the distal tibiotarsus on the convex side of scoliosis. These findings suggest a cause-and-effect relationship between scoliosis and tibiotarsal deformities associated with slipped tendons. PMID:2029256

  17. Late onset cerebellar cortical degeneration in a koala.

    PubMed

    Kuwamura, M; Murai, F; Nishioka, S; Aoki, M; Ohashi, F; Yamate, J; Kotani, T; Summers, B A

    2009-08-01

    A 10-year-old male koala started to fall from the tree while sleeping. Subsequently, the koala often fell down while walking and showed a gait abnormality, abnormal nystagmus and hypersalivation. At 12 years of age, the koala became ataxic and seemed blind. At 13 years of age, the koala exhibited signs of dysstasia and was euthanased. Necropsy revealed marked symmetrical atrophy of the cerebellum. Histopathologically, a severe loss of Purkinje and granule cells was evident in the cerebellum, while the molecular layer was more cellular than normal with cells resembling small neurons, which were positively stained with parvalbumin immunohistochemistry. Reactive Bergmann glial cells (astrocytes) were present adjacent to the depleted Purkinje cell zone. The very late onset and slow progression of the cerebellar cortical degeneration in this case is particularly interesting and appears to be the first report in the koala. PMID:19673852

  18. Art meets science: The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project

    PubMed Central

    Stinckens, A.; Vereijken, A.; Ons, E.; Konings, P.; Van As, P.; Cuppens, H.; Moreau, Y.; Sakai, R.; Aerts, J.; Goddeeris, B.; Buys, N.; Vanmechelen, K.; Cassiman, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Cosmopolitan Chicken Project is an artistic undertaking of renowned artist Koen Vanmechelen. In this project, the artist interbreeds domestic chickens from different countries aiming at the creation of a true Cosmopolitan Chicken as a symbol for global diversity. The unifying theme is the chicken and the egg, symbols that link scientific, political, philosophical and ethical issues. The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project is the scientific component of this artwork. Based on state of the art genomic techniques, the project studies the effect of the crossing of chickens on the genetic diversity. Also, this research is potentially applicable to the human population. The setup of the CC®P is quite different from traditional breeding experiments: starting from the crossbreed of two purebred chickens (Mechelse Koekoek x Poule de Bresse), every generation is crossed with a few animals from another breed. For 26 of these purebred and crossbred populations, genetic diversity was measured (1) under the assumption that populations were sufficiently large to maintain all informative SNP within a generation and (2) under the circumstances of the CCP breeding experiment. Under the first assumption, a steady increase in genetic diversity was witnessed over the consecutive generations, thus indeed indicating the creation of a “Cosmopolitan Chicken Genome”. However, under the conditions of the CCP, which reflects the reality within the human population, diversity is seen to fluctuate within given boundaries instead of steadily increasing. A reflection on this might be that this is because, in humans, an evolutionary optimum in genetic diversity is reached. Key words: PMID:26977265

  19. In vitro comparison of rat and chicken brain neurotoxic esterase

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, R.; Padilla, S.

    1986-04-01

    A systematic comparison was undertaken to characterize neurotoxic esterase (NTE) from rat and chicken brain in terms of inhibitor sensitivities, pH optima, and molecular weights. Paraoxon titration of phenyl valerate (PV)-hydrolyzing carboxylesterases showed that rat esterases were more sensitive than chicken to paraoxon inhibition at concentrations less than or equal to microM and superimposable with chicken esterases at concentrations of 2.5-1000 microM. Mipafox titration of the paraoxon-resistant esterases at a fixed paraoxon concentration of 100 microM (mipafox concentration: 0-1000 microM) resulted in a mipafox I50 of 7.3 microM for chicken brain NTE and 11.6 microM for rat brain NTE. NTE (i.e., paraoxon-resistant, mipafox-sensitive esterase activity) comprised 80% of chicken and 60% of rat brain paraoxon-resistant activity with the specific activity of chicken brain NTE approximately twice that of rat brain NTE. The pH maxima for NTE from both species was similar showing broad, slightly alkaline optima from pH 7.9 to 8.6. (/sup 3/H)Diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP)-labeled NTE from the brains of both species had an apparent mol wt of 160,000 measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In conclusion, NTE from both species was very similar, with the mipafox I50 for rat NTE within the range of reported values for chicken and human NTE, and the inhibitor parameters of the chicken NTE assay were applicable for the rat NTE assay.

  20. CLONING AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CHICKEN INTERLEUKIN-17D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The proinflammatory cytokine IL-17D was cloned from a testis cDNA library prepared from the Korean native chicken. The full-length chicken IL-17D (chIL-17D) cDNA consisted of a 348 nucleotide sequence encoding an open reading frame of 116 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 17.0 kDa. Co...

  1. Establishment of an in vitro system representing the chicken gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed

    Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; McClure, Susan Jane; Yeap, Swee Keong; Kristeen-Teo, Ye Wen; Tan, Sheau Wei; McCullagh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The bursa of Fabricius is critical for B cell development and differentiation in chick embryos. This study describes the production in vitro, from dissociated cell suspensions, of cellular agglomerates with functional similarities to the chicken bursa. Co-cultivation of epithelial and lymphoid cells obtained from embryos at the appropriate developmental stage regularly led to agglomerate formation within 48 hours. These agglomerates resembled bursal tissue in having lymphoid clusters overlaid by well organized epithelium. Whereas lymphocytes within agglomerates were predominantly Bu-1a(+), a majority of those emigrating onto the supporting membrane were Bu-1a(-) and IgM(+). Both agglomerates and emigrant cells expressed activation-induced deaminase with levels increasing after 24 hours. Emigrating cells were actively proliferating at a rate in excess of both the starting cell population and the population of cells remaining in agglomerates. The potential usefulness of this system for investigating the response of bursal tissue to avian Newcastle disease virus (strain AF2240) was examined. PMID:23185307

  2. Influenza Virus Propagation in Embryonated Chicken Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Brauer, Rena; Chen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Influenza infection is associated with about 36,000 deaths and more than 200,000 hospitalizations every year in the United States. The continuous emergence of new influenza virus strains due to mutation and re-assortment complicates the control of the virus and necessitates the permanent development of novel drugs and vaccines. The laboratory-based study of influenza requires a reliable and cost-effective method for the propagation of the virus. Here, a comprehensive protocol is provided for influenza A virus propagation in fertile chicken eggs, which consistently yields high titer viral stocks. In brief, serum pathogen-free (SPF) fertilized chicken eggs are incubated at 37 °C and 55-60% humidity for 10 – 11 days. Over this period, embryo development can be easily monitored using an egg candler. Virus inoculation is carried out by injection of virus stock into the allantoic cavity using a needle. After 2 days of incubation at 37 °C, the eggs are chilled for at least 4 hr at 4 °C. The eggshell above the air sac and the chorioallantoic membrane are then carefully opened, and the allantoic fluid containing the virus is harvested. The fluid is cleared from debris by centrifugation, aliquoted and transferred to -80 °C for long-term storage. The large amount (5-10 ml of virus-containing fluid per egg) and high virus titer which is usually achieved with this protocol has made the usage of eggs for virus preparation our favorable method, in particular for in vitro studies which require large quantities of virus in which high dosages of the same virus stock are needed. PMID:25867050

  3. Influenza virus propagation in embryonated chicken eggs.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Rena; Chen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Influenza infection is associated with about 36,000 deaths and more than 200,000 hospitalizations every year in the United States. The continuous emergence of new influenza virus strains due to mutation and re-assortment complicates the control of the virus and necessitates the permanent development of novel drugs and vaccines. The laboratory-based study of influenza requires a reliable and cost-effective method for the propagation of the virus. Here, a comprehensive protocol is provided for influenza A virus propagation in fertile chicken eggs, which consistently yields high titer viral stocks. In brief, serum pathogen-free (SPF) fertilized chicken eggs are incubated at 37 °C and 55-60% humidity for 10-11 days. Over this period, embryo development can be easily monitored using an egg candler. Virus inoculation is carried out by injection of virus stock into the allantoic cavity using a needle. After 2 days of incubation at 37 °C, the eggs are chilled for at least 4 hr at 4 °C. The eggshell above the air sac and the chorioallantoic membrane are then carefully opened, and the allantoic fluid containing the virus is harvested. The fluid is cleared from debris by centrifugation, aliquoted and transferred to -80 °C for long-term storage. The large amount (5-10 ml of virus-containing fluid per egg) and high virus titer which is usually achieved with this protocol has made the usage of eggs for virus preparation our favorable method, in particular for in vitro studies which require large quantities of virus in which high dosages of the same virus stock are needed. PMID:25867050

  4. Local Innate Responses to TLR Ligands in the Chicken Trachea

    PubMed Central

    Barjesteh, Neda; Alkie, Tamiru Negash; Hodgins, Douglas C.; Nagy, Éva; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-01-01

    The chicken upper respiratory tract is the portal of entry for respiratory pathogens, such as avian influenza virus (AIV). The presence of microorganisms is sensed by pathogen recognition receptors (such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs)) of the innate immune defenses. Innate responses are essential for subsequent induction of potent adaptive immune responses, but little information is available about innate antiviral responses of the chicken trachea. We hypothesized that TLR ligands induce innate antiviral responses in the chicken trachea. Tracheal organ cultures (TOC) were used to investigate localized innate responses to TLR ligands. Expression of candidate genes, which play a role in antiviral responses, was quantified. To confirm the antiviral responses of stimulated TOC, chicken macrophages were treated with supernatants from stimulated TOC, prior to infection with AIV. The results demonstrated that TLR ligands induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, type I interferons and interferon stimulated genes in the chicken trachea. In conclusion, TLR ligands induce functional antiviral responses in the chicken trachea, which may act against some pathogens, such as AIV. PMID:27455308

  5. Use of infrared imaging for investigation of chicken embryo development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frye, Ryan A.; Hsieh, Sheng-Jen; Girón Palomares, José Benjamín D.

    2011-05-01

    The focus of this study is two-fold: first, to investigate the feasibility of thermal imaging for characterizing the development of chicken embryos; and second, to compare the effects of photo periods of 11 hours of light followed by 11 hours of darkness (11-11) versus 24 hours of darkness (24 dark) during the incubation cycle on embryo development. Previous reported work has used invasive methods, such as ultrasound, tomography, and MRI to study chicken embryos with some success. However, very little work has been reported on use of thermography, which is a non-invasive method. Results suggest that use of a cooling-heating-cooling cycle can reveal the anatomy of chicken embryos. A statistical comparison of image data from the two photo periods found no difference in the average cooling rates. However, the 11-11 group of eggs did hatch earlier overall than 24-dark group. Of the hatched eggs, all the chickens from the 24-dark group appeared to be in normal physical condition. However, two of the chickens from the 11-11 group appeared to have leg weakness shortly after hatching. Of these, one fully recovered the next day and the second remains the same after two days of observation. In addition, the second chicken took about 48 hours to fully emerge from its shell.

  6. Texture Softening of Beef and Chicken by Enzyme Injection Process

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Chun, Yong-Gi; Kim, Bum-Keun; Park, Dong-June

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on a new softening technology for use with chicken breast and eye of round beef in order to assist elderly individuals who have difficulty with eating due to changes in their ability to chew (masticatory function) or swallow. We investigated the hardness of chicken breast and eye of round beef through use of a texture analyzer after injection of a commercial enzyme. Among 7 commercial enzymes, bromelain and collupulin exhibited a marked softening effect on the tested chicken breast and eye of round beef given a 1.00% enzyme concentration. The hardness of bromelain-treated chicken breast reached 1.4×104 N/m2, of collupulin-treated chicken breast reached 3.0×104 N/m2, and of bromelain-treated eye of round beef reached 3.2×104 N/m2, respectively, while their original shapes did not change. To find the level of tissue degradation with specific enzyme concentrations, enzyme injections at 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.50%, and 1.00% concentration of bromelain and papain were also evaluated. The results of this research could be useful for softening chicken breast and eye of round beef and will contribute to the development of foods that can be more easily eaten as part of a balanced diet for elderly adults. PMID:26761870

  7. Texture Softening of Beef and Chicken by Enzyme Injection Process.

    PubMed

    Eom, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Chun, Yong-Gi; Kim, Bum-Keun; Park, Dong-June

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on a new softening technology for use with chicken breast and eye of round beef in order to assist elderly individuals who have difficulty with eating due to changes in their ability to chew (masticatory function) or swallow. We investigated the hardness of chicken breast and eye of round beef through use of a texture analyzer after injection of a commercial enzyme. Among 7 commercial enzymes, bromelain and collupulin exhibited a marked softening effect on the tested chicken breast and eye of round beef given a 1.00% enzyme concentration. The hardness of bromelain-treated chicken breast reached 1.4×10(4) N/m(2), of collupulin-treated chicken breast reached 3.0×10(4) N/m(2), and of bromelain-treated eye of round beef reached 3.2×10(4) N/m(2), respectively, while their original shapes did not change. To find the level of tissue degradation with specific enzyme concentrations, enzyme injections at 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.50%, and 1.00% concentration of bromelain and papain were also evaluated. The results of this research could be useful for softening chicken breast and eye of round beef and will contribute to the development of foods that can be more easily eaten as part of a balanced diet for elderly adults. PMID:26761870

  8. Targeted mutagenesis in chicken using CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Isao; Yoshii, Kyoko; Miyahara, Daichi; Kagami, Hiroshi; Tagami, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple and powerful tool for genome editing in various organisms including livestock animals. However, the system has not been applied to poultry because of the difficulty in accessing their zygotes. Here we report the implementation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting in chickens. Two egg white genes, ovalbumin and ovomucoid, were efficiently (>90%) mutagenized in cultured chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) by transfection of circular plasmids encoding Cas9, a single guide RNA, and a gene encoding drug resistance, followed by transient antibiotic selection. We transplanted CRISPR-induced mutant-ovomucoid PGCs into recipient chicken embryos and established three germline chimeric roosters (G0). All of the roosters had donor-derived mutant-ovomucoid spermatozoa, and the two with a high transmission rate of donor-derived gametes produced heterozygous mutant ovomucoid chickens as about half of their donor-derived offspring in the next generation (G1). Furthermore, we generated ovomucoid homozygous mutant offspring (G2) by crossing the G1 mutant chickens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple and effective gene-targeting method in chickens. PMID:27050479

  9. Local Innate Responses to TLR Ligands in the Chicken Trachea.

    PubMed

    Barjesteh, Neda; Alkie, Tamiru Negash; Hodgins, Douglas C; Nagy, Éva; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-01-01

    The chicken upper respiratory tract is the portal of entry for respiratory pathogens, such as avian influenza virus (AIV). The presence of microorganisms is sensed by pathogen recognition receptors (such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs)) of the innate immune defenses. Innate responses are essential for subsequent induction of potent adaptive immune responses, but little information is available about innate antiviral responses of the chicken trachea. We hypothesized that TLR ligands induce innate antiviral responses in the chicken trachea. Tracheal organ cultures (TOC) were used to investigate localized innate responses to TLR ligands. Expression of candidate genes, which play a role in antiviral responses, was quantified. To confirm the antiviral responses of stimulated TOC, chicken macrophages were treated with supernatants from stimulated TOC, prior to infection with AIV. The results demonstrated that TLR ligands induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, type I interferons and interferon stimulated genes in the chicken trachea. In conclusion, TLR ligands induce functional antiviral responses in the chicken trachea, which may act against some pathogens, such as AIV. PMID:27455308

  10. Targeted mutagenesis in chicken using CRISPR/Cas9 system

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Isao; Yoshii, Kyoko; Miyahara, Daichi; Kagami, Hiroshi; Tagami, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple and powerful tool for genome editing in various organisms including livestock animals. However, the system has not been applied to poultry because of the difficulty in accessing their zygotes. Here we report the implementation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting in chickens. Two egg white genes, ovalbumin and ovomucoid, were efficiently (>90%) mutagenized in cultured chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) by transfection of circular plasmids encoding Cas9, a single guide RNA, and a gene encoding drug resistance, followed by transient antibiotic selection. We transplanted CRISPR-induced mutant-ovomucoid PGCs into recipient chicken embryos and established three germline chimeric roosters (G0). All of the roosters had donor-derived mutant-ovomucoid spermatozoa, and the two with a high transmission rate of donor-derived gametes produced heterozygous mutant ovomucoid chickens as about half of their donor-derived offspring in the next generation (G1). Furthermore, we generated ovomucoid homozygous mutant offspring (G2) by crossing the G1 mutant chickens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple and effective gene-targeting method in chickens. PMID:27050479

  11. Isolation and characterization of the chicken trypsinogen gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, K; Gan, L; Lee, I; Hood, L

    1995-01-01

    Based on genomic Southern hybridizations and cDNA sequence analyses, the chicken trypsinogen gene family can be divided into two multi-member subfamilies, a six-member trypsinogen I subfamily which encodes the cationic trypsin isoenzymes and a three-member trypsinogen II subfamily which encodes the anionic trypsin isoenzymes. The chicken cDNA and genomic clones containing these two subfamilies were isolated and characterized by DNA sequence analysis. The results indicated that the chicken trypsinogen genes encoded a signal peptide of 15 to 16 amino acid residues, an activation peptide of 9 to 10 residues and a trypsin of 223 amino acid residues. The chicken trypsinogens contain all the common catalytic and structural features for trypsins, including the catalytic triad His, Asp and Ser and the six disulphide bonds. The trypsinogen I and II subfamilies share approximately 70% sequence identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level. The sequence comparison among chicken trypsinogen subfamily members and trypsin sequences from other species suggested that the chicken trypsinogen genes may have evolved in coincidental or concerted fashion. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7733885

  12. Attempts to reproduce vacuolar myelinopathy in domestic swine and chickens.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Weis, Lynn A; Gerhold, Richard W; Fischer, John R

    2004-07-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) was first recognized as a cause of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) mortality in 1994 in Arkansas (USA) and has since caused over 90 bald eagle and numerous American coot (Fulica americana) mortalities in five southeastern states. The cause of AVM remains undetermined but is suspected to be a biotoxin. Naturally occurring AVM has been limited to wild waterbirds, raptors, and one species of shorebird, and has been reproduced experimentally in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). In this study, chickens and swine were evaluated for susceptibility to vacuolar myelinopathy with the intent of developing animal models for research and to identify specific tissues in affected coots that contain the causative agent. Additionally, submerged, aquatic vegetation, primarily hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata), and associated material collected from a reservoir during an AVM outbreak was fed to chickens in an effort to reproduce the disease. In two separate experiments, six 4-wk-old leghorn chickens and ten 5-wk-old leghorn chickens were fed coot tissues. In a third experiment, five 3-mo-old domestic swine and one red-tailed hawk, serving as a positive control, were fed coot tissues. In these experiments, treatment animals received tissues (brain, fat, intestinal tract, kidney, liver, and/or muscle) from coots with AVM lesions collected at a lake during an AVM outbreak. Negative control chickens and one pig received tissues from coots without AVM lesions that had been collected at a lake where AVM has never been documented. In a fourth experiment, eight 3-wk-old leghorn chickens were fed aquatic vegetation material. Four chickens received material from the same lake from which coots with AVM lesions were collected for the previous experiments, and four control chickens were fed material from the lake where AVM has never been documented. Blood was collected and physical and neurologic exams were conducted on animals before and once per week

  13. The behavioural response of mice lacking NK1 receptors to guanfacine resembles its clinical profile in treatment of ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Pillidge, Katharine; Porter, Ashley J; Dudley, Julia A; Tsai, Yuan-Chen; Heal, David J; Stanford, S Clare

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Mice with functional ablation of substance P-preferring neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R−/− mice) display behavioural abnormalities resembling those in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here, we investigated whether the ADHD treatment, guanfacine, alleviated the hyperactivity and impulsivity/inattention displayed by NK1R−/− mice in the light/dark exploration box (LDEB) and 5-choice serial reaction–time task (5-CSRTT), respectively. Following reports of co-morbid anxiety in ADHD, we also investigated effects of guanfacine on anxiety-like behaviour displayed by NK1R−/− and wild-type (WT) mice in the elevated plus maze (EPM). Experimental Approach Mice were treated with guanfacine (0.1, 0.3 or 1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.), vehicle or no injection and tested in the 5-CSRTT or the LDEB. Only the lowest dose of guanfacine was used in the EPM assays. Key Results In the 5-CSRTT, a low dose of guanfacine (0.1 mg·kg−1) increased attention in NK1R−/− mice, but not in WT mice. This dose did not affect the total number of trials completed, latencies to respond or locomotor activity in the LDEB. Impulsivity was decreased by the high dose (1.0 mg·kg−1) of guanfacine, but this was evident in both genotypes and is likely to be secondary to a generalized blunting of behaviour. Although the NK1R−/− mice displayed marked anxiety-like behaviour, guanfacine did not affect the behaviour of either genotype in the EPM. Conclusions and Implications This evidence that guanfacine improves attention at a dose that did not affect arousal or emotionality supports our proposal that NK1R−/− mice express an attention deficit resembling that of ADHD patients. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:25074741

  14. Genomic patterns resembling BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated breast cancers predict benefit of intensified carboplatin-based chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction BRCA-mutated breast cancer cells lack the DNA-repair mechanism homologous recombination that is required for error-free DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) may cause hypersensitivity to DNA DSB-inducing agents, such as bifunctional alkylating agents and platinum salts. HRD can be caused by BRCA mutations, and by other mechanisms. To identify HRD, studies have focused on triple-negative (TN) breast cancers as these resemble BRCA1-mutated breast cancer closely and might also share this hypersensitivity. However, ways to identify HRD in non-BRCA-mutated, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers have remained elusive. The current study provides evidence that genomic patterns resembling BRCA1- or BRCA2-mutated breast cancers can identify breast cancer patients with TN as well as ER-positive, HER2-negative tumors that are sensitive to intensified, DSB-inducing chemotherapy. Methods Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was used to classify breast cancers. Patients with tumors with similar aCGH patterns as BRCA1- and/or BRCA2-mutated breast cancers were defined as having a BRCA-likeCGH status, others as non-BCRA-likeCGH. Stage-III patients (n = 249) had participated in a randomized controlled trial of adjuvant high-dose (HD) cyclophosphamide-thiotepa-carboplatin (CTC) versus 5-fluorouracil-epirubicin-cyclophosphamide (FE90C) chemotherapy. Results Among patients with BRCA-likeCGH tumors (81/249, 32%), a significant benefit of HD-CTC compared to FE90C was observed regarding overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio 0.19, 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.48) that was not seen for patients with non-BRCA-likeCGH tumors (adjusted hazard ratio 0.90, 95% CI: 0.53 to 1.54) (P = 0.004). Half of all BRCA-likeCGH tumors were ER-positive. Conclusions Distinct aCGH patterns differentiated between HER2-negative patients with a markedly improved outcome after adjuvant treatment with an intensified DNA-DSB-inducing regimen

  15. Helping the Habitually Late Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Jerry

    1978-01-01

    The author gives three major reasons for a student being habitually late to class: resistance, disorganization, or unavoidable schedule conflicts. He makes specific suggestions to teachers for dealing with the disorganized and resistant latecomers. (SJL)

  16. Late Blooming or Language Problem?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Late Blooming or Language Problem? Parents are smart. They listen to their ... or not their child is developing speech and language at a normal rate. If parents think that ...

