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Sample records for chikungunya surveillance designing

  1. Pan-European Chikungunya surveillance: designing risk stratified surveillance zones.

    PubMed

    Tilston, Natasha; Skelly, Chris; Weinstein, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The first documented transmission of Chikungunya within Europe took place in Italy during the summer of 2007. Chikungunya, a viral infection affecting millions of people across Africa and Asia, can be debilitating and no prophylactic treatment exists. Although imported cases are reported frequently across Europe, 2007 was the first confirmed European outbreak and available evidence suggests that Aedes albopictus was the vector responsible and the index case was a visitor from India. This paper proposed pan-European surveillance zones for Chikungunya, based on the climatic conditions necessary for vector activity and viral transmission. Pan-European surveillance provides the best hope for an early-warning of outbreaks, because national boundaries do not play a role in defining the risk of this new vector borne disease threat. A review of climates, where Chikungunya has been active, was used to inform the delineation of three pan-European surveillance zones. These vary in size each month across the June-September period of greatest risk. The zones stretch across southern Europe from Portugal to Turkey. Although the focus of this study was to define the geography of potential surveillance zones based on the climatic limits on the vector and virus, a preliminary examination of inward bound airline passengers was also undertaken. This indicated that France and Italy are likely to be at greater risk due to the number of visitors they receive from Chikungunya active regions, principally viraemic visitors from India. Therefore this study represents a first attempt at creating risk stratified surveillance zones, which we believe could be usefully refined with the use of higher resolution climate data and more complete air travel data. PMID:19878588

  2. Chikungunya

    MedlinePlus

    ... same kinds of mosquitoes that spread dengue and Zika virus. Rarely, it can spread from mother to newborn ... blood test can show whether you have chikungunya virus. There are no vaccines or medicines to treat it. Drinking lots of ...

  3. Chikungunya

    MedlinePlus

    ... 7 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito. The most common symptoms are fever and joint ... way to prevent chikungunya infection is to avoid mosquito bites: Use insect repellent Wear clothes that cover ...

  4. Chikungunya.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Sandhya; Das, A K; Parikh, Falguni S

    2006-09-01

    Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans by the bite of infected Aedes aegypti mosquito. Like malaria and dengue, this infection has almost become endemic in India, especially central and south India. Symptoms of sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, nausea, vomiting, joint pain with or without swelling, low back pain, and rash are very similar to those of dengue but, unlike dengue, there is no hemorrhagic or shock syndrome form. Chikungunya is a self-limiting illness with no specific treatment. Travellers visiting endemic areas should be careful and take precautions to see that they are not bitten by mosquitoes. PMID:17212022

  5. Arbovirus Surveillance and First Report of Chikungunya Virus in Wild Populations of Aedes aegypti from Guerrero, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Martínez, Norma E; Cruz-Nolasco, Maximina; Gutiérrez-Castro, Cipriano; López-Damián, Leonardo; Ibarra-López, Jesús; Martini, Andres; Torres-Leyva, Joel; Bibiano-Marín, Wilbert; Tornez-Benitez, Citlalli; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2015-09-01

    We carried out dengue (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) surveillance in wild populations of Aedes aegypti from Guerrero, Mexico, from 2012 to 2014 following a standard national protocol of the Mexican Dengue Control Program. A total of 284 pools (15-30 specimens/pool) of female mosquitoes were tested with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to detect DENV and CHIKV. We report for the 1st time the detection of CHIKV from field-collected mosquitoes at Acapulco and Juchitán in 2014. Results from DENV are also reported. PMID:26375910

  6. Assessing Carbon Dioxide and Synthetic Lure-Baited Traps for Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Surveillance (3).

    PubMed

    Harwood, James F; Arimoto, Hanayo; Nunn, Peter; Richardson, Alec G; Obenauer, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    The Aedes mosquito vectors of dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are attracted to specific host cues that are not generated by traditional light traps. For this reason multiple companies have designed traps to specifically target those species. Recently the standard trap for DENV and CHIKV vectors, the BG-Sentinel (BGS) trap, has been remodeled to be more durable and better suited for use in harsh field conditions, common during military operations, and relabeled the BG-Sentinel 2 (BGS2). This new trap was evaluated against the standard Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap, Zumba Trap, and BG-Mosquitito Trap to determine relative effectiveness in collecting adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Evaluations were conducted under semifield and field conditions in suburban areas in northeastern Florida from May to August 2014. The BGS2 trap collected more DENV and CHIKV vectors than the standard CDC light trap, Zumba Trap, and BG-Mosquitito Trap, but attracted fewer species, while the BG-Mosquitito Trap attracted the greatest number of mosquito species. PMID:26375905

  7. Chikungunya Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... traveling to countries with chikungunya virus, use insect repellent, wear long sleeves and pants, and stay in ... Chikungunya Prevention is key! Prevent Infection. Use mosquito repellent. Chikungunya Virus Distribution Chikungunya in the U.S. What's ...

  8. Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Control Pocket Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This technical guide consolidates information and procedures for surveillance and control of mosquitoes that transmit dengue and chikungunya viruses. The guide focuses on mosquitoes that transmit dengue but also makes reference to chikungunya and yellow fever because the pathogens that cause these ...

  9. Congenital chikungunya.

    PubMed

    Gopakumar, Hariharan; Ramachandran, Sivji

    2012-07-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection manifesting in neonates is very rare. The prevalence of the entity was described only recently. We describe a neonate with chikungunya who presented with severe thrombocytopenia and features of multisytem involvement. Identification of this entity based on clinical and epidemiological background helps in appropriate management and aids in prognostication of the affected neonate. PMID:24027715

  10. Chikungunya virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... joint pain. The name chikungunya (pronounced "chik-en-gun-ye") is an African word meaning "bent over in pain." For the most up-to-date information, please visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) website -- www.cdc.gov/chikungunya/ .

  11. Digital Dashboard Design Using Multiple Data Streams for Disease Surveillance With Influenza Surveillance as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Calvin KY; Ip, Dennis KM; Cowling, Benjamin J; Ho, Lai Ming; Leung, Gabriel M

    2011-01-01

    Background Great strides have been made exploring and exploiting new and different sources of disease surveillance data and developing robust statistical methods for analyzing the collected data. However, there has been less research in the area of dissemination. Proper dissemination of surveillance data can facilitate the end user's taking of appropriate actions, thus maximizing the utility of effort taken from upstream of the surveillance-to-action loop. Objective The aims of the study were to develop a generic framework for a digital dashboard incorporating features of efficient dashboard design and to demonstrate this framework by specific application to influenza surveillance in Hong Kong. Methods Based on the merits of the national websites and principles of efficient dashboard design, we designed an automated influenza surveillance digital dashboard as a demonstration of efficient dissemination of surveillance data. We developed the system to synthesize and display multiple sources of influenza surveillance data streams in the dashboard. Different algorithms can be implemented in the dashboard for incorporating all surveillance data streams to describe the overall influenza activity. Results We designed and implemented an influenza surveillance dashboard that utilized self-explanatory figures to display multiple surveillance data streams in panels. Indicators for individual data streams as well as for overall influenza activity were summarized in the main page, which can be read at a glance. Data retrieval function was also incorporated to allow data sharing in standard format. Conclusions The influenza surveillance dashboard serves as a template to illustrate the efficient synthesization and dissemination of multiple-source surveillance data, which may also be applied to other diseases. Surveillance data from multiple sources can be disseminated efficiently using a dashboard design that facilitates the translation of surveillance information to public

  12. Mapping recent chikungunya activity in the Americas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better understand chikungunya activity in the America we mapped recent chikungunya activity in the Americas. This activity is needed to better understand that the relationships between climatic factors and disease outbreak patters are critical to the design and constructing of predictive models....

  13. Chikungunya: epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Lyle R; Powers, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes fever and debilitating joint pains in humans. Joint pains may last months or years. It is vectored primarily by the tropical and sub-tropical mosquito, Aedes aegypti, but is also found to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus, a mosquito species that can also be found in more temperate climates. In recent years, the virus has risen from relative obscurity to become a global public health menace affecting millions of persons throughout the tropical and sub-tropical world and, as such, has also become a frequent cause of travel-associated febrile illness. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the biological and sociological underpinnings of its emergence and its future global outlook. PMID:26918158

  14. Chikungunya: epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Lyle R.; Powers, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes fever and debilitating joint pains in humans. Joint pains may last months or years. It is vectored primarily by the tropical and sub-tropical mosquito, Aedes aegypti, but is also found to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus, a mosquito species that can also be found in more temperate climates. In recent years, the virus has risen from relative obscurity to become a global public health menace affecting millions of persons throughout the tropical and sub-tropical world and, as such, has also become a frequent cause of travel-associated febrile illness. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the biological and sociological underpinnings of its emergence and its future global outlook. PMID:26918158

  15. Web surveillance system using platform-based design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shin-Yo; Tsai, Tsung-Han

    2004-04-01

    A revolutionary methodology of SOPC platform-based design environment for multimedia communications will be developed. We embed a softcore processor to perform the image compression in FPGA. Then, we plug-in an Ethernet daughter board in the SOPC development platform system. Afterward, a web surveillance platform system is presented. The web surveillance system consists of three parts: image capture, web server and JPEG compression. In this architecture, user can control the surveillance system by remote. By the IP address configures to Ethernet daughter board, the user can access the surveillance system via browser. When user access the surveillance system, the CMOS sensor presently capture the remote image. After that, it will feed the captured image with the embedded processor. The embedded processor immediately performs the JPEG compression. Afterward, the user receives the compressed data via Ethernet. To sum up of the above mentioned, the all system will be implemented on APEX20K200E484-2X device.

  16. Evaluating the effectiveness of localized control strategies to curtail chikungunya

    PubMed Central

    Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial L.; Durham, David P.; Skrip, Laura A.; Nsoesie, Elaine O.; Brownstein, John S.; Fish, Durland; Galvani, Alison P.

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya, a re-emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, causes debilitating disease characterized by an acute febrile phase and chronic joint pain. Chikungunya has recently spread to the island of St. Martin and subsequently throughout the Americas. The disease is now affecting 42 countries and territories throughout the Americas. While chikungunya is mainly a tropical disease, the recent introduction and subsequent spread of Ae. albopictus into temperate regions has increased the threat of chikungunya outbreaks beyond the tropics. Given that there are currently no vaccines or treatments for chikungunya, vector control remains the primary measure to curtail transmission. To investigate the effectiveness of a containment strategy that combines disease surveillance, localized vector control and transmission reduction measures, we developed a model of chikungunya transmission dynamics within a large residential neighborhood, explicitly accounting for human and mosquito movement. Our findings indicate that prompt targeted vector control efforts combined with measures to reduce transmission from symptomatic cases to mosquitoes may be highly effective approaches for controlling outbreaks of chikungunya, provided that sufficient detection of chikungunya cases can be achieved. PMID:27045523

  17. Chikungunya in the Caribbean: An Epidemic in the Making.

    PubMed

    Mowatt, Lizette; Jackson, Sandra T

    2014-12-01

    Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne virus that has shown increased prevalence in the Caribbean since October 2013. There have been several outbreaks throughout Asian and African countries over the past few decades with global travel and tourism having a major impact on the further spread of this disease. Improved policies and practices for preventative measures and epidemiological surveillance must be implemented to prevent the continued transmission of chikungunya. PMID:25245516

  18. Conceptual Design of a European Space Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donath, T.; Michal, T.; Vanwijck, X.; Dugrosprez, B.; Flohrer, T.; Schildknecht, T.

    Space Surveillance denotes the task of systematically surveying and tracking all objects above a certain size and maintaining a catalogue with updated orbital and physical characteristics for these objects Space Surveillance is gaining increased importance as the operational safety of spacecraft is depending on it Presently Europe has no operational capability for Space Surveillance and is strongly dependant on external information from the USA and Russia Two design studies for a European Space Surveillance System ESSS were conducted for ESA since 2002 These studies have proposed a system covering the LEO MEO and GEO orbit regions This system associates dedicated sensors with the required survey strategies allowing for the autonomous maintenance of an orbital parameters catalogue including cold start capability Concerning the LEO surveillance system the main findings are the following begin itemize item For the surveillance of objects larger than 10 cm a survey strategy using a UHF bistatic radar with a large field of view 20 r in elevation and 180 r in azimuth and a long range 1500 km for a 10 cm sphere is proposed This proposition is based on the French experience with the GRAVES system development An interesting European location for this radar would be Spain item The optimal frequency for the detection of such objects is around 600 MHz UHF This option is very risky from the point of view of frequency allocation since it is reserved for TV broadcasting The 435 MHz frequency UHF also appears to be a good alternative in

  19. Chikungunya viral disease in district Bhilwara (Rajasthan) India.

    PubMed

    Jain, S K; Kumar, Kaushal; Bhattacharya, D; Venkatesh, S; Jain, D C; Lal, Shiv

    2007-03-01

    An investigation of chikungunya outbreak cases was carried out in Bhilwara District, Rajasthan during Aug-Sep 2006. Fever with multiple joint pains was the first presenting feature. Aedes larval surveys indicate high Breteau index (78.6 to 200), House index (48.0 to 83.3) & Container index (41.1 to 73.6) above the critical index. Out of 40 sera samples tested, 12 showed HI antibodies for chikungunya virus in high titres and another five were positive for IgM antibodies against chikungunya. The clinico-epidemiological, laboratory and entomological investigations confirm that this episode of fever was due to chikungunya fever. Strengthening and intensification of surveillance along with educating the community were recommended for control of outbreak. PMID:18338713

  20. Extending cluster lot quality assurance sampling designs for surveillance programs.

    PubMed

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-07-20

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance on the basis of the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than simple random sampling. By applying survey sampling results to the binary classification procedure, we develop a simple and flexible nonparametric procedure to incorporate clustering effects into the LQAS sample design to appropriately inflate the sample size, accommodating finite numbers of clusters in the population when relevant. We use this framework to then discuss principled selection of survey design parameters in longitudinal surveillance programs. We apply this framework to design surveys to detect rises in malnutrition prevalence in nutrition surveillance programs in Kenya and South Sudan, accounting for clustering within villages. By combining historical information with data from previous surveys, we design surveys to detect spikes in the childhood malnutrition rate. PMID:24633656

  1. Extending cluster Lot Quality Assurance Sampling designs for surveillance programs

    PubMed Central

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance based on the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than simple random sampling. By applying survey sampling results to the binary classification procedure, we develop a simple and flexible non-parametric procedure to incorporate clustering effects into the LQAS sample design to appropriately inflate the sample size, accommodating finite numbers of clusters in the population when relevant. We use this framework to then discuss principled selection of survey design parameters in longitudinal surveillance programs. We apply this framework to design surveys to detect rises in malnutrition prevalence in nutrition surveillance programs in Kenya and South Sudan, accounting for clustering within villages. By combining historical information with data from previous surveys, we design surveys to detect spikes in the childhood malnutrition rate. PMID:24633656

  2. Seroepidemiological Survey of Chikungunya in and Around the Regions of Bijapur (Vijayapura - North Karnataka)

    PubMed Central

    Peerapur, Basavaraj V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chikungunya is a debilitating, non-fatal, mosquito borne viral fever caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIVA). The disease is transmitted to humans by the bite of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Severe outbreaks of Chikungunya have been reported in several countries of Africa and Asia. Chikungunya fever is characterized by fever with sudden onset, arthralgia, rash, headache and myalgia. However, arthralgia is painful and long-lasting, affecting primarily the peripheral joints. Objectives To find out the prevalence of Chikungunya fever in and around the regions of Bijapur district. Materials and Methods The study was conducted from April 2011 to December 2014. Five hundred serum samples were collected from cases with pyrexia and arthralgia. Serum samples were tested for Chikungunya antibodies by Chikungunya IgM ELISA. Results and Conclusion Out of 500 samples 33 samples were confirmed positive for Chikungunya IgM antibodies. The prevalence rate of Chikungunya was 6.6% with maximum number of cases in the year 2013 (8.5%) and age group 15 to 40 (8.3%). Females (6.9%) were more affected than males. Thus, continuous sero-epidomological surveillance is needed for the control of Chikungunya fever. PMID:26155474

  3. Chikungunya on the move.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    In December 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission was reported for the first time in the Americas. Since then it has spread quickly, with more than 1 million suspected and confirmed cases being reported in one year, where previously there were only sporadic travel-related cases. Transmission patterns suggest that the epidemic in the southern hemisphere is only beginning and that chikungunya will not go away anytime soon. PMID:25649340

  4. Chikungunya on the move

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    In December 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission was reported for the first time in the Americas. Since then it has spread quickly, with more than 1 million suspected and confirmed cases being reported in one year, where previously there were only sporadic travel-related cases. Transmission patterns suggest that the epidemic in the southern hemisphere is only beginning and that chikungunya will not go away anytime soon. PMID:25649340

  5. Preparedness for Threat of Chikungunya in the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, Damian; Horwood, Paul F.; Ropa, Berry; Hancock, Thane; Guillaumot, Laurent; Rickart, Keith; Frison, Pascal; Pavlin, Boris; Souares, Yvan

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) caused significant outbreaks of illness during 2005–2007 in the Indian Ocean region. Chikungunya outbreaks have also occurred in the Pacific region, including in Papua New Guinea in 2012; New Caledonia in April 2013; and Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia, in August 2013. CHIKV is a threat in the Pacific, and the risk for further spread is high, given several similarities between the Pacific and Indian Ocean chikungunya outbreaks. Island health care systems have difficulties coping with high caseloads, which highlights the need for early multidisciplinary preparedness. The Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network has developed several strategies focusing on surveillance, case management, vector control, laboratory confirmation, and communication. The management of this CHIKV threat will likely have broad implications for global public health. PMID:25062306

  6. National Tuberculosis Genotyping and Surveillance Network: Design and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Braden, Christopher R.; Schable, Barbara A.; Onorato, Ida M.

    2002-01-01

    The National Tuberculosis Genotyping and Surveillance Network was established in 1996 to perform a 5-year, prospective study of the usefulness of genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to tuberculosis control programs. Seven sentinel sites identified all new cases of tuberculosis, collected information on patients and contacts, and obtained patient isolates. Seven genotyping laboratories performed DNA fingerprinting analysis by the international standard IS6110 method. BioImage Whole Band Analyzer software was used to analyze patterns, and distinct patterns were assigned unique designations. Isolates with six or fewer bands on IS6110 patterns were also spoligotyped. Patient data and genotyping designations were entered in a relational database and merged with selected variables from the national surveillance database. In two related databases, we compiled the results of routine contact investigations and the results of investigations of the relationships of patients who had isolates with matching genotypes. We describe the methods used in the study. PMID:12453342

  7. Chikungunya: a reemerging infection spreading during 2010 dengue fever outbreak in National Capital Region of India.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, V G; Das, Shukla; Roy, Priyamvada; Hada, Vivek; Mogha, Narendra Singh

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya fever is an important reemerging arbovirus illness, which is transmitted by the same vector as of dengue virus. Many cases of concurrent infections with multiple dengue virus serotypes have been reported in many countries. Also, concurrent infection with Chikungunya virus and dengue virus has been reported in the past in Delhi. Therefore, this study was done to detect Chikungunya IgM antibodies in suspected dengue fever patients. In this study, 1666 serum samples suspected of dengue fever and collected during the outbreak period (August 2010-December 2010) were tested for dengue IgM antibodies, of which 736 tested negative. Of the 736 dengue IgM negative sera, 666 were tested for Chikungunya IgM antibodies. The demographic profile and essential laboratory investigations were recorded. Chikungunya IgM was detected in 9.91 % of the patients. During the post-monsoon period though dengue dominated in numbers, the number of Chikungunya fever cases increased gradually followed by an abrupt decrease with the onset of winter. The Chikungunya IgM positive patients were suffering from fever of more than 5 days duration and had thrombocytopenia. Due to similarity in clinical features and vector transmitting dengue and Chikungunya virus, continuous surveillance of both dengue fever and Chikungunya fever is desirable for better management and epidemiological assessment. PMID:27366770

  8. Chikungunya vaccines in development

    PubMed Central

    Schwameis, Michael; Buchtele, Nina; Wadowski, Patricia Pia; Schoergenhofer, Christian; Jilma, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chikungunya virus has become a global health threat, spreading to the industrial world of Europe and the Americas; no treatment or prophylactic vaccine is available. Since the late 1960s much effort has been put into the development of a vaccine, and several heterogeneous strategies have already been explored. Only two candidates have recently qualified to enter clinical phase II trials, a chikungunya virus-like particle-based vaccine and a recombinant live attenuated measles virus-vectored vaccine. This review focuses on the current status of vaccine development against chikungunya virus in humans and discusses the diversity of immunization strategies, results of recent human trials and promising vaccine candidates. PMID:26554522

  9. Design and implementation of distributed multimedia surveillance system based on object-oriented middleware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xuesong; Jiang, Ling; Hu, Ruimin

    2006-10-01

    Currently, the applications of surveillance system have been increasingly widespread. But there are few surveillance platforms that can meet the requirement of large-scale, cross-regional, and flexible surveillance business. In the paper, we present a distributed surveillance system platform to improve safety and security of the society. The system is constructed by an object-oriented middleware called as Internet Communications Engine (ICE). This middleware helps our platform to integrate a lot of surveillance resource of the society and accommodate diverse range of surveillance industry requirements. In the follow sections, we will describe in detail the design concepts of system and introduce traits of ICE.

  10. Legally compatible design of digital dactyloscopy in future surveillance scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocs, Matthias; Schott, Maik; Hildebrandt, Mario

    2012-06-01

    Innovation in multimedia systems impacts on our society. For example surveillance camera systems combine video and audio information. Currently a new sensor for capturing fingerprint traces is being researched. It combines greyscale images to determine the intensity of the image signal, on one hand, and topographic information to determine fingerprint texture on a variety of surface materials, on the other. This research proposes new application areas which will be analyzed from a technical-legal view point. It assesses how technology design can promote legal criteria of German and European privacy and data protection. For this we focus on one technology goal as an example.

  11. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genus Alphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever. PMID:26398876

  12. Chikungunya risk for Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever. PMID:26398876

  13. Demo III: reconnaissance, surveilance, and target acquisition (RSTA) preliminary design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klarquist, William N.; Bonner, Kevin G.; Gothard, Benny M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the principal roles of the Demo III Experimental Unmanned Ground Vehicle will be as a forward scout performing Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA) operations. This paper will present the elements of the preliminary design process for satisfying the rigorous Demo III ATR requirements, including military vehicle deductibility at a maximum range of 6 km and dismounted soldier detection at 2km. The constituent design issues include sensor selection, sensor suite mounting and stabilization, processing architecture, and algorithm selection. In the context of this selection and design process the lessons learned from previous Unmanned Ground Vehicle RSTA efforts will be introduced and the contractual and subsystem derived requirements will be presented as well as the interface issues for the RSTA subsystem in conjunction with the navigation, mission execution, and communication subsystems.

  14. The Hidden Burden of Dengue and Chikungunya in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Solomon, Sunil S.; Kuganantham, Periaswamy; Srikrishnan, Aylur Kailasom; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K.; Iqbal, Syed H.; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Solomon, Suniti; Mehta, Shruti H.; Cummings, Derek A. T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue and chikungunya are rapidly expanding viruses transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. Few epidemiological studies have examined the extent of transmission of these infections in South India despite an increase in the number of reported cases, and a high suitability for transmission. Methods and findings We conducted a household-based seroprevalence survey among 1010 individuals aged 5-40 years living in fifty randomly selected spatial locations in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Participants were asked to provide a venous blood sample and to complete a brief questionnaire with basic demographic and daily activity information. Previous exposure to dengue and chikungunya was determined using IgG indirect ELISA (Panbio) and IgG ELISA (Novatec), respectively. We used this data to estimate key transmission parameters (force of infection and basic reproductive number) and to explore factors associated with seropositivity. While only 1% of participants reported history of dengue and 20% of chikungunya, we found that 93% (95%CI 89-95%) of participants were seropositive to dengue virus, and 44% (95%CI 37-50%) to chikungunya. Age-specific seroprevalence was consistent with long-tem, endemic circulation of dengue and suggestive of epidemic chikungunya transmission. Seropositivity to dengue and chikungunya were significantly correlated, even after adjusting for individual and household factors. We estimate that 23% of the susceptible population gets infected by dengue each year, corresponding to approximately 228,000 infections. This transmission intensity is significantly higher than that estimated in known hyperendemic settings in Southeast Asia and the Americas. Conclusions These results provide unprecedented insight into the very high transmission potential of dengue and chikungunya in Chennai and underscore the need for enhanced surveillance and control methods. PMID:26181441

  15. Deliberate Attenuation of Chikungunya Virus by Adaptation to Heparan Sulfate-Dependent Infectivity: A Model for Rational Arboviral Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Christina L.; Hritz, Jozef; Sun, Chengqun; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Song, Timothy Y.; Ghedin, Elodie; Higgs, Stephen; Klimstra, William B.; Ryman, Kate D.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus from the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae, which causes fever, rash and severe persistent polyarthralgia in humans. Since there are currently no FDA licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies for CHIKV, the development of vaccine candidates is of critical importance. Historically, live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) for protection against arthropod-borne viruses have been created by blind cell culture passage leading to attenuation of disease, while maintaining immunogenicity. Attenuation may occur via multiple mechanisms. However, all examined arbovirus LAVs have in common the acquisition of positively charged amino acid substitutions in cell-surface attachment proteins that render virus infection partially dependent upon heparan sulfate (HS), a ubiquitously expressed sulfated polysaccharide, and appear to attenuate by retarding dissemination of virus particles in vivo. We previously reported that, like other wild-type Old World alphaviruses, CHIKV strain, La Réunion, (CHIKV-LR), does not depend upon HS for infectivity. To deliberately identify CHIKV attachment protein mutations that could be combined with other attenuating processes in a LAV candidate, we passaged CHIKV-LR on evolutionarily divergent cell-types. A panel of single amino acid substitutions was identified in the E2 glycoprotein of passaged virus populations that were predicted to increase electrostatic potential. Each of these substitutions was made in the CHIKV-LR cDNA clone and comparisons of the mutant viruses revealed surface exposure of the mutated residue on the spike and sensitivity to competition with the HS analog, heparin, to be primary correlates of attenuation in vivo. Furthermore, we have identified a mutation at E2 position 79 as a promising candidate for inclusion in a CHIKV LAV. PMID:24587470

  16. 77 FR 9256 - Design and Methodology for Postmarket Surveillance Studies Under Section 522 of the Federal Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Design and Methodology for Postmarket Surveillance Studies... announcing a public workshop entitled ``Design and Methodology for Postmarket Surveillance Studies under... stakeholders with experience in epidemiology, statistics, and biomedical research to advance the design...

  17. Chikungunya fever from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kouta; Matumoto, Kentaro; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Moi, Meng Ling; Kotaki, Akira; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2010-01-01

    An adult Malaysian woman returned to Japan from Kuala Lumpur and had onset of dengue fever-like symptoms including high fever, malaise and arthritis in early January 2009. Serum obtained on the following day was tested at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Tokyo, where it was determined to be positive for chikungunya virus (CHIKV) RNA. IgM antibody against CHIKV was negative on January 6 and sero-converted to be positive on January 14, confirming a recent CHIKV infection. Except for arthralgia, all her symptoms resolved uneventfully within 10 days. PMID:20190493

  18. Leukemoid Reaction in Chikungunya Fever

    PubMed Central

    Charaniya, Riyaz; Sahoo, Ratnakar; Tansir, Ghazal; Sasmal, Gargi

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya is a viral illness caused by an arbovirus which is transmitted by Aedes mosquito. Fever and polyarthralgia are hallmark of this viral illness. Viral infections are generally associated with leucopenia and bacterial infections with leukocytosis. Leukemoid Reaction (LR) is defined by reactive increase in leukocyte count of more than 50,000/cu mm with increase in mature leukocytes on peripheral blood. Leukocytosis is common in Chikungunya but leukemoid reaction has not been reported in medical literature. Our patient presented with high grade fever and symmetrical polyarthritis. Blood investigation showed Leukemoid reaction and after extensive work up a diagnosis of chikungunya was made. PMID:27437276

  19. [Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya].

    PubMed

    Kantor, Isabel N

    2016-01-01

    Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation. PMID:26942903

  20. SURVEILLANCE REPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveillance reports are designed to provide useful data to researchers, planners, policymakers, and other professionals interested in alcohol abuse and its associated illnesses and mortality. Other surveillance report topics include apparent per capita consumption of alcoholic b...

  1. Design of natural user interface of indoor surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lili; Liu, Dan; Jiang, Mu-Jin; Cao, Ning

    2015-03-01

    Conventional optical video surveillance systems usually just record what they view, but they can't make sense of what they are viewing. With lots of useless video information stored and transmitted, waste of memory space and increasing the bandwidth are produced every day. In order to reduce the overall cost of the system, and improve the application value of the monitoring system, we use the Kinect sensor with CMOS infrared sensor, as a supplement to the traditional video surveillance system, to establish the natural user interface system for indoor surveillance. In this paper, the architecture of the natural user interface system, complex background monitoring object separation, user behavior analysis algorithms are discussed. By the analysis of the monitoring object, instead of the command language grammar, when the monitored object need instant help, the system with the natural user interface sends help information. We introduce the method of combining the new system and traditional monitoring system. In conclusion, theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the proposed system is reasonable and efficient. It can satisfy the system requirements of non-contact, online, real time, higher precision and rapid speed to control the state of affairs at the scene.

  2. 21 CFR 822.11 - What should I consider when designing my plan to conduct postmarket surveillance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conduct postmarket surveillance? 822.11 Section 822.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES POSTMARKET SURVEILLANCE Postmarket Surveillance Plan § 822.11 What should I consider when designing my plan to conduct postmarket...

  3. 21 CFR 822.11 - What should I consider when designing my plan to conduct postmarket surveillance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conduct postmarket surveillance? 822.11 Section 822.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES POSTMARKET SURVEILLANCE Postmarket Surveillance Plan § 822.11 What should I consider when designing my plan to conduct postmarket...

  4. 21 CFR 822.11 - What should I consider when designing my plan to conduct postmarket surveillance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conduct postmarket surveillance? 822.11 Section 822.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES POSTMARKET SURVEILLANCE Postmarket Surveillance Plan § 822.11 What should I consider when designing my plan to conduct postmarket...

  5. 21 CFR 822.11 - What should I consider when designing my plan to conduct postmarket surveillance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conduct postmarket surveillance? 822.11 Section 822.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES POSTMARKET SURVEILLANCE Postmarket Surveillance Plan § 822.11 What should I consider when designing my plan to conduct postmarket...

  6. Reemergence of Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes acute fever and acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain in humans. Since 2004, CHIKV has caused millions of cases of disease in the Indian Ocean region and has emerged in new areas, including Europe, the Middle East, and the Pacific region. The mosquito vectors for this virus are globally distributed in tropical and temperate zones, providing the opportunity for CHIKV to continue to expand into new geographic regions. In October 2013, locally acquired cases of CHIKV infection were identified on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin, signaling the arrival of the virus in the Western Hemisphere. In just 9 months, CHIKV has spread to 22 countries in the Caribbean and Central and South America, resulting in hundreds of thousands of cases. CHIKV disease can be highly debilitating, and large epidemics have severe economic consequences. Thus, there is an urgent need for continued research into the epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of these infections. PMID:25078691

  7. Incorporating prior knowledge of urban scene spatial structure in aperture code designs for surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, John R.; Thelen, Brian J.; Subotic, Nikola

    2010-08-01

    Two major missions of Surveillance systems are imaging and ground moving target indication (GMTI). Recent advances in coded aperture electro optical systems have enabled persistent surveillance systems with extremely large fields of regard. The areas of interest for these surveillance systems are typically urban, with spatial topologies having a very definite structure. We incorporate aspects of a priori information on this structure in our aperture code designs to enable optimized dealiasing operations for undersampled focal plane arrays. Our framework enables us to design aperture codes to minimize mean square error for image reconstruction or to maximize signal to clutter ratio for GMTI detection. In this paper we present a technical overview of our code design methodology and show the results of our designed codes on simulated DIRSIG mega-scene data.

  8. Design and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhali, Sami Adel; Abdallat, Mohammed; Mabdalla, Sultan; Qaseer, Bashir Al; Khorma, Rania; Malik, Mamunur; Profili, Maria Cristina; Rø, Gunnar; Haskew, John

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and improving the health status of communities depend on effective public health surveillance. Adoption of new technologies, standardised case definitions and clinical guidelines for accurate diagnosis, and access to timely and reliable data, remains a challenge for public health surveillance systems however and existing public health surveillance systems are often fragmented, disease specific, inconsistent and of poor quality. We describe the application of an enterprise architecture approach to the design, planning and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan. This enabled a well planned and collaboratively supported system to be built and implemented using consistent standards for data collection, management, reporting and use. The system is case-based and integrated and employs mobile information technology to aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making at different levels of the health system. PMID:26878763

  9. Design and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Sheikhali, Sami Adel; Abdallat, Mohammed; Mabdalla, Sultan; Al Qaseer, Bashir; Khorma, Rania; Malik, Mamunur; Profili, Maria Cristina; Rø, Gunnar; Haskew, John

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and improving the health status of communities depend on effective public health surveillance. Adoption of new technologies, standardised case definitions and clinical guidelines for accurate diagnosis, and access to timely and reliable data, remains a challenge for public health surveillance systems however and existing public health surveillance systems are often fragmented, disease specific, inconsistent and of poor quality. We describe the application of an enterprise architecture approach to the design, planning and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan. This enabled a well planned and collaboratively supported system to be built and implemented using consistent standards for data collection, management, reporting and use. The system is case-based and integrated and employs mobile information technology to aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making at different levels of the health system. PMID:26878763

  10. Potential Risk of Dengue and Chikungunya Outbreaks in Northern Italy Based on a Population Model of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Montarsi, Fabrizio; Baldacchino, Frédéric Alexandre; Metz, Markus; Capelli, Gioia; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Pugliese, Andrea; Rosà, Roberto; Poletti, Piero; Merler, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The rapid invasion and spread of Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) within new continents and climatic ranges has created favorable conditions for the emergence of tropical arboviral diseases in the invaded areas. We used mosquito abundance data from 2014 collected across ten sites in northern Italy to calibrate a population model for Aedes albopictus and estimate the potential of imported human cases of chikungunya or dengue to generate the condition for their autochthonous transmission in the absence of control interventions. The model captured intra-year seasonality and heterogeneity across sites in mosquito abundance, based on local temperature patterns and the estimated site-specific mosquito habitat suitability. A robust negative correlation was found between the latter and local late spring precipitations, indicating a possible washout effect on larval breeding sites. The model predicts a significant risk of chikungunya outbreaks in most sites if a case is imported between the beginning of summer and up to mid-November, with an average outbreak probability between 4.9% and 25%, depending on the site. A lower risk is predicted for dengue, with an average probability between 4.2% and 10.8% for cases imported between mid-July and mid-September. This study shows the importance of an integrated entomological and medical surveillance for the evaluation of arboviral disease risk, which is a precondition for designing cost-effective vector control programs. PMID:27304211

  11. Cytokines in Acute Chikungunya

    PubMed Central

    Venugopalan, Anuradha; Ghorpade, Ravi P.; Chopra, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acute chikungunya (CHIKV) is predominantly an acute onset of excruciatingly painful, self-limiting musculoskeletal (MSK) arbovirus illness and this was further reported by us during the 2006 Indian epidemic [Chopra et al. Epidemiol Infect 2012]. Selected serum cytokines profile in subjects within one month of onset of illness is being presented. Methods Out of 509 clinical CHIKV cases (43% population) identified during a rural population survey, 225 subjects consented blood investigations. 132 examined within 30 days of febrile onset are the study cohort. Anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG antibodies tested by immunochromatography and indirect immunofluorescence respectively. Interferons (IFN)-α, -β and -γ, Interferon Gamma-Induced Protein-10 (CXCL-10/IP-10), Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-13 (IL-13), Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1), Interleukin–4 (IL-4) and Interleukin–10 (IL-10) performed by ELISA. Samples collected from neighboring community a year prior to the epidemic used as healthy controls. Results Seropositivity for anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG was 65% and 52% respectively. IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, CXCL10/IP-10 and IL-1β showed intense response in early acute phase. Cytokines (particularly TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) was maximum in extended symptomatic phase and remained elevated in recovered subjects. Higher (p<0.05) IFN and IL-4 seen in patients seropositive for anti-CHIKV IgG. Elderly cases (≥65 years) showed elevated cytokines (except IFN) and anti-CHIKV antibodies near similar to younger subjects. Significant correlations (p<0.05) found between cytokines and clinical features (fatigue, low back ache, myalgia) and anti-CHIKV antibodies. Conclusion An intense cytokine milieu was evident in the early and immediate persistent symptomatic phase and in recovered subjects. Early persistent IgM and lower IgG to anti-CHKV and intense Th2 cytokine phenotype seem to be

  12. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project.

    PubMed

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles. PMID:27015195

  13. Detection of Chikungunya Virus in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Basu Dev; Neupane, Biswas; Pandey, Kishor; Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Morita, Kouichi

    2015-10-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging alphaviral disease and a public health problem in South Asia including Nepal in recent years. In this study, sera were collected from patients presenting with fever, headache, muscular pain, fatigue, and joint pain of both upper and lower extremities. A total of 169 serum samples were tested for CHIKV and dengue virus (DENV) by using Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method during August to November 2013. Results showed that 3.6% and 27.8% samples were positive for CHIKV and DENV IgM positive, respectively. Similarly, results of IgG showed 3.0% samples were positive for CHIKV IgG and 29.0% were for DENV IgG positive. Further, a 50% focal reduction neutralization test (FRNT50) was performed to confirm the presence of CHIKV, which demonstrated that 8.9% of CHIKV IgM and/or IgG ELISA positive possessed neutralizing anti-CHIK antibodies. To our knowledge, this is the first report in which the presence of CHIKV is confirmed in Nepalese patients by FRNT50. Basic scientists and clinicians need to consider CHIKV as a differential diagnosis in febrile Nepalese patients, and policy makers should consider appropriate surveillance and actions for control strategies. PMID:26195462

  14. Design study for a 16x zoom lens system for visible surveillance camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vella, Anthony; Li, Heng; Zhao, Yang; Trumper, Isaac; Gandara-Montano, Gustavo A.; Xu, Di; Nikolov, Daniel K.; Chen, Changchen; Brown, Nicolas S.; Guevara-Torres, Andres; Jung, Hae Won; Reimers, Jacob; Bentley, Julie

    2015-09-01

    *avella@ur.rochester.edu Design study for a 16x zoom lens system for visible surveillance camera Anthony Vella*, Heng Li, Yang Zhao, Isaac Trumper, Gustavo A. Gandara-Montano, Di Xu, Daniel K. Nikolov, Changchen Chen, Nicolas S. Brown, Andres Guevara-Torres, Hae Won Jung, Jacob Reimers, Julie Bentley The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Wilmot Building, 275 Hutchison Rd, Rochester, NY, USA 14627-0186 ABSTRACT High zoom ratio zoom lenses have extensive applications in broadcasting, cinema, and surveillance. Here, we present a design study on a 16x zoom lens with 4 groups (including two internal moving groups), designed for, but not limited to, a visible spectrum surveillance camera. Fifteen different solutions were discovered with nearly diffraction limited performance, using PNPX or PNNP design forms with the stop located in either the third or fourth group. Some interesting patterns and trends in the summarized results include the following: (a) in designs with such a large zoom ratio, the potential of locating the aperture stop in the front half of the system is limited, with ray height variations through zoom necessitating a very large lens diameter; (b) in many cases, the lens zoom motion has significant freedom to vary due to near zero total power in the middle two groups; and (c) we discuss the trade-offs between zoom configuration, stop location, packaging factors, and zoom group aberration sensitivity.

  15. Orbit design and estimation for surveillance missions using genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelkhalik, Osama Mohamed Omar

    2005-11-01

    The problem of observing a given set of Earth target sites within an assigned time frame is examined. Attention is given mainly to visiting these sites as sub-satellite nadir points. Solutions to this problem in the literature require thrusters to continuously maneuver the satellite from one site to another. A natural solution is proposed. A natural solution is a gravitational orbit that enables the spacecraft to satisfy the mission requirements without maneuvering. Optimization of a penalty function is performed to find natural solutions for satellite orbit configurations. This penalty function depends on the mission objectives. Two mission objectives are considered: maximum observation time and maximum resolution. The penalty function poses multi minima and a genetic algorithm technique is used to solve this problem. In the case that there is no one orbit satisfying the mission requirements, a multi-orbit solution is proposed. In a multi-orbit solution, the set of target sites is split into two groups. Then the developed algorithm is used to search for a natural solution for each group. The satellite has to be maneuvered between the two solution orbits. Genetic algorithms are used to find the optimal orbit transfer between the two orbits using impulsive thrusters. A new formulation for solving the orbit maneuver problem using genetic algorithms is developed. The developed formulation searches for a minimum fuel consumption maneuver and guarantees that the satellite will be transferred exactly to the final orbit even if the solution is non-optimal. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of finding natural solutions for many case studies. The problem of the design of suitable satellite constellation for Earth observing applications is addressed. Two cases are considered. The first is the remote sensing missions for a particular region with high frequency and small swath width. The second is the interferometry radar Earth observation missions. In satellite

  16. [Lessons learned in the control of Aedes aegypti to address dengue and the emergency of chikungunya in Iquitos, Peru].

    PubMed

    Vilcarromero, Stalin; Casanova, Wilma; Ampuero, Julia S; Ramal-Asayag, Cesar; Siles, Crystyan; Díaz, Gloria; Durand, Salomón; Celis-Salinas, Juan C; Astete, Helvio; Rojas, Percy; Vásquez-La Torre, Gabriela; Marín, Johan; Bazán, Isabel; Alegre, Yuri; Morrison, Amy C; Rodriguez-Ferrucci, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Dengue has affected Iquitos since 1990 causing outbreaks of major impact on public health and for this reason great efforts have been made for its temporal control. Currently, with the expansion of the chikungunya virus in the Americas and the threat of the emergence of the virus in Iquitos, we reflect on lessons learned by way of the activities undertaken in the area of vector control; epidemiological surveillance, diagnosis and clinical management during periods of outbreaks of dengue, in a way that will allow us to better face the threat of an outbreak of chikungunya virus in the largest city in the Peruvian Amazon. PMID:26102121

  17. Design and implementation of a wireless video surveillance system based on ARM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yucheng; Han, Dantao; Yan, Juanli

    2011-06-01

    A wireless video surveillance system based on ARM was designed and implemented in this article. The newest ARM11 S3C6410 was used as the main monitoring terminal chip with the embedded Linux operating system. The video input was obtained by the analog CCD and transferred from analog to digital by the video chip TVP5150. The video was packed by RTP and transmitted by the wireless USB TL-WN322G+ after being compressed by H.264 encoders in S3C6410. Further more, the video images were preprocessed. It can detect the abnormities of the specified scene and the abnormal alarms. The video transmission definition is the standard definition 480P. The video stream can be real-time monitored. The system has been used in the real-time intelligent video surveillance of the specified scene.

  18. Advancing the science for active surveillance: rationale and design for the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership.

    PubMed

    Stang, Paul E; Ryan, Patrick B; Racoosin, Judith A; Overhage, J Marc; Hartzema, Abraham G; Reich, Christian; Welebob, Emily; Scarnecchia, Thomas; Woodcock, Janet

    2010-11-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 mandated that the FDA develop a system for using automated health care data to identify risks of marketed drugs and other medical products. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership is a public-private partnership among the FDA, academia, data owners, and the pharmaceutical industry that is responding to the need to advance the science of active medical product safety surveillance by using existing observational databases. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership's transparent, open innovation approach is designed to systematically and empirically study critical governance, data resource, and methodological issues and their interrelationships in establishing a viable national program of active drug safety surveillance by using observational data. This article describes the governance structure, data-access model, methods-testing approach, and technology development of this effort, as well as the work that has been initiated. PMID:21041580

  19. Design of a radiation surveillance unit for an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    PubMed

    Kurvinen, K; Smolander, P; Pöllänen, R; Kuukankorpi, S; Kettunen, M; Lyytinen, J

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype of a compact environmental radiation surveillance instrument designed for a Ranger unmanned aerial vehicle. The instrument, which can be used for tracking a radioactive plume, mapping fallout and searching for point sources, consists of three different detector types (GM, NaI(Tl) and CZT) and an air sampling unit. In addition to the standard electronics for data acquisition, the system contains an onboard computer, a GPS receiver and environmental sensors, all enclosed in a single housing manufactured of fiberglass-reinforced composite material. The data collected during the flight is transmitted in real-time to the ground station via a TETRA radio network. The radiation surveillance unit is an independent module and as such can be used in, for example, airplanes, helicopters and cars. PMID:15748656

  20. Historical inability to control Aedes aegypti as a main contributor of fast dispersal of chikungunya outbreaks in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Casas-Martínez, Mauricio; Ulloa, Armando; Bond, J Guillermo; Marina, Carlos F; Lopez-Ordóñez, Teresa; Elizondo-Quiroga, Armando; Torres-Monzón, Jorge A; Díaz-González, Esteban E

    2015-12-01

    The arrival of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in Latin American countries has been expected to trigger epidemics and challenge health systems. Historically considered as dengue-endemic countries, abundant Aedes aegypti populations make this region highly vulnerable to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) circulation. This review describes the current dengue and CHIKF epidemiological situations, as well as the role of uncontrolled Ae. aegypti and Aedes albopictus vectors in spreading the emerging CHIKV. Comments are included relating to the vector competence of both species and failures of surveillance and vector control measures. Dengue endemicity is a reflection of these abundant and persistent Aedes populations that are now spreading CHIKV in the Americas. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Chikungunya discovers the New World." PMID:26518229

  1. Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Lark L.; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Weaver, Scott C.

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed. PMID:25421891

  2. Characterization of Reemerging Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    Sourisseau, Marion; Schilte, Clémentine; Casartelli, Nicoletta; Trouillet, Céline; Guivel-Benhassine, Florence; Rudnicka, Dominika; Sol-Foulon, Nathalie; Roux, Karin Le; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Fsihi, Hafida; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Blanchet, Fabien; Afonso, Philippe V; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ozden, Simona; Gessain, Antoine; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Verhasselt, Bruno; Zamborlini, Alessia; Saïb, Ali; Rey, Felix A; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Desprès, Philippe; Michault, Alain; Albert, Matthew L; Schwartz, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    An unprecedented epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection recently started in countries of the Indian Ocean area, causing an acute and painful syndrome with strong fever, asthenia, skin rash, polyarthritis, and lethal cases of encephalitis. The basis for chikungunya disease and the tropism of CHIKV remain unknown. Here, we describe the replication characteristics of recent clinical CHIKV strains. Human epithelial and endothelial cells, primary fibroblasts and, to a lesser extent, monocyte-derived macrophages, were susceptible to infection and allowed viral production. In contrast, CHIKV did not replicate in lymphoid and monocytoid cell lines, primary lymphocytes and monocytes, or monocyte-derived dendritic cells. CHIKV replication was cytopathic and associated with an induction of apoptosis in infected cells. Chloroquine, bafilomycin-A1, and short hairpin RNAs against dynamin-2 inhibited viral production, indicating that viral entry occurs through pH-dependent endocytosis. CHIKV was highly sensitive to the antiviral activity of type I and II interferons. These results provide a general insight into the interaction between CHIKV and its mammalian host. PMID:17604450

  3. An Outbreak of Chikungunya in Rural Bangladesh, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Khatun, Selina; Chakraborty, Apurba; Rahman, Mahmudur; Nasreen Banu, Nuzhat; Rahman, Mohammad Mostafizur; Hasan, S. M. Murshid; Luby, Stephen P.; Gurley, Emily S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The first identified Chikungunya outbreak occurred in Bangladesh in 2008. In late October 2011, a local health official from Dohar Sub-district, Dhaka District, reported an outbreak of undiagnosed fever and joint pain. We investigated the outbreak to confirm the etiology, describe the clinical presentation, and identify associated vectors. Methodology During November 2–21, 2011, we conducted house-to-house surveys to identify suspected cases, defined as any inhabitant of Char Kushai village with fever followed by joint pain in the extremities with onset since August 15, 2011. We collected blood specimens and clinical histories from self-selected suspected cases using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were tested for IgM antibodies against Chikungunya virus. The village was divided into nine segments and we collected mosquito larvae from water containers in seven randomly selected houses in each segment. We calculated the Breteau index for the village and identified the mosquito species. Results The attack rate was 29% (1105/3840) and 29% of households surveyed had at least one suspected case: 15% had ≥3. The attack rate was 38% (606/1589) in adult women and 25% in adult men (320/1287). Among the 1105 suspected case-patients, 245 self-selected for testing and 80% of those (196/245) had IgM antibodies. In addition to fever and joint pain, 76% (148/196) of confirmed cases had rash and 38%(75/196) had long-lasting joint pain. The village Breteau index was 35 per 100 and 89%(449/504) of hatched mosquitoes were Aedes albopictus. Conclusion The evidence suggests that this outbreak was due to Chikungunya. The high attack rate suggests that the infection was new to this area, and the increased risk among adult women suggests that risk of transmission may have been higher around households. Chikungunya is an emerging infection in Bangladesh and current surveillance and prevention strategies are insufficient to mount an effective public health response

  4. Major Design Drivers for LEO Space Surveillance in Europe and Solution Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krag, Holger; Flohrer, Tim; Klinkrad, Heiner

    Europe is preparing for the development of an autonomous system for space situational aware-ness. One important segment of this new system will be dedicated to surveillance and tracking of space objects in Earth orbits. First concept and capability analysis studies have led to a draft system proposal. This proposal foresees, in a first deployment step, a groundbased system consisting of radar sensors and a network of optical telescopes. These sensors will be designed to have the capability of building up and maintaining a catalogue of space objects. A number of related services will be provided, including collision avoidance and the prediction of uncontrolled reentry events. Currently, the user requirements are consolidated, defining the different services, and the related accuracy and timeliness of the derived products. In this consolidation process parameters like the lower diameter limit above which catalogue coverage is to be achieved, the degree of population coverage in various orbital regions and the accuracy of the orbit data maintained in the catalogue are important design drivers for the selection of number and location of the sensors, and the definition of the required sensor performance. Further, the required minimum time for the detection of a manoeuvre, a newly launched object or a fragmentation event, significantly determines the required surveillance performance. In the requirement consolidation process the performance to be specified has to be based on a careful analysis which takes into account accuracy constraints of the services to be provided, the technical feasibility, complexity and costs. User requirements can thus not be defined with-out understanding the consequences they would pose on the system design. This paper will outline the design definition process for the surveillance and tracking segment of the European space situational awareness system. The paper will focus on the low-Earth orbits (LEO). It will present the core user

  5. Pervasive surveillance-agent system based on wireless sensor networks: design and deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, José F.; Bravo, Sury; García, Ana B.; Corredor, Iván; Familiar, Miguel S.; López, Lourdes; Hernández, Vicente; Da Silva, Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Nowadays, proliferation of embedded systems is enhancing the possibilities of gathering information by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Flexibility and ease of installation make these kinds of pervasive networks suitable for security and surveillance environments. Moreover, the risk for humans to be exposed to these functions is minimized when using these networks. In this paper, a virtual perimeter surveillance agent, which has been designed to detect any person crossing an invisible barrier around a marked perimeter and send an alarm notification to the security staff, is presented. This agent works in a state of 'low power consumption' until there is a crossing on the perimeter. In our approach, the 'intelligence' of the agent has been distributed by using mobile nodes in order to discern the cause of the event of presence. This feature contributes to saving both processing resources and power consumption since the required code that detects presence is the only system installed. The research work described in this paper illustrates our experience in the development of a surveillance system using WNSs for a practical application as well as its evaluation in real-world deployments. This mechanism plays an important role in providing confidence in ensuring safety to our environment.

  6. Chikungunya: Information for the General Public

    MedlinePlus

    ... 7 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito • The most common symptoms are fever and severe ... to prevent chikungunya virus infection or disease • Reduce mosquito exposure o Use air conditioning or window/door ...

  7. Chikungunya, climate change, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Meason, Braden; Paterson, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya is a re-emerging arbovirus that causes significant morbidity and some mortality. Global climate change leading to warmer temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns allow mosquito vectors to thrive at altitudes and at locations where they previously have not, ultimately leading to a spread of mosquito-borne diseases. While mutations to the chikungunya virus are responsible for some portion of the re-emergence, chikungunya epidemiology is closely tied with weather patterns in Southeast Asia. Extrapolation of this regional pattern, combined with known climate factors impacting the spread of malaria and dengue, summate to a dark picture of climate change and the spread of this disease from south Asia and Africa into Europe and North America. This review describes chikungunya and collates current data regarding its spread in which climate change plays an important part. We also examine human rights obligations of States and others to protect against this disease. PMID:25474599

  8. Diagnostic Options and Challenges for Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Mardekian, Stacey K.; Roberts, Amity L.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are arboviruses that share the same Aedes mosquito vectors and thus overlap in their endemic areas. These two viruses also cause similar clinical presentations, especially in the initial stages of infection, with neither virus possessing any specific distinguishing clinical features. Because the outcomes and management strategies for these two viruses are vastly different, early and accurate diagnosis is imperative. Diagnosis is also important for surveillance, outbreak control, and research related to vaccine and drug development. Available diagnostic tests are aimed at detection of the virus, its antigenic components, or the host immune antibody response. In this review, we describe the recent progress and continued challenges related to the diagnosis of DENV and CHIKV infections. PMID:26509163

  9. Chikungunya virus pathogenesis and immunity.

    PubMed

    Gasque, Philippe; Couderc, Therese; Lecuit, Marc; Roques, Pierre; Ng, Lisa F P

    2015-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus associated with acute and chronic arthralgia that re-emerged in the Indian Ocean islands in 2005-2006 and is currently responsible for the ongoing outbreaks in the Caribbean islands and the Americas. We describe here the acute and chronic clinical manifestations of CHIKV in patients that define the disease. We also review the various animal models that have been developed to study CHIKV infection and pathology and further strengthened the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of CHIKV infection and immunity. A complete understanding of the immunopathogenesis of CHIKV infection will help develop the needed preventive and therapeutic approaches to combat this arbovirosis. PMID:25897810

  10. First Report of Aedes aegypti Transmission of Chikungunya Virus in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Díaz-González, Esteban E; Kautz, Tiffany F; Dorantes-Delgado, Alicia; Malo-García, Iliana R; Laguna-Aguilar, Maricela; Langsjoen, Rose M; Chen, Rubing; Auguste, Dawn I; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa M; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Weaver, Scott C; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-12-01

    During a chikungunya fever outbreak in late 2014 in Chiapas, Mexico, entomovirological surveillance was performed to incriminate the vector(s). In neighborhoods, 75 households with suspected cases were sampled for mosquitoes, of which 80% (60) harbored Aedes aegypti and 2.7% (2) Aedes albopictus. A total of 1,170 Ae. aegypti and three Ae. albopictus was collected and 81 pools were generated. Although none of the Ae. albopictus pools were chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-positive, 18 Ae. aegypti pools (22.8%) contained CHIKV, yielding an infection rate of 32.3/1,000 mosquitoes. A lack of herd immunity in conjunction with high mosquito populations, poor vector control services in this region, and targeted collections in locations of human cases may explain the high infection rate in this vector. Consistent with predictions from experimental studies, Ae. aegypti appears to be the principal vector of CHIKV in southern Mexico, while the role of Ae. albopictus remains unknown. PMID:26416113

  11. CARRS Surveillance study: design and methods to assess burdens from multiple perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardio-metabolic diseases (CMDs) are a growing public health problem, but data on incidence, trends, and costs in developing countries is scarce. Comprehensive and standardised surveillance for non-communicable diseases was recommended at the United Nations High-level meeting in 2011. Aims: To develop a model surveillance system for CMDs and risk factors that could be adopted for continued assessment of burdens from multiple perspectives in South-Asian countries. Methods Design: Hybrid model with two cross-sectional serial surveys three years apart to monitor trend, with a three-year prospective follow-up of the first cohort. Sites: Three urban settings (Chennai and New Delhi in India; Karachi in Pakistan), 4000 participants in each site stratified by gender and age. Sampling methodology: Multi-stage cluster random sampling; followed by within-household participant selection through a combination of Health Information National Trends Study (HINTS) and Kish methods. Culturally-appropriate and methodologically-relevant data collection instruments were developed to gather information on CMDs and their risk factors; quality of life, health-care utilisation and costs, along with objective measures of anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters. The cohort follow-up is designed as a pilot study to understand the feasibility of estimating incidence of risk factors, disease events, morbidity, and mortality. Results The overall participant response rate in the first cross-sectional survey was 94.1% (Chennai 92.4%, n = 4943; Delhi 95.7%, n = 4425; Karachi 94.3%, n = 4016). 51.8% of the participants were females, 61.6% < 45years, 27.5% 45–60years and 10.9% >60 years. Discussion This surveillance model will generate data on prevalence and trends; help study the complex life-course patterns of CMDs, and provide a platform for developing and testing interventions and tools for prevention and control of CMDs in South-Asia. It will also help

  12. Chikungunya

    MedlinePlus

    ... focused on relieving the symptoms. The proximity of mosquito breeding sites to human habitation is a significant ... bites of infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitos, both present in the Americas. After the bite ...

  13. Naturally surveilled space: the design of a male drug rehabilitation center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permana, A. R.; Aryanti, T.; Rahmanullah, F.

    2016-04-01

    The increase of drug addicts in Indonesia has not been supported by adequate facilities, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Despite being treated in a rehabilitation center, drug addicts may still use drugs surreptitiously and put themselves in danger. Architectural design may contribute to this either positively or negatively. This article elaborates a therapeutic design of a male rehabilitation center in the borderland of Bandung city, Indonesia. Employing the notion of natural surveillance, the rehabilitation center is designed to allow continual control over attendees without them feeling suppressed. The center design uses the behavioral approach to consider both attendees’ physical and psychological comforts, as well as their security. Building masses are designed in a way that forms an inward orientation and are laid out circularly according to the therapy processes that attendees must undertake. Moreover, rooms are planned differently in response to attendees’ unique conditions and restrictive physical requirements, such as their restriction on lighting and requirement of water for treatment. The landscape uses shady trees and vegetations as natural borders to demarcate the private zone, where attendees live, from the public area, where visitors may enter. The design is intended to provide a model for a responsive drug rehabilitation center that facilitates drug addicts’ recovery.

  14. Presence of Autoimmune Antibody in Chikungunya Infection

    PubMed Central

    Maek-a-nantawat, Wirach; Silachamroon, Udomsak

    2009-01-01

    Chikungunya infection has recently re-emerged as an important arthropod-borne disease in Thailand. Recently, Southern Thailand was identified as a potentially endemic area for the chikungunya virus. Here, we report a case of severe musculoskeletal complication, presenting with muscle weakness and swelling of the limbs. During the investigation to exclude autoimmune muscular inflammation, high titers of antinuclear antibody were detected. This is the report of autoimmunity detection associated with an arbovirus infection. The symptoms can mimic autoimmune polymyositis disease, and the condition requires close monitoring before deciding to embark upon prolonged specific treatment with immunomodulators. PMID:19997520

  15. Fatal leptospirosis and chikungunya co-infection: Do not forget leptospirosis during chikungunya outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Nhan, Tu-Xuan; Bonnieux, Eric; Rovery, Clarisse; De Pina, Jean-Jacques; Musso, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In endemic areas, leptospirosis can be missed by erroneous clinical or laboratory diagnosis of arboviroses or co-infections with arboviruses and an increase in mortality due to leptospirosis has already been reported during arboviruses outbreaks. During the French Polynesian chikungunya virus outbreak in 2014-2015, two leptospirosis and chikungunya co-infections were reported, one of which was fatal. Diagnosis of leptospiroses was delayed in the context of chikungunya outbreak. In the context of arbovirus outbreak, the risk of misdiagnosis of leptospirosis is maximum and clinicians should initiate early antibiotic therapy if leptospirosis is suspected. A delayed diagnosis of leptospirosis can be responsible for fatal outcome. Leptospirosis should be considered even if dengue or chikungunya virus infections are confirmed by reference molecular testing. PMID:27413690

  16. First Chikungunya Outbreak in Suriname; Clinical and Epidemiological Features

    PubMed Central

    van Genderen, Farah T.; Krishnadath, Ingrid; Sno, Rachel; Grunberg, Meritha G.; Zijlmans, Wilco; Adhin, Malti R.

    2016-01-01

    Background In June 2014, Suriname faced the first Chikungunya outbreak. Since international reports mostly focus on hospitalized patients, the least affected group, a study was conducted to describe clinical characteristics of mainly outpatients including children. In addition, the cumulative incidence of this first epidemic was investigated. Methodology During August and September 2014, clinically suspected Chikungunya cases were included in a prospective follow-up study. Blood specimens were collected and tested for viral RNA presence. Detailed clinical information was gathered through multiple telephone surveys until day 180. In addition, a three stage household-based cluster with a cross-sectional design was conducted in October, December 2014 and March 2015 to assess the cumulative incidence. Principal Findings Sixty-eight percent of symptomatic patients tested positive for Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Arthralgia and pain in the fingers were distinctive for viremic CHIKV infected patients. Viremic CHIKV infected children (≤12 years) characteristically displayed headache and vomiting, while arthralgia was less common at onset. The disease was cleared within seven days by 20% of the patients, while 22% of the viremic CHIKV infected patients, mostly women and elderly reported persistent arthralgia at day 180. The extrapolated cumulative CHIKV incidence in Paramaribo was 249 cases per 1000 persons, based on CHIKV self-reported cases in 53.1% of the households and 90.4% IgG detected in a subset of self-reported CHIKV+ persons. CHIKV peaked in the dry season and a drastic decrease in CHIKV patients coincided with a governmental campaign to reduce mosquito breeding sites. Conclusions/Significance This study revealed that persistent arthralgia was a concern, but occurred less frequently in an outpatient setting. The data support a less severe pathological outcome for Caribbean CHIKV infections. This study augments incidence data available for first outbreaks in the

  17. Evidence for Endemic Chikungunya Virus Infections in Bandung, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Kosasih, Herman; de Mast, Quirijn; Widjaja, Susana; Sudjana, Primal; Antonjaya, Ungke; Ma'roef, Chairin; Riswari, Silvita Fitri; Porter, Kevin R.; Burgess, Timothy H.; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van der Ven, Andre; Williams, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is known to cause sporadic or explosive outbreaks. However, little is known about the endemic transmission of CHIKV. To ascertain the endemic occurrence of CHIKV transmission, we tested blood samples from patients with a non-dengue febrile illness who participated in a prospective cohort study of factory workers in Bandung, Indonesia. From August 2000 to June 2004, and September 2006 to April 2008, 1901 febrile episodes occurred and 231 (12.2%) dengue cases were identified. The remaining febrile cases were evaluated for possible CHIKV infection by measuring anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG antibodies in acute and convalescent samples. Acute samples of serologically positive cases were subsequently tested for the presence of CHIKV RNA by RT-PCR and/or virus isolation. A total of 135 (7.1%) CHIKV infections were identified, providing an incidence rate of 10.1/1,000 person years. CHIKV infections were identified all year round and tended to increase during the rainy season (January to March). Severe illness was not found and severe arthralgia was not a prominently reported symptom. Serial post-illness samples from nine cases were tested to obtain a kinetic picture of IgM and IgG anti-CHIKV antibodies. Anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies were persistently detected in high titers for approximately one year. Three patients demonstrated evidence of possible sequential CHIKV infections. The high incidence rate and continuous chikungunya cases in this adult cohort suggests that CHIKV is endemically transmitted in Bandung. Further characterization of the circulating strains and surveillance in larger areas are needed to better understand CHIKV epidemiology in Indonesia. PMID:24205417

  18. Historical Trends in Ground-Based Optical Space Surveillance System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, M.; Shroyer, L.

    In the spirit of the 50th anniversary of the launch of the first man-made satellite, an historical overview of ground-based optical space surveillance systems is provided. Specific emphasis is given on gathering metrics to analyze design trends. The subject of space surveillance spans the history of spaceflight: from the early tracking cameras at missile ranges, the first observations of Sputnik, to the evolution towards highly capable commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) systems, and much in between. Whereas previous reviews in the literature have been limited in scope to specific time periods, operational programs, countries, etc., a broad overview of a wide range of sources is presented. This review is focused on systems whose primary design purpose can be classified as Space Object Identification (SOI) or Orbit Determination (OD). SOI systems are those that capture images or data to determine information about the satellite itself, such as attitude, features, and material composition. OD systems are those that produce estimates of the satellite position, usually in the form of orbital elements or a time history of tracking angles. Systems are also categorized based on the orbital regime in which their targets reside, which has been simplified in this study to either Low Earth Orbit (LEO) or Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). The systems are further classified depending on the industry segment (government/commercial or academic), and whether the program is foreign or domestic. In addition to gathering metrics on systems designed solely for man-made satellite observations, it is interesting to find examples of other systems being similarly used. Examples include large astronomical telescopes being used for GEO debris surveys and anomaly resolution for deep-space probes. Another interesting development is the increase in number and capability of COTS systems, some of which are specifically marketed to consumers as satellite trackers. After describing the results of the

  19. Reconstruction of 60 Years of Chikungunya Epidemiology in the Philippines Demonstrates Episodic and Focal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Salje, Henrik; Cauchemez, Simon; Alera, Maria Theresa; Rodriguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Lago, Catherine B.; Villa, Daisy; Klungthong, Chonticha; Tac-An, Ilya A.; Fernandez, Stefan; Velasco, John Mark; Roque, Vito G.; Nisalak, Ananda; Macareo, Louis R.; Levy, Jens W.; Cummings, Derek; Yoon, In-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Proper understanding of the long-term epidemiology of chikungunya has been hampered by poor surveillance. Outbreak years are unpredictable and cases often misdiagnosed. Here we analyzed age-specific data from 2 serological studies (from 1973 and 2012) in Cebu, Philippines, to reconstruct both the annual probability of infection and population-level immunity over a 60-year period (1952–2012). We also explored whether seroconversions during 2012–2013 were spatially clustered. Our models identified 4 discrete outbreaks separated by an average delay of 17 years. On average, 23% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16%–37%) of the susceptible population was infected per outbreak, with >50% of the entire population remaining susceptible at any point. Participants who seroconverted during 2012–2013 were clustered at distances of <230 m, suggesting focal transmission. Large-scale outbreaks of chikungunya did not result in sustained multiyear transmission. Nevertheless, we estimate that >350 000 infections were missed by surveillance systems. Serological studies could supplement surveillance to provide important insights on pathogen circulation. PMID:26410592

  20. Profile of The Chikungunya Infection: A Neglected Vector Borne Disease which is Prevalent In The Rajkot District

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwati, Chundawat; M, Madhulika; Mehta, Krunal D; Y.S, Goswami

    2013-01-01

    surveillance on the disease burden by using multiple diagnostic tests and it also warrants the need for appropriate molecular diagnostic techniques for an early detection of the Chikungunya virus. PMID:23905091

  1. Chikungunya in Europe: What’s next?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In August 2004, Kenyan health authorities and partners identified chikungunya virus as the cause of a febrile epidemic in humans in a coastal island city. This epidemic spread to Indian Ocean islands and India, where it continues and more than 1 million cases are suspected. Rezza and colleagues des...

  2. [Chikungunya fever - A new global threat].

    PubMed

    Montero, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    The recent onset of epidemics caused by viruses such as Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Lassa, coronavirus, West-Nile encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, human immunodeficiency virus, dengue, yellow fever and Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever alerts about the risk these agents represent for the global health. Chikungunya virus represents a new threat. Surged from remote African regions, this virus has become endemic in the Indic ocean basin, the Indian subcontinent and the southeast of Asia, causing serious epidemics in Africa, Indic Ocean Islands, Asia and Europe. Due to their epidemiological and biological features and the global presence of their vectors, chikungunya represents a serious menace and could become endemic in the Americas. Although chikungunya infection has a low mortality rate, its high attack ratio may collapse the health system during epidemics affecting a sensitive population. In this paper, we review the clinical and epidemiological features of chikungunya fever as well as the risk of its introduction into the Americas. We remark the importance of the epidemiological control and mosquitoes fighting in order to prevent this disease from being introduced into the Americas. PMID:25087211

  3. Connective tissue metabolism in chikungunya patients

    PubMed Central

    Lokireddy, Sudarsanareddy; Vemula, Sarojamma; Vadde, Ramakrishna

    2008-01-01

    Background Chikungunya (CHIK) fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans by the bite of Chikungunya virus (CHIK virus) infected Aedes mosquitoes. CHIK virus is a member of the Alphavirus genus of the family Togaviridae. Previous reports have indicated that infection with CHIK virus produces an acute arthritis in human hosts by large area of necrosis and collagenosis or fibrosis. Results We carried out the present study to determine the effect of chikungunya on the collagen and connective tissue metabolism in 75 chikungunya-affected people. First, we screened for mucopolysaccharides in urine by Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) test. Appearance of heavy precipitate indicates the presence of higher levels of mucopolysaccharides and later quantified by DMB dye method. The urinary mucopolysaccharide in CHIK patients was 342 ± 45 mg/l compared to healthy controls (45 ± 5.6 mg/l). The collagen building blocks, proline and hydroxyproline were also measured in CHIK patients and observed higher excretion compared to healthy controls. Urinary excretions hydroxyproline was greater than the proline levels. Conclusion These results indicate that CHIK virus infection affects and damage the cartilage and connective metabolism and releases the degraded products from the tissue and responsible for increasing the levels of proline, hydroxyproline and mucopolysaccharides in CHIK affected patients. PMID:18302795

  4. Poliomyelitis surveillance.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    Attention to the 4 poliomyelitis surveillance indicators approved by the International Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (ICCPE) in 1994, has deteriorated since the Americas were declared free from wild poliovirus. The indicators are designed to measure the performance of health services and the sensitivity of the surveillance system to detect wild poliovirus circulating in the community. Sensitivity is the most important characteristic of the poliomyelitis surveillance system and it is measured by the rate of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) per 100,000 under age 15 years. As of March 21, 1998, the AFP rate reached its lowest level yet in the Americas, with only Bolivia, Chile, and Honduras presenting an acceptable rate (the analysis does not include the US and Canada). The other countries in the Caribbean region and Latin America had rates under 1 AFP case per 100,000 children under age 15. It follows that only 6% of children under age 15 in the region are currently protected by a sensitive AFP surveillance system. Poliovirus may therefore be circulating silently in the region. Renewed attention must be given to the AFP surveillance indicators. PMID:12321498

  5. Approaches to the treatment of disease induced by chikungunya virus

    PubMed Central

    Bettadapura, Jayaram; Herrero, Lara J.; Taylor, Adam; Mahalingam, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus, a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus, causes fever, rash and persistent arthralgia/arthritis in humans. Severe outbreaks have occurred resulting in infections of millions of people in Southeast Asia and Africa. Currently there are no antiviral drugs or vaccines for prevention and treatment of chikungunya infections. Herein we report the current status of research on antiviral drugs and vaccines for chikungunya virus infections. PMID:24434329

  6. Design and development of a compact lidar/DIAL system for aerial surveillance of urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Malizia, A.; Richetta, M.; Antonucci, A.; Ventura, P.; Murari, A.; Vega, J.

    2013-10-01

    Recently surveying large areas in an automatic way, for early detection of harmful chemical agents, has become a strategic objective of defence and public health organisations. The Lidar-Dial techniques are widely recognized as a cost-effective alternative to monitor large portions of the atmosphere but, up to now, they have been mainly deployed as ground based stations. The design reported in this paper concerns the development of a Lidar-Dial system compact enough to be carried by a small airplane and capable of detecting sudden releases in air of harmful and/or polluting substances. The proposed approach consists of continuous monitoring of the area under surveillance with a Lidar type measurement. Once a significant increase in the density of backscattering substances is revealed, it is intended to switch to the Dial technique to identify the released chemicals and to determine its concentration. In this paper, the design of the proposed system is described and the simulations carried out to determine its performances are reported. For the Lidar measurements, commercially available Nd- YAG laser sources have already been tested and their performances, in combination with avalanche photodiodes, have been experimentally verified to meet the required specifications. With regard to the DIAL measurements, new compact CO2 laser sources are being investigated. The most promising candidate presents an energy per pulse of about 50 mJ typical, sufficient for a range of at least 500m. The laser also provides the so called "agile tuning" option that allows to quickly tune the wavelength. To guarantee continuous, automatic surveying of large areas, innovative solutions are required for the data acquisition, self monitoring of the system and data analysis. The results of the design, the simulations and some preliminary tests illustrate the potential of the chosen, integrated approach.

  7. Design of IR omni-directional optical system for night vision and surveillance of defense and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jong-goo; Ryu, Jae Myung; Jo, Jae Heung

    2015-05-01

    In the omni-directional optical system used for real-time surveillance, we established the theory of basic optical design for a two-reflector catadioptric omni-directional optical system which has a convex primary mirror and a plane secondary mirror as its reflection imaging part. We also established an algorithm and programmed to analyze the variables of the theory. By using this method, the key optical elements related to the primary and secondary mirrors in the system can be simply and easily designed based on the optical system variables such as radius of curvature for the primary mirror and position of the secondary mirror, and location and radius of entrance pupil of the refractive imaging optics. And we achieved readily and successfully an infrared omni-directional optical system for night vision and surveillance of defense and safety by using the basic design theory.

  8. Design and implementation of a Space-Time Intelligence System for disease surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Greiling, Dunrie A.; Kaufmann, Andrew M.

    2005-05-01

    Modeling chronic and infectious diseases entails tracking and describing individuals and their attributes (such as disease status, date of diagnosis, risk factors and so on) as they move and change through space and time. Using Geographic Information Systems, researchers can model, visualize and query spatial data, but their ability to address time has been limited by the lack of temporal referencing in the underlying data structures. In this paper, we discuss issues in designing data structures, indexing, and queries for spatio-temporal data within the context of health surveillance. We describe a space-time object model that treats modeled individuals as a chain of linked observations comprised of an ID, space-time coordinate, and time-referenced attributes. Movement models for these modeled individuals are functions that may be simple (e.g. linear, using vector representation) or more complex. We present several spatial, temporal, spatio-temporal and epidemiological queries emergent from the data model. We demonstrate this approach in a representative application, a simulation of the spread of influenza in a hospital ward.

  9. Control and design of multiple unmanned air vehicles for persistent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigam, Nikhil

    Control of multiple autonomous aircraft for search and exploration, is a topic of current research interest for applications such as weather monitoring, geographical surveys, search and rescue, tactical reconnaissance, and extra-terrestrial exploration, and the need to distribute sensing is driven by considerations of efficiency, reliability, cost and scalability. Hence, this problem has been extensively studied in the fields of controls and artificial intelligence. The task of persistent surveillance is different from a coverage/exploration problem, in that all areas need to be continuously searched, minimizing the time between visitations to each region in the target space. This distinction does not allow a straightforward application of most exploration techniques to the problem, although ideas from these methods can still be used. The use of aerial vehicles is motivated by their ability to cover larger spaces and their relative insensitivity to terrain. However, the dynamics of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) adds complexity to the control problem. Most of the work in the literature decouples the vehicle dynamics and control policies, but their interaction is particularly interesting for a surveillance mission. Stochastic environments and UAV failures further enrich the problem by requiring the control policies to be robust, and this aspect is particularly important for hardware implementations. For a persistent mission, it becomes imperative to consider the range/endurance constraints of the vehicles. The coupling of the control policy with the endurance constraints of the vehicles is an aspect that has not been sufficiently explored. Design of UAVs for desirable mission performance is also an issue of considerable significance. The use of a single monolithic optimization for such a problem has practical limitations, and decomposition-based design is a potential alternative. In this research high-level control policies are devised, that are scalable, reliable

  10. Design considerations for intrusion detection wide-area surveillance radars for perimeters and borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Walker

    2009-05-01

    Ground Surveillance Radars (GSRs) can build a virtual wall around facilities or on a border. They provide operators and agents with much more time to assess, prioritize and apprehend intruders than a traditional fence system. The extra response time is one of the important features of the wide area surveillance concept, along with added benefits for both the operators and the response teams. These are described in detail in the paper. But all GSRs are not alike. There are two primary GSR technologies - Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) and Pulse Doppler. Most pulse Doppler radars are derivatives of legacy military battlefield radar technology being applied for wide area surveillance, while a new generation of FMCW radar technology has been developed for this new type of surveillance, applied to high value site security, airports, military bases, ports and borders. The purpose of this paper is to explore the benefits of each type of radar for the wide area application.

  11. Designing Normative Messages About Active Surveillance for Men With Localized Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Volk, Robert J; Kinsman, Gianna T; Le, Yen-Chi L; Swank, Paul; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; McFall, Stephanie L; Byrd, Theresa L; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Cantor, Scott B

    2015-01-01

    Active surveillance is increasingly recognized as a reasonable option for men with low-risk, localized prostate cancer, yet few men who might benefit from conservative management receive it. The authors examined the acceptability of normative messages about active surveillance as a management option for patients with low-risk prostate cancer. Men with a diagnosis of localized prostate cancer who were recruited through prostate cancer support organizations completed a web-based survey (N = 331). They rated messages about active surveillance for believability, accuracy, and importance for men to hear when making treatment decisions. The message "You don't have to panic … you have time to think about your options" was perceived as believable, accurate, and important by more than 80% of the survivors. In contrast, messages about trust in the active surveillance protocol and "knowing in plenty of time" if treatment is needed were rated as accurate by only about 36% of respondents. For active surveillance to be viewed as a reasonable alternative, men will need reassurance that following an active surveillance protocol is likely to allow time for curative treatment if the cancer progresses. PMID:26066011

  12. Design and prospective evaluation of a risk-based surveillance system for shrimp grow-out farms in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ana Rita; Pereira, Marcelo; Ferreira Neto, Jose Soares; Ferreira, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    The farming of Pacific white shrimp Litopennaeus vannamei in northeast Brazil, has proven to be a promising sector. However, the farming of Pacific white shrimp in Brazil has been affected negatively by the occurrence of viral diseases, threatening this sector's expansion and sustainability. For this reason, the drafting of a surveillance system for early detection and definition of freedom from viral diseases, whose occurrence could result in high economic loses, is of the utmost importance. The stochastic model AquaVigil was implemented to prospectively evaluate different surveillance strategies to determine freedom from disease and identify the strategy with the lowest sampling efforts, making the best use of available resources through risk-based surveillance. The worked example presented was designed for regional application for the state of Ceará and can easily be applied to other Brazilian states. The AquaVigil model can analyse any risk-based surveillance system that considers a similar outline to the strategy here presented. PMID:26596650

  13. Chikungunya virus and prospects for a vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Scott C; Osorio, Jorge E; Livengood, Jill A; Chen, Rubing; Stinchcomb, Dan T

    2013-01-01

    In 2004, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged from East Africa to cause devastating epidemics of debilitating and often chronic arthralgia that have affected millions of people in the Indian Ocean Basin and Asia. More limited epidemics initiated by travelers subsequently occurred in Italy and France, as well as human cases exported to most regions of the world, including the Americas where CHIKV could become endemic. Because CHIKV circulates during epidemics in an urban mosquito–human cycle, control of transmission relies on mosquito abatement, which is rarely effective. Furthermore, there is no antiviral treatment for CHIKV infection and no licensed vaccine to prevent disease. Here, we discuss the challenges to the development of a safe, effective and affordable chikungunya vaccine and recent progress toward this goal. PMID:23151166

  14. Epidemiology of Chikungunya Virus in Bahia, Brazil, 2014-2015

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues Faria, Nuno; Lourenço, José; Marques de Cerqueira, Erenilde; Maia de Lima, Maricélia; Pybus, Oliver; Carlos Junior Alcantara, Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya is an emerging arbovirus that is characterized into four lineages. One of these, the Asian genotype, has spread rapidly in the Americas after its introduction in the Saint Martin island in October 2013. Unexpectedly, a new lineage, the East-Central-South African genotype, was introduced from Angola in the end of May 2014 in Feira de Santana (FSA), the second largest city in Bahia state, Brazil, where over 5,500 cases have now been reported. Number weekly cases of clinically confirmed CHIKV in FSA were analysed alongside with urban district of residence of CHIKV cases reported between June 2014 and October collected from the municipality’s surveillance network. The number of cases per week from June 2014 until September 2015 reveals two distinct transmission waves. The first wave ignited in June and transmission ceased by December 2014. However, a second transmission wave started in January and peaked in May 2015, 8 months after the first wave peak, and this time in phase with Dengue virus and Zika virus transmission, which ceased when minimum temperature dropped to approximately 15°C. We find that shorter travelling times from the district where the outbreak first emerged to other urban districts of FSA were strongly associated with incidence in each district in 2014 (R2). PMID:27330849

  15. Epidemiology of Chikungunya Virus in Bahia, Brazil, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Faria, Nuno; Lourenço, José; Marques de Cerqueira, Erenilde; Maia de Lima, Maricélia; Pybus, Oliver; Carlos Junior Alcantara, Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya is an emerging arbovirus that is characterized into four lineages. One of these, the Asian genotype, has spread rapidly in the Americas after its introduction in the Saint Martin island in October 2013. Unexpectedly, a new lineage, the East-Central-South African genotype, was introduced from Angola in the end of May 2014 in Feira de Santana (FSA), the second largest city in Bahia state, Brazil, where over 5,500 cases have now been reported. Number weekly cases of clinically confirmed CHIKV in FSA were analysed alongside with urban district of residence of CHIKV cases reported between June 2014 and October collected from the municipality's surveillance network. The number of cases per week from June 2014 until September 2015 reveals two distinct transmission waves. The first wave ignited in June and transmission ceased by December 2014. However, a second transmission wave started in January and peaked in May 2015, 8 months after the first wave peak, and this time in phase with Dengue virus and Zika virus transmission, which ceased when minimum temperature dropped to approximately 15°C. We find that shorter travelling times from the district where the outbreak first emerged to other urban districts of FSA were strongly associated with incidence in each district in 2014 (R(2)). PMID:27330849

  16. Antiviral activity of silymarin against chikungunya virus

    PubMed Central

    Lani, Rafidah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Chiam, Chun Wei; Moghaddam, Ehsan; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Rausalu, Kai; Merits, Andres; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana; Abu Bakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes chikungunya fever, with clinical presentations such as severe back and small joint pain, and debilitating arthritis associated with crippling pains that persist for weeks and even years. Although there are several studies to evaluate the efficacy of drugs against CHIKV, the treatment for chikungunya fever is mainly symptom-based and no effective licensed vaccine or antiviral are available. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of three types of flavonoids against CHIKV in vitro replication. Three compounds: silymarin, quercetin and kaempferol were evaluated for their in vitro antiviral activities against CHIKV using a CHIKV replicon cell line and clinical isolate of CHIKV of Central/East African genotype. A cytopathic effect inhibition assay was used to determine their activities on CHIKV viral replication and quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to calculate virus yield. Antiviral activity of effective compound was further investigated by evaluation of CHIKV protein expression using western blotting for CHIKV nsP1, nsP3, and E2E1 proteins. Briefly, silymarin exhibited significant antiviral activity against CHIKV, reducing both CHIKV replication efficiency and down-regulating production of viral proteins involved in replication. This study may have important consequence for broaden the chance of getting the effective antiviral for CHIKV infection. PMID:26078201

  17. Antiviral activity of silymarin against chikungunya virus.

    PubMed

    Lani, Rafidah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Chiam, Chun Wei; Moghaddam, Ehsan; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Rausalu, Kai; Merits, Andres; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana; Abu Bakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes chikungunya fever, with clinical presentations such as severe back and small joint pain, and debilitating arthritis associated with crippling pains that persist for weeks and even years. Although there are several studies to evaluate the efficacy of drugs against CHIKV, the treatment for chikungunya fever is mainly symptom-based and no effective licensed vaccine or antiviral are available. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of three types of flavonoids against CHIKV in vitro replication. Three compounds: silymarin, quercetin and kaempferol were evaluated for their in vitro antiviral activities against CHIKV using a CHIKV replicon cell line and clinical isolate of CHIKV of Central/East African genotype. A cytopathic effect inhibition assay was used to determine their activities on CHIKV viral replication and quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to calculate virus yield. Antiviral activity of effective compound was further investigated by evaluation of CHIKV protein expression using western blotting for CHIKV nsP1, nsP3, and E2E1 proteins. Briefly, silymarin exhibited significant antiviral activity against CHIKV, reducing both CHIKV replication efficiency and down-regulating production of viral proteins involved in replication. This study may have important consequence for broaden the chance of getting the effective antiviral for CHIKV infection. PMID:26078201

  18. The Global Virus Network: Challenging chikungunya.

    PubMed

    McSweegan, Edward; Weaver, Scott C; Lecuit, Marc; Frieman, Matthew; Morrison, Thomas E; Hrynkow, Sharon

    2015-08-01

    The recent spread of chikungunya virus to the Western Hemisphere, together with the ongoing Ebola epidemic in West Africa, have highlighted the importance of international collaboration in the detection and management of disease outbreaks. In response to this need, the Global Virus Network (GVN) was formed in 2011. The GVN is a coalition of leading medical virologists in 34 affiliated laboratories in 24 countries, who collaborate to share their resources and expertise. The GVN supports research, promotes training for young scientists, serves as a technical resource for governments, businesses and international organizations, facilitates international scientific cooperation, and advocates for funding and evidence-based public policies. In response to the spread of chikungunya, the GVN formed a task force to identify research gaps and opportunities, including models of infection and disease, candidate vaccines and antivirals, epidemiology and vector control measures. Its members also serve as authoritative sources of information for the public, press, and policy-makers. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Chikungunya discovers the New World". PMID:26071007

  19. The Global Virus Network: Challenging chikungunya

    PubMed Central

    McSweegan, Edward; Weaver, Scott C.; Lecuit, Marc; Frieman, Matthew; Morrison, Thomas E.; Hrynkow, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    The recent spread of chikungunya virus to the Western Hemisphere, together with the ongoing Ebola epidemic in West Africa, have highlighted the importance of international collaboration in the detection and management of disease outbreaks. In response to this need, the Global Virus Network (GVN) was formed in 2011. The GVN is a coalition of leading medical virologists in 34 affiliated laboratories in 24 countries, who collaborate to share their resources and expertise. The GVN supports research, promotes training for young scientists, serves as a technical resource for governments, businesses and international organizations, facilitates international scientific cooperation, and advocates for funding and evidence-based public policies. In response to the spread of chikungunya, the GVN formed a task force to identify research gaps and opportunities, including models of infection and disease, candidate vaccines and antivirals, epidemiology and vector control measures. Its members also serve as authoritative sources of information for the public, press, and policy-makers. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on “Chikungunya discovers the New World”. PMID:26071007

  20. [Influenza surveillance].

    PubMed

    Bednarska, Karolina; Hallmann-Szelińska, Ewelina; Kondratiuk, Katarzyna; Brydak, Lidia B

    2016-01-01

    Influenza surveillance was established in 1947. From this moment WHO (World Health Organization) has been coordinating international cooperation, with a goal of monitoring influenza virus activity, effective diagnostic of the circulating viruses and informing society about epidemics or pandemics, as well as about emergence of new subtypes of influenza virus type A. Influenza surveillance is an important task, because it enables people to prepare themselves for battle with the virus that is constantly mutating, what leads to circulation of new and often more virulent strains of influenza in human population. As vaccination is the most effective method of fighting the virus, one of the major tasks of GISRS is developing an optimal antigenic composition of the vaccine for the current epidemic season. European Influenza Surveillance Network (EISN) has also developed over the years. EISN is running integrated epidemiological and virological influenza surveillance, to provide appropriate data to public health experts in member countries, to enable them undertaking relevant activities based on the current information about influenza activity. In close cooperation with GISRS and EISN are National Influenza Centres--national institutions designated by the Ministry of Health in each country. PMID:27117107

  1. A Case of Chikungunya Virus Induced Arthralgia Responsive to Colchicine

    PubMed Central

    Redel, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is an emerging infectious disease that has started circulating throughout the Americas and Caribbean. It can lead to persistent arthralgia lasting months to years. Treatment has been symptomatic with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications. This case report describes a trial of colchicine for chikungunya arthralgia in 1 patient. PMID:27419183

  2. A Case of Chikungunya Virus Induced Arthralgia Responsive to Colchicine.

    PubMed

    Redel, Henry

    2016-04-01

    Chikungunya virus is an emerging infectious disease that has started circulating throughout the Americas and Caribbean. It can lead to persistent arthralgia lasting months to years. Treatment has been symptomatic with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications. This case report describes a trial of colchicine for chikungunya arthralgia in 1 patient. PMID:27419183

  3. [Dengue and chikungunya acquired during travel in the tropics].

    PubMed

    van Aart, Carola J C; Braks, Marieta A H; Hautvast, Jeannine L A; de Mast, Quirijn; Tostmann, Alma

    2015-01-01

    The global incidence of dengue and chikungunya has greatly increased over recent decades, partly due to the increase of geographic distribution of both vectors. These infections are endemic to the tropics and subtropics, however autochthonous transmission and outbreaks have been described in non-endemic areas. Currently, there is a large chikungunya outbreak in the western hemisphere which started in the Caribbean. Chikungunya had not previously been endemic to this region. Both arboviral infections are important causes of fever in Dutch travellers returning from tropical destinations. The clinical presentations of dengue and chikungunya overlap; both are characterised by high fever and arthralgia. Bleeding and plasma leakage are potentially life-threatening complications of dengue, while persistent arthralgia typifies chikungunya. The prevention of mosquito bites, by using protective clothing and insect repellents, is the only way to prevent infection. No vaccine is yet available. PMID:25784059

  4. The First Imported Case Infected with Chikungunya Virus in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya is caused by an arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquito vector. With the increase of habitat of mosquito by global warming and frequent international travel and interchange, chikungunya reemerged and showed global distribution recently. Until now there has not been reported any case infected with chikungunya virus in Korea. A 23-year-old man has been the Republic of the Philippines for 1 week, and visited our emergency center due to fever and back pain. Chikungunya viral infection was diagnosed by specific IgM for chickungunya virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assayin Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. His clinical course was self limited. We introduce the first imported case infected with chikungunya virus in Korea. PMID:25844264

  5. An imported case of Chikungunya fever from Madagascar: use of the sentinel traveller for detecting emerging arboviral infections in tropical and European countries.

    PubMed

    Pistone, Thierry; Ezzedine, Khaled; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Receveur, Marie-Catherine; Malvy, Denis

    2009-01-01

    A major Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic affected the South-Western Indian Ocean islands in 2005. This major outbreak raised concerns about the possibility of the emergence of CHIKV infections in Europe as an autochthonous CHIKV outbreak occurred in the Ravenna region of Italy during the summer of 2007 and was linked to a viraemic index case originating in Kerala, India. This report highlights the need for surveillance in countries where such emerging infections could be introduced by returning travellers. PMID:19174303

  6. SBSS Demonstrator: A design for efficient demonstration of Space-based Space Surveillance end-to-end capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utzmann, Jens; Flohrer, Tim; Schildknecht, Thomas; Wagner, Axel; Silha, Jiri; Willemsen, Philip; Teston, Frederic

    This paper presents the capabilities of a Space-Based Space Surveillance (SBSS) demonstration mission for Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) based on a micro-satellite platform. The results have been produced in the frame of ESA’s "Assessment Study for Space Based Space Surveillance Demonstration Mission" performed by the Airbus Defence and Space consortium. Space Surveillance and Tracking is part of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and covers the detection, tracking and cataloguing of space debris and satellites. Derived SST services comprise a catalogue of these man-made objects, collision warning, detection and characterisation of in-orbit fragmentations, sub-catalogue debris characterisation, etc. The assessment of SBSS in a SST system architecture has shown that both an operational SBSS and also already a well-designed space-based demonstrator can provide substantial performance in terms of surveillance and tracking of beyond-LEO objects. Especially the early deployment of a demonstrator, possible by using standard equipment, could boost initial operating capability and create a self-maintained object catalogue. Furthermore, unique statistical information about small-size LEO debris (mm size) can be collected in-situ. Unlike classical technology demonstration missions, the primary goal is the demonstration and optimisation of the functional elements in a complex end-to-end chain (mission planning, observation strategies, data acquisition, processing and fusion, etc.) until the final products can be offered to the users. Also past and current missions by the US (SBV, SBSS) and Canada (Sapphire, NEOSSat) underline the advantages of space-based space surveillance. The presented SBSS system concept takes the ESA SST System Requirements (derived within the ESA SSA Preparatory Program) into account and aims at fulfilling SST core requirements in a stand-alone manner. Additionally, requirments for detection and characterisation of small-sized LEO debris are

  7. External quality assessment of dengue and chikungunya diagnostics in the Asia Pacific region, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Soh, Li Ting; Squires, Raynal C; Tan, Li Kiang; Pok, Kwoon Yong; Yang, HuiTing; Liew, Christina; Shah, Aparna Singh; Aaskov, John; Abubakar, Sazaly; Hasabe, Futoshi; Ng, Lee Ching

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct an external quality assessment (EQA) of dengue and chikungunya diagnostics among national-level public health laboratories in the Asia Pacific region following the first round of EQA for dengue diagnostics in 2013. Methods Twenty-four national-level public health laboratories performed routine diagnostic assays on a proficiency testing panel consisting of two modules. Module A contained serum samples spiked with cultured dengue virus (DENV) or chikungunya virus (CHIKV) for the detection of nucleic acid and DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen. Module B contained human serum samples for the detection of anti-DENV antibodies. Results Among 20 laboratories testing Module A, 17 (85%) correctly detected DENV RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR), 18 (90%) correctly determined serotype and 19 (95%) correctly identified CHIKV by RT–PCR. Ten of 15 (66.7%) laboratories performing NS1 antigen assays obtained the correct results. In Module B, 18/23 (78.3%) and 20/20 (100%) of laboratories correctly detected anti-DENV IgM and IgG, respectively. Detection of acute/recent DENV infection by both molecular (RT–PCR) and serological methods (IgM) was available in 19/24 (79.2%) participating laboratories. Discussion Accurate laboratory testing is a critical component of dengue and chikungunya surveillance and control. This second round of EQA reveals good proficiency in molecular and serological diagnostics of these diseases in the Asia Pacific region. Further comprehensive diagnostic testing, including testing for Zika virus, should comprise future iterations of the EQA. PMID:27508088

  8. Reduced Incidence of Chikungunya Virus Infection in Communities with Ongoing Aedes Aegypti Mosquito Trap Intervention Studies - Salinas and Guayama, Puerto Rico, November 2015-February 2016.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, Olga D; Major, Chelsea; Acevedo, Veronica; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Rivera, Aidsa; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Waterman, Stephen; Barrera, Roberto; Sharp, Tyler M

    2016-01-01

    Aedes species mosquitoes transmit chikungunya virus, as well as dengue and Zika viruses, and bite most often during the day.* Infectious mosquito bites frequently occur in and around homes (1,2). Caribbean countries first reported local transmission of chikungunya virus in December 2013, and soon after, chikungunya virus spread throughout the Americas (3). Puerto Rico reported its first laboratory-positive chikungunya case in May 2014 (4), and subsequently identified approximately 29,000 suspected cases throughout the island by the end of 2015.(†) Because conventional vector control approaches often fail to result in effective and sustainable prevention of infection with viruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes (5), and to improve surveillance of mosquito population densities, CDC developed an Autocidal Gravid Ovitrap (AGO) (6) to attract and capture the female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes responsible for transmission of infectious agents to humans (Figure). The AGO trap is a simple, low-cost device that requires no use of pesticides and no servicing for an extended period of time (6). PMID:27171600

  9. Do we need a vaccine against chikungunya?

    PubMed Central

    Rezza, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, the chikungunya (CHIKV) virus has expanded its range of activity, conquering new territories and becoming an important global health threat. In particular, the challenge represented by the recent emergence of CHIKV in the Americas has strengthened the need of a safe and effective vaccine. Although research on vaccines against CHIKV has been slow, a few vaccine candidates have been tested over the years. Inactivated and attenuated vaccine candidates have shown promising results in phase I/II trials, and engineered vaccines have proven to be safe and immunogenic in mouse and/or non-human primate models. Recently, a vaccine based on virus-like particles (VLP) has been successfully tested in a phase I trial. However, large phase I/II controlled trials, which are needed in order to provide evidence of vaccine efficacy, may be planned only under certain conditions. First, they should be conducted during epidemic periods, when a large number of cases occur, in order to ensure an adequate study power. Second, they are expensive and investments returns are not always guaranteed. To overcome this problem, public/private partnership and government support, the identification of target population groups for vaccination and the commitment of donor agencies are key factors for supporting both the development and the availability of vaccines against neglected tropical diseases like chikungunya. PMID:25971340

  10. Chikungunya virus pathogenesis: From bedside to bench.

    PubMed

    Couderc, Thérèse; Lecuit, Marc

    2015-09-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquito bite. A decade ago, the virus caused a major outbreak in the islands of the Indian Ocean, then reached India and Southeast Asia. More recently, CHIKV has emerged in the Americas, first reaching the Caribbean and now extending to Central, South and North America. It is therefore considered a major public health and economic threat. CHIKV causes febrile illness typically associated with debilitating joint pains. In rare cases, it may also cause central nervous system disease, notably in neonates. Joint symptoms may persist for months to years, and lead to arthritis. This review focuses on the spectrum of signs and symptoms associated with CHIKV infection in humans. It also illustrates how the analysis of clinical and biological data from human cohorts and the development of animal and cellular models of infection has helped to identify the tissue and cell tropisms of the virus and to decipher host responses in benign, severe or persistent disease. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Chikungunya discovers the New World". PMID:26159730

  11. The Chikungunya virus: An emerging US pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Nappe, Thomas M.; Chuhran, Craig M.; Johnson, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Chikungunya (CHIK) virus was recently reported by the CDC to have spread to the United States. We report an early documented case of CHIK from the state of Pennsylvania after a patient recently returned from Haiti in June of 2014. METHODS: A 39-year-old man presented to the emergency department complaining of fever, fatigue, polyarthralgias and a diffuse rash for two days. Four days before, he returned from a mission trip to Haiti and reported that four of his accompanying friends had also become ill. A CHIK antibody titer was obtained and it was found to be positive. During his hospital stay, he responded well to supportive care, including anti-inflammatories, intravenous hydration and anti-emetics. RESULTS: His condition improved within two days and he was ultimately discharged home. CONCLUSIONS: Manifestations of CHIK can be similar to Dengue fever, which is transmitted by the same species of mosquito, and occasionally as a co-infection. Clinicians should include Chikungunya virus in their differential diagnosis of patients who present with fever, polyarthralgia and rash with a recent history of travel to endemic areas, including those within the United States. PMID:27006742

  12. Chikungunya Virus Disease: An Emerging Challenge for the Rheumatologist.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Vini; Sukumaran, Sukesh

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya is caused by an alphavirus that is transmitted to humans via the Aedes species mosquito. Chikungunya is endemic to tropical Africa and South and Southeast Asia, but over the past decade, the geographic distribution of the virus has been expanding rapidly. The disease is characterized by fever and severe polyarthritis, and although symptoms typically resolve within 7 to 10 days, some patients experience persistent arthritis and arthralgias for months to years.In December 2013, the first local transmission of chikungunya virus in the Americas was identified in the Caribbean Island of Saint Martin. Since then, the number of afflicted individuals has spread throughout the Caribbean and Central America, as well as into South America. The United States reported 2788 chikungunya virus disease cases among travelers returning from affected areas in 2014. In addition, 11 locally acquired cases were reported in Florida. Further spread and establishment of the disease in the Americas are likely considering the high levels of viremia in infected individuals, widespread distribution of effective vectors, lack of immunity among people living in the Americas, and the popularity of international travel.Considering the prominent rheumatic manifestations of chikungunya, rheumatologists are likely to encounter patients with the disease in their practice. We recommend that rheumatologists consider chikungunya in their differential diagnosis when evaluating patients presenting with fever and joint pain following travel to a chikungunya endemic area. Early diagnosis would ensure timely management and reduction of polypharmacy and its associated complications. In this article, we briefly describe the epidemiology of chikungunya, the clinical features, laboratory testing, prevention, and treatment of disease. PMID:27219309

  13. Utilization of an Eilat Virus-Based Chimera for Serological Detection of Chikungunya Infection.

    PubMed

    Erasmus, Jesse H; Needham, James; Raychaudhuri, Syamal; Diamond, Michael S; Beasley, David W C; Morkowski, Stan; Salje, Henrik; Fernandez Salas, Ildefonso; Kim, Dal Young; Frolov, Ilya; Nasar, Farooq; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    In December of 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus in the family Togaviridae, was introduced to the island of Saint Martin in the Caribbean, resulting in the first autochthonous cases reported in the Americas. As of January 2015, local and imported CHIKV has been reported in 50 American countries with over 1.1 million suspected cases. CHIKV causes a severe arthralgic disease for which there are no approved vaccines or therapeutics. Furthermore, the lack of a commercially available, sensitive, and affordable diagnostic assay limits surveillance and control efforts. To address this issue, we utilized an insect-specific alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), to develop a diagnostic antigen that does not require biosafety containment facilities to produce. We demonstrated that EILV/CHIKV replicates to high titers in insect cells and can be applied directly in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays without inactivation, resulting in highly sensitive detection of recent and past CHIKV infection, and outperforming traditional antigen preparations. PMID:26492074

  14. Utilization of an Eilat Virus-Based Chimera for Serological Detection of Chikungunya Infection

    PubMed Central

    Erasmus, Jesse H.; Needham, James; Raychaudhuri, Syamal; Diamond, Michael S.; Beasley, David W. C.; Morkowski, Stan; Salje, Henrik; Fernandez Salas, Ildefonso; Kim, Dal Young; Frolov, Ilya; Nasar, Farooq; Weaver, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    In December of 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus in the family Togaviridae, was introduced to the island of Saint Martin in the Caribbean, resulting in the first autochthonous cases reported in the Americas. As of January 2015, local and imported CHIKV has been reported in 50 American countries with over 1.1 million suspected cases. CHIKV causes a severe arthralgic disease for which there are no approved vaccines or therapeutics. Furthermore, the lack of a commercially available, sensitive, and affordable diagnostic assay limits surveillance and control efforts. To address this issue, we utilized an insect-specific alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), to develop a diagnostic antigen that does not require biosafety containment facilities to produce. We demonstrated that EILV/CHIKV replicates to high titers in insect cells and can be applied directly in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays without inactivation, resulting in highly sensitive detection of recent and past CHIKV infection, and outperforming traditional antigen preparations. PMID:26492074

  15. Neuropathogenesis of Chikungunya infection: astrogliosis and innate immune activation.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Fiona M; Lee, Kim M; Chiu, Kevin B; Purcell, Olivia M; Didier, Peter J; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi; Weaver, Scott C; Roy, Chad J; MacLean, Andrew G

    2016-04-01

    Chikungunya, "that which bends up" in the Makonde dialect, is an emerging global health threat, with increasing incidence of neurological complications. Until 2013, Chikungunya infection had been largely restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean, with cases within the USA reported to be from foreign travel. However, in 2014, over 1 million suspected cases were reported in the Americas, and a recently infected human could serve as an unwitting reservoir for the virus resulting in an epidemic in the continental USA. Chikungunya infection is increasingly being associated with neurological sequelae. In this study, we sought to understand the role of astrocytes in the neuropathogenesis of Chikungunya infection. Even after virus has been cleared form the circulation, astrocytes were activated with regard to TLR2 expression. In addition, white matter astrocytes were hypertrophic, with increased arbor volume in gray matter astrocytes. Combined, these would alter the number and distribution of synapses that each astrocyte would be capable of forming. These results provide the first evidence that Chikungunya infection induces morphometric and innate immune activation of astrocytes in vivo. Perturbed glia-neuron signaling could be a major driving factor in the development of Chikungunya-associated neuropathology. PMID:26419894

  16. Design of a national retail data monitor for public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michael M; Robinson, J Michael; Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Espino, Jeremy U; Hogan, William R

    2003-01-01

    The National Retail Data Monitor receives data daily from 10,000 stores, including pharmacies, that sell health care products. These stores belong to national chains that process sales data centrally and utilize Universal Product Codes and scanners to collect sales information at the cash register. The high degree of retail sales data automation enables the monitor to collect information from thousands of store locations in near to real time for use in public health surveillance. The monitor provides user interfaces that display summary sales data on timelines and maps. Algorithms monitor the data automatically on a daily basis to detect unusual patterns of sales. The project provides the resulting data and analyses, free of charge, to health departments nationwide. Future plans include continued enrollment and support of health departments, developing methods to make the service financially self-supporting, and further refinement of the data collection system to reduce the time latency of data receipt and analysis. PMID:12807802

  17. A quantitative method for groundwater surveillance monitoring network design at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, P.D.

    1993-12-01

    As part of the Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site, mandated by the US Department of Energy, hundreds of groundwater wells are sampled each year, with each sample typically analyzed for a variety of constituents. The groundwater sampling program must satisfy several broad objectives. These objectives include an integrated assessment of the condition of groundwater and the identification and quantification of existing, emerging, or potential groundwater problems. Several quantitative network desip objectives are proposed and a mathematical optimization model is developed from these objectives. The model attempts to find minimum cost network alternatives that maximize the amount of information generated by the network. Information is measured both by the rats of change with respect to time of the contaminant concentration and the uncertainty in contaminant concentration. In an application to tritium monitoring at the Hanford Site, both information measures were derived from historical data using time series analysis.

  18. The design of a multicentre Canadian surveillance study of sedation safety in the paediatric emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Maala; Roback, Mark G; Joubert, Gary; Farion, Ken J; Ali, Samina; Beno, Suzanne; McTimoney, C Michelle; Dixon, Andrew; Dubrovsky, Alexander Sasha; Barrowman, Nick; Johnson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Procedural sedation and analgesia have become standard practice in paediatric emergency departments worldwide. Although generally regarded as safe, serious adverse events such as bradycardia, asystole, pulmonary aspiration, permanent neurological injury and death have been reported, but their incidence is unknown due to the infrequency of their occurrence and lack of surveillance of sedation safety. To improve our understanding of the safety, comparative effectiveness and variation in care in paediatric procedural sedation, we are establishing a multicentre patient registry with the goal of conducting regular and ongoing surveillance for adverse events in procedural sedation. Methods This multicentre, prospective cohort study is enrolling patients under 18 years of age from six paediatric emergency departments across Canada. Data collection is fully integrated into clinical care and is performed electronically in real time by the healthcare professionals caring for the patient. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients who experience a serious adverse event as a result of their sedation. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of patients who experience an adverse event that could lead to a serious adverse event, proportion of patients who receive a significant intervention in response to an adverse event, proportion of patients who experience a successful sedation, and proportion of patients who experience a paradoxical reaction to sedation. There is no predetermined end date for data collection. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been obtained from participating sites. Results will be disseminated using a multifaceted knowledge translation strategy by presenting at international conferences, publication in peer-reviewed journals, and through established networks. PMID:26024999

  19. Syndromic Surveillance System for Korea-US Joint Biosurveillance Portal: Design and Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Chulwoo; Burkom, Howard; Yoon, Chang-Gyo; Stewart, Miles; Elbert, Yevgeniy; Katz, Aaron; Tak, Sangwoo

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the growing importance of situational awareness of bioterrorism threats, the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the United States have constructed a joint military capability, called the Biosurveillance Portal (BSP), to enhance biosecurity. As one component of the BSP, we developed the Military Active Real-time Syndromic Surveillance (MARSS) system to detect and track natural and deliberate disease outbreaks. This article describes the ROK military health data infrastructure and explains how syndromic data are derived and made available to epidemiologists. Queries corresponding to 8 syndromes, based on published clinical effects of weaponized pathogens, were used to classify military hospital patient records to form aggregated daily syndromic counts. A set of ICD-10 codes for each syndrome was defined through literature review and expert panel discussion. A study set of time series of national daily counts for each syndrome was extracted from the Defense Medical Statistical Information System between January 1, 2011, and May 31, 2014. A stratified, adjusted cumulative summation algorithm was implemented for each syndrome group to signal alerts prompting investigation. The algorithm was developed by calculating sensitivity to sets of 1,000 artificial outbreak signals randomly injected in the dataset, with each signal injected in a separate trial. Queries and visualizations were adapted from the Suite for Automated Global bioSurveillance. Findings indicated that early warning of outbreaks affecting fewer than 50 patients will require analysis at subnational levels, especially for common syndrome groups. Developing MARSS to improve sensitivity will require modification of underlying syndromic diagnosis codes, engineering to coordinate alerts among subdivisions, and enhanced algorithms. The bioterrorist threat in the Korean peninsula mandates these efforts. PMID:27314655

  20. Exploring pig trade patterns to inform the design of risk-based disease surveillance and control strategies.

    PubMed

    Guinat, C; Relun, A; Wall, B; Morris, A; Dixon, L; Pfeiffer, D U

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the patterns of animal contact networks provides essential information for the design of risk-based animal disease surveillance and control strategies. This study characterises pig movements throughout England and Wales between 2009 and 2013 with a view to characterising spatial and temporal patterns, network topology and trade communities. Data were extracted from the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA)'s RADAR (Rapid Analysis and Detection of Animal-related Risks) database, and analysed using descriptive and network approaches. A total of 61,937,855 pigs were moved through 872,493 movements of batches in England and Wales during the 5-year study period. Results show that the network exhibited scale-free and small-world topologies, indicating the potential for diseases to quickly spread within the pig industry. The findings also provide suggestions for how risk-based surveillance strategies could be optimised in the country by taking account of highly connected holdings, geographical regions and time periods with the greatest number of movements and pigs moved, as these are likely to be at higher risk for disease introduction. This study is also the first attempt to identify trade communities in the country, information which could be used to facilitate the pig trade and maintain disease-free status across the country in the event of an outbreak. PMID:27357836

  1. Exploring pig trade patterns to inform the design of risk-based disease surveillance and control strategies

    PubMed Central

    Guinat, C.; Relun, A.; Wall, B.; Morris, A.; Dixon, L.; Pfeiffer, D. U.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the patterns of animal contact networks provides essential information for the design of risk-based animal disease surveillance and control strategies. This study characterises pig movements throughout England and Wales between 2009 and 2013 with a view to characterising spatial and temporal patterns, network topology and trade communities. Data were extracted from the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA)’s RADAR (Rapid Analysis and Detection of Animal-related Risks) database, and analysed using descriptive and network approaches. A total of 61,937,855 pigs were moved through 872,493 movements of batches in England and Wales during the 5-year study period. Results show that the network exhibited scale-free and small-world topologies, indicating the potential for diseases to quickly spread within the pig industry. The findings also provide suggestions for how risk-based surveillance strategies could be optimised in the country by taking account of highly connected holdings, geographical regions and time periods with the greatest number of movements and pigs moved, as these are likely to be at higher risk for disease introduction. This study is also the first attempt to identify trade communities in the country, information which could be used to facilitate the pig trade and maintain disease-free status across the country in the event of an outbreak. PMID:27357836

  2. Therapeutics and vaccines against chikungunya virus.

    PubMed

    Ahola, Tero; Couderc, Therese; Courderc, Therese; Ng, Lisa F P; Hallengärd, David; Powers, Ann; Lecuit, Marc; Esteban, Mariano; Merits, Andres; Roques, Pierre; Liljeström, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapies available against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and these were subjects discussed during a CHIKV meeting recently organized in Langkawi, Malaysia. In this review, we chart the approaches taken in both areas. Because of a sharp increase in new data in these fields, the present paper is complementary to previous reviews by Weaver et al. in 2012 and Kaur and Chu in 2013 . The most promising antivirals so far discovered are reviewed, with a special focus on the virus-encoded replication proteins as potential targets. Within the vaccines in development, our review emphasizes the various strategies in parallel development that are unique in the vaccine field against a single disease. PMID:25897811

  3. Designing normative messages about active surveillance for men with localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Robert J.; Kinsman, Gianna T.; Le, Yen-Chi L.; Swank, Paul; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; McFall, Stephanie L.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Cantor, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is increasingly recognized as a reasonable option for men with low-risk, localized prostate cancer, yet few men who might benefit from conservative management receive it. We examined the acceptability of normative messages about AS as a management option for patients with low-risk prostate cancer. Men with a diagnosis of localized prostate cancer who were recruited through prostate cancer support organizations completed a web-based survey (N=331). They rated messages about AS for believability, accuracy, and importance for men to hear when making treatment decisions. The message “you don’t have to panic…you have time to think about your options” was perceived as believable, accurate, and important by over 80% of the survivors. In contrast, messages about trust in the AS protocol and “knowing in plenty of time” if treatment is needed were rated as accurate by only about 36% of respondents. For AS to be viewed as a reasonable alternative, men will need reassurance that following an AS protocol is likely to allow time for curative treatment if the cancer progresses. PMID:26066011

  4. A study of the outbreak of Chikungunya fever

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Supriya Satish; Patil, Satish R.; Durgawale, P.M.; Patil, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Chikungunya fever occurred in an epidemic form in the state of Maharashtra after a gap of about 32 years. Many cases with symptoms which were suggestive of Chikungunya fever were reported from the village Kasegaon, Dist Sangli, Maharashtra, India. Hence, this study was done to assess the magnitude of the outbreak and to identify the possible socio-environmental factors which are responsible for Chikungunya fever. Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out at Kasegaon by a team from the Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad, Maharashtra, in collaboration with the Primary Health Centre, Kasegaon, Distt. Sangli. Results and Conclusion: The Chikungunya prevalence was 9.6%. There were 154 clinically suspected Chikungunya fever cases. Of these, 54.5% were males and 45.5% were females. About 72.7% of the cases were in the age range of 11-50 years, which is the active age group. The main symptoms were an acute onset of fever with joint pain (100%). Multiple joints were involved in (89.6%) cases. The mean duration of the fever was 3 days (range 1-10 days). About 40.3% people preferred to consult a government health facility. In the affected area, 83.1% people were aware of Chikungunya fever. Only few (1.1%) knew the vectors which were responsible for the Chikungunya transmission. Among the people in the affected area, 33.1% had knowledge on insecticide spraying, 23.2% had knowledge on the use of mosquito nets and repellents, 12.5% had knowledge on source reduction and 0.8% had knowledge on larvicides. PMID:23905103

  5. Unattended optical surveillance equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangan, D. L.; Johnson, C. S.; Schneider, S. L.