  17. Effect of complement depletion by cobra venom factor on fowlpox virus infection in chickens and chicken embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, H; Yoshikawa, Y; Kai, C; Yamanouchi, K; Taniguchi, H; Komine, K; Ishijima, Y; Okada, H

    1986-01-01

    The course of infection with an attenuated strain of fowlpox virus (FPV), which is known to induce antibody-independent activation of complement via the alternative pathway, was investigated in 1- to 3-day-old chickens and 14-day-old chicken embryos by treatment with cobra venom factor (CVF). CVF was found to inhibit complement activity transiently via the alternative pathway but not via the classical pathway. In chickens treated with CVF, virus growth in the skin was enhanced, and pock lesions tended to disseminate, leading to fatal infection in some birds. Histologically, an acute inflammation at an early stage of infection (within 3 days) was inhibited, and virus content in the pock lesion was increased. In chicken embryos with immature immune capacities, CVF treatment caused changes in pock morphology from clear pocks to diffuse ones, an increase in virus content in the pock, and inhibition of cell infiltration. Thus, FPV infection was aggravated in both CVF-treated chickens and chicken embryos. These results are discussed in relation to roles of complement in the elimination of virus at an early stage of FPV infection. Images PMID:3003397

  18. Fatty acid composition of cooked chicken meat and chicken meat products as influenced by price range at retail.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Rachael A; Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D I

    2013-06-01

    The primary objective was to determine fatty acid composition of skinless chicken breast and leg meat portions and chicken burgers and nuggets from the economy price range, standard price range (both conventional intensive rearing) and the organic range from four leading supermarkets. Few significant differences in the SFA, MUFA and PUFA composition of breast and leg meat portions were found among price ranges, and supermarket had no effect. No significant differences in fatty acid concentrations of economy and standard chicken burgers were found, whereas economy chicken nuggets had higher C16:1, C18:1 cis, C18:1 trans and C18:3 n-3 concentrations than had standard ones. Overall, processed chicken products had much higher fat contents and SFA than had whole meat. Long chain n-3 fatty acids had considerably lower concentrations in processed products than in whole meat. Overall there was no evidence that organic chicken breast or leg meat had a more favourable fatty acid composition than had meat from conventionally reared birds. PMID:23411307

  19. Soil nitrogen and carbon impacts of raising chickens on pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryals, R.; Leach, A.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Galloway, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Chicken is the most consumed meat in the US, and production continues to intensify rapidly around the world. Chicken manure from confined feeding operations is typically applied in its raw form to nearby croplands, resulting in hotspots of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Pasture-raised chicken is an alternative to industrial production and is growing in popularity with rising consumer demand for more humanely raised protein sources. In this agricultural model, manure is deposited directly onto grassland soils where it is thought to increase pools of soil carbon and nitrogen. The fate of manure nitrogen from pasture-raised chicken production remains poorly understood. We conducted a controlled, replicated experiment on a permaculture farm in Charlottesville, Virginia (Timbercreek Organics) in which small chicken coops (10 ft x 12 ft) were moved daily in a pasture. We measured manure deposition rates, soil inorganic nitrogen pools, soil moisture, and soil N2O and CO2 emissions. Measurements were made for the 28-day pasture life of three separate flocks of chickens in the spring, summer, and fall. Each flock consisted of approximately 200-300 chickens occupying three to five coops (~65 chickens/coop). Measurements were also made in paired ungrazed control plots. Manure deposition rates were similar across flocks and averaged 1.5 kgdrywt ha-1 during the spring grazing event and 4.0 kgdrywt ha-1 during the summer and fall grazing events. Manure deposition was relatively constant over the four weeks pasture-lifetime of the chickens. Compared to control plots, grazed areas exhibited higher soil N2O and CO2 fluxes. The magnitude of these fluxes diminished significantly over the four-week span. Soil gas fluxes significantly increased following rainfall events. For a given rainfall event, higher fluxes were observed from transects that were grazed more recently. Soil gaseous reactive nitrogen losses were less in this pasture system compared to cultivated field amended

  20. Genetic diversity and maternal origin of Bangladeshi chicken.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, M S A; Chen, Shanyuan; Faruque, S; Bhuiyan, A K F H; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2013-06-01

    Local domestic chicken populations are of paramount importance as a source of protein in developing countries. Bangladesh possesses a large number of native chicken populations which display a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme wet and hot environments of this region. This and the fact that wild jungle fowls (JFs) are still available in some regions of the country, it urges to study the present genetic diversity and relationships between Bangladeshi autochthonous chicken populations. Here, we report the results of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence polymorphisms analyses to assess the genetic diversity and possible maternal origin of Bangladeshi indigenous chickens. A 648-bp fragment of mtDNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed in 96 samples from four different chicken populations and one red JF population. Sequence analysis revealed 39 variable sites that defined 25 haplotypes. Estimates of haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.745 to 0.901 and from 0.011 to 0.016, respectively. The pairwise differences between populations ranged from 0.091 to 1.459 while most of the PhiST (ΦST) values were significant. Furthermore, AMOVA analysis revealed 89.16 % of the total genetic diversity was accounted for within population variation, indicating little genetic differentiation among the studied populations. The median network analysis from haplotypes of Bangladeshi chickens illustrated five distinct mitochondrial haplogroups (A, D, E, F and I). Individuals from all Bangladeshi chicken populations were represented in the major clades D and E; those maternal origins are presumed to be from Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asian countries, more particularly from South China, Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand. Further, phylogenetic analysis between indigenous chicken populations and sub-species of red JFs showed G. g. gallus and G. g. spadiceus shared with almost all haplogroups and had major influence than G. g. murghi in the origin of

  1. Late effects from hadron therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

    2004-06-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  2. Structural changes upon peroxynitrite-mediated nitration of peroxiredoxin 2; nitrated Prx2 resembles its disulfide-oxidized form.

    PubMed

    Randall, Lía; Manta, Bruno; Nelson, Kimberly J; Santos, Javier; Poole, Leslie B; Denicola, Ana

    2016-01-15

    Peroxiredoxins are cys-based peroxidases that function in peroxide detoxification and H2O2-induced signaling. Human Prx2 is a typical 2-Cys Prx arranged as pentamers of head-to-tail homodimers. During the catalytic mechanism, the active-site cysteine (CP) cycles between reduced, sulfenic and disulfide state involving conformational as well as oligomeric changes. Several post-translational modifications were shown to affect Prx activity, in particular CP overoxidation which leads to inactivation. We have recently reported that nitration of Prx2, a post-translational modification on non-catalytic tyrosines, unexpectedly increases its peroxidase activity and resistance to overoxidation. To elucidate the cross-talk between this post-translational modification and the enzyme catalysis, we investigated the structural changes of Prx2 after nitration. Analytical ultracentrifugation, UV absorption, circular dichroism, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence were used to connect catalytically relevant redox changes with tyrosine nitration. Our results show that the reduced nitrated Prx2 structurally resembles the disulfide-oxidized native form of the enzyme favoring a locally unfolded conformation that facilitates disulfide formation. These results provide structural basis for the kinetic analysis previously reported, the observed increase in activity and the resistance to overoxidation of the peroxynitrite-treated enzyme. PMID:26612102

  3. Extending the honey bee venome with the antimicrobial peptide apidaecin and a protein resembling wasp antigen 5.

    PubMed

    Van Vaerenbergh, M; Cardoen, D; Formesyn, E M; Brunain, M; Van Driessche, G; Blank, S; Spillner, E; Verleyen, P; Wenseleers, T; Schoofs, L; Devreese, B; de Graaf, D C

    2013-04-01

    Honey bee venom is a complex mixture of toxic proteins and peptides. In the present study we tried to extend our knowledge of the venom composition using two different approaches. First, worker venom was analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and this revealed the antimicrobial peptide apidaecin for the first time in such samples. Its expression in the venom gland was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR and by a peptidomic analysis of the venom apparatus tissue. Second, genome mining revealed a list of proteins with resemblance to known insect allergens or venom toxins, one of which showed homology to proteins of the antigen 5 (Ag5)/Sol i 3 cluster. It was demonstrated that the honey bee Ag5-like gene is expressed by venom gland tissue of winter bees but not of summer bees. Besides this seasonal variation, it shows an interesting spatial expression pattern with additional production in the hypopharyngeal glands, the brains and the midgut. Finally, our immunoblot study revealed that both synthetic apidaecin and the Ag5-like recombinant from bacteria evoke no humoral activity in beekeepers. Also, no IgG4-based cross-reactivity was detected between the honey bee Ag5-like protein and its yellow jacket paralogue Ves v 5. PMID:23350689

  4. ECG phenomena: pseudopreexcitation and repolarization disturbances resembling ST-elevation myocardial infarction caused by an intraatrial rhabdomyoma in a newborn.

    PubMed

    Paech, Christian; Gebauer, Roman Antonin

    2014-01-01

    As is known from other reports, a rhabdomyoma or tumor metastasis may alter intracardiac electrical conduction, producing electrical phenomena like pseudopreexcitation or repolarization disturbances resembling ST-elevation myocardial infarction or Brugada's syndrome. We present a newborn with a giant atrial rhabdomyoma and additionally multiple ventricular rhabdomyomas. He presented with several electrocardiogram (ECG) phenomena due to tumor-caused atrial depolarization and repolarization disturbances. Except from the cardiac tumors, the physical status was within normal range. Initial ECG showed a rapid atrial tachycardia with a ventricular rate of 230 bpm, which was terminated by electrical cardioversion. Afterwards, the ECG showed atrial rhythm with frequent atrial premature contractions and deformation of the PR interval with large, broad P waves and loss of discret PR segment, imposing as pseudopreexcitation. The following QRS complex was normal, with seemingly abnormal ventricular repolarization resembeling ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The atrial tumor was resected with consequent vast atrial reconstruction using patch plastic. The ventricular tumors were left without manipulation. After surgery, pseudopreexcitation and repolarization abnormalities vanished entirely and an alternans between sinus rhythm and ectopic atrial rhythm was present. These phenomena were supposably caused by isolated atrial depolarization disturbances due to tumor-caused heterogenous endocardial activation. The seemingly abnormal ventricular repolarization is probably due to repolarization of the atrial mass, superimposed on the ventricular repolarization. Recognizably, the QRS complex before and after surgical resection of the rhabdomyoma is identical, underlining the atrial origin of the repolarization abnormalities before surgery. PMID:23663513

  5. 2MASS J035523.37+113343.7: A Young, Dusty, Nearby, Isolated Brown Dwarf Resembling a Giant Exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Núñez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    We present parallax and proper motion measurements, near-infrared spectra, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry for the low surface gravity L5γ dwarf 2MASS J035523.37+113343.7 (2M0355). We use these data to evaluate photometric, spectral, and kinematic signatures of youth as 2M0355 is the reddest isolated L dwarf yet classified. We confirm its low-gravity spectral morphology and find a strong resemblance to the sharp triangular shaped H-band spectrum of the ~10 Myr planetary-mass object 2M1207b. We find that 2M0355 is underluminous compared to a normal field L5 dwarf in the optical and Mauna Kea Observatory J, H, and K bands and transitions to being overluminous from 3 to 12 μm, indicating that enhanced photospheric dust shifts flux to longer wavelengths for young, low-gravity objects, creating a red spectral energy distribution. Investigating the near-infrared color-magnitude diagram for brown dwarfs confirms that 2M0355 is redder and underluminous compared to the known brown dwarf population, similar to the peculiarities of directly imaged exoplanets 2M1207b and HR8799bcd. We calculate UVW space velocities and find that the motion of 2M0355 is consistent with young disk objects (<2-3 Gyr) and it shows a high likelihood of membership in the AB Doradus association.

  6. A nematode microtubule-associated protein, PTL-1, closely resembles its mammalian counterparts in overall molecular architecture.

    PubMed

    Hashi, Yurika; Kotani, Susumu; Adachi, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    The mammalian microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), MAP2, MAP4, and τ, are structurally similar and considered to be evolutionarily related. The primary structure of a nematode MAP, PTL-1, also reportedly resembles those of the MAPs, but only in a small portion of the molecule. In this study, we elucidated the overall domain organization of PTL-1, using a molecular dissection technique. Firstly, we isolated nematode microtubules and proved that the recombinant PTL-1 binds to nematode and porcine microtubules with similar affinities. Then, the recombinant PTL-1 was genetically dissected to generate four shorter polypeptides, and their microtubule-binding and assembly promoting activities were assessed, using porcine microtubules and tubulin. PTL-1 was found to consist of two parts, microtubule-binding and projection domains, with the former further divided into three functionally distinct subdomains. The molecular architecture of PTL-1 was proved to be quite analogous to its mammalian counterparts, MAP2, MAP4, and τ, strongly supporting their evolutionary relationships. PMID:26906882

  7. Pneumonic Tularemia in Rabbits Resembles the Human Disease as Illustrated by Radiographic and Hematological Changes after Infection

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Douglas S.; Smith, Le'Kneitah; Dunsmore, Tammy; Trichel, Anita; Ortiz, Luis A.; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Barry, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Background Pneumonic tularemia is caused by inhalation of the gram negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis. Because of concerns that tularemia could be used as a bioterrorism agent, vaccines and therapeutics are urgently needed. Animal models of pneumonic tularemia with a pathophysiology similar to the human disease are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these potential medical countermeasures. Principal Findings Rabbits exposed to aerosols containing Francisella tularensis strain SCHU S4 developed a rapidly progressive fatal pneumonic disease. Clinical signs became evident on the third day after exposure with development of a fever (>40.5°C) and a sharp decline in both food and water intake. Blood samples collected on day 4 found lymphopenia and a decrease in platelet counts coupled with elevations in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alanine aminotransferase, cholesterol, granulocytes and monocytes. Radiographs demonstrated the development of pneumonia and abnormalities of intestinal gas consistent with ileus. On average, rabbits were moribund 5.1 days after exposure; no rabbits survived exposure at any dose (190–54,000 cfu). Gross evaluation of tissues taken at necropsy showed evidence of pathology in the lungs, spleen, liver, kidney and intestines. Bacterial counts confirmed bacterial dissemination from the lungs to the liver and spleen. Conclusions/Significance The pathophysiology of pneumonic tularemia in rabbits resembles what has been reported for humans. Rabbits therefore are a relevant model of the human disease caused by type A strains of F. tularensis. PMID:21931798

  8. RNA polymerase III-specific general transcription factor IIIC contains a heterodimer resembling TFIIF Rap30/Rap74

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Nicholas M. I.; Baudin, Florence; von Scheven, Gudrun; Müller, Christoph W.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription of tRNA-encoding genes by RNA polymerase (Pol) III requires the six-subunit general transcription factor IIIC that uses subcomplexes τA and τB to recognize two gene-internal promoter elements named A- and B-box. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe τA subcomplex comprises subunits Sfc1, Sfc4 and Sfc7. The crystal structure of the Sfc1/Sfc7 heterodimer reveals similar domains and overall domain architecture to the Pol II-specific general transcription factor TFIIF Rap30/Rap74. The N-terminal Sfc1/Sfc7 dimerization module consists of a triple β-barrel similar to the N-terminal TFIIF Rap30/Rap74 dimerization module, whereas the C-terminal Sfc1 DNA-binding domain contains a winged-helix domain most similar to the TFIIF Rap30 C-terminal winged-helix domain. Sfc1 DNA-binding domain recognizes single and double-stranded DNA by an unknown mechanism. Several features observed for A-box recognition by τA resemble the recognition of promoters by bacterial RNA polymerase, where σ factor unfolds double-stranded DNA and stabilizes the non-coding DNA strand in an open conformation. Such a function has also been proposed for TFIIF, suggesting that the observed structural similarity between Sfc1/Sfc7 and TFIIF Rap30/Rap74 might also reflect similar functions. PMID:23921640

  9. Estrogen-producing endometrioid adenocarcinoma resembling sex cord-stromal tumor of the ovary: a review of four postmenopausal cases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The 4 present cases with endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EMA) of the ovary were characterized by estrogen overproduction and resemblance to sex cord-stromal tumor (SCST). The patients were all postmenopausal, at ages ranging from 60 to 79 years (av. 67.5), who complained of abdominal discomfort or distention and also atypical genital bleeding. Cytologically, maturation of the cervicovaginal squamous epithelium and active endometrial proliferation were detected. The serum estrogen (estradiol, E2) value was preoperatively found to be elevated, ranging from 48.7 to 83.0 pg/mL (av. 58.4). In contrast, follicle stimulating hormone was suppressed to below the normal value. MR imaging diagnoses included SCSTs such as granulosa cell tumor or thecoma for 3 cases because of predominantly solid growth, and epithelial malignancy for one case because of cystic and solid structure. Grossly, the solid part of 3 cases was homogeneously yellow in color. Histologically, varying amounts of tumor components were arranged in solid nests, hollow tubules, cord-like strands and cribriform-like nests in addition to the conventional EMA histology. In summary, postmenopausal ovarian solid tumors with the estrogenic manifestations tend to be preoperatively diagnosed as SCST. Due to this, in the histological diagnosis, this variant of ovarian EMA may be challenging and misdiagnosed as SCST because of its wide range in morphology. Virtual slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/6096841358065394 PMID:23190574

  10. On the lack of evidence that non-human animals possess anything remotely resembling a 'theory of mind'.

    PubMed

    Penn, Derek C; Povinelli, Daniel J

    2007-04-29

    After decades of effort by some of our brightest human and non-human minds, there is still little consensus on whether or not non-human animals understand anything about the unobservable mental states of other animals or even what it would mean for a non-verbal animal to understand the concept of a 'mental state'. In the present paper, we confront four related and contentious questions head-on: (i) What exactly would it mean for a non-verbal organism to have an 'understanding' or a 'representation' of another animal's mental state? (ii) What should (and should not) count as compelling empirical evidence that a non-verbal cognitive agent has a system for understanding or forming representations about mental states in a functionally adaptive manner? (iii) Why have the kind of experimental protocols that are currently in vogue failed to produce compelling evidence that non-human animals possess anything even remotely resembling a theory of mind? (iv) What kind of experiments could, at least in principle, provide compelling evidence for such a system in a non-verbal organism? PMID:17264056

  11. ATM deficiency promotes development of murine B-cell lymphomas that resemble diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hathcock, Karen S.; Padilla-Nash, Hesed M.; Camps, Jordi; Shin, Dong-Mi; Triner, Daniel; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Maul, Robert W.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Gearhart, Patricia J.; Staudt, Louis M.; Morse, Herbert C.; Ried, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The serine-threonine kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) plays a central role in maintaining genomic integrity. In mice, ATM deficiency is exclusively associated with T-cell lymphoma development, whereas B-cell tumors predominate in human ataxia-telangiectasia patients. We demonstrate in this study that when T cells are removed as targets for lymphomagenesis and as mediators of immune surveillance, ATM-deficient mice exclusively develop early-onset immunoglobulin M+ B-cell lymphomas that do not transplant to immunocompetent mice and that histologically and genetically resemble the activated B cell–like (ABC) subset of human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). These B-cell lymphomas show considerable chromosomal instability and a recurrent genomic amplification of a 4.48-Mb region on chromosome 18 that contains Malt1 and is orthologous to a region similarly amplified in human ABC DLBCL. Of importance, amplification of Malt1 in these lymphomas correlates with their dependence on nuclear factor (NF)-κB, MALT1, and B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling for survival, paralleling human ABC DLBCL. Further, like some human ABC DLBCLs, these mouse B-cell lymphomas also exhibit constitutive BCR-dependent NF-κB activation. This study reveals that ATM protects against development of B-cell lymphomas that model human ABC DLBCL and identifies a potential role for T cells in preventing the emergence of these tumors. PMID:26400962

  12. Cells transformed by murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) release compounds with transforming and transformed phenotype suppressing activity resembling growth factors.

    PubMed

    Šupolíková, M; Staňová, A Vojs; Kúdelová, M; Marák, J; Zelník, V; Golais, F

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the medium of three cell lines transformed with murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) in vitro and in vivo, 68/HDF, 68/NIH3T3, and S11E, for the presence of compounds resembling growth factors of some herpesviruses which have displayed transforming and transformed phenotype suppressing activity in normal and tumor cells. When any of spent medium was added to cell culture we observed the onset of transformed phenotype in baby hamster kidney cells (BHK-21) cells and transformed phenotype suppressing activity in tumor human epithelial cells (HeLa). In media tested, we have identified the presence of putative growth factor related to MHV-68 (MHGF-68). Its bivalent properties have been blocked entirely by antisera against MHV-68 and two monoclonal antibodies against glycoprotein B (gB) of MHV-68 suggesting viral origin of MHGF-68. The results of initial efforts to separate MHGF-68 on FPLC Sephadex G15 column in the absence of salts revealed the loss of its transforming activity but transformed phenotype suppressing activity retained. On the other hand, the use of methanol-water mobile phase on RP-HPLC C18 column allowed separation of MHGF-68 to two compounds. Both separated fractions, had only the transforming activity to normal cells. Further experiments exploring the nature and the structure of hitherto unknown MHGF-68 are now in the progress to characterize its molecular and biological properties. PMID:26666191

  13. 2MASS J035523.37+113343.7: A YOUNG, DUSTY, NEARBY, ISOLATED BROWN DWARF RESEMBLING A GIANT EXOPLANET

    SciTech Connect

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Nunez, Alejandro; Mamajek, Eric E. E-mail: jfaherty@amnh.org

    2013-01-01

    We present parallax and proper motion measurements, near-infrared spectra, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry for the low surface gravity L5{gamma} dwarf 2MASS J035523.37+113343.7 (2M0355). We use these data to evaluate photometric, spectral, and kinematic signatures of youth as 2M0355 is the reddest isolated L dwarf yet classified. We confirm its low-gravity spectral morphology and find a strong resemblance to the sharp triangular shaped H-band spectrum of the {approx}10 Myr planetary-mass object 2M1207b. We find that 2M0355 is underluminous compared to a normal field L5 dwarf in the optical and Mauna Kea Observatory J, H, and K bands and transitions to being overluminous from 3 to 12 {mu}m, indicating that enhanced photospheric dust shifts flux to longer wavelengths for young, low-gravity objects, creating a red spectral energy distribution. Investigating the near-infrared color-magnitude diagram for brown dwarfs confirms that 2M0355 is redder and underluminous compared to the known brown dwarf population, similar to the peculiarities of directly imaged exoplanets 2M1207b and HR8799bcd. We calculate UVW space velocities and find that the motion of 2M0355 is consistent with young disk objects (<2-3 Gyr) and it shows a high likelihood of membership in the AB Doradus association.

  14. Design and evaluation of lipoprotein resembling curcumin-encapsulated protein-free nanostructured lipid carrier for brain targeting.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanfei; Asghar, Sajid; Xu, Yurui; Wang, Jianping; Jin, Xin; Wang, Zhilin; Wang, Jing; Ping, Qineng; Zhou, Jianping; Xiao, Yanyu

    2016-06-15

    Many nanoparticle matrixes have been demonstrated to be efficient in brain targeting, but there are still certain limitations for them. To overcome the shortcomings of the existing nanoparticulate systems for brain-targeted delivery, a lipoprotein resembling protein-free nanostructured lipid carrier (PS80-NLC) loaded with curcumin was constructed and assessed for in vitro and in vivo performance. Firstly, single factor at a time approach was employed to investigate the effects of various formulation factors. Mean particle sizes of ≤100nm, high entrapment efficiency (EE, about 95%) and drug loading (DL, >3%) were obtained for the optimized formulations. In vitro release studies in the presence of plasma indicated stability of the formulation under physiological condition. Compared with NLC, PS80-NLC showed noticeably higher affinity for bEnd.3 cells (1.56 folds greater than NLC) but with lower uptake in macrophages. The brain coronal sections showed strong and widely distributed fluorescence intensity of PS80-NLC than that of NLC in the cortex. Ex vivo imaging studies further confirmed that PS80-NLC could effectively permeate BBB and preferentially accumulate in the brain (2.38 times greater than NLC). The considerable in vitro and in vivo performance of the safe and biocompatible PS80-NLC makes it a suitable option for further investigations in brain targeted drug delivery. PMID:27094357

  15. Clonal Species Trichoderma parareesei sp. nov. Likely Resembles the Ancestor of the Cellulase Producer Hypocrea jecorina/T. reesei▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Atanasova, Lea; Jaklitsch, Walter M.; Komoń-Zelazowska, Monika; Kubicek, Christian P.; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported that the prominent industrial enzyme producer Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina; Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Dikarya) has a genetically isolated, sympatric sister species devoid of sexual reproduction and which is constituted by the majority of anamorphic strains previously attributed to H. jecorina/T. reesei. In this paper we present the formal taxonomic description of this new species, T. parareesei, complemented by multivariate phenotype profiling and molecular evolutionary examination. A phylogenetic analysis of relatively conserved loci, such as coding fragments of the RNA polymerase B subunit II (rpb2) and GH18 chitinase (chi18-5), showed that T. parareesei is genetically invariable and likely resembles the ancestor which gave raise to H. jecorina. This and the fact that at least one mating type gene of T. parareesei has previously been found to be essentially altered compared to the sequence of H. jecorina/T. reesei indicate that divergence probably occurred due to the impaired functionality of the mating system in the hypothetical ancestor of both species. In contrast, we show that the sexually reproducing and correspondingly more polymorphic H. jecorina/T. reesei is essentially evolutionarily derived. Phenotype microarray analyses performed at seven temperature regimens support our previous speculations that T. parareesei possesses a relatively high opportunistic potential, which probably ensured the survival of this species in ancient and sustainable environment such as tropical forests. PMID:20817800

  16. Sensory afferent segregation in three-eared frogs resemble the dominance columns observed in three-eyed frogs

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Karen L.; Houston, Douglas W.; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The formation of proper sensory afferent connections during development is essential for brain function. Activity-based competition is believed to drive ocular dominance columns (ODC) in mammals and in experimentally-generated three-eyed frogs. ODC formation is thus a compromise of activity differences between two eyes and similar molecular cues. To gauge the generality of graphical map formation in the brain, we investigated the inner ear projection, known for its well-defined and early segregation of afferents from vestibular and auditory endorgans. In analogy to three eyed-frogs, we generated three-eared frogs to assess to what extent vestibular afferents from two adjacent ears could segregate. Donor ears were transplanted either in the native orientation or rotated by 90 degrees. These manipulations should result in either similar or different induced activity between both ears, respectively. Three-eared frogs with normal orientation showed normal swimming whereas those with a rotated third ear showed aberrant behaviors. Projection studies revealed that only afferents from the rotated ears segregated from those from the native ear within the vestibular nucleus, resembling the ocular dominance columns formed in three-eyed frogs. Vestibular segregation suggests that mechanisms comparable to those operating in the ODC formation of the visual system may act on vestibular projection refinements. PMID:25661240

  17. Late Afternoon at Taruntius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    : 462 x 400 pix - 66k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1250 x 1082 pix - 656k] Caption : PR Photo 19b/02 is a computer-processed version of PR Photo 19a/02 , in which the lunar surface is now viewed directly "from above". Located at 46° East lunar longitude, 6° North lunar latitude, this area is viewed from the VLT at an inclined angle and the craters therefore all appear as ellipses in the NACO image. However, taking into account the direction of the line-of-sight at the time of the observation [2], this view can be "rectified" by simple image processing. The corresponding "view from above" is shown in PR Photo 19b/02 ; most of the craters in the field now appear quite round. Many different types of lunar surface formations are visible in the VLT photo. In addition to the numerous impact craters of all sizes, there are also hills and ridges of a great variety of shapes, as well as a prominent "valley" (a "Rima", or fissure) that stretches nearly 50 km through the photo in East-West direction. It has been identified on earlier photos and as it is situated inside that crater, it was given the name "Rimae Taruntius" in 1985. It is very well resolved in this photo and resembles "Rima Hadley" that was visited by the Apollo 15 astronauts in 1971, but is much smaller. The mean width is about 600 metres (12 pixels). The bottom is in the shadows and the depth is therefore unknown. It is overlapped by several smaller craters that must have been caused by impacts after this depression was formed. Measuring the length of the shadows, it is possible to infer the height of some of the formations. For instance, the shadows of the two peaks at the lower centre of the photo are about 4 km long, indicating that these formations are about 500 metres tall. The surroundings ESO PR Photo 19c/02 ESO PR Photo 19c/02 [Preview - JPEG: 482 x 400 pix - 77k] [Normal - JPEG: 964 x 800 pix - 440k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 2408 x 1998 pix - 1.6M] Caption : Where is the NACO field at the Taruntius crater located on the

  18. A global search reveals epistatic interaction between QTL for early growth in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Carlborg, Orjan; Kerje, Susanne; Schütz, Karin; Jacobsson, Lina; Jensen, Per; Andersson, Leif

    2003-03-01

    We have identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) explaining a large proportion of the variation in body weights at different ages and growth between chronological ages in an F(2) intercross between red junglefowl and White Leghorn chickens. QTL were mapped using forward selection for loci with significant marginal genetic effects and with a simultaneous search for epistatic QTL pairs. We found 22 significant loci contributing to these traits, nine of these were only found by the simultaneous two-dimensional search, which demonstrates the power of this approach for detecting loci affecting complex traits. We have also estimated the relative contribution of additive, dominance, and epistasis effects to growth and the contribution of epistasis was more pronounced prior to 46 days of age, whereas additive genetic effects explained the major portion of the genetic variance later in life. Several of the detected loci affected either early or late growth but not both. Very few loci affected the entire growth process, which points out that early and late growth, at least to some extent, have different genetic regulation. PMID:12618372

  19. Chicken Farming in Grassland Increases Environmental Sustainability and Economic Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meizhen; Wang, Bingxue; Osborne, Colin P.; Jiang, Gaoming

    2013-01-01

    Background Grassland degradation caused by overgrazing poses a threat to both animal husbandry and environmental sustainability in most semi-arid areas especially north China. Although the Chinese Government has made huge efforts to restore degraded grasslands, a considerable attempt has unfortunately failed due to an inadequate consideration of economic benefits to local communities. Methodology/Principal Findings A controlled field experiment was conducted to test our hypothesis that utilizing natural grasslands as both habitat and feed resources for chickens and replacing the traditional husbandry system with chicken farming would increase environmental sustainability and raise income. Aboveground plant biomass elevated from 25 g m−2 for grazing sheep to 84 g m−2 for chicken farming. In contrast to the fenced (unstocked) grassland, chicken farming did not significantly decrease aboveground plant biomass, but did increase the root biomass by 60% (p<0.01). Compared with traditional sheep grazing, chicken farming significantly improved soil surface water content (0–10 cm), from 5% to 15%. Chicken farming did not affect the soil bulk density, while the traditional sheep grazing increased the soil bulk density in the 0–10 cm soil layer by 35% of the control (p<0.05). Most importantly, the economic income of local herdsmen has been raised about six times compared with the traditional practice of raising sheep. Ecologically, such an innovative solution allowed large degraded grasslands to naturally regenerate. Grasslands also provided a high quality organic poultry product which could be marketed in big cities. Conclusion/Significance Chicken farming is an innovative alternative strategy for increasing environmental sustainability and economic income, rather than a challenge to the traditional nomadic pastoral system. Our approach might be technically applicable to other large degraded grasslands of the world, especially in China. PMID:23372678

  20. Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to

  1. Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to

  2. 1. VIEW OF CHICKEN COOP (FEATURE C7), FACING NORTHWEST. GARAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF CHICKEN COOP (FEATURE C-7), FACING NORTHWEST. GARAGE (FEATURE C-8) IS VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. - Bell Family Residence, Chicken Coop & Garage, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  3. Pathology of spontaneous tumour lesions in pullets and adult chickens in commercial farms - Short communication.

    PubMed

    Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Sasaki, Jun; Goryo, Masanobu

    2012-09-01

    Twenty pullets and adult chickens, aged 100 to 403 days, from several commercial chicken farms were examined by gross and histopathology. Grossly, all chickens had white-greyish masses in the visceral organs with or without enlargement of the peripheral nerves. Histopathological examination revealed Marek's disease (MD) lymphoma, lymphoid leukosis (LL) and myeloid leukosis (ML) in 14/20, 5/20 and 1/20 of the chickens, respectively. Lesions of the sciatic nerves in chickens diagnosed as having MD lymphoma were various. No neoplastic and/or inflammatory cells were noted in the peripheral nerves of chickens diagnosed as having LL and ML. These results indicated that MD lymphoma could also develop in older chickens; thus, microscopic examination is needed to identify MD in older chickens showing lymphocyte-derived tumours. PMID:22903077

  4. Controversies in chicken-pox immunization.

    PubMed

    Bhave, Swati Y

    2003-06-01

    Chicken-pox is one more newer vaccine in our armamentarium against infectious diseases. Due to its extremely contagious nature, varicella is experienced by almost every child or young adult in the world. Each year from 1990 to 1994, prior to availability of varicella vaccine, about 4 million cases of varicella occurred in the United States. Of these cases approximately 10,000 required hospitalization and 100 died. Although varicella is not commonly perceived as an important public health problem, the socioeconomic consequences in industrialized countries of a disease that affects practically every child and causes the carrier absence from work should not be underestimated. The varicella vaccines available in the market are safe and effective. A recent cost-benefit analysis in USA showed that routine chicken-pox vaccination is likely to save five times the investment. Even when only direct costs were considered, benefits almost balanced the costs. At present similar studies from developing countries are not available. The public health impact of varicella and zoster may be increasing in regions with high endemic rates of HIV infection. Varicella vaccine may be used either at an individual level to protect susceptible adolescents and adults, or at a population level, to cover all children as part of a national immunization programme. Vaccination of adolescents and adults will protect at-risk individuals, but will not have a significant impact on the epidemiology of the disease on a population basis. On the other hand, extensive use as a routine vaccine in children will have a significant impact on the epidemiology of the disease. If sustained high coverage can be achieved, the disease may virtually disappear. If only partial coverage can be obtained, the epidemiology may shift, leading to an increase in the number of cases in older children and adults. Hence, routine childhood varicella immunization programmes should emphasize high, sustained coverage. At present

  5. Effect of egg composition and oxidoreductase on adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude.

    PubMed

    Jia, C L; He, L J; Li, P C; Liu, H Y; Wei, Z H

    2016-07-01

    Tibetan chickens have good adaptation to hypoxic conditions, which can be reflected by higher hatchability than lowland breeds when incubated at high altitude. The objective of this trial was to study changes in egg composition and metabolism with regards the adaptation of Tibetan chickens to high altitude. We measured the dry weight of chicken embryos, egg yolk, and egg albumen, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) in breast muscle, heart, and liver from embryos of Tibetan chicken and Dwarf chicken (lowland breed) incubated at high (2,900 m) and low (100 m) altitude. We found that growth of chicken embryos was restricted at high altitude, especially for Dwarf chicken embryos. In Tibetan chicken, the egg weight was lighter, but the dry weight of egg yolk was heavier than that of Dwarf chicken. The LDH activities of the three tissues from the high altitude groups were respectively higher than those of the lowland groups from d 15 to hatching, except for breast muscle of Tibetan chicken embryos on d 15. In addition, under the high altitude environment, the heart tissue from Tibetan chicken had lower LDH activity than that from Dwarf chicken at d 15 and 18. The lactic acid content of blood from Tibetan chicken embryos was lower than that of Dwarf chicken at d 12 and 15 of incubation at high altitude. There was no difference in SDH activity in the three tissues between the high altitude groups and the lowland groups except in three tissues of hatchlings and at d 15 of incubation in breast muscle, nor between the two breeds at high altitude except in the heart of hatchlings. Consequently, the adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude may be associated with higher quantities of yolk in the egg and a low metabolic oxygen demand in tissue, which illuminate the reasons that the Tibetan chicken have higher hatchability with lower oxygen transport ability. PMID:26957629

  6. Cotyledonary somatic embryos of Pinus pinaster Ait. most closely resemble fresh, maturing cotyledonary zygotic embryos: biological, carbohydrate and proteomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Morel, Alexandre; Trontin, Jean-François; Corbineau, Françoise; Lomenech, Anne-Marie; Beaufour, Martine; Reymond, Isabelle; Le Metté, Claire; Ader, Kevin; Harvengt, Luc; Cadene, Martine; Label, Philippe; Teyssier, Caroline; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2014-11-01

    Cotyledonary somatic embryos (SEs) of maritime pine are routinely matured for 12 weeks before being germinated and converted to plantlets. Although regeneration success is highly dependent on SEs quality, the date of harvesting is currently determined mainly on the basis of morphological features. This empirical method does not provide any accurate information about embryo quality with respect to storage compounds (proteins, carbohydrates). We first analyzed SEs matured for 10, 12 and 14 weeks by carrying out biological (dry weight, water content) and biochemical measurements (total protein and carbohydrate contents). No difference could be found between collection dates, suggesting that harvesting SEs after 12 weeks is appropriate. Cotyledonary SEs were then compared to various stages, from fresh to fully desiccated, in the development of cotyledonary zygotic embryos (ZEs). We identified profiles that were similar using hierarchical ascendant cluster analysis (HCA). Fresh and dehydrated ZEs could be distinguished, and SEs clustered with fresh ZEs. Both types of embryo exhibited similar carbohydrate and protein contents and signatures. This high level of similarity (94.5 %) was further supported by proteome profiling. Highly expressed proteins included storage, stress-related, late embryogenesis abundant and energy metabolism proteins. By comparing overexpressed proteins in developing and cotyledonary SEs or ZEs, some (23 proteins) could be identified as candidate biomarkers for the late, cotyledonary stage. This is the first report of useful generic protein markers for monitoring embryo development in maritime pine. Our results also suggest that improvements of SEs quality may be achieved if the current maturation conditions are refined. PMID:25115559

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells in mammary adipose tissue stimulate progression of breast cancer resembling the basal-type

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Min; Sachs, Patrick C.; Wang, Xu; Dumur, Catherine I.; Idowu, Michael O.; Robila, Valentina; Francis, Michael P.; Ware, Joy; Beckman, Matthew; Rizki, Aylin; Holt, Shawn E.; Elmore, Lynne W.

    2012-01-01

    Data are accumulating to support a role for adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in breast cancer progression; however, to date most studies have relied on adipose MSCs from non-breast sources. There is a particular need to investigate the role of adipose MSCs in the pathogenesis of basal-like breast cancer, which develops at a disproportionate rate in pre-menopausal African-American women with a gain in adiposity. The aim of this study was to better understand how breast adipose MSCs (bMSCs) contribute to the progression of basal-like breast cancers by relying on isogenic HMT-3255 S3 (pre-invasive) and T4-2 (invasive) human cells that upon transplantation into nude mice resemble this tumor subtype. In vitro results suggested that bMSCs may contribute to breast cancer progression in multiple ways. bMSCs readily penetrate extracellular matrix components in part through their expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3, promote the invasion of T4-2 cells and efficiently chemoattract endothelial cells via a bFGF-independent, VEGF-A-dependent manner. As mixed xenografts, bMSCs stimulated the growth, invasion and desmoplasia of T4-2 tumors, yet these resident stem cells showed no observable effect on the progression of pre-invasive S3 cells. While bMSCs form vessel-like structures within Matrigel both in vitro and in vivo and chemoattract endothelial cells, there appeared to be no difference between T4-2/bMSC mixed xenografts and T4-2 xenografts with regard to intra- or peri-tumoral vascularity. Collectively, our data suggest that bMSCs may contribute to the progression of basal-like breast cancers by stimulating growth and invasion but not vasculogenesis or angiogenesis. PMID:22669576

  8. Functional Characterization of a Gene in Sedum alfredii Hance Resembling Rubber Elongation Factor Endowed with Functions Associated with Cadmium Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingying; Qiu, Wenming; He, Xuelian; Zheng, Liu; Song, Xixi; Han, Xiaojiao; Jiang, Jing; Qiao, Guirong; Sang, Jian; Liu, Mingqing; Zhuo, Renying

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a major toxic heavy-metal pollutant considering their bioaccumulation potential and persistence in the environment. The hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii Hance is a Zn/Cd co-hyperaccumulator inhabiting in a region of China with soils rich in Pb/Zn. Investigations into the underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms of Cd tolerance are of substantial interest. Here, library screening for genes related to cadmium tolerance identified a gene resembling the rubber elongation factor gene designated as SaREFl. The heterologous expression of SaREFl rescued the growth of a transformed Cd-sensitive strain (ycf1). Furthermore, SaREFl-expressing Arabidopsis plants were more tolerant to cadmium stress compared with wild type by measuring parameters of root length, fresh weight and physiological indexes. When under four different heavy metal treatments, we found that SaREFl responded most strongly to Cd and the root was the plant organ most sensitive to this heavy metal. Yeast two-hybrid screening of SaREFl as a bait led to the identification of five possible interacting targets in Sedum alfredii Hance. Among them, a gene annotated as prenylated Rab acceptor 1 (PRA1) domain protein was detected with a high frequency. Moreover, subcellular localization of SaREF1-GFP fusion protein revealed some patchy spots in cytosol suggesting potential association with organelles for its cellular functions. Our findings would further enrich the connotation of REF-like genes and provide theoretical assistance for the application in breeding heavy metal-tolerant plants. PMID:27446189

  9. Local Analogs for High-redshift Galaxies: Resembling the Physical Conditions of the Interstellar Medium in High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Fuyan; Kewley, Lisa J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Juneau, Stephanie

    2016-05-01

    We present a sample of local analogs for high-redshift galaxies selected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The physical conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM) in these local analogs resemble those in high-redshift galaxies. These galaxies are selected based on their positions in the [O iii]/Hβ versus [N ii]/Hα nebular emission-line diagnostic diagram. We show that these local analogs share similar physical properties with high-redshift galaxies, including high specific star formation rates (sSFRs), flat UV continuums, and compact galaxy sizes. In particular, the ionization parameters and electron densities in these analogs are comparable to those in z ≃ 2–3 galaxies, but higher than those in normal SDSS galaxies by ≃0.6 dex and ≃0.9 dex, respectively. The mass–metallicity relation (MZR) in these local analogs shows ‑0.2 dex offset from that in SDSS star-forming galaxies at the low-mass end, which is consistent with the MZR of the z˜ 2{--}3 galaxies. We compare the local analogs in this study with those in other studies, including Lyman break analogs (LBA) and green pea (GP) galaxies. The analogs in this study share a similar star formation surface density with LBAs, but the ionization parameters and electron density in our analogs are higher than those in LBAs by factors of 1.5 and 3, respectively. The analogs in this study have comparable ionization parameters and electron densities to the GP galaxies, but our method can select galaxies in a wider redshift range. We find the high sSFR and SFR surface density can increase the electron density and ionization parameters, but still cannot fully explain the difference in ISM condition between nearby galaxies and the local analogs/high-redshift galaxies.