    In many security situations, it is necessary to utilize unattended optical surveillance systems. Sandia National Laboratories has developed three optical surveillance systems which operate in the unattended surveillance mode. The first of these systems is known as the Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS). The MIVS is a microprocessor controlled video system which records scenes at selectable intervals. Each scene consists of six to ten frames recorded on a 8 mm videotape. A MIVS video recorder has the capacity to record approximately 26,000 scenes. Scenes can be recorded at intervals ranging from 1 to 99 minutes between recordings. The unit has been designed for permanent installation with facility power. The camera can be located up to 30 m from the recording module with the authentication technology protecting the cable connecting the camera to the recording unit. The Portable Surveillance unit (PSU) is a second system which has been designed for unattended operation. The PSU is designed for situations where quick set up of an optical surveillance device is required. The PSU operates in a manner similar to the MIVS and can be operated off of facility power for long time periods, or from an internal battery pack for short term surveillance applications. The Video Surveillance Unit (VSU) provides similar capabilities for permanent rack mounted installations. This paper describes the MIVS, the PSU, and the VSU, and discusses potential applications for the system. Equipment for reviewing the videotapes produced by the systems is also described.

  6. Next generation sequencing of DNA-launched Chikungunya vaccine virus.

    PubMed

    Hidajat, Rachmat; Nickols, Brian; Forrester, Naomi; Tretyakova, Irina; Weaver, Scott; Pushko, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) represents a pandemic threat with no approved vaccine available. Recently, we described a novel vaccination strategy based on iDNA® infectious clone designed to launch a live-attenuated CHIKV vaccine from plasmid DNA in vitro or in vivo. As a proof of concept, we prepared iDNA plasmid pCHIKV-7 encoding the full-length cDNA of the 181/25 vaccine. The DNA-launched CHIKV-7 virus was prepared and compared to the 181/25 virus. Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing revealed that with the exception of the 3' untranslated region, CHIKV-7 viral RNA consistently showed a lower frequency of single-nucleotide polymorphisms than the 181/25 RNA including at the E2-12 and E2-82 residues previously identified as attenuating mutations. In the CHIKV-7, frequencies of reversions at E2-12 and E2-82 were 0.064% and 0.086%, while in the 181/25, frequencies were 0.179% and 0.133%, respectively. We conclude that the DNA-launched virus has a reduced probability of reversion mutations, thereby enhancing vaccine safety. PMID:26855330

  7. Human Muscle Satellite Cells as Targets of Chikungunya Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ozden, Simona; Huerre, Michel; Riviere, Jean-Pierre; Coffey, Lark L.; Afonso, Philippe V.; Mouly, Vincent; de Monredon, Jean; Roger, Jean-Christophe; El Amrani, Mohamed; Yvin, Jean-Luc; Jaffar, Marie-Christine; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Sourisseau, Marion; Schwartz, Olivier; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Desprès, Philippe; Gessain, Antoine; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Background Chikungunya (CHIK) virus is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes in humans an acute infection characterised by fever, polyarthralgia, head-ache, and myalgia. Since 2005, the emergence of CHIK virus was associated with an unprecedented magnitude outbreak of CHIK disease in the Indian Ocean. Clinically, this outbreak was characterized by invalidating poly-arthralgia, with myalgia being reported in 97.7% of cases. Since the cellular targets of CHIK virus in humans are unknown, we studied the pathogenic events and targets of CHIK infection in skeletal muscle. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunohistology on muscle biopsies from two CHIK virus-infected patients with myositic syndrome showed that viral antigens were found exclusively inside skeletal muscle progenitor cells (designed as satelllite cells), and not in muscle fibers. To evaluate the ability of CHIK virus to replicate in human satellite cells, we assessed virus infection on primary human muscle cells; viral growth was observed in CHIK virus-infected satellite cells with a cytopathic effect, whereas myotubes were essentially refractory to infection. Conclusions/Significance This report provides new insights into CHIK virus pathogenesis, since it is the first to identify a cellular target of CHIK virus in humans and to report a selective infection of muscle satellite cells by a viral agent in humans. PMID:17565380

  8. A Population Health Surveillance Theory

    PubMed Central

    Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Michel, Pascal; Ravel, André

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Despite its extensive use, the term "Surveillance" often takes on various meanings in the scientific literature pertinent to public health and animal health. A critical appraisal of this literature also reveals ambiguities relating to the scope and necessary structural components underpinning the surveillance process. The authors hypothesized that these inconsistencies translate to real or perceived deficiencies in the conceptual framework of population health surveillance. This paper presents a population health surveillance theory framed upon an explicit conceptual system relative to health surveillance performed in human and animal populations. METHODS The population health surveillance theory reflects the authors' system of thinking and was based on a creative process. RESULTS Population health surveillance includes two broad components: one relating to the human organization (which includes expertise and the administrative program), and one relating to the system per se (which includes elements of design and method) and which can be viewed as a process. The population health surveillance process is made of five sequential interrelated steps: 1) a trigger or need, 2) problem formulation, 3) surveillance planning, 4) surveillance implementation, and 5) information communication and audit. CONCLUSIONS The population health surveillance theory provides a systematic way of understanding, organizing and evaluating the population health surveillance process. PMID:23251837

  9. [The chikungunya epidemic in the Caribbean: implications for travellers and physicians].

    PubMed

    Cleton, Natalie B; Reusken, Chantal B E M; van Gorp, Eric C M

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the first autochthonous cases of the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) were reported on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin. The chikungunya virus has since become endemic in the Caribbean due to autochthonous transmission. In the presence of fever and joint symptoms in any traveller returning from the Caribbean, CHIKV should be considered. Although symptoms resemble those of dengue fever, the course of chikungunya is milder. Chikungunya much more commonly causes chronic joint pain. Laboratory tests for the chikungunya virus may give false positive results due to cross reactions with closely related viruses, so taking a full disease and travel history from the patient is necessary in order to interpret these test results correctly. There is no specific treatment for the chikungunya virus. A correct diagnosis can prevent unnecessary additional tests and unjustified treatment. The chikungunya virus can be prevented by the use of insect-repelling substances, nets and air-conditioning. PMID:25269640

  10. Activity of andrographolide against chikungunya virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Wintachai, Phitchayapak; Kaur, Parveen; Lee, Regina Ching Hua; Ramphan, Suwipa; Kuadkitkan, Atichat; Wikan, Nitwara; Ubol, Sukathida; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Smith, Duncan R.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has recently engendered large epidemics around the world. There is no specific antiviral for treatment of patients infected with CHIKV, and development of compounds with significant anti-CHIKV activity that can be further developed to a practical therapy is urgently required. Andrographolide is derived from Andrographis paniculata, a herb traditionally used to treat a number of conditions including infections. This study sought to determine the potential of andrographolide as an inhibitor of CHIKV infection. Andrographolide showed good inhibition of CHIKV infection and reduced virus production by approximately 3log10 with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 77 μM without cytotoxicity. Time-of-addition and RNA transfection studies showed that andrographolide affected CHIKV replication and the activity of andrographolide was shown to be cell type independent. This study suggests that andrographolide has the potential to be developed further as an anti-CHIKV therapeutic agent. PMID:26384169

  11. Seroprevalence of Chikungunya in Southern Odisha

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Indrani; Dash, Muktikesh; Sahu, Susmita; Narasimham, M.V.; Panda, Pritilata; Padhi, Sanghamitra

    2013-01-01

    Background: The emergence of chikungunya (CHIK) infection was observed in Odisha, India in 2006. Thereafter many cases with symptoms suggestive of CHIK were reported from different districts of Southern-Odisha. This study was aimed to know the seroprevalence, clinical presentations and seasonal trends of CHIK infection in this region. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a tertiary hospital of this region. Serum samples received in the Department of Microbiology from various districts of Southern-Odisha from April 2011 to March 2012 were included in the study. The samples were tested for CHIK and dengue Immunoglobin M (IgM) antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and malaria parasite by immunochromatographic test (ICT) method. Results: Out of the 678 serum samples tested, 174 were positive for CHIK, 15 for dengue and two samples were positive for both CHIK and dengue IgM antibodies. The most affected age group was 16-45 years. Females were more affected than males. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of CHIK among the suspected cases was 25.7%. Co-infection with CHIK and dengue was found to be 1.15%. The infection had spread to new areas during this outbreak. PMID:24479040

  12. Rheumatic Manifestations in Patients with Chikungunya Infection.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Ávila, Mariangelí; Vilá, Luis M

    2015-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is a common cause of febrile arthritis. The most common manifestations of acute infection are fever, symmetrical polyarthralgias or polyarthritis, myalgias, and maculopapular rash. Up to 80% of patients may develop musculoskeletal manifestations that persist longer than 3 months, causing impairment in their quality of life. The most common chronic manifestations are persistent or relapsing-remitting polyarthralgias, polyarthritis, and myalgias. Fingers, wrists, knees, ankles, and toes are the most frequently involved, but proximal joints and axial involvement can occur in the chronic stage. Chronic manifestations of CHIKV infection may resemble those of some autoimmune connective tissue diseases. Furthermore, CHIKV infection can cause cryoglobulinemia and may induce rheumatoid arthritis and seronegative spondyloarthropathies in genetically susceptible individuals. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend acetaminophen and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the acute rheumatic manifestations of CHIKV infection. However, some studies suggest that low-dose corticosteroids for about 1-2 months (depending on clinical course) are beneficial in relieving acute rheumatic symptoms. Conversely, hydroxychloroquine in combination with corticosteroids or other disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) has been successful in treating chronic rheumatic manifestations. Methotrexate and sulfasalazine (alone or in combination) have also been effective for chronic CHIKV arthritis. Patients with CHIKV infection should be closely monitored to identify those with chronic arthritis who would benefit from a rheumatologic evaluation and early treatment with DMARDs. PMID:26061056

  13. Mathematical modeling of Chikungunya fever control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hincapié-Palacio, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan

    2015-05-01

    Chikungunya fever is a global concern due to the occurrence of large outbreaks, the presence of persistent arthropathy and its rapid expansion throughout various continents. Globalization and climate change have contributed to the expansion of the geographical areas where mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia) remain. It is necessary to improve the techniques of vector control in the presence of large outbreaks in The American Region. We derive measures of disease control, using a mathematical model of mosquito-human interaction, by means of three scenarios: a) a single vector b) two vectors, c) two vectors and human and non-human reservoirs. The basic reproductive number and critical control measures were deduced by using computer algebra with Maple (Maplesoft Inc, Ontario Canada). Control measures were simulated with parameter values obtained from published data. According to the number of households in high risk areas, the goals of effective vector control to reduce the likelihood of mosquito-human transmission would be established. Besides the two vectors, if presence of other non-human reservoirs were reported, the monthly target of effective elimination of the vector would be approximately double compared to the presence of a single vector. The model shows the need to periodically evaluate the effectiveness of vector control measures.

  14. CHIMERIC ALPHAVIRUS VACCINE CANDIDATES FOR CHIKUNGUNYA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Eryu; Volkova, Eugenia; Adams, A. Paige; Forrester, Naomi; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Frolov, Ilya; Weaver, Scott C.

    2008-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging alphavirus that has caused major epidemics in India and islands off the east coast of Africa since 2005. Importations into Europe and the Americas, including one that led to epidemic transmission in Italy during 2007, underscore the risk of endemic establishment elsewhere. Because there is no licensed human vaccine, and an attenuated Investigational New Drug product developed by the U.S. Army causes mild arthritis in some vaccinees, we developed chimeric alphavirus vaccine candidates using either Venezuelan equine encephalitis attenuated vaccine strain TC-83, a naturally attenuated strain of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), or Sindbis virus as a backbone and the structural protein genes of CHIKV. All vaccine candidates replicated efficiently in cell cultures, and were highly attenuated in mice. All of the chimeras also produced robust neutralizing antibody responses, although the TC-83 and EEEV backbones appeared to offer greater immunogenicity. Vaccinated mice were fully protected against disease and viremia after CHIKV challenge. PMID:18692107

  15. Chikungunya virus and its mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana

    2015-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne alphavirus of increasing public health significance, has caused large epidemics in Africa and the Indian Ocean basin; now it is spreading throughout the Americas. The primary vectors of CHIKV are Aedes (Ae.) aegypti and, after the introduction of a mutation in the E1 envelope protein gene, the highly anthropophilic and geographically widespread Ae. albopictus mosquito. We review here research efforts to characterize the viral genetic basis of mosquito-vector interactions, the use of RNA interference and other strategies for the control of CHIKV in mosquitoes, and the potentiation of CHIKV infection by mosquito saliva. Over the past decade, CHIKV has emerged on a truly global scale. Since 2013, CHIKV transmission has been reported throughout the Caribbean region, in North America, and in Central and South American countries, including Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Nicaragua, Panama, Suriname, and Venezuela. Closing the gaps in our knowledge of driving factors behind the rapid geographic expansion of CHIKV should be considered a research priority. The abundance of multiple primate species in many of these countries, together with species of mosquito that have never been exposed to CHIKV, may provide opportunities for this highly adaptable virus to establish sylvatic cycles that to date have not been seen outside of Africa. The short-term and long-term ecological consequences of such transmission cycles, including the impact on wildlife and people living in these areas, are completely unknown. PMID:25674945

  16. [Chikungunya and urban sprawl on Reunion Island].

    PubMed

    Aoustin, T

    2012-03-01

    The proportion of unsanitary housing in French overseas departments is much higher than in mainland France. Reunion Island is no exception to this fact. Between 80 and 90% of housing in Reunion Island was built by squatters with no legal claim or deed to the property. This has resulted in uncontrolled urban sprawl with living conditions reminiscent of those in developing countries. The absence of adequate drainage systems for sewage and rain water and the lack of properly organized garbage disposal that characterizes these sprawl areas constitutes a particularly favorable breeding ground for vector-borne diseases, especially chikungunya. Thus, implementing measures to control this type of settlement and to relocate of people out of existing sprawl areas constitutes a significant tool to control this epidemiological risk. Up to now, public officials have shown a clear reluctance to intervene in sprawl areas despite good knowledge of their location. On June 26th of this year, a law containing provisions relative to the control of urban sprawl and unsanitary housing in overseas departments and territories will come into effect. This law should provide public officials with the legal basis that has up until now been lacking to take action. Persistence in the "wait-and-see" attitude could lead to condemnation by French or European courts. PMID:22693929

  17. Temperature Tolerance and Inactivation of Chikungunya Virus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Jang S; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2015-11-01

    In late 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced to the New World and large outbreaks occurred in the Caribbean islands causing over a million suspected and over 20,000 laboratory-confirmed cases. Serological analysis is an essential component for the diagnosis of CHIKV infection together with virus isolation and detection of viral nucleic acid. Demonstrating virus neutralizing by serum antibodies in a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is the gold standard of all serological diagnostic assays. Prior to the testing, heat inactivation of serum at 56°C for 30 min is required for the inactivation of complement activity and adventitious viruses. The presence of adventitious contaminating viruses may interfere with the results by leading to a higher number of plaques on the monolayers and subsequent false-negative results. This procedure is widely accepted for the inactivation of flaviviruses and alphaviruses. In this study, the thermostability of CHIKV was evaluated. Heat inactivation at 56°C for 30 min was demonstrated to be insufficient for the complete removal of infectious CHIKV virions present in the samples. This thermotolerance of CHIKV could compromise the accuracy of serum tests, and therefore longer treatment for greater than 120 min is recommended. PMID:26565772

  18. Interspecies transmission and chikungunya virus emergence.

    PubMed

    Tsetsarkin, Konstantin A; Chen, Rubing; Weaver, Scott C

    2016-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes severe, debilitating, often chronic arthralgia with high attack rates, resulting in severe morbidity and economic costs to affected communities. Since its first well-documented emergence in Asia in the 1950s, CHIKV has infected millions and, since 2007, has spread widely, probably via viremic travelers, to initiate urban transmission in Europe, the South Pacific, and the Americas. Some spread has been facilitated by adaptive envelope glycoprotein substitutions that enhance transmission by the new vector, Aedes albopictus. Although epistatic constraints may prevent the impact of these mutations in Asian strains now circulating in the Americas, as well as in African CHIKV strains imported into Brazil last year, these constraints could eventually be overcome over time to increase the transmission by A. albopictus in rural and temperate regions. Another major determinant of CHIKV endemic stability in the Americas will be its ability to spill back into an enzootic cycle involving sylvatic vectors and nonhuman primates, an opportunity exploited by yellow fever virus but apparently not by dengue viruses. PMID:26986235

  19. Activity of andrographolide against chikungunya virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wintachai, Phitchayapak; Kaur, Parveen; Lee, Regina Ching Hua; Ramphan, Suwipa; Kuadkitkan, Atichat; Wikan, Nitwara; Ubol, Sukathida; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Smith, Duncan R

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has recently engendered large epidemics around the world. There is no specific antiviral for treatment of patients infected with CHIKV, and development of compounds with significant anti-CHIKV activity that can be further developed to a practical therapy is urgently required. Andrographolide is derived from Andrographis paniculata, a herb traditionally used to treat a number of conditions including infections. This study sought to determine the potential of andrographolide as an inhibitor of CHIKV infection. Andrographolide showed good inhibition of CHIKV infection and reduced virus production by approximately 3log10 with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 77 μM without cytotoxicity. Time-of-addition and RNA transfection studies showed that andrographolide affected CHIKV replication and the activity of andrographolide was shown to be cell type independent. This study suggests that andrographolide has the potential to be developed further as an anti-CHIKV therapeutic agent. PMID:26384169

  20. Surveillance of Mosquitoes and Selected Arthropod-Borne Viruses in the Context of Milan EXPO 2015.

    PubMed

    Chiari, Mario; Calzolari, Mattia; Prosperi, Alice; Perulli, Simona; Faccin, Francesca; Avisani, Dominga; Cerioli, Monica; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Tironi, Marco; Bertoletti, Marco; Defilippo, Francesco; Moreno, Ana; Farioli, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Dottori, Michele; Lelli, Davide; Lavazza, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    From 1 May 2015 to 31 October 2015 over 20 million visitors from all over the world visited the Universal Exhibition (EXPO) hosted by Milan (Lombardy region, Italy), raising concerns about the possible introduction of mosquito-borne diseases from endemic countries. The entomological surveillance protocol performed in Lombardy over the last three years was implemented in the EXPO area and in the two major regional airports using both Center for Disease Control CO₂ and Biogents Sentinel traps. This surveillance aimed to estimate the presence and densities of putative vectors, and also to support investigations, including the vector species involved and area of diffusion, on the local spread of Chikungunya, Dengue and West Nile viruses (WNV) by competent vectors. From 3544 mosquitoes belonging to five different species, 28 pools of Culex spp. and 45 pools of Aedes spp. were screened for the presence of WNV, and for both Chikungunya and flaviviruses, respectively. The entomological surveillance highlighted a low density of potential vectors in the surveyed areas and did not reveal the presence of Chikungunya or Dengue viruses in the local competent vectors inside the EXPO area or in the two airports. In addition, the surveillance reported a low density of Culex spp. mosquitoes, which all tested negative for WNV. PMID:27399756

  1. Surveillance of Mosquitoes and Selected Arthropod-Borne Viruses in the Context of Milan EXPO 2015

    PubMed Central

    Chiari, Mario; Calzolari, Mattia; Prosperi, Alice; Perulli, Simona; Faccin, Francesca; Avisani, Dominga; Cerioli, Monica; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Tironi, Marco; Bertoletti, Marco; Defilippo, Francesco; Moreno, Ana; Farioli, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Dottori, Michele; Lelli, Davide; Lavazza, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    From 1 May 2015 to 31 October 2015 over 20 million visitors from all over the world visited the Universal Exhibition (EXPO) hosted by Milan (Lombardy region, Italy), raising concerns about the possible introduction of mosquito-borne diseases from endemic countries. The entomological surveillance protocol performed in Lombardy over the last three years was implemented in the EXPO area and in the two major regional airports using both Center for Disease Control CO2 and Biogents Sentinel traps. This surveillance aimed to estimate the presence and densities of putative vectors, and also to support investigations, including the vector species involved and area of diffusion, on the local spread of Chikungunya, Dengue and West Nile viruses (WNV) by competent vectors. From 3544 mosquitoes belonging to five different species, 28 pools of Culex spp. and 45 pools of Aedes spp. were screened for the presence of WNV, and for both Chikungunya and flaviviruses, respectively. The entomological surveillance highlighted a low density of potential vectors in the surveyed areas and did not reveal the presence of Chikungunya or Dengue viruses in the local competent vectors inside the EXPO area or in the two airports. In addition, the surveillance reported a low density of Culex spp. mosquitoes, which all tested negative for WNV. PMID:27399756

  2. Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance Models in ACES: Design Implementation and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubat, Greg; Vandrei, Don; Satapathy, Goutam; Kumar, Anil; Khanna, Manu

    2006-01-01

    Presentation objectives include: a) Overview of the ACES/CNS System Models Design and Integration; b) Configuration Capabilities available for Models and Simulations using ACES with CNS Modeling; c) Descriptions of recently added, Enhanced CNS Simulation Capabilities; and d) General Concepts Ideas that Utilize CNS Modeling to Enhance Concept Evaluations.

  3. A Case of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Following Chikungunya Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Tolokh, Illya; Laux, Timothy; Kim, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne viral disease that has recently become endemic in the Caribbean, including the island of Puerto Rico. We present the case of a 50-year-old Puerto Rican man who traveled to St. Louis for business and was diagnosed with acute chikungunya virus infection with atypical features causing diabetic ketoacidosis. This case highlights the need to keep tropical infectious diseases on the differential diagnosis in appropriate individuals and the ways in which tropical infectious diseases can masquerade as part of common presentations. PMID:26033023

  4. Suramin Inhibits Chikungunya Virus Entry and Transmission.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yi-Jung; Wang, Yu-Ming; Lu, Jeng-wei; Wu, Tzong-Yuan; Lin, Liang-In; Kuo, Szu-Cheng; Lin, Chang-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a profound global threat due to its high rate of contagion and the lack of vaccine or effective treatment. Suramin is a symmetric polyanionic naphthylurea that is widely used in the clinical treatment of parasite infections. Numerous studies have reported the broad antiviral activities of suramin; however, inhibition effects against CHIKV have not yet been demonstrated. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the antiviral effect of suramin on CHIKV infection and to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying inhibition using plaque reduction assay, RT-qPCR, western blot analysis, and plaque assay. Microneutralization assay was used to determine the EC50 of suramin in the CHIKV-S27 strain as well as in three other clinical strains (0611aTw, 0810bTw and 0706aTw). Time-of-addition was used to reveal the anti-CHIKV mechanism of suramin. We also evaluated anti-CHIKV activity with regard to viral entry, virus release, and cell-to-cell transmission. Cytopathic effect, viral RNA, viral protein, and the virus yield of CHIKV infection were shown to diminish in the presence of suramin in a dose-dependent manner. Suramin was also shown the inhibitory activities of the three clinical isolates. Suramin inhibited the early progression of CHIKV infection, due perhaps to interference with virus fusion and binding, which subsequently prevented viral entry. Results of a molecular docking simulation indicate that suramin may embed within the cavity of the E1/E2 heterodimer to interfere with their function. Suramin was also shown to reduce viral release and cell-to-cell transmission of CHIKV. In conclusion, Suramin shows considerable potential as a novel anti-CHIKV agent targeting viral entry, extracellular transmission, and cell-to-cell transmission. PMID:26208101

  5. Outbreak of Chikungunya Virus Infection, Vanimo, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, Lisa J.; Dagina, Rosheila; Susapu, Melinda; Bande, Grace; Katusele, Michelle; Koimbu, Gussy; Jimmy, Stella; Ropa, Berry; Siba, Peter M.; Pavlin, Boris I.

    2013-01-01

    In June 2012, health authorities in Papua New Guinea detected an increase in febrile illnesses in Vanimo. Chikungunya virus of the Eastern/Central/Southern African genotype harboring the E1:A226V mutation was identified. This ongoing outbreak has spread to ≥8 other provinces and has had a harmful effect on public health. PMID:23965757

  6. Molecular Characterization of Chikungunya Virus, Philippines, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Sy, Ava Kristy; Saito-Obata, Mariko; Medado, Inez Andrea; Tohma, Kentaro; Dapat, Clyde; Segubre-Mercado, Edelwisa; Tandoc, Amado; Lupisan, Socorro; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-05-01

    During 2011-2013, a nationwide outbreak of chikungunya virus infection occurred in the Philippines. The Asian genotype was identified as the predominant genotype; sporadic cases of the East/Central/South African genotype were detected in Mindanao. Further monitoring is needed to define the transmission pattern of this virus in the Philippines. PMID:27088593

  7. Reappearance of Chikungunya, Formerly Called Dengue, in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    After an absence of ≈200 years, chikungunya returned to the American tropics in 2013. The virus is maintained in a complex African zoonotic cycle but escapes into an urban cycle at 40- to 50-year intervals, causing global pandemics. In 1823, classical chikungunya, a viral exanthem in humans, occurred on Zanzibar, and in 1827, it arrived in the Caribbean and spread to North and South America. In Zanzibar, the disease was known as kidenga pepo, Swahili for a sudden cramp-like seizure caused by an evil spirit; in Cuba, it was known as dengue, a Spanish homonym of denga. During the eighteenth century, dengue (present-day chikungunya) was distinguished from breakbone fever (present-day dengue), another febrile exanthem. In the twentieth century, experiments resulted in the recovery and naming of present-day dengue viruses. In 1952, chikungunya virus was recovered during an outbreak in Tanzania, but by then, the virus had lost its original name to present-day dengue viruses. PMID:25816211

  8. Infectious Viral Quantification of Chikungunya Virus-Virus Plaque Assay.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Parveen; Lee, Regina Ching Hua; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2016-01-01

    The plaque assay is an essential method for quantification of infectious virus titer. Cells infected with virus particles are overlaid with a viscous substrate. A suitable incubation period results in the formation of plaques, which can be fixed and stained for visualization. Here, we describe a method for measuring Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) titers via virus plaque assays. PMID:27233264

  9. Reappearance of chikungunya, formerly called dengue, in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Halstead, Scott B

    2015-04-01

    After an absence of ≈200 years, chikungunya returned to the American tropics in 2013. The virus is maintained in a complex African zoonotic cycle but escapes into an urban cycle at 40- to 50-year intervals, causing global pandemics. In 1823, classical chikungunya, a viral exanthem in humans, occurred on Zanzibar, and in 1827, it arrived in the Caribbean and spread to North and South America. In Zanzibar, the disease was known as kidenga pepo, Swahili for a sudden cramp-like seizure caused by an evil spirit; in Cuba, it was known as dengue, a Spanish homonym of denga. During the eighteenth century, dengue (present-day chikungunya) was distinguished from breakbone fever (present-day dengue), another febrile exanthem. In the twentieth century, experiments resulted in the recovery and naming of present-day dengue viruses. In 1952, chikungunya virus was recovered during an outbreak in Tanzania, but by then, the virus had lost its original name to present-day dengue viruses. PMID:25816211

  10. Drought-associated chikungunya emergence along coastal East Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemics of chikungunya fever, an Aedes spp.-borne viral disease, affected hundreds of thousands of people in western Indian Ocean islands and India during 2005--2006. The initial outbreaks occurred in coastal Kenya (Lamu, then Mombasa) in 2004. We investigated ecoclimatic conditions associated wit...

  11. Globalization of Chikungunya Virus: Threat to the U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In August, 2004, Kenyan health authorities and partners identified chikungunya virus as the cause of the febrile epidemic in a coastal island city. The virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes in tropical Africa and Asia; the fever is rarely fatal but can incapacitate for weeks. Control was delayed,...

  12. Reemergence of chikungunya virus in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Ansumana, Rashid; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Leski, Tomasz A; Covington, Andrea L; Bangura, Umaru; Hodges, Mary H; Lin, Baochuan; Bockarie, Alfred S; Lamin, Joseph M; Bockarie, Moses J; Stenger, David A

    2013-07-01

    We diagnosed 400 possible IgM-positive cases of chikungunya virus in Bo, Sierra Leone, during July 2012-January 2013 by using lateral flow immunoassays. Cases detected likely represent only a small fraction of total cases. Further laboratory testing is required to confirm this outbreak and characterize the virus. PMID:23764023

  13. Reemergence of Chikungunya Virus in Bo, Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Ansumana, Rashid; Leski, Tomasz A.; Covington, Andrea L.; Bangura, Umaru; Hodges, Mary H.; Lin, Baochuan; Bockarie, Alfred S.; Lamin, Joseph M.; Bockarie, Moses J.; Stenger, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We diagnosed 400 possible IgM-positive cases of chikungunya virus in Bo, Sierra Leone, during July 2012–January 2013 by using lateral flow immunoassays. Cases detected likely represent only a small fraction of total cases. Further laboratory testing is required to confirm this outbreak and characterize the virus. PMID:23764023

  14. Molecular Characterization of Chikungunya Virus, Philippines, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Sy, Ava Kristy; Saito-Obata, Mariko; Medado, Inez Andrea; Tohma, Kentaro; Dapat, Clyde; Segubre-Mercado, Edelwisa; Tandoc, Amado; Lupisan, Socorro

    2016-01-01

    During 2011–2013, a nationwide outbreak of chikungunya virus infection occurred in the Philippines. The Asian genotype was identified as the predominant genotype; sporadic cases of the East/Central/South African genotype were detected in Mindanao. Further monitoring is needed to define the transmission pattern of this virus in the Philippines. PMID:27088593

  15. Prime-Boost Immunization Strategies against Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Fok-Moon; Kümmerer, Beate M.; Lulla, Aleksei; Lulla, Valeria; García-Arriaza, Juan; Fazakerley, John K.; Roques, Pierre; Le Grand, Roger; Merits, Andres; Ng, Lisa F. P.; Esteban, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes debilitating arthralgia in humans. Here we describe the development and testing of novel DNA replicon and protein CHIKV vaccine candidates and evaluate their abilities to induce antigen-specific immune responses against CHIKV. We also describe homologous and heterologous prime-boost immunization strategies using novel and previously developed CHIKV vaccine candidates. Immunogenicity and efficacy were studied in a mouse model of CHIKV infection and showed that the DNA replicon and protein antigen were potent vaccine candidates, particularly when used for priming and boosting, respectively. Several prime-boost immunization strategies eliciting unmatched humoral and cellular immune responses were identified. Further characterization by antibody epitope mapping revealed differences in the qualitative immune responses induced by the different vaccine candidates and immunization strategies. Most vaccine modalities resulted in complete protection against wild-type CHIKV infection; however, we did identify circumstances under which certain immunization regimens may lead to enhancement of inflammation upon challenge. These results should help guide the design of CHIKV vaccine studies and will form the basis for further preclinical and clinical evaluation of these vaccine candidates. IMPORTANCE As of today, there is no licensed vaccine to prevent CHIKV infection. In considering potential new vaccine candidates, a vaccine that could raise long-term protective immunity after a single immunization would be preferable. While humoral immunity seems to be central for protection against CHIKV infection, we do not yet fully understand the correlates of protection. Therefore, in the absence of a functional vaccine, there is a need to evaluate a number of different candidates, assessing their merits when they are used either in a single immunization or in a homologous or heterologous prime

  16. Surveillance of vector-borne diseases in Germany: trends and challenges in the view of disease emergence and climate change.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Andreas; Frank, Christina; Koch, Judith; Stark, Klaus

    2008-12-01

    The changing epidemiology of vector-borne diseases represents a growing threat to human health. Contemporary surveillance systems have to adapt to these changes. We describe temporal trends and geographic origins of vector-borne diseases in Germany with regard to strengths of existing disease surveillance and to areas marked for improvement. We focused on hantavirus infection (endemic in Germany), chikungunya fever (recently emerging in Europe) and dengue fever (imported from tropical regions), representing important subgroups of vector-borne infections. Routine surveillance data on demographics, origin of infection and the date of reporting were analysed. From 2001 through 2007, 3,005 symptomatic hantavirus infections, and 85 cases of chikungunya fever were reported, similarly 1,048 cases of dengue fever in 2002 through 2007. The geographic origin of hantavirus infection was reported for 95.5% of all cases (dengue virus, 98.4%; chikungunya virus, 100%). Hantavirus infections were acquired in Germany in 97.6% of cases (n = 2800). In 2007, there was a marked increase of hantavirus cases, mainly in areas known to be endemic for hantavirus. In 2006, imported cases of chikungunya fever primarily returned from several islands of the Indian Ocean, while the majority of imported cases in 2007 came from India. The reported number of dengue fever cases have increased since 2004. Thailand contributed the largest proportion of cases (17-43% in individual years), followed by India, Brazil and Indonesia. Surveillance of notifiable vector-borne diseases in Germany is able to timely detect spatial and temporal changes of autochthonous an imported infections. Geographic and temporal data obtained by routine surveillance served as a basis for public health recommendations. In addition to surveillance of vector-borne infections in humans, nationwide monitoring programs and inventory techniques for emerging and reemerging vectors and for wildlife disease are warranted. PMID:19030882

  17. Climate change effects on Chikungunya transmission in Europe: geospatial analysis of vector’s climatic suitability and virus’ temperature requirements

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chikungunya was, from the European perspective, considered to be a travel-related tropical mosquito-borne disease prior to the first European outbreak in Northern Italy in 2007. This was followed by cases of autochthonous transmission reported in South-eastern France in 2010. Both events occurred after the introduction, establishment and expansion of the Chikungunya-competent and highly invasive disease vector Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) in Europe. In order to assess whether these outbreaks are indicative of the beginning of a trend or one-off events, there is a need to further examine the factors driving the potential transmission of Chikungunya in Europe. The climatic suitability, both now and in the future, is an essential starting point for such an analysis. Methods The climatic suitability for Chikungunya outbreaks was determined by using bioclimatic factors that influence, both vector and, pathogen. Climatic suitability for the European distribution of the vector Aedes albopictus was based upon previous correlative environmental niche models. Climatic risk classes were derived by combining climatic suitability for the vector with known temperature requirements for pathogen transmission, obtained from outbreak regions. In addition, the longest potential intra-annual season for Chikungunya transmission was estimated for regions with expected vector occurrences. In order to analyse spatio-temporal trends for risk exposure and season of transmission in Europe, climate change impacts are projected for three time-frames (2011–2040, 2041–2070 and 2071–2100) and two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). These climatic projections are based on regional climate model COSMO-CLM, which builds on the global model ECHAM5. Results European areas with current and future climatic suitability of Chikungunya transmission are identified. An increase in risk is projected for Western Europe (e

  18. PEDIATRIC NUTRITION SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (PEDNSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) is a program-based surveillance system designed to monitor the growth, anemia, and breast-feeding status of low-income U.S. children who participate in federally funded maternal and child health nutritional programs. The system...

  19. Mortar launched surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Carl E.; Carlton, Lindley A.

    2001-02-01

    Accurate Automation Corporation has completed the conceptual design of a mortar launched air vehicle system to perform close range or over-the-horizon surveillance missions. Law enforcement and military units require an organic capability to obtain real time intelligence information of time critical targets. Our design will permit law enforcement to detect, classify, locate and track these time critical targets. The surveillance system is a simple, unmanned fixed-winged aircraft deployed via a conventional mortar tube. The aircraft's flight surfaces are deployed following mortar launch to permit maximum range and time over target. The aircraft and sensor system are field retrievable. The aircraft can be configured with an engine to permit extended time over target or range. The aircraft has an integrated surveillance sensor system; a programmable CMOS sensor array. The integrated RF transmitted to capable of down- linking real-time video over line-of-sight distances exceeding 10 kilometers. The major benefit of the modular design is the ability to provide surveillance or tracking quickly at a low cost. Vehicle operational radius and sensor field coverage as well as design trade results of vehicle range and endurance performance and payload capacity at operational range are presented for various mortar configurations.

  20. Status of research and development of vaccines for chikungunya.

    PubMed

    Smalley, Claire; Erasmus, Jesse H; Chesson, Charles B; Beasley, David W C

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus that during the last decade has significantly expanded its geographical range and caused large outbreaks of human disease around the world. Although mortality rates associated with CHIKV outbreaks are low, acute and chronic illnesses caused by CHIKV represent a significant burden of disease largely affecting low and middle income countries. This report summarizes the current status of vaccine development for CHIKV. PMID:27026149

  1. Chikungunya outbreak in Garo Hills, Meghalaya: An epidemiological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Siraj Ahmed; Dutta, Prafulla; Topno, Rashmee; Borah, Jani; Chowdhury, Purvita; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Chikungunya (CHIK) fever is a mosquito-borne disease caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Chikungunya infection was first reported from India in 1963 from Kolkata. We report the serological and molecular evidence of an outbreak of chikungunya in northeast India that occurred in Tura, a hilly and forested terrain in Garo Hills district of Meghalaya. Methods: Blood samples (3 ml) collected from hospitalized patients during the outbreak were tested for IgM antibodies against CHIKV and followed up four months later. A repeat survey was carried out in the same area after four months from where cases had been reported. Blood samples were also collected from people with history of fever and body ache in the last four months. Persons showing IgM positivity against CHIKV in the repeat survey were followed up one and a half years later. All samples were also processed by RT-PCR assay for CHIK Envelope (E) 1 gene. Immature mosquitoes were collected, link reared and identified with standard keys. Virus incrimination studies were done on Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes collected during the survey. Results: Fever, headache and joint pain were the primary clinical presentations. Twenty three (35.93 %) of 64 samples reported during the outbreak were IgM positive for CHIK. Three samples showed PCR amplification. All these were IgM positive. The sequenced E1 gene revealed that the strains belonged to East Central South African (ECSA) genotype. Interpretation & conclusions: Field survey done after four months revealed that some individuals still had joint pain associated with episodes of headache and fever. It could be inferred that these persons might have contracted infection during the CHIK outbreak four months ago or during the intervening period which caused persistence of sequelae. ECSA genotype was found to be involved in the outbreak. Aedes albopictus was the predominant mosquito species collected during the outbreak. PMID:26139776

  2. Serological Evidence of Chikungunya Virus among Acute Febrile Patients in Southern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Gudo, Eduardo Samo; Pinto, Gabriela; Vene, Sirkka; Mandlaze, Arcildo; Muianga, Argentina Felisbela; Cliff, Julie; Falk, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Background In the last two decades, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has rapidly expanded to several geographical areas, causing frequent outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia, South America, and Europe. Therefore, the disease remains heavily neglected in Mozambique, and no recent study has been conducted. Methods Between January and September 2013, acute febrile patients with no other evident cause of fever and attending a health center in a suburban area of Maputo city, Mozambique, were consecutively invited to participate. Paired acute and convalescent serum samples were requested from each participant. Convalescent samples were initially screened for anti-CHIKV IgG using a commercial indirect immunofluorescence test, and if positive, the corresponding acute sample was screened using the same test. Results Four hundred patients were enrolled. The median age of study participants was 26 years (IQR: 21–33 years) and 57.5% (224/391) were female. Paired blood samples were obtained from 209 patients, of which 26.4% (55/208) were presented anti-CHIKV IgG antibodies in the convalescent sample. Seroconversion or a four-fold titer rise was confirmed in 9 (4.3%) patients. Conclusion The results of this study strongly suggest that CHIKV is circulating in southern Mozambique. We recommend that CHIKV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute febrile illness in Mozambique and that systematic surveillance for CHIKV should be implemented. PMID:26473605

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Chikungunya Virus Infected Microgial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abere, Bizunesh; Wikan, Nitwara; Ubol, Sukathida; Auewarakul, Prasert; Paemanee, Atchara; Kittisenachai, Suthathip; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Smith, Duncan R.

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a recently re-emerged public health problem in many countries bordering the Indian Ocean and elsewhere. Chikungunya fever is a relatively self limiting febrile disease, but the consequences of chikungunya fever can include a long lasting, debilitating arthralgia, and occasional neurological involvement has been reported. Macrophages have been implicated as an important cell target of CHIKV with regards to both their role as an immune mediator, as well evidence pointing to long term viral persistence in these cells. Microglial cells are the resident brain macrophages, and so this study sought to define the proteomic changes in a human microglial cell line (CHME-5) in response to CHIKV infection. GeLC-MS/MS analysis of CHIKV infected and mock infected cells identified some 1455 individual proteins, of which 90 proteins, belonging to diverse cellular pathways, were significantly down regulated at a significance level of p<0.01. Analysis of the protein profile in response to infection did not support a global inhibition of either normal or IRES-mediated translation, but was consistent with the targeting of specific cellular pathways including those regulating innate antiviral mechanisms. PMID:22514668

  4. Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock Associated with Chikungunya Virus Infection, Guadeloupe, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Rollé, Amélie; Schepers, Kinda; Cassadou, Sylvie; Curlier, Elodie; Madeux, Benjamin; Hermann-Storck, Cécile; Fabre, Isabelle; Lamaury, Isabelle; Tressières, Benoit; Thiery, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    During a 2014 outbreak, 450 patients with confirmed chikungunya virus infection were admitted to the University Hospital of Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe. Of these, 110 were nonpregnant adults; 42 had severe disease, and of those, 25 had severe sepsis or septic shock and 12 died. Severe sepsis may be a rare complication of chikungunya virus infection. PMID:27088710

  5. Risk Factors for Severity of Chikungunya in Children: A Prospective Assessment.

    PubMed

    Pinzón-Redondo, Hernando; Paternina-Caicedo, Angel; Barrios-Redondo, Katherine; Zarate-Vergara, Andrea; Tirado-Pérez, Irina; Fortich, Rossana; Alvis-Guzmán, Nelson; Mattar, Salim

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya appeared during the second half of 2014 in Colombia. A prospective cohort study was carried to detect differences and severity between neonates and older children. Of 54 children with chikungunya, neonates had a higher viral load and greater frequency of severe laboratory and clinical findings. PMID:26986769

  6. Diagnosis and management of imported Chikungunya fever in Taiwan: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ko; Hsieh, Hsiao-Chen; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2010-05-01

    Chikungunya virus, a mosquito-borne alphavirus, is endemic in Africa and Southeast Asia but is rarely reported in Taiwan. We report the case of a Taiwanese woman who developed Chikungunya fever, which was first diagnosed by a clinician rather than by fever screening at an airport. The woman presented with fever, maculopapular rash, and arthralgia, the triad for the disease, on the day she returned home after a trip to Malaysia. These symptoms are very similar to those of dengue fever, which is endemic in Southern Taiwan. Chikungunya infection was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and seroconversion on paired serum specimens. For approximately 40 years until 2006, no cases of Chikungunya fever had been found in Taiwan. Clinicians in Taiwan should consider Chikungunya fever as a possible diagnosis for a febrile patient with arthralgia, rash, and a history of travel to an endemic area, such as Africa or Southeast Asia. PMID:20466336

  7. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  8. Dried-Blood Spots: A Cost-Effective Field Method for the Detection of Chikungunya Virus Circulation in Remote Areas

    PubMed Central

    Randrianasolo, Laurence; Rafisandratantsoa, Jean Théophile; Andriamamonjy, Seta; Richard, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2005, there were outbreaks of febrile polyarthritis due to Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the Comoros Islands. CHIKV then spread to other islands in the Indian Ocean: La Réunion, Mauritius, Seychelles and Madagascar. These outbreaks revealed the lack of surveillance and preparedness of Madagascar and other countries. Thus, it was decided in 2007 to establish a syndrome-based surveillance network to monitor dengue-like illness. Objective This study aims to evaluate the use of capillary blood samples blotted on filter papers for molecular diagnosis of CHIKV infection. Venous blood samples can be difficult to obtain and the shipment of serum in appropriate temperature conditions is too costly for most developing countries. Methodology and principal findings Venous blood and dried-blood blotted on filter paper (DBFP) were collected during the last CHIKV outbreak in Madagascar (2010) and as part of our routine surveillance of dengue-like illness. All samples were tested by real-time RT-PCR and results with serum and DBFP samples were compared for each patient. The sensitivity and specificity of tests performed with DBFP, relative to those with venous samples (defined as 100%) were 93.1% (95% CI:[84.7–97.7]) and 94.4% (95% CI:[88.3–97.7]), respectively. The Kappa coefficient 0.87 (95% CI:[0.80–0.94]) was excellent. Conclusion This study shows that DBFP specimens can be used as a cost-effective alternative sampling method for the surveillance and monitoring of CHIKV circulation and emergence in developing countries, and probably also for other arboviruses. The loss of sensitivity is insignificant and involved a very small number of patients, all with low viral loads. Whether viruses can be isolated from dried blood spots remains to be determined. PMID:23936570

  9. Imported chikungunya cases in an area newly colonised by Aedes albopictus: mathematical assessment of the best public health strategy.

    PubMed

    Sochacki, Thomas; Jourdain, Frédéric; Perrin, Yvon; Noel, Harold; Paty, Marie-Claire; de Valk, Henriette; Septfons, Alexandra; Simard, Frédéric; Fontenille, Didier; Roche, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to identify the optimal strategy that should be used by public health authorities against transmission of chikungunya virus in mainland France. The theoretical model we developed, which mimics the current surveillance system, predicted that without vector control (VC), the probability of local transmission after introduction of viraemic patients was around 2%, and the number of autochthonous cases between five and 15 persons per hectare, depending on the number of imported cases. Compared with this baseline, we considered different strategies (VC after clinical suspicion of a case or after laboratory confirmation, for imported or autochthonous cases): Awaiting laboratory confirmation for suspected imported cases to implement VC had no significant impact on the epidemiological outcomes analysed, mainly because of the delay before entering into the surveillance system. However, waiting for laboratory confirmation of autochthonous cases before implementing VC resulted in more frequent outbreaks. After analysing the economic cost of such strategies, our study suggested implementing VC immediately after the notification of a suspected autochthonous case as the most efficient strategy in settings where local transmission has been proven. Nevertheless, we identified that decreasing reporting time for imported cases should remain a priority. PMID:27172607

  10. Identification and genetic characterization of chikungunya virus from Aedes mosquito vector collected in the Lucknow district, North India.

    PubMed

    Nyari, N; Maan, H S; Sharma, S; Pandey, S N; Dhole, T N

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya fever is an emerging mosquito-borne disease caused by the infection with chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The CHIKV has been rarely detected in mosquito vectors from Northern India, since vector surveillance is an effective strategy in controlling and preventing CHIKV transmission. Thus, virological investigation for CHIKV among mosquitoes of Aedes (A.) species was carried out in the Lucknow district during March 2010 to October 2011. We collected adult mosquitoes from areas with CHIKV positive patients. The adult Aedes mosquito samples were pooled, homogenized, clarified and tested for CHIKV by nonstructural protein 1 (nsP1) gene based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total 91 mosquito pools comprising of adult A. aegypti and A. albopictus were tested for CHIKV. The partial envelope protein (E1) gene sequences of mosquito-borne CHIKV strains were analyzed for genotyping. Of 91 pools, 6 pools of A. aegypti; and 2 pools of A. albopictus mosquitoes were identified positive for CHIKV by PCR. The phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering of CHIKV strains in two sub-lineages within the monophyletic East-Central South African (ECSA) genotype. Novel amino acid changes at the positions 294 (P294L) and 295 (S295F) were observed during analysis of amino acid sequence of the partial E1 gene. This study demonstrates the genetic diversity of circulating CHIKV strains and reports the first detection of CHIKV strains in Aedes vector species from the state of Uttar Pradesh. These findings have implication for vector control strategies to mitigate vector population to prevent the likelihood of CHIKV epidemic in the near future. PMID:26943997

  11. Trigocherrierin A, a potent inhibitor of chikungunya virus replication.

    PubMed

    Bourjot, Mélanie; Leyssen, Pieter; Neyts, Johan; Dumontet, Vincent; Litaudon, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Trigocherrierin A (1) and trigocherriolide E (2), two new daphnane diterpenoid orthoesters (DDOs), and six chlorinated analogues, trigocherrins A, B, F and trigocherriolides A-C, were isolated from the leaves of Trigonostemon cherrieri. Their structures were identified by mass spectrometry, extensive one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and through comparison with data reported in the literature. These compounds are potent and selective inhibitors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) replication. Among the DDOs isolated, compound 1 exhibited the strongest anti-CHIKV activity (EC₅₀ = 0.6 ± 0.1 µM, SI = 71.7). PMID:24662077

  12. [Situational panorama of Mexico against the chikungunya virus pandemic].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, Abisai; Martínez-Ramos, Ericay Berenice; Chávez-Angeles, Manuel Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of emerging diseases emphasize the vulnerability of health systems, as is the case of chikungunya fever. The wide geographical incidence of the virus in the last years requires alerting systems for the prevention, diagnosis, control and eradication of the disease. Given the ecological, epidemiological and socio-economic characteristic of Mexico, this disease affects directly or indirectly the health of the population and development of agricultural, livestock, industrial, fishing, oil and tourism activities in the country. Due to this situation it is essential to make a brief analysis on the main clinical data, epidemiological and preventive measures with which our country counts with to confront the situation. PMID:25760749

  13. Conceptual Design for Expert Centres Supporting Optical and Laser Observations in a Space Surveillance and Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flohrer, T.

    One of the goals of ESA's SSA Programme in the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) segment is the successful establishment of expert centres for optical and laser observations. These centres will serve as the focal point for the interfacing with segment-external sensors and assets. They will also provide feedback on the provided data and will be able to request and manage observations. Benefits are expected in the coordination and monitoring of sensors and data providers, as well as through the expert support provision to the SST segment, such as in particular for sensor qualification and calibration. The establishment of the expert centres will have a strong technological focus on the complex networking and integration of heterogeneous sensors in a coherent SST segment, for which the enormous expertise that is available in Europe will be used. We report on the requirements analysis and the plans for the establishment of the centre,that is expected to start in 2015.

  14. Information surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiders, Barbara; McQuerry, Dennis; Ferryman, Thomas A.; Whitney, Paul D.; Rybka, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    Biological weapons are within reach of individuals, small groups, terrorist organizations, as well as nations. With pervasive integration of civilian and military populations worldwide, the ill winds of biological warfare stand to affect military troops and civilians alike. A variety of technologies are emerging - such as pathogen detection devices, streaming internet characterization tools, information exploitation techniques, automated feature extraction, and ubiquitous wireless communication - that can help. These technologies, if taken together within an integrated analytical framework, could make possible the monitoring of diverse parameters that may indicate a change in the state of health of a given population - either the emergence of a naturally occurring disease or the outbreak of a disease as a result of hostile intent. This presentation will discuss the application of new information surveillance tools and technologies as they apply to health and disease monitoring, particularly within the context of potential terrorist or hostile nation use of biological warfare. Although discussed within the specific context of health surveillance, the tools and processes described here are generally applicable within other domains of subject matter expertise.

  15. Information surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Seiders, Barbara AB; McQuerry, Dennis L.; Ferryman, Thomas A.; Whitney, Paul D.; Rybka, Anthony J.

    2002-07-15

    Biological weapons are within reach of individuals, small groups, terrorist organizations, as well as nations. With pervasive integration of civilian and military populations worldwide, the ill winds of biological warfare stand to affect military troops and civilians alike. A variety of technologies are emerging - such as pathogen detection devices, streaming internet characterization tools, information exploitation techniques, automated feature extraction, and ubiquitous wireless communication - that can help. These technologies, if taken together within an integrated analytical framework, could make possible the monitoring of diverse parameters that may indicate a change in the state of health of a given population - either the emergence of a naturally occurring disease or the outbreak of a disease as a result of hostile intent. This presentation will discuss the application of new information surveillance tools and technologies as they apply to health and disease monitoring, particularly within the context of potential terrorist or hostile nation use of biological warfare. Although discussed within the specific context of health surveillance, the tools and processes described here are generally applicable within other domains of subject matter expertise.

  16. Public involvement in environmental surveillance at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Hanf, R.W. Jr.; Patton, G.W.; Woodruff, R.K.; Poston, T.M.

    1994-08-01

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site began during the mid-1940s following the construction and start-up of the nation`s first plutonium production reactor. Over the past approximately 45 years, surveillance operations on and off the Site have continued, with virtually all sampling being conducted by Hanford Site workers. Recently, the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office directed that public involvement in Hanford environmental surveillance operations be initiated. Accordingly, three special radiological air monitoring stations were constructed offsite, near hanford`s perimeter. Each station is managed and operated by two local school teaches. These three stations are the beginning of a community-operated environmental surveillance program that will ultimately involve the public in most surveillance operations around the Site. The program was designed to stimulate interest in Hanford environmental surveillance operations, and to help the public better understand surveillance results. The program has also been used to enhance educational opportunities at local schools.

  17. Chikungunya virus outbreak in Kerala, India, 2007: a seroprevalence study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Narendran Pradeep; Suresh, Abidha; Vanamail, Perumal; Sabesan, Shanmugavelu; Krishnamoorthy, Kalianna Gounder; Mathew, Jacob; Jose, Varakilparambil Thomas; Jambulingam, Purushothaman

    2011-12-01

    India was affected by a major outbreak of chikungunya fever caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) during 2006-2007. Kerala was the worst affected state during 2007 with a contribution of 55.8% suspected cases in the country. However, except for clinically reported case records, no systematic information is available on infection status of CHIKV in the region. Hence, we carried out a post-epidemic survey to estimate seroprevalence status [immunoglobulin G (IgG)] in the community using commercially available indirect immunofluorescence test. This methodology had been reported to be highly specific and sensitive for CHIKV infection. The study area selected was the worst affected mid-highlands region of Kerala which harbour vast area of rubber plantations. The study evidenced 68% of the population to be seropositive for CHIKV IgG. Males were found more affected than females (χ2 = 9.86; p = 0.002). Among males, prevalence was significantly higher in the age classes 21-30 (χ2 = 5.46; p = 0.019) and 31-40 (χ2 = 5.84; p = 0.016) years. This may be due to high occupational risk of the male population engaged in plantation activities exposed to infective bites of Aedes albopictus. The current study provides an insight into the magnitude of CHIKV outbreak in Kerala. PMID:22241110

  18. 17 CFR 38.604 - Financial surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Financial surveillance. 38.604 Section 38.604 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Financial Integrity of Transactions § 38.604 Financial surveillance. A designated contract...

  19. 17 CFR 38.604 - Financial surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MARKETS Financial Integrity of Transactions § 38.604 Financial surveillance. A designated contract market must monitor members' compliance with the designated contract market's minimum financial standards and... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Financial surveillance....

  20. The Tobacco Pack Surveillance System: A Protocol for Assessing Health Warning Compliance, Design Features, and Appeals of Tobacco Packs Sold in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Carmen; Brown, Jennifer; Vadnais, Alison; Kroart, Laura; Ferguson, Jacqueline; Cohen, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco remains the world’s leading preventable cause of death, with the majority of tobacco-caused deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries. The first global health treaty, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), outlines a set of policy initiatives that have been demonstrated as effective in reducing tobacco use. Article 11 of the FCTC focuses on using the tobacco package to communicate tobacco-caused harms; it also seeks to restrict the delivery of misleading information about the product on the pack. Objective The objective of this study was to establish a surveillance system for tobacco packs in the 14 low- and middle-income countries with the greatest number of smokers. The Tobacco Pack Surveillance System (TPackSS) monitors whether required health warnings on tobacco packages are being implemented as intended, and identifies pack designs and appeals that might violate or detract from the communication of harm-related information and undermine the impact of a country’s tobacco packaging laws. The protocol outlined is intended to be applicable or adaptable for surveillance efforts in other countries. Methods Tobacco packs were collected in 14 countries during 2013. The intention was, to the extent possible, to construct a census of “unique” pack presentations available for purchase in each country. The TPackSS team partnered with in-country field staff to implement a standardized protocol for acquiring packs from 36 diverse neighborhoods across three cities in each country. At the time of purchase, data on price and place of acquisition of each pack was recorded. The field staff, according to a standardized protocol, then photographed packs before they were shipped to the United States for coding and archiving. Results Each pack was coded for compliance with the country-specific health warning label laws, as well as for key design features of the pack and appeals of the branding elements. The coding protocols were

  1. Trends in imported chikungunya virus infections in Germany, 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Frank, Christina; Schöneberg, Irene; Stark, Klaus

    2011-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been previously reported in many African and Asian areas, but it recently reemerged strongly in countries bordering the Indian Ocean as well as caused an outbreak in northern Italy. In Germany, where potential CHIKV vectors are not yet established, CHIKV infection is mandatorily notifiable. Cases reported from 2006 through 2009 were analyzed for travel characteristics and demographic factors. 152 cases of symptomatic CHIKV infection were notified. Both sexes were affected, with a median age of 46 years. Over the years, countries of infection largely followed the outbreaks reported from various travel destinations. India and the Maldives were the countries of infection most frequently named. In Sri Lanka, India, and Thailand, which are also frequently named countries of infection for dengue virus, the median age of CHIKV-affected patients was higher than that of dengue fever patients. Taking traveler numbers into consideration, risk of CHIKV infection was higher in the Seychelles and Mauritius than in Thailand and India. Even though substantial underdiagnosis is suspected, this assessment of CHIKV importation to Germany offers valuable information about the details of travel-associated cases. Between 17 and 53 notified cases per year signify that CHIKV would be occasionally available for local transmission in Germany once a vector becomes present. Although CHIKV most often causes a comparatively mild disease, the high median age of notified cases and the higher age than dengue patients support more severe disease courses in older adults. Travelers to all CHIKV endemic areas should protect against mosquito bites. In Germany, CHIKV surveillance will be continued to monitor ongoing importation of the virus and to detect early potential autochthonous cases. PMID:21453009

  2. Whole-Genome Sequencing Analysis from the Chikungunya Virus Caribbean Outbreak Reveals Novel Evolutionary Genomic Elements

    PubMed Central

    Stapleford, Kenneth A.; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Henningsson, Rasmus; Chen, Rubing; Matheus, Séverine; Enfissi, Antoine; Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Isakov, Ofer; Blanc, Hervé; Mounce, Bryan C.; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Shomron, Noam; Weaver, Scott; Fontes, Magnus; Rousset, Dominique; Vignuzzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus and member of the Togaviridae family, is capable of causing severe febrile disease in humans. In December of 2013 the Asian Lineage of CHIKV spread from the Old World to the Americas, spreading rapidly throughout the New World. Given this new emergence in naïve populations we studied the viral genetic diversity present in infected individuals to understand how CHIKV may have evolved during this continuing outbreak. Methodology/Principle Findings We used deep-sequencing technologies coupled with well-established bioinformatics pipelines to characterize the minority variants and diversity present in CHIKV infected individuals from Guadeloupe and Martinique, two islands in the center of the epidemic. We observed changes in the consensus sequence as well as a diverse range of minority variants present at various levels in the population. Furthermore, we found that overall diversity was dramatically reduced after single passages in cell lines. Finally, we constructed an infectious clone from this outbreak and identified a novel 3’ untranslated region (UTR) structure, not previously found in nature, that led to increased replication in insect cells. Conclusions/Significance Here we preformed an intrahost quasispecies analysis of the new CHIKV outbreak in the Caribbean. We identified novel variants present in infected individuals, as well as a new 3’UTR structure, suggesting that CHIKV has rapidly evolved in a short period of time once it entered this naïve population. These studies highlight the need to continue viral diversity surveillance over time as this epidemic evolves in order to understand the evolutionary potential of CHIKV. PMID:26807575

  3. [Chikungunya, La Réunion and Mayotte, 2005-2006: an epidemic without a story?].

    PubMed

    Flahault, Antoine; Aumont, Gilles; Boisson, Véronique; de Lamballerile, Xavier; Favier, François; Fontenille, Didier; Gaüzère, Bernard-Alex; Journeaux, Sophie; Lotteau, Vincent; Paupy, Christophe; Sanquer, Marie-Anne; Setbon, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Many triggering factors for onset of emerging infectious diseases are now recognised, such as: globalisation, demographic increase, population movements, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate changes, loss in biodiversity, and extreme life conditions such as poverty, famine and war. Epidemic burden is often leading to disasters, in terms of human losses, as well as economic, political or social consequences. These outbreaks may jeopardize within a few weeks or months, industry, trade, or tourism. While dengue and its most severe forms (hemorrhagic and shock syndrome) is spreading all over the tropical world, another arbovirosis, chikungunya disease dramatically spread in Indian Ocean islands where 30 to 75% of population were infected in 2005 and 2006, and then extended its progression towards India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives islands with more than a million people infected with the East-African strain, replacing the former Asian strain which was known to prevail more than 30 years ago in India. Patients experience sequelae with disability, work loss, and rarely severe outcome recently identified in La Réunion and Mayotte (French overseas territories). No country, no part of the world may consider itself as protected against such events. However, consequences of emerging or re-emerging diseases are more and more unacceptable when they impact the poorest countries of the world. Viruses, bacteria, as well as wild animals, birds, or arthropods are not stopped by borders. It is time now to promote barriers against infectious diseases, including prevention, anticipation, disease surveillance and research. This is not only for humanitarian reasons, but also for contributing to a sustainable development with equity for worldwide population. This report presents comprehensive actions taken in 2006 for tracing the epidemic and mobilise research, as requested to the task force set up by the Prime Minister by March 20, 2006. PMID

  4. Effect of Holding Conditions on the Detection of Chikungunya and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Viruses in Mosquito Pools.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Elizabeth S; Turell, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Emerging and re-emerging arboviruses continue to be a threat to global public health, and viral surveillance of mosquito populations is critical for mosquito control operations. Due to the tropical climate of many of the affected areas, it may be difficult to maintain a cold chain as the samples travel from collection sites to laboratories for testing. We determined how suboptimal holding temperatures affected the ability to detect viruses in pools of mosquitoes. Adult female Aedes albopictus and Ae. taeniorhynchus individuals were inoculated with chikungunya virus or Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus suspensions, respectively, and placed at 26°C for 8 days. One infected mosquito was then added to a vial of 24 negative mosquitoes and held at -80°C, -20°C, 4°C, 22°C, or 35°C for up to 14 days. Mosquito pools were analyzed for both infectious virus by plaque assay and for viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) with reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). At higher temperatures, the amount of infectious virus decreased rapidly, but viruses in samples held at 4°C or lower remained relatively stable. In contrast, viral RNA was detectable from pools held at all temperatures and holding times by RT-qPCR. Cycle threshold (Ct) values increased as temperatures and holding times increased. These findings suggest that if viral RNA detection is the goal of surveillance efforts, then mosquito pools do not require storage at ≤4°C. This enhances the feasibility of field-based arbovirus surveillance programs in which maintaining a cold chain may not be a possibility. PMID:27105216

  5. Clinical profile of chikungunya sequelae, association with obesity and rest during acute phase.

    PubMed

    Padmakumar, B; Jayan, Jacob B; Menon, Rejeesh; Kottarathara, Arun Jose

    2010-01-01

    The scarcity of literature regarding chikungunya infection sequelae makes it an unexplored area of medicine. We analyzed 1,111 patients with confirmed chikungunya sequelae and found a female predominance in those with sequelae which increased with age up to 40-50 years old, then decreased with further increase in age. In males age > 60 years old was the predominant age group affected. The symptoms were mainly symmetrical polyarthralgia of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints. Dermatological manifestations were mainly hyper pigmented patches, generalized pruritus, and a maculopapular rash. Insomnia, fatigability and headache may indicate neurological involvement. Obesity gave an odds ratio of 2.07 for risk of arthritis. There was no significant benefit from rest during the acute phase (p < 0.001) of chikungunya in preventing chronicity of sequelae. Obesity as an independent risk factor for chronicity of chikungunya infection sequelae is a new finding. PMID:20578486

  6. Chikungunya Fever Presenting as a Systemic Disease with Fever. Arthritis and Rash: Our Experience in Israel.

    PubMed

    Tanay, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIK-F) has been increasingly documented among Western travelers returning from areas with chikungunya virus transmission, which are also popular tourist sites. We present three Israeli travelers who developed fever, maculopapular rash and long-standing arthralgias while visiting northern Indian states not known to be involved in the chikungunya fever epidemic. We also present an epidemiological review of the chikungunya epidemic over the past decades. Rare systemic manifestations of this disorder, like catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) and adult-onset Still's syndrome, are discussed. The present era of international travel poses a new diagnostic and epidemiologic challenge that demands increased awareness to the possibility of an exotic tropical infectious disease. PMID:27228635

  7. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  8. Third Cranial Nerve Palsy in the Setting of Chikungunya Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Benzekri, Réda; Hage, Rabih; Merle, Harold

    2016-07-01

    We report the case of a 62-year-old patient who developed an acute painless isolated left third cranial nerve palsy sparing the pupil in the setting of an acute chikungunya infection. The patient had no significant medical history. Specifically, he had no vascular risk factors. Ocular involvement in chikungunya fever is uncommon. The potential virus- and infection-related mechanisms of this third cranial nerve palsy are discussed. PMID:27246445

  9. 17 CFR 38.156 - Automated trade surveillance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated trade surveillance... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.156 Automated trade surveillance system. A designated contract market must maintain an automated trade surveillance system capable of detecting and...

  10. 17 CFR 38.156 - Automated trade surveillance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated trade surveillance... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.156 Automated trade surveillance system. A designated contract market must maintain an automated trade surveillance system capable of detecting and...

  11. Chikungunya Viral Fitness Measures within the Vector and Subsequent Transmission Potential

    PubMed Central

    Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Chisenhall, Daniel M.; Wearing, Helen J.; Mores, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    Given the recent emergence of chikungunya in the Americas, the accuracy of forecasting and prediction of chikungunya transmission potential in the U.S. requires urgent assessment. The La Reunion-associated sub-lineage of chikungunya (with a valine substitution in the envelope protein) was shown to increase viral fitness in the secondary vector, Ae. albopictus. Subsequently, a majority of experimental and modeling efforts focused on this combination of a sub-lineage of the East-Central-South African genotype (ECSA-V) – Ae. albopictus, despite the Asian genotype being the etiologic agent of recent chikungunya outbreaks world-wide. We explore a collection of data to investigate relative transmission efficiencies of the three major genotypes/sub-lineages of chikungunya and found difference in the extrinsic incubation periods to be largely overstated. However, there is strong evidence supporting the role of Ae. albopictus in the expansion of chikungunya that our R0 calculations cannot attribute to fitness increases in one vector over another. This suggests other ecological factors associated with the Ae. albopictus-ECSA-V cycle may drive transmission intensity differences. With the apparent bias in literature, however, we are less prepared to evaluate transmission where Ae. aegypti plays a significant role. Holistic investigations of CHIKV transmission cycle(s) will allow for more complete assessment of transmission risk in areas affected by either or both competent vectors. PMID:25310016

  12. IL-1β, IL-6, and RANTES as Biomarkers of Chikungunya Severity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yong-Jiang; Kwek, Dyan J. C.; Lim, Poh-Lian; Dimatatac, Frederico; Ng, Lee-Ching; Ooi, Eng-Eong; Choo, Khar-Heng; Her, Zhisheng; Kourilsky, Philippe; Leo, Yee-Sin

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the immunopathogenesis of Chikungunya virus. Circulating levels of immune mediators and growth factors were analyzed from patients infected during the first Singaporean Chikungunya fever outbreak in early 2008 to establish biomarkers associated with infection and/or disease severity. Methods and Findings Adult patients with laboratory-confirmed Chikungunya fever infection, who were referred to the Communicable Disease Centre/Tan Tock Seng Hospital during the period from January to February 2008, were included in this retrospective study. Plasma fractions were analyzed using a multiplex-microbead immunoassay. Among the patients, the most common clinical features were fever (100%), arthralgia (90%), rash (50%) and conjunctivitis (40%). Profiles of 30 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were able to discriminate the clinical forms of Chikungunya from healthy controls, with patients classified as non-severe and severe disease. Levels of 8 plasma cytokines and 4 growth factors were significantly elevated. Statistical analysis showed that an increase in IL-1β, IL-6 and a decrease in RANTES were associated with disease severity. Conclusions This is the first comprehensive report on the production of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors during acute Chikungunya virus infection. Using these biomarkers, we were able to distinguish between mild disease and more severe forms of Chikungunya fever, thus enabling the identification of patients with poor prognosis and monitoring of the disease. PMID:19156204

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and practices survey after an outbreak of chikungunya infections.

    PubMed

    Moro, M L; Gagliotti, C; Silvi, G; Angelini, R; Sambri, V; Rezza, G; Massimiliani, E; Mattivi, A; Grilli, E; Finarelli, A C; Angelini, P; Macini, P

    2010-09-01

    In 2007, the first chikungunya outbreak ever occurring in a temperate area of the Northern Hemisphere was reported in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. The present study aims to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding chikungunya infection. Information was collected by standardised telephone questionnaire, administered to 325 people during a seroprevalence survey performed in the outbreak area. Most people (61%) knew that Chikungunya virus is transmitted through mosquito bites. A significant proportion of respondents perceived chikungunya infection as a high-risk disease (49.8%) and declared their intention to use mosquito repellents in the future (47.4%). Willingness to use skin repellents was more often declared by women, residents in households with children and people who knew infection transmission routes, while perception of high risk related to Chikungunya did not influence claimed future behaviour. Knowledge of the mechanisms of infection transmission was inversely related to risk perception: elderly people were less likely to know the disease than young people, but ranked the risk highest compared to younger age groups. Less educated residents were much more likely to perceive a high risk. After a chikungunya infection outbreak in a temperate area, where mosquito-borne infections have not been previously reported, only half of the study participants declared their intention to use individual protection in the future. Anticipated behaviour was not explained by the level of risk perception, but was associated with knowledge of the disease and demographic characteristics. PMID:24037703

  14. The surveillant assemblage.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy. PMID:11140886

  15. Principles in sampling design, lessons, and recommendations from a multi-year, multi-port surveillance program in Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated a pilot aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection monitoring program in Lake Superior that was designed to detect newly-introduced fishes. We established survey protocols for three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thunder Bay), and designed an ada...

  16. Chikungunya in Mississippi: The Health Department Response to Imported Cases.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Jerome; Varnado, Wendy C; Hand, Sheryl; Meyer, Florencia

    2016-05-01

    Chikungunya (CHIK), a newly recognized mosquito-borne disease in the Western Hemisphere, has resulted in well over a million cases since December 2013. Only about a dozen locally-acquired cases thus far have been reported in the U. S. (Florida), but approximately 1500 imported cases have been seen in returning travelers from the Caribbean and Central and South America. Public health officials are concerned that imported cases may lead to infection of local mosquitoes and, thus disease transmission. This paper documents 9 confirmed CHIK cases in Mississippi: 5 resulting from travel to the Dominican Republic, 2 from Haiti, 1 from Honduras, and 1 from Puerto Rico. In addition, the Mississippi State Department of Health response to those cases is presented and discussed. PMID:27386666

  17. Spatial and Temporal Clustering of Chikungunya Virus Transmission in Dominica

    PubMed Central

    Nsoesie, Elaine O.; Ricketts, R. Paul; Brown, Heidi E.; Fish, Durland; Durham, David P.; Ndeffo Mbah, Martial L.; Christian, Trudy; Ahmed, Shalauddin; Marcellin, Clement; Shelly, Ellen; Owers, Katharine; Wenzel, Natasha; Galvani, Alison P.; Brownstein, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Using geo-referenced case data, we present spatial and spatio-temporal cluster analyses of the early spread of the 2013–2015 chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Dominica, an island in the Caribbean. Spatial coordinates of the locations of the first 417 reported cases observed between December 15th, 2013 and March 11th, 2014, were captured using the Global Positioning System (GPS). We observed a preponderance of female cases, which has been reported for CHIKV outbreaks in other regions. We also noted statistically significant spatial and spatio-temporal clusters in highly populated areas and observed major clusters prior to implementation of intensive vector control programs suggesting early vector control measures, and education had an impact on the spread of the CHIKV epidemic in Dominica. A dynamical identification of clusters can lead to local assessment of risk and provide opportunities for targeted control efforts for nations experiencing CHIKV outbreaks. PMID:26274813

  18. Chikungunya fever: a re-emerging viral infection.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, M; Mittal, V; Bhattacharya, D; Rana, Uvs; Lal, S

    2008-01-01

    Chikungunya (CHIK) fever is a re-emerging viral disease characterized by abrupt onset of fever with severe arthralgia followed by constitutional symptoms and rash lasting for 1-7 days. The disease is almost self-limiting and rarely fatal. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a RNA virus belonging to family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. Molecular characterization has demonstrated two distinct lineages of strains which cause epidemics in Africa and Asia. These geographical genotypes exhibit differences in the transmission cycles. In contrast to Africa where sylvatic cycle is maintained between monkeys and wild mosquitoes, in Asia the cycle continues between humans and the Aedes aegypti mosquito. CHIKV is known to cause epidemics after a period of quiescence. The first recorded epidemic occurred in Tanzania in 1952-1953. In Asia, CHIK activity was documented since its isolation in Bangkok, Thailand in 1958. Virus transmission continued till 1964. After hiatus, the virus activity re-appeared in the mid-1970s and declined by 1976. In India, well-documented outbreaks occurred in 1963 and 1964 in Kolkata and southern India, respectively. Thereafter, a small outbreak of CHIK was reported from Sholapur district, Maharashtra in 1973. CHIKV emerged in the islands of South West Indian Ocean viz. French island of La Reunion, Mayotee, Mauritius and Seychelles which are reporting the outbreak since February, 2005. After quiescence of about three decades, CHIKV re-emerged in India in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu since December, 2005. Cases have also been reported from Rajasthan, Gujarat and Kerala. The outbreak is still continuing. National Institute of Communicable Diseases has conducted epidemiological, entomological and laboratory investigations for confirmation of the outbreak. These have been discussed in detail along with the major challenges that the country faced during the current outbreak. PMID:18227590

  19. The assessment of risk factors for the Central/East African Genotype of chikungunya virus infections in the state of Kelantan: a case control study in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of the study were to assess the risk factors in relation to cross border activities, exposure to mosquito bite and preventive measures taken. An outbreak of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in Malaysia has been reported in Klang, Selangor (1998) and Bagan Panchor, Perak (2006). In 2009, CHIKV infection re-emerged in some states in Malaysia. It raises the possibilities that re-emergence is part of the epidemics in neighbouring countries or the disease is endemic in Malaysia. For this reason, A community-based case control study was carried out in the state of Kelantan. Methods Prospective case finding was performed from June to December 2009. Those who presented with signs and symptoms of CHIKV infection were investigated. We designed a case control study to assess the risk factors. Assessment consisted of answering questions, undergoing a medical examination, and being tested for the presence of IgM antibodies to CHIKV. Descriptive epidemiological studies were conducted by reviewing both the national surveillance and laboratory data. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine risk factors contributing to the illness. Cases were determined by positive to RT-PCR or serological for antibodies by IgM. CHIKV specificity was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Results There were 129 suspected cases and 176 controls. Among suspected cases, 54.4% were diagnosed to have CHIKV infection. Among the controls, 30.1% were found to be positive to serology for antibodies [IgM, 14.2% and IgG, 15.9%]. For analytic study and based on laboratory case definition, 95 were considered as cases and 123 as controls. Those who were positive to IgG were excluded. CHIKV infection affected all ages and mostly between 50–59 years old. Staying together in the same house with infected patients and working as rubber tappers were at a higher risk of infection. The usage of Mosquito coil insecticide had shown to be a significant protective factor. Most

  20. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  1. Mechanism and role of MCP-1 upregulation upon chikungunya virus infection in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz Silva, Mariana; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Mulder, H. Lie; Smit, Jolanda M.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2)-mediated migration of monocytes is essential for immunological surveillance of tissues. During chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection however, excessive production of MCP-1 has been linked to disease pathogenesis. High MCP-1 serum levels are detected during the viremic phase of CHIKV infection and correlate with the virus titre. In vitro CHIKV infection was also shown to stimulate MCP-1 production in whole blood; yet the role and the mechanism of MCP-1 production upon infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells remain unknown. Here we found that active CHIKV infection stimulated production of MCP-1 in monocytes. Importantly however, we found that communication with other leukocytes is crucial to yield MCP-1 by monocytes upon CHIKV infection. Indeed, blocking interferon-α/β receptor or the JAK1/JAK2 signalling downstream of the receptor abolished CHIKV-mediated MCP-1 production. Additionally, we show that despite the apparent correlation between IFN type I, CHIKV replication and MCP-1, modulating the levels of the chemokine did not influence CHIKV infection. In summary, our data disclose the complexity of MCP-1 regulation upon CHIKV infection and point to a crucial role of IFNβ in the chemokine secretion. We propose that balance between these soluble factors is imperative for an appropriate host response to CHIKV infection. PMID:27558873

  2. Increased number of cases of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection imported from the Caribbean and Central America to northern Italy, 2014.

    PubMed

    Rossini, G; Gaibani, P; Vocale, C; Finarelli, A C; Landini, M P

    2016-07-01

    This report describes an increased number of cases of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection imported in northern Italy (Emilia-Romagna region) during the period May-September 2014, indicating that the recent spread of CHIKV and its establishment in the Caribbean and in central America, resulted in a high number of imported cases in Europe, thus representing a threat to public health. From May to September 2014, 14 imported cases of CHIKV infection were diagnosed; the patients were returning to Italy from Dominican Republic (n = 6), Haiti (n = 3), Guadeloupe (n = 2), Martinique (n = 1), Puerto Rico (n = 1) and Venezuela (n = 1). Phylogenetic analysis performed on the envelope protein (E1) gene sequences, obtained from plasma samples from two patients, indicated that the virus strain belongs to the Caribbean clade of the Asian genotype currently circulating in the Caribbean and Americas. The rise in the number of imported cases of CHIKV infection should increase healthcare professionals' awareness of the epidemiological situation and clinical presentation of CHIKV infection in order to enhance surveillance and early diagnosis in the forthcoming season of vector activity in Europe and North America. PMID:26751121

  3. Mechanism and role of MCP-1 upregulation upon chikungunya virus infection in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Silva, Mariana; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Mulder, H Lie; Smit, Jolanda M; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2)-mediated migration of monocytes is essential for immunological surveillance of tissues. During chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection however, excessive production of MCP-1 has been linked to disease pathogenesis. High MCP-1 serum levels are detected during the viremic phase of CHIKV infection and correlate with the virus titre. In vitro CHIKV infection was also shown to stimulate MCP-1 production in whole blood; yet the role and the mechanism of MCP-1 production upon infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells remain unknown. Here we found that active CHIKV infection stimulated production of MCP-1 in monocytes. Importantly however, we found that communication with other leukocytes is crucial to yield MCP-1 by monocytes upon CHIKV infection. Indeed, blocking interferon-α/β receptor or the JAK1/JAK2 signalling downstream of the receptor abolished CHIKV-mediated MCP-1 production. Additionally, we show that despite the apparent correlation between IFN type I, CHIKV replication and MCP-1, modulating the levels of the chemokine did not influence CHIKV infection. In summary, our data disclose the complexity of MCP-1 regulation upon CHIKV infection and point to a crucial role of IFNβ in the chemokine secretion. We propose that balance between these soluble factors is imperative for an appropriate host response to CHIKV infection. PMID:27558873

  4. Mortar-launched surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Carl E.; Cooper, Steve; Carlton, Lindley A.

    2001-09-01

    Accurate Automation Corporation has completed the conceptual design of a mortar launched air vehicle system to perform close range or over-the-horizon surveillance missions. Law enforcement and military units require an organic capability to obtain real time intelligence information of time critical targets. Our design will permit law enforcement to detect, classify, locate and track these time critical targets. The surveillance system is a simple, unmanned fixed-winged aircraft deployed via a conventional mortar tube. The aircraft's flight surfaces are deployed following mortar launch to permit maximum range and time over target. The aircraft and sensor system are field retrievable. The aircraft can be configured with an engine to permit extended time over target or range. The aircraft has an integrated surveillance sensor system; a programmable CMOS sensor array. The integrated RF transmitter is capable of down- linking real-time video over line-of-sight distances exceeding 10 kilometers. The major benefit of the modular design is the ability to provide surveillance or tracking quickly at a low cost. Vehicle operational radius and sensor field coverage as well as design trade results of vehicle range and endurance performance and payload capacity at operational range are presented for various mortar configurations.

  5. Complete Genome Sequences of Chikungunya Virus Strains Isolated in Mexico: First Detection of Imported and Autochthonous Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Alcántara, Joanna; Fragoso-Fonseca, David Esaú; Garcés-Ayala, Fabiola; Escobar-Escamilla, Noé; Vázquez-Pichardo, Mauricio; Núñez-León, Alma; Torres-Rodríguez, María de la Luz; Torres-Longoria, Belem; López-Martínez, Irma; Ruíz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo; Ramírez-González, José Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus, an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family, is responsible for acute polyarthralgia epidemics. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two chikungunya virus strains, InDRE04 and InDRE51, identified in the Mexican states of Jalisco and Chiapas in 2014. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both strains belong to the Asian genotype. PMID:25953170

  6. 17 CFR 38.605 - Requirements for financial surveillance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements for financial surveillance program. 38.605 Section 38.605 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... financial surveillance program. A designated contract market's financial surveillance program for...

  7. 17 CFR 38.605 - Requirements for financial surveillance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements for financial surveillance program. 38.605 Section 38.605 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... financial surveillance program. A designated contract market's financial surveillance program for...

  8. Identification of chikungunya virus nsP2 protease inhibitors using structure-base approaches.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong T V; Yu, Haibo; Keller, Paul A

    2015-04-01

    The nsP2 protease of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is one of the essential components of viral replication and it plays a crucial role in the cleavage of polyprotein precursors for the viral replication process. Therefore, it is gaining attention as a potential drug design target against CHIKV. Based on the recently determined crystal structure of the nsP2 protease of CHIKV, this study identified potential inhibitors of the virus using structure-based approaches with a combination of molecular docking, virtual screening and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The top hit compounds from database searching, using the NCI Diversity Set II, with targeting at five potential binding sites of the nsP2 protease, were identified by blind dockings and focused dockings. These complexes were then subjected to MD simulations to investigate the stability and flexibility of the complexes and to gain a more detailed insight into the interactions between the compounds and the enzyme. The hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts were characterized for the complexes. Through structural alignment, the catalytic residues Cys1013 and His1083 were identified in the N-terminal region of the nsP2 protease. The absolute binding free energies were estimated by the linear interaction energy approach and compared with the binding affinities predicted with docking. The results provide valuable information for the development of inhibitors for CHIKV. PMID:25622129

  9. Proteomic profiling of serum samples from chikungunya-infected patients provides insights into host response

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chikungunya is a highly debilitating febrile illness caused by Chikungunya virus, a single-stranded RNA virus, which is transmitted by Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquito species. The pathogenesis and host responses in individuals infected with the chikungunya virus are not well understood at the molecular level. We carried out proteomic profiling of serum samples from chikungunya patients in order to identify molecules associated with the host response to infection by this virus. Results Proteomic profiling of serum obtained from the infected individuals resulted in identification of 569 proteins. Of these, 63 proteins were found to be differentially expressed (≥ 2-fold) in patient as compared to control sera. These differentially expressed proteins were involved in various processes such as lipid metabolism, immune response, transport, signal transduction and apoptosis. Conclusions This is the first report providing a global proteomic profile of serum samples from individuals infected with the chikungunya virus. Our data provide an insight into the proteins that are involved as host response factors during an infection. These proteins include clusterin, apolipoproteins and S100A family of proteins. PMID:24124767

  10. Chikungunya as a Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Southern Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Reller, Megan E.; Akoroda, Ufuoma; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Devasiri, Vasantha; Kodikaarachchi, Wasantha; Strouse, John J.; Chua, Robert; Hou, Yan'an; Chow, Angelia; Sessions, October M.; Østbye, Truls; Gubler, Duane J.; Woods, Christopher W.; Bodinayake, Champica

    2013-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged in Sri Lanka in late 2006 after a 40-year hiatus. We sought to identify and characterize acute chikungunya infection (CHIK) in patients presenting with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in unstudied rural and semi-urban southern Sri Lanka in 2007. Methodology/Principal Findings We enrolled febrile patients ≥ 2 years of age, collected uniform epidemiologic and clinical data, and obtained serum samples for serology, virus isolation, and real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Serology on paired acute and convalescent samples identified acute chikungunya infection in 3.5% (28/797) patients without acute dengue virus (DENV) infection, 64.3% (18/28) of which were confirmed by viral isolation and/or real-time RT-PCR. No CHIKV/DENV co-infections were detected among 54 patients with confirmed acute DENV. Sequencing of the E1 coding region of six temporally distinct CHIKV isolates (April through October 2007) showed that all isolates posessed the E1-226A residue and were most closely related to Sri Lankan and Indian isolates from the same time period. Except for more frequent and persistent musculoskeletal symptoms, acute chikungunya infections mimicked DENV and other acute febrile illnesses. Only 12/797 (1.5%) patients had serological evidence of past chikungunya infection. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest CHIKV is a prominent cause of non-specific acute febrile illness in southern Sri Lanka. PMID:24312651

  11. Comparing dengue and chikungunya emergence and endemic transmission in A. aegypti and A. albopictus.

    PubMed

    Manore, Carrie A; Hickmann, Kyle S; Xu, Sen; Wearing, Helen J; Hyman, James M

    2014-09-01

    Chikungunya and dengue are re-emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases that are of increasing concern as human travel and expanding mosquito ranges increase the risk of spread. We seek to understand the differences in transient and endemic behavior of chikungunya and dengue; risk of emergence for different virus-vector assemblages; and the role that virus evolution plays in disease dynamics and risk. To address these questions, we adapt a mathematical mosquito-borne disease model to chikungunya and dengue in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. We derive analytical threshold conditions and important dimensionless parameters for virus transmission; perform sensitivity analysis on quantities of interest such as the basic reproduction number, endemic equilibrium, and first epidemic peak; and compute distributions for the quantities of interest across parameter ranges. We found that chikungunya and dengue exhibit different transient dynamics and long-term endemic levels. While the order of most sensitive parameters is preserved across vector-virus combinations, the magnitude of sensitivity is different across scenarios, indicating that risk of invasion or an outbreak can change with vector-virus assemblages. We found that the dengue - A. aegypti and new Rèunion strain of chikungunya - A. albopictus systems represent the highest risk across the range of parameters considered. These results inform future experimental and field research efforts and point toward effective mitigation strategies adapted to each disease. PMID:24801860

  12. Comparing dengue and chikungunya emergence and endemic transmission in A. aegypti and A. albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Manore, Carrie A.; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Xu, Sen; Wearing, Helen J.; Hyman, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya and dengue are re-emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases that are of increasing concern as human travel and expanding mosquito ranges increase the risk of spread. We seek to understand the differences in transient and endemic behavior of chikungunya and dengue; risk of emergence for different virus-vector assemblages; and the role that virus evolution plays in disease dynamics and risk. To address these questions, we adapt a mathematical mosquito-borne disease model to chikungunya and dengue in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. We derive analytical threshold conditions and important dimensionless parameters for virus transmission; perform sensitivity analysis on quantities of interest such as the basic reproduction number, endemic equilibrium, and first epidemic peak; and compute distributions for the quantities of interest across parameter ranges. We found that chikungunya and dengue exhibit different transient dynamics and long-term endemic levels. While the order of most sensitive parameters is preserved across vector-virus combinations, the magnitude of sensitivity is different across scenarios, indicating that risk of invasion or an outbreak can change with vector-virus assemblages. We found that the dengue-A. aegypti and new Rèunion strain of chikungunya-A. albopictus systems represent the highest risk across the range of parameters considered. These results inform future experimental and field research efforts and point toward effective mitigation strategies adapted to each disease. PMID:24801860

  13. General Medical Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is presented. The purpose of the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the program are discussed.

  14. [New vector control measures implemented between 2005 and 2011 on Reunion Island: lessons learned from chikungunya epidemic].

    PubMed

    Bâville, M; Dehecq, J S; Reilhes, O; Margueron, T; Polycarpe, D; Filleul, L

    2012-03-01

    A major chikungunya outbreak concerned 38% of people living in Reunion Island in 2005-2006. Chikungunya is an arthropod-born-virus disease conveyed by mosquitoes called Aedes albopictus. The health agency in Indian Ocean is responsible for vector control. Previously, in the early 40s, vector control concerned only malaria prophylaxis in La Réunion. Then, during the chikungunya outbreak, a new vector control team was installed and learned from this epidemic. The lessons drawn from chikungunya outbreak in La Réunion are about global executive management and organization linked the local partners and population. The lessons also concern technical topics such as the need of scientific research about vectors and vector-control methods. Finally, the regional cooperation in Indian Ocean (Réunion, Maurice, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar) has to be developed to share epidemiologic and entomologic data in order to prevent new chikungunya or dengue outbreak. PMID:22693927

  15. Design and Implementation of an In?Cache Archival Entropy Coder for the Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    SciTech Connect

    Senecal, J G

    2008-10-01

    The Sonoma sensor, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is an electro-optical (EO) sensor composed of a tiled arrangement of cameras, where each camera sends 20 megabytes (MB) of raw data per frame. Depending on the sensor configuration, each sensor image, in aggregate, can total up to 320 MB. I discuss here the design and implementation of a high-speed entropy coder utilizing the Lead-1 encoding method, intended to quickly and losslessly compress sensor data before it is written to storage. More sophisticated (and slower) compression techniques may be performed off-line. The coder, favoring speed over coding efficiency, is simple in principle and tiny in practice: the amount of allocated memory required by the coder can be as small as 26 bytes. On a 2.7 GHz PowerMac G5 this coder is capable of encoding sensor data at a rate of 163 megabytes per second. The overall compression rate is better than that of BZIP2, GZIP, and a range coder, and the total execution speed is superior.

  16. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  17. Chikungunya Virus Sequences Across the First Epidemic in Nicaragua, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunling; Saborio, Saira; Gresh, Lionel; Eswarappa, Meghana; Wu, Diane; Fire, Andrew; Parameswaran, Poornima; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-02-01

    Chikungunya is caused by the mosquito-borne arthrogenic alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Chikungunya was introduced into the Americas in late 2013 and Nicaragua in mid-2014. Here, we sequenced five imported and 30 autochthonous Nicaraguan CHIKV from cases identified in the first epidemic in the country between August 2014 and April 2015. One full-length and two partial genomic sequences were obtained by deep sequencing; Sanger methodology yielded 33 E1 sequences from five imported and 28 autochthonous cases. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Nicaraguan CHIKV all belonged to the Asian genotype, Caribbean clade. Moreover, E1 gene sequences revealed accumulation of mutations in later months of the epidemic, including four silent mutations in 11 autochthonous cases and three non-synonymous mutations in three autochthonous cases. No mutations contributing to increased transmissibility by Aedes albopictus were identified in the E1 gene. This represents the most comprehensive set of CHIKV sequences available from the Americas to date. PMID:26643533

  18. Protective and Pathogenic Responses to Chikungunya Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Long, Kristin M.; Heise, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus responsible for causing epidemic outbreaks of human disease characterized by painful and often debilitating arthralgia. Recently CHIKV has moved into the Caribbean and the Americas resulting in massive outbreaks in naïve human populations. Given the importance of CHIKV as an emerging disease, a significant amount of effort has gone into interpreting the virus-host interactions that contribute to protection or virus-induced pathology following CHIKV infection, with the long term goal of using this information to develop new therapies or safe and effective anti-CHIKV vaccines. This work has made it clear that numerous distinct host responses are involved in the response to CHIKV infection, where some aspects of the host innate and adaptive immune response protect from or limit virus-induced disease, while other pathways actually exacerbate the virus-induced disease process. This review will discuss mechanisms that have been identified as playing a role in the host response to CHIKV infection and illustrate the importance of carefully evaluating these responses to determine whether they play a protective or pathologic role during CHIKV infection. PMID:26366337

  19. Rapid spread of Chikungunya virus infection in Orissa: India

    PubMed Central

    Dwibedi, B.; Sabat, J.; Mahapatra, N.; Kar, S.K.; Kerketta, A.S.; Hazra, R.K.; Parida, S.K.; Marai, N.S.; Beuria, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives : A large number of cases of undiagnosed fever and joint pain were reported from different parts of the State of Orissa since February 2006. Epidemiological and laboratory investigation were carried out to confirm the cause of emerging illness, which was provisionally suspected as Chikungunya (CHIK) fever. Methods: Upon getting the reports of suspected CHIK like illness in different parts of the State, epidemic investigations were carried out in the outbreak affected villages. Case history was recorded, clinical examination undertaken and blood samples collected for seroconfirmation for CHIK IgM antibody using ELISA based kit. Simultaneously vector survey was also carried out. Results: With no previous record of CHIK infection in the State, the first outbreak was confirmed during February 2006. Subsequently, the infection spread to 13 of 30 districts in different episodes covering 79 villages till November 2007. Attack rate was 9-43 per cent in the different outbreaks with average seropositivity of 24 per cent to CHIK specific IgM. Morbidity was high though no deaths were recorded. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were identified as the possible vectors for transmission. Interpretation & conclusions : The report confirmed emergence of CHIK infection in the State of Orissa, India, and its spread to a larger geographic zone in a short period which warrants public health measures to control further spread. PMID:21441687

  20. Suramin inhibits chikungunya virus replication through multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Albulescu, Irina C; van Hoolwerff, Marcella; Wolters, Laura A; Bottaro, Elisabetta; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Yang, Shih Chi; Tsay, Shwu-Chen; Hwu, Jih Ru; Snijder, Eric J; van Hemert, Martijn J

    2015-09-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes severe and often persistent arthritis. In recent years, millions of people have been infected with this virus for which registered antivirals are still lacking. Using our recently established in vitro assay, we discovered that the approved anti-parasitic drug suramin inhibits CHIKV RNA synthesis (IC50 of ∼5μM). The compound inhibited replication of various CHIKV isolates in cell culture with an EC50 of ∼80μM (CC50>5mM) and was also active against Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus. In vitro studies hinted that suramin interferes with (re)initiation of RNA synthesis, whereas time-of-addition studies suggested it to also interfere with a post-attachment early step in infection, possibly entry. CHIKV (nsP4) mutants resistant against favipiravir or ribavirin, which target the viral RNA polymerase, did not exhibit cross-resistance to suramin, suggesting a different mode of action. The assessment of the activity of a variety of suramin-related compounds in cell culture and the in vitro assay for RNA synthesis provided more insight into the moieties required for antiviral activity. The antiviral effect of suramin-containing liposomes was also analyzed. Its approved status makes it worthwhile to explore the use of suramin to prevent and/or treat CHIKV infections. PMID:26112648

  1. Protocols for Developing Novel Chikungunya Virus DNA Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Chung, Christopher; Ugen, Kenneth E; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Weiner, David B; Muthumani, Kar

    2016-01-01

    To date, there have been several million infections by the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-transmitted emerging pathogen that is considered to be taxonomically an Old World RNA virus. Although original CHIKV outbreaks were restricted to India, East Asian countries, Northern Italy, and France, a recent sharp rise had been identified in 41 countries or territories in the Caribbean, Central America, South America, and North America. A total of 1,012,347 suspected and 22,579 laboratory-confirmed CHIKV cases have been reported from these areas, which signals an increasing risk to the US mainland. Unlike past epidemics that were usually associated with Ae. aegypti transmission, the Caribbean outbreak was associated with Ae. albopictus transmission as the principal mosquito vector. In addition, the substantial increase in the number of deaths during this epidemic, as well as incidence of neurologic disease, suggests that CHIKV may have become more virulent. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics available for CHIKV or its associated disease pathologies. Therefore, development of new vaccines and therapies that could confer immunity and/or treat clinical symptoms of CHIKV is greatly desired. This chapter describes the use of entirely cutting edge technologies/methodologies developed by our group for the development and evaluation of novel DNA vaccines against CHIKV. PMID:27233283

  2. Emergence of chikungunya virus infection in Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Dwibedi, Bhagirathi; Mohapatra, Namita; Beuria, Mihir K; Kerketta, Anna S; Sabat, Jyotsna; Kar, Shantanu K; Rao, Epari V; Hazra, Rupensu K; Parida, Sarat K; Marai, Nitisheel

    2010-05-01

    From September through October 2006, an unknown disease characterized by acute onset of fever, joint pain with or without swelling, and maculopapular rash along with fatigue was reported from three villages of Cuttack and one village of Kendrapara district of Orissa, India, by the State Health Department. Upon learning this, a team from Regional Medical Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Bhubaneswar, Orissa, conducted an epidemiological investigation in the area. Household survey was carried out and clinical examination of the symptomatic individuals (n = 1289: Kendrapara, 752; Cuttack, 537) undertaken. Based on the recorded chikungunya (CHIK) fever symptoms, a vector-borne viral disease was considered for provisional diagnosis. Blood samples were collected from 217 symptomatic individuals; to confirm the diagnosis, sera were tested for anti-CHIK antibody (immunoglobulin M), which revealed 63% (64/101) and 40% (47/116) seropositivity in the samples from Kendrapara and Cuttack district, respectively. The illness was managed with analgesics like paracetamol. No death was recorded due to the illness. Entomological survey in the areas revealed the presence of Aedes mosquitoes: aegypti, albopictus, and vittatus. The per-man-hour density of Aedes vectors ranged from 0.8 to 7.6. High larval indices, house index >17% and Breteau index >70%, also indicated Aedes breeding in the area. The investigation documented circulation of CHIK in Orissa, India, and helped to take preventive steps in the outbreak area, with the suggested vector control measures. PMID:19874187

  3. Chikungunya Virus: Current Perspectives on a Reemerging Virus.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Clayton R; Plante, Kenneth S; Heise, Mark T

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus in the family Togaviridae that causes outbreaks of debilitating acute and chronic arthralgia in humans. Although historically associated with localized outbreaks in Africa and Asia, recent epidemics in the Indian Ocean region and the Americas have led to the recognition that CHIKV is capable of moving into previously unaffected areas and causing significant levels of human suffering. The severity of CHIKV rheumatic disease, which can severely impact life quality of infected individuals for weeks, months, or even years, combined with the explosive nature of CHIKV outbreaks and its demonstrated ability to quickly spread into new regions, has led to renewed interest in developing strategies for the prevention or treatment of CHIKV-induced disease. Therefore, this chapter briefly discusses the biology of CHIKV and the factors contributing to CHIKV dissemination, while also discussing the pathogenesis of CHIKV-induced disease and summarizing the status of efforts to develop safe and effective therapies and vaccines against CHIKV and related viruses. PMID:27337473

  4. Pathogenic Chikungunya Virus Evades B Cell Responses to Establish Persistence.

    PubMed

    Hawman, David W; Fox, Julie M; Ashbrook, Alison W; May, Nicholas A; Schroeder, Kristin M S; Torres, Raul M; Crowe, James E; Dermody, Terence S; Diamond, Michael S; Morrison, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and related alphaviruses cause epidemics of acute and chronic musculoskeletal disease. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the failure of immune clearance of CHIKV, we studied mice infected with an attenuated CHIKV strain (181/25) and the pathogenic parental strain (AF15561), which differ by five amino acids. Whereas AF15561 infection of wild-type mice results in viral persistence in joint tissues, 181/25 is cleared. In contrast, 181/25 infection of μMT mice lacking mature B cells results in viral persistence in joint tissues, suggesting that virus-specific antibody is required for clearance of infection. Mapping studies demonstrated that a highly conserved glycine at position 82 in the A domain of the E2 glycoprotein impedes clearance and neutralization of multiple CHIKV strains. Remarkably, murine and human antibodies targeting E2 domain B failed to neutralize pathogenic CHIKV strains efficiently. Our data suggest that pathogenic CHIKV strains evade E2 domain-B-neutralizing antibodies to establish persistence. PMID:27452455

  5. Epidemiology of chikungunya in Malaysia: 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Chua, K B

    2010-12-01

    This is a retrospective cross-sectional study based on the database of clusters of patients with clinical diagnosis of chikungunya (CHIK) that were referred to the National Public Health Laboratory for diagnostic investigations from January 2006 to December 2009. Of the 13,759 referred patients, a total of 6314 (45.9%) patients were laboratory confirmed to have CHIK and 7445 (54.1) patients were considered as clinical cases of CHIK by epidemiological link. Epidemic curves plotted using date of onset of illness for all referred clusters of cases showed that there were three unrelated outbreaks of CHIK in Malaysia from 2006 to 2009. There were two small outbreaks that occurred within the state of Perak in 2006. The cluster of cases in 2008 and 2009 were of related outbreak which started in Johor state and subsequently spread to various parts of Malaysia. The mean age of the patients was 37.0 years old and those patients in the laboratory confirmed group were significantly younger than those in the epidemiological linked group. The main presenting clinical features recorded in this study were fever, arthralgia, myalgia and rashes. Those patients in the laboratory confirmed group had a significant higher incidence of fever, arthralgia and rash than those in the epidemiological linked group. PMID:21901945

  6. Mouse macrophage innate immune response to chikungunya virus infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infection with Chikungunya alphavirus (CHIKV) can cause severe arthralgia and chronic arthritis in humans with persistence of the virus in perivascular macrophages of the synovial membrane by mechanisms largely ill-characterized. Findings We herein analysed the innate immune response (cytokine and programmed cell death) of RAW264.7 mouse macrophages following CHIKV infection. We found that the infection was restrained to a small percentage of cells and was not associated with a robust type I IFN innate immune response (IFN-α4 and ISG56). TNF-α, IL-6 and GM-CSF expression were upregulated while IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 or IL-17 expression could not be evidenced prior to and after CHIKV exposure. Although CHIKV is known to drive apoptosis in many cell types, we found no canonical signs of programmed cell death (cleaved caspase-3, -9) in infected RAW264.7 cells. Conclusion These data argue for the capacity of CHIKV to infect and drive a specific innate immune response in RAW264.7 macrophage cell which seems to be polarized to assist viral persistence through the control of apoptosis and IFN signalling. PMID:23253140

  7. Assessing the Origin of and Potential for International Spread of Chikungunya Virus from the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Kamran; Bogoch, Isaac; Brownstein, John S.; Miniota, Jennifer; Nicolucci, Adrian; Hu, Wei; Nsoesie, Elaine O.; Cetron, Martin; Creatore, Maria Isabella; German, Matthew; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    Background: For the first time, an outbreak of chikungunya has been reported in the Americas. Locally acquired infections have been confirmed in fourteen Caribbean countries and dependent territories, Guyana and French Guiana, in which a large number of North American travelers vacation. Should some travelers become infected with chikungunya virus, they could potentially introduce it into the United States, where there are competent Aedes mosquito vectors, with the possibility of local transmission. Methods: We analyzed historical data on airline travelers departing areas of the Caribbean and South America, where locally acquired cases of chikungunya have been confirmed as of May 12th, 2014. The final destinations of travelers departing these areas between May and July 2012 were determined and overlaid on maps of the reported distribution of Aedes aeygpti and albopictus mosquitoes in the United States, to identify potential areas at risk of autochthonous transmission. Results: The United States alone accounted for 52.1% of the final destinations of all international travelers departing chikungunya indigenous areas of the Caribbean between May and July 2012. Cities in the United States with the highest volume of air travelers were New York City, Miami and San Juan (Puerto Rico). Miami and San Juan were high travel-volume cities where Aedes aeygpti or albopictus are reported and where climatic conditions could be suitable for autochthonous transmission. Conclusion: The rapidly evolving outbreak of chikungunya in the Caribbean poses a growing risk to countries and areas linked by air travel, including the United States where competent Aedes mosquitoes exist. The risk of chikungunya importation into the United States may be elevated following key travel periods in the spring, when large numbers of North American travelers typically vacation in the Caribbean. PMID:24944846

  8. Prevalence of Chikungunya in Urban Field Practice Area of a Private Medical College, Chennai

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramaniam, Sudharsanam M; Krishnakumar, J; Stephen, Thattiparthi; Gaur, Rashmi; Appavoo, NC

    2011-01-01

    Background: The outbreak of Chikungunya in India started during December 2005 with more than 11,00,000 cases. Many cases with symptoms suggestive of Chikungunya reported to our urban health-training centre. Hence this study was done to estimate the prevalence of Chikungunya, to study the common treatment-seeking behavior, control measures and the sequalae of Chikungunya by follow-up. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in Anagaputhur an urban field practice area of our college. The study was done on a sample selected by systematic random sampling. Any person with fever and joint pain, with an onset from 1 August 2006 to 31 August 2006, were enrolled as cases. The cases were followed up after three months. Results: Chikungunya prevalence in the community was 22.3%; 52% of them were females and 56% of cases were in the 15-44 years age group. Median duration of acute phase was three days. Ninety-one percent of them had multiple joints’ involvement. Seventy-eight percent sought treatment from the private sector. Sixty-seven percent reported artificial collections of water around their household and 44% complained of mosquito problems during the day. Eighty-eight percent used mosquito repellents for personal protection. On follow-up 95% of them had residual joint pain, 43% had residual joint swelling and 11% had disabilities with median duration of 30 days. Conclusions: Prevalence of Chikungunya was 22.3%, predominantly affecting the age group of 15-44 years and females. The private sector was commonly sought for treatment. Entomological survey indicated Aedes breeding. Eleven percent had disabilities due to the sequelae. PMID:21976797

  9. Wireless sensor network for mobile surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, Gert J. A.; Maris, Marinus G.

    2004-11-01

    Guarding safety and security within industrial, commercial and military areas is an important issue nowadays. A specific challenge lies in the design of portable surveillance systems that can be rapidly deployed, installed and easily operated. Conventional surveillance systems typically employ stand alone sensors that transmit their data to a central control station for data-processing. One of the disadvantages of these kinds of systems is that they generate a lot of data that may induce processing or storage problems. Moreover, data from the sensors must be constantly observed and assessed by human operators. In this paper, a surveillance concept based on distributed intelligence in wireless sensor networks is proposed. In this concept, surveillance is automatically performed by means of many small sensing devices including cameras. The requirements for such surveillance systems are investigated. Experiments with a demonstration system were conducted to verify some of the claims made throughout this paper.

  10. Optimizing Provider Recruitment for Influenza Surveillance Networks

    PubMed Central

    Scarpino, Samuel V.; Dimitrov, Nedialko B.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2012-01-01

    The increasingly complex and rapid transmission dynamics of many infectious diseases necessitates the use of new, more advanced methods for surveillance, early detection, and decision-making. Here, we demonstrate that a new method for optimizing surveillance networks can improve the quality of epidemiological information produced by typical provider-based networks. Using past surveillance and Internet search data, it determines the precise locations where providers should be enrolled. When applied to redesigning the provider-based, influenza-like-illness surveillance network (ILINet) for the state of Texas, the method identifies networks that are expected to significantly outperform the existing network with far fewer providers. This optimized network avoids informational redundancies and is thereby more effective than networks designed by conventional methods and a recently published algorithm based on maximizing population coverage. We show further that Google Flu Trends data, when incorporated into a network as a virtual provider, can enhance but not replace traditional surveillance methods. PMID:22511860

  11. Using climate information to understand the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of a chikungunya outbreak in the presence of widespread asymptomatic infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommar, C. J.; Lowe, R.; Robinson, M.; Rodó, X.

    2013-12-01

    found to be an insufficient mechanism to halt the spread of the disease, which can be readily carried to neighbouring nodes via sub-clinical individuals. Furthermore, the impact of topology structure versus precipitation levels is assessed and precipitation is found to be the dominant factor driving spatio-temporal transmission. Our results highlight the urgent need to establish adequate monitoring and mosquito control programs in vulnerable countries. These models can help to inform public health officials on both the impact and potential spatial expansion of vector-borne diseases through both urban and rural regions under the influence of dynamic climatic conditions. Given the climate sensitivity of vector-borne diseases, such as chikungunya, it is important to link the monitoring of meteorological conditions to public health surveillance and control.

  12. Climate-driven mathematical models to understand the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of a chikungunya outbreak in the presence of widespread asymptomatic infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommar, Carlos J.; Robinson, Marguerite; Lowe, Rachel; Conan, Anne; Buchy, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Rodó, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    found to be an insufficient mechanism to halt the spread of the disease, which can be readily carried to neighbouring nodes via sub-clinical individuals. Furthermore, the impact of topology structure versus precipitation levels is assessed and precipitation is found to be the dominant factor driving spatio-temporal transmission. Our results highlight the urgent need to establish adequate monitoring and mosquito control programs in vulnerable countries. These models can help to inform public health officials on both the impact and potential spatial expansion of vector-borne diseases through both urban and rural regions under the influence of dynamic climatic conditions. Given the climate sensitivity of vector-borne diseases, such as chikungunya, it is important to link the monitoring of meteorological conditions to public health surveillance and control.

  13. High Level of Vector Competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from Ten American Countries as a Crucial Factor in the Spread of Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Zouache, Karima; Girod, Romain

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes a major public health problem. In 2004, CHIKV began an unprecedented global expansion and has been responsible for epidemics in Africa, Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean region, and surprisingly, in temperate regions, such as Europe. Intriguingly, no local transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) had been reported in the Americas until recently, despite the presence of vectors and annually reported imported cases. Here, we assessed the vector competence of 35 American Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquito populations for three CHIKV genotypes. We also compared the number of viral particles of different CHIKV strains in mosquito saliva at two different times postinfection. Primarily, viral dissemination rates were high for all mosquito populations irrespective of the tested CHIKV isolate. In contrast, differences in transmission efficiency (TE) were underlined in populations of both species through the Americas, suggesting the role of salivary glands in selecting CHIKV for highly efficient transmission. Nonetheless, both mosquito species were capable of transmitting all three CHIKV genotypes, and TE reached alarming rates as high as 83.3% and 96.7% in A. aegypti and A. albopictus populations, respectively. A. albopictus better transmitted the epidemic mutant strain CHIKV_0621 of the East-Central-South African (ECSA) genotype than did A. aegypti, whereas the latter species was more capable of transmitting the original ECSA CHIKV_115 strain and also the Asian genotype CHIKV_NC. Therefore, a high risk of establishment and spread of CHIKV throughout the tropical, subtropical, and even temperate regions of the Americas is more real than ever. IMPORTANCE Until recently, the Americas had never reported chikungunya (CHIK) autochthonous transmission despite its global expansion beginning in 2004. Large regions of the continent are highly infested with Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, and millions of dengue (DEN

  14. [The reemergence of the Chikungunya virus in Réunion Island on 2010: evolution of the mosquito control practices].