  10. Specificity of lectin-immobilized fluorescent nanospheres for colorectal tumors in a mouse model which better resembles the clinical disease.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Tokio; Sakuma, Shinji; Shimosato, Moe; Higashino, Haruki; Masaoka, Yoshie; Kataoka, Makoto; Yamashita, Shinji; Hiwatari, Ken-Ichiro; Kumagai, Hironori; Morimoto, Naoki; Koike, Seiji; Tobita, Etsuo; Hoffman, Robert M; Gore, John C; Pham, Wellington

    2015-01-01

    We have been investigating an imaging agent that enables real-time and accurate diagnosis of early colorectal cancer at the intestinal mucosa by colonoscopy. The imaging agent is peanut agglutinin-immobilized polystyrene nanospheres with surface poly(N-vinylacetamide) chains encapsulating coumarin 6. Intracolonically-administered lectin-immobilized fluorescent nanospheres detect tumor-derived changes through molecular recognition of lectin for the terminal sugar of cancer-specific antigens on the mucosal surface. The focus of the present study was to evaluate imaging abilities of the nanospheres in animal models that reflect clinical environments. We previously developed an orthotopic mouse model with human colorectal tumors growing on the mucosa of the descending colon to better resemble the clinical disease. The entire colon of the mice in the exposed abdomen was monitored in real time with an in vivo imaging apparatus. Fluorescence from the nanospheres was observed along the entire descending colon after intracolonical administration from the anus. When the luminal side of the colon was washed with phosphate-buffered saline, most of the nanospheres were flushed. However, fluorescence persisted in areas where cancer cells were implanted. Histological evaluation demonstrated that tumors were present in the mucosal epithelia where the nanospheres fluoresced. In contrast, no fluorescence was observed when control mice, without tumors were tested. The lectin-immobilized fluorescent nanospheres were tumor-specific and remained bound to tumors even after vigorous washing. The nanospheres nonspecifically bound to normal mucosa were easily removed through mild washing. These results indicate that the nanospheres combined with colonoscopy, will be a clinically-valuable diagnostic tool for early-stage primary colon carcinoma. PMID:24976331

  11. White Feces Syndrome of Shrimp Arises from Transformation, Sloughing and Aggregation of Hepatopancreatic Microvilli into Vermiform Bodies Superficially Resembling Gregarines

    PubMed Central

    Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Boonyawiwat, Visanu; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Laosutthipong, Chaowanee; Hiranchan, Jindanan; Flegel, Timothy W.

    2014-01-01

    Accompanying acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in cultivated Asian shrimp has been an increasing prevalence of vermiform, gregarine-like bodies within the shrimp hepatopancreas (HP) and midgut. In high quantity they result in white fecal strings and a phenomenon called white feces syndrome (WFS). Light microscopy (LM) of squash mounts and stained smears from fresh HP tissue revealed that the vermiform bodies are almost transparent with widths and diameters proportional to the HP tubule lumens in which they occur. Despite vermiform appearance, they show no cellular structure. At high magnification (LM with 40-100x objectives), they appear to consist of a thin, outer membrane enclosing a complex of thicker, inter-folded membranes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the outer non-laminar membrane of the vermiform bodies bore no resemblance to a plasma membrane or to the outer layer of any known gregarine, other protozoan or metazoan. Sub-cellular organelles such as mitochondria, nuclei, endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes were absent. The internal membranes had a tubular sub-structure and occasionally enclosed whole B-cells, sloughed from the HP tubule epithelium. These internal membranes were shown to arise from transformed microvilli that peeled away from HP tubule epithelial cells and then aggregated in the tubule lumen. Stripped of microvilli, the originating cells underwent lysis. By contrast, B-cells remained intact or were sloughed independently and whole from the tubule epithelium. When sometimes engulfed by the aggregated, transformed microvilli (ATM) they could be misinterpreted as cyst-like structures by light microscopy, contributing to gregarine-like appearance. The cause of ATM is currently unknown, but formation by loss of microvilli and subsequent cell lysis indicate that their formation is a pathological process. If sufficiently severe, they may retard shrimp growth and may predispose shrimp to opportunistic pathogens

  12. Young Children's Reasoning About Physical & Behavioural Family Resemblance: Is There a Place for a Precursor Model of Inheritance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergazaki, Marida; Alexaki, Aspa; Papadopoulou, Chrysa; Kalpakiori, Marieleni

    2013-04-01

    This paper aims at exploring (a) whether preschoolers recognize that offspring share physical traits with their parents due to birth and behavioural ones due to nurture, and (b) whether they seem ready to explain shared physical traits with a `pre-biological' causal model that includes the contribution of both parents and a rudimentary notion of genes. This exploration is supposed to provide evidence for our next step, which is the development of an early years' learning environment about inheritance. Conducting individual, semi-structured interviews with 90 preschoolers (age 4.5-5.5) of four public kindergartens in Patras, we attempted to trace their reasoning about (a) whether and why offspring share physical and behavioural traits with parents and (b) which mechanism could better explain the shared physical traits. The probes were a modified six-case version of Solomon et al. (Child Dev 67:151-171, 1996) `adoption task, as well as a three-case task based on Springer's (Child Dev 66:547-558, 1995) `mechanism task' and on Solomon and Johnson's (Br J Dev Psychol 18(1):81-96, 2000) idea of genes as a `conceptual placeholder'. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the interviews showed overlapping reasoning about the origin of physical and behavioural family resemblance. Nevertheless, we did trace the `birth-driven' argument for the attribution of the offspring's physical traits to the biological parents, as well as a preference for the `pre-biological' model that introduces a rudimentary idea of genes in order to explain shared physical traits between parents and offspring. The findings of the study and the educational implications are thoroughly discussed.

  13. Local Analogs for High-redshift Galaxies: Resembling the Physical Conditions of the Interstellar Medium in High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Fuyan; Kewley, Lisa J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Juneau, Stephanie

    2016-05-01

    We present a sample of local analogs for high-redshift galaxies selected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The physical conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM) in these local analogs resemble those in high-redshift galaxies. These galaxies are selected based on their positions in the [O iii]/Hβ versus [N ii]/Hα nebular emission-line diagnostic diagram. We show that these local analogs share similar physical properties with high-redshift galaxies, including high specific star formation rates (sSFRs), flat UV continuums, and compact galaxy sizes. In particular, the ionization parameters and electron densities in these analogs are comparable to those in z ≃ 2–3 galaxies, but higher than those in normal SDSS galaxies by ≃0.6 dex and ≃0.9 dex, respectively. The mass–metallicity relation (MZR) in these local analogs shows ‑0.2 dex offset from that in SDSS star-forming galaxies at the low-mass end, which is consistent with the MZR of the z∼ 2{--}3 galaxies. We compare the local analogs in this study with those in other studies, including Lyman break analogs (LBA) and green pea (GP) galaxies. The analogs in this study share a similar star formation surface density with LBAs, but the ionization parameters and electron density in our analogs are higher than those in LBAs by factors of 1.5 and 3, respectively. The analogs in this study have comparable ionization parameters and electron densities to the GP galaxies, but our method can select galaxies in a wider redshift range. We find the high sSFR and SFR surface density can increase the electron density and ionization parameters, but still cannot fully explain the difference in ISM condition between nearby galaxies and the local analogs/high-redshift galaxies.

  14. Functional Characterization of a Gene in Sedum alfredii Hance Resembling Rubber Elongation Factor Endowed with Functions Associated with Cadmium Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingying; Qiu, Wenming; He, Xuelian; Zheng, Liu; Song, Xixi; Han, Xiaojiao; Jiang, Jing; Qiao, Guirong; Sang, Jian; Liu, Mingqing; Zhuo, Renying

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a major toxic heavy-metal pollutant considering their bioaccumulation potential and persistence in the environment. The hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii Hance is a Zn/Cd co-hyperaccumulator inhabiting in a region of China with soils rich in Pb/Zn. Investigations into the underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms of Cd tolerance are of substantial interest. Here, library screening for genes related to cadmium tolerance identified a gene resembling the rubber elongation factor gene designated as SaREFl. The heterologous expression of SaREFl rescued the growth of a transformed Cd-sensitive strain (ycf1). Furthermore, SaREFl-expressing Arabidopsis plants were more tolerant to cadmium stress compared with wild type by measuring parameters of root length, fresh weight and physiological indexes. When under four different heavy metal treatments, we found that SaREFl responded most strongly to Cd and the root was the plant organ most sensitive to this heavy metal. Yeast two-hybrid screening of SaREFl as a bait led to the identification of five possible interacting targets in Sedum alfredii Hance. Among them, a gene annotated as prenylated Rab acceptor 1 (PRA1) domain protein was detected with a high frequency. Moreover, subcellular localization of SaREF1-GFP fusion protein revealed some patchy spots in cytosol suggesting potential association with organelles for its cellular functions. Our findings would further enrich the connotation of REF-like genes and provide theoretical assistance for the application in breeding heavy metal-tolerant plants. PMID:27446189

  15. Procedures to enhance withdrawal of xenobiotics from chickens

    SciTech Connect

    Polin, D.; Lehning, E.; Pullen, D.; Bursian, S.; Leavitt, R.

    1985-01-01

    Egg- and meat-type chickens were fed diets containing 1 or 10 ppm of fireMaster (FF-1), a commercial mixture of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), predominantly 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl (6BB-4) and 2,3,4,5,2',4',5'-heptabromobiphenyl (7BB-8). These congeners account for approximately 65 and 14%, respectively, of the total mix. In three experiments, colestipol hydrochloride, a bile acid-binding resin, and mineral oil, alone or in combination with restricted feeding, were examined as procedures to enhance the removal of the PBBs. The combination of 50% dietary restriction plus a 10% dietary concentration of colestipol or mineral oil reduced body burdens of PBBs about 70% within 21 d for chickens previously fed 10 ppm PBBs. The use of feed restriction, colestipol, or mineral oil produced only borderline effects for hastening withdrawal. Chickens not treated showed only a 3% loss of PBBs during the withdrawal period. Colestipol at 2.5% in the diet in combination with feed restriction was not consistently effective in removing body burdens of PBB from chickens previously fed 1 or 10 ppm PBBs, indicating a dose-response effect. Chickens previously fed 1 ppm eliminated up to 40% of the PBBs in 21 d without any treatment, as compared to the 3% loss occurring after feeding with 10-ppm concentrations.

  16. Construction and Quantitative Validation of Chicken CXCR4 Expression Reporter.

    PubMed

    Es-Haghi, Masoumeh; Bassami, Mohammadreza; Dehghani, Hesam

    2016-03-01

    Site directional migration is an important biological event and an essential behavior for latent migratory cells. A migratory cell maintains its motility, survival, and proliferation abilities by a network of signaling pathways where CXCR4/SDF signaling route plays crucial role for directed homing of a polarized cell. The chicken embryo due to its specific vasculature modality has been used as a valuable model for organogenesis, migration, cancer, and metastasis. In this research, the regulatory regions of chicken CXCR4 gene have been characterized in a chicken hematopoietic lymphoblast cell line (MSB1). A region extending from -2000 bp upstream of CXCR4 gene to +68 after its transcriptional start site, in addition to two other mutant fragments were constructed and cloned in a promoter-less reporter vector. Promoter activity was analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and flow cytometry techniques. Our findings show that the full sequence from -2000 to +68 bp of CXCR4 regulatory region is required for maximum promoter functionality, while the mutant CXCR4 promoter fragments show a partial promoter activity. The chicken CXCR4 promoter validated in this study could be used for characterization of directed migratory cells in chicken development and disease models. PMID:26809356

  17. Multiple maternal origins of chickens: out of the Asian jungles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Ping; Wu, Gui-Sheng; Yao, Yong-Gang; Miao, Yong-Wang; Luikart, Gordon; Baig, Mumtaz; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Ding, Zhao-Li; Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2006-01-01

    Domestic chickens have long been important to human societies for food, religion, entertainment, and decorative uses, yet the origins and phylogeography of chickens through Eurasia remain uncertain. Here, we assessed their origins and phylogeographic history by analyzing the mitochondrial DNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) for 834 domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) across Eurasia as well as 66 wild red jungle fowls (Gallus gallus) from Southeast Asia and China. Phylogenetic analyses revealed nine highly divergent mtDNA clades (A-I) in which seven clades contained both the red jungle fowls and domestic chickens. There was no breed-specific clade in the chickens. The clades A, B, and E are distributed ubiquitously in Eurasia, while the other clades were restricted to South and Southeast Asia. Clade C was mainly distributed in Japan and Southeast China, while clades F and G were exclusive to Yunnan, China. The geographic distribution of clade D was closely related to the distribution of the pastime of cock fighting. Statistical tests detect population expansion within each subclade. These distinct distribution patterns and expansion signatures suggest that different clades may originate from different regions, such as Yunnan, South and Southwest China and/or surrounding areas (i.e., Vietnam, Burma, and Thailand), and the Indian subcontinent, respectively, which support the theory of multiple origins in South and Southeast Asia. PMID:16275023

  18. Expression of Secretogranin III in Chicken Endocrine Cells

    PubMed Central

    Morikawa, Satomi; Shinmura, Naoki; Moki, Hiroaki; Yasui, Tadashi; Tsukise, Azuma; Torii, Seiji; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Yoshinori; Hosaka, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    The expression of secretogranin III (SgIII) in chicken endocrine cells has not been investigated. There is limited data available for the immunohistochemical localization of SgIII in the brain, pituitary, and pancreatic islets of humans and rodents. In the present study, we used immunoblotting to reveal the similarities between the expression patterns of SgIII in the common endocrine glands of chickens and rats. The protein–protein interactions between SgIII and chromogranin A (CgA) mediate the sorting of CgA/prohormone core aggregates to the secretory granule membrane. We examined these interactions using co-immunoprecipitation in chicken endocrine tissues. Using immunohistochemistry, we also examined the expression of SgIII in a wide range of chicken endocrine glands and gastrointestinal endocrine cells (GECs). SgIII was expressed in the pituitary, pineal, adrenal (medullary parts), parathyroid, and ultimobranchial glands, but not in the thyroid gland. It was also expressed in GECs of the stomach (proventriculus and gizzard), small and large intestines, and pancreatic islet cells. These SgIII-expressing cells co-expressed serotonin, somatostatin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, glucagon, or insulin. These results suggest that SgIII is expressed in the endocrine cells that secrete peptide hormones, which mature via the intragranular enzymatic processing of prohormones and physiologically active amines in chickens. PMID:25673289

  19. Virulence of raptor-origin Pasteurella multocida in domestic chickens.

    PubMed

    Aye, P P; Morishita, T Y; Angrick, E J

    1999-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida belonging to somatic serotype 1 and capsular type A has been known to cause avian cholera in domestic poultry. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 has also been isolated from raptorial birds. However, the capsular type for these raptorial isolates remains unknown. Moreover, the virulence of these raptorial isolates for domestic poultry has not been determined. The objectives of this study were to determine the capsular type of raptorial P. multocida serotype 1 isolates and to determine if these isolates were virulent for domestic chickens. Study chickens were inoculated with one of three P. multocida isolates. Isolate WESO-1 was obtained from a western screech owl (Otus kennicottii) and isolates RTHA-2 and RTHA-4 were isolated from two red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). These isolates were given by either the oral, intravenous, or intraocular route. Control birds were given brain-heart infusion broth. The capsular serotypes of three isolates were also determined. The RTHA-2 and RTHA-4 isolates belonged to P. multocida capsular type A. The WESO-1 isolate belonged to capsular type F. Results also demonstrated that, for the isolates examined, the intraocular route did not cause mortality in chickens. There was mortality in all groups for the intravenous route. However, various mortality patterns were observed when P. multocida was given orally for the three different isolates. The RTHA-4 isolate (serotype 1:A) was the most virulent for domestic chickens. The WESO-1 isolate (serotype 1:F) was the least virulent for chickens among the raptorial isolates examined. PMID:10396641

  20. Assessment of bovine herpesvirus 4 based vector in chicken.

    PubMed

    Donofrio, Gaetano; Manarolla, Giovanni; Ravanetti, Lara; Sironi, Giuseppe; Cavirani, Sandro; Cabassi, Clotilde Silvia; Flammini, Cesidio Filippo; Rampin, Tiziana

    2008-03-01

    The biological characteristics of BoHV-4 make it a good candidate as a gene delivery vector for vaccination purposes. These characteristics include little or no pathogenicity, unlikely oncogenicity, the ability to accommodate large amounts of foreign genetic material, the ability to infect several cell types from different animal species, such as sheep, goats, swine, cats, dogs, rabbits, mink, horses, turkeys, ferrets, monkeys, hamsters, rats, mice, and chickens. In this report, the feasibility to use BoHV-4 based vector in chicken was investigated. Although BoHV-4 was able to replicate, leading to a cytopathic effect in a chicken cell line and infect the chorion allantoic membrane of embryonated eggs, however it was not pathogenic even when a large dose of virus was injected into the chicken. An immune response could be produced against heterologous antigen delivered by a recombinant BoHV-4. These data suggest the feasibility of using BoHV-4 based vector for vaccination purposes in chickens. PMID:18243344

  1. Parallel Selection Revealed by Population Sequencing in Chicken.

    PubMed

    Qanbari, Saber; Seidel, Michael; Strom, Tim-Mathias; Mayer, Klaus F X; Preisinger, Ruedi; Simianer, Henner

    2015-12-01

    Human-driven selection during domestication and subsequent breed formation has likely left detectable signatures within the genome of modern chicken. The elucidation of these signatures of selection is of interest from the perspective of evolutionary biology, and for identifying genes relevant to domestication and improvement that ultimately may help to further genetically improve this economically important animal. We used whole genome sequence data from 50 hens of commercial white (WL) and brown (BL) egg-laying chicken along with pool sequences of three meat-type chicken to perform a systematic screening of past selection in modern chicken. Evidence of positive selection was investigated in two steps. First, we explored evidence of parallel fixation in regions with overlapping elevated allele frequencies in replicated populations of layers and broilers, suggestive of selection during domestication or preimprovement ages. We confirmed parallel fixation in BCDO2 and TSHR genes and found four candidates including AGTR2, a gene heavily involved in "Ascites" in commercial birds. Next, we explored differentiated loci between layers and broilers suggestive of selection during improvement in chicken. This analysis revealed evidence of parallel differentiation in genes relevant to appearance and production traits exemplified with the candidate gene OPG, implicated in Osteoporosis, a disorder related to overconsumption of calcium in egg-laying hens. Our results illustrate the potential for population genetic techniques to identify genomic regions relevant to the phenotypes of importance to breeders. PMID:26568375

  2. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium in chicken shawirma (gyro).

    PubMed

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Shaker, Reyad R; Olaimat, Amin N; Jaradat, Ziad W; Holley, Richard A

    2013-08-16

    This study explored the thermal characteristics (D- and z-values) of Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken shawirma. Marinated and non-marinated chicken breasts with skin were inoculated with S. Typhimurium 112 or S. Typhimurium 144. Inoculated samples were ground, packed in sterile bags and submerged in a water bath at 54, 56, 58 and 60°C for 2.5 to 72min. The mean D-values of S. Typhimurium strains in inoculated, non-marinated, ground raw chicken breast, as well as those of S. Typhimurium 15h after exposure to the marinade (inoculated before marinating, IBM) or after brief exposure (30min) to the marinade (inoculated after marinating, IAM) ranged from 9.15 to 12.44, 2.89 to 3.92, 1.06 to 1.30 and 0.32 to 0.52min at 54, 56, 58 and 60°C, respectively. Generally, no significant differences (P>0.05) were found among the D-values of S. Typhimurium in all chicken samples. However, the D-values of S. Typhimurium in raw ground chicken shawirma IBM were the lowest. The z-values of S. Typhimurium in all products ranged from 3.78 to 4.58°C. It was concluded that thorough cooking of the outside of the shawirma meat cylinder or cone before removal of slices at foodservice counters can enhance the safety of the product. PMID:23827803

  3. Parallel Selection Revealed by Population Sequencing in Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Qanbari, Saber; Seidel, Michael; Strom, Tim-Mathias; Mayer, Klaus F.X.; Preisinger, Ruedi; Simianer, Henner

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven selection during domestication and subsequent breed formation has likely left detectable signatures within the genome of modern chicken. The elucidation of these signatures of selection is of interest from the perspective of evolutionary biology, and for identifying genes relevant to domestication and improvement that ultimately may help to further genetically improve this economically important animal. We used whole genome sequence data from 50 hens of commercial white (WL) and brown (BL) egg-laying chicken along with pool sequences of three meat-type chicken to perform a systematic screening of past selection in modern chicken. Evidence of positive selection was investigated in two steps. First, we explored evidence of parallel fixation in regions with overlapping elevated allele frequencies in replicated populations of layers and broilers, suggestive of selection during domestication or preimprovement ages. We confirmed parallel fixation in BCDO2 and TSHR genes and found four candidates including AGTR2, a gene heavily involved in “Ascites” in commercial birds. Next, we explored differentiated loci between layers and broilers suggestive of selection during improvement in chicken. This analysis revealed evidence of parallel differentiation in genes relevant to appearance and production traits exemplified with the candidate gene OPG, implicated in Osteoporosis, a disorder related to overconsumption of calcium in egg-laying hens. Our results illustrate the potential for population genetic techniques to identify genomic regions relevant to the phenotypes of importance to breeders. PMID:26568375

  4. Study on coccidiosis of scavenging indigenous chickens in Central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ashenafi, H; Tadesse, S; Medhin, G; Tibbo, M

    2004-10-01

    An investigation was made into coccidiosis of 190 scavenging indigenous chickens between September 2000 and April 2001 in three selected agroclimatic zones, in central Ethiopia. This was done through clinical, postmortem and microscopic examinations. Data were processed by chi-square and Mantel-Haenzel test. The study indicated that 25.8% (49/190) of the chickens were infected with coccidiosis and found to harbour one to four different species of Eimeria. Of these infected chickens, 30 (15.8%) and 19 (10.0%) were positive for clinical and sub-clinical coccidiosis, respectively. There was a significant altitude difference (chi2 = 14.7, p <0.001) in coccidiosis prevalence: 42.2% in chickens from highland region followed by 21.5% in mid-altitude and 13.1% in low-altitude areas. When quantified, the prevalence of coccidiosis was 2.66 and 4.83 times higher in the high-altitude than in mid-altitude (odds ratio, OR = 2.66, p<0.05) and low-altitude (OR = 4.83, p<0.001) chickens. The pathogenic Eimeria species responsible for clinical coccidiosis were E. necatrix, E. acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella. With increasing demand for poultry products in developing countries, knowledge of production constraints in traditional management practices could help devise control strategies for constraints on backyard poultry production systems. PMID:15563030

  5. Aerobic degradation of tylosin in cattle, chicken, and swine excreta.

    PubMed

    Teeter, Jerold Scott; Meyerhoff, Roger D

    2003-09-01

    Tylosin, a fermentation-derived macrolide antibiotic, was tested to determine its aerobic degradation rate in cattle, chicken, and swine excreta. For chicken, excreta from a hen administered 14C-tylosin as part of a metabolism study were used. For cattle and swine, 14C-tylosin was added to control excreta. The formation of 14C volatile breakdown products and 14CO2 was not observed throughout the study. Material balance for the carbon-14 label ranged between 94% and 104%. Initial, day-0, concentrations of tylosin-A averaged 119.52+/-4.39, 35.01+/-1.34, and 62.82+/-2.11 microg/g (dry weight basis) for cattle, chicken, and swine excreta samples, respectively. After 30 days, samples averaged 4.16+/-0.69 and 4.11+/-0.69 microg/g tylosin-A in cattle and swine excreta, respectively. No residues of tylosin-A or its factors were apparent in the chicken excreta samples after 30 days of incubation. In each case, tylosin declined to less than 6.5% of the initial level after 30 days. Calculated first-order half-lives under the test conditions were 6.2 days, <7.6 days, and 7.6 days for cattle, chicken, and swine excreta, respectively. The results indicate that tylosin residues degrade rapidly in animal excreta. Therefore, tylosin residues should not persist in the environment. PMID:12865047

  6. Virulence characteristics of five new Campylobacter jejuni chicken isolates.

    PubMed

    Stef, Lavinia; Cean, Ada; Vasile, Aida; Julean, Calin; Drinceanu, Dan; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter enteritis has emerged as one of the most common forms of human diarrheal illness. In this study we have investigated the virulence potential of five new C. jejuni chicken isolates (RO14, RO19, RO24, RO29 and RO37) originated from private households in the rural regions of Banat and Transylvania in Romania. Following isolation and in vitro virulence assay, on HCT-8 cells, our results show that all the C. jejuni chicken isolates overcome the virulence abilities of the highly virulent strain C. jejuni 81-176. Motility, an important virulence factor was significantly improved in all the new chicken isolates. The ability to survive to the antimicrobial activity of the human serum, to resist to the violent attack of bile acids and to survive in the presence of synthetic antibiotics was increased in all the chicken isolates. However, these were statistically significant only for isolates RO29 and RO37. In conclusion our study shows, based on invasiveness and motility, and also on the data provided by the serum and bile resistance experiments that all the new chicken isolates are able to infect human cells, in vitro, and could potentially represent a health hazard for humans. PMID:24330718

  7. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken...