    PubMed

    Dehecq, J-S; Baville, M; Margueron, T; Mussard, R; Filleul, L

    2011-05-01

    The re-emergence of local transmission of chikungunya virus caused by Aedes albopictus since March 2010 in the Réunion Island, French territory in the southwest Indian Ocean, calls for better epidemiological surveys, vector control, and community-based chikungunya control. This paper describes the strategy and the new ways of vector control applied since the last major chikungunya virus outbreak in 2005-2007, and the high levels of collaboration with mayors and local associations for community involvement. Between March 17, 2010 (first chikungunya case) and July 1, 2010, 313 cases were investigated, 13,036 premises inspected, and 34,393 premises concerned by spatial treatment. The traditional entomologic indices don't explain the distribution map of chikungunya cases, and many other factors have to be measured for evaluating the risk of transmission, such as lifestyle, habitat, and the kind of environment the people live in. A big information campaign was conducted beside the implementation of traditional mosquito control techniques. The two themes of this campaign are environmental management and individual protection, considered as important components of chikungunya prevention. The outcome of the mosquito control strategy demonstrates that community participation is not enough, and more studies are required to define new ways of communication for promoting community-oriented activities to prevent chikungunya epidemics. PMID:21181327

  15. Sentinel surveillance system for early outbreak detection in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Following the outbreak of chikungunya in the Indian Ocean, the Ministry of Health directed the necessary development of an early outbreak detection system. A disease surveillance team including the Institut Pasteur in Madagascar (IPM) was organized to establish a sentinel syndromic-based surveillance system. The system, which was set up in March 2007, transmits patient data on a daily basis from the various voluntary general practitioners throughout the six provinces of the country to the IPM. We describe the challenges and steps involved in developing a sentinel surveillance system and the well-timed information it provides for improving public health decision-making. Methods Surveillance was based on data collected from sentinel general practitioners (SGP). The SGPs report the sex, age, visit date and time, and symptoms of each new patient weekly, using forms addressed to the management team. However, the system is original in that SGPs also report data at least once a day, from Monday to Friday (number of fever cases, rapid test confirmed malaria, influenza, arboviral syndromes or diarrhoeal disease), by cellular telephone (encrypted message SMS). Information can also be validated by the management team, by mobile phone. This data transmission costs 120 ariary per day, less than US$1 per month. Results In 2008, the sentinel surveillance system included 13 health centers, and identified 5 outbreaks. Of the 218,849 visits to SGPs, 12.2% were related to fever syndromes. Of these 26,669 fever cases, 12.3% were related to Dengue-like fever, 11.1% to Influenza-like illness and 9.7% to malaria cases confirmed by a specific rapid diagnostic test. Conclusion The sentinel surveillance system represents the first nationwide real-time-like surveillance system ever established in Madagascar. Our findings should encourage other African countries to develop their own syndromic surveillance systems. Prompt detection of an outbreak of infectious disease may lead to

  16. The Mental Vitality @ Work study: design of a randomized controlled trial on the effect of a workers' health surveillance mental module for nurses and allied health professionals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Employees in health care service are at high risk for developing mental health complaints. The effects of mental health complaints on work can have serious consequences for the quality of care provided by these workers. To help health service workers remain healthy and productive, preventive actions are necessary. A Workers' Health Surveillance (WHS) mental module may be an effective strategy to monitor and promote good (mental) health and work performance. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a three arm cluster randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a WHS mental module for nurses and allied health professionals. Two strategies for this WHS mental module will be compared along with data from a control group. Additionally, the cost effectiveness of the approaches will be evaluated from a societal perspective. Methods The study is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial consisting of three arms (two intervention groups, 1 control group) with randomization at ward level. The study population consists of 86 departments in one Dutch academic medical center with a total of 1731 nurses and allied health professionals. At baseline, after three months and after six months of follow-up, outcomes will be assessed by online questionnaires. In both intervention arms, participants will complete a screening to detect problems in mental health and work functioning and receive feedback on their screening results. In cases of impairments in mental health or work functioning in the first intervention arm, a consultation with an occupational physician will be offered. The second intervention arm offers a choice of self-help e-mental health interventions, which will be tailored based on each individual's mental health state and work functioning. The primary outcomes will be help-seeking behavior and work functioning. Secondary outcomes will be mental health and wellbeing. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness in both intervention arms

  17. Seroprevalence of Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibodies in Children and Adults in Managua, Nicaragua, After the First Chikungunya Epidemic, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Guillermina; Ramirez, Stephania; Gresh, Lionel; Ojeda, Sergio; Melendez, Marlon; Sanchez, Nery; Collado, Damaris; Garcia, Nadezna; Mercado, Juan Carlos; Gordon, Aubree; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. In late 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced into the Caribbean island of St. Martin. Since then, approximately 2 million chikungunya cases have been reported by the Pan American Health Organization, and most countries in the Americas report autochthonous transmission of CHIKV. In Nicaragua, the first imported case was described in July 2014 and the first autochthonous case in September 2014. Here, we conducted two studies to analyze the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first chikungunya epidemic in a community-based cohort study (ages 2-14 years) and in a cross-sectional survey of persons aged ≥15 years in the same area of Managua, Nicaragua. Routine annual serum samples collected from 3,362 cohort participants in March/April 2014 and 2015, and 848 age-stratified samples collected from persons ≥15 years old at the end of May-beginning of June 2015 were used to estimate the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first epidemic (October 2014 to February 2015 in the study population). Using an Inhibition ELISA assay that measures total anti-CHIKV antibodies, the seroprevalence was significantly higher in those aged ≥15 (13.1% (95%CI: 10.9, 15.5)) than in the pediatric population (6.1% (95%CI: 5.3, 6.9)). The proportion of inapparent infections was 58.3% (95%CI: 51.5, 65.1) in children and 64.9% (95%CI: 55.2, 73.7) in the ≥15 study population. We identified age, water availability, household size, and socioeconomic status as factors associated with the presence of anti-CHIKV antibodies. Overall, this is the first report of CHIKV seropositivity in continental Latin America and provides useful information for public health authorities in the region. PMID:27322692

  18. Seroprevalence of Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibodies in Children and Adults in Managua, Nicaragua, After the First Chikungunya Epidemic, 2014-2015

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Sergio; Melendez, Marlon; Sanchez, Nery; Collado, Damaris; Garcia, Nadezna; Mercado, Juan Carlos; Gordon, Aubree; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. In late 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced into the Caribbean island of St. Martin. Since then, approximately 2 million chikungunya cases have been reported by the Pan American Health Organization, and most countries in the Americas report autochthonous transmission of CHIKV. In Nicaragua, the first imported case was described in July 2014 and the first autochthonous case in September 2014. Here, we conducted two studies to analyze the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first chikungunya epidemic in a community-based cohort study (ages 2–14 years) and in a cross-sectional survey of persons aged ≥15 years in the same area of Managua, Nicaragua. Routine annual serum samples collected from 3,362 cohort participants in March/April 2014 and 2015, and 848 age-stratified samples collected from persons ≥15 years old at the end of May-beginning of June 2015 were used to estimate the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first epidemic (October 2014 to February 2015 in the study population). Using an Inhibition ELISA assay that measures total anti-CHIKV antibodies, the seroprevalence was significantly higher in those aged ≥15 (13.1% (95%CI: 10.9, 15.5)) than in the pediatric population (6.1% (95%CI: 5.3, 6.9)). The proportion of inapparent infections was 58.3% (95%CI: 51.5, 65.1) in children and 64.9% (95%CI: 55.2, 73.7) in the ≥15 study population. We identified age, water availability, household size, and socioeconomic status as factors associated with the presence of anti-CHIKV antibodies. Overall, this is the first report of CHIKV seropositivity in continental Latin America and provides useful information for public health authorities in the region. PMID:27322692

  19. Privacy-protecting video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasuriya, Jehan; Alhazzazi, Mohanned; Datt, Mahesh; Mehrotra, Sharad; Venkatasubramanian, Nalini

    2005-02-01

    Forms of surveillance are very quickly becoming an integral part of crime control policy, crisis management, social control theory and community consciousness. In turn, it has been used as a simple and effective solution to many of these problems. However, privacy-related concerns have been expressed over the development and deployment of this technology. Used properly, video cameras help expose wrongdoing but typically come at the cost of privacy to those not involved in any maleficent activity. This work describes the design and implementation of a real-time, privacy-protecting video surveillance infrastructure that fuses additional sensor information (e.g. Radio-frequency Identification) with video streams and an access control framework in order to make decisions about how and when to display the individuals under surveillance. This video surveillance system is a particular instance of a more general paradigm of privacy-protecting data collection. In this paper we describe in detail the video processing techniques used in order to achieve real-time tracking of users in pervasive spaces while utilizing the additional sensor data provided by various instrumented sensors. In particular, we discuss background modeling techniques, object tracking and implementation techniques that pertain to the overall development of this system.

  20. Evaluation of Commercially Available Chikungunya Virus Immunoglobulin M Detection Assays.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Barbara W; Goodman, Christin H; Holloway, Kimberly; de Salazar, P Martinez; Valadere, Anne M; Drebot, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Commercial chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-specific IgM detection kits were evaluated at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Public Health Agency of Canada National Microbiology Laboratory, and the Caribbean Public Health Agency (CARPHA). The Euroimmun Anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA kit had ≥ 95% concordance with all three reference laboratory results. The limit of detection for low CHIK IgM+ samples, as measured by serial dilution of seven sera up to 1:12,800 ranged from 1:800 to 1:3,200. The Euroimmun IIFT kit evaluated at CDC and CARPHA performed well, but required more retesting of equivocal results. The InBios CHIKjj Detect MAC-ELISA had 100% and 98% concordance with CDC and CARPHA results, respectively, and had equal sensitivity to the CDC MAC-ELISA to 1:12,800 dilution in serially diluted samples. The Abcam Anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA had high performance at CARPHA, but at CDC, performance was inconsistent between lots. After replacement of the biotinylated IgM antibody controls with serum containing CHIKV-specific IgM and additional quality assurance/control measures, the Abcam kit was rereleased and reevaluated at CDC. The reformatted Abcam kit had 97% concordance with CDC results and limit of detection of 1:800 to 1:3,200. Two rapid tests and three other CHIKV MAC-ELISAs evaluated at CDC had low sensitivity, as the CDC CHIKV IgM in-house positive controls were below the level of detection. In conclusion, laboratories have options for CHIKV serological diagnosis using validated commercial kits. PMID:26976887

  1. Evaluation of Commercially Available Chikungunya Virus Immunoglobulin M Detection Assays

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Barbara W.; Goodman, Christin H.; Holloway, Kimberly; de Salazar, P. Martinez; Valadere, Anne M.; Drebot, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial chikungunya virus (CHIKV)–specific IgM detection kits were evaluated at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Public Health Agency of Canada National Microbiology Laboratory, and the Caribbean Public Health Agency (CARPHA). The Euroimmun Anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA kit had ≥ 95% concordance with all three reference laboratory results. The limit of detection for low CHIK IgM+ samples, as measured by serial dilution of seven sera up to 1:12,800 ranged from 1:800 to 1:3,200. The Euroimmun IIFT kit evaluated at CDC and CARPHA performed well, but required more retesting of equivocal results. The InBios CHIKjj Detect MAC-ELISA had 100% and 98% concordance with CDC and CARPHA results, respectively, and had equal sensitivity to the CDC MAC-ELISA to 1:12,800 dilution in serially diluted samples. The Abcam Anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA had high performance at CARPHA, but at CDC, performance was inconsistent between lots. After replacement of the biotinylated IgM antibody controls with serum containing CHIKV-specific IgM and additional quality assurance/control measures, the Abcam kit was rereleased and reevaluated at CDC. The reformatted Abcam kit had 97% concordance with CDC results and limit of detection of 1:800 to 1:3,200. Two rapid tests and three other CHIKV MAC-ELISAs evaluated at CDC had low sensitivity, as the CDC CHIKV IgM in-house positive controls were below the level of detection. In conclusion, laboratories have options for CHIKV serological diagnosis using validated commercial kits. PMID:26976887

  2. A Combination of Doxycycline and Ribavirin Alleviated Chikungunya Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rothan, Hussin A.; Bahrani, Hirbod; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Teoh, Teow Chong; Shankar, Esaki M.; Rahman, Noorsaadah A.; Yusof, Rohana

    2015-01-01

    Lack of vaccine and effective antiviral drugs against chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreaks have led to significant impact on health care in the developing world. Here, we evaluated the antiviral effects of tetracycline (TETRA) derivatives and other common antiviral agents against CHIKV. Our results showed that within the TETRA derivatives group, Doxycycline (DOXY) exhibited the highest inhibitory effect against CHIKV replication in Vero cells. On the other hand, in the antiviral group Ribavirin (RIBA) showed higher inhibitory effects against CHIKV replication compared to Aciclovir (ACIC). Interestingly, RIBA inhibitory effects were also higher than all but DOXY within the TETRA derivatives group. Docking studies of DOXY to viral cysteine protease and E2 envelope protein showed non-competitive interaction with docking energy of -6.6±0.1 and -6.4±0.1 kcal/mol respectively. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) of DOXY and RIBA was determined to be 10.95±2.12 μM and 15.51±1.62 μM respectively, while DOXY+RIBA (1:1 combination) showed an EC50 of 4.52±1.42 μM. When compared, DOXY showed higher inhibition of viral infectivity and entry than RIBA. In contrast however, RIBA showed higher inhibition against viral replication in target cells compared to DOXY. Assays using mice as animal models revealed that DOXY+RIBA effectively inhibited CHIKV replication and attenuated its infectivity in vivo. Further experimental and clinical studies are warranted to investigate their potential application for clinical intervention of CHIKV disease. PMID:25970853

  3. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  4. The value of information: Current challenges in surveillance implementation.

    PubMed

    Stärk, Katharina D C; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Animal health surveillance is a complex activity that involves multiple stakeholders and provides decision support across sectors. Despite progress in the design of surveillance systems, some technical challenges remain, specifically for emerging hazards. Surveillance can also be impacted by political interests and costly consequences of case reporting, particularly in relation to international trade. Constraints on surveillance can therefore be of technical, economic and political nature. From an economic perspective, both surveillance and intervention are resource-using activities that are part of a mitigation strategy. Surveillance provides information for intervention decisions and thereby helps to offset negative effects of animal disease and to reduce the decision uncertainty associated with choices on disease control. It thus creates monetary and non-monetary benefits, both of which may be challenging to quantify. The technical relationships between surveillance, intervention and loss avoidance have not been established for most hazards despite being important consideration for investment decisions. Therefore, surveillance cannot just be maximised to minimise intervention costs. Economic appraisals of surveillance need to be done on a case by case basis for any hazard considering both surveillance and intervention performance, the losses avoided and the values attached to them. This can be achieved by using an evaluation approach which provides a systematic investigation of the worth or merit of surveillance activities. Evaluation is driven by a specific evaluation question which for surveillance systems commonly considers effectiveness, efficiency, implementation and/or compliance issues. More work is needed to provide guidance on the appropriate selection of evaluation attributes and general good practice in surveillance evaluation. Due to technical challenges, economic constraints and variable levels of capacity, the implementation of surveillance systems

  5. Dengue and chikungunya: long-distance spread and outbreaks in naïve areas

    PubMed Central

    Rezza, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne virus infections, such as dengue and chikungunya, are continuously expanding their geographical range. The dengue virus, which is known to be a common cause of febrile illness in tropical areas of the Old World, is now widespread in the Americas. In most affected areas, all the four dengue virus serotypes have circulated. Recently, small clusters of dengue have been identified also in Southern Europe during the hot season. The chikungunya virus, initially restricted to Central Africa, where is a common cause of sporadic cases or small outbreaks, and Asia, where it is used to cause large epidemics, has recently invaded new territories. After ravaging Indian Ocean Islands and the Indian subcontinent, CHIKV caused an outbreak in north-eastern Italy. Recently, chikungunya has reached the Caribbean, causing for the first time a large epidemic on the American continent. Although Aedes aegypti is the main vector of both viruses, Aedes albopictus, the Asian ‘Tiger’ mosquito, is now playing an increasingly important role, contributing to their spread in temperate climate areas. Hereby, we focus the attention on outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya occurring in previously disease-free areas and discuss factors associated with the long-distance spread of the vector-borne infections, such as mutations increasing viral fitness, climate change, urbanization, and globalization of humans and vectors. PMID:25491436

  6. Global distribution and environmental suitability for chikungunya virus, 1952 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Golding, N; Pigott, DM; Brady, OJ; Moyes, CL; Johansson, MA; Gething, PW; Velayudhan, R; Khan, K

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya fever is an acute febrile illness caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which is transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes. Although chikungunya fever is rarely fatal, patients can experience debilitating symptoms that last from months to years. Here we comprehensively assess the global distribution of chikungunya and produce high-resolution maps, using an established modelling framework that combines a comprehensive occurrence database with bespoke environmental correlates, including up-to-date Aedes distribution maps. This enables estimation of the current total population-at-risk of CHIKV transmission and identification of areas where the virus may spread to in the future. We identified 94 countries with good evidence for current CHIKV presence and a set of countries in the New and Old World with potential for future CHIKV establishment, demonstrated by high environmental suitability for transmission and in some cases previous sporadic reports. Aedes aegypti presence was identified as one of the major contributing factors to CHIKV transmission but significant geographical heterogeneity exists. We estimated 1.3 billion people are living in areas at-risk of CHIKV transmission. These maps provide a baseline for identifying areas where prevention and control efforts should be prioritised and can be used to guide estimation of the global burden of CHIKV. PMID:27239817

  7. Chikungunya Virus as Cause of Febrile Illness Outbreak, Chiapas, Mexico, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kautz, Tiffany F.; Díaz-González, Esteban E.; Erasmus, Jesse H.; Malo-García, Iliana R.; Langsjoen, Rose M.; Patterson, Edward I.; Auguste, Dawn I.; Forrester, Naomi L.; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa Maria; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia M.; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-01-01

    Since chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced into the Americas in 2013, its geographic distribution has rapidly expanded. Of 119 serum samples collected in 2014 from febrile patients in southern Mexico, 79% were positive for CHIKV or IgM against CHIKV. Sequencing results confirmed CHIKV strains closely related to Caribbean isolates. PMID:26488312

  8. Single-Reaction Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR for Detection of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Viruses.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, Jesse J; Gresh, Lionel; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Ballesteros, Gabriela; Davila, Maria Jose Vargas; Tellez, Yolanda; Sahoo, Malaya K; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2016-07-01

    Clinical manifestations of Zika virus, chikungunya virus, and dengue virus infections can be similar. To improve virus detection, streamline molecular workflow, and decrease test costs, we developed and evaluated a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR for these viruses. PMID:27184629

  9. Activities of proteasome and m-calpain are essential for Chikungunya virus replication.

    PubMed

    Karpe, Yogesh A; Pingale, Kunal D; Kanade, Gayatri D

    2016-10-01

    Replication of many viruses is dependent on the ubiquitin proteasome system. The present study demonstrates that Chikungunya virus replication increases proteasome activity and induces unfolded protein response (UPR) in cultured cells. Further, it was seen that the virus replication was dependent on the activities of proteasomes and m-calpain. Proteasome inhibition induced accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins and earlier visualization of UPR. PMID:27206501

  10. Co-circulation of Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses, Al Hudaydah, Yemen, 2012.

    PubMed

    Rezza, Giovanni; El-Sawaf, Gamal; Faggioni, Giovanni; Vescio, Fenicia; Al Ameri, Ranya; De Santis, Riccardo; Helaly, Ghada; Pomponi, Alice; Metwally, Dalia; Fantini, Massimo; Qadi, Hussein; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Lista, Florigio

    2014-08-01

    We investigated 400 cases of dengue-like illness in persons hospitalized during an outbreak in Al Hudaydah, Yemen, in 2012. Overall, 116 dengue and 49 chikungunya cases were diagnosed. Dengue virus type 2 was the predominant serotype. The co-circulation of these viruses indicates that mosquitoborne infections represent a public health threat in Yemen. PMID:25061762

  11. Detection of east/central/south African genotype of chikungunya virus in Myanmar, 2010.

    PubMed

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-08-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene. PMID:25062511

  12. Dengue and chikungunya: long-distance spread and outbreaks in naïve areas.

    PubMed

    Rezza, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    Mosquito-borne virus infections, such as dengue and chikungunya, are continuously expanding their geographical range. The dengue virus, which is known to be a common cause of febrile illness in tropical areas of the Old World, is now widespread in the Americas. In most affected areas, all the four dengue virus serotypes have circulated. Recently, small clusters of dengue have been identified also in Southern Europe during the hot season. The chikungunya virus, initially restricted to Central Africa, where is a common cause of sporadic cases or small outbreaks, and Asia, where it is used to cause large epidemics, has recently invaded new territories. After ravaging Indian Ocean Islands and the Indian subcontinent, CHIKV caused an outbreak in north-eastern Italy. Recently, chikungunya has reached the Caribbean, causing for the first time a large epidemic on the American continent. Although Aedes aegypti is the main vector of both viruses, Aedes albopictus, the Asian 'Tiger' mosquito, is now playing an increasingly important role, contributing to their spread in temperate climate areas. Hereby, we focus the attention on outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya occurring in previously disease-free areas and discuss factors associated with the long-distance spread of the vector-borne infections, such as mutations increasing viral fitness, climate change, urbanization, and globalization of humans and vectors. PMID:25491436

  13. Single-Reaction Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR for Detection of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Gresh, Lionel; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Ballesteros, Gabriela; Davila, Maria Jose Vargas; Tellez, Yolanda; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of Zika virus, chikungunya virus, and dengue virus infections can be similar. To improve virus detection, streamline molecular workflow, and decrease test costs, we developed and evaluated a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR for these viruses. PMID:27184629

  14. Chikungunya Virus Infections Among Travelers–United States, 2010–2013

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Nicole P.; Prince, Harry E.; Kosoy, Olga; Laven, Janeen; Messenger, Sharon; Staples, J. Erin; Fischer, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is an emerging threat to the United States because humans are amplifying hosts and competent mosquito vectors are present in many regions of the country. We identified laboratory-confirmed chikungunya virus infections with diagnostic testing performed in the United States from 2010 through 2013. We described the epidemiology of these cases and determined which were reported to ArboNET. From 2010 through 2013, 115 laboratory-confirmed chikungunya virus infections were identified. Among 55 cases with known travel history, 53 (96%) reported travel to Asia and 2 (4%) to Africa. No locally-acquired infections were identified. Six patients had detectable viremia after returning to the United States. Only 21% of identified cases were reported to ArboNET, with a median of 72 days between illness onset and reporting. Given the risk of introduction into the United States, healthcare providers and public health officials should be educated about the recognition, diagnosis, and timely reporting of chikungunya virus disease cases. PMID:25349374

  15. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam

    2014-12-04

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  16. Detection of East/Central/South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Myanmar, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene. PMID:25062511

  17. Chikungunya Virus as Cause of Febrile Illness Outbreak, Chiapas, Mexico, 2014.

    PubMed

    Kautz, Tiffany F; Díaz-González, Esteban E; Erasmus, Jesse H; Malo-García, Iliana R; Langsjoen, Rose M; Patterson, Edward I; Auguste, Dawn I; Forrester, Naomi L; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa Maria; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia M; Weaver, Scott C; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-11-01

    Since chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced into the Americas in 2013, its geographic distribution has rapidly expanded. Of 119 serum samples collected in 2014 from febrile patients in southern Mexico, 79% were positive for CHIKV or IgM against CHIKV. Sequencing results confirmed CHIKV strains closely related to Caribbean isolates. PMID:26488312

  18. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  19. Encephalitis Caused by Chikungunya Virus in a Traveler from the Kingdom of Tonga

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Joanna; Waggoner, Jesse J.; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Grant, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    Febrile travelers from countries with unique endemic pathogens pose a significant diagnostic challenge. In this report, we describe the case of a Tongan man presenting with fever, rash, and altered mental status. The diagnosis of Chikungunya encephalitis was made using a laboratory-developed real-time RT-PCR and serologic testing. PMID:24958800

  20. Global distribution and environmental suitability for chikungunya virus, 1952 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Nsoesie, Elaine O; Kraemer, Moritz Ug; Golding, Nick; Pigott, David M; Brady, Oliver J; Moyes, Catherine L; Johansson, Michael A; Gething, Peter W; Velayudhan, Raman; Khan, Kamran; Hay, Simon I; Brownstein, John S

    2016-05-19

    Chikungunya fever is an acute febrile illness caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which is transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes. Although chikungunya fever is rarely fatal, patients can experience debilitating symptoms that last from months to years. Here we comprehensively assess the global distribution of chikungunya and produce high-resolution maps, using an established modelling framework that combines a comprehensive occurrence database with bespoke environmental correlates, including up-to-date Aedes distribution maps. This enables estimation of the current total population-at-risk of CHIKV transmission and identification of areas where the virus may spread to in the future. We identified 94 countries with good evidence for current CHIKV presence and a set of countries in the New and Old World with potential for future CHIKV establishment, demonstrated by high environmental suitability for transmission and in some cases previous sporadic reports. Aedes aegypti presence was identified as one of the major contributing factors to CHIKV transmission but significant geographical heterogeneity exists. We estimated 1.3 billion people are living in areas at-risk of CHIKV transmission. These maps provide a baseline for identifying areas where prevention and control efforts should be prioritised and can be used to guide estimation of the global burden of CHIKV. PMID:27239817

  1. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. PMID:25744760

  2. Secure surveillance videotapes

    SciTech Connect

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P.; Olsen, R.; Chitumbo, K.; Pepper, S.

    1995-12-31

    With assistance from the US Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), Aquila Technologies Group developed the Tamper-Resistant Analog Media (TRAM-1000) system to provide standard VHS surveillance video tapes with an enhanced tamper-indicating capability. This project represents further implementation of the partnership approach in facilities including light water reactors with MOX facilities. These facilities use Uniplex Digiquad system video tapes. The partnership approach ensures that one organization can exchange the tapes in a machine without the presence of the other, without losing continuity of information. The TRAM-1000 system development project was accomplished in two stages. In the first stage of the project, the original system delivered to the IAEA, consists of three parts: (1) the tamper detection unit, (2) a specially augmented VHS video tape, and (3) an HP-95 reader. The tamper detection unit houses a VACOSS active fiber-optic seal and an electronic identification tag (E-TAG) reader. In the second stage of the project, the original TRAM-1000 was modified to its current design based on agency input. After delivery of the original TRAM-1000 system to the IAEA, it was reviewed by inspectors. The inspectors felt that the initial system`s tape storage/transport method could be simplified. Rather than threading the fiber through the tape spindles, the inspectors suggested that the tape be placed in a bag capable of being sealed. Also, a more flexible fiber-optic cable was recommended. As a result of these suggestions, Aquila developed a tamper-proof bag specifically for holding a surveillance video tape and sealable with a VACOSS fiber optical seal.

  3. Chikungunya virus fusion properties elucidated by single-particle and bulk approaches.

    PubMed

    van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K S; Blijleven, Jelle S; van Oijen, Antoine M; Smit, Jolanda M

    2015-08-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly spreading, enveloped alphavirus causing fever, rash and debilitating polyarthritis. No specific treatment or vaccines are available to treat or prevent infection. For the rational design of vaccines and antiviral drugs, it is imperative to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in CHIKV infection. A critical step in the life cycle of CHIKV is fusion of the viral membrane with a host cell membrane. Here, we elucidate this process using ensemble-averaging liposome-virus fusion studies, in which the fusion behaviour of a large virus population is measured, and a newly developed microscopy-based single-particle assay, in which the fusion kinetics of an individual particle can be visualised. The combination of these approaches allowed us to obtain detailed insight into the kinetics, lipid dependency and pH dependency of hemifusion. We found that CHIKV fusion is strictly dependent on low pH, with a threshold of pH 6.2 and optimal fusion efficiency below pH 5.6. At this pH, CHIKV fuses rapidly with target membranes, with typically half of the fusion occurring within 2 s after acidification. Cholesterol and sphingomyelin in the target membrane were found to strongly enhance the fusion process. By analysing our single-particle data using kinetic models, we were able to deduce that the number of rate-limiting steps occurring before hemifusion equals about three. To explain these data, we propose a mechanistic model in which multiple E1 fusion trimers are involved in initiating the fusion process. PMID:25872739

  4. Antiviral Hammerhead Ribozymes Are Effective for Developing Transgenic Suppression of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Priya; Furey, Colleen; Balaraman, Velmurugan; Fraser, Malcolm J.

    2016-01-01

    The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging pathogen with widespread distribution in regions of Africa, India, and Asia that threatens to spread into temperate climates with the introduction of its major vector, Aedes albopictus. CHIKV causes a disease frequently misdiagnosed as dengue fever, with potentially life-threatening symptoms that can result in a longer-term debilitating arthritis. The increasing risk of spread from endemic regions via human travel and commerce and the current absence of a vaccine put a significant proportion of the world population at risk for this disease. In this study we designed and tested hammerhead ribozymes (hRzs) targeting CHIKV structural protein genes of the RNA genome as potential antivirals both at the cellular and in vivo level. We employed the CHIKV strain 181/25, which exhibits similar infectivity rates in both Vero cell cultures and mosquitoes. Virus suppression assay performed on transformed Vero cell clones of all seven hRzs demonstrated that all are effective at inhibiting CHIKV in Vero cells, with hRz #9 and #14 being the most effective. piggyBac transformation vectors were constructed using the Ae. aegypti t-RNAval Pol III promoted hRz #9 and #14 effector genes to establish a total of nine unique transgenic Higgs White Eye (HWE) Ae. aegypti lines. Following confirmation of transgene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), comparative TCID50-IFA analysis, in situ Immuno-fluorescent Assays (IFA) and analysis of salivary CHIKV titers demonstrated effective suppression of virus replication at 7 dpi in heterozygous females of each of these transgenic lines compared with control HWE mosquitoes. This report provides a proof that appropriately engineered hRzs are powerful antiviral effector genes suitable for population replacement strategies PMID:27294950

  5. Antiviral Hammerhead Ribozymes Are Effective for Developing Transgenic Suppression of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Priya; Furey, Colleen; Balaraman, Velmurugan; Fraser, Malcolm J

    2016-01-01

    The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging pathogen with widespread distribution in regions of Africa, India, and Asia that threatens to spread into temperate climates with the introduction of its major vector, Aedes albopictus. CHIKV causes a disease frequently misdiagnosed as dengue fever, with potentially life-threatening symptoms that can result in a longer-term debilitating arthritis. The increasing risk of spread from endemic regions via human travel and commerce and the current absence of a vaccine put a significant proportion of the world population at risk for this disease. In this study we designed and tested hammerhead ribozymes (hRzs) targeting CHIKV structural protein genes of the RNA genome as potential antivirals both at the cellular and in vivo level. We employed the CHIKV strain 181/25, which exhibits similar infectivity rates in both Vero cell cultures and mosquitoes. Virus suppression assay performed on transformed Vero cell clones of all seven hRzs demonstrated that all are effective at inhibiting CHIKV in Vero cells, with hRz #9 and #14 being the most effective. piggyBac transformation vectors were constructed using the Ae. aegypti t-RNA(val) Pol III promoted hRz #9 and #14 effector genes to establish a total of nine unique transgenic Higgs White Eye (HWE) Ae. aegypti lines. Following confirmation of transgene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), comparative TCID50-IFA analysis, in situ Immuno-fluorescent Assays (IFA) and analysis of salivary CHIKV titers demonstrated effective suppression of virus replication at 7 dpi in heterozygous females of each of these transgenic lines compared with control HWE mosquitoes. This report provides a proof that appropriately engineered hRzs are powerful antiviral effector genes suitable for population replacement strategies. PMID:27294950

  6. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  7. Modernization of existing VVER-1000 surveillance programs

    SciTech Connect

    Kochkin, V.; Erak, D.; Makhotin, D.

    2011-07-01

    According to generally accepted world practice, evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material behavior during operation is carried out using tests of surveillance specimens. The main objective of the surveillance program consists in insurance of safe RPV operation during the design lifetime and lifetime-extension period. At present, the approaches of pressure vessels residual life validation based on the test results of their surveillance specimens have been developed and introduced in Russia and are under consideration in other countries where vodo-vodyanoi energetichesky reactors- (VVER-) 1000 are in operation. In this case, it is necessary to ensure leading irradiation of surveillance specimens (as compared to the pressure vessel wall) and to provide uniformly irradiated specimen groups for mechanical testing. Standard surveillance program of VVER-1000 has several significant shortcomings and does not meet these requirements. Taking into account program of lifetime extension of VVER-1000 operating in Russia, it is necessary to carry out upgrading of the VVER-1000 surveillance program. This paper studies the conditions of a surveillance specimen's irradiation and upgrading of existing sets to provide monitoring and prognosis of RPV material properties for extension of the reactor's lifetime up to 60 years or more. (authors)

  8. Public health surveillance: historical origins, methods and evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Declich, S.; Carter, A. O.

    1994-01-01

    In the last three decades, disease surveillance has grown into a complete discipline, quite distinct from epidemiology. This expansion into a separate scientific area within public health has not been accompanied by parallel growth in the literature about its principles and methods. The development of the fundamental concepts of surveillance systems provides a basis on which to build a better understanding of the subject. In addition, the concepts have practical value as they can be used in designing new systems as well as understanding or evaluating currently operating systems. This article reviews the principles of surveillance, beginning with a historical survey of the roots and evolution of surveillance, and discusses the goals of public health surveillance. Methods for data collection, data analysis, interpretation, and dissemination are presented, together with proposed procedures for evaluating and improving a surveillance system. Finally, some points to be considered in establishing a new surveillance system are presented. PMID:8205649

  9. Mercury Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on mercury exposure is presented including forms, sources, permissible exposure limits, and physiological effects. The purpose of the Mercury Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Mercury Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  10. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  11. Arsenic surveillance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background information about arsenic is presented including forms, common sources, and clinical symptoms of arsenic exposure. The purpose of the Arsenic Surveillance Program and LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Arsenic Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  12. Asbestos Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on asbestos is presented including the different types and the important medical distinctions between those different types. The four diseases associated with asbestos exposure are discussed: mesothelioma, lung cancer, asbestosis, and benign pleural disorders. The purpose of the LeRC Asbestos Surveillance Program is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Asbestos Monitoring at LeRC are discussed.

  13. Lead Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on lead exposure is presented including forms of lead, sources, hematologic effects, neurologic effects, endocrine effects, renal effects, and reproductive and developmental effects. The purpose of the Lead Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Lead Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  14. Induction of Cytopathogenicity in Human Glioblastoma Cells by Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Rachy; Mudaliar, Prashant; Padmanabhan, Aiswaria; Sreekumar, Easwaran

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arthritogenic old-world alphavirus, has been implicated in the central nervous system (CNS) infection in infants and elderly patients. Astrocytes are the major immune cells of the brain parenchyma that mediate inflammation. In the present study we found that a local isolate of CHIKV infect and activate U-87 MG cells, a glioblastoma cell line of human astrocyte origin. The infection kinetics were similar in infected U-87 MG cells and the human embryo kidney (HEK293) cells as indicated by immunofluorescence and plaque assays, 24h post-infection (p.i.). In infected U-87 MG cells, apoptosis was detectable from 48h p.i. evidenced by DNA fragmentation, PARP cleavage, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, nuclear condensation and visible cytopathic effects in a dose and time-dependent manner. XBP1 mRNA splicing and eIF2α phosphorylation studies indicated the occurrence of endoplasmic reticulum stress in infected cells. In U-87 MG cells stably expressing a green fluorescent protein-tagged light chain-3 (GFP-LC3) protein, CHIKV infection showed increased autophagy response. The infection led to an enhanced expression of the mRNA transcripts of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and CXCL9 within 24h p.i. Significant up-regulation of the proteins of RIG-I like receptor (RLR) pathway, such as RIG-I and TRAF-6, was observed indicating the activation of the cytoplasmic-cellular innate immune response. The overall results show that the U-87 MG cell line is a potential in vitro model for in depth study of these molecular pathways in response to CHIKV infection. The responses in these cells of CNS origin, which are inherently defective in Type I interferon response, could be analogous to that occurring in infants and very old patients who also have a compromised interferon-response. The results also point to the intriguing possibility of using this virus for studies to develop oncolytic virus therapy approaches against

  15. Induction of cytopathogenicity in human glioblastoma cells by chikungunya virus.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Rachy; Mudaliar, Prashant; Padmanabhan, Aiswaria; Sreekumar, Easwaran

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arthritogenic old-world alphavirus, has been implicated in the central nervous system (CNS) infection in infants and elderly patients. Astrocytes are the major immune cells of the brain parenchyma that mediate inflammation. In the present study we found that a local isolate of CHIKV infect and activate U-87 MG cells, a glioblastoma cell line of human astrocyte origin. The infection kinetics were similar in infected U-87 MG cells and the human embryo kidney (HEK293) cells as indicated by immunofluorescence and plaque assays, 24h post-infection (p.i.). In infected U-87 MG cells, apoptosis was detectable from 48h p.i. evidenced by DNA fragmentation, PARP cleavage, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, nuclear condensation and visible cytopathic effects in a dose and time-dependent manner. XBP1 mRNA splicing and eIF2α phosphorylation studies indicated the occurrence of endoplasmic reticulum stress in infected cells. In U-87 MG cells stably expressing a green fluorescent protein-tagged light chain-3 (GFP-LC3) protein, CHIKV infection showed increased autophagy response. The infection led to an enhanced expression of the mRNA transcripts of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and CXCL9 within 24h p.i. Significant up-regulation of the proteins of RIG-I like receptor (RLR) pathway, such as RIG-I and TRAF-6, was observed indicating the activation of the cytoplasmic-cellular innate immune response. The overall results show that the U-87 MG cell line is a potential in vitro model for in depth study of these molecular pathways in response to CHIKV infection. The responses in these cells of CNS origin, which are inherently defective in Type I interferon response, could be analogous to that occurring in infants and very old patients who also have a compromised interferon-response. The results also point to the intriguing possibility of using this virus for studies to develop oncolytic virus therapy approaches against

  16. Chikungunya Virus RNA and Antibody Testing at a National Reference Laboratory since the Emergence of Chikungunya Virus in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Harry E.; Seaton, Brent L.; Matud, Jose L.

    2014-01-01

    Since first reported in the Americas in December 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections have been documented in travelers returning from the Caribbean, with many cases identified by CHIKV antibody and/or RNA testing at our laboratory. We used our large data set to characterize the relationship between antibody titers and RNA detection and to estimate IgM persistence. CHIKV RNA was measured by nucleic acid amplification and CHIKV IgG/IgM by indirect immunofluorescence. Of the 1,306 samples submitted for RNA testing in January through September 2014, 393 (30%) were positive; for 166 RNA-positive samples, CHIKV antibody testing was also ordered, and 84% were antibody negative. Of the 6,971 sera submitted for antibody testing in January through September 2014, 1,811 (26%) were IgM positive; 1,461 IgM positives (81%) were also IgG positive. The relationship between the CHIKV antibody titers and RNA detection was evaluated using 376 IgM-positive samples (138 with RNA testing ordered and 238 deidentified and tested for RNA). RNA detection showed no significant association with the IgM titer but was inversely related to the IgG titer; 63% of the IgG negative sera were RNA positive, compared to 36% of sera with low IgG titers (1:10 to 1:80) and 16% with IgG titers of ≥1:160. Using second-sample results from 62 seroconverters, we estimated that CHIKV IgM persists for 110 days (95% confidence interval, 78 to 150 days) after the initial antibody-negative sample. These findings indicate that (i) RNA detection is more sensitive than antibody detection early in CHIKV infection, (ii) in the absence of RNA results, the IgG titer of the IgM-positive samples may be a useful surrogate for viremia, and (iii) CHIKV IgM persists for approximately 4 months after symptom onset. PMID:25540275

  17. Dengue and Chikungunya Fever among Viral Diseases in Outpatient Febrile Children in Kilosa District Hospital, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Chipwaza, Beatrice; Mugasa, Joseph P.; Selemani, Majige; Amuri, Mbaraka; Mosha, Fausta; Ngatunga, Steve D.; Gwakisa, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Viral etiologies of fever, including dengue, Chikungunya, influenza, rota and adeno viruses, cause major disease burden in tropical and subtropical countries. The lack of diagnostic facilities in developing countries leads to failure to estimate the true burden of such illnesses, and generally the diseases are underreported. These diseases may have similar symptoms with other causes of acute febrile illnesses including malaria and hence clinical diagnosis without laboratory tests can be difficult. This study aimed to identify viral etiologies as a cause of fever in children and their co-infections with malaria. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted for 6 months at Kilosa district hospital, Tanzania. The participants were febrile children aged 2–13 years presented at the outpatient department. Diagnostic tests such as IgM and IgG ELISA, and PCR were used. Results A total of 364 patients were enrolled, of these 83(22.8%) had malaria parasites, 76 (20.9%) had presumptive acute dengue infection and among those, 29(38.2%) were confirmed cases. Dengue was more likely to occur in children ≥ 5 years than in <5 years (OR 2.28, 95% CI: 1.35–3.86). Presumptive acute Chikungunya infection was identified in 17(4.7%) of patients. We observed no presenting symptoms that distinguished patients with Chikungunya infection from those with dengue infection or malaria. Co-infections between malaria and Chikungunya, malaria and dengue fever as well as Chikungunya and dengue were detected. Most patients with Chikungunya and dengue infections were treated with antibacterials. Furthermore, our results revealed that 5(5.2%) of patients had influenza virus while 5(12.8%) had rotavirus and 2(5.1%) had adenovirus. Conclusion Our results suggest that even though viral diseases are a major public health concern, they are not given due recognition as a cause of fever in febrile patients. Emphasis on laboratory diagnostic tests for proper diagnosis and management of

  18. [Chikungunya fever--expanded distribution of a re-emerging tropical infectious disease].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    Chikungunya fever has been originally distributed in several parts of Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia. The disease is caused by Chikungunya virus, an enveloped, single-stranded ribonucleic acid virus of the alphavirus genus (family Togaviridae). In Asia, virus transmission to humans occurs predominantly by the bite of the female Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquito. In rural Africa, other mosquito species are also implicated in virus transmission. Chikungunya fever is characterized by fever with sudden onset, headache, backache, myalgia, and rash as well as painful and long-lasting arthralgia, affecting primarily the peripheral joints. Joint pain frequently persists for two or more months. Treatment strategies are primarily supportive and symptomatic and comprise the continuous application of certain analgetics, i.e., paracetamol (acetaminophen) and several non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Although there is no generally recommended specific antiviral therapy, the use of chloroquine, ribavirin and interferon-alpha might be useful. In 2005 and 2006, the largest epidemic of Chikungunya fever ever recorded has been occurred in the islands of the southwest Indian Ocean and in India. The epidemic affected at least 1.3 million cases in India alone. The most affected island was the French territory La Réunion, where approximately one third of the total population (266,000 of 770,000) suffered from the disease. Based on the extent of the epidemic and the busy tourism between India/the islands of the Indian Ocean and Europe, numerous cases have been reported in several European countries since 2005. In 2007, one of these travellers served as "index patient" for the first outbreak of Chikungunya fever in a temperate region. Between July and September 2007, more than 200 cases of infection with Chikungunya virus have been notified in a region of north eastern Italy. The first autochthonic outbreak in Europe has been associated with the presence of A

  19. Circuits of Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Robin; Johnson, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the increasing police use of DNA profiling and databasing as a developing instrumentality of modern state surveillance. It briefly notes previously published work on a variety of surveillance technologies and their role in the governance of social action and social order. It then argues that there are important differences amongst the ways in which several such technologies construct and use identificatory artefacts, their orientations to human subjectivity, and their role in the governmentality of citizens and others. The paper then describes the novel and powerful form of bio-surveillance offered by DNA profiling and illustrates this by reference to an ongoing empirical study of the police uses of the UK National DNA Database for the investigation of crime. It is argued that DNA profiling and databasing enable the construction of a ‘closed circuit’ of surveillance of a defined population. PMID:16467920

  20. DIALYSIS SURVEILLANCE NETWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    A voluntary national surveillance system monitoring bloodstream and vascular infections. This is a yearly survey, done in collaboration with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) that collects data on infection control practices, and the frequency of certain dialys...

  1. IMPROVING WATERBORNE DISEASE SURVEILLANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health surveillance has played a key role in controlling the spread of communicable disease and identifying the need for specific publich health practices, such as the filteration and chlorination of drinking water supplies. However, the characteristics of waterborne ou...

  2. A perspective on targeting non-structural proteins to combat neglected tropical diseases: Dengue, West Nile and Chikungunya viruses.

    PubMed

    Bhakat, Soumendranath; Karubiu, Wilson; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2014-11-24

    Neglected tropical diseases are major causes of fatality in poverty stricken regions across Africa, Asia and some part of America. The combined potential health risk associated with arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses); Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile Virus (WNV) and Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) is immense. These arboviruses are either emerging or re-emerging in many regions with recent documented outbreaks in the United States. Despite several recent evidences of emergence, currently there are no approved drugs or vaccines available to counter these diseases. Non-structural proteins encoded by these RNA viruses are essential for their replication and maturation and thus may offer ideal targets for developing antiviral drugs. In recent years, several protease inhibitors have been sourced from plant extract, synthesis, computer aided drug design and high throughput screening as well as through drug reposition based approaches to target the non-structural proteins. The protease inhibitors have shown different levels of inhibition and may thus provide template to develop selective and potent drugs against these devastating arboviruses. This review seeks to shed light on the design and development of antiviral drugs against DENV, WNV and CHIKV to date. To the best of our knowledge, this review provides the first comprehensive update on the development of protease inhibitors targeting non-structural proteins of three most devastating arboviruses, DENV, WNV and CHIKV. PMID:25305334

  3. A226V mutation in virus during the 2007 chikungunya outbreak in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N Pradeep; Joseph, Rajan; Kamaraj, T; Jambulingam, P

    2008-08-01

    Kerala State in India was gripped by a renewed and widespread outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection during 2007. Here, we report the A226V mutation in the glycoprotein envelope 1 (E1) gene of the virus among isolates collected from the three worst-affected districts of the state during this outbreak. This mutation had already been suggested to be directly responsible for a significant increase in CHIKV infectivity in Aedes albopictus. The badly affected districts in Kerala State during 2007 have abundant rubber plantations, which supported prolific breeding of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. The abundance of Ae. albopictus in the region and molecular evolution of CHIKV may be contributing factors for the renewed epidemic of chikungunya fever during 2007. PMID:18632966

  4. Chikungunya fever: Atypical and lethal cases in the Western hemisphere: A Venezuelan experience.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jaime R; Leopoldo Códova G; Castro, Julio S; Rodríguez, Libsen; Saravia, Víctor; Arvelaez, Joanne; Ríos-Fabra, Antonio; Longhi, María A; Marcano, Melania

    2015-01-01

    A large epidemic of Chikungunya fever currently affects the Caribbean, Central and South America. Despite a high number of reported cases, little is known on the occurrence of severe clinical complications. We describe four Venezuelan patients with a severe and/or lethal course who exhibit unusual manifestations of the disease. Case 1 describes a 75 year-old man with rapid onset of septic shock and multi-organ failure. Cases 2 and 3 describe two patients with rapid aggressive clinical course who developed shock, severe purpuric lesions and a distinct area large of necrosis in the nasal region. Case 4 depicts a splenectomized woman with shock, generalized purpuric lesions, bullous dermatosis and acronecrosis of an upper limb. Chikungunya fever in the Western hemisphere may also associate with atypical and severe manifestations. Some patients experience a life-threatening, aggressive clinical course, with rapid deterioration and death due to multisystem failure. PMID:26793440

  5. Chikungunya Fever in Travelers Returning to Europe from the Indian Ocean Region, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Panning, Marcus; Grywna, Klaus; van Esbroeck, Marjan; Emmerich, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Chikungunya fever has spread through several Indian Ocean islands and India, including popular travel destinations. To compare usefulness of diagnostic tests and to understand reasons for the magnitude and severity of an outbreak, we used 3 diagnostic methods to test 720 samples from 680 patients returning to Europe from the Indian Ocean region in 2006. Chikungunya infection was confirmed for 24.4% patients in the first half of the year and for 9.9% in the second half. Reverse transcription–PCR was positive for all samples taken up to day 4 after symptom onset. Immunofluorescence detected immunoglobulin (Ig) M on day 1 and IgG on day 2 for some patients, and in all patients from day 5 onward. Soon after onset of symptoms, patients had IgG and IgM and high viral loads (some >109 copies/mL plasma). These data will help healthcare providers select diagnostic tests for returning travelers. PMID:18325256

  6. Tigliane diterpenes from Croton mauritianus as inhibitors of chikungunya virus replication.

    PubMed

    Corlay, Nina; Delang, Leen; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Neyts, Johan; Clerc, Patricia; Smadja, Jacqueline; Guéritte, Françoise; Leyssen, Pieter; Litaudon, Marc

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided purification of an EtOAc extract of the leaves of Croton mauritianus using a chikungunya virus-cell-based assay led to the isolation of 12-O-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate (1) and the new 12-O-decanoyl-7-hydroperoxy-phorbol-5-ene-13-acetate (2), along with loliolide, vomifoliol, dehydrovomifoliol, annuionone D and bluemol C. The planar structure and the relative configuration of compound 2 were elucidated based on spectroscopic analysis, including 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited chikungunya virus-induced cell death in cell culture with EC50s of 2.4±0.3 and 4.0±0.8 μM, respectively. PMID:24879904

  7. A human genome-wide loss-of-function screen identifies effective chikungunya antiviral drugs

    PubMed Central

    Karlas, Alexander; Berre, Stefano; Couderc, Thérèse; Varjak, Margus; Braun, Peter; Meyer, Michael; Gangneux, Nicolas; Karo-Astover, Liis; Weege, Friderike; Raftery, Martin; Schönrich, Günther; Klemm, Uwe; Wurzlbauer, Anne; Bracher, Franz; Merits, Andres; Meyer, Thomas F.; Lecuit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a globally spreading alphavirus against which there is no commercially available vaccine or therapy. Here we use a genome-wide siRNA screen to identify 156 proviral and 41 antiviral host factors affecting CHIKV replication. We analyse the cellular pathways in which human proviral genes are involved and identify druggable targets. Twenty-one small-molecule inhibitors, some of which are FDA approved, targeting six proviral factors or pathways, have high antiviral activity in vitro, with low toxicity. Three identified inhibitors have prophylactic antiviral effects in mouse models of chikungunya infection. Two of them, the calmodulin inhibitor pimozide and the fatty acid synthesis inhibitor TOFA, have a therapeutic effect in vivo when combined. These results demonstrate the value of loss-of-function screening and pathway analysis for the rational identification of small molecules with therapeutic potential and pave the way for the development of new, host-directed, antiviral agents. PMID:27177310

  8. A Randomized Trial of Diet in Men with Early Stage Prostate Cancer on Active Surveillance: Rationale and Design of the Men’s Eating and Living (MEAL) Study (CALGB 70807 [Alliance])

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, J. Kellogg; Pierce, John P.; Mohler, James; Paskett, Electra; Jung, Sin-Ho; Humphrey, Peter; Taylor, John R.; Newman, Vicky A.; Barbier, Leslie; Rock, Cheryl L.; Marshall, James

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet may substantially alter prostate cancer initiation and progression. However, large-scale clinical trials of diet modification have yet to be performed for prostate cancer. The Men’s Eating and Living (MEAL) Study (CALGB 70807 [Alliance]) is investigating the effect of increased vegetable consumption on clinical progression in men with localized prostate cancer. Study Design MEAL is a randomized, Phase III clinical trial designed to test whether an intervention that increases vegetable intake will decrease the incidence of clinical progression in men with clinically localized prostate cancer on active surveillance. We are randomizing 464 patients to either a validated telephone-based diet counseling intervention or a control condition in which patients receive a published diet guideline. The intervention will continue for two years. The primary outcome variable is clinical progression defined by serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and pathological findings on follow-up prostate biopsy. Secondary outcome variables include incidence of surgical and non-surgical treatments for prostate cancer, prostate-cancer related patient anxiety and health-related quality of life. Conclusion The MEAL Study is assessing the effectiveness of a high-vegetable diet intervention for preventing clinical progression in men with localized prostate cancer on active surveillance. PMID:24837543

  9. Chikungunya: bending over the Americas and the rest of the world.

    PubMed

    Madariaga, Miguel; Ticona, Eduardo; Resurrecion, Cristhian

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by Aedes mosquito bites. A viral mutation has allowed Aedes albopictus to become the preferred vector extending the geographic spread of the condition. The virus causes an acute febrile illness occasionally followed by a chronic rheumatic condition causing severe impairment. The diagnosis is usually confirmed with serology. No specific treatment is currently available. This article reviews the condition with emphasis on his dissemination in the Americas. PMID:26707971

  10. Groundwater surveillance plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Forstrom, J.M.; Smith, E.D.; Winters, S.L.; Haase, C.S.; King, H.L.; McMaster, W.M.

    1994-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the preparation of environmental monitoring plans and implementation of environmental monitoring programs for all DOE facilities. The order identifies two distinct components of environmental monitoring, namely effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. In general, effluent monitoring has the objectives of characterizing contaminants and demonstrating compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, whereas environmental surveillance has the broader objective of monitoring the effects of DOE activities on on- and off-site environmental and natural resources. The purpose of this document is to support the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) by describing the groundwater component of the environmental surveillance program for the DOE facilities on the ORR. The distinctions between groundwater effluent monitoring and groundwater surveillance have been defined in the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Surveillance Strategy. As defined in the strategy, a groundwater surveillance program consists of two parts, plant perimeter surveillance and off-site water well surveillance. This document identifies the sampling locations, parameters, and monitoring frequencies for both of these activities on and around the ORR and describes the rationale for the program design. The program was developed to meet the objectives of DOE Order 5400.1 and related requirements in DOE Order 5400.5 and to conform with DOE guidance on environmental surveillance and the Energy Systems Groundwater Surveillance Strategy.

  11. Chikungunya infection in DoD healthcare beneficiaries following the 2013 introduction of the virus into the Western Hemisphere, 1 January 2014 to 28 February 2015.

    PubMed

    Writer, James V; Hurt, Lee

    2015-10-01

    The introduction and rapid spread of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) into the Western Hemisphere after December 2013 pose a potentially significant risk to Department of Defense (DoD) personnel, operations, and the military healthcare system. This report describes the DoD experience with CHIKV between January 2014 and February 2015 using case reports in the Defense Medical Surveillance System's (DMSS) Reportable Medical Events database and the Navy and Marine Corps Public Health Center's laboratory test results database. Case finding identified 157 confirmed cases; of these, 118 (75.2%) were either active or reserve component service members and 39 (24.8%) were other beneficiaries. Exposure locations were known for 117 (74.5%) of all cases, and of these, 113 (96.6%) reported likely exposures in the Western Hemisphere; 85 (75.2%) of those cases occurred in Puerto Rico. Although historical data on CHIKV in DoD populations are scant, introduction of CHIKV into the Western Hemisphere with ongoing transmission appears to have resulted in a significant increase in the number of cases among DoD healthcare beneficiary populations. PMID:26505074

  12. Persistence of Viral RNA in Chikungunya Virus-Infected Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes after Prolonged Storage at 28°C

    PubMed Central

    Mavale, Mangala; Sudeep, Anakkathil; Gokhale, Mangesh; Hundekar, Supriya; Parashar, Deepti; Ghodke, Youwaraj; Arankalle, Vidya; Mishra, Akhilesh Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the persistence of chikungunya viral (CHIKV) RNA in experimentally infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes stored for prolonged periods at 28°C. Intra-thoracically inoculated mosquitoes with confirmed positivity were killed by quick freezing at -80°C, applied to sticky tape, and stored at 28°C with 80 ± 5% relative humidity (RH). At weekly intervals, five mosquitoes were removed from the tape randomly and assayed individually for detection of viral RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). CHIKV RNA was detected up to 12 weeks in dry mosquitoes by RT-PCR. Virus could not be isolated either in cell culture or in the suckling Swiss-albino mouse system at any stage. This study demonstrated the persistence of CHIKV viral RNA up to 12 weeks when stored at 28°C with RH 80 ± 5%. This finding will have significance in CHIKV surveillance programs in mosquito populations or field-based studies in countries where maintenance of a cold chain is a concern. PMID:22232470

  13. Acquired auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder after an attack of chikungunya: case study.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Prashanth

    2016-01-01

    Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is a retrocochlear disorder in which the cochlear functioning is normal but the transmission in the auditory neural pathway is affected. The present study reports of a 14-year-old teenager with acquired ANSD after an attack of chikungunya. He reported symptoms of difficulty in understanding speech, tinnitus and vertigo when exposed to loud sounds. The audiological characteristics suggested auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder with raising audiogram configuration. The results of tinnitus evaluation showed low-pitched tinnitus and it was persistent causing significant handicap to him based on self report tinnitus handicap questionnaire results. The results of depression, anxiety and stress scale also suggested symptoms of mild depression and anxiety. Chikungunya virus is suspected to be neurotropic in nature which can damage auditory nerve cells and may have caused ANSD. The result also shows presence of tullio's phenomenon and absence of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials suggesting damage to the vestibular neuronal system. The possible pathophysiology of chikungunya virus causing ANSD and vestibular symptoms needs to be explored further in future studies. PMID:25728940

  14. Development of a Hamster Model for Chikungunya Virus Infection and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela M.; Han, Sushan; Hartwig, Airn; Bowen, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes severe, debilitating infectious arthritis in humans. The need for an animal model to study the disease process and evaluate potential treatments is imminent as the virus continues its spread into novel geographic locations. Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) are often used as outbred laboratory animal models for arboviral diseases. Here we demonstrate that hamsters inoculated with chikungunya virus developed viremia and histopathologic lesions in their limbs and joints similar to those seen in human patients. The virus disseminated rapidly and was found in every major organ, including brain, within a few days of infection. Hamsters did not manifest overt clinical signs, and the virus was generally cleared within 4 days, followed by a strong neutralizing antibody response. These results indicate that hamsters are highly susceptible to chikungunya virus infection and develop myositis and tenosynovitis similar to human patients followed by a complete recovery. This animal model may be useful for testing antiviral drugs and vaccines. PMID:26070211

  15. Clinical Attack Rate of Chikungunya in a Cohort of Nicaraguan Children.

    PubMed

    Balmaseda, Angel; Gordon, Aubree; Gresh, Lionel; Ojeda, Sergio; Saborio, Saira; Tellez, Yolanda; Sanchez, Nery; Kuan, Guillermina; Harris, Eva

    2016-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was recently introduced into the Americas. In Nicaragua, the first endogenous transmission of CHIKV was recognized in September 2014. We used an ongoing dengue cohort study of children aged 2-14 years in Managua, Nicaragua, to document the attack rate of symptomatic chikungunya in a presumably naive population. From September 2014 through March 2015, the overall clinical attack rate of laboratory-confirmed CHIKV infection was 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3%, 3.4%). The attack rate was greater in children ≥ 8 years of age (4.1%; 95% CI: 3.2%, 5.1%) than in those < 8 years of age (1.5%; 95% CI: 0.9%, 2.1%). The mean age of CHIKV cases presenting with typical chikungunya symptoms was 9.8 years, compared with 7.8 years for cases presenting with undifferentiated fever (P = 0.04). Our data suggest that the clinical attack rate in children may underestimate the true burden of disease as some children, especially young children, may experience more atypical symptoms (e.g., undifferentiated fever). PMID:26643531

  16. Utilization and Assessment of Throat Swab and Urine Specimens for Diagnosis of Chikungunya Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Raut, Chandrashekhar G; Hanumaiah, H; Raut, Wrunda C

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne infection with clinical presentation of fever, arthralgia, and rash. The etiological agent Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is generally transmitted from primates to humans through the bites of infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Outbreaks of Chikungunya occur commonly with varied morbidity, mortality, and sequele according to the epidemiological, ecological, seasonal, and geographical impact. Investigations are required to be conducted as a part of the public health service to understand and report the suspected cases as confirmed by laboratory diagnosis. Holistic sampling at a time of different types would be useful for laboratory testing, result conclusion, and reporting in a valid way. The use of serum samples for virus detection, virus isolation, and serology is routinely practiced, but sometimes serum samples from pediatric and other cases may not be easily available. In such a situation, easily available throat swabs and urine samples could be useful. It is already well reported for measles, rubella, and mumps diseases to have the virus diagnosis from throat swabs and urine. Here, we present the protocols for diagnosis of CHIKV using throat swab and urine specimens. PMID:27233262

  17. Waiting for chikungunya fever in Argentina: spatio-temporal risk maps

    PubMed Central

    Carbajo, Aníbal E; Vezzani, Darío

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission has been detected in America in 2013 and recently reached south up to Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay, bordering countries of Argentina. The presence of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in half of the country together with the regional context drove us to make a rapid assessment of transmission risk. Temperature thresholds for vector breeding and for virus transmission, together with adult activity from the literature, were mapped on a monthly basis to estimate risk. Transmission of chikungunya by Ae. aegypti in the world was seen at monthly mean temperatures from 21-34ºC, with the majority occurring between 26-28ºC. In Argentina temperatures above 21ºC are observed since September in the northeast, expanding south until January and retreating back to the northeast in April. The maximum area under risk encompasses more than half the country and around 32 million inhabitants. Vector adult activity was registered where monthly means temperatures exceeded 13ºC, in the northeast all over the year and in the northern half from September-May. The models herein proposed show that conditions for transmission are already present. Considering the regional context and the historic inability to control dengue in the region, chikungunya fever illness seems unavoidable. PMID:25946252

  18. Waiting for chikungunya fever in Argentina: spatio-temporal risk maps.

    PubMed

    Carbajo, Aníbal E; Vezzani, Darío

    2015-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission has been detected in America in 2013 and recently reached south up to Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay, bordering countries of Argentina. The presence of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in half of the country together with the regional context drove us to make a rapid assessment of transmission risk. Temperature thresholds for vector breeding and for virus transmission, together with adult activity from the literature, were mapped on a monthly basis to estimate risk. Transmission of chikungunya by Ae. aegypti in the world was seen at monthly mean temperatures from 21-34ºC, with the majority occurring between 26-28ºC. In Argentina temperatures above 21ºC are observed since September in the northeast, expanding south until January and retreating back to the northeast in April. The maximum area under risk encompasses more than half the country and around 32 million inhabitants. Vector adult activity was registered where monthly means temperatures exceeded 13ºC, in the northeast all over the year and in the northern half from September-May. The models herein proposed show that conditions for transmission are already present. Considering the regional context and the historic inability to control dengue in the region, chikungunya fever illness seems unavoidable. PMID:25946252

  19. MARGINAL EXPENSE OIL WELL WIRELESS SURVEILLANCE MEOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Mason M. Medizade; John R. Ridgely; Donald G. Nelson

    2004-11-01

    A marginal expense oil well wireless surveillance system to monitor system performance and production from rod-pumped wells in real time from wells operated by Vaquero Energy in the Edison Field, Main Area of Kern County in California has been successfully designed and field tested. The surveillance system includes a proprietary flow sensor, a programmable transmitting unit, a base receiver and receiving antenna, and a base station computer equipped with software to interpret the data. First, the system design is presented. Second, field data obtained from three wells is shown. Results of the study show that an effective, cost competitive, real-time wireless surveillance system can be introduced to oil fields across the United States and the world.