  8. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken...

  9. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken...

  10. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken...

  11. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken...

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Six Novel Bacterial Isolates from Chicken Ceca

    PubMed Central

    Duggett, Nicholas A.; Kay, Gemma L.; Sergeant, Martin J.; Bedford, Michael; Constantinidou, Chrystala I.; Penn, Charles W.; Millard, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    The chicken is the most common domesticated animal and the most abundant bird in the world. However, the chicken gut is home to many previously uncharacterized bacterial taxa. Here, we report draft genome sequences from six bacterial isolates from chicken ceca, all of which fall outside any named species. PMID:27231374

  13. Delayed Carcass Deboning Results in Significantly Reduced Cook Yields of Boneless Skinless Chicken Thighs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boneless skinless chicken thighs are a new deboned poultry product in the retail market. Three trials were conducted to investigate the effect of postmortem carcass deboning time on the cook yields of boneless skinless chicken thighs as well as boneless skinless chicken breasts. Broiler carcasses ...

  14. 9 CFR 113.36 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.36 Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test. The test for...,000 doses. (b) At least 25 healthy susceptible young chickens, properly identified and obtained...

  15. 9 CFR 113.36 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.36 Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test. The test for...,000 doses. (b) At least 25 healthy susceptible young chickens, properly identified and obtained...

  16. 9 CFR 113.36 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.36 Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test. The test for...,000 doses. (b) At least 25 healthy susceptible young chickens, properly identified and obtained...

  17. 9 CFR 113.36 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.36 Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test. The test for...,000 doses. (b) At least 25 healthy susceptible young chickens, properly identified and obtained...

  18. 9 CFR 113.36 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.36 Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test. The test for...,000 doses. (b) At least 25 healthy susceptible young chickens, properly identified and obtained...

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Six Novel Bacterial Isolates from Chicken Ceca.

    PubMed

    Duggett, Nicholas A; Kay, Gemma L; Sergeant, Martin J; Bedford, Michael; Constantinidou, Chrystala I; Penn, Charles W; Millard, Andrew D; Pallen, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    The chicken is the most common domesticated animal and the most abundant bird in the world. However, the chicken gut is home to many previously uncharacterized bacterial taxa. Here, we report draft genome sequences from six bacterial isolates from chicken ceca, all of which fall outside any named species. PMID:27231374

  20. Development of SNP assays to determine genetic resistance to ALV-A in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an oncogenic retrovirus. Six subgroups of ALV, namely, A, B, C, D, E, and J were found in chickens. ALV subgroup A causes tumors primarily in egg-layer type of chickens; ALV is controlled by eradication schemes. ALV-A infection of chicken is mediated by a cellular host ...

  1. Antimicrobial Resistant E. coli from Retail Chicken Breast and Slaughter Rinsates: NARMS 2002-2005

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System tracks resistance trends among non-type-specific E. coli from chicken carcasses at slaughter and chicken breast meat at retail. Methods: From 2002-2005, a monthly sampling of chicken breasts from stores in GA, MD, OR and TN yielded ...

  2. Genomic regions associated with necrotic enteritis resistance in Fayoumi and White Leghorn chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we used two breeds of chicken to identify genomic regions corresponding to necrotic enteritis (NE) resistance. We scanned the genomes of a resistant and susceptible line of Fayoumi and White Leghorn chicken using a chicken 60K Illumina SNP panel. A total of 235 loci with divergently ...

  3. Review of the initial validation and characterization of a 3K chicken SNP array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The year 2004 was a historic one for biologists and especially the chicken research community as the first draft of the chicken genome was published (International Chicken Genome Sequencing Consortium, 2004). The 6.6X coverage of a UCD001 female Red Jungle Fowl (RJF) genome was the first complete d...

  4. TOXOPLASMA GONDII ISOLATES FROM FREE-RANGE CHICKENS FORM THE NORTHEAST REGION OF BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 152 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from 22 municipalities in 7 northeastern states (Perna...

  5. BIOLOGIC AND GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN FREE-RANGE CHICKENS FROM NICARAGUA, CENTRAL AMERICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 98 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Nicragua was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii w...

  6. Late Cretaceous seasonal ocean variability from the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Davies, Andrew; Kemp, Alan E S; Pike, Jennifer

    2009-07-01

    The modern Arctic Ocean is regarded as a barometer of global change and amplifier of global warming and therefore records of past Arctic change are critical for palaeoclimate reconstruction. Little is known of the state of the Arctic Ocean in the greenhouse period of the Late Cretaceous epoch (65-99 million years ago), yet records from such times may yield important clues to Arctic Ocean behaviour in near-future warmer climates. Here we present a seasonally resolved Cretaceous sedimentary record from the Alpha ridge of the Arctic Ocean. This palaeo-sediment trap provides new insight into the workings of the Cretaceous marine biological carbon pump. Seasonal primary production was dominated by diatom algae but was not related to upwelling as was previously hypothesized. Rather, production occurred within a stratified water column, involving specially adapted species in blooms resembling those of the modern North Pacific subtropical gyre, or those indicated for the Mediterranean sapropels. With increased CO(2) levels and warming currently driving increased stratification in the global ocean, this style of production that is adapted to stratification may become more widespread. Our evidence for seasonal diatom production and flux testify to an ice-free summer, but thin accumulations of terrigenous sediment within the diatom ooze are consistent with the presence of intermittent sea ice in the winter, supporting a wide body of evidence for low temperatures in the Late Cretaceous Arctic Ocean, rather than recent suggestions of a 15 degrees C mean annual temperature at this time. PMID:19587768

  7. Global Views of Mars in late Northern Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) orbits around the red planet 12 times a day. Each orbit goes from pole to pole. Over the course of a single day, the wide angle cameras of the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) system take 24 pictures--12 red and 12 blue--that are assembled to create a daily global map. Such global views are used to monitor the martian weather and observe changes in the patterns of frost and dust distribution on the surface. These two pictures are examples of what Mars looks like in late northern summer, which is also late southern winter. At this time of year, the south polar cap (bottom, white feature in each image) is very large, extending from the south pole northward to 60oS. Also at this time of year, clouds of water ice crystals are common over the four largest volcanoes in Tharsis. The picture on the right shows Tharsis, with the four volcanoes forming a triangle resembling the pattern of holes on a bowling ball. The image on the left is centered on Syrtis Major, a dark, windswept volcanic plain so large that it has been known to science since the first telescopes were turned toward Mars in the 1600s. The elliptical bright feature at lower-center in the left image is the Hellas Basin, the largest unequivocal impact basin (formed by an asteroid or comet) on the planet. Hellas is approximately 2200 km (1,370 mi) across.

  8. Evaluation of anticoccidial drugs in chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Xie, M Q; Fukata, T; Gilbert, J M; McDougald, L R

    1991-01-01

    Infections of Eimeria tenella in chicken embryos were used to compare the anticoccidial activity of ten drugs. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal toxic concentration (MTC) were affected by the time of inoculation into the embryos and by the chemical nature of the compounds. Some compounds (nicarbazin, amprolium) had no effect on the development of coccidia when they were injected into embryos after the day of infection. Drugs that act early in the life cycle of coccidia (robenidine, clopidol, decoquinate, diclazuril, halofuginone, monensin, salinomycin, and lasalocid) were active at 5-125 micrograms/embryo when they were injected on the day of infection. The ionophores and halofuginone were highly toxic to embryos; most synthetic compounds were nontoxic. The incubation of merozoites in drug suspensions prior to the infection of embryos did not result in embryo toxicity, but the resultant MICs were much higher than those obtained when drugs were injected directly into the embryos. Several products were essentially inactive. Neither nicarbazin nor amprolium prevented oocyst formation. The widely divergent endpoints for the MIC and MTC of anticoccidials in embryos seriously limits the application of this technique as a screen for anticoccidial drugs. PMID:1792230

  9. Carbon Fibers from Chicken Feather Keratin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Melissa E.; Wool, Richard

    2006-03-01

    As the availability of synthetic and fossil-fuel based resources is becoming limited, bio-based materials offer an environmentally friendly alternative. Chicken feathers remain a huge agricultural waste. The feathers are comprised of approximately 97% keratin, but are currently used only to enrich animal feed. However, this usage is becoming a problem with the spread of diseases such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, commonly called ``Mad Cow Disease.'' The hollow, microcrystalline, oriented keratin feather fibers offer a novel, low cost approach to producing carbon fibers through controlled pyrolysis. Carbonized feather fibers (CFF) were prepared by first heating to 225 ^oC (below the melting point)in N2 for 26 hours to crosslink and stabilize the fiber structure; then carbonization occurred by increasing the temperature to 450 ^oC for two more hours. The resulting CFF were hollow, stiff and strong and had an affine 80% weight loss, which is near the theoretical value for the C-content of keratin. Initial studies showed that a composite with the CFF and an epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) gave an improved fiber modulus ECFF of order 13.5--66.1 GPa. With continued research, the goals are to increase the stiffness of the feathers to 100 GPa, while increasing the strength in the range of 5-10 GPa.

  10. Lactobacillus kitasatonis sp. nov., from chicken intestine.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Takao; Arihara, Keizo; Ikeda, Ami; Nomura, Kazuhito; Suzuki, Fumihiko; Ohori, Hitoshi

    2003-11-01

    Four strains isolated from chicken small intestine and strains JCM 1038 and JCM 1039 (designated as Lactobacillus acidophilus) were characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. They were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods that did not produce gas from glucose. These strains had similar phenotypic characteristics and exhibited intergroup DNA relatedness values of >77 %, indicating that they comprised a single species. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of a representative strain, JCM 1039(T) (designated as type strain in this study), was determined and aligned with those of other Lactobacillus species. JCM 1039(T) was placed in the Lactobacillus delbrueckii cluster of the genus Lactobacillus on the basis of phylogenetic analysis and formed an independent cluster that was distinct from its closest neighbours, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, L. acidophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and whole-cell protein profiles clearly indicated that these strains represent a novel Lactobacillus species, for which the name Lactobacillus kitasatonis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain of this species is JCM 1039(T). PMID:14657145

  11. Chicken-Bio Nuggets Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, A.C.

    1996-12-31

    With the cost of landfill disposal skyrocketing and land availability becoming scarce, better options are required for managing our nation`s biomass waste. In response to this need, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) is evaluating an innovative idea (described as Chicken-Bio Nuggets Gasification process) to gasify waste products from the poultry industry and industrial wood/biomass-based residues in {open_quotes}as-is{close_quotes} or aggregate form. The presence of potassium salts in the poultry waste as well as in the biomass can act as a catalyst in reducing the severity of the thermal gasification. As a result, the mixture of these waste products can be gasified at a much lower temperature (1,300-1,400{degrees}F versus 1,800-2,000{degrees}F for conventional thermal gasification). Also, these potassium salts act as a catalyst by accelerating the gasification reaction and enhancing the mediation reaction. Hence, the product gas from this UTSI concept can be richer in methane and probably can be used as a source of fuel (to replace propane in hard reach remote places) or as a chemical feed stock. Exxon Research and Engineering Company has tested a similar catalytic gasification concept in a fluid-bed gasifier using coal in a one ton/day pilot plant in Baytown, Texas. If found technically and economically feasible, this concept can be later on extended to include other kinds of waste products such as cow manure and wastes from swine, etc.

  12. Delivery of roxarsone via chicken diet→chicken→chicken manure→soil→rice plant.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lixian; Huang, Lianxi; He, Zhaohuan; Zhou, Changmin; Lu, Weisheng; Bai, Cuihua

    2016-10-01

    Roxarsone (ROX), a widely used feed additive, occurs as itself and its metabolites in animal manure. Rice is prone to accumulate As than other staple food. Four diets with 0, 40, 80 and 120mgROXkg(-1) were fed in chickens, and four chicken manures (CMs) were collected to fertilize rice plants in a soil culture experiment. Linear regression analysis shows that the slopes of As species including 4-hydroxy-phenylarsonic acid, As(V), As(III), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in CM versus dietary ROX were 0.033, 0.314, 0.033, 0.054 and 0.138, respectively. Both As(III) and DMA were determined in all rice grains, and As(III), As(V), MMA and DMA in rice hull, but detectable As forms in rice straws and soils increased with increasing ROX dose. Grain As(III) was unrelated to ROX dose but exceeded the Chinese rice As limit (0.15mgAs(III)kg(-1)). Dietary ROX enhanced straw As(III) mostly, with the slope of 0.020, followed by hull DMA (0.006) and grain DMA (0.002). The slopes of soil As(V) and As(III) were 0.003 and 0.001. This is the first report illustrating the quantitative delivery of ROX via food chain, which helps to evaluate health and environmental risks caused by ROX use in animal production. PMID:27265740

  13. Molecular and biological aspects of early germ cell development in interspecies hybrids between chickens and pheasants.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok Jin; Sohn, Sea Hwan; Kang, Kyung Soo; Lee, Hyung Chul; Lee, Seul Ki; Choi, Jin Won; Han, Jae Yong

    2011-03-01

    Interspecific hybrids provide insights into fundamental genetic principles, and may prove useful for biotechnological applications and as tools for the conservation of endangered species. In the present study, interspecies hybrids were generated between the Korean ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) and the White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). We determined whether these hybrids were good recipients for the production of germline chimeric birds. PCR-based species-specific amplification and karyotype analyses showed that the hybrids inherited genetic material from both parents. Evaluation of biological function indicated that the growth rates of hybrids during the exponential phase (body weight/week) were similar to those of the pheasant but not the chicken, and that the incubation period for hatching was significantly different from that of both parents. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) of hybrids reacted with a pheasant PGC-specific antibody and circulated normally in blood vessels. The peak time of hybrid PGC migration was equivalent to that of the pheasant. In late embryonic stages, germ cells were detected by the QCR1 antibody on 15 d male gonads and were normally localized in the seminiferous cords. We examined the migration ability and developmental localization of exogenous PGCs transferred into the blood vessels of 63 h hybrid embryos. Donor-derived PGCs reacted with a donor-specific antibody were detected on 7 d gonads and the seminiferous tubules of hatchlings. Therefore, germ cell transfer into developing embryos of an interspecies hybrid can be efficiently used for the conservation of threatened animals and endangered species, and many biotechnological applications. PMID:21111472

  14. Late-Notice HIE Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Provide a response to MOWG action item 1410-01: Analyze close approaches which have required mission team action on short notice. Determine why the approaches were identified later in the process than most other events. Method: Performed an analysis to determine whether there is any correlation between late notice event identification and space weather, sparse tracking, or high drag objects, which would allow preventive action to be taken Examined specific late notice events identified by missions as problematic to try to identify root cause and attempt to relate them to the correlation analysis.

  15. Late Silurian plutons in Yucatan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, M. B.; Walker, J. Douglas

    1996-08-01

    U-Pb measurements of zircons from two composite plutons in the Maya Mountains of the Yucatan Block (Belize) give Late Silurian ages. Zircons from one of the five compositional phases of the Mountain Pine Ridge pluton yield an age of 418±3.6 Ma. A second compositional phase gives a minimum age of 404 Ma, and zircons from a third phase, although plagued with high common Pb, yield ages consistent with the other two. Zircons from one compositional phase of the Hummingbird-Mullins River pluton indicate an age of about 410-420 Ma. These data demonstrate that two of the three Maya Mountains plutons residing among the strata of the Late Pennsylvanian through Permian Santa Rosa Group are older than that sedimentation. Although the third pluton was not dated, both the similarity of sedimentary facies patterns adjacent to it to those adjacent to one of the plutons dated as Late Silurian and a published single Rb-Sr age of 428 ± 41 Ma suggest this third pluton also was emergent during Santa Rosa deposition. Thus the new U/Pb dates and other data suggest that all three Maya Mountains plutons pre-date Late Carboniferous sedimentation and that none intrude the Santa Rosa Group. Although very uniform ages of about 230 Ma amongst all plutons, derived from abundant earlier dating by the K-Ar system, led to the conclusion that intrusion mostly had occurred in the Late Triassic, the U-Pb ages (obtained from the same sites as the K-Ar dates) demonstrate that the K-Ar ages do not derive from a Late Triassic intrusive episode. The K-Ar dates probably are a signature of the rifting associated with Pangean breakup and formation of the Gulf of Mexico. In a reconstructed Pangea, the position of the Maya Mountains Late Silurian plutons suggests that the Late Silurian Acadian-Caledonian orogen of eastern North America extended through the region of the future Gulf of Mexico. Finally, the U-Pb ages of the Maya Mountains plutons are the same as those of a group of shocked zircons found in the

  16. Effects of incubation temperatures and trace mineral sources on chicken live performance and footpad skin development.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, M J; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Wineland, M J; Claassen, K; Osborne, J

    2016-04-01

    One experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two incubation temperature profiles (TEM) and two trace mineral (TM) sources with their inclusion levels on performance and footpad skin development of Ross 708 chickens. A total of 1,000 eggs from 29-wk-old breeders were incubated following two TEM profiles: a standard (S) eggshell temperature (37.8±0.2°C) for 21 d of incubation and an early-low late-high (LH) TEM. The second profile had low (37.2±0.2°C) temperature for the first 3 d, and S until the last 3 d when eggshell temperature was 39.2±0.2°C. At hatch, 15 male and 15 female chicks from each TEM were selected, and footpads sampled. Additionally, 168 males per TEM were placed in 24 battery cages with 7 chickens each. The 48 cages were assigned to two TM dietary treatments: one with inorganic (ITM) sources of Zn (120 ppm), Cu (10 ppm), and Mn (120 ppm) and the other with chelated (CTM) mineral sources using lower inclusion levels of Zn (32 ppm), Cu (8 ppm), and Mn (32 ppm). At 7 and 21 d, BW gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained and chicks sampled for footpads. Histological analysis assessed thickness and area ofstratus corneum(SC), epidermis, and dermis. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized block design in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments with TEM and sex as main factors for hatch data and TEM and TM diets for 7 and 21 d data. The LH chicks were heavier than S chicks at hatch, but had more residual yolk. However, S TEM male chickens were heavier at 7 and 21 d. The S TEM had better FCR than LH TEM.Papillaedermis parameters at hatch were higher in the S TEM. At 7 d, SC height and area were increased by the S TEM. At 21 d CTM increased dermis height and area. In conclusion, TEM affected footpad skin development and broiler performance. Replacing ITM with reduced levels of CTM increased dermis development without affecting live performance or other skin layers. PMID:26908890

  17. Influence of probiotic supplementation on blood parameters and growth performance in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Alkhalf, A.; Alhaj, M.; Al-homidan, I.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of commercial probiotic (Bactocell®) on growth performance and blood parameters were evaluated. A total of 800 one day-old Ross broiler chicks were raised over 42 days. Chicks were wing-banded, weighed individually and randomly allocated into four equally major groups each having two replicates. Chicks of group 1 (control group) were fed the starter and finisher diets that did not supplemented with probiotic. The chicks of groups 2, 3, and 4 were fed the control starter and finisher diets supplemented with 1.6 g, 1 g and 0.8 g of probiotic per kg feed, respectively. Weekly body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion were measured. Blood parameters at 1, 4 and 6 weeks of age including packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), total protein, albumin, total lipid and cholesterol were determined. All birds were kept under similar environmental, managerial and hygienic conditions. The results of the current study revealed that there was no significant change for Hb and PCV concentrations among different groups at all studied times. Also, total protein, lipids and albumin concentrations were not affected by probiotic supplementation. Chicken fed a diet containing various levels of probiotic showed a significant decrease (p ⩽ 0.05) in cholesterol concentration compared to control group. Probiotic supplementation significantly increased the body weight and daily weight gain of broiler chicks at late ages (3–6 weeks). Also, the birds fed on probiotic levels 1 and 0.8 g/kg diet exhibited higher body weight among chicken groups at 6 weeks of age. Improved feed conversion was noticed in birds fed a diet supplemented with probiotic. There was no significant difference in mortality rate among groups. We concluded that use of selected commercial probiotic resulted in improved performance parameters and reduced serum cholesterol in broiler chickens. Moreover, supplementation of the probiotic to broilers in the levels of 1 and 0.8 g/kg diet was found

  18. Gene Transfer into the Chicken Auditory Organ by In Ovo Micro-electroporation.

    PubMed

    Evsen, Lale; Doetzlhofer, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Chicken embryos are ideal model systems for studying embryonic development as manipulations of gene function can be conducted with relative ease in ovo. The inner ear auditory sensory organ is critical for our ability to hear. It houses a highly specialized sensory epithelium that consists of mechano-transducing hair cells (HCs) and surrounding glial-like supporting cells (SCs). Despite structural differences in the auditory organs, molecular mechanisms regulating the development of the auditory organ are evolutionarily conserved between mammals and aves. In ovo electroporation is largely limited to early stages at E1 - E3. Due to the relative late development of the auditory organ at E5, manipulations of the auditory organ by in ovo electroporation past E3 are difficult due to the advanced development of the chicken embryo at later stages. The method presented here is a transient gene transfer method for targeting genes of interest at stage E4 - E4.5 in the developing chicken auditory sensory organ via in ovo micro-electroporation. This method is applicable for gain- and loss-of-functions with conventional plasmid DNA-based expression vectors and can be combined with in ovo cell proliferation assay by adding EdU (5-ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine) to the whole embryo at the time of electroporation. The use of green or red fluorescent protein (GFP or RFP) expression plasmids allows the experimenter to quickly determine whether the electroporation successfully targeted the auditory portion of the developing inner ear. In this method paper, representative examples of GFP electroporated specimens are illustrated; embryos were harvested 18 - 96 hr after electroporation and targeting of GFP to the pro-sensory area of the auditory organ was confirmed by RNA in situ hybridization. The method paper also provides an optimized protocol for the use of the thymidine analog EdU to analyze cell proliferation; an example of an EdU based cell proliferation assay that combines immuno

  19. The structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) for reducing chicken embryo NAD(+) content in OPI-induced teratogenesis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Josef

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) for reducing chicken embryo nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) content in OPI-induced teratogenesis and compare them with those needed for OPI inhibition of yolk sac membrane kynurenine formamidase (KFase), the proposed primary target for OPI teratogens in chicken embryos. The comparative molecular field analysis (COMFA) of three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) revealed the electrostatic and steric fields as good predictors of OPI structural requirements to reduce NAD(+) content in chicken embryos. The dominant electrostatic interactions were localized at nitrogen-1, nitrogen-3, nitrogen of 2-amino substituent of the pyrimidinyl of pyrimidinyl phosphorothioates, and at the oxygen of crotonamide carbonyl in crotonamide phosphates. Bulkiness of the substituents at carbon-6 of the pyrimidinyls and/or N-substituents of crotonamides was the steric structural component that contributed to superiority of those OPI for reducing embryonic NAD(+) levels. Both electrostatic and steric requirements are similar to those defined in our previous study for OPI inhibition of chicken embryo yolk sac membrane KFase. The findings of this study provide another piece of evidence for the cause-and-effect relationship between yolk sac membrane KFase inhibition and reduced embryo NAD(+) content in NAD-associated OPI-induced teratogenesis in chickens. PMID:27017880

  20. The opisthonephric blood vascular system of the chicken embryo as studied by scanning electron microscopy of microvascular corrosion casts and critical point dried preparations.