  20. Laser Surveillance System for Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fiarman, S.; Zucker, M.S.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools (SFSP's) will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a full size laser system operating in air and have used an array of 6 zircaloy BWR tubes to simulate an assembly. The reflective signal from the zircaloy rods is a strong function of position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of the background with no assembly. A design for a SFSP laser surveillance system incorporating laser ranging is discussed. 10 figures.

  1. 40 CFR 60.25 - Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... electronic documents shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 3—(Electronic reporting). (2) Periodic... surveillance, reports. 60.25 Section 60.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... State Plans for Designated Facilities § 60.25 Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports....

  2. 40 CFR 60.25 - Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... electronic documents shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 3—(Electronic reporting). (2) Periodic... surveillance, reports. 60.25 Section 60.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... State Plans for Designated Facilities § 60.25 Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports....

  3. 40 CFR 60.25 - Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... electronic documents shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 3—(Electronic reporting). (2) Periodic... surveillance, reports. 60.25 Section 60.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... State Plans for Designated Facilities § 60.25 Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports....

  4. Agile manufacturing in Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPadua, Mark; Dalton, George

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the Agile Manufacturing for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (AMISR) effort is to research, develop, design and build a prototype multi-intelligence (multi-INT), reconfigurable pod demonstrating benefits of agile manufacturing and a modular open systems approach (MOSA) to make podded intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capability more affordable and operationally flexible.

  5. Transition to CCTV surveillance for safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Gaertner, K.J.; Heaysman, B.; Kerr, R.E.; Rundquist, D.E.

    1987-07-01

    After many years of development effort and as a result of regular maintenance the Agency's most important optical surveillance system, the Twin Minolta, has matured to a highly reliable, economic and user friendly equipment. In 1986 its reliability was 95.7%, including human failures. However, because they are no longer available, the Agency is forced to replace the Minolta Super 8 cameras by adequate Closed Circuit Television systems. Ten years of experience with television systems clearly indicate that they must work actively to improve the overall reliability of CCTV systems. The recording units, from the authors experience, are the most critical components. Therefore new systems - already existing or under development - focus on this aspect. The Multiplex TV Surveillance System (MUX), uses redundant time lapse recorders, which are specifically designed for surveillance applications. The Compact Surveillance Monitoring System (COSMOS) will be using low speed time lapse recorders which are specifically developed for still-picture recording surveillance applications. The Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS) will use two redundant 8 mm video recorders to achieve the goal of high reliability. It is their understanding that this intensive consideration of reliability aspects in the design phase will also result in a decrease in maintenance and operational costs for the Agency in the future.

  6. Genomes to Hits In Silico - A Country Path Today, A Highway Tomorrow: A Case Study of Chikungunya

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Anjali; Pandey, Khushhali M; Ray, Pratima; Jayaram, B

    2013-01-01

    These are exciting times for bioinformaticians, computational biologists and drug designers with the genome and proteome sequences and related structural databases growing at an accelerated pace. The post-genomic era has triggered high expectations for a rapid and successful treatment of diseases. However, in this biological information rich and functional knowledge poor scenario, the challenges are indeed grand, no less than the assembly of the genome of the whole organism. These include functional annotation of genes, identification of druggable targets, prediction of three-dimensional structures of protein targets from their amino acid sequences, arriving at lead compounds for these targets followed by a transition from bench to bedside. We propose here a “Genome to Hits In Silico“ strategy (called Dhanvantari) and illustrate it on Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). “Genome to hits” is a novel pathway incorporating a series of steps such as gene prediction, protein tertiary structure determination, active site identification, hit molecule generation, docking and scoring of hits to arrive at lead compounds. The current state of the art for each of the steps in the pathway is high-lighted and the feasibility of creating an automated genome to hits assembly line is discussed. PMID:23260020

  7. Interaction between epidemiology and laboratory sciences in the study of birth defects: Design of birth defects risk factor surveillance in metropolitan Atlanta

    SciTech Connect

    Lynberg, M.C.; Khoury, M.J. )

    1993-01-01

    Despite years of research, the etiology of most birth defects remains largely unknown. Interview instruments have been the major tools in the search for environmental causes of birth defects. Because of respondents' problems with recognition and recall, interviews are limited in their capacity to measure certain exposures. Laboratory scientists can have a major impact on defining markers of environmental exposure and genetic susceptibility. The Centers for Disease Control is starting a case-control study of serious birth defects on the basis of a population-based surveillance system for birth defects diagnosed during the first year of life in metropolitan Atlanta, Each year, 300 infants with selected birth defects (case subjects) and 100 population-based control subjects (infants without birth defects) will be enrolled in an ongoing study that will supplement surveillance. In addition to conducting extensive maternal interviews, we will collect blood and urine specimens from case and control subjects and their mothers for laboratory testing. Eventually, some environmental sampling may be incorporated. Particular areas of emphasis are (1) nutritional factors, specifically measuring maternal folic acid levels and other micronutrients (e.g., zinc) to explore their role in the etiology of neural tube defects, (2) substance use, specifically measuring cocaine metabolites in the blood and urine to explore their role for specific vascular disruption defects, and (3) environmental factors such as pesticides and aflatoxins, to explore their potential relationships with specific defects. In addition, a DNA bank will be maintained to evaluate the role of specific candidate genes in the etiology of birth defects. The development and testing of these methods could be useful to assess the interaction between environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility in the etiology of birth defects. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Inflammation of the external ear in acute chikungunya infection: Experience from the outbreak in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, 2008.

    PubMed

    Javelle, Emilie; Tiong, Tee Hua; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Savini, Hélène; Simon, Fabrice

    2014-04-01

    The re-emerging invalidating chikungunya disease has recently extended to temperate areas. Other alphaviruses can also present with febrile arthalgias. Dengue virus transmitted by the same species of mosquitoes may cocirculate, leading to dual infections and concurrent epidemics. Although these diseases share similar clinical features, their prognoses considerably differ. Prominent and prolonged articular disorders are more consistent with chikungunya virus, whereas haemorrhages make the gravity of dengue infection. Specific symptoms are required, especially when diagnostic tests are not available or performable at a large scale. Indeed, early clinical suspicion of a vector-borne disease is crucial to isolate the first cases in the course of an outbreak, and discrimination between arboviruses help to optimal management of patients. No specific chikungunya clinical sign has been yet reported. We highlight here the high prevalence (about 25%) of acute ear redness in infected people during the 2008 chikungunya outbreak in Jahor Bahru in Malaysia. Nine consenting patients are more precisely described. Ear chondritis could be sensitive diagnostic criterion of the acute stage of chikungunya, every physician - even in occidental non endemic areas - should be aware of. PMID:24556566

  9. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  10. Surveillance metrics sensitivity study.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Michael S.; Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Robertson, Alix A.

    2011-09-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  11. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance involves the collection and analysis of data for the detection and monitoring of threats to public health. Surveillance should also inform as to the epidemiology of the threat and its burden in the population. A further key component of surveillance is the timely feedback of data to stakeholders with a view to generating action aimed at reducing or preventing the public health threat being monitored. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation. Correlation of these data with demographic and clinical data for the patient populations from whom the pathogens were isolated gives insight into the underlying epidemiology and facilitates the formulation of rational interventions aimed at reducing the burden of resistance. This article describes a range of surveillance activities that have been undertaken in the UK over a number of years, together with current interventions being implemented. These activities are not only of national importance but form part of the international response to the global threat posed by antibiotic resistance. PMID:25918439

  12. [Worker's Health Surveillance

    PubMed

    Machado

    1997-01-01

    This paper is part of a broader discussion on the need for more in-depth study of workers' health surveillance practices, which are most often developed empirically, without well-defined theoretical or technical foundations. The paper presents a concept of surveillance in workers' health as a fulcrum for actions in the relationship between the work process and health. It emphasizes the exposure-based perspective involved in the epidemiological approach. Risk situations and effects are placed in spatial and technological context. The model provides an interdisciplinary approach with a technological, social, and epidemiological basis in a three-dimensional structure. A matrix for planning actions in workers' health surveillance is also presented, focusing on the connections between effects, risks, territory, and activities. PMID:10886936

  13. Global health surveillance.

    PubMed

    St Louis, Michael

    2012-07-27

    Awareness of the importance of global health surveillance increased in the latter part of the 20th century with the global emergence of human immunodeficiency virus and novel strains of influenza. In the first decade of the 21st century, several events further highlighted global shared interests in and vulnerability to infectious diseases. Bioterrorist use of anthrax spores in 2001 raised awareness of the value of public health surveillance for national security. The epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, re-emergence of a panzootic of avian influenza A H5N1 in 2005, and the sudden emergence of pandemic H1N1 in North America in 2009 all highlighted the importance of shared global responsibility for surveillance and disease control. In particular, in 2003, SARS precipitated changes in awareness of the world's collective economic vulnerability to epidemic shocks. PMID:22832992

  14. NATIONAL ORAL HEALTH SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NOHSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Oral Health Surveillance System (NOHSS) is a collaborative effort between CDC's Division of Oral Health and The Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors (ASTDD). NOHSS is designed to help public health programs monitor the burden of oral disease, use of the ...

  15. FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME SURVEILLANCE NETWORK (FASSNET)

    EPA Science Inventory

    CDC, in collaboration with four states, has developed the first state-based program specifically designed to monitor trends in the occurrence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The program, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network (FASSNet), reports that many children continue t...

  16. Viral surveillance and discovery

    PubMed Central

    Lipkin, Walter Ian; Firth, Cadhla

    2014-01-01

    The field of virus discovery has burgeoned with the advent of high throughput sequencing platforms and bioinformatics programs that enable rapid identification and molecular characterization of known and novel agents, investments in global microbial surveillance that include wildlife and domestic animals as well as humans, and recognition that viruses may be implicated in chronic as well as acute diseases. Here we review methods for viral surveillance and discovery, strategies and pitfalls in linking discoveries to disease, and identify opportunities for improvements in sequencing instrumentation and analysis, the use of social media and medical informatics that will further advance clinical medicine and public health. PMID:23602435

  17. Learning from state surveillance of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Longjohn, Matt; Sheon, Amy R; Card-Higginson, Paula; Nader, Philip R; Mason, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    Data on childhood obesity collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention helped reveal the nation's epidemic of overweight and obese children. But more information is needed. Collecting body mass index (BMI)-the widely accepted measurement of childhood weight status-at the state and local levels can be instrumental in identifying and tracking obesity trends, designing interventions to help overweight children, and guiding broader policy solutions. Approximately thirty states have enacted or proposed BMI surveillance laws and regulations. Arkansas stands out as the state with the highest-quality surveillance data. Innovative strategies being pursued in a number of other states should be explored for broader dissemination. PMID:20194988

  18. Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (PSMP) describes the procedures that will be used by the US Department of Energy (DOE), or other agency as designated by the President to verify that inactive uranium tailings disposal facilities remain in compliance with licensing requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for remedial actions. The PSMP will be used as a guide for the development of individual Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (part of a license application) for each of the UMTRA Project sites. The PSMP is not intended to provide minimum requirements but rather to provide guidance in the selection of surveillance measures. For example, the plan acknowledges that ground-water monitoring may or may not be required and provides the (guidance) to make this decision. The Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (SSMPs) will form the basis for the licensing of the long-term surveillance and maintenance of each UMTRA Project site by the NRC. Therefore, the PSMP is a key milestone in the licensing process of all UMTRA Project sites. The Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1984a) describes the licensing process. 11 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. [The epidemiological surveillance of dengue in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Montesano-Castellanos, R; Ruiz-Matus, C

    1995-01-01

    The clinical behavior of dengue fever in Mexico has changed, now with the occurrence of hemorrhagic cases. In response to the emergence of such cases, a specific epidemiologic surveillance system has been designed and implemented. This system includes the means to monitor the factors involved in the evolution of the disease. The identification and analysis of these factors is necessary to implement prevention and control measures. This paper presents the main components and procedures of the epidemiologic surveillance system for common and hemorrhagic dengue fever in Mexico, emphasizing the usefulness of the risk approach to predict the pattern of this disease. The model includes the collaboration of a multidisciplinary group. The Epidemiologic Surveillance State Committee, coordinated by the National Health System, participates in the collection and analysis of epidemiologic data, particularly data related to the population, the individual, the vector, the viruses and the environment. PMID:8599150

  20. GONOCOCCAL SURVEILLANCE ISOLATE PROJECT (GSIP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) is a collaborative project to monitor antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States. The database is a sentinel surveillance system of 26 clinics for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and 5 regional la...

  1. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir New ... Minority Data Released! The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors ...

  2. Mosquito-borne disease surveillance by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.

    PubMed

    Zeller, H; Marrama, L; Sudre, B; Van Bortel, W; Warns-Petit, E

    2013-08-01

    For a few years, a series of traditionally tropical mosquito-borne diseases, such as chikungunya fever and dengue, have posed challenges to national public health authorities in the European region. Other diseases have re-emerged, e.g. malaria in Greece, or spread to other countries, e.g. West Nile fever. These diseases are reportable within the European Union (EU), and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control collects information in various ways to provide EU member states with topical assessments of disease threats, risks and trends for prompt and appropriate public health action. Using disease-specific expert networks, the European Surveillance System (TESSy) collects standardized comparable information on all statutory communicable diseases in a database. In addition, the event-based surveillance aims to detect potential public health threats early, and to allow timely response and support to blood deferral decisions for pathogens that can be transmitted through blood donation. Laboratory capacity for early detection is implemented through external quality assessments. Other activities include the development of guidelines for the surveillance of mosquito vectors, and the production of regularly updated maps on the currently known occurrence of mosquito vector species. PMID:23607415

  3. Chikungunya and Dengue Virus Infections Among United States Community Service Volunteers Returning from the Dominican Republic, 2014.

    PubMed

    Millman, Alexander J; Esposito, Douglas H; Biggs, Holly M; Decenteceo, Michelle; Klevos, Andrew; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Kosoy, Olga I; McPherson, Heidi; Sullivan, Carmen; Voorhees, Dayton; Baron, David; Watkins, Jim; Gaul, Linda; Sotir, Mark J; Brunette, Gary; Fischer, Marc; Sharp, Tyler M; Jentes, Emily S

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya spread throughout the Dominican Republic (DR) after the first identified laboratory-confirmed cases were reported in April 2014. In June 2014, a U.S.-based service organization operating in the DR reported chikungunya-like illnesses among several staff. We assessed the incidence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) infection and illnesses and evaluated adherence to mosquito avoidance measures among volunteers/staff deployed in the DR who returned to the United States during July-August 2014. Investigation participants completed a questionnaire that collected information on demographics, medical history, self-reported illnesses, and mosquito exposures and avoidance behaviors and provided serum for CHIKV and DENV diagnostic testing by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 102 participants, 42 (41%) had evidence of recent CHIKV infection and two (2%) had evidence of recent DENV infection. Of the 41 participants with evidence of recent CHIKV infection only, 39 (95%) reported fever, 37 (90%) reported rash, and 37 (90%) reported joint pain during their assignment. All attended the organization's health trainings, and 89 (87%) sought a pretravel health consultation. Most (∼95%) used insect repellent; however, only 30% applied it multiple times daily and < 5% stayed in housing with window/door screens. In sum, CHIKV infections were common among these volunteers during the 2014 chikungunya epidemic in the DR. Despite high levels of preparation, reported adherence to mosquito avoidance measures were inconsistent. Clinicians should discuss chikungunya with travelers visiting areas with ongoing CHIKV outbreaks and should consider chikungunya when diagnosing febrile illnesses in travelers returning from affected areas. PMID:26976891

  4. Design and implementation of Cell-PREVEN: a real-time surveillance system for adverse events using cell phones in Peru.

    PubMed

    Curioso, Walter H; Karras, Bryant T; Campos, Pablo E; Buendia, Clara; Holmes, King K; Kimball, Ann Marie

    2005-01-01

    With more clinical trials involving evaluations of new drugs or vaccines, monitoring for early detection of adverse events is essential. The overall goal of this study was to develop an interactive-computer system using cell phones for real-time collection and transmission of adverse events related to metronidazole administration among female sex workers (FSW) in Peru. We developed an application for cell phones in Spanish, called Cell-PREVEN, based on a system from Voxiva Inc. We used cell phones to enter data collected by interviewers from FSW in three communities. Information was stored in an online database, where it could be immediately accessed worldwide and exported over a secure Internet connection. E-mail and text messages sent to mobile devices alerted key personnel to selected symptoms. This pilot project has demonstrated that it is feasible to develop a public-health-surveillance system based on cell phones to collect data in real-time in Peru (http://www.prevenperu.org). PMID:16779025

  5. Diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection and diagnosis of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in animals requires a laboratory test since disease from IAV presents no pathognomonic signs. Diagnosis and surveillance of animal influenza focuses on the detection of virus or type specific antibodies. Whether one targets the virus or ...

  6. TUBERCULOSIS SURVEILLANCE REPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The TB Surveillance Reports contain tabular and graphic information about reported TB cases collected from 59 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, New York City, U.S. dependencies and possessions, and independent nations in free association with the United St...

  7. A potent neutralizing IgM mAb targeting the N218 epitope on E2 protein protects against Chikungunya virus pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Shirley; Nyo, Min; Phuektes, Patchara; Yew, Chow Wenn; Tan, Yee Joo; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a medically important human viral pathogen that causes Chikungunya fever accompanied with debilitating and persistent joint pain. Host-elicited or passively-transferred monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are essential mediators of CHIKV clearance. Therefore, this study aimed to generate and characterize a panel of mAbs for their neutralization efficacy against CHIKV infection in a cell-based and murine model. To evaluate their antigenicity and neutralization profile, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and a plaque reduction neutralization test were performed on mAbs of IgM isotype. CHIKV escape mutants against mAb 3E7b neutralization were generated, and reverse genetics techniques were then used to create an infectious CHIKV clone with a single mutation. 3E7b was also administered to neonate mice prior or after CHIKV infection. The survival rate, CHIKV burden in tissues and histopathology of the limb muscles were evaluated. Both IgM 3E7b and 8A2c bind strongly to native CHIKV surface and potently neutralize CHIKV replication. Further analyses of 3E7b binding and neutralization of CHIKV single-mutant clones revealed that N218 of CHIKV E2 protein is a potent neutralizing epitope. In a pre-binding neutralization assay, 3E7b blocks CHIKV attachment to permissive cells, possibly by binding to the surface-accessible E2-N218 residue. Prophylactic administration of 3E7b to neonate mice markedly reduced viremia and protected against CHIKV pathogenesis in various mice tissues. Given therapeutically at 4 h post-infection, 3E7b conferred 100% survival rate and similarly reduced CHIKV load in most mice tissues except the limb muscles. Collectively, these findings highlight the usefulness of 3E7b for future prophylactic or epitope-based vaccine design. PMID:26305993

  8. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  9. Vector Competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes polynesiensis Populations from French Polynesia for Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Vaea; Paoaafaite, Tuterarii; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai

    2016-01-01

    Background From October 2014 to March 2015, French Polynesia experienced for the first time a chikungunya outbreak. Two Aedes mosquitoes may have contributed to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission in French Polynesia: the worldwide distributed Ae. aegypti and the Polynesian islands-endemic Ae. polynesiensis mosquito. Methods To investigate the vector competence of French Polynesian populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. polynesiensis for CHIKV, mosquitoes were exposed per os at viral titers of 7 logs tissue culture infectious dose 50%. At 2, 6, 9, 14 and 21 days post-infection (dpi), saliva was collected from each mosquito and inoculated onto C6/36 mosquito cells to check for the presence of CHIKV infectious particles. Legs and body (thorax and abdomen) of each mosquito were also collected at the different dpi and submitted separately to viral RNA extraction and CHIKV real-time RT-PCR. Results CHIKV infection rate, dissemination and transmission efficiencies ranged from 7–90%, 18–78% and 5–53% respectively for Ae. aegypti and from 39–41%, 3–17% and 0–14% respectively for Ae. polynesiensis, depending on the dpi. Infectious saliva was found as early as 2 dpi for Ae. aegypti and from 6 dpi for Ae. polynesiensis. Our laboratory results confirm that the French Polynesian population of Ae. aegypti is highly competent for CHIKV and they provide clear evidence for Ae. polynesiensis to act as an efficient CHIKV vector. Conclusion As supported by our findings, the presence of two CHIKV competent vectors in French Polynesia certainly contributed to enabling this virus to quickly disseminate from the urban/peri-urban areas colonized by Ae. aegypti to the most remote atolls where Ae. polynesiensis is predominating. Ae. polynesiensis was probably involved in the recent chikungunya outbreaks in Samoa and the Cook Islands. Moreover, this vector may contribute to the risk for CHIKV to emerge in other Polynesian islands like Fiji, and more particularly Wallis where there

  10. Estimating Drivers of Autochthonous Transmission of Chikungunya Virus in its Invasion of the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, T. Alex; Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chikungunya is an emerging arbovirus that has caused explosive outbreaks in Africa and Asia for decades and invaded the Americas just over a year ago. During this ongoing invasion, it has spread to 45 countries where it has been transmitted autochthonously, infecting nearly 1.3 million people in total. Methods Here, we made use of weekly, country-level case reports to infer relationships between transmission and two putative climatic drivers: temperature and precipitation averaged across each country on a monthly basis. To do so, we used a TSIR model that enabled us to infer a parametric relationship between climatic drivers and transmission potential, and we applied a new method for incorporating a probabilistic description of the serial interval distribution into the TSIR framework. Results We found significant relationships between transmission and linear and quadratic terms for temperature and precipitation and a linear term for log incidence during the previous pathogen generation. The lattermost suggests that case numbers three to four weeks ago are largely predictive of current case numbers. This effect is quite nonlinear at the country level, however, due to an estimated mixing parameter of 0.74. Relationships between transmission and the climatic variables that we estimated were biologically plausible and in line with expectations. Conclusions Our analysis suggests that autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya in the Americas can be correlated successfully with putative climatic drivers, even at the coarse scale of countries and using long-term average climate data. Overall, this provides a preliminary suggestion that successfully forecasting the future trajectory of a Chikungunya outbreak and the receptivity of virgin areas may be possible. Our results also provide tentative estimates of timeframes and areas of greatest risk, and our extension of the TSIR model provides a novel tool for modeling vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:25737803

  11. Estimating drivers of autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus in its invasion of the americas.

    PubMed

    Perkins, T Alex; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Grenfell, Bryan T; Tatem, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Background Chikungunya is an emerging arbovirus that has caused explosive outbreaks in Africa and Asia for decades and invaded the Americas just over a year ago. During this ongoing invasion, it has spread to 45 countries where it has been transmitted autochthonously, infecting nearly 1.3 million people in total. Methods Here, we made use of weekly, country-level case reports to infer relationships between transmission and two putative climatic drivers: temperature and precipitation averaged across each country on a monthly basis. To do so, we used a TSIR model that enabled us to infer a parametric relationship between climatic drivers and transmission potential, and we applied a new method for incorporating a probabilistic description of the serial interval distribution into the TSIR framework. Results We found significant relationships between transmission and linear and quadratic terms for temperature and precipitation and a linear term for log incidence during the previous pathogen generation. The lattermost suggests that case numbers three to four weeks ago are largely predictive of current case numbers. This effect is quite nonlinear at the country level, however, due to an estimated mixing parameter of 0.74. Relationships between transmission and the climatic variables that we estimated were biologically plausible and in line with expectations. Conclusions Our analysis suggests that autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya in the Americas can be correlated successfully with putative climatic drivers, even at the coarse scale of countries and using long-term average climate data. Overall, this provides a preliminary suggestion that successfully forecasting the future trajectory of a Chikungunya outbreak and the receptivity of virgin areas may be possible. Our results also provide tentative estimates of timeframes and areas of greatest risk, and our extension of the TSIR model provides a novel tool for modeling vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:25737803

  12. Rocky Flats Beryllium Health Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Stange, A W; Furman, F J; Hilmas, D E

    1996-10-01

    The Rocky Flats Beryllium Health Surveillance Program (BHSP), initiated in June 1991, was designed to provide medical surveillance for current and former employees exposed to beryllium. The BHSP identifies individuals who have developed beryllium sensitivity using the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). A detailed medical evaluation to determine the prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is offered to individuals identified as beryllium sensitized or to those who have chest X-ray changes suggestive of CBD. The BHSP has identified 27 cases of CBD and another 74 cases of beryllium sensitization out of 4268 individuals tested. The distribution of BeLPT values for normal, sensitized, and CBD-identified individuals is described. Based on the information collected during the first 3 1/3 years of the BHSP, the BeLPT is the most effective means for the early identification of beryllium-sensitized individuals and to identify individuals who may have CBD. The need for BeLPT retesting is demonstrated through the identification of beryllium sensitization in individuals who previously tested normal. Posterior/anterior chest X-rays were not effective in the identification of CBD. PMID:8933045

  13. Rocky Flats beryllium health surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, A.W.; Furman, F.J.; Hilmas, D.E.

    1996-10-01

    The Rocky Flats Beryllium Health Surveillance Program (BHSP), initiated in June 1991, was designed to provide medical surveillance for current and former employees exposed to beryllium. The BHSP identifies individuals who have developed beryllium sensitivity using the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). A detailed medical evaluation to determine the prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is offered to individuals identified as beryllium sensitized or to those who have chest X-ray changes suggestive of CBD. The BHSP has identified 27 cases of CBD and another 74 cases of beryllium sensitization out of 4268 individuals tested. The distribution of BeLPT values for normal, sensitized, and CBD-identified individuals is described. Based on the information collected during the first 3 1/3 years of the BHSP, the BeLPT is the most effective means for the early identification of beryllium-sensitized individuals and to identify individuals who may have CBD. The need for BeLPT retesting is demonstrated through the identification of beryllium sensitization in individuals who previously tested normal. Posterior/anterior chest X-rays were not effective in the identification of CBD. 12 refs., 8 tabs.

  14. Practical experience applied to the design of injection and sample manifolds to perform in-place surveillance tests according to ANSI/ASME N-510

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, E.M.; Wikoff, W.O.; Shaffer, L.L.

    1997-08-01

    At the current level of maturity and experience in the nuclear industry, regarding testing of air treatment systems, it is now possible to design and qualify injection and sample manifolds for most applications. While the qualification of sample manifolds is still in its infancy, injection manifolds have reached a mature stage that helps to eliminate the {open_quotes}hit or miss{close_quotes} type of design. During the design phase, manifolds can be adjusted to compensate for poor airflow distribution, laminar flow conditions, and to take advantage of any system attributes. Experience has shown that knowing the system attributes before the design phase begins is an essential element to a successful manifold design. The use of a spreadsheet type program commonly found on most personal computers can afford a greater flexibility and a reduction in time spent in the design phase. The experience gained from several generations of manifold design has culminated in a set of general design guidelines. Use of these guidelines, along with a good understanding of the type of testing (theoretical and practical), can result in a good manifold design requiring little or no field modification. The requirements for manifolds came about because of the use of multiple banks of components and unconventional housing inlet configurations. Multiple banks of adsorbers and pre and post HEPA`s required that each bank be tested to insure that each one does not exceed a specific allowable leakage criterion. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Visually enhanced CCTV digital surveillance utilizing Intranet and Internet.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Nobuyuki

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes a solution for integrated plant supervision utilizing closed circuit television (CCTV) digital surveillance. Three basic requirements are first addressed as the platform of the system, with discussion on the suitable video compression. The system configuration is described in blocks. The system provides surveillance functionality: real-time monitoring, and process analysis functionality: a troubleshooting tool. This paper describes the formulation of practical performance design for determining various encoder parameters. It also introduces image processing techniques for enhancing the original CCTV digital image to lessen the burden on operators. Some screenshots are listed for the surveillance functionality. For the process analysis, an image searching filter supported by image processing techniques is explained with screenshots. Multimedia surveillance, which is the merger with process data surveillance, or the SCADA system, is also explained. PMID:12160344

  16. Objective Sepsis Surveillance Using Electronic Clinical Data

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Chanu; Kadri, Sameer; Huang, Susan S.; Murphy, Michael V.; Li, Lingling; Platt, Richard; Klompas, Michael

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the accuracy of surveillance of severe sepsis using electronic health record clinical data vs claims and to compare incidence and mortality trends using both methods. DESIGN We created an electronic health record–based surveillance definition for severe sepsis using clinical indicators of infection (blood culture and antibiotic orders) and concurrent organ dysfunction (vasopressors, mechanical ventilation, and/or abnormal laboratory values). We reviewed 1,000 randomly selected medical charts to characterize the definition’s accuracy and stability over time compared with a claims-based definition requiring infection and organ dysfunction codes. We compared incidence and mortality trends from 2003–2012 using both methods. SETTING Two US academic hospitals. PATIENTS Adult inpatients. RESULTS The electronic health record–based clinical surveillance definition had stable and high sensitivity over time (77% in 2003–2009 vs 80% in 2012, P=.58) whereas the sensitivity of claims increased (52% in 2003–2009 vs 67% in 2012, P=.02). Positive predictive values for claims and clinical surveillance definitions were comparable (55% vs 53%, P=.65) and stable over time. From 2003 to 2012, severe sepsis incidence imputed from claims rose by 72% (95% CI, 57%–88%) and absolute mortality declined by 5.4% (95% CI, 4.6%–6.7%). In contrast, incidence using the clinical surveillance definition increased by 7.7% (95% CI, −1.1% to 17%) and mortality declined by 1.7% (95% CI, 1.1%–2.3%). CONCLUSIONS Sepsis surveillance using clinical data is more sensitive and more stable over time compared with claims and can be done electronically. This may enable more reliable estimates of sepsis burden and trends. PMID:26526737

  17. Surface-water surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  18. Chikungunya antibodies detected in non-human primates and rats in three Indian Ocean islands after the 2006 ChikV outbreak

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The role of terrestrial vertebrates in the epidemiology of chikungunya disease is poorly understood. We evaluated their exposure and amplification role during the 2006 chikungunya outbreak in the Indian Ocean. Blood samples were collected from 18 mammalian and reptile species from Reunion Island, Mauritius and Mayotte. Among the 1051 samples serologically tested for chikungunya virus (CHIKV), two crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and two ship rats (Rattus rattus) proved to be exposed to CHIKV. CHIKV RNA was not detected in 791 analyzed sera. Our results confirm the preferential infection of simian primates and suggest that other vertebrates played a poor or no role in CHIKV transmission during the 2006 outbreak. PMID:24885529

  19. Postmarket surveillance. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2002-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is implementing the postmarket surveillance (PS) provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act), as amended by the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA). The purpose of this rule is to provide for the collection of useful data about devices that can reveal unforeseen adverse events or other information necessary to protect the public health. PMID:12053947

  20. Small animal disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Jones, Philip H; Menacere, Tarek; Heayns, Bethaney; Wardeh, Maya; Newman, Jenny; Radford, Alan D; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind; Noble, Peter J M; Everitt, Sally; Day, Michael J; McConnell, Katie

    2015-12-12

    This is the first UK small animal disease surveillance report from SAVSNET. Future reports will expand to other syndromes and diseases. As data are collected for longer, the estimates of changes in disease burden will become more refined, allowing more targeted local and perhaps national interventions. Anonymised data can be accessed for research purposes by contacting the authors. SAVSNET welcomes feedback on this report. PMID:26667432

  1. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-01-06

    Results from the 9975 Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility from 10 years to 15 years. This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout this extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The current 10 year storage life was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to extend the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 2 years for shipping plus 10 years for storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the surveillance program began. KAMS is a zero-release facility that depends upon containment by the 9975 to meet design basis storage requirements. Therefore, to confirm the continued integrity of the 9975 packages while stored in KAMS, a 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program was implemented alongside the DOE required Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) for 3013 plutonium-bearing containers. The 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program performs field surveillance as well as accelerated aging tests to ensure any degradation due to aging, to the extent that could affect packaging performance, is detected in advance of such degradation occurring in the field. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. As such the primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton(reg.sign) GLT containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex(reg.sign) fiberboard thermal

  2. System specification for the integrated monitoring and surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This System Specification establishes the requirements for the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS). In this document, ``Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System`` is used to describe the concept of integrated sensors, computers, personnel, and systems that perform the functions of sensing conditions, acquiring data, monitoring environmental safety and health, controlling and accounting for materials, monitoring material stability, monitoring container integrity, transferring data, and analyzing, reporting, and storing data. This concept encompasses systems (e.g. sensors, personnel, databases, etc.) that are already in place at the sites but may require modifications or additions to meet all identified surveillance requirements. The purpose of this System Specification is to provide Department of Energy (DOE) sites that store plutonium materials with a consolidation of all known requirements for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides. This compilation may be used (1) as a baseline for surveillance system design specifications where 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides will be stored and monitored; (2) as a checklist for evaluating existing surveillance systems to ensure that all requirements are met for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides; and (3) as a baseline for preparing procurement specifications tailored for site specific storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides.

  3. Surveillance and response to drive the national malaria elimination program.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin-Yu; Xia, Zhi-Gui; Vong, Sirenda; Yang, Wei-Zhong; Zhou, Shui-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The national action plan for malaria elimination in China (2010-2020) was issued by the Chinese Ministry of Health along with other 13 ministries and commissions in 2010. The ultimate goal of the national action plan was to eliminate local transmission of malaria by the end of 2020. Surveillance and response are the most important components driving the whole process of the national malaria elimination programme (NMEP), under the technical guidance used in NMEP. This chapter introduces the evolution of the surveillance from the control to the elimination stages and the current structure of national surveillance system in China. When the NMEP launched, both routine surveillance and sentinel surveillance played critical role in monitoring the process of NMEP. In addition, the current response strategy of NMEP was also reviewed, including the generally developed "1-3-7 Strategy". More effective and sensitive risk assessment tools were introduced, which cannot only predict the trends of malaria, but also are important for the design and adjustment of the surveillance and response systems in the malaria elimination stage. Therefore, this review presents the landscape of malaria surveillance and response in China as well as their contribution to the NMEP, with a focus on activities for early detection of malaria cases, timely control of malaria foci and epidemics, and risk prediction. Furthermore, challenges and recommendations for accelerating NMEP through surveillance are put forward. PMID:25476882

  4. Supportive housing and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jade; Cunningham, David; Anderson, Solanna; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Urban centres in the US, Britain and Canada have responded to identified visible 'social problems' such addiction, mental health and homelessness by providing some supportive housing for the urban poor and marginalized. While some critics have questioned what supportive housing specifically entails in terms of the built environment, what remains under explored, though a growing area of concern, is the relationship between surveillance and supportive housing for urban residents identified as having addiction and mental health problems - a gap addressed in this paper. Drawing upon qualitative ethnographic observational data we examine some of the measures of control and coercion that are encroaching into social housing primarily established for poor and marginalized people with addiction and mental health problems in the urban centre of Vancouver, Canada. We witnessed three modes of regulation and control, that vary widely, among the residencies observed: physical surveillance technologies; site-specific modes of coercion; police presence and staff surveillance, which all together impact the everyday lives of residents living in low-income and supportive housing. We argue that supportive housing has the potential to provide its intended commitment - safe and secure affordable housing. However, owing to an (over)emphasis on 'security', the supportive housing we observed were also sites of social control. PMID:27453148

  5. Appearance of E1: A226V mutant Chikungunya virus in Coastal Karnataka, India during 2008 outbreak.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, S R; Dash, Paban Kumar; Parida, Manmohan; Khan, Mohasin; Rao, Putcha V L

    2009-01-01

    Chikungunya has resurged in the form of unprecedented explosive epidemic in 2006 after a long gap in India affecting 1.39 million of persons. The disease continued for the next two consecutive years affecting 59,535 and 64,548 persons during 2007 and 2008 respectively. The 2008 outbreak being the second largest among these three years the information regarding the etiology and the mutations involved are useful for further control measures. Among the 2008 outbreaks the Coastal Karnataka accounts for the 46,510 persons. An in-depth investigation of Chikungunya epidemic of Coastal Karnataka, India, 2008 by serology, virus isolation, RT-PCR and genome sequencing revealed the presence and continued circulation of A226V mutant Chikungunya virus. The appearance of this mutant virus was found to be associated with higher prevalence of vector Aedes albopictus and the geographical proximity of coastal Karnataka with the adjoining Kerala state. This is the first report regarding the appearance of this mutation in Karnataka state of India. The present study identified the presence and association of A226V mutant virus with Chikungunya outbreak in India during 2008. PMID:19857273

  6. Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections: diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness

    PubMed Central

    Moulin, E.; Selby, K.; Cherpillod, P.; Kaiser, L.; Boillat-Blanco, N.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue and chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerland and present a diagnostic algorithm. PMID:27006779

  7. Two Japanese siblings affected with Chikungunya fever with different clinical courses: Imported infections from the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Makoto; Akachi, Shigehiro; Ando, Katsuhiko; Nomura, Tatsuma; Yamanaka, Keiichi; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    Two Japanese siblings visited the Cook Islands on business and stayed for 2 months. The sister developed a high fever, arthralgia, erythema and leg edema on the day after returning to Japan. The brother also developed neck and joint pain on the day following the sister's onset. Subsequently, his erythematous lesions spread over his whole body. Chikungunya virus was detected from the sister's blood and urine by specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, but not in the brother's samples. Retrospectively, his history of Chikungunya fever was confirmed by the presence of the anti-Chikungunya virus immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG antibodies using the specific enzyme-linked immunoassay. In Japan, no autochthonous case of Chikungunya fever was reported previously. We should give attention to the imported infectious diseases for epidemic prevention. This report warns about the danger of the imported infectious diseases, and also suggests that covering the topic of infectious disease in the world is critical to doctors as well as travelers. PMID:26813362

  8. Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections: diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness.

    PubMed

    Moulin, E; Selby, K; Cherpillod, P; Kaiser, L; Boillat-Blanco, N

    2016-05-01

    Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue and chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerland and present a diagnostic algorithm. PMID:27006779

  9. First Complete Genome Sequence of a Chikungunya Virus Strain Isolated from a Patient Diagnosed with Dengue Virus Infection in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Han Ming; Rohani, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a chikungunya virus coinfection strain isolated from a dengue virus serotype 2-infected patient in Malaysia. This coinfection strain was determined to be of the Asian genotype and contains a novel insertion in the nsP3 gene. PMID:27563048

  10. First Complete Genome Sequence of a Chikungunya Virus Strain Isolated from a Patient Diagnosed with Dengue Virus Infection in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Man Kwan; Gan, Han Ming; Rohani, Ahmad; Syed Hassan, Sharifah

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a chikungunya virus coinfection strain isolated from a dengue virus serotype 2-infected patient in Malaysia. This coinfection strain was determined to be of the Asian genotype and contains a novel insertion in the nsP3 gene. PMID:27563048

  11. Concurrent Isolation of Chikungunya Virus and Dengue Virus from a Patient with Coinfection Resulting from a Trip to Singapore ▿

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shu-Fen; Su, Chien-Ling; Shu, Pei-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Fen; Liao, Tsai-Ling; Cheng, Chia-Hsin; Hu, Huai-Chin; Huang, Jyh-Hsiung

    2010-01-01

    We report two cases of imported infection in patients who had returned to Taiwan from Singapore: one was coinfected with chikungunya virus and dengue virus type 2, and the other was infected with the same dengue virus. Both viruses were successfully isolated from the coinfected case by using antibody neutralization and a plaque purification technique. PMID:20881182

  12. Kinetics of Chikungunya Infections during an Outbreak in Southern Thailand, 2008–2009

    PubMed Central

    Chusri, Sarunyou; Siripaitoon, Pisud; Silpapojakul, Kachornsak; Hortiwakul, Thanaporn; Charernmak, Boonsri; Chinnawirotpisan, Piyawan; Nisalak, Ananda; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Klungthong, Chonticha; Gibbons, Robert V.; Jarman, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    The Indian Ocean chikungunya epidemic re-emerged in Thailand in August 2008. Forty-five adults with laboratory-confirmed chikungunya in Songkhla province, Thailand were clinically assessed and serially bled throughout the acute and convalescent phase of the disease. Patient symptoms, antibody responses, and viral kinetics were evaluated using observational assessments, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serological assays. All subjects experienced joint pain with 42 (93%) involving multiple joints; the interphalangeal most commonly affected in 91% of the subjects. The mean duration of joint pain was 5.8 days, 11 (25%) experiencing discomfort through the duration of the study. Rash was observed in 37 (82%) subjects a mean 3.5 days post onset of symptoms. Patents were positive by PCR for a mean of 5.9 days with sustained peak viral load through Day 5. The IgM antibodies appeared on Day 4 and peaked at Day 7 and IgG antibodies first appeared at Day 5 and rose steadily through Day 24. PMID:24493674

  13. Neutralization Activity of Patient Sera Collected during the 2008-2009 Chikungunya Outbreak in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Sasayama, Mikiko; Takeda, Naokazu; Sa-ngasang, Areerat; Anuegoonpipat, Atchareeya; Anantapreecha, Surapee

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection typically causes fever, rash, myalgia, and arthralgia and sometimes results in recurrent joint pain or, in severe cases, neurological disorders or death. How CHIKV infection leads to prolonged or severe symptoms is still not well understood. In this study, we examined the neutralization (NT) titer of 98 serum samples collected from patients during the 2008-2009 chikungunya outbreak in Thailand. While all serum samples showed neutralizing activity, virus was detected in 58% of the serum samples. When we analyzed a possible association between virus and antibody titers and the presence of typical symptoms of CHIKV infection, fever and joint pain, there was no significant association except that the number of patients with fever was over three times more than the number of those without fever when CHIKV was detectable in serum. This study indicates that although neutralizing antibody is critical to eliminate CHIKV, it appears not to be the main factor associated with clinical symptoms in some cases, so that other aspects of immune responses, such as those involving proinflammatory mediators and adaptive immune cells, should be considered altogether. PMID:25378567

  14. Computational Approach Towards Exploring Potential Anti-Chikungunya Activity of Selected Flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Seyedi, Seyedeh Somayeh; Shukri, Munirah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Oo, Adrian; Muthu, Shankar Esaki; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya infection in humans. Despite the widespread distribution of CHIKV, no antiviral medication or vaccine is available against this virus. Therefore, it is crucial to find an effective compound to combat CHIKV. We aimed to predict the possible interactions between non-structural protein 3 (nsP) of CHIKV as one of the most important viral elements in CHIKV intracellular replication and 3 potential flavonoids using a computational approach. The 3-dimensional structure of nsP3 was retrieved from the Protein Data Bank, prepared and, using AutoDock Vina, docked with baicalin, naringenin and quercetagetin as ligands. The first-rated ligand with the strongest binding affinity towards the targeted protein was determined based on the minimum binding energy. Further analysis was conducted to identify both the active site of the protein that reacts with the tested ligands and all of the existing intermolecular bonds. Compared to the other ligands, baicalin was identified as the most potential inhibitor of viral activity by showing the best binding affinity (-9.8 kcal/mol). Baicalin can be considered a good candidate for further evaluation as a potentially efficient antiviral against CHIKV. PMID:27071308

  15. Curcumin and Boswellia serrata gum resin extract inhibit chikungunya and vesicular stomatitis virus infections in vitro.

    PubMed

    von Rhein, Christine; Weidner, Tatjana; Henß, Lisa; Martin, Judith; Weber, Christopher; Sliva, Katja; Schnierle, Barbara S

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever and has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries. The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever, and severe arthritis that can persist for years. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions including Europe and the United States of America. CHIKV has recently caused large outbreaks in Latin America. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. Traditional medicines are known to have anti-viral effects; therefore, we examined whether curcumin or Boswellia serrata gum resin extract have antiviral activity against CHIKV. Both compounds blocked entry of CHIKV Env-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors and inhibited CHIKV infection in vitro. In addition, vesicular stomatitis virus vector particles and viral infections were also inhibited to the same extent, indicating a broad antiviral activity. Although the bioavailability of these compounds is rather poor, they might be used as a lead structure to develop more effective antiviral drugs or might be used topically to prevent CHIKV spread in the skin after mosquito bites. PMID:26611396

  16. Early clearance of Chikungunya virus in children is associated with a strong innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Simarmata, Diane; Ng, David Chun Ern; Kam, Yiu-Wing; Lee, Bernett; Sum, Magdline Sia Henry; Her, Zhisheng; Chow, Angela; Leo, Yee-Sin; Cardosa, Jane; Perera, David; Ooi, Mong H; Ng, Lisa F P

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is a global infectious disease which can affect a wide range of age groups. The pathological and immunological response upon Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection have been reported over the last few years. However, the clinical profile and immune response upon CHIKV infection in children remain largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the clinical and immunological response, focusing on the cytokine/chemokine profile in a CHIKV-infected pediatric cohort from Sarawak, Malaysia. Unique immune mediators triggered upon CHIKV infection were identified through meta-analysis of the immune signatures between this pediatric group and cohorts from previous outbreaks. The data generated from this study revealed that a broad spectrum of cytokines/chemokines is up-regulated in a sub-group of virus-infected children stratified according to their viremic status during hospitalization. Furthermore, different immune mediator profiles (the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth and other factors) were observed between children and adults. This study gives an important insight to understand the immune response of CHIKV infection in children and would aid in the development of better prognostics and clinical management for children. PMID:27180811

  17. Computational Approach Towards Exploring Potential Anti-Chikungunya Activity of Selected Flavonoids

    PubMed Central

    Seyedi, Seyedeh Somayeh; Shukri, Munirah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Oo, Adrian; Muthu, Shankar Esaki; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya infection in humans. Despite the widespread distribution of CHIKV, no antiviral medication or vaccine is available against this virus. Therefore, it is crucial to find an effective compound to combat CHIKV. We aimed to predict the possible interactions between non-structural protein 3 (nsP) of CHIKV as one of the most important viral elements in CHIKV intracellular replication and 3 potential flavonoids using a computational approach. The 3-dimensional structure of nsP3 was retrieved from the Protein Data Bank, prepared and, using AutoDock Vina, docked with baicalin, naringenin and quercetagetin as ligands. The first-rated ligand with the strongest binding affinity towards the targeted protein was determined based on the minimum binding energy. Further analysis was conducted to identify both the active site of the protein that reacts with the tested ligands and all of the existing intermolecular bonds. Compared to the other ligands, baicalin was identified as the most potential inhibitor of viral activity by showing the best binding affinity (−9.8 kcal/mol). Baicalin can be considered a good candidate for further evaluation as a potentially efficient antiviral against CHIKV. PMID:27071308

  18. Retrospective seroepidemiological study of chikungunya infection in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Ngwe Tun, M M; Inoue, S; Thant, K Z; Talemaitoga, N; Aryati, A; Dimaano, E M; Matias, R R; Buerano, C C; Natividad, F F; Abeyewickreme, W; Thuy, N T T; Mai, L T Q; Hasebe, F; Hayasaka, D; Morita, K

    2016-08-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV) of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae are mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and the symptoms they cause in patients are similar to dengue. A chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak re-emerged in several Asian countries during 2005-2006. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of CHIKV infection in suspected dengue patients in six countries in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Seven hundred forty-eight serum samples were from dengue-suspected patients in South Asia and Southeast Asia, and 52 were from patients in Fiji. The samples were analysed by CHIKV IgM capture ELISA, CHIKV IgG indirect ELISA and focus reduction neutralization test against CHIKV or RRV. CHIK-confirmed cases in South Asia, particularly Myanmar and Sri Lanka, were 4·6%, and 6·1%, respectively; and in Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam, were 27·4%, 26·8% and 25·0%, respectively. It suggests that CHIK was widely spread in these five countries in Asia. In Fiji, no CHIK cases were confirmed; however, RRV-confirmed cases represented 53·6% of suspected dengue cases. It suggests that RRV is being maintained or occasionally entering from neighbouring countries and should be considered when determining a causative agent for dengue-like illness in Fiji. PMID:27018566

  19. Mathematical Model of Three Age-Structured Transmission Dynamics of Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    Agusto, Folashade B.; Easley, Shamise; Freeman, Kenneth; Thomas, Madison

    2016-01-01

    We developed a new age-structured deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of chikungunya virus. The model is analyzed to gain insights into the qualitative features of its associated equilibria. Some of the theoretical and epidemiological findings indicate that the stable disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when the associated reproduction number is less than unity. Furthermore, the model undergoes, in the presence of disease induced mortality, the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, where the stable disease-free equilibrium of the model coexists with a stable endemic equilibrium when the associated reproduction number is less than unity. Further analysis of the model indicates that the qualitative dynamics of the model are not altered by the inclusion of age structure. This is further emphasized by the sensitivity analysis results, which shows that the dominant parameters of the model are not altered by the inclusion of age structure. However, the numerical simulations show the flaw of the exclusion of age in the transmission dynamics of chikungunya with regard to control implementations. The exclusion of age structure fails to show the age distribution needed for an effective age based control strategy, leading to a one size fits all blanket control for the entire population. PMID:27190548

  20. A neutralization assay for chikungunya virus infections in a multiplex format.

    PubMed

    Weber, Christopher; König, Renate; Niedrig, Matthias; Emmerich, Petra; Schnierle, Barbara S

    2014-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted Alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever and has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries. The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever and severe arthritis that can persist for years. Since the epidemic on La Réunion in 2006, CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions of the eastern and western hemispheres, including Europe and the United States. A. albopictus might continue migrating north with continuing climate change and CHIKV would then no longer be confined to the developing nations. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. A CHIKV neutralization assay in a 384-well format by using CHIKV-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors was established. This assay system can be used for entry inhibitor screening under a reduced safety level (S2). Production of CHIKV-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors and the reaction volume are optimized. A dose dependent, specific neutralization of CHIKV-pseudotyped vectors with sera of CHIKV-infected individuals could be measured in a 384-well format. A safe and simple multiplex assay for the analysis of CHIKV neutralizing activities was developed and will be able to improve drug and vaccine development as well as it would improve the understanding of CHIKV epidemics regarding antibody responses. PMID:24552952

  1. Production and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibodies reactive to Chikungunya envelope E2 glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Bréhin, Anne-Claire; Rubrecht, Laetitia; Navarro-Sanchez, Martha Erika; Maréchal, Valérie; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Lapalud, Priscilla; Laune, Daniel; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Desprès, Philippe

    2008-02-01

    Chikungunya fever is an arbovirosis of major impact in public health in Asia and Africa. Chikungunya (CHIK) virus is member of the genus Alphavirus and belongs to the Semliki Forest (SF) antigenic complex. We describe for the first time a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reactive to CHIK envelope E2 glycoprotein. For the screening of E2-specific MAbs, we expressed a recombinant soluble CHIK E2 protein in Drosophila S2 cells. Analyzed by immunological methods, MAbs 3C3, 3E4, and 8A4 were selected on the basis of their reactivity. Their epitopes are located to the outer surface of CHIK virion. These MAbs have no cross reactivity with related members of SF antigenic complex with the notable exception of Igbo-Ora virus. Anti-CHIK E2 MAbs 3C3, 3E4, and 8A4 should be helpful for studying the biology of CHIK virus and pathogenesis of disease. The combination of 8A4 and 3E4 is suitable for developing a specific antigen-capture ELISA. PMID:17949772

  2. Genetic Characterization of Northwestern Colombian Chikungunya Virus Strains from the 2014-2015 Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Juan D; Kautz, Tiffany; Camacho, Erwin; Paternina, Luis; Guzmán, Hilda; Díaz, Francisco J; Blanco, Pedro; Tesh, Robert; Weaver, Scott C

    2016-09-01

    Chikungunya fever, an acute and often chronic arthralgic disease caused by the mosquito-borne alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), spread into the Americas in late 2013. Since then it has caused epidemics in nearly all New World countries, the second largest being Colombia with over 450,000 suspected cases beginning in September, 2014, and focused in Bolivar Department in the north. We examined 32 human sera from suspected cases, including diverse age groups and both genders, and sequenced the CHIKV envelope glycoprotein genes, known determinants of vector host range. As expected for Asian lineage CHIKV strains, these isolates lacked known Aedes albopictus-adaptive mutations. All the Colombian strains were closely related to those from the Virgin Islands, Saint Lucia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Brazil, consistent with a single, point-source introduction from the southeast Asia/Pacific region. Two substitutions in the E2 and E1 envelope glycoprotein genes were found in the Colombian strains, especially E1-K211E involving a residue shown previously to affect epistatically the penetrance of the E1-A226V A. albopictus-adaptive substitution. We also identified two amino acid substitutions unique to all American CHIKV sequences: E2-V368A and 6K-L20M. Only one codon, 6K-47, had a high nonsynonymous substitution rate suggesting positive selection. PMID:27430542

  3. Dengue, chikungunya … and the missing entity - Zika fever: A new emerging threat.

    PubMed

    Tilak, Rina; Ray, Sougat; Tilak, V W; Mukherji, Sandip

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a relative newcomer from the flavivirus group that includes dengue, Japanese encepahalitis and yellow fever, is one of the emerging pathogens that is fast transcending geographical boundaries. It is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the same Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which cause dengue and chikungunya. In addition to the vector-mediated transmission of Zika fever, probable human-to-human transmission through exchange of body fluids, including sexual and perinatal transmission and through blood transfusion, makes containment of this new entity more challenging. Moreover, a high index of suspicion by an astute physician is necessary for diagnosis of Zika fever in view of the similarity of symptoms with dengue and chikungunya, especially in areas, where these two diseases are already endemic. Zika, till recently, has had minimal impact, but its true potential is unfolding with increasing detection of congenital malformities, Guillain-Barré syndrome and other neurological and autoimmune syndromes in patients with recent history of ZIKV infection, or when mothers get infected with Zika during first or second trimester of pregnancy. The association, however, needs to be established, nonetheless it is important that we keep a close vigil on this emerging vector borne disease - the 'ZIKA' fever. PMID:27257326

  4. [Emerging infectious diseases: the example of the Indian Ocean chikungunya outbreak (2005-2006)].

    PubMed

    Flahault, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    Factors known to trigger the emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases include globalisation, population growth, migration, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate change, loss of biodiversity, poverty, famine and war. Epidemics not only lead to disastrous loss of human life but may also have catastrophic economic, political and social consequences. Outbreaks may rapidly jeopardize industry, trade or tourism in countries that are unprepared. Dengue is currently spreading throughout the tropics, while another arbovirus, chikungunya, infected 30 to 75% of the population in some parts of the Indian Ocean region between 2005 and 2006. Chikungunya is now spreading through India, where more than a million people have so far been infected. This viral disease can cause lasting disability, and the first deaths were recently reported in La Réunion and Mayotte. All countries are at risk from emerging or re-emerging diseases, but the consequences are far worse in poor countries. Microbial pathogens and wild mammals, birds and arthropods do not respect man-made borders. There is still time to act against this threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, through prevention, anticipation, monitoring and research. PMID:17645111

  5. Early clearance of Chikungunya virus in children is associated with a strong innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Simarmata, Diane; Ng, David Chun Ern; Kam, Yiu-Wing; Lee, Bernett; Sum, Magdline Sia Henry; Her, Zhisheng; Chow, Angela; Leo, Yee-Sin; Cardosa, Jane; Perera, David; Ooi, Mong H.; Ng, Lisa F. P.

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is a global infectious disease which can affect a wide range of age groups. The pathological and immunological response upon Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection have been reported over the last few years. However, the clinical profile and immune response upon CHIKV infection in children remain largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the clinical and immunological response, focusing on the cytokine/chemokine profile in a CHIKV-infected pediatric cohort from Sarawak, Malaysia. Unique immune mediators triggered upon CHIKV infection were identified through meta-analysis of the immune signatures between this pediatric group and cohorts from previous outbreaks. The data generated from this study revealed that a broad spectrum of cytokines/chemokines is up-regulated in a sub-group of virus-infected children stratified according to their viremic status during hospitalization. Furthermore, different immune mediator profiles (the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth and other factors) were observed between children and adults. This study gives an important insight to understand the immune response of CHIKV infection in children and would aid in the development of better prognostics and clinical management for children. PMID:27180811

  6. THE BURDEN OF DENGUE AND CHIKUNGUNYA WORLDWIDE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES AND CALIFORNIA

    PubMed Central

    Fredericks, Anthony C.; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) spreads to humans through the bite of an infected Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquito and is a growing public health threat to both industrialized and developing nations worldwide. Outbreaks of autochthonous dengue in the United States occurred extensively in the past but over the past three decades have again taken place in Florida, Hawai’i, and Texas as well as in American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands. As the Aedes vectors spread worldwide it is anticipated that DENV as well as other viruses also transmitted by these vectors, such as Chikungunya virus (CHKV), will invade new areas of the world, including the US. In this review, we describe the current burden of dengue disease worldwide and the potential introduction of DENV and CHKV into different areas of the US. Of these areas, the state of California saw the arrival and spread of the Aedes aegypti vector beginning in 2013. This invasion presents a developing situation when considering the state’s number of imported dengue cases and proximity to northern Mexico as well as the rising specter of chikungunya in the Western hemisphere. The distribution of Aedes vectors in California as well as a discussion of several factors contributing to the risk of dengue importation are discussed and evaluated. PMID:25960096

  7. Structure-activity relationship study of arbidol derivatives as inhibitors of chikungunya virus replication.

    PubMed

    Di Mola, Antonia; Peduto, Antonella; La Gatta, Annalisa; Delang, Leen; Pastorino, Boris; Neyts, Johan; Leyssen, Pieter; de Rosa, Mario; Filosa, Rosanna

    2014-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne arthrogenic Alphavirus, causes an acute febrile illness in humans, that is, accompanied by severe joint pains. In many cases, the infection leads to persistent arthralgia, which may last for weeks to several years. The re-emergence of this infection in the early 2000s was exemplified by numerous outbreaks in the eastern hemisphere. Since then, the virus is rapidly spreading. Currently, no drugs have been approved or are in development for the treatment of CHIKV, which makes this viral infection particularly interesting for academic medicinal chemistry efforts. Several molecules have already been identified that inhibit CHIKV replication in phenotypic virus-cell-based assays. One of these is arbidol, a molecule that already has been licensed for the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. For structural optimization, a dedicated libraries of 43 indole-based derivatives were evaluated leading to more potent analogues (IIIe and IIIf) with anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) activities higher than those of the other derivatives, including the lead compound, and with a selective index of inhibition 13.2 and 14.6, respectively, higher than that of ARB (4.6). PMID:25282648

  8. Active surveillance for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Romero-Otero, Javier; García-Gómez, Borja; Duarte-Ojeda, José M; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Vilaseca, Antoni; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Touijer, Karim A

    2016-03-01

    It is worth distinguishing between the two strategies of expectant management for prostate cancer. Watchful waiting entails administering non-curative androgen deprivation therapy to patients on development of symptomatic progression, whereas active surveillance entails delivering curative treatment on signs of disease progression. The objectives of the two management strategies and the patients enrolled in either are different: (i) to review the role of active surveillance as a management strategy for patients with low-risk prostate cancer; and (ii) review the benefits and pitfalls of active surveillance. We carried out a systematic review of active surveillance for prostate cancer in the literature using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's electronic database, PubMed. We carried out a search in English using the terms: active surveillance, prostate cancer, watchful waiting and conservative management. Selected studies were required to have a comprehensive description of the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis, inclusion criteria for surveillance, and a protocol for the patients' follow up. Review articles were included, but not multiple papers from the same datasets. Active surveillance appears to reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer without compromising cancer-specific survival at 10 years. Therefore, active surveillance is an option for select patients who want to avoid the side-effects inherent to the different types of immediate treatment. However, inclusion criteria for active surveillance and the most appropriate method of monitoring patients on active surveillance have not yet been standardized. PMID:26621054

  9. The Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance Study (Pak-NEDS): Introducing a pilot surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based decision making is essential for appropriate prioritization and service provision by healthcare systems. Despite higher demands, data needs for this practice are not met in many cases in low- and middle-income countries because of underdeveloped sources, among other reasons. Emergency departments (EDs) provide an important channel for such information because of their strategic position within healthcare systems. This paper describes the design and pilot test of a national ED based surveillance system suitable for the Pakistani context. Methods The Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance Study (Pak-NEDS) was pilot tested in the emergency departments of seven major tertiary healthcare centres across the country. The Aga Khan University, Karachi, served as the coordinating centre. Key stakeholders and experts from all study institutes were involved in outlining data needs, development of the study questionnaire, and identification of appropriate surveillance mechanisms such as methods for data collection, monitoring, and quality assurance procedures. The surveillance system was operational between November 2010 and March 2011. Active surveillance was done 24 hours a day by data collectors hired and trained specifically for the study. All patients presenting to the study EDs were eligible participants. Over 270,000 cases were registered in the surveillance system over a period of four months. Coverage levels in the final month ranged from 91-100% and were highest in centres with the least volume of patients. Overall the coverage for the four months was 79% and crude operational costs were less than $0.20 per patient. Conclusions Pak-NEDS is the first multi-centre ED based surveillance system successfully piloted in a sample of major EDs having some of the highest patient volumes in Pakistan. Despite the challenges identified, our pilot shows that the system is flexible and scalable, and could potentially be adapted for many other

  10. Investigation Into an Outbreak of Dengue-like Illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, Revealed a Cocirculation of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; de Lourdes de Souza, Maria; Felix, Alvina Clara; Mamede, Nubia; Sanabani, Sabri S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city. Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes. RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively. Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies. PMID:27015222

  11. Investigation Into an Outbreak of Dengue-like Illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, Revealed a Cocirculation of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Virus Type 1.

    PubMed

    Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; Lourdes de Souza, Maria de; Felix, Alvina Clara; Mamede, Nubia; Sanabani, Sabri S

    2016-03-01

    In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies. PMID:27015222

  12. Surveillance system for hepatitis C infection: A practical approach

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Najmeh; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Ataei, Behrooz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious public health concern throughout the world. Despite its public health prominence, however, how surveillance systems for hepatitis C should be designed is still a challenging issue especially in developing countries such as Iran. Establishing a surveillance system needs an ongoing process of case investigation, data collection, analysis of data and also dissemination of data to public health professionals and health care providers. This review article tries to provide the best recommendations for planning and implantation a surveillance system for HCV infection. PMID:22826770

  13. Multi-mode multistatics for passive/active airborne surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogrodnik, Robert F.

    1986-07-01

    The increasing performance demands for air surveillance assets, as well as the necessity for continued surveillance operations in the presence of enemy jamming anti-radiation missile (ARM) attacks, have increased interest in passive surveillance, in particular multi-mode passive/active multistatic sensing. The use of noncooperative radiation as illuminators of opportunity combined with passive surveillance electromagnetic support measurement (ESM) sensors opens new horizons to multistatic surveillance from a passive airborne platform. Research and field tests have been conducted on ESM augmented bistatics as well as noncooperative multistatics which support the development of airborne multi-mode passive surveillance technology. This work has been conducted under such programs as the Bistatic Enhanced Altimeter Detection (BEAD) and the noncooperative multistatic Passive Coherent Location (PCL). Both BEAD and PCL technology directly support the receiver, signal processing and target location/tracking operations necessary for passive surveillance. The demonstrated technologies for EM interference rejection and multistatic multi-target tracking and location under PCL provide a promising performance bench mark for passive surveillance in the presence of a complex electromagnetic environment. Passive receiver intercept performance under BEAD has provided a receiver design baseline for both look-down and look-up surveillance applications. The technologies under development in BEAD and PCL are presented along with the field test results and the sensor concepts. In particular, spin-off data such as bistatic look-down clutter, noise-floor limitation of noncooperative multistatics and sensitivity limitations set by passive surveillance using signal intercept techniques and illuminators of opportunity are provided.

  14. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Samples are routinely collected and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, ground water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  15. A new video surveillance system based on AVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tingwan; Chen, Chaofeng

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the key technology of current video surveillance systems, compared the performances, prices, and the prospects between the H.264 and AVS codec technologies, studied the advantages and disadvantages of different designs, particularly the data transmission, terminal reception facilities, decoding and demonstration of the video surveillance systems. We have optimized the core algorithms such as intra prediction, inter prediction and fast motion estimation, and performed some relevant simulations for these algorithms. Experimental results show that these new algorithms simplified the design and speeded up the compression rate. From the simulation results, we proposed a new video surveillance system based on AVS. The program reached low price, high efficiency, fast, high image quality, convenient application and operation, greatly improved the current video surveillance systems.

  16. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program started in 1966 and conducted epidemiologic research to quantify the potential adverse effects of prescription drugs, utilizing in-hospital monitoring.

  17. Systems for persistent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Keith

    2011-09-01

    The requirements for a persistent wide-area surveillance system are discussed in the context of evolving military operations. Significant emphasis has been placed on the development of new sensing technologies to meet the challenges posed by asymmetric threats. Within the UK, the Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing Defence Technology Centre (EMRS DTC) has supported the research and development of new capabilities including radio-frequency (RF) and electro-optic (EO) systems, as well as work on sensor exploitation, with a goal of developing solutions for enhancing situational awareness. This activity has been supported by field trials to determine the efficacy of competing technologies in relation to realistic threat scenarios.

  18. Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) for unannounced safeguards inspections.

    SciTech Connect

    Galdoz, Erwin G. , Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); Pinkalla, Mark

    2010-09-01

    The Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC). The joint project addresses specific requirements of redundant surveillance systems installed in two South American nuclear facilities as a tool to support unannounced inspections conducted by ABACC and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The surveillance covers the critical time (as much as a few hours) between the notification of an inspection and the access of inspectors to the location in facility where surveillance equipment is installed. ABACC and the IAEA currently use the EURATOM Multiple Optical Surveillance System (EMOSS). This outdated system is no longer available or supported by the manufacturer. The current EMOSS system has met the project objective; however, the lack of available replacement parts and system support has made this system unsustainable and has increased the risk of an inoperable system. A new system that utilizes current technology and is maintainable is required to replace the aging EMOSS system. ABACC intends to replace one of the existing ABACC EMOSS systems by the Secure Video Surveillance System. SVSS utilizes commercial off-the shelf (COTS) technologies for all individual components. Sandia National Laboratories supported the system design for SVSS to meet Safeguards requirements, i.e. tamper indication, data authentication, etc. The SVSS consists of two video surveillance cameras linked securely to a data collection unit. The collection unit is capable of retaining historical surveillance data for at least three hours with picture intervals as short as 1sec. Images in .jpg format are available to inspectors using various software review tools. SNL has delivered two SVSS systems for test and evaluation at the ABACC Safeguards Laboratory. An additional 'proto-type' system remains

  19. Prognosis of Possible Reassortments in Recent H5N2 Epidemic Influenza in USA: Implications for Computer-Assisted Surveillance As Well As Drug/Vaccine Design.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Ashesh; Basak, Subhash C

    2015-01-01

    The recent H5N2 flu epidemic in US Midwest has led to deaths of millions of turkeys and farm bred poultry. While no human infections are reported to date, the rapid mutations in flu viruses can lead to more pathogenic subtypes. We have investigated such possibilities and have shown that H5N4, H5N9 and H5N6 are the most likely candidates for next round of viral reassortments, amongst which H5N9, if reassorted from Asiatic strains, could be highly pathogenic. We discuss here possibilities of anticipatory rational vaccine design based on work done earlier. PMID:26202885

  20. Intelligent route surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoemaker, Robin; Sandbrink, Rody; van Voorthuijsen, Graeme

    2009-05-01

    Intelligence on abnormal and suspicious behaviour along roads in operational domains is extremely valuable for countering the IED (Improvised Explosive Device) threat. Local sensor networks at strategic spots can gather data for continuous monitoring of daily vehicle activity. Unattended intelligent ground sensor networks use simple sensing nodes, e.g. seismic, magnetic, radar, or acoustic, or combinations of these in one housing. The nodes deliver rudimentary data at any time to be processed with software that filters out the required information. At TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) research has started on how to equip a sensor network with data analysis software to determine whether behaviour is suspicious or not. Furthermore, the nodes should be expendable, if necessary, and be small in size such that they are hard to detect by adversaries. The network should be self-configuring and self-sustaining and should be reliable, efficient, and effective during operational tasks - especially route surveillance - as well as robust in time and space. If data from these networks are combined with data from other remote sensing devices (e.g. UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles)/aerostats), an even more accurate assessment of the tactical situation is possible. This paper shall focus on the concepts of operation towards a working intelligent route surveillance (IRS) research demonstrator network for monitoring suspicious behaviour in IED sensitive domains.

  1. Airborne ultraviolet imaging system for oil slick surveillance: oil-seawater contrast, imaging concept, signal-to-noise ratio, optical design, and optomechanical model.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhenhua; Yu, Lei; Cao, Diansheng; Wu, Qingwen; Yu, Xiangyang; Lin, Guanyu

    2015-09-01

    The airborne ultraviolet imaging system, which assesses oil slick areas better than visible and infrared optical systems, was designed to monitor and track oil slicks in coastal regions. A model was built to achieve the upwelling radiance distribution of oil-covered sea and clean seawater, based on the radiance transfer software. With this model, the oil-seawater contrast, which affects the detection of oil-covered coastal areas, was obtained. The oil-seawater contrast, fundamental imaging concept, analog calculation of SNR, optical design, and optomechanical configuration of the airborne ultraviolet imaging system are illustrated in this paper. The study of an airborne ultraviolet imaging system with F-number 3.4 and a 40° field of view (FOV) in near ultraviolet channel (0.32-0.38 μm) was illustrated and better imaging quality was achieved. The ground sample distance (GSD) is from 0.35 to 0.7 m with flight height ranges from 0.5 to 1 km. Comparisons of detailed characteristics of the airborne ultraviolet imaging system with the corresponding characteristics of previous ultraviolet systems were tabulated, and these comparisons showed that this system can achieve a wide FOV and a relative high SNR. A virtual mechanical prototype and tolerances analysis are illustrated in this paper to verify the performance of fabrication and assembly of the ultraviolet system. PMID:26368888

  2. High Rate of Subclinical Chikungunya Virus Infection and Association of Neutralizing Antibody with Protection in a Prospective Cohort in The Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, In-Kyu; Alera, Maria Theresa; Lago, Catherine B.; Tac-An, Ilya A.; Villa, Daisy; Fernandez, Stefan; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Klungthong, Chonticha; Levy, Jens W.; Velasco, John Mark; Roque, Vito G.; Salje, Henrik; Macareo, Louis R.; Hermann, Laura L.; Nisalak, Ananda; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon

    2015-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a globally re-emerging arbovirus for which previous studies have indicated the majority of infections result in symptomatic febrile illness. We sought to characterize the proportion of subclinical and symptomatic CHIKV infections in a prospective cohort study in a country with known CHIKV circulation. Methods/Findings A prospective longitudinal cohort of subjects ≥6 months old underwent community-based active surveillance for acute febrile illness in Cebu City, Philippines from 2012-13. Subjects with fever history were clinically evaluated at acute, 2, 5, and 8 day visits, and at a 3-week convalescent visit. Blood was collected at the acute and 3-week convalescent visits. Symptomatic CHIKV infections were identified by positive CHIKV PCR in acute blood samples and/or CHIKV IgM/IgG ELISA seroconversion in paired acute/convalescent samples. Enrollment and 12-month blood samples underwent plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using CHIKV attenuated strain 181/clone25. Subclinical CHIKV infections were identified by ≥8-fold rise from a baseline enrollment PRNT titer <10 without symptomatic infection detected during the intervening surveillance period. Selected CHIKV PCR-positive samples underwent viral isolation and envelope protein-1 gene sequencing. Of 853 subjects who completed all study procedures at 12 months, 19 symptomatic infections (2.19 per 100 person-years) and 87 subclinical infections (10.03 per 100 person-years) occurred. The ratio of subclinical-to-symptomatic infections was 4.6:1 varying with age from 2:1 in 6 month-5 year olds to 12:1 in those >50 years old. Baseline CHIKV PRNT titer ≥10 was associated with 100% (95%CI: 46.1, 100.0) protection from symptomatic CHIKV infection. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated Asian genotype closely related to strains from Asia and the Caribbean. Conclusions Subclinical infections accounted for a majority of total CHIKV infections. A positive baseline CHIKV PRNT

  3. Longitudinal Analysis of Natural Killer Cells in Dengue Virus-Infected Patients in Comparison to Chikungunya and Chikungunya/Dengue Virus-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Petitdemange, Caroline; Wauquier, Nadia; Devilliers, Hervé; Yssel, Hans; Mombo, Illich; Caron, Mélanie; Nkoghé, Dieudonné; Debré, Patrice; Leroy, Eric; Vieillard, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prominent arbovirus worldwide, causing major epidemics in South-East Asia, South America and Africa. In 2010, a major DENV-2 outbreak occurred in Gabon with cases of patients co-infected with chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Although the innate immune response is thought to be of primordial importance in the development and outcome of arbovirus-associated pathologies, our knowledge of the role of natural killer (NK) cells during DENV-2 infection is in its infancy. Methodology We performed the first extensive comparative longitudinal characterization of NK cells in patients infected by DENV-2, CHIKV or both viruses. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses were performed to discriminate between CHIKV and DENV-2 infected patients. Principal Findings We observed that both activation and differentiation of NK cells are induced during the acute phase of infection by DENV-2 and CHIKV. Combinatorial analysis however, revealed that both arboviruses induced two different signatures of NK-cell responses, with CHIKV more associated with terminal differentiation, and DENV-2 with inhibitory KIRs. We show also that intracellular production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) by NK cells is strongly stimulated in acute DENV-2 infection, compared to CHIKV. Conclusions/Significance Although specific differences were observed between CHIKV and DENV-2 infections, the significant remodeling of NK cell populations observed here suggests their potential roles in the control of both infections. PMID:26938618

  4. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2012: Gonorrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... and 44.1% among women. Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project Antimicrobial resistance remains an important consideration in the ... 4–9 In 1986, the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP), a national sentinel surveillance system, was established ...

  5. DEFENSE MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE MONTHLY REPORT (MSMR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR) is the Army Medical Surveillance Activity's (AMSA) principal vehicle for disseminating medical surveillance information of broad interest. It routinely publishes summaries of notifiable diseases, trends of illnesses of special survei...

  6. NATIONAL ELECTRONIC DISEASE SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NEDSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) project is a public health initiative to provide a standard-based, integrated approach to disease surveillance and to connect public health surveillance to the burgeoning clinical information systems infrastructure. NEDS...

  7. Equine Disease Surveillance: Quarterly Summary.

    PubMed

    2016-01-23

    West Nile virus in Europe and the USA. Evidence that the spread of vesicular stomatitis in the USA is beginning to slow. Summary of UK surveillance testing, July to September 2015 These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:26795859

  8. BORDER INFECTIOUS DISEASES SURVEILLANCE PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. ...

  9. PREGNANCY NUTRITION SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (PNSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System (PNSS) is a program based surveillance system developed in order to assist health professionals in achieving of the goals of identifying and reducing pregnancy-related health risks that contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Its purp...

  10. Equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.

    PubMed

    2016-07-30

    National and international disease outbreaksAfrican horse sickness in South AfricaRising EHV-1 abortion cases in the UKSummary of surveillance testing, January to March 2016 These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:27474057

  11. Detection of Chikungunya virus in wild populations of Aedes albopictus in Kerala State, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Narendran Pradeep; Sabesan, Shanmugavelu; Krishnamoorthy, Kaliannagounder; Jambulingam, Purushothaman

    2012-10-01

    We detected Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection among wild populations of Aedes albopictus female specimens during the CHIKV outbreaks of 2009 and 2006 collected in different localities in Kerala State, India. The envelope 1 gene (E1) sequences of the virus isolate 2009 from the mosquito species showed close genetic relatedness (Kimura 2 Parameter genetic distance=0.0013) to CHIKV-positive isolates from human serum samples from the same area. E1 gene sequences from Ae. albopictus, as well as from human isolates, had the crucial non-synonymous C/T mutation at position 10670, leading to the A226V amino acid change. This natural inclination indicated the role of this mosquito species in the transmission of CHIKV during its recent outbreaks in Kerala State. PMID:22925018

  12. Chikungunya Virus Glycoproteins Pseudotype with Lentiviral Vectors and Reveal a Broad Spectrum of Cellular Tropism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Shuangchun; Yu, Lianhua; Sun, Lingfen; Qu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Background Outbreaks of the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection has been documented in over 40 countries, resulting in clinical symptoms characterized by fever and joint pain. Diagnosing CHIKV in a clinical lab setting is often omitted because of the high lab safety requirement. An infection system that mimics CHIKV infection will permit clinical evaluation of the production of neutralizing antibody for both disease diagnostics and treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated a CHIKV construct expressing CHIKV structural proteins. This construct permits the production of CHIKV pseudo-viral particles with a luciferase reporter. The pseudo-virus was able to infect a wide range of cell lines. The pseudovirus could be neutralized by the addition of neutralizing antibodies from patients. Conclusions Taken together, we have developed a powerful system that can be handled at biosafety level 2 laboratories for evaluation of existence of CHIKV neutralizing antibodies. PMID:25333782

  13. Study on the eco-epidemiology of Chikungunya in U.T of Lakshadweep.

    PubMed

    Showkath Ali, M K; Rajendran, R; Regu, K; Mohanan, M K; Bora, D; Dhariwal, A C; Shiv, Lal

    2009-06-01

    An unusual increase in the incidence of viral fever was noticed in Androth and Kalpeni Island, U.T of Lakshadweep during November 2006. The Eco-epidemiology of the disease was studied in detail. The study indicated that Aedes albopictus is the predominant species (98.74%) and it exhibited a wide spectrum of breeding preferences with a clear-cut predilection for rat-damaged coconuts (RDCs). All the entomological indices were very high in both the Islands with a marked increase in Kalpeni Island. The clinical presentation of the cases was typical of chikungunya and the laboratory study confirmed this. Based on the investigation, control and preventive measures were planned, advised and implemented. The details regarding the bio-ecology of vectors, clinical presentation, laboratory investigations and effectiveness of control measures are discussed. PMID:22010495

  14. Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Pastula, Daniel M; Smith, Daniel E; Beckham, J David; Tyler, Kenneth L

    2016-06-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas. PMID:26903031

  15. Landscape Ecology of Sylvatic Chikungunya Virus and Mosquito Vectors in Southeastern Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Diawo; Sall, Amadou A.; Buenemann, Michaela; Chen, Rubing; Faye, Oumar; Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Watts, Douglas; Weaver, Scott C.; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2012-01-01

    The risk of human infection with sylvatic chikungunya (CHIKV) virus was assessed in a focus of sylvatic arbovirus circulation in Senegal by investigating distribution and abundance of anthropophilic Aedes mosquitoes, as well as the abundance and distribution of CHIKV in these mosquitoes. A 1650 km2 area was classified into five land cover classes: forest, barren, savanna, agriculture and village. A total of 39,799 mosquitoes was sampled from all classes using human landing collections between June 2009 and January 2010. Mosquito diversity was extremely high, and overall vector abundance peaked at the start of the rainy season. CHIKV was detected in 42 mosquito pools. Our data suggest that Aedes furcifer, which occurred abundantly in all land cover classes and landed frequently on humans in villages outside of houses, is probably the major bridge vector responsible for the spillover of sylvatic CHIKV to humans. PMID:22720097

  16. Effective chikungunya virus-like particle vaccine produced in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Metz, Stefan W; Gardner, Joy; Geertsema, Corinne; Le, Thuy T; Goh, Lucas; Vlak, Just M; Suhrbier, Andreas; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2013-01-01

    The emerging arthritogenic, mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes severe disease in humans and represents a serious public health threat in countries where Aedes spp mosquitoes are present. This study describes for the first time the successful production of CHIKV virus-like particles (VLPs) in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses. This well-established expression system is rapidly scalable to volumes required for epidemic responses and proved well suited for processing of CHIKV glycoproteins and production of enveloped VLPs. Herein we show that a single immunization with 1 µg of non-adjuvanted CHIKV VLPs induced high titer neutralizing antibody responses and provided complete protection against viraemia and joint inflammation upon challenge with the Réunion Island CHIKV strain in an adult wild-type mouse model of CHIKV disease. CHIKV VLPs produced in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses thus represents as a new, safe, non-replicating and effective vaccine candidate against CHIKV infections. PMID:23516657

  17. Effective Chikungunya Virus-like Particle Vaccine Produced in Insect Cells

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Stefan W.; Gardner, Joy; Geertsema, Corinne; Le, Thuy T.; Goh, Lucas; Vlak, Just M.; Suhrbier, Andreas; Pijlman, Gorben P.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging arthritogenic, mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes severe disease in humans and represents a serious public health threat in countries where Aedes spp mosquitoes are present. This study describes for the first time the successful production of CHIKV virus-like particles (VLPs) in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses. This well-established expression system is rapidly scalable to volumes required for epidemic responses and proved well suited for processing of CHIKV glycoproteins and production of enveloped VLPs. Herein we show that a single immunization with 1 µg of non-adjuvanted CHIKV VLPs induced high titer neutralizing antibody responses and provided complete protection against viraemia and joint inflammation upon challenge with the Réunion Island CHIKV strain in an adult wild-type mouse model of CHIKV disease. CHIKV VLPs produced in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses thus represents as a new, safe, non-replicating and effective vaccine candidate against CHIKV infections. PMID:23516657

  18. Interferon-Induced Spermidine-Spermine Acetyltransferase and Polyamine Depletion Restrict Zika and Chikungunya Viruses.

    PubMed

    Mounce, Bryan C; Poirier, Enzo Z; Passoni, Gabriella; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Cesaro, Teresa; Prot, Matthieu; Stapleford, Kenneth A; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Vignuzzi, Marco

    2016-08-10

    Polyamines are small, positively charged molecules derived from ornithine and synthesized through an intricately regulated enzymatic pathway. Within cells, they are abundant and play several roles in diverse processes. We find that polyamines are required for the life cycle of the RNA viruses chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Depletion of spermidine and spermine via type I interferon signaling-mediated induction of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT1), a key catabolic enzyme in the polyamine pathway, restricts CHIKV and ZIKV replication. Polyamine depletion restricts these viruses in vitro and in vivo, due to impairment of viral translation and RNA replication. The restriction is released by exogenous replenishment of polyamines, further supporting a role for these molecules in virus replication. Thus, SAT1 and, more broadly, polyamine depletion restrict viral replication and suggest promising avenues for antiviral therapies. PMID:27427208

  19. Coinfections of Zika and Chikungunya Viruses in Bahia, Brazil, Identified by Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sardi, Silvia I; Somasekar, Sneha; Naccache, Samia N; Bandeira, Antonio C; Tauro, Laura B; Campos, Gubio S; Chiu, Charles Y

    2016-09-01

    Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) of samples from 15 patients with documented Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in Bahia, Brazil, from April 2015 to January 2016 identified coinfections with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 2 of 15 ZIKV-positive cases by PCR (13.3%). While generally nonspecific, the clinical presentation corresponding to these two CHIKV/ZIKV coinfections reflected infection by the virus present at a higher titer. Aside from CHIKV and ZIKV, coinfections of other viral pathogens were not detected. The mNGS approach is promising for differential diagnosis of acute febrile illness and identification of coinfections, although targeted arbovirus screening may be sufficient in the current ZIKV outbreak setting. PMID:27413190

  20. A Real-Time Cell Analyzing Assay for Identification of Novel Antiviral Compounds against Chikungunya Virus.

    PubMed

    Zandi, Keivan

    2016-01-01

    Screening of viral inhibitors through induction of cytopathic effects (CPE) by conventional method has been applied for various viruses including Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a significant arbovirus. However, it does not provide the information about cytopathic effect from the beginning and throughout the course of virus replication. Conventionally, most of the approaches are constructed on laborious end-point assays which are not capable for detecting minute and rapid changes in cellular morphology. Therefore, we developed a label-free and dynamical method for monitoring the cellular features that comprises cell attachment, proliferation, and viral cytopathogenicity, known as the xCELLigence real-time cell analysis (RTCA). In this chapter, we provide a RTCA protocol for quantitative analysis of CHIKV replication using an infected Vero cell line treated with ribavirin as an in vitro model. PMID:27233278

  1. Phylogenetic analyses of chikungunya virus among travelers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2014-2015

    PubMed Central

    Conteville, Liliane Costa; Zanella, Louise; Marín, Michel Abanto; de Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo; de Mendonça, Marcos César Lima

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that emerged in Brazil by late 2014. In the country, two CHIKV foci characterized by the East/Central/South Africa and Asian genotypes, were established in North and Northeast regions. We characterized, by phylogenetic analyses of full and partial genomes, CHIKV from Rio de Janeiro state (2014-2015). These CHIKV strains belong to the Asian genotype, which is the determinant of the current Northern Brazilian focus, even though the genome sequence presents particular single nucleotide variations. This study provides the first genetic characterisation of CHIKV in Rio de Janeiro and highlights the potential impact of human mobility in the spread of an arthropod-borne virus. PMID:27120007

  2. Production of Chikungunya Virus-Like Particles and Subunit Vaccines in Insect Cells.

    PubMed

    Metz, Stefan W; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is a reemerging human pathogen that causes debilitating arthritic disease in humans. Like dengue and Zika virus, CHIKV is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes in an epidemic urban cycle, and is now rapidly spreading through the Americas since its introduction in the Caribbean in late 2013. There are no licensed vaccines or antiviral drugs available, and only a few vaccine candidates have passed Phase I human clinical trials. Using recombinant baculovirus expression technology, we have generated CHIKV glycoprotein subunit and virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines that are amenable to large scale production in insect cells. These vaccines, in particular the VLPs, have shown high immunogenicity and protection against CHIKV infection in different animal models of CHIKV-induced disease. Here, we describe the production, purification, and characterization of these potent CHIKV vaccine candidates. PMID:27233282

  3. Western Blot Detection of Human Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibody with Recombinant Envelope 2 Protein.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Lee, Jihoo; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Dias, Ronaldo F; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a tropical pathogen, has re-emerged and has massive outbreaks abruptly all over the world. Containing many dominant epitopes, the envelope E2 protein of CHIKV has been explored for the vaccination or diagnosis. In the present study, the antigenicity of a recombinant expressed intrinsically disorder domain (IUD) of E2 was tested for the detection of the antibody against CHIKV through western blot method. The gene of the IUD of E2 was inserted into 2 different vectors and expressed as recombinant GST-E2 and recombinant MBP-E2 fusion protein, respectively. Two kinds of fusion proteins were tested with 30 CHIKV patient sera and 30 normal sera, respectively. Both proteins were detected by 25 patients sera (83.3%) and 1 normal serum (3.3%). This test showed a relatively high sensitivity and very high specificity of the recombinant E2 proteins to be used as diagnostic antigens against CHIKV infection. PMID:27180586

  4. Western Blot Detection of Human Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibody with Recombinant Envelope 2 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Lee, Jihoo; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Dias, Ronaldo F.; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a tropical pathogen, has re-emerged and has massive outbreaks abruptly all over the world. Containing many dominant epitopes, the envelope E2 protein of CHIKV has been explored for the vaccination or diagnosis. In the present study, the antigenicity of a recombinant expressed intrinsically disorder domain (IUD) of E2 was tested for the detection of the antibody against CHIKV through western blot method. The gene of the IUD of E2 was inserted into 2 different vectors and expressed as recombinant GST-E2 and recombinant MBP-E2 fusion protein, respectively. Two kinds of fusion proteins were tested with 30 CHIKV patient sera and 30 normal sera, respectively. Both proteins were detected by 25 patients sera (83.3%) and 1 normal serum (3.3%). This test showed a relatively high sensitivity and very high specificity of the recombinant E2 proteins to be used as diagnostic antigens against CHIKV infection. PMID:27180586

  5. Development of Neutralization Assay Using an eGFP Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Cheng-Lin; Liu, Si-Qing; Zhou, Dong-Gen; Xu, Lin-Lin; Li, Xiao-Dan; Zhang, Pan-Tao; Li, Peng-Hui; Ye, Han-Qing; Wei, Hong-Ping; Yuan, Zhi-Ming; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a member of the Alphavirus genus, is an important human emerging/re-emerging pathogen. Currently, there are no effective antiviral drugs or vaccines against CHIKV infection. Herein, we construct an infectious clone of CHIKV and an eGFP reporter CHIKV (eGFP-CHIKV) with an isolated strain (assigned to Asian lineage) from CHIKV-infected patients. The eGFP-CHIKV reporter virus allows for direct visualization of viral replication through the levels of eGFP expression. Using a known CHIKV inhibitor, ribavirin, we confirmed that the eGFP-CHIKV reporter virus could be used to identify inhibitors against CHIKV. Importantly, we developed a novel and reliable eGFP-CHIKV reporter virus-based neutralization assay that could be used for rapid screening neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV. PMID:27367716

  6. Congenital Chikungunya Virus Infection after an Outbreak in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lyra, Priscila Pinheiro Ribeiro; Campos, Gúbio Soares; Bandeira, Igor Dórea; Sardi, Silvia Ines; Costa, Lilian Ferreira de Moura; Santos, Flávia Rocha; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Santos; Jardim, Alena Maria Barreto; Santiago, Ana Cecília Travassos; de Oliveira, Patrícia Maria Ribeiro; Moreira, Lícia Maria Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    There is little information about the congenital chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission. We describe two cases of well-documented congenital CHIKV infection in Salvador-Brazil, where CHIKV has been identified since 2014. The outbreak in the city led to the clinical CHIKV diagnoses of both pregnant women 2 days before delivery. Urine and blood samples from the mothers and newborns were collected and tested for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for Zika, dengue, and CHIKV. Both neonates and mothers had positive urine and serum PCR results for CHIKV. The newborns had significant perinatal complications and were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. The purpose of our case report is to show how severe congenital CHIKV infection can be and the importance to include CHIKV infection in the differential diagnosis of neonatal sepsis when mothers have clinical signs of the disease and live in an affected area. PMID:27555980

  7. Chikungunya from the Caribbean: the importance of appropriate laboratory tests to confirm the diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Magurano, Fabio; Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Baggieri, Melissa; Fortuna, Claudia; Farese, Alberto; Benedetti, Eleonora; Fiorentini, Cristiano; Rezza, Giovanni; Nicoletti, Loredana; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) appeared for the first time in the Western Hemisphere--the French West Indies--in December of 2013. From there, the virus has spread to other Caribbean islands. Following the diagnosis of first autochthonous CHIKV cases in the Caribbean island of Saint Martin, a large outbreak is ongoing in the Americas. As of September 12, 2014, a total of 706,093 suspected and 9803 confirmed CHIKV cases have been reported in the Americas. This case study highlights the possibility of false-negative immunochromatographic CHIKV immunoglobulin M (IgM) tests and the need of confirmatory tests for suspected cases. Moreover, a greater spread of virus together with the presence of a mosquito vector (Aedes albopictus) enhances the risk of autochthonous transmission in Europe. PMID:25897812

  8. Congenital Chikungunya Virus Infection after an Outbreak in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lyra, Priscila Pinheiro Ribeiro; Campos, Gúbio Soares; Bandeira, Igor Dórea; Sardi, Silvia Ines; Costa, Lilian Ferreira de Moura; Santos, Flávia Rocha; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Santos; Jardim, Alena Maria Barreto; Santiago, Ana Cecília Travassos; de Oliveira, Patrícia Maria Ribeiro; Moreira, Lícia Maria Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    There is little information about the congenital chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission. We describe two cases of well-documented congenital CHIKV infection in Salvador-Brazil, where CHIKV has been identified since 2014. The outbreak in the city led to the clinical CHIKV diagnoses of both pregnant women 2 days before delivery. Urine and blood samples from the mothers and newborns were collected and tested for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for Zika, dengue, and CHIKV. Both neonates and mothers had positive urine and serum PCR results for CHIKV. The newborns had significant perinatal complications and were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. The purpose of our case report is to show how severe congenital CHIKV infection can be and the importance to include CHIKV infection in the differential diagnosis of neonatal sepsis when mothers have clinical signs of the disease and live in an affected area. PMID:27555980

  9. First Imported Case of Chikungunya Virus Infection in a Travelling Canadian Returning from the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Therrien, Christian; Jourdan, Guillaume; Holloway, Kimberly; Tremblay, Cécile; Drebot, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    This is the first Canadian case of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection reported in a traveller returning from the Caribbean. Following multiple mosquito bites in Martinique Island in January 2014, the patient presented with high fever, headaches, arthralgia on both hands and feet, and a rash on the trunk upon his return to Canada. Initial serological testing for dengue virus infection was negative. Support therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was administered. The symptoms gradually improved 4 weeks after onset with residual arthralgia and morning joint stiffness. This clinical feature prompted the clinician to request CHIKV virus serology which was found to be positive for the presence of IgM and neutralizing antibodies. In 2014, over four hundred confirmed CHIKV infection cases were diagnosed in Canadian travellers returning from the Caribbean and Central America. Clinical suspicion of CHIKV or dengue virus infections should be considered in febrile patients with arthralgia returning from the recently CHIKV endemic countries of the Americas. PMID:27366163

  10. Early Events in Chikungunya Virus Infection—From Virus Cell Binding to Membrane Fusion

    PubMed Central

    van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K. S.; Hoornweg, Tabitha E.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus causing millions of infections in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. CHIKV infection often leads to an acute self-limited febrile illness with debilitating myalgia and arthralgia. A potential long-term complication of CHIKV infection is severe joint pain, which can last for months to years. There are no vaccines or specific therapeutics available to prevent or treat infection. This review describes the critical steps in CHIKV cell entry. We summarize the latest studies on the virus-cell tropism, virus-receptor binding, internalization, membrane fusion and review the molecules and compounds that have been described to interfere with virus cell entry. The aim of the review is to give the reader a state-of-the-art overview on CHIKV cell entry and to provide an outlook on potential new avenues in CHIKV research. PMID:26198242

  11. [Entomological surveillance in Mauritius].

    PubMed

    Gopaul, R

    1995-01-01

    The entomological surveillance is an essential link in the fight against malaria in Mauritius. Because of the large number of malaria-infected travellers in Mauritius and the presence of the vector Anopheles arabiensis, the risk of local transmission is very real. The medical entomology division together with the malaria control unit and the health appointees exert a rigorous entomological surveillance of malaria. Field agents make entomological investigations of pilot villages and around the harbor and airport, where there have been cases of malaria, in addition to a few randomly chosen regions. All of the inhabited regions are accessible because of a good highway infrastructure, which enables a complete coverage for the entomological prospectives. Entomological controls are also conducted in the airplanes and the ships. All of the captured mosquitos and the harvested larva are transferred to a laboratory for identification, dissection or sensibility tests, etc. The larva of A. arabiensis have not yet developed resistance to Temephos and the adults are still sensitive to DDT. Thus, the larval habitats are treated with Temephos and DDT is sprayed in the residences where there have been native cases of malaria. The entomology division studies the ecology and the evolution of the larval habitats, as well as the impact of the anti-larval fight on the anophelene density. In addition to the chemical fight, a biological control is being tried with larva-eating fish such as Lebistes and Tilapia. In general, the anophelene density in Mauritius is low, but after the big summer rains, especially during a period of cyclones, there is a considerable increase of larval habitats and consequently a higher number of A. arabiensis. Therefore during this season, it is necessary to make an even more rigorous entomological surveillance. A. arabiensis has a strong exophile tendency even if it is endophage and exophage. This mosquito is zoophile, mostly towards cattle, and the

  12. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  13. Genetic divergence of Chikungunya virus plaque variants from the Comoros Island (2005).

    PubMed

    Wasonga, Caroline; Inoue, Shingo; Rumberia, Cecilia; Michuki, George; Kimotho, James; Ongus, Juliette R; Sang, Rosemary; Musila, Lillian

    2015-12-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) from a human sample collected during the 2005 Chikungunya outbreak in the Comoros Island, showed distinct and reproducible large (L2) and small (S7) plaques which were characterized in this study. The parent strain and plaque variants were analysed by in vitro growth kinetics in different cell lines and their genetic similarity assessed by whole genome sequencing, comparative sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. In vitro growth kinetic assays showed similar growth patterns of both plaque variants in Vero cells but higher viral titres of S7 compared to L2 in C6/36 cells. Amino acids (AA) alignments of the CHIKV plaque variants and S27 African prototype strain, showed 30 AA changes in the non-structural proteins (nsP) and 22 AA changes in the structural proteins. Between L2 and S7, only two AAs differences were observed. A missense substitution (C642Y) of L2 in the nsP2, involving a conservative AA substitution and a nonsense substitution (R524X) of S7 in the nsP3, which has been shown to enhance O'nyong-nyong virus infectivity and dissemination in Anopheles mosquitoes. The phenotypic difference observed in plaque size could be attributed to one of these AA substitutions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the parent strain and its variants clustered closely together with each other and with Indian Ocean CHIKV strains indicating circulation of isolates with close evolutionary relatedness in the same outbreak. These observations pave way for important functional studies to understand the significance of the identified genetic changes in virulence and viral transmission in mosquito and mammalian hosts. PMID:26347221

  14. Functional processing and secretion of Chikungunya virus E1 and E2 glycoproteins in insect cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne, arthrogenic Alphavirus that causes large epidemics in Africa, South-East Asia and India. Recently, CHIKV has been transmitted to humans in Southern Europe by invading and now established Asian tiger mosquitoes. To study the processing of envelope proteins E1 and E2 and to develop a CHIKV subunit vaccine, C-terminally his-tagged E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins were produced at high levels in insect cells with baculovirus vectors using their native signal peptides located in CHIKV 6K and E3, respectively. Results Expression in the presence of either tunicamycin or furin inhibitor showed that a substantial portion of recombinant intracellular E1 and precursor E3E2 was glycosylated, but that a smaller fraction of E3E2 was processed by furin into mature E3 and E2. Deletion of the C-terminal transmembrane domains of E1 and E2 enabled secretion of furin-cleaved, fully processed E1 and E2 subunits, which could then be efficiently purified from cell culture fluid via metal affinity chromatography. Confocal laser scanning microscopy on living baculovirus-infected Sf21 cells revealed that full-length E1 and E2 translocated to the plasma membrane, suggesting similar posttranslational processing of E1 and E2, as in a natural CHIKV infection. Baculovirus-directed expression of E1 displayed fusogenic activity as concluded from syncytia formation. CHIKV-E2 was able to induce neutralizing antibodies in rabbits. Conclusions Chikungunya virus glycoproteins could be functionally expressed at high levels in insect cells and are properly glycosylated and cleaved by furin. The ability of purified, secreted CHIKV-E2 to induce neutralizing antibodies in rabbits underscores the potential use of E2 in a subunit vaccine to prevent CHIKV infections. PMID:21762510

  15. Molecular investigations of chikungunya virus during outbreaks in Orissa, Eastern India in 2010.

    PubMed

    Das, Biswadeep; Sahu, Abhipsa; Das, Mumani; Patra, Aparna; Dwibedi, Bhagirathi; Kar, Santanu K; Hazra, Rupenangshu K

    2012-07-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arthritogenic alphavirus, is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes of genus Aedes, mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The resurgence of CHIKV in different parts of India is a point of major public health concern. In 2010, chikungunya outbreaks with high epidemic magnitude were recorded in coastal areas of Orissa, Eastern India, affecting more than 15,000 people coupled with severe arthralgia and prolonged morbidites. Detailed entomological, serological and molecular investigation of this unprecendented outbreak was carried out by collecting and studying 1359 mosquito samples belonging to A. albopictus, A. aegypti, A. vittatus, A. edwardsii and Culex species and 220 patients serum from the affected areas. In this study, CHIKV specific IgM capture-ELISA and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) were done to detect recent infection of CHIKV in serum samples and adult mosquitoes collected from the affected areas. The high maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) (15.2) in A. albopictus mosquitoes indicated that it was the principal vector involved in transmission of CHIKV in Orissa. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the CHIKV strains involved in the outbreak belonged to the Indian Ocean Lineage (IOL) group within the East, Central and South African (ECSA) genotype. Genetic characterization of envelope glycoprotein (E1 and E2) genes revealed that all the CHIKV isolates from Orissa had the E1-A226V mutation that enhances viral dissemination and transmissibility by A. albopictus mosquitoes along with E2-L210Q and E2-I211T mutations, which play an epistatic role with E1-A226V mutation in adaptation of CHIKV to A. albopictus by increasing its midgut infectivity, thereby favoring its vectorial capacity. Our results showed the involvement of A. albopictus vector in the recent outbreaks in Orissa and circulation of IOL strains of ECSA genotype of CHIKV with E1-A226V, E2-L210Q and E2-I211T mutations in vectors and patients serum. PMID:22484761

  16. Chikungunya Fever Among Patients with Acute Febrile Illness Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    Galate, Lata Baswanna; Agrawal, Sachee R; Shastri, Jayanthi S; Londhey, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chikungunya fever (CHIK) is an arboviral disease. Dengue fever (DENG) and CHIK are indistinguishable clinically and need to be differentiated by laboratory investigations. Purpose: This study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of CHIK mono-infection and CHIK and DENG dual infection in suspected patients. We also analyzed the age, sex distribution, joint involvement, and relation of joint movement restriction with visual analog scale (VAS). Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients clinically suspected with DENG and CHIK were enrolled from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mumbai from April 2012 to October 2013. The detailed history and examination findings were recorded. Serum samples were subjected to DENG and CHIK immunoglobulin G (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The seroprevalence of CHIK was 12.5%. Mono-infection of CHIK was 3%, and CHIK and DENG dual infection was 9.5%. Most affected age group in CHIK cases was 46–60 years wherein female preponderance was seen. All 6 patients with CHIK mono-infection had fever and joint involvement; knee and elbow were the most commonly affected joints. All CHIK patients had VAS score of 6–10 with restricted joint movement. Of the patients with dual infection, the majorities were from 31 to 45 years with male preponderance; all had fever and joint pain mainly affecting knee and elbow. Of patients who had VAS score 6–10 in patients with dual infection, only 5.26% had restricted joint movement. Conclusion: IgM ELISA for Chikungunya infection should be included in the routine laboratory tests for acute febrile illness. PMID:27365916

  17. Multisensor data fusion for integrated maritime surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premji, A.; Ponsford, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    A prototype Integrated Coastal Surveillance system has been developed on Canada's East Coast to provide effective surveillance out to and beyond the 200 nautical mile Exclusive Economic Zone. The system has been designed to protect Canada's natural resources, and to monitor and control the coastline for smuggling, drug trafficking, and similar illegal activity. This paper describes the Multiple Sensor - Multiple Target data fusion system that has been developed. The fusion processor has been developed around the celebrated Multiple Hypothesis Tracking algorithm which accommodates multiple targets, new targets, false alarms, and missed detections. This processor performs four major functions: plot-to-track association to form individual radar tracks; fusion of radar tracks with secondary sensor reports; track identification and tagging using secondary reports; and track level fusion to form common tracks. Radar data from coherent and non-coherent radars has been used to evaluate the performance of the processor. This paper presents preliminary results.

  18. Guidance for UMTRA project surveillance and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    1986-01-01

    The Guidance for UMTRA Project Surveillance and Maintenance describes the procedures that will be used to verify that Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal sites continue to function as designed. The approach of this guidance document is to identify surveillance requirements and maintenance procedures that will be used to comply with NRC license requirements. This document addresses five primary activities: Definition and characterization of final site conditions. Site inspections; Ground-water monitoring; Aerial photography; and Custodial maintenance and contingency repair. Final site conditions will be defined and characterized prior to the completion of remedial actions at a site. As-built drawings will be compiled, a final topographic survey will be performed, a vicinity map will be prepared, and ground and aerial photographs will be taken. Survey monuments, site markers, and signs will be established as will a network of monitoring wells.

  19. Getting the Bigger Picture With Digital Surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Through a Space Act Agreement, Diebold, Inc., acquired the exclusive rights to Glenn Research Center's patented video observation technology, originally designed to accelerate video image analysis for various ongoing and future space applications. Diebold implemented the technology into its AccuTrack digital, color video recorder, a state-of- the-art surveillance product that uses motion detection for around-the- clock monitoring. AccuTrack captures digitally signed images and transaction data in real-time. This process replaces the onerous tasks involved in operating a VCR-based surveillance system, and subsequently eliminates the need for central viewing and tape archiving locations altogether. AccuTrack can monitor an entire bank facility, including four automated teller machines, multiple teller lines, and new account areas, all from one central location.

  20. Surgical wound infection surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lee, J T

    2003-12-01

    Measuring the frequency of a defined outcome flaw for a series of patients undergoing operative procedures generates information for performance evaluation. Such data influence decisions to improve care if used responsibly. Wound infection (WI), bacterial invasion of the incision, is the most common infectious complication of surgical care and WI prevention has value because the complication affects economic, patient satisfaction, and patient functional status outcomes. WI frequency, one kind of surgical outcome flaw rate, is traditionally used to judge one aspect of surgical care quality. At the author's institution, global WI surveillance was conducted without interruption for 20 years. Results for 85,260 consecutive inpatient operations performed during the period showed that secular changes in infection rates occurred but were not necessarily caused by surgical care quality decrements. PMID:14750065

  1. Drug approval and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance. PMID:6110574

  2. Laboratory for testing electro-optical surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2011-05-01

    A modern laboratory capable to carry out expanded tests of all types of electro-optical surveillance systems (thermal imagers, TV/LLLTV cameras, night vision devices, laser range finders/designators/illuminators, multi-sensor surveillance systems) and basic modules of such surveillance systems (IR FPA/CCD/CMOS/EBAPS sensors, image intensifier tubes, optical objectives) was developed and is presented in this paper. The laboratory can be treated as a both scientific and technical achievement due to its several features. First, all important parameters of modern electro-optical surveillance systems or parameters of basic modules of such systems can be measured. Second, the laboratory is built using a set of semi-independent modular test stations. This modular concept enables easy creations of many versions optimized for different applications. Third, interpretation of the measurement data is supported by a set of specialized computer simulation programs. Fourth, all tests stations in the laboratory were developed by the same design team and are based on similar test concepts.. Because of these features the laboratory of electro-optical surveillance technology presented in this paper can be an optimal solutions for scientific centers or industrial companies who plan to enter and make quick progress in all main areas of surveillance technology.

  3. Recombinant CHIK virus E1 coat protein of 11 KDa with antigenic domains for the detection of Chikungunya.

    PubMed

    Yathi, Krishna Kammara; Joseph, Julia Mary; Bhasker, Salini; Kumar, Ramesh; Chinnamma, Mohankumar

    2011-09-30

    Chikungunya is an acute febrile illness caused by an alpha virus technically called as CHIK virus. A smaller size of CHIK virus E1 coat protein -11 kDa was expressed in prokaryotic expression system. The recombinant protein was purified and confirmed by western blot analysis. The positions of the antigenic domain in the protein were identified and the immunoreactivity of recombinant protein with anti-CHIK IgM antibodies was ascertained. The antigen showed an 88% sensitivity and 100% specificity by Indirect ELISA. No cross reactivity of the antigen was observed with anti-Dengue virus serum samples. The results strongly support that the recombinant CHIK coat protein could be used as a diagnostic antigen for the detection of Chikungunya by Indirect ELISA. The relevance of a smaller size recombinant antigen highlights its large scale application in serodiagnosis of CHIK virus since bacterial expression is more simple and cost effective than eukaryotic system. PMID:21798263

  4. Application of GelC-MS/MS to Proteomic Profiling of Chikungunya Virus Infection: Preparation of Peptides for Analysis.

    PubMed

    Paemanee, Atchara; Wikan, Nitwara; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Smith, Duncan R

    2016-01-01

    Gel-enhanced liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) is a labor intensive, but relatively straightforward methodology that generates high proteome coverage which can be applied to the proteome analysis of a range of starting materials such as cells or patient specimens. Sample proteins are resolved electrophoretically in one dimension through a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel after which the lanes are sliced into sections. The sections are further diced and the gel cubes generated are subjected to in-gel tryptic digestion. The resultant peptides can then be analyzed by tandem mass spectroscopy to identify the proteins by database searching. The methodology can routinely detect several thousand proteins in one analysis. The protocol we describe here has been used with both cells in culture that have been infected with chikungunya virus and specimens from Chikungunya fever patients. This protocol details the process for generating peptides for subsequent mass spectroscopic and bioinformatic analysis. PMID:27233271

  5. [Proposal to establish an environmental contaminants surveillance system in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Huertas, Jancy Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing problem that negatively impacts health with social and economic high costs. In this sense, coordinated surveillance of conditions, risks, exposures and health effects related to pollution is a useful tool to guide decision-making processes. The objective of this essay was to describe a surveillance system for environmental contaminants in Colombia and its design background. Using the technical guidelines proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, a literature review was conducted to identify the key elements to be included in such surveillance system and to establish which of these elements were already present in the Colombian context. Moreover, these findings were compared with successful experiences in Latin America. The surveillance system includes five components: Epidemiological, environmental and biological surveillance, clinical monitoring and recommendations to guide policies or interventions. The key factors for a successful surveillance system are: interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, clear definition of functions, activities, data sources and information flow. The implementation of the system will be efficient if the structures and tools existing in each country are taken into account. The most important stakeholders are inter-sector public health and environmental commissions and government institutions working in research and surveillance issues related to health, sanitation, environment, drugs and food regulation and control. In conclusion, Colombia has the technical resources and a normative framework to design and implement the surveillance system. However, stakeholders´ coordination is essential to ensure the efficacy of the system so it may guide the implementation of cost-effective actions in environmental health. PMID:26535737

  6. The Development of Surveillance Systems.

    PubMed

    Henderson, D A

    2016-03-01

    Surveillance systems in public health practice have increased in number and sophistication with advances in data collection, analysis, and communication. When the Communicable Disease Center (now the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) was founded some 70 years ago, surveillance referred to the close observation of individuals with suspected smallpox, plague, or cholera. Alexander Langmuir, head of the Epidemiology Branch, redefined surveillance as the epidemiology-based critical factor in infectious disease control. I joined Langmuir as assistant chief in 1955 and was appointed chief of the Surveillance Section in 1961. In this paper, I describe Langmuir's redefinition of surveillance. Langmuir asserted that its proper use in public health meant the systematic reporting of infectious diseases, the analysis and epidemiologic interpretation of data, and both prompt and widespread dissemination of results. I outline the Communicable Disease Center's first surveillance systems for malaria, poliomyelitis, and influenza. I also discuss the role of surveillance in the global smallpox eradication program, emphasizing that the establishment of systematic reporting systems and prompt action based on results were critical factors of the program. PMID:26928219

  7. Generation of Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Chikungunya Virus Using ClonaCell-HY Hybridoma Cloning Kit.

    PubMed

    Yew, Chow Wenn; Tan, Yee Joo

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies offer high specificity and this makes it an important tool for molecular biology, biochemistry and medicine. Typically, monoclonal antibodies are generated by fusing mouse spleen cells that have been immunized with the desired antigen with myeloma cells to create immortalized hybridomas. Here, we describe the generation of monoclonal antibodies that are specific to Chikungunya virus using ClonaCell-HY system. PMID:27233275

  8. The Surveyor Mobile Surveillance System

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    This paper reports that KLM Technologies, Inc. delivered the Surveyor Mobile Surveillance System to Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC) in May 1986 for a long-term test and evaluation program at the Nine Mile Point Nuclear Plant. NMPC is leasing the Surveyor, and KLM personnel will be providing training and support during the test and evaluation program, which will cover various surveillance, inspection, and possible light maintenance tasks in high radiation and contamination areas of the plant. Prior to delivery to NMPC, the surveyor was demonstrated at Detroit Edison Company's Fermi II Nuclear Plant where it was judged to be rugged, compact, and easy to use for surveillance and inspection tasks.