    PubMed

    Ditrich, H; Splechtna, H

    1989-06-01

    Microvascular corrosion casts of chicken embryos between four and 19 days after fertilization have been prepared. The developing kidney was investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The injection technique and resin composition were modified in order to facilitate the complete replication of native blood vascular systems of specimens as small as 15 mm body length. The development of the opisthonephros was followed from near the beginning of its function until a vascular development comparable to the adult situation was reached. Critical point dried glomeruli show the differentiation of the glomerular visceral epithelium (podocytes) from initially epithelioid to highly branched forms. The embryonic kidney (cranial part of the opisthonephros-mesonephros) shows a construction-principle resembling amphibians that is entirely different from the definitive excretory organ (caudal part of the opisthonephros-metanephros). PMID:2814402

  1. Reaction of chickens to graduated length of exposure to stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nvota, J.; Grom, A.; Faberova, A.

    1980-01-01

    The reactions of 60 day old chickens Arbor Acres 60 X Vantress to immobilization stress lasting 1/2, 1, 2, 4 hours and to application of ACTH, manifested by activity changes in the systems hypophysis-adrenal gland and hypophysis-thyroid gland were studied. The highest activity increase in the two neuro-endocrine systems of the chickens was found to occur after 1/2 hour exposure to stress. With prolonged stress the responses weakened and after 4 hours most of the values gradually regressed to their initial level. The responses of both systems were synchronized. Reactions of the chickens differed from those of laboratory rats in which an increased activity of the hypophysis-adrenal gland system coincided with attenuation of the hypophysis-thyroid gland system.

  2. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection.

    PubMed

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-03-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks) in Denmark. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-positive flocks was significantly reduced, from 41.4% during 2003-2005 (before fly screens) to 10.3% in 2006-2009 (with fly screens). In fly screen houses, Campylobacter spp. prevalence did not peak during the summer. Nationally, prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-positive flocks in Denmark could have been reduced by an estimated 77% during summer had fly screens been part of biosecurity practices. These results imply that fly screens might help reduce prevalence of campylobacteriosis among humans, which is closely linked to Campylobacter spp. prevalence among broiler chicken flocks. PMID:23628089

  3. Recombinant-derived chicken growth hormone used for radioimmunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Proudman, J.A.

    1984-04-01

    The use of recombinant-derived chicken growth hormone (rcGH) in an avian growth hormone (GH) radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedure is described. Antiserum to turkey GH bound /sup 125/I-labeled rcGH, and unlabeled rcGH or turkey GH displaced binding in a dose-related manner. The dose-response curves of sera and pituitary extract from chickens and turkeys were parallel to the rcGH standard curve. Sera from hypophysectomized (hypox) chickens and turkeys produced no dose-response and did not inhibit binding of labeled rcGH. Recovery of rcGH added to hypox sera was quantitative. Modification of the homologous turkey GH RIA protocol of Proudman and Wentworth (1) to use rcGH made possible either an increase in assay sensitivity or a 3-day reduction in incubation time.

  4. Prevalence of antibody to chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in Swedish chicken breeding flocks correlated to outbreaks of blue wing disease (BWD) in their progeny.

    PubMed

    Engström, B E

    1999-01-01

    A serological survey for antibody to Chicken Anaemia Virus (CAV) was performed on broiler breeders as well as layer breeding birds in Sweden at the end of their rearing period. Grandparents (GP) of both types leaving quarantine were in 21 out of 26 cases free from antibody to CAV, but often became infected soon thereafter. A total of 10 outbreaks of blue wing disease (BWD) in 3 series were recorded in the broiler and layer parent generation, all of which were progeny of 3 late seroconverting GP-flocks. All but one of 22 layer parent flocks had been infected and had seroconverted during the rearing period. Subsequently BWD was not recorded from commercial layers. Broiler parent flocks were more protected from CAV infection during rearing. Eighteen out of 94 broiler parent flocks had not developed antibody to CAV before coming into lay. Outbreaks of BWD were reported in progeny flocks from all these broiler breeders, with the exception of those that had been vaccinated. Good hygienic routines along with isolation of the birds delayed the seroconversion to CAV in broiler breeders and vaccination of these breeders protected their progeny from outbreaks of BWD. Broiler flocks in houses where BWD had occurred recently had always antibodies to CAV at slaughter. It was possible to eradicate the infection from the house and prevent the infection between flocks by proper cleaning and disinfection of the broiler houses. PMID:10605126

  5. Limited susceptibility and lack of systemic infection by an H3N2 swine influenza virus in intranasally inoculated chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickens were intranasally inoculated with the swine influenza virus A/swine/NC/307408/04 (H3N2) (NC/04 SIV) to determine the infectivity of a North American SIV for chickens, as well as the possibility of chicken meat serving as a transmission vehicle for SIV. White Leghorn (WL) layer-type chicken...

  6. Recombinant chicken interferon-alpha inhibits the replication of exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV) in DF-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Manman; Wu, Siyu; Feng, Min; Feng, Saixiang; Sun, Chao; Bai, Dayong; Gu, Mingzhu; Liao, Ming; Cao, Weisheng

    2016-08-01

    Chickeninterferon alpha (ChIFNα) belongs to type I IFNs that are important antiviral cytokines. We investigated whether ChIFNα plays a role in avian leukosis virus (ALV) infections of chickens. Firstly, we explored the immune response to ALV in vivo by measuring cytokine expression profiles in the spleens and bursas of chickens during the late stages of ALV-J infection. The results indicated that ALV-J infection could induce a mixed Th1/Th2 cytokine response by elevating levels of both interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-10. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels decreased in the spleen while interferon beta (IFNβ) and Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) expression levels in the bursa increased significantly. This indicated that ALV-J stimulates a Type I IFN response. Next, we found that different ALV subgroups or strains up-regulated chicken IFN regulatory factor 3 (ChIRF-3) promoter activity, suggesting that ALV infection could trigger Type I IFNs pathway in vitro. Accordingly, we further investigated ChIFNα antiviral effects on ALV replication in DF-1 cells by successfully expressing recombinant ChIFNα in Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain BL21. The specific activity of the purified rChIFNα protein was determined to be 4×10(7)U/mL. When added at 4000U/mL, the recombinant protein restrained ALV replication as measured by decreases in viral protein p27 levels and mRNA expression. This new reagent may be useful for prophylactic and therapeutic drug design. PMID:27372921

  7. Response of intestinal microbiota to antibiotic growth promoters in chickens.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Hunkapiller, Andree A; Layton, Alice C; Chang, Yun-Juan; Robbins, Kelly R

    2013-04-01

    Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) have been used as feed additives to improve average daily weight gain and feed efficiency in food animals for more than five decades. However, use of AGPs is associated with the emergence of antibiotic-resistant human pathogens of animal origin, posing a significant threat to food safety and public health. Thus, development of novel alternatives to AGPs is important to mitigate antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens. To achieve this goal, the mode of action of AGPs should be elucidated. In this study, the response of the chicken gut microbiota to AGPs was examined using two culture-independent approaches: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarker analysis and 16S rDNA clone library sequencing. PLFA analysis showed that AGP tylosin treatment changed composition of the microbiota in various intestinal sites; however, total viable bacterial biomass in intestine was not affected by tylosin treatment. PLFA analysis also revealed an abundant viable fungal population in chicken microbiota. Eight 16S rDNA libraries (96 clones per library) were constructed using ileal samples from chickens that received either antibiotic-free or medicated feed. The 16S rDNA clone analysis of the growth-relevant samples showed the AGP treatment influenced the diversity of ileum microbiota in the chickens primarily in the Firmicutes division. In particular, Lactobacillus spp. populations in the ileum of AGP-treated chickens were significantly lower than those from chickens receiving antibiotic-free feed. Together, this study revealed novel features of the intestinal microbiota in response to AGP treatment and suggested approach to develop potential alternatives to AGPs for mitigation of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens. PMID:23461609

  8. Acidified Litter Benefits the Intestinal Flora Balance of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Margarita Novoa; Skjervheim, Magne; Oppegaard, Hanne; Sørum, Henning

    2004-01-01

    The alterations in the balance of the normal intestinal bacterial flora of chickens exposed to acidified wood-derived litter were analyzed and compared to those of a control group exposed to nonacidified litter. A total of 1,728 broilers were divided into two groups, with six replicates in each. One group was exposed to dry wood-derived litter, and the other was exposed to dry wood-derived litter sprayed with a mixture of sodium lignosulfonate, formic acid, and propionic acid. At five different times, five chickens from each pen were killed and the intestinal contents from ileum and caeca were collected. The samples were diluted and plated onto selective media to identify coliforms, Lactobacillus spp., Clostridium perfringens, and Enterococcus spp. Covariance analysis of bacterial counts showed significantly lower counts for C. perfringens in the caeca and the ileum and for Enterococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. in the ileum in chickens exposed to the acidified litter. Lactobacillus spp. showed significantly higher counts in the caeca in chickens exposed to acidified litter. There was no difference between the two litters with regard to coliforms in the ileum and the caeca or to Enterococcus spp. in the caeca. The study shows that exposing the chickens to acidified litter lowers the intestinal bacterial number, especially in the ileum, without negative consequences for the chicken's health or performance. Of special interest are the lower counts of C. perfringens and Enterococcus spp. that might reduce the risk of developing clinical or subclinical necrotic enteritis and growth depression. PMID:15345401

  9. Comparison of nicarbazin absorption in chickens, mallards, and Canada geese.

    PubMed

    Yoder, C A; Miller, L A; Bynum, K S

    2005-09-01

    Nicarbazin (NCZ), a coccidiostat commonly used in the poultry industry, causes reduced hatchability and egg quality in layer hens at a concentration of 125 ppm (8.4 mg/kg) in the feed. Although this effect is undesirable in the poultry industry, NCZ could provide a useful wildlife contraception tool for waterfowl, particularly urban geese. We tested the absorption of NCZ in chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) gavaged with 8.4 mg of NCZ/kg per bird each day for 8 d. Plasma levels of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) differed significantly among species. Peak plasma DNC levels were 2.87 +/- 0.15 microg/mL, 2.39 +/- 0.15 microg/mL, and 1.53 +/- 0.15 microg/ mL in chickens, mallards, and Canada geese respectively. It took 6 d to obtain peak DNC levels in chickens as opposed to 8 d in mallards and Canada geese. The half life of DNC in plasma was 1.43 d in chickens, 0.72 d in mallards, and 1.26 d in Canada geese. Mallards eliminated 100% of plasma DNC 4 d post-treatment, whereas Canada geese eliminated 100% of plasma DNC 8 d post-treatment. Chickens had only eliminated 99% of plasma DNC 8 d post-treatment. Mallard plasma DNC levels were highly correlated with Canada goose plasma DNC levels. This research showed mallards are an ideal model species for the Canada goose for future reproductive studies on NCZ in a laboratory setting. However, levels higher than 8.4 mg/kg must be fed to waterfowl in order to obtain a plasma level comparable to chickens. PMID:16206573

  10. Efficient production of transgenic chickens based on piggyBac.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Ning; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Ran; Li, Qingyuan; Cao, Dainan; Liu, Tongxin; Zhang, Yaqiong; Liu, Xiaofang

    2013-04-01

    Transgenic techniques in chickens have been developed much more slowly than in mammals due to chickens' unique reproduction mechanism. Retroviral methods have been the most successful. piggyBac (PB) is a transposon that has a 13 bp perfect terminal invert repeat sequence. PB can be inserted into TTAA sites and can also be precisely excised in mammals. Therefore, we have selected PB as a candidate to establish a new method to produce transgenic chickens. We constructed three donor vectors (ZGl-neo, ZGm-neo and ZGs-neo) expressing a GFP marker-gene and a neomycin resistant gene based on PB. We co-transfected each donor vector with a helper vector (CAG-PBase). We found that ZGl-neo was the most efficient PB vector. This vector could insert into TTAA sites in DF-1 cells. PB vectors were microinjected into sub-germinal cavity of newly laid eggs, and electroporation was then performed with a 20-V pulse for 5 cycles of 50 ms on and 100 ms off. GFP was expressed in different tissues of the embryos, including the gonads. Twenty-two chickens hatched after microinjection with compounds ZGl-neo and CAG-PBase (3:1). When we screened the blood DNA, 73 % (16/22) of the individuals were positive. Thirteen of the chickens grew to adulthood, 11 of which were males. 40 % (4/10) of the individuals were semen positive, and their copy numbers ranged from 0.05 to 0.21 (0.11, 0.21, 0.05, 0.06). No G1 offspring containing the integrated transposon were produced. We conclude that the PB transposon system is a novel useful tool for the efficient production of transgenic chickens. PMID:22918673

  11. Proteome Changes in Thai Indigenous Chicken Muscle during Growth Period

    PubMed Central

    Teltathum, Tawatchai; Mekchay, Supamit

    2009-01-01

    Proteomic profiling of the pectoralis muscle of Thai indigenous chickens during growth period was analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). A total of 259, 161, 120 and 107 protein spots were found to be expressed in the chicken pectoralis muscles at 0, 3, 6 and 18 weeks of age, respectively. From these expressed proteins, five distinct protein spots were significantly associated with chicken age. These protein spots were characterized and showed homology with phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1), apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1), triosephosphate isomerase 1 (TPI1), heat shock protein 25 kDa (HSP25) and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3). These five protein spots were categorized as follows: (i) the expression levels of PGAM1 and TPI1 proteins were positively correlated with chicken aging (p<0.05), (ii) the expression levels of APOA1 and FABP3 proteins were negatively correlated with chicken aging (p<0.05) and (iii) the expression levels of the HSP25 protein were up- and down-regulated during growth period. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the FABP3 and HSP25 genes were significantly decreased in muscle during the growth period (p<0.05), whereas no significant changes of the PGAM1, TPI1 and APOA1 gene expression from the chicken muscle was observed. The identified proteins were classified as metabolic and stress proteins. This demonstrates a difference in energy metabolism and stress proteins between age groups and shows that proteomics is a useful tool to uncover the molecular basis of physiological differences in muscle during the growth period. PMID:19893640

  12. Mycological examinations on the fungal flora of the chicken comb.

    PubMed

    Gründer, S; Mayser, P; Redmann, T; Kaleta, E F

    2005-03-01

    A total of 500 combs of adult chickens from two different locations in Germany (Hessen and Schleswig-Holstein) were clinically and mycologically examined. The chickens came from three battery cages (n = 79), one voliere system (n=32), six flocks maintained on deep litter (n = 69) and 12 flocks kept on free outdoor range (n=320). Twenty-two of the 500 chicken combs (4.4%) were found to have clinical signs: only non-specific lesions neither typical of mycosis nor of avian pox such as desquamation with crust formation, yellow to brown or black dyschromic changes, alopecia in the surrounding area and moist inflammation. Only seven of the 22 clinically altered combs showed a positive mycological result; the non-pathogenic and geophilic Trichophyton terrestre in one case and non-pathogenic yeast in six cases. The following fungi were seen in the different housing systems: 13 dermatophytes (2.6% of 500 samples): 12 x T. terrestre, 1 x Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 11 isolates of Chrysosporium georgiae (2.2% of 500 samples) and 149 isolates of yeasts (29.8%): Malassezia sympodialis: n = 52, Kloeckera apiculata: n = 33, Trichosporon capitatum (syn. Geotrichum capitatum): n = 23, Trichosporon cutaneum/Trichosporon mucoides: n = 12, Trichosporon inkin (syn. Sarcinosporon inkin): n = 8 and Candida spp.: n = 21, including pathogenic or possibly pathogenic species: Candida albicans: n = 3, Candida famata: n = 4, Candida guilliermondii: n = 3, Candida lipolytica: n = 3, Candida dattila: n = 2 and one isolate each of Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida aaseri, Candida catenulata sive brumpti, Candida fructus and Candida kefyr sive pseudotropicalis. There is no stringent correlation between the clinical symptoms diagnosed on the chicken combs and the species of yeasts isolated. The causative agent of favus in chickens, Trichophyton gallinae, and the saprophytic yeast in pigeons, Cr. neoformans were not isolated. The most frequently isolated yeasts M. sympodialis and

  13. Regional differences in recombination hotspots between two chicken populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although several genetic linkage maps of the chicken genome have been published, the resolution of these maps is limited and does not allow the precise identification of recombination hotspots. The availability of more than 3.2 million SNPs in the chicken genome and the recent advances in high throughput genotyping techniques enabled us to increase marker density for the construction of a high-resolution linkage map of the chicken genome. This high-resolution linkage map allowed us to study recombination hotspots across the genome between two chicken populations: a purebred broiler line and a broiler × broiler cross. In total, 1,619 animals from the two different broiler populations were genotyped with 17,790 SNPs. Results The resulting linkage map comprises 13,340 SNPs. Although 360 polymorphic SNPs that had not been assigned to a known chromosome on chicken genome build WASHUC2 were included in this study, no new linkage groups were found. The resulting linkage map is composed of 31 linkage groups, with a total length of 3,054 cM for the sex-average map of the combined population. The sex-average linkage map of the purebred broiler line is 686 cM smaller than the linkage map of the broiler × broiler cross. Conclusions In this study, we present a linkage map of the chicken genome at a substantially higher resolution than previously published linkage maps. Regional differences in recombination hotspots between the two mapping populations were observed in several chromosomes near the telomere of the p arm; the sex-specific analysis revealed that these regional differences were mainly caused by female-specific recombination hotspots in the broiler × broiler cross. PMID:20141624

  14. Profiling of chicken adipose tissue gene expression by genome array

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Bao; Li, Hui; Wang, Qi-Gui; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Wang, Shou-Zhi; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Xiu-Ping

    2007-01-01

    Background Excessive accumulation of lipids in the adipose tissue is a major problem in the present-day broiler industry. However, few studies have analyzed the expression of adipose tissue genes that are involved in pathways and mechanisms leading to adiposity in chickens. Gene expression profiling of chicken adipose tissue could provide key information about the ontogenesis of fatness and clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying obesity. In this study, Chicken Genome Arrays were used to construct an adipose tissue gene expression profile of 7-week-old broilers, and to screen adipose tissue genes that are differentially expressed in lean and fat lines divergently selected over eight generations for high and low abdominal fat weight. Results The gene expression profiles detected 13,234–16,858 probe sets in chicken adipose tissue at 7 weeks, and genes involved in lipid metabolism and immunity such as fatty acid binding protein (FABP), thyroid hormone-responsive protein (Spot14), lipoprotein lipase(LPL), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7(IGFBP7) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC), were highly expressed. In contrast, some genes related to lipogenesis, such as leptin receptor, sterol regulatory element binding proteins1 (SREBP1), apolipoprotein B(ApoB) and insulin-like growth factor 2(IGF2), were not detected. Moreover, 230 genes that were differentially expressed between the two lines were screened out; these were mainly involved in lipid metabolism, signal transduction, energy metabolism, tumorigenesis and immunity. Subsequently, real-time RT-PCR was performed to validate fifteen differentially expressed genes screened out by the microarray approach and high consistency was observed between the two methods. Conclusion Our results establish the groundwork for further studies of the basic genetic control of growth and development of chicken adipose tissue, and will be beneficial in clarifying the molecular mechanism of obesity in chickens. PMID

  15. Breeding of tomorrow's chickens to improve well-being.

    PubMed

    Cheng, H-W

    2010-04-01

    Chickens, as well as other animals, have the ability to change their behavior (behavioral plasticity) and physiology (physiological plasticity) based on the costs and benefits to fit their environment (adaptation). Through natural selection, the population preserves and accumulates traits that are beneficial and rejects those that are detrimental in their prevailing environments. The surviving populations are able to contribute more genes associated with beneficial traits for increased fitness to subsequent generations. Natural selection is slow but constant; working over multiple generations, the changes to the population often appear silent or undetectable at a given point in history. Chickens were domesticated from the wild red jungle fowl. The principle of domestication of chickens, as well as other farm animals, by humans is similar to that of natural selection: selecting the best animals with the highest survivability and reproducibility (artificial selection). Compared with natural selection, the process of artificial selection is motivated by human needs and acts more rapidly with more visible results over a short time period. This process has been further accelerated following the development of current breeding programs and the emergence of specialized breeding companies. A laying hen, for example, produces more than 300 hundred eggs a year, whereas a jungle fowl lays 4 to 6 eggs in a year. During the domestication process, chickens retained their capability to adapt to their housing environments, which is usually achieved by genetic changes occurring with each subsequent generation. Genes control the behavioral, physiological, immunological, and psychological responses of animals to stressors, including environmental stimulations. With advances in understanding of genetic mediation of animal physiology and behavior and the discovery of the genome sequences of many species, animal production breeding programs can be improved in both speed and efficiency

  16. Early and Late Retirement Exits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal…

  17. Planetary science: Ubiquitous late veneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenan, James

    2012-09-01

    Iron-loving elements are thought to have been added to Mars, Earth and the Moon after core formation. An analysis of meteorites formed in the first two to three million years of Solar System history suggests that a similar late veneer was added elsewhere too.

  18. Late onset globoid cell leukodystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, R P; Petronas, N; Barton, N W

    1991-01-01

    A 29 year old male with onset of globoid cell leukodystrophy at age 14 is described. This is the first case of enzymatically confirmed globoid cell leukodystrophy with onset of symptoms after the age of ten. This patient is unique because of the late onset and slow progression and extends the clinical spectrum of globoid cell leukodystrophy. Images PMID:1800646

  19. The behavior of chickens following embryonic treatment with testosterone propionate.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, J M; Wolfe, J L; Glick, B

    1975-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate an initial response and the flocking behavior of chicks treated embryonically with testosterone propionate (TP). The high (1.28 gm. %) and low (0.32 gm. %) levels of TP interfered with the response of these chicks to a specific stimulus. However, only the high level TP depressed the flocking response. TP administered prior to day 13 of embryonic development will depress sexual behavior in the chicken. These data suggest that TP influences a variety of behavioral patterns in the chicken. PMID:1228736

  20. Downregulation of Chicken Interleukin-17 Receptor A during Eimeria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo H.; Jeong, Jipseol; Park, Ae R.; Yim, Dongjean; Kim, Suk; Chang, Hong H.; Yang, Seung-Hak; Kim, Dong-Hee; Lillehoj, Hyun S.

    2014-01-01

    Both interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and IL-17F are proinflammatory cytokines that have an important role in intestinal homeostasis via receptor signaling. These cytokines have been characterized in chickens, but very little is known about their receptors and their functional activity. We provide here the first description of the sequence analysis, bioactivity, and comparative expression analysis of chicken IL-17RA (chIL-17RA) in chickens infected with Salmonella and Eimeria, two major infectious agents of gastrointestinal diseases of poultry of economic importance. A full-length chIL-17RA cDNA with a 2,568-bp coding region was identified from chicken thymus cDNA. chIL-17RA shares ca. 46% identity with mammalian homologues and 29.2 to 31.5% identity with its piscine counterparts. chIL-17RA transcript expression was relatively high in the thymus and in the chicken macrophage cell line HD11. The chIL-17RA-specific small interfering RNA inhibits interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-1β mRNA expression in chicken embryo fibroblast cells (but not in DF-1 cells) stimulated with chIL-17A or chIL-17F. Interaction between chIL-17RA and chIL-17A was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. Downregulation of chIL-17RA occurred in concanavalin A- or lipopolysaccharide-activated splenic lymphocytes but not in poly(I·C)-activated splenic lymphocytes. In Salmonella- and Eimeria-infected chickens, the expression levels of the chIL-17RA transcript were downregulated in intestinal tissues from chickens infected with two Eimeria species, E. tenella or E. maxima, that preferentially infect the cecum and jejunum, respectively. However, chIL-17RA expression was generally unchanged in Salmonella infection. These results suggest that chIL-17RA has an important role in mucosal immunity to intestinal intracellular parasite infections such as Eimeria infection. PMID:24980970

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Silva, R. O. S.; Salvarani, F.M.; Assis, R.A.; Martins, N.R.S.; Pires, P.S.; Lobato, F.C.F.

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens as well as a potential pathogen that causes necrotic enteritis and colangio hepatitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of seven different compounds used for therapy, growth promotion or prevention of coccidiosis was determined by agar dilution method for 55 C. perfringens strains isolated from the intestines of broiler chickens. All strains showed high susceptibility to penicillin, avilamycin, monensin and narasin. Only 7.3% of the strains showed an intermediated sensitivity to lincomycin, and 49 (89.1%) were considered susceptible. For tetracycline and bacitracin, 41.8% and 47.3% of strains, respectively, were considered resistant. PMID:24031355

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Silva, R O S; Salvarani, F M; Assis, R A; Martins, N R S; Pires, P S; Lobato, F C F

    2009-04-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens as well as a potential pathogen that causes necrotic enteritis and colangio hepatitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of seven different compounds used for therapy, growth promotion or prevention of coccidiosis was determined by agar dilution method for 55 C. perfringens strains isolated from the intestines of broiler chickens. All strains showed high susceptibility to penicillin, avilamycin, monensin and narasin. Only 7.3% of the strains showed an intermediated sensitivity to lincomycin, and 49 (89.1%) were considered susceptible. For tetracycline and bacitracin, 41.8% and 47.3% of strains, respectively, were considered resistant. PMID:24031355

  3. Improvement of cold resistance and performance of broilers by acute cold exposure during late embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shinder, D; Ruzal, M; Giloh, M; Druyan, S; Piestun, Y; Yahav, S

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to fine-tune previous acute cold exposure treatments of broiler embryos during late embryogenesis to improve lifelong cold resistance and performance. Six hundred Cobb hatching eggs were incubated under standard conditions and then exposed to 3 treatments: control; cold treatment in which embryos were exposed to 15°C for 30 min on d 18 and 19 of incubation (30 × 2); and cold treatment similar to 30 × 2 but with 60-min exposures (60 × 2). Egg shell temperature (T(egg)) and heart rate (HR) were monitored pre- and posttreatment. Upon hatching, hatchability, body weight, and body temperature were recorded. From 14 to 35 d of age, three quarters of the chickens in each treatment were raised under ascites-inducing conditions (AIC) and the remaining birds were raised under standard brooding conditions (SBC). The T(egg) and HR decreased significantly in response to increased exposure time on d 18 of incubation. On d 19 of incubation, before the second cold exposure, the 30 × 2 group showed greater T(egg) and HR than the controls, and during the second exposure they maintained these parameters better than the 60 × 2 embryos. No treatment effect on hatchability was observed. At 35 d of age ascites incidence among 30 × 2 chickens under AIC was significantly less than that among the controls (P < 0.01), and body weight of these chickens under either SBC or AIC was significantly higher than that of the controls. Under SBC relative breast muscle weight was significantly higher in 60 × 2 chickens, whereas the relative heart weight was higher in both cold-treated groups than in the controls. It can be concluded that repeated short acute cold exposures during late embryogenesis significantly reduced ascites incidence and improved growth rate under either SBC or AIC. These results may be related to a prenatal epigenetic adaptation of the thermoregulatory and cardiovascular systems to low ambient temperature. PMID:21325235

  4. Does My Baby Really Look Like Me? Using Tests for Resemblance between Parent and Child to Teach Topics in Categorical Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froelich, Amy G.; Nettleton, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a study to test whether neutral observers perceive a resemblance between a parent and a child. We demonstrate the general approach for two separate parent/ child pairs using survey data collected from introductory statistics students serving as neutral observers. We then present ideas for incorporating the study design…

  5. LATE-AGE ONSET SCLERODERMA

    PubMed Central

    Manno, Rebecca L.; Wigley, Fredrick M.; Gelber, Allan C.; Hummers, Laura K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although patients who develop scleroderma (SSc) later in life (≥ 65 years) may express the entire clinical spectrum of disease, we hypothesize that patients with late-age onset incur a different risk for specific organ manifestations of disease compared to those with younger-age onset SSc. METHODS In total, 2300 SSc patients were evaluated between 1990–2009 and reviewed from a university-based Scleroderma Center cohort. Demographic profile, SSc subtype, autoantibody status, Medsger severity scores, pulmonary function tests, echocardiography, and right heart catheterization parameters were compared between late-age versus younger-age onset patients. RESULTS Overall, 2084 (91%) patients developed SSc prior to age 65; whereas 216 (9%) were ≥65 years. Late-age onset patients had a significantly higher proportion of anti-centromere antibodies (42% vs 27%; p=0.001) compared to younger-age onset. Risk of pulmonary hypertension (OR 1.77; 95%CI 1.00, 3.12), muscle weakness (OR 1.85; 95%CI 1.30, 2.64), renal impairment (OR 2.83; 95%CI 1.98, 4.04) and cardiac disease (OR 2.69; 95%CI 1.92, 3.78) was greater among those with late-age onset SSc; although risk of digital ischemia (OR 0.64; 95%CI 0.47, 0.86) was reduced. The cumulative incidence of pulmonary hypertension at 5 years was greater among those with late-age (9%) compared to younger-age (2.5%) onset SSc (log-rank, p<0.001). CONCLUSION These findings suggest that older SSc patients are at greater risk for pulmonary hypertension, renal impairment, cardiac disease, and muscle weakness. Awareness of the distinct risk for specific organ manifestations in SSc, in particular pulmonary hypertension, should guide the care of older SSc patients whose disease begins after age 65 years. PMID:21685299

  6. Using ancient DNA to study the origins and dispersal of ancestral Polynesian chickens across the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Vicki A.; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Austin, Jeremy J.; Hunt, Terry L.; Burney, David A.; Denham, Tim; Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Wood, Jamie R.; Gongora, Jaime; Girdland Flink, Linus; Linderholm, Anna; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The human colonization of Remote Oceania remains one of the great feats of exploration in history, proceeding east from Asia across the vast expanse of the Pacific Ocean. Human commensal and domesticated species were widely transported as part of this diaspora, possibly as far as South America. We sequenced mitochondrial control region DNA from 122 modern and 22 ancient chicken specimens from Polynesia and Island Southeast Asia and used these together with Bayesian modeling methods to examine the human dispersal of chickens across this area. We show that specific techniques are essential to remove contaminating modern DNA from experiments, which appear to have impacted previous studies of Pacific chickens. In contrast to previous reports, we find that all ancient specimens and a high proportion of the modern chickens possess a group of unique, closely related haplotypes found only in the Pacific. This group of haplotypes appears to represent the authentic founding mitochondrial DNA chicken lineages transported across the Pacific, and allows the early dispersal of chickens across Micronesia and Polynesia to be modeled. Importantly, chickens carrying this genetic signature persist on several Pacific islands at high frequencies, suggesting that the original Polynesian chicken lineages may still survive. No early South American chicken samples have been detected with the diagnostic Polynesian mtDNA haplotypes, arguing against reports that chickens provide evidence of Polynesian contact with pre-European South America. Two modern specimens from the Philippines carry haplotypes similar to the ancient Pacific samples, providing clues about a potential homeland for the Polynesian chicken. PMID:24639505

  7. Using ancient DNA to study the origins and dispersal of ancestral Polynesian chickens across the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Vicki A; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Austin, Jeremy J; Hunt, Terry L; Burney, David A; Denham, Tim; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Wood, Jamie R; Gongora, Jaime; Girdland Flink, Linus; Linderholm, Anna; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan

    2014-04-01

    The human colonization of Remote Oceania remains one of the great feats of exploration in history, proceeding east from Asia across the vast expanse of the Pacific Ocean. Human commensal and domesticated species were widely transported as part of this diaspora, possibly as far as South America. We sequenced mitochondrial control region DNA from 122 modern and 22 ancient chicken specimens from Polynesia and Island Southeast Asia and used these together with Bayesian modeling methods to examine the human dispersal of chickens across this area. We show that specific techniques are essential to remove contaminating modern DNA from experiments, which appear to have impacted previous studies of Pacific chickens. In contrast to previous reports, we find that all ancient specimens and a high proportion of the modern chickens possess a group of unique, closely related haplotypes found only in the Pacific. This group of haplotypes appears to represent the authentic founding mitochondrial DNA chicken lineages transported across the Pacific, and allows the early dispersal of chickens across Micronesia and Polynesia to be modeled. Importantly, chickens carrying this genetic signature persist on several Pacific islands at high frequencies, suggesting that the original Polynesian chicken lineages may still survive. No early South American chicken samples have been detected with the diagnostic Polynesian mtDNA haplotypes, arguing against reports that chickens provide evidence of Polynesian contact with pre-European South America. Two modern specimens from the Philippines carry haplotypes similar to the ancient Pacific samples, providing clues about a potential homeland for the Polynesian chicken. PMID:24639505

  8. GRP78 is required for cell proliferation and protection from apoptosis in chicken embryo fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, M; Choi, H; Lee, S I; Kim, J S; Park, M; Kim, K; Lee, S; Byun, S J

    2016-05-01

    Chicken serum has been suggested as a supplement to promote chicken cell proliferation and development. However, the molecular mechanisms by which chicken serum stimulates chicken cell proliferation remain unknown. Here, we evaluated the effects of chicken serum supplementation on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) and DF-1 cell proliferation. We also sought to elucidate the molecular pathways involved in mediating the effects of chicken serum on fibroblasts and DF-1 cells by overexpression of chicken 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (chGRP78), which is important for cell growth and the prevention of apoptosis. Our data demonstrated that the addition of 5% chicken serum significantly enhanced fibroblast proliferation. Moreover, knockdown of chGRP78 using siRNA decreased fibroblast proliferation and increased apoptosis. Based on these results, we suggest that the chGRP78-mediated signaling pathway plays a critical role in chicken serum-stimulated fibroblast survival and anti-apoptosis. Therefore, our findings have important implications for the maintenance of chicken fibroblast cells through the inhibition of apoptosis and may lead to the development of new treatments for avian disease. PMID:26944959

  9. Nucleotide sequence neighbouring a late modified guanylic residue within the 28S ribosomal RNA of several eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Eladari, M E; Hampe, A; Galibert, F

    1977-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a particular T1 oligonucleotide found in 41S and 28S RNAs of several cellular cell lines (human, mouse, rat and chicken fibroblast) but absent in 45S ribosomal RNA has been deduced. Its primary structure : A-U-U*-G*-psi-U-C-A-C-C-C-A-C-U-A-A-U-A-Gp shows the presence of a modified G residue which explains the existence of this oligonucleotide in the T1 fingerprint of 41S RNA and 28S. Its absence on the 45S RNA T1 fingerprint is accounted for by a late modification. Images PMID:561392

  10. Reduction of Salmonella on chicken meat and chicken skin by combined or sequential application of lytic bacteriophage with chemical antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, Anuraj T; Nannapaneni, Rama; Kiess, Aaron; Sharma, Chander Shekhar

    2015-08-17

    The effectiveness of recently approved Salmonella lytic bacteriophage preparation (SalmoFresh™) in reducing Salmonella in vitro and on chicken breast fillets was examined in combination with lauric arginate (LAE) or cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). In another experiment, a sequential spray application of this bacteriophage (phage) solution on Salmonella inoculated chicken skin after a 20s dip in chemical antimicrobials (LAE, CPC, peracetic acid, or chlorine) was also examined in reducing Salmonella counts on chicken skin. The application of phage in combination with CPC or LAE reduced S. Typhimurium, S. Heidelberg, and S. Enteritidis up to 5 log units in vitro at 4 °C. On chicken breast fillets, phage in combination with CPC or LAE resulted in significant (p<0.05) reductions of Salmonella ranging from 0.5 to 1.3 log CFU/g as compared to control up to 7 days of refrigerated storage. When phage was applied sequentially with chemical antimicrobials, all the treatments resulted in significant reductions of Salmonella. The application of chlorine (30 ppm) and PAA (400 ppm) followed by phage spray (10(9)PFU/ml) resulted in highest Salmonella reductions of 1.6-1.7 and 2.2-2.5l og CFU/cm(2), respectively. In conclusion, the surface applications of phage in combination with LAE or CPC significantly reduced Salmonella counts on chicken breast fillets. However, higher reductions in Salmonella counts were achieved on chicken skin by the sequential application of chemical antimicrobials followed by phage spray. The sequential application of chlorine, PAA, and phage can provide additional hurdles to reduce Salmonella on fresh poultry carcasses or cut up parts. PMID:25950852

  11. Rous-associated virus type 7 induces a syndrome in chickens characterized by stunting and obesity.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, J K; Ow, C L; Smith, R E

    1983-01-01

    Infection of 10-day-old chicken embryos with an avian retrovirus. Rous-associated virus type 7, resulted in a disease characterized by stunting and hyperlipidemia. By 20 days after hatch, infected chickens were smaller than hatchmates and developed ataxia and obesity over the next 30 days. Histological examinations of livers from infected chickens revealed a diffuse panlobular fatty infiltrate involving an accumulation of fat in microdroplets. Electron microscopic examinations of livers from infected chickens revealed hepatocytes with swollen mitochondria that lacked cristae. The thyroid and pancreas were infiltrated with lymphoblastoid cells by 1 week after hatch. An examination of the blood revealed a mild anemia, a frank lipemia, and high levels of uric acid. This syndrome induced by Rous-associated virus type 7 in chickens may be useful for elucidating the nature of several diseases, including that found in the fatty liver and kidney syndrome of chickens and that observed in a strain of obese chickens. Images PMID:6295959

  12. Differential antimicrobial susceptibility between human and chicken isolates of vancomycin-resistant and sensitive Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Han Yuan; Hill, Robert L R; Kirk, Monica; Casewell, Mark W; Beighton, David

    2002-01-01

    To compare the differential antimicrobial susceptibilities of Enterococcus faecium from humans and whole chicken carcasses, MICs of 12 antimicrobial agents were determined for 54 clinical-isolates (31 vancomycin-resistant [VREF]) and 60 chicken-isolates (29 VREF). Chicken VREF were slightly but consistently more resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin and avoparcin, compared with human VREF (P<0.01). MICs of LY333328 were chicken VREF (P<0.01). Streptogramins were active against all isolates except four chicken strains. MIC(90s) of amoxycillin and gentamicin for human E. faecium were 8-16-fold higher than chicken isolates. Chicken VREF were significantly more resistant to tetracycline but more susceptible to chloramphenicol than human VREF (P<0.001). PMID:11814766

  13. Long-Term and Transgenerational Effects of Stress Experienced during Different Life Phases in Chickens (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Bélteky, Johan; Sundman, Ann-Sofie; Shionoya, Kiseko; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Stress in animals causes not only immediate reactions, but may affect their biology for long periods, even across generations. Particular interest has been paid to perinatal stress, but also adolescence has been shown to be a sensitive period in mammals. So far, no systematic study has been performed of the relative importance of stress encountered during different life phases. In this study, groups of chickens were exposed to a six-day period of repeated stress during three different life phases: early (two weeks), early puberty (eight weeks) and late puberty (17 weeks), and the effects were compared to an unstressed control group. The short-term effects were assessed by behaviour, and the long-term and transgenerational effects were determined by effects on behavior and corticosterone secretion, as well as on hypothalamic gene expression. Short-term effects were strongest in the two week group and the eight week group, whereas long-term and transgenerational effects were detected in all three stress groups. However, stress at different ages affected different aspects of the biology of the chickens, and it was not possible to determine a particularly sensitive life phase. The results show that stress during puberty appears to be at least equally critical as the previously studied early life phase. These findings may have important implications for animal welfare in egg production, since laying hens are often exposed to stress during the three periods pinpointed here. PMID:27105229

  14. Acclimation to hypothermic incubation in developing chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus): I. Developmental effects and chronic and acute metabolic adjustments.

    PubMed

    Black, Juli L; Burggren, Warren W

    2004-04-01

    Chronic exposure to a low incubation temperature clearly slows the development of poikilothemic chicken embryos (or any other poikilotherms), but little is known about the more subtle developmental effects of temperature, especially on physiological regulatory systems. Consequently, two populations of chicken embryos were incubated at 38 degrees C and 35 degrees C. When compared at the same development stage, incubation temperature had no significant impact on embryonic survival or growth. Moreover, the relative timing of major developmental landmarks (e.g. internal pipping), expressed as a percentage of development, was unaffected by temperature. The ability to maintain the rate of oxygen consumption ((O(2))) during an acute drop in ambient temperature (T(a)) improved from Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) stages 39-40 to 43-44 in the 38 degrees C but not the 35 degrees C populations. Late stage (HH43-44) embryos incubated at 38 degrees C could maintain (O(2)) (approximately 27-33 micro l g(-1) min(-1)) during an acute drop in T(a) to approximately 30 degrees C. However, at the same stage 35 degrees C embryos acutely measured at 38 degrees C were unable to similarly maintain their (O(2)), which fell as soon as T(a) reached 36 degrees C. Thus, while hypothermic incubation does not affect gross development (other than would be predicted from a simple effect of Q(10)), there is a significant delay in the relative timing of the onset of thermoregulatory ability induced by hypothermic incubation. PMID:15037648

  15. Value-added products from chicken feather fiber and protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiuling

    Worldwide poultry consumption has generated a huge amount of feather "waste" annually. Currently, the feather has a low value-being used for animal feed in the world. The quality of fibrous air filters depend on their main component, fibers. The main physical structure of chicken feathers is barbs which can be used directly as fibers. They have small diameter, which makes them a good choice for air filtration. The main chemical structure of chicken feathers is structural fibrous protein, keratin. Therefore, chicken feathers could potentially be used for protein fiber production. To obtain chicken feather fibers, barbs were stripped from the quills by a stripping device and separated with a blender. Some feather fibers were entangled with polyester staple fibers, and needlepunched to form a nonwoven fabric. Some feather fibers were blended with CelBond(TM) bi-component polyester as binder fibers, and pressed between two hot plates to produce thermobonded nonwovens. Whole chicken feathers were ground into powder and their keratin was reduced in water. The reduced keratin was salt precipitated, dried and dissolved in ionic liquid with/without bleach cotton. The reduced chicken feather keratin ionic liquid solutions were spun into regenerated fibers through dry-jet wet spinning. The needlepunched and thermobonded nonwovens were tested for filtration and other properties. With an increase of areal density and feather fiber composition, the air permeability of the needlepunched nonwovens decreased, and their filtration efficiency and pressure drop both increased. The case can be made that feather fibers gave fabrics better filtration at the same fabric weight, but at the expense of air permeability and pressure drop. The scrim and needlepunching process improved the filtration efficiency. Their strength depended on scrim. The hot-press process was very simple. The thermobonded nonwovens had very high air permeability. In them, there was also an inverse relation between

  16. Reverse genetics based rgH5N2 vaccine provides protection against high dose challenge of H5N1 avian influenza virus in chicken.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, S; Khandia, R; Sood, R; Bhat, S; Siddiqui, A; Jahagirdhar, G; Mishra, S; Mishra, A; Pateriya, A K; Kulkarni, D D

    2016-08-01

    An inactivated vaccine was developed using the rgH5N2 virus (6 + 2 reassortant) generated by plasmid based reverse genetics system (RGS) with WSN/33/H1N1 as backbone virus. Following mutation of the basic amino acid cleavage site RRRKKR*GLF to IETR*GLF, the H5-HA (haemagglutinin) gene of the selected donor H5N1 virus (A/chicken/West Bengal/80995/2008) of antigenic clade 2.2 was used along with the N2-NA gene from H9N2 field isolate (A/chicken/Uttar Pradesh/2543/2004) for generation of the rgH5N2 virus. A single dose (0.5 ml/bird) of the inactivated rgH5N2 vaccine protected 100% of the vaccinated chickens (n = 10) on 28(th) dpv (early challenge) and 90% of the vaccinated chickens (n = 10) on 200(th) dpv (late challenge) against high dose challenge with HPAI virus (10(9) EID50/bird). Challenge virus shedding via oropharynx and cloaca of the vaccinated chickens was detectable by realtime RT-PCR during 1-5 dpc and 1-9 days dpc in the early and the late challenge, respectively. The protective level of antibodies (mean HI titre > 128) was maintained without booster vaccination for 200 days. The present study provides the experimental evidence about the extent of protection provided by a reverse genetics based vaccine for clade 2.2 H5N1 viruses against challenge with high dose of field virus at two different time points (28 dpv and 200 dpv). The challenge study is uniquely different from the previous similar experiments on account of 1000 times higher dose of challenge and protection at 200 dpv. The protection and virus shedding data of the study may be useful for countries planning to use H5 vaccine in poultry especially against the clade 2.2 H5N1 viruses. PMID:27296706

  17. Late running is not too late against Alzheimer's pathology.

    PubMed

    Herring, Arne; Münster, Yvonne; Metzdorf, Judith; Bolczek, Bastien; Krüssel, Sarah; Krieter, David; Yavuz, Ilkay; Karim, Fro; Roggendorf, Constanze; Stang, Anthony; Wang, Yachao; Hermann, Dirk M; Teuber-Hanselmann, Sarah; Keyvani, Kathy

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade a vast number of animal studies have produced overwhelming evidence that exercise not only compensates for memory loss by increasing brain plasticity and cognitive reserve but also directly counteracts Alzheimer-like pathology when provided before disease onset or in early disease stages. But so far, there is little knowledge about therapeutic effects of training when started in advanced disease stages. In the present study we show that following seven months of sedentary life style five months of wheel running, started four months after disease onset was still able to mitigate at least some aspects of the full-blown Alzheimer's pathology in TgCRND8 mice. Late running had mild but significant effects on structural plasticity by increasing the dendritic complexity. It further reduced beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaque burden and enhanced Aβ clearance across the blood-brain barrier, along with attenuating microgliosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and autophagy deficits, resulting in better memory performance and less agitation. However, unlike early exercise, late running did not affect abnormal amyloid precursor protein metabolism, tau pathology, or angiogenesis. These results allow concluding that it is never too late to counteract Alzheimer's disease with physical training but the earlier the intervention starts, the more pronounced is the therapeutic potential. PMID:27312772

  18. Characterizing Genetic Diversity of Contemporary Pacific Chickens Using Mitochondrial DNA Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Vilar, Miguel G.; Steffy, Rlene; Lum, J. Koji

    2011-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region (HVR) sequences of prehistoric Polynesian chicken samples reflect dispersal of two haplogroups—D and E—by the settlers of the Pacific. The distribution of these chicken haplogroups has been used as an indicator of human movement. Recent analyses suggested similarities between prehistoric Pacific and South American chicken samples, perhaps reflecting prehistoric Polynesian introduction of the chicken into South America. These analyses have been heavily debated. The current distribution of the D and E lineages among contemporary chicken populations in the Western Pacific is unclear, but might ultimately help to inform debates about the movements of humans that carried them. Objectives We sought to characterize contemporary mtDNA diversity among chickens in two of the earliest settled archipelagoes of Remote Oceania, the Marianas and Vanuatu. Methods We generated HVR sequences for 43 chickens from four islands in Vanuatu, and for 5 chickens from Guam in the Marianas. Results Forty samples from Vanuatu and three from Guam were assigned to haplogroup D, supporting this as a Pacific chicken haplogroup that persists in the Western Pacific. Two haplogroup E lineages were observed in Guam and two in Vanuatu. Of the E lineages in Vanuatu, one was identical to prehistoric Vanuatu and Polynesian samples and the other differed by one polymorphism. Contrary to our expectations, we observed few globally distributed domesticate lineages not associated with Pacific chicken dispersal. This might suggest less European introgression of chickens into Vanuatu than expected. If so, the E lineages might represent lineages maintained from ancient Pacific chicken introductions. The Vanuatu sample might thus provide an opportunity to distinguish between maintained ancestral Pacific chicken lineages and replacement by global domesticates through genomic analyses, which could resolve questions of contemporary haplogroup E chicken

  19. Chicken TREM-B1, an Inhibitory Ig-Like Receptor Expressed on Chicken Thrombocytes.

    PubMed

    Turowski, Vanessa; Sperling, Beatrice; Hanczaruk, Matthias A; Göbel, Thomas W; Viertlboeck, Birgit C

    2016-01-01

    Triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) form a multigene family of immunoregulatory Ig-like receptors and play important roles in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. In chickens, three members of the TREM family have been identified on chromosome 26. One of them is TREM-B1 which possesses two V-set Ig-domains, an uncharged transmembrane region and a long cytoplasmic tail with one ITSM and two ITIMs indicating an inhibitory function. We generated specific monoclonal antibodies by immunizing a Balb/c mouse with a TREM-B1-FLAG transfected BWZ.36 cell line and tested the hybridoma supernatants on TREM-B1-FLAG transfected 2D8 cells. We obtained two different antibodies specific for TREM-B1, mab 7E8 (mouse IgG1) and mab 1E9 (mouse IgG2a) which were used for cell surface staining. Single and double staining of different tissues, including whole blood preparations, revealed expression on thrombocytes. Next we investigated the biochemical properties of TREM-B1 by using the specific mab 1E9 for immunoprecipitation of either lysates of surface biotinylated peripheral blood cells or stably transfected 2D8 cells. Staining with streptavidin coupled horse radish peroxidase revealed a glycosylated monomeric protein of about 50 kDa. Furthermore we used the stably transfected 2D8 cell line for analyzing the cytoplasmic tyrosine based signaling motifs. After pervanadate treatment, we detected phosphorylation of the tyrosine residues and subsequent recruitment of the tyrosine specific protein phosphatase SHP-2, indicating an inhibitory potential for TREM-B1. We also showed the inhibitory effect of TREM-B1 in chicken thrombocytes using a CD107 degranulation assay. Crosslinking of TREM-B1 on activated primary thrombocytes resulted in decreased CD107 surface expression of about 50-70%. PMID:26967520

  20. Chicken TREM-B1, an Inhibitory Ig-Like Receptor Expressed on Chicken Thrombocytes

    PubMed Central

    Turowski, Vanessa; Sperling, Beatrice; Hanczaruk, Matthias A.; Göbel, Thomas W.; Viertlboeck, Birgit C.

    2016-01-01

    Triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) form a multigene family of immunoregulatory Ig-like receptors and play important roles in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. In chickens, three members of the TREM family have been identified on chromosome 26. One of them is TREM-B1 which possesses two V-set Ig-domains, an uncharged transmembrane region and a long cytoplasmic tail with one ITSM and two ITIMs indicating an inhibitory function. We generated specific monoclonal antibodies by immunizing a Balb/c mouse with a TREM-B1-FLAG transfected BWZ.36 cell line and tested the hybridoma supernatants on TREM-B1-FLAG transfected 2D8 cells. We obtained two different antibodies specific for TREM-B1, mab 7E8 (mouse IgG1) and mab 1E9 (mouse IgG2a) which were used for cell surface staining. Single and double staining of different tissues, including whole blood preparations, revealed expression on thrombocytes. Next we investigated the biochemical properties of TREM-B1 by using the specific mab 1E9 for immunoprecipitation of either lysates of surface biotinylated peripheral blood cells or stably transfected 2D8 cells. Staining with streptavidin coupled horse radish peroxidase revealed a glycosylated monomeric protein of about 50 kDa. Furthermore we used the stably transfected 2D8 cell line for analyzing the cytoplasmic tyrosine based signaling motifs. After pervanadate treatment, we detected phosphorylation of the tyrosine residues and subsequent recruitment of the tyrosine specific protein phosphatase SHP-2, indicating an inhibitory potential for TREM-B1. We also showed the inhibitory effect of TREM-B1 in chicken thrombocytes using a CD107 degranulation assay. Crosslinking of TREM-B1 on activated primary thrombocytes resulted in decreased CD107 surface expression of about 50–70%. PMID:26967520

  1. Quantitative Evaluation of DNA Methylation Patterns for ALVE and TVB Genes in a Neoplastic Disease Susceptible and Resistant Chicken Model

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ying; Zhang, Huanmin; Tian, Fei; Bacon, Larry; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Wensheng; Song, Jiuzhou

    2008-01-01

    Chicken endogenous viruses, ALVE (Avian Leukosis Virus subgroup E), are inherited as LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons, which are negatively correlated with disease resistance, and any changes in DNA methylation may contribute to the susceptibility to neoplastic disease. The relationship between ALVE methylation status and neoplastic disease in the chicken is undefined. White Leghorn inbred lines 72 and 63 at the ADOL have been respectively selected for resistance and susceptibility to tumors that are induced by avian viruses. In this study, the DNA methylation patterns of 3∼6 CpG sites of four conserved regions in ALVE, including one unique region in ALVE1, the promoter region in the TVB (tumor virus receptor of ALV subgroup B, D and E) locus, were analyzed in the two lines using pyrosequencing methods in four tissues, i.e., liver, spleen, blood and hypothalamus. A significant CpG hypermethylation level was seen in line 72 in all four tissues, e.g., 91.86±1.63% for ALVE region2 in blood, whereas the same region was hemimethylated (46.16±2.56%) in line 63. CpG methylation contents of the ALVE regions were significantly lower in line 63 than in line 72 in all tissues (P<0.01) except the ALVE region 3/4 in liver. RNA expressions of ALVE regions 2 and 3 (PPT-U3) were significantly higher in line 63 than in line 72 (P<0.01). The methylation levels of six recombinant congenic strains (RCSs) closely resembled to the background line 63 in ALVE-region 2, which imply the methylation pattern of ALVE-region 2 may be a biomarker in resistant disease breeding. The methylation level of the promoter region in the TVB was significantly different in blood (P<0.05) and hypothalamus (P<0.0001), respectively. Our data disclosed a hypermethylation pattern of ALVE that may be relevant for resistance against ALV induced tumors in chickens. PMID:18320050

  2. A Late Devonian fertile organ with seed plant affinities from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deming; Liu, Le; Guo, Yun; Xue, Jinzhuang; Meng, Meicen

    2015-01-01

    Seed plants underwent first major evolutionary radiation in the Late Devonian (Famennian), as evidenced by the numerous ovules described to date. However, the early pollen organs are underrepresented, so that their structure and evolution remain poorly known. Here we report a new taxon of pollen organ Placotheca minuta from the Late Devonian. The synangium consists of many basally and more or less laterally fused microsporangia borne on the margin of a pad. The prepollen is spherical and trilete. The appearance of Famennian synangia especially in Placotheca does not support the current understanding that the earliest pollen organs closely resembled the fructifications of the ancestral progymnosperms. Placotheca indicates earlier diversification of pollen organs than previously expected and is highly derived among the early pollen organs with trilete prepollen. It is suggested that, immediately after the origination of seed plants, pollen organs had evolved at a rapid rate, whereas their prepollen remained primitively spore-like. PMID:26022973

  3. A Late Devonian Fertile Organ with Seed Plant Affinities from China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Deming; Liu, Le; Guo, Yun; Xue, Jinzhuang; Meng, Meicen

    2015-01-01

    Seed plants underwent first major evolutionary radiation in the Late Devonian (Famennian), as evidenced by the numerous ovules described to date. However, the early pollen organs are underrepresented, so that their structure and evolution remain poorly known. Here we report a new taxon of pollen organ Placotheca minuta from the Late Devonian. The synangium consists of many basally and more or less laterally fused microsporangia borne on the margin of a pad. The prepollen is spherical and trilete. The appearance of Famennian synangia especially in Placotheca does not support the current understanding that the earliest pollen organs closely resembled the fructifications of the ancestral progymnosperms. Placotheca indicates earlier diversification of pollen organs than previously expected and is highly derived among the early pollen organs with trilete prepollen. It is suggested that, immediately after the origination of seed plants, pollen organs had evolved at a rapid rate, whereas their prepollen remained primitively spore-like. PMID:26022973

  4. Central nervous system signs in chickens caused by a new avian reovirus strain: a pathogenesis study.

    PubMed

    Van de Zande, Saskia; Kuhn, Eva-Maria

    2007-02-25

    The present study describes the pathogenesis of infection of chicks with a new avian reovirus strain, belonging to the so-called enteric reovirus strains (ERS) that is capable of causing central nervous system signs in SPF white leghorns. After intramuscular (IM) or oral inoculation birds were either observed for clinical signs or sacrificed for macroscopic, histological and virological examination for 21 days. Virus isolation was performed on the brain, leg muscle, hock joint, liver and spleen. For the detection of viral antigen the immunohistochemistry (IHC) technique was performed on the caudal part of the cerebrum, spinal cord including spinal ganglia and right N. Ischiadicus. High mortality (79% in 7 days) was seen in birds that were inoculated IM. Survivors were depressed and stayed small until the end of the experiment. One bird had tremor and showed torticollis at 9 days after IM inoculation. Birds that were inoculated orally were depressed from day 4 and stayed small until the end of the experiment. One bird showed a torticollis at 10 days after inoculation. After both IM and oral inoculation ERS was isolated from the brain between 3 and 10 days after inoculation. Other examined organs were positive for virus isolation from day 1 or 5 until day 21. IHC revealed viral antigen positive cells in the Plexus chorioideus (plexus epithelial cells or cells within the underlying connective tissue) and in a spinal ganglion. The results indicate that the pathogenesis of ERS infection in chickens bears some resemblance with that of the mammalian reoviruses serotype 1 in mice. PMID:17158000

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SPONTANEOUSLY TRANSFORMED CHICKEN MONONUCLEAR CELL LINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the characterization of a spontaneously transformed chicken monocytic cell line that developed as a single colony of cells in a heterophil culture that was inadvertently left in the incubator over a period of 25 days. These cells, hitherto named HTC, grow efficiently at both 37 C or 41 C...

  6. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PATTERNS OF SALMONELLA FROM RETAIL CHICKEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is frequently reported as a cause of food-borne illness. The emergence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella associated with meat products has heightened concerns regarding antimicrobial use in food animal production. Eighty Salmonella isolates recovered from fresh whole chicken carcass...

  7. Optimum conditions for the chicken lymphocyte transformation test.

    PubMed

    Barta, O; Barta, V; Pierson, F W

    1992-01-01

    Optimum conditions for chicken (Gallus gallus) lymphocyte transformation tests were determined. Thrice-washed chicken buffy-coat cells obtained after slow centrifugation (40 x g for 10 minutes) responded substantially better to mitogenic stimulation than lymphocytes isolated on separation media containing Ficoll. Maximum responses were obtained with 2 x 10(7) lymphoid cells/ml. Responses to the mitogens were greatest when fetal bovine serum was used at a 5% concentration or pooled chicken serum and autologous plasma were used at a 1.25% concentration. Optimum mitogen concentrations varied with individual birds, timing of the culture, temperature of incubation, and serum concentration in the cultures. When 1.25% chicken serum was used in the cultures, responses were usually greatest with final concentrations of 30-50 micrograms/ml of concanavalin A (Con A) and 30-50 micrograms/ml of phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P). The optimum concentration of pokeweed mitogen (PWM) varied from 1 to 40 micrograms/ml among the birds and was practically impossible to establish in general. The incubation in humidified air with 5% CO2 was significantly better at 40 C than at 37 C. The total culture time of 40 hours including pulsing with 3H-thymidine during the final 16 hours of incubation was the best for Con A- and PHA-P-stimulated cells, whereas a longer incubation of 64 hours gave the highest results with PWM stimulations. PMID:1485878

  8. Cryopreservation of specialized chicken lines using cultured primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Whyte, J; Taylor, L; Sherman, A; Nair, V; Kaiser, P; McGrew, M J

    2016-08-01

    Biosecurity and sustainability in poultry production requires reliable germplasm conservation. Germplasm conservation in poultry is more challenging in comparison to other livestock species. Embryo cryopreservation is not feasible for egg-laying animals, and chicken semen conservation has variable success for different chicken breeds. A potential solution is the cryopreservation of the committed diploid stem cell precursors to the gametes, the primordial germ cells ( PGCS: ). Primordial germ cells are the lineage-restricted cells found at early embryonic stages in birds and form the sperm and eggs. We demonstrate here, using flocks of partially inbred, lower-fertility, major histocompatibility complex- ( MHC-: ) restricted lines of chicken, that we can easily derive and cryopreserve a sufficient number of independent lines of male and female PGCs that would be sufficient to reconstitute a poultry breed. We demonstrate that germ-line transmission can be attained from these PGCs using a commercial layer line of chickens as a surrogate host. This research is a major step in developing and demonstrating that cryopreserved PGCs could be used for the biobanking of specialized flocks of birds used in research settings. The prospective application of this technology to poultry production will further increase sustainability to meet current and future production needs. PMID:27099306

  9. Effect of dietary antimicrobials on immune status in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary antimicrobials (anticoccidials plus antibiotic growth promoters) on the development of post-hatch immune systems in commercial broiler chickens. One hundred and five day-old broiler chicks were raised on the used litter and provi...

  10. Determination of six illegal antibiotics in chicken jerky dog treats.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Robert; Mirabile, Jennifer; Hafler, Kristen

    2014-04-30

    In 2007 chicken jerky dog treats were implicated in causing illnesses and death in dogs in several countries. Affected dogs were diagnosed with acquired Fanconi syndrome, which is characterized by kidney malfunction. Known causes of this condition include a chemical assault by various contaminants including certain drugs. For this reason investigations into possible causes of the illnesses included antibiotics that may be used in animal husbandry. Targeted analyte screens of individual imported chicken jerky dog treats using LC-MS/MS detected six illegal antibiotics in imported products of several brands. Trimethoprim, tilmicosin, enrofloxacin, sulfaclozine, and sulfamethoxazole are not allowed in chicken at any level and were found as high as 2800 ng/g (ppb). Sulfaquinoxaline was found in chicken jerky treats as high as 800 ng/g, which is well above the U.S. FDA tolerance of 100 ng/g. Although there is no evidence these contaminants were responsible for the dog illnesses, their misuse could contribute to antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. PMID:24437928

  11. Public Opinion Polls, Chicken Soup and Sample Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Phung

    2005-01-01

    Cooking and tasting chicken soup in three different pots of very different size serves to demonstrate that it is the absolute sample size that matters the most in determining the accuracy of the findings of the poll, not the relative sample size, i.e. the size of the sample in relation to its population.

  12. Preparation and storage stability of retort processed Chettinad chicken.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S; Kulkarni, V V; Chandirasekaran, V

    2014-01-01

    Chettinad chicken was prepared using boneless meat derived from spent hen and boiler breeder packed in retort pouches (250 g) and processed in retort at the product temperature of 121.1 °C and the corresponding F0 value of 5.2. The product was stored at ambient temperature (35 ± 2 °C) up to 180 days. The sensory scores for texture of the Chettinad chicken prepared from spent hen and broiler breeder meat decreased significantly however the scores were rated very acceptable even on 180th day. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA), tyrosine values and acid value increased gradually during storage but E. coli, Salmonella spp, Clostridium spp, Staphylococci spp, Streptococci spp, yeast and mould could not be detected during the entire storage period. The cost of production of Chettinad chicken (250 g) prepared from spent hen meat and broiler breeder meat was Rs.37 and Rs.50, respectively. It was concluded that the retort processed Chettinad chicken prepared from spent hen and broiler breeder meat can be safely stored up to 180 days at ambient temperature. PMID:24426066

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF CHICKEN EMBRYOS IN A PULSED MAGNETIC FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six independent experiments of common design were performed in laboratories in Canada, Spain, Sweden, and the United States of America. ertilized eggs of domestic chickens were incubated as controls or in a pulsed magnetic field (PMF); embryos were then examined for developmental...

  14. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING EIMERIA-INFECTED CHICKENS USING CDNA MICROARRAY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian coccidiosis is caused by several Eimeria strains which infect different regions of the intestine inducing a strain-specific immunity. To investigate host immune response against two major Eimeria spp., we infected SC White-Leghorn chickens with E. acervulina and E. maxima and compared their gl...

  15. Ultrasonic processing for recovery of chicken erythrocyte hemoglobin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hemoglobin from chicken blood has been shown to be a good substitute for synthetic polymeric flocculants. One stage of processing the blood entails breaking open the cells and releasing the cytoplasmic contents; in the present study, we investigate the use of ultrasonic processing at this stage. Was...

  16. 3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of center), equipment shed (center), and workshop (far right). View to northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  17. 4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far left background), one-room log cabin (left of center background), log root cellar (center), post-and-beam center in foreground, and blacksmith shop (far right foreground). View to southeast. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  18. Functional genomics of the chicken - a model organism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chicken has reached model organism status after genome sequencing and development of high-throughput tools for the exploration of functional elements of the genome. Functional genomics focuses on understanding the function and regulation of genes and gene products on a global or genome-wide scal...

  19. Avian Metapneumovirus Subgroup C Infection in Chickens, China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences. PMID:23763901

  20. Host specificity and phylogenetic relationships of chicken and turkey parvoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous reports indicate that the newly discovered chicken parvoviruses (ChPV) and turkey parvoviruses (TuPV) are very similar to each other, yet they represent different species within a new genus of Parvoviridae. Currently, strain classification is based on the phylogenetic analysis of a 561 bas...