  9. Molecular Characterisation of Clinical Isolates of Chikungunya Virus: A Study from Tertiary Care Hospitals in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Peerapur, B.V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Indian ocean islands and India have experienced massive severe Chikungunya outbreak from 2005 up till now and then Chikungunya became epidemic in India. The mutations that occurred in E1 gene were responsible for increased infectivity, virulence and host adaptability. It is important to find out the genotype and its probable evolvement and novel mutations in the E1 gene reported during 2006-2009 from the current isolates, which may affect the local protein structure. Aim To perform Molecular diagnosis and Molecular Characterisation of Chikungunya virus isolates. Materials and Methods A total of 33 samples were included in the study. RNA was isolated from 33 serum samples and Real time PCR was carried out. Further, Nested PCR and E1 partial gene sequencing was performed. Phylogenetic analysis, mutational analysis and protein modelling studies were carried out. Results Out of 33 samples tested, 31 were found positive for CHIK RNA. Phylogenetic analysis showed that isolates belongs to ECSA genotype and E1K211E, E1M269V and E1D284E mutations were observed from all the isolates. Conclusion The isolates may have evolved from ECSA Reunion island strains and identified unique mutations in E1 gene were maintained. These mutations have not affected local protein structure. PMID:27134872

  10. A risk-based coverage model for video surveillance camera control optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongzhou; Du, Zhiguo; Zhao, Xingtao; Li, Peiyue; Li, Dehua

    2015-12-01

    Visual surveillance system for law enforcement or police case investigation is different from traditional application, for it is designed to monitor pedestrians, vehicles or potential accidents. Visual surveillance risk is defined as uncertainty of visual information of targets and events monitored in present work and risk entropy is introduced to modeling the requirement of police surveillance task on quality and quantity of vide information. the prosed coverage model is applied to calculate the preset FoV position of PTZ camera.

  11. Autonomous soaring and surveillance in wind fields with an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chen

    Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) play an active role in developing a low-cost, low-altitude autonomous aerial surveillance platform. The success of the applications needs to address the challenge of limited on-board power plant that limits the endurance performance in surveillance mission. This thesis studies the mechanics of soaring flight, observed in nature where birds utilize various wind patterns to stay airborne without flapping their wings, and investigates its application to small UAVs in their surveillance missions. In a proposed integrated framework of soaring and surveillance, a bird-mimicking soaring maneuver extracts energy from surrounding wind environment that improves surveillance performance in terms of flight endurance, while the surveillance task not only covers the target area, but also detects energy sources within the area to allow for potential soaring flight. The interaction of soaring and surveillance further enables novel energy based, coverage optimal path planning. Two soaring and associated surveillance strategies are explored. In a so-called static soaring surveillance, the UAV identifies spatially-distributed thermal updrafts for soaring, while incremental surveillance is achieved through gliding flight to visit concentric expanding regions. A Gaussian-process-regression-based algorithm is developed to achieve computationally-efficient and smooth updraft estimation. In a so-called dynamic soaring surveillance, the UAV performs one cycle of dynamic soaring to harvest energy from the horizontal wind gradient to complete one surveillance task by visiting from one target to the next one. A Dubins-path-based trajectory planning approach is proposed to maximize wind energy extraction and ensure smooth transition between surveillance tasks. Finally, a nonlinear trajectory tracking controller is designed for a full six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear UAV dynamics model and extensive simulations are carried to demonstrate the effectiveness of

  12. Chikungunya virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... a hat. Use clothing coated with permethrin. Use insect repellent with DEET, picaridin, IR3535, oil of lemon eucalyptus, or para-menthane-diol. When using sunscreen, apply insect repellant after you apply sunscreen. Sleep in a ...

  13. Mathematical model of tumor-immune surveillance.

    PubMed

    Mahasa, Khaphetsi Joseph; Ouifki, Rachid; Eladdadi, Amina; Pillis, Lisette de

    2016-09-01

    We present a novel mathematical model involving various immune cell populations and tumor cell populations. The model describes how tumor cells evolve and survive the brief encounter with the immune system mediated by natural killer (NK) cells and the activated CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The model is composed of ordinary differential equations describing the interactions between these important immune lymphocytes and various tumor cell populations. Based on up-to-date knowledge of immune evasion and rational considerations, the model is designed to illustrate how tumors evade both arms of host immunity (i.e. innate and adaptive immunity). The model predicts that (a) an influx of an external source of NK cells might play a crucial role in enhancing NK-cell immune surveillance; (b) the host immune system alone is not fully effective against progression of tumor cells; (c) the development of immunoresistance by tumor cells is inevitable in tumor immune surveillance. Our model also supports the importance of infiltrating NK cells in tumor immune surveillance, which can be enhanced by NK cell-based immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:27317864

  14. Dietary surveillance for states and communities.

    PubMed

    Byers, T; Serdula, M; Kuester, S; Mendlein, J; Ballew, C; McPherson, R S

    1997-04-01

    Information about dietary behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge is important for state and local health agencies because national monitoring lacks the local representativeness and timeliness necessary to catalyze community interest and to design, target, and evaluate dietary intervention programs. Currently, however, both methods and resources are limited for surveying diet in the population of a state or community. Brief assessments are included in the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System for adolescents, which is conducted by state departments of education, and in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for adults, which is operated by state departments of health. More quantitatively precise measurements are being made by a few states and communities but personnel and financial resources for such surveys are limited. Nutritionists in state and local health agencies should explore the possibility of developing public-private partnerships with food producers, retailers, and marketers to collect information about dietary determinants and behaviors in states and communities. Better standardization of dietary assessment methods is needed, as is development of better methods to identify attitudes about diet and barriers to dietary improvement. Most important, though, dietary surveillance in states and communities must be more strongly tied to intervention programs intended to improve nutrition in those populations. PMID:9094925

  15. Surveillance of Aedes aegypti: Comparison of House Index with Four Alternative Traps

    PubMed Central

    Codeço, Claudia T.; Lima, Arthur W. S.; Araújo, Simone C.; Lima, José Bento P.; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Honório, Nildimar A.; Galardo, Allan K. R.; Braga, Ima A.; Coelho, Giovanini E.; Valle, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses, is an important target of vector control programs in tropical countries. Most mosquito surveillance programs are still based on the traditional household larval surveys, despite the availability of new trapping devices. We report the results of a multicentric entomological survey using four types of traps, besides the larval survey, to compare the entomological indices generated by these different surveillance tools in terms of their sensitivity to detect mosquito density variation. Methods The study was conducted in five mid-sized cities, representing variations of tropical climate regimens. Surveillance schemes using traps for adults (BG-Sentinel, Adultrap and MosquiTRAP) or eggs (ovitraps) were applied monthly to three 1 km2 areas per city. Simultaneously, larval surveys were performed. Trap positivity and density indices in each area were calculated and regressed against meteorological variables to characterize the seasonal pattern of mosquito infestation in all cities, as measured by each of the four traps. Results The House Index was consistently low in most cities, with median always 0. Traps rarely produced null indices, pointing to their greater sensitivity in detecting the presence of Ae. aegypti in comparison to the larval survey. Trap positivity indices tend to plateau at high mosquito densities. Despite this, both indices, positivity and density, agreed on the seasonality of mosquito abundance in all cities. Mosquito seasonality associated preferentially with temperature than with precipitation even in areas where temperature variation is small. Conclusions All investigated traps performed better than the House Index in measuring the seasonal variation in mosquito abundance and should be considered as complements or alternatives to larval surveys. Choice between traps should further consider differences of cost and ease-of-use. PMID:25668559

  16. DEFENSE MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (DMSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    AMSA operates the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS), an executive information system whose database contains up-to-date and historical data on diseases and medical events (e.g., hospitalizations, ambulatory visits, reportable diseases, HIV tests, acute respiratory diseas...

  17. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance System presents statistics and trends for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data demonstrate details which provide information about STD morbidity in the United States, STD prevalence with subgroups and populations which are the f...

  18. Concern, but not with surveillance.

    PubMed

    Ivinson, A J

    2000-01-01

    According to Brian Ward, vaccines are probably the most efficacious and cost-effective medical interventions ever invented. He notes that surveillance of vaccine-related adverse events is important, and resources should be made available for monitoring vaccine safety at a time of increasing vaccine activity. However, in an environment of limited resources, there is a dispute over the level of resources devoted to vaccine surveillance versus vaccine deployment. In an examination of the balance of risk versus benefit, several arguments are given. Nevertheless, no tangible evidence supports the claim that the increased use of new vaccines will be more trouble than it is worth. Ward offers a more worthy argument against the use of vaccines aimed at maintaining productivity rather than securing personal health and well-being. Overall, the author upholds the importance of good vaccine surveillance but opposes the notion of shifting resources from vaccine development to vaccine surveillance. PMID:10743292

  19. Hallam environmental radiation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    An environmental surveillance report is presented for decommissioned Hallam power plant. Statistical analysis shows that the spring data mean is significantly greater than the fall data mean for all water sources. The spring variation is also significantly greater than the fall variation. The water sources demonstrate homogeneity for spring and fall sub-surface sources. Surface water has significantly more radiation than sub-surface water. This may be attributed to increased tritium content in surface water due to atmospheric leaching. Finally, the surface water samples are in close proximity to Sheldon Station, a coal fired plant, and increased coal particulate matter may be increasing the environmental radioactivity. A linear regression model suggests spring readings are decreasing and fall readings significantly increasing from 1975 to 1987. The spring recharge water probably contains natural and man-made radioactivity leached from the atmosphere, as well as natural radioactivity leached from the soil and rocks. The lower mean and less variance for the fall data may better characterize the aquifer. 7 figs.

  20. Collaborative space surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang; Pham, Khanh D.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a space-based, space-surveillance study wherein the goal is to demonstrate the feasibility and scalability of the modeling and simulation of a distributed multi-agent multiple satellites tracking and prediction system. A flexible and modular system architecture that enables collaborative and efficient teaming among distributed agents is delineated. Hierarchical objective methodology is deployed to align the mission objectives with the diverse agents' capabilities and resources. A set of satellite platform and sensor configuration/models is considered. Detailed mathematical models of the satellite orbits including the mutual visibility function are simulated for combinations of GEO and LEO orbits. An Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF)/Distributed Unscented Information Filter (DUIF) for high-accuracy orbital determination and tracking is demonstrated to show that the LEO orbit estimation from the GEO satellite with only angle measurements based on UKF is an excellent approach. Simulation studies show that the rate of filter convergence depends on sample time period, initial error, process error, measurement errors as well as the relative geometry of the LEO and GEO satellite orbits.

  1. Breast cancer surveillance.

    PubMed

    Rachetta, Eleonora; Osano, Silvia; Astegiano, Francesco; Martincich, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Since several studies have demonstrated the inadequate diagnostic performance of mammography in high risk women, over the past two decades, different breast imaging tests have been evaluated as additional diagnostic methods to mammography, and the most relevant ones are the techniques that do not imply the use of X-rays, considering the young age of these patients and the higher radio-sensitivity. Breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has risen growing interest not only because of the absence of use of X-rays, but also because it provides morpho-functional features, which may depict biological characteristics of breast tissues, including invasive and in situ cancers. Different multicenter non-randomized prospective studies aimed to evaluate breast DCE-MRI as an integral part of surveillance programs, agreed about the evidence that in high risk women screening with DCE-MRI is more effective than either mammography and/or ultrasound. Moreover, this modality leads to the identifications of cancers at a more favorable stage, allowing a real advantage in terms of tumor size and nodal involvement. The medical community is evaluating to suggest DCE-MRI alone as screening modality in high-risk women, as it was reported that in these cases the sensitivity of MRI plus conventional imaging was not significantly higher than that of MRI alone. Breast MRI is now recommended as part of screening program for high risk women by both European and American guidelines. PMID:26924173

  2. Antigenic Variation of East/Central/South African and Asian Chikungunya Virus Genotypes in Neutralization by Immune Sera

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Chong-Long; Sam, I-Ching; Merits, Andres; Chan, Yoke-Fun

    2016-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne virus which causes epidemics of fever, severe joint pain and rash. Between 2005 and 2010, the East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype was responsible for global explosive outbreaks across India, the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. From late 2013, Asian genotype CHIKV has caused outbreaks in the Americas. The characteristics of cross-antibody efficacy and epitopes are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized human immune sera collected during two independent outbreaks in Malaysia of the Asian genotype in 2006 and the ECSA genotype in 2008–2010. Neutralizing capacity was analyzed against representative clinical isolates as well as viruses rescued from infectious clones of ECSA and Asian CHIKV. Using whole virus antigen and recombinant E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins, we further investigated antibody binding sites, epitopes, and antibody titers. Both ECSA and Asian sera demonstrated stronger neutralizing capacity against the ECSA genotype, which corresponded to strong epitope-antibody interaction. ECSA serum targeted conformational epitope sites in the E1-E2 glycoprotein, and E1-E211K, E2-I2T, E2-H5N, E2-G118S and E2-S194G are key amino acids that enhance cross-neutralizing efficacy. As for Asian serum, the antibodies targeting E2 glycoprotein correlated with neutralizing efficacy, and I2T, H5N, G118S and S194G altered and improved the neutralization profile. Rabbit polyclonal antibody against the N-terminal linear neutralizing epitope from the ECSA sequence has reduced binding capacity and neutralization efficacy against Asian CHIKV. These findings imply that the choice of vaccine strain may impact cross-protection against different genotypes. Conclusion/Significance Immune serum from humans infected with CHIKV of either ECSA or Asian genotypes showed differences in binding and neutralization characteristics. These findings have implications for the continued

  3. Public Health Disease Surveillance Networks.

    PubMed

    Morse, Stephen S

    2014-02-01

    Zoonotic infections are important sources of human disease; most known emerging infections are zoonotic (e.g., HIV, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah virus, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) and originated as natural infections of other species that acquired opportunities to come in contact with humans. There are also serious infectious diseases classically considered zoonotic, such as influenza, rabies, bubonic plague, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. More recently, it has been recognized that wildlife constitutes a particularly important source of novel zoonoses. With all this microbial movement, surveillance is considered the first line of public health defense. The zoonotic origin of many human and livestock infections argues strongly for the synergistic value of a One Health approach, which provides the capability to identify pathogens crossing into new species and could provide earlier warning of potential epidemics. This article discusses public health surveillance and major recent surveillance initiatives and reviews progress toward implementing a One Health surveillance framework. Networks discussed include global intergovernmental organizations and recent combined efforts of these organizations; Web-based nongovernmental systems (e.g., ProMED, the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases); and networks of bilateral or multilateral government programs (e.g., the CDC's Global Disease Detection [GDD] platform; the U.S. Department of Defense's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System [GEIS]; regional and subregional networks; and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats [EPT] program and its surveillance component, PREDICT). Syndromic surveillance also has potential to complement existing systems. New technologies are enabling revolutionary capabilities for global surveillance, but in addition to serious technical needs, both sustainability and data-sharing mechanisms remain

  4. Occupational Surveillance for Spaceflight Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarver, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of longterm occupational health surveillance of astronauts after exposure to the possible hazards of spaceflight. Because there is not much information about long term effects of spaceflight on human health, it is important to identify some of the possible results of exposure to the many possible factors that can influence longterm health impacts. This surveillance also allows for NASA to meet the obligation to care for the astronauts for their lifetime.

  5. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    SciTech Connect

    RW Hanf; TM Poston

    2000-09-20

    Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual.

  6. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-05-27

    Results from the 9975 shipping package Storage and Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Complex (KAC). This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout the extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The 10 year storage life justification was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to validate the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 10 years in storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program began. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. The primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton{reg_sign} containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex{reg_sign} fiberboard thermal insulation at bounding conditions of radiation, elevated temperatures and/or elevated humidity.

  7. Enhanced Production of Chikungunya Virus-Like Particles Using a High-pH Adapted Spodoptera frugiperda Insect Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, James M.; Pajerowski, J. David; Daniels, Christopher L.; McHugh, Patrick M.; Flynn, Jessica A.; Balliet, John W.; Casimiro, Danilo R.; Subramanian, Shyamsundar

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus-like particles (VLPs) have potential to be used as a prophylactic vaccine based on testing in multiple animal models and are currently being evaluated for human use in a Phase I clinical trial. The current method for producing these enveloped alphavirus VLPs by transient gene expression in mammalian cells presents challenges for scalable and robust industrial manufacturing, so the insect cell baculovirus expression vector system was evaluated as an alternative expression technology. Subsequent to recombinant baculovirus infection of Sf21 cells in standard culture media (pH 6.2–6.4), properly processed Chikungunya structural proteins were detected and assembled capsids were observed. However, an increase in culture pH to 6.6–6.8 was necessary to produce detectable concentrations of assembled VLPs. Since this elevated production pH exceeds the optimum for growth medium stability and Sf21 culture, medium modifications were made and a novel insect cell variant (SfBasic) was derived by exposure of Sf21 to elevated culture pH for a prolonged period of time. The high-pH adapted SfBasic insect cell line described herein is capable of maintaining normal cell growth into the typical mammalian cell culture pH range of 7.0–7.2 and produces 11-fold higher Chikungunya VLP yields relative to the parental Sf21 cell line. After scale-up into stirred tank bioreactors, SfBasic derived VLPs were chromatographically purified and shown to be similar in size and structure to a VLP standard derived from transient gene expression in HEK293 cells. Total serum anti-Chikungunya IgG and neutralizing titers from guinea pigs vaccinated with SfBasic derived VLPs or HEK293 derived VLPs were not significantly different with respect to production method, suggesting that this adapted insect cell line and production process could be useful for manufacturing Chikungunya VLPs for use as a vaccine. The adaptation of Sf21 to produce high levels of recombinant protein and VLPs in an

  8. Early neutralizing IgG response to Chikungunya virus in infected patients targets a dominant linear epitope on the E2 glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Yiu-Wing; Lum, Fok-Moon; Teo, Teck-Hui; Lee, Wendy W L; Simarmata, Diane; Harjanto, Sumitro; Chua, Chong-Long; Chan, Yoke-Fun; Wee, Jin-Kiat; Chow, Angela; Lin, Raymond T P; Leo, Yee-Sin; Le Grand, Roger; Sam, I-Ching; Tong, Joo-Chuan; Roques, Pierre; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Rénia, Laurent; Rötzschke, Olaf; Ng, Lisa F P

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and related arboviruses have been responsible for large epidemic outbreaks with serious economic and social impact. The immune mechanisms, which control viral multiplication and dissemination, are not yet known. Here, we studied the antibody response against the CHIKV surface antigens in infected patients. With plasma samples obtained during the early convalescent phase, we showed that the naturally-acquired IgG response is dominated by IgG3 antibodies specific mostly for a single linear epitope ‘E2EP3’. E2EP3 is located at the N-terminus of the E2 glycoprotein and prominently exposed on the viral envelope. E2EP3-specific antibodies are neutralizing and their removal from the plasma reduced the CHIKV-specific antibody titer by up to 80%. Screening of E2EP3 across different patient cohorts and in non-human primates demonstrated the value of this epitope as a good serology detection marker for CHIKV infection already at an early stage. Mice vaccinated by E2EP3 peptides were protected against CHIKV with reduced viremia and joint inflammation, providing a pre-clinical basis for the design of effective vaccine against arthralgia-inducing CHIKV and other alphaviruses. PMID:22389221

  9. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Annie-Claude; Zulz, Tammy; Soborg, Bolette; Koch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in many Arctic areas. Members of the International Circumpolar Surveillance Tuberculosis (ICS-TB) Working Group collaborate to increase knowledge about tuberculosis in Arctic regions. Objective To establish baseline knowledge of tuberculosis surveillance systems used by ICS-TB member jurisdictions. Design Three questionnaires were developed to reflect the different surveillance levels (local, regional and national); all 3 were forwarded to the official representative of each of the 15 ICS-TB member jurisdictions in 2013. Respondents self-identified the level of surveillance conducted in their region and completed the applicable questionnaire. Information collected included surveillance system objectives, case definitions, data collection methodology, storage and dissemination. Results Thirteen ICS-TB jurisdictions [Canada (Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon), Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Yakutia (Sakha Republic), United States (Alaska)] voluntarily completed the survey – representing 2 local, 7 regional and 4 national levels. Tuberculosis reporting is mandatory in all jurisdictions, and case definitions are comparable across regions. The common objectives across systems are to detect outbreaks, and inform the evaluation/planning of public health programmes and policies. All jurisdictions collect data on confirmed active tuberculosis cases and treatment outcomes; 11 collect contact tracing results. Faxing of standardized case reporting forms is the most common reporting method. Similar core data elements are collected; 8 regions report genotyping results. Data are stored using customized programmes (n=7) and commercial software (n=6). Nine jurisdictions provide monthly, bi-annual or annual reports to principally government and/or scientific/medical audiences. Conclusion This review successfully establishes baseline knowledge

  10. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Adokiya, Martin N.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and response system in northern Ghana. Design This was an observational study conducted among 47 health workers (district directors, medical, disease control, and laboratory officers) in all 13 districts of the Upper East Region representing public, mission, and private health services. A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. detection, confirmation) was administered to the informants. Their responses were recorded according to specific themes. In addition, 34 weekly Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response reports (August 2014 to March 2015) were collated from each district. Results In 2014 and 2015, a total of 10 suspected Ebola cases were clinically diagnosed from four districts. Out of the suspected cases, eight died and the cause of death was unexplained. All the 10 suspected cases were reported, none was confirmed. The informants had knowledge on EVD surveillance and data reporting. However, there were gaps such as delayed reporting, low quality protective equipment (e.g. gloves, aprons), inadequate staff, and lack of laboratory capacity. The majority (38/47) of the respondents were not satisfied with EVD surveillance system and response preparedness due to lack of infrared thermometers, ineffective screening, and lack of isolation centres. Conclusion EVD surveillance and response preparedness is insufficient and the epidemic is a wake-up call for early detection and response preparedness. Ebola surveillance remains a neglected public

  11. CCR2 Deficiency Promotes Exacerbated Chronic Erosive Neutrophil-Dominated Chikungunya Virus Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Poo, Yee Suan; Nakaya, Helder; Gardner, Joy; Larcher, Thibaut; Schroder, Wayne A.; Le, Thuy T.; Major, Lee D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a member of a globally distributed group of arthritogenic alphaviruses that cause weeks to months of debilitating polyarthritis/arthralgia, which is often poorly managed with current treatments. Arthritic disease is usually characterized by high levels of the chemokine CCL2 and a prodigious monocyte/macrophage infiltrate. Several inhibitors of CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 are in development and may find application for treatment of certain inflammatory conditions, including autoimmune and viral arthritides. Here we used CCR2−/− mice to determine the effect of CCR2 deficiency on CHIKV infection and arthritis. Although there were no significant changes in viral load or RNA persistence and only marginal changes in antiviral immunity, arthritic disease was substantially increased and prolonged in CCR2−/− mice compared to wild-type mice. The monocyte/macrophage infiltrate was replaced in CCR2−/− mice by a severe neutrophil (followed by an eosinophil) infiltrate and was associated with changes in the expression levels of multiple inflammatory mediators (including CXCL1, CXCL2, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF], interleukin-1β [IL-1β], and IL-10). The loss of anti-inflammatory macrophages and their activities (e.g., efferocytosis) was also implicated in exacerbated inflammation. Clear evidence of cartilage damage was also seen in CHIKV-infected CCR2−/− mice, a feature not normally associated with alphaviral arthritides. Although recruitment of CCR2+ monocytes/macrophages can contribute to inflammation, it also appears to be critical for preventing excessive pathology and resolving inflammation following alphavirus infection. Caution might thus be warranted when considering therapeutic targeting of CCR2/CCL2 for the treatment of alphaviral arthritides. IMPORTANCE Here we describe the first analysis of viral arthritis in mice deficient for the chemokine receptor CCR2. CCR2 is thought to be central to the

  12. Evaluation of Chikungunya Diagnostic Assays: Differences in Sensitivity of Serology Assays in Two Independent Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Grace; Pok, Kwoon-Yong; Lai, Yee-Ling; Hapuarachchi, Hapuarachchige-Chanditha; Chow, Angela; Leo, Yee-Sin; Tan, Li-Kiang; Ng, Lee-Ching

    2010-01-01

    Background The sensitivity and specificity of two in-house MAC-ELISA assays were tested and compared with the performance of commercially-available CTK lateral flow rapid test and EUROIMMUN IFA assays for the detection of anti-Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) IgM. Each MAC-ELISA assay used a whole virus-based antigen derived from genetically distinct CHIKV strains involved in two chikungunya disease outbreaks in Singapore (2008); a January outbreak strain with alanine at amino acid residue 226 of the E1 glycoprotein (CHIKV-A226) and a May-to-September outbreak strain that possessed valine at the same residue (CHIKV-226V). We report differences in IgM detection efficacy of different assays between the two outbreaks. The sensitivities of two PCR protocols were also tested. Methods and Findings For sera from January outbreak, the average detection threshold of CTK lateral flow test, MAC-ELISAs and EUROIMMUN IFA assays was 3.75, 4.38 and 4.88 days post fever onset respectively. In contrast, IgM detection using CTK lateral flow test was delayed to more than 7 days after fever onset in the second outbreak sera. However, MAC-ELISA using CHIKV-226V detected IgM in the second outbreak sera 3.96 days after fever onset, which was approximately one day earlier compared to the same assay using CHIKV-A226 (4.86 days). Specificity was 100% for both commercial assays, and 95.6% for the in-house MAC-ELISAs. For sensitivity determination of the PCR protocols, the probe-based real time RT-PCR method was found to be 10 times more sensitive than one based on SYBR Green. Conclusion Our findings suggested that the two strains of CHIKV using variants A226 and 226V resulted in variation in sensitivities of the assays evaluated. We postulated that the observed difference in antigen efficacy could be due to the amino acid substitution differences in viral E1 and E2 envelope proteins, especially the E1-A226V substitution. This evaluation demonstrates the importance of appraisal of different

  13. Cell-based analysis of Chikungunya virus E1 protein in membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chikungunya fever is a pandemic disease caused by the mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). E1 glycoprotein mediation of viral membrane fusion during CHIKV infection is a crucial step in the release of viral genome into the host cytoplasm for replication. How the E1 structure determines membrane fusion and whether other CHIKV structural proteins participate in E1 fusion activity remain largely unexplored. Methods A bicistronic baculovirus expression system to produce recombinant baculoviruses for cell-based assay was used. Sf21 insect cells infected by recombinant baculoviruses bearing wild type or single-amino-acid substitution of CHIKV E1 and EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) were employed to investigate the roles of four E1 amino acid residues (G91, V178, A226, and H230) in membrane fusion activity. Results Western blot analysis revealed that the E1 expression level and surface features in wild type and mutant substituted cells were similar. However, cell fusion assay found that those cells infected by CHIKV E1-H230A mutant baculovirus showed little fusion activity, and those bearing CHIKV E1-G91D mutant completely lost the ability to induce cell-cell fusion. Cells infected by recombinant baculoviruses of CHIKV E1-A226V and E1-V178A mutants exhibited the same membrane fusion capability as wild type. Although the E1 expression level of cells bearing monomeric-E1-based constructs (expressing E1 only) was greater than that of cells bearing 26S-based constructs (expressing all structural proteins), the sizes of syncytial cells induced by infection of baculoviruses containing 26S-based constructs were larger than those from infections having monomeric-E1 constructs, suggesting that other viral structure proteins participate or regulate E1 fusion activity. Furthermore, membrane fusion in cells infected by baculovirus bearing the A226V mutation constructs exhibited increased cholesterol-dependences and lower pH thresholds. Cells bearing the V178

  14. A Single-Amino-Acid Polymorphism in Chikungunya Virus E2 Glycoprotein Influences Glycosaminoglycan Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Laurie A.; Khomandiak, Solomiia; Ashbrook, Alison W.; Weller, Romy; Heise, Mark T.; Morrison, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging arbovirus responsible for outbreaks of infection throughout Asia and Africa, causing an acute illness characterized by fever, rash, and polyarthralgia. Although CHIKV infects a broad range of host cells, little is known about how CHIKV binds and gains access to the target cell interior. In this study, we tested whether glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding is required for efficient CHIKV replication using CHIKV vaccine strain 181/25 and clinical isolate SL15649. Preincubation of strain 181/25, but not SL15649, with soluble GAGs resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of infection. While parental Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are permissive for both strains, neither strain efficiently bound to or infected mutant CHO cells devoid of GAG expression. Although GAGs appear to be required for efficient binding of both strains, they exhibit differential requirements for GAGs, as SL15649 readily infected cells that express excess chondroitin sulfate but that are devoid of heparan sulfate, whereas 181/25 did not. We generated a panel of 181/25 and SL15649 variants containing reciprocal amino acid substitutions at positions 82 and 318 in the E2 glycoprotein. Reciprocal exchange at residue 82 resulted in a phenotype switch; Gly82 results in efficient infection of mutant CHO cells but a decrease in heparin binding, whereas Arg82 results in reduced infectivity of mutant cells and an increase in heparin binding. These results suggest that E2 residue 82 is a primary determinant of GAG utilization, which likely mediates attenuation of vaccine strain 181/25. IMPORTANCE Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection causes a debilitating rheumatic disease that can persist for months to years, and yet there are no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies. Like other alphaviruses, CHIKV displays broad tissue tropism, which is thought to be influenced by virus-receptor interactions. In this study, we determined that cell-surface glycosaminoglycans are

  15. Future trends in compact TV surveillance systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gaertner, K.; Heaysman, B.; Vodrazka, P.

    1985-01-01

    Up to now the IAEA's Safeguards Surveillance Program has been based upon 8 mm film camera systems. As this type of equipment availability is controlled by the needs of the amateur market, the Agency is forced to follow the changing world trend in replacing film with video. The eventual substitution of film with video systems should be influenced by two design approaches, namely integrated systems, resembling physically the present film cameras, and/or remote camera-control unit systems. This paper describes experiments being carried out on both types by some Member States as well as the Agency's activities in this field.

  16. Second generation HIV surveillance in Pakistan: policy challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Michelle; Holte-McKenzie, Merydth; Ahmed, Sadia; Archibald, Chris P; Blanchard, James F; Thompson, Laura H

    2013-01-01

    From 2004 to 2011, the Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project (HASP) worked with government and non-government partners in Pakistan to design and implement an HIV second generation surveillance (SGS) system. Insights into the development of scalable cost effective surveillance methodologies, implementation, use of data for HIV prevention and human rights were gained over the course of HASP. An ideal SGS system would be affordable, able to be implemented independently by local partners and produce data that could be readily applied in policy and programmes. Flexibility in design and implementation is important to ensure that any SGS system is responsive to information needs, political changes and changes in key population dynamics and HIV epidemics. HASP's mapping methodology is innovative and widely accepted as best practice, but sustainability of the SGS system it developed is a challenge. PMID:23220785

  17. Research on space-based optical surveillance's observation strategy of geostationary-orbit's pitch point region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue-ying; An, Wei; Wu, Yu-hao; Li, Jun

    2015-03-01

    In order to surveillance the geostationary (GEO) objects, including man-made satellites and space debris, more efficiently, a space-based optical surveillance system was designed in this paper. A strategy to observe the pinch point region was selected because of the GEO objects' dynamics features. That strategy affects the surveillance satellites orbital type and sensor pointing strategy. In order to minimize total surveillance satellites and the revisit time for GEO objects, a equation was set. More than 700 GEO objects' TLE from NASA's website are used for simulation. Results indicate that the revisit time of the surveillance system designed in this paper is less than 24 hours, more than 95% GEO objects can be observed by the designed system.

  18. Sensitivity of Bovine Tuberculosis Surveillance in Wildlife in France: A Scenario Tree Approach.

    PubMed

    Rivière, Julie; Le Strat, Yann; Dufour, Barbara; Hendrikx, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a common disease in cattle and wildlife, with an impact on animal and human health, and economic implications. Infected wild animals have been detected in some European countries, and bTB reservoirs in wildlife have been identified, potentially hindering the eradication of bTB from cattle populations. However, the surveillance of bTB in wildlife involves several practical difficulties and is not currently covered by EU legislation. We report here the first assessment of the sensitivity of the bTB surveillance system for free-ranging wildlife launched in France in 2011 (the Sylvatub system), based on scenario tree modelling. Three surveillance system components were identified: (i) passive scanning surveillance for hunted wild boar, red deer and roe deer, based on carcass examination, (ii) passive surveillance on animals found dead, moribund or with abnormal behaviour, for wild boar, red deer, roe deer and badger and (iii) active surveillance for wild boar and badger. The application of these three surveillance system components depends on the geographic risk of bTB infection in wildlife, which in turn depends on the prevalence of bTB in cattle. We estimated the effectiveness of the three components of the Sylvatub surveillance system quantitatively, for each species separately. Active surveillance and passive scanning surveillance by carcass examination were the approaches most likely to detect at least one infected animal in a population with a given design prevalence, regardless of the local risk level and species considered. The awareness of hunters, which depends on their training and the geographic risk, was found to affect surveillance sensitivity. The results obtained are relevant for hunters and veterinary authorities wishing to determine the actual efficacy of wildlife bTB surveillance as a function of geographic area and species, and could provide support for decision-making processes concerning the enhancement of surveillance

  19. Sensitivity of Bovine Tuberculosis Surveillance in Wildlife in France: A Scenario Tree Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rivière, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a common disease in cattle and wildlife, with an impact on animal and human health, and economic implications. Infected wild animals have been detected in some European countries, and bTB reservoirs in wildlife have been identified, potentially hindering the eradication of bTB from cattle populations. However, the surveillance of bTB in wildlife involves several practical difficulties and is not currently covered by EU legislation. We report here the first assessment of the sensitivity of the bTB surveillance system for free-ranging wildlife launched in France in 2011 (the Sylvatub system), based on scenario tree modelling. Three surveillance system components were identified: (i) passive scanning surveillance for hunted wild boar, red deer and roe deer, based on carcass examination, (ii) passive surveillance on animals found dead, moribund or with abnormal behaviour, for wild boar, red deer, roe deer and badger and (iii) active surveillance for wild boar and badger. The application of these three surveillance system components depends on the geographic risk of bTB infection in wildlife, which in turn depends on the prevalence of bTB in cattle. We estimated the effectiveness of the three components of the Sylvatub surveillance system quantitatively, for each species separately. Active surveillance and passive scanning surveillance by carcass examination were the approaches most likely to detect at least one infected animal in a population with a given design prevalence, regardless of the local risk level and species considered. The awareness of hunters, which depends on their training and the geographic risk, was found to affect surveillance sensitivity. The results obtained are relevant for hunters and veterinary authorities wishing to determine the actual efficacy of wildlife bTB surveillance as a function of geographic area and species, and could provide support for decision-making processes concerning the enhancement of surveillance

  20. The conundrum of harmonizing resistance surveillance systems on a global level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveillance systems, particularly those involving complex data over time, provide unique challenges. They are as varied in design, intent, funding and function as the countries in which they exist. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention define surveillance as ‘the ongoing systematic colle...

  1. in silico Surveillance: evaluating outbreak detection with simulation models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Detecting outbreaks is a crucial task for public health officials, yet gaps remain in the systematic evaluation of outbreak detection protocols. The authors’ objectives were to design, implement, and test a flexible methodology for generating detailed synthetic surveillance data that provides realistic geographical and temporal clustering of cases and use to evaluate outbreak detection protocols. Methods A detailed representation of the Boston area was constructed, based on data about individuals, locations, and activity patterns. Influenza-like illness (ILI) transmission was simulated, producing 100 years of in silico ILI data. Six different surveillance systems were designed and developed using gathered cases from the simulated disease data. Performance was measured by inserting test outbreaks into the surveillance streams and analyzing the likelihood and timeliness of detection. Results Detection of outbreaks varied from 21% to 95%. Increased coverage did not linearly improve detection probability for all surveillance systems. Relaxing the decision threshold for signaling outbreaks greatly increased false-positives, improved outbreak detection slightly, and led to earlier outbreak detection. Conclusions Geographical distribution can be more important than coverage level. Detailed simulations of infectious disease transmission can be configured to represent nearly any conceivable scenario. They are a powerful tool for evaluating the performance of surveillance systems and methods used for outbreak detection. PMID:23343523

  2. National nosocomial infections surveillance system (NNIS): description of surveillance methods.

    PubMed

    Emori, T G; Culver, D H; Horan, T C; Jarvis, W R; White, J W; Olson, D R; Banerjee, S; Edwards, J R; Martone, W J; Gaynes, R P

    1991-02-01

    The National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS) is an ongoing collaborative surveillance system sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to obtain national data on nosocomial infections. The CDC uses the data that are reported voluntarily by participating hospitals to estimate the magnitude of the nosocomial infection problem in the United States and to monitor trends in infections and risk factors. Hospitals collect data by prospectively monitoring specific groups of patients for infections with the use of protocols called surveillance components. The surveillance components used by the NNIS are hospitalwide, intensive care unit, high-risk nursery, and surgical patient. Detailed information including demographic characteristics, infections and related risk factors, pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibilities, and outcome, is collected on each infected patient. Data on risk factors in the population of patients being monitored are also collected; these permit the calculation of risk-specific rates. An infection risk index, which includes the traditional wound class, is being evaluated as a predictor of the likelihood that an infection will develop after an operation. A major goal of the NNIS is to use surveillance data to develop and evaluate strategies to prevent and control nosocomial infections. The data collected with the use of the surveillance components permit the calculation of risk-specific infection rates, which can be used by individual hospitals as well as national health-care planners to set priorities for their infection control programs and to evaluate the effectiveness of their efforts. The NNIS will continue to evolve in finding more effective and efficient ways to assess the influence of patient risk and changes in the financing of health care on the infection rate. PMID:1850582

  3. Public participation in radiological surveillance.

    PubMed

    Hanf, R W; Schreckhise, R G; Patton, G W; Poston, T M; Jaquish, R E

    1997-10-01

    In 1989, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a program, for the U.S. Department of Energy, to involve local citizens in environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site. The Community-Operated Environmental Surveillance Program was patterned after similar community-involvement efforts at the Nevada Test Site and the Three Mile Island nuclear facility. Its purpose is to increase the flow of information to the public, thereby enhancing the public's awareness and understanding of surveillance activities. The program consists of two components: radiological air monitoring at nine offsite locations and agricultural product sampling at selected locations near the site. At each air-monitoring station, two local school teachers collect air particulate samples and operate equipment to monitor ambient radiation levels. Atmospheric tritium samples (as water vapor) are also collected at some locations. Four of the air-monitoring stations include large, colorful informational displays for public viewing. These displays provide details on station equipment, sample types, and sampling purposes. Instruments in the displays also monitor, record, and show real-time ambient radiation readings (measured with a pressurized ionization chamber) and meteorological conditions. Agricultural products, grown primarily by middle-school-aged students, are obtained from areas downwind of the site. Following analysis of these samples, environmental surveillance staff visit the schools to discuss the results with the students and their teachers. The data collected by these air and agricultural sampling efforts are summarized with other routinely collected sitewide surveillance data and reported annually in the Hanford Site environmental report. PMID:9314235

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis of Codon Usage and Influencing Factors in Chikungunya Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yigang

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus of the family Togaviridae that is transmitted to humans by Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Its genome comprises a 12 kb single-strand positive-sense RNA. In the present study, we report the patterns of synonymous codon usage in 141 CHIKV genomes by calculating several codon usage indices and applying multivariate statistical methods. Relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis showed that the preferred synonymous codons were G/C and A-ended. A comparative analysis of RSCU between CHIKV and its hosts showed that codon usage patterns of CHIKV are a mixture of coincidence and antagonism. Similarity index analysis showed that the overall codon usage patterns of CHIKV have been strongly influenced by Pan troglodytes and Aedes albopictus during evolution. The overall codon usage bias was low in CHIKV genomes, as inferred from the analysis of effective number of codons (ENC) and codon adaptation index (CAI). Our data suggested that although mutation pressure dominates codon usage in CHIKV, patterns of codon usage in CHIKV are also under the influence of natural selection from its hosts and geography. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report describing codon usage analysis in CHIKV genomes. The findings from this study are expected to increase our understanding of factors involved in viral evolution, and fitness towards hosts and the environment. PMID:24595095

  5. Chikungunya virus susceptibility & variation in populations of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito from India

    PubMed Central

    Gokhale, Mangesh D.; Paingankar, Mandar S.; Sudeep, Anakathil B.; Parashar, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Although having immense clinical relevance, yet only a few studies have been targeted to understand the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) susceptibility and growth in Aedes aegypti populations from India. This study was undertaken to investigate CHIKV susceptibility and growth kinetics in Ae. aegypti along with genetic heterogeneity of Ae. aegypti populations. Methods: Dose dependent CHIKV susceptibility and growth kinetic studies for three CHIKV strains reported from India were carried out in Ae. aegypti mosquito populations. The phenotypic variation and genetic heterogeneity in five Ae. aegypti populations were investigated using multivariate morphometrics and allozyme variation studies. Results: The dissemination and growth kinetics studies of the three CHIKV strains showed no selective advantage for a particular strain of CHIKV in Ae. aegypti. At 100 per cent infection rate, five geographic Ae. aegypti populations showed differences in dissemination to three CHIKV strains. Morphometric studies revealed phenotypic variation in all the studied populations. The allelic frequencies, F statistics, and Nei's genetic identity values showed that genetic differences between the populations were small, but significant. Interpretation & conclusions: The results obtained in this study suggest that genetic background of the vector strongly influences the CHIKV susceptibility in Ae. aegypti. PMID:26905240

  6. Brief Report: Chikungunya viral arthritis in the United States: A mimic of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Julie M.; Taffner, Samantha; Malkova, Olga N.; Oh, Stephen T.; Kim, Alfred H.J.; Diamond, Michael S.; Lenschow, Deborah J.; Yokoyama, Wayne M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that spread to the Caribbean in 2013 and the United States in 2014. CHIKV-infected patients develop inflammatory arthritis that can persist for months to years, but little is known about the rheumatologic and immunologic features of CHIKV arthritis in humans, particularly as compared to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we describe these features in a group of 10 American travelers who were nearly simultaneously infected while visiting Haiti in June 2014. METHODS Patients were assessed by history, physical examination, and laboratory studies. All patients with CHIKV arthritis had detectable anti-CHIKV IgG. Using cytometry by time of flight (CyTOF), we analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells in CHIKV-infected patients, healthy controls, and patients with untreated, active RA. RESULTS Among ten CHIKV-infected individuals, eight developed persistent symmetric polyarthritis, who otherwise met the 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria for (seronegative) RA. CyTOF analysis revealed that RA and CHIKV-infected patients had greater percentages of activated and effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells than healthy controls. CONCLUSION In addition to similar clinical features, patients with CHIKV infection and RA develop highly similar peripheral T cell phenotypes. These overlapping clinical and immunologic features highlight a need for rheumatologists to consider CHIKV infection when evaluating patients with new, symmetric polyarthritis. PMID:25605621

  7. Critical role for bone marrow stromal antigen 2 in acute Chikungunya virus infection.

    PubMed

    Mahauad-Fernandez, Wadie D; Jones, Philip H; Okeoma, Chioma M

    2014-11-01

    Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2; also known as tetherin or CD317) is an IFN-inducible gene that functions to block the release of a range of nascent enveloped virions from infected host cells. However, the role of BST-2 in viral pathogenesis remains poorly understood. BST-2 plays a multifaceted role in innate immunity, as it hinders retroviral infection and possibly promotes infection with some rhabdo- and orthomyxoviruses. This paradoxical role has probably hindered exploration of BST-2 antiviral function in vivo. We reported previously that BST-2 tethers Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-like particles on the cell plasma membrane. To explore the role of BST-2 in CHIKV replication and host protection, we utilized CHIKV strain 181/25 to examine early events during CHIKV infection in a BST-2(-/-) mouse model. We observed an interesting dichotomy between WT and BST-2(-/-) mice. BST-2 deficiency increased inoculation site viral load, culminating in higher systemic viraemia and increased lymphoid tissues tropism. A suppressed inflammatory innate response demonstrated by impaired expression of IFN-α, IFN-γ and CD40 ligand was observed in BST-2(-/-) mice compared with the WT controls. These findings suggested that, in part, BST-2 protects lymphoid tissues from CHIKV infection and regulates CHIKV-induced inflammatory response by the host. PMID:25053563

  8. Critical role for bone marrow stromal antigen 2 in acute Chikungunya virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Mahauad-Fernandez, Wadie D.; Jones, Philip H.

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2; also known as tetherin or CD317) is an IFN-inducible gene that functions to block the release of a range of nascent enveloped virions from infected host cells. However, the role of BST-2 in viral pathogenesis remains poorly understood. BST-2 plays a multifaceted role in innate immunity, as it hinders retroviral infection and possibly promotes infection with some rhabdo- and orthomyxoviruses. This paradoxical role has probably hindered exploration of BST-2 antiviral function in vivo. We reported previously that BST-2 tethers Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-like particles on the cell plasma membrane. To explore the role of BST-2 in CHIKV replication and host protection, we utilized CHIKV strain 181/25 to examine early events during CHIKV infection in a BST-2−/− mouse model. We observed an interesting dichotomy between WT and BST-2−/− mice. BST-2 deficiency increased inoculation site viral load, culminating in higher systemic viraemia and increased lymphoid tissues tropism. A suppressed inflammatory innate response demonstrated by impaired expression of IFN-α, IFN-γ and CD40 ligand was observed in BST-2−/− mice compared with the WT controls. These findings suggested that, in part, BST-2 protects lymphoid tissues from CHIKV infection and regulates CHIKV-induced inflammatory response by the host. PMID:25053563

  9. Antagonism of the Sodium-Potassium ATPase Impairs Chikungunya Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ashbrook, Alison W.; Lentscher, Anthony J.; Zamora, Paula F.; Silva, Laurie A.; May, Nicholas A.; Bauer, Joshua A.; Morrison, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging alphavirus that has caused epidemics of fever, arthralgia, and rash worldwide. There are currently no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies available for the prevention or treatment of CHIKV disease. We conducted a high-throughput, chemical compound screen that identified digoxin, a cardiac glycoside that blocks the sodium-potassium ATPase, as a potent inhibitor of CHIKV infection. Treatment of human cells with digoxin or a related cardiac glycoside, ouabain, resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in infection by CHIKV. Inhibition by digoxin was cell type-specific, as digoxin treatment of either murine or mosquito cells did not diminish CHIKV infection. Digoxin displayed antiviral activity against other alphaviruses, including Ross River virus and Sindbis virus, as well as mammalian reovirus and vesicular stomatitis virus. The digoxin-mediated block to CHIKV and reovirus infection occurred at one or more postentry steps, as digoxin inhibition was not bypassed by fusion of CHIKV at the plasma membrane or infection with cell surface-penetrating reovirus entry intermediates. Selection of digoxin-resistant CHIKV variants identified multiple mutations in the nonstructural proteins required for replication complex formation and synthesis of viral RNA. These data suggest a role for the sodium-potassium ATPase in promoting postentry steps of CHIKV replication and provide rationale for modulation of this pathway as a broad-spectrum antiviral strategy. PMID:27222471

  10. Three-way interactions between mosquito population, viral strain and temperature underlying chikungunya virus transmission potential

    PubMed Central

    Zouache, Karima; Fontaine, Albin; Vega-Rua, Anubis; Mousson, Laurence; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Lourenco-De-Oliveira, Ricardo; Caro, Valérie; Lambrechts, Louis; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between pathogens and their insect vectors in nature are under the control of both genetic and non-genetic factors, yet most studies on mosquito vector competence for human pathogens are conducted in laboratory systems that do not consider genetic and/or environmental variability. Evaluating the risk of emergence of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of public health importance such as chikungunya virus (CHIKV) requires a more realistic appraisal of genetic and environmental contributions to vector competence. In particular, sources of variation do not necessarily act independently and may combine in the form of interactions. Here, we measured CHIKV transmission potential by the mosquito Aedes albopictus in all combinations of six worldwide vector populations, two virus strains and two ambient temperatures (20°C and 28°C). Overall, CHIKV transmission potential by Ae. albopictus strongly depended on the three-way combination of mosquito population, virus strain and temperature. Such genotype-by-genotype-by-environment (G × G × E) interactions question the relevance of vector competence studies conducted with a simpler set of conditions. Our results highlight the need to account for the complex interplay between vectors, pathogens and environmental factors to accurately assess the potential of vector-borne diseases to emerge. PMID:25122228

  11. Nonhuman Primate Models of Chikungunya Virus Infection and Disease (CHIKV NHP Model)

    PubMed Central

    Broeckel, Rebecca; Haese, Nicole; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Streblow, Daniel N.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a positive-sense RNA virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. CHIKV is a reemerging Alphavirus that causes acute febrile illness and severe and debilitating polyarthralgia of the peripheral joints. Huge epidemics and the rapid spread of CHIKV seen in India and the Indian Ocean region established CHIKV as a global health concern. This concern was further solidified by the recent incursion of the virus into the Western hemisphere, a region without pre-existing immunity. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) serve as excellent animal models for understanding CHIKV pathogenesis and pre-clinical assessment of vaccines and therapeutics. NHPs present advantages over rodent models because they are a natural amplification host for CHIKV and they share significant genetic and physiological homology with humans. CHIKV infection in NHPs results in acute fever, rash, viremia and production of type I interferon. NHPs develop CHIKV-specific B and T-cells, generating neutralizing antibodies and CHIKV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. CHIKV establishes a persistent infection in NHPs, particularly in cynomolgus macaques, because infectious virus could be recovered from spleen, liver, and muscle as late as 44 days post infection. NHPs are valuable models that are useful in preclinical testing of vaccines and therapeutics and uncovering the details of CHIKV pathogenesis. PMID:26389957

  12. The role of environmental variables on Aedes albopictus biology and chikungunya epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Waldock, Joanna; Chandra, Nastassya L; Lelieveld, Jos; Proestos, Yiannis; Michael, Edwin; Christophides, George; Parham, Paul E

    2013-07-01

    Aedes albopictus is a vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses in the field, along with around 24 additional arboviruses under laboratory conditions. As an invasive mosquito species, Ae. albopictus has been expanding in geographical range over the past 20 years, although the poleward extent of mosquito populations is limited by winter temperatures. Nonetheless, population densities depend on environmental conditions and since global climate change projections indicate increasing temperatures and altered patterns of rainfall, geographic distributions of previously tropical mosquito species may change. Although mathematical models can provide explanatory insight into observed patterns of disease prevalence in terms of epidemiological and entomological processes, understanding how environmental variables affect transmission is possible only with reliable model parameterisation, which, in turn, is obtained only through a thorough understanding of the relationship between mosquito biology and environmental variables. Thus, in order to assess the impact of climate change on mosquito population distribution and regions threatened by vector-borne disease, a detailed understanding (through a synthesis of current knowledge) of the relationship between climate, mosquito biology, and disease transmission is required, but this process has not yet been undertaken for Ae. albopictus. In this review, the impact of temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity on Ae. albopictus development and survival are considered. Existing Ae. albopictus populations across Europe are mapped with current climatic conditions, considering whether estimates of climatic cutoffs for Ae. albopictus are accurate, and suggesting that environmental thresholds must be calibrated according to the scale and resolution of climate model outputs and mosquito presence data. PMID:23916332

  13. Anti-Chikungunya viral activities of aplysiatoxin-related compounds from the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Kaur, Parveen; Leong, See Ting; Tan, Lik Tong; Prinsep, Michèle R; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2014-01-01

    Tropical filamentous marine cyanobacteria have emerged as a viable source of novel bioactive natural products for drug discovery and development. In the present study, aplysiatoxin (1), debromoaplysiatoxin (2) and anhydrodebromoaplysiatoxin (3), as well as two new analogues, 3-methoxyaplysiatoxin (4) and 3-methoxydebromoaplysiatoxin (5), are reported for the first time from the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum. The identification of the bloom-forming cyanobacterial strain was confirmed based on phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA sequences. Structural determination of the new analogues was achieved by extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis and comparison with NMR spectral data of known compounds. In addition, the antiviral activities of these marine toxins were assessed using Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-infected cells. Post-treatment experiments using the debrominated analogues, namely compounds 2, 3 and 5, displayed dose-dependent inhibition of CHIKV when tested at concentrations ranging from 0.1 µM to 10.0 µM. Furthermore, debromoaplysiatoxin (2) and 3-methoxydebromoaplysiatoxin (5) exhibited significant anti-CHIKV activities with EC50 values of 1.3 μM and 2.7 μM, respectively, and selectivity indices of 10.9 and 9.2, respectively. PMID:24394406

  14. Nonhuman Primate Models of Chikungunya Virus Infection and Disease (CHIKV NHP Model).

    PubMed

    Broeckel, Rebecca; Haese, Nicole; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Streblow, Daniel N

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a positive-sense RNA virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. CHIKV is a reemerging Alphavirus that causes acute febrile illness and severe and debilitating polyarthralgia of the peripheral joints. Huge epidemics and the rapid spread of CHIKV seen in India and the Indian Ocean region established CHIKV as a global health concern. This concern was further solidified by the recent incursion of the virus into the Western hemisphere, a region without pre-existing immunity. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) serve as excellent animal models for understanding CHIKV pathogenesis and pre-clinical assessment of vaccines and therapeutics. NHPs present advantages over rodent models because they are a natural amplification host for CHIKV and they share significant genetic and physiological homology with humans. CHIKV infection in NHPs results in acute fever, rash, viremia and production of type I interferon. NHPs develop CHIKV-specific B and T-cells, generating neutralizing antibodies and CHIKV-specific CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-cells. CHIKV establishes a persistent infection in NHPs, particularly in cynomolgus macaques, because infectious virus could be recovered from spleen, liver, and muscle as late as 44 days post infection. NHPs are valuable models that are useful in preclinical testing of vaccines and therapeutics and uncovering the details of CHIKV pathogenesis. PMID:26389957

  15. High Dose Intraveneous Vitamin C and Chikungunya Fever: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Michael J.; Miranda-Massari, Jorge R.; Berdiel, Miguel J.; Duconge, Jorge; Rodríguez-López, Joshua L.; Hunninghake, Ron; Cobas-Rosario, Vicente J.

    2015-01-01

    The Chikungunya (CHIKV) fever is a viral disease produced by a single-stranded RNA Alphavirus from the Togaviridae genus. Its transmission occurs only through mosquito vectors, principally Aedes aegypti. It requires a human-mosquito-human transmission cycle. It is associated with severe arthritis/arthralgias, myalgias, high fever, headache, and maculopapular rash. Joint ache appears to be symmetrical. The virus has an incubation period of 2 to 7 days, where the high fever is typically presented. It is followed by arthralgias and myalgias, and rashes, which last for 3 to 5 days. However, the arthralgias can persist for months after the infection, which can contribute to severe arthritis. As of now, no vaccine exists for the virus and no official treatment has been developed aside from standard procedures of the use of acetaminophen (paracetamol), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This is a case report of a 54-year old Hispanic individual that reported left shoulder pain, left knee pain and fever. The symptoms started on a Saturday in September 2014 in middle of the night. The patient was treated with high doses of intravenous vitamin C over two days. The symptoms resolved after the infusions without any side effects. Based on the positive outcome in this case, we propose that intravenous vitamin C should be studied further as a potential treatment for acute viral infections. PMID:25705076

  16. Retrospective survey of Chikungunya disease in Réunion Island hospital staff

    PubMed Central

    STAIKOWSKY, F.; Le ROUX, K.; SCHUFFENECKER, I.; LAURENT, P.; GRIVARD, P.; DEVELAY, A.; MICHAULT, A.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Réunion Island (Indian Ocean) has been suffering from its first known Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic since February 2005. To achieve a better understanding of the disease, a questionnaire was drawn up for hospital staff members and their household. CHIKV infected about one-third of the studied population, the proportion increasing with age and being higher in women. Presence of a garden was associated with CHIKV infection. The geographical distribution of cases was concordant with insect vector Aedes albopictus distribution. The main clinical signs were arthralgia and fever. The disease evolved towards full recovery in 34·4% of cases, a relapse in 55·6%, or a chronic form in 10%. Paracetamol was used as a painkiller in 95% of cases, sometimes associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticoids, or traditional herbal medicine. The survey provided valuable information on the factors that favour transmission, the clinical signs, the importance of relapses and the therapies used. PMID:17433130

  17. Emerging and re-emerging viruses: A global challenge illustrated by Chikungunya virus outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Devaux, Christian A

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, the issue of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, especially those related to viruses, has become an increasingly important area of concern in public health. It is of significance to anticipate future epidemics by accumulating knowledge through appropriate research and by monitoring their emergence using indicators from different sources. The objective is to alert and respond effectively in order to reduce the adverse impact on the general populations. Most of the emerging pathogens in humans originate from known zoonosis. These pathogens have been engaged in long-standing and highly successful interactions with their hosts since their origins are exquisitely adapted to host parasitism. They developed strategies aimed at: (1) maximizing invasion rate; (2) selecting host traits that can reduce their impact on host life span and fertility; (3) ensuring timely replication and survival both within host and between hosts; and (4) facilitating reliable transmission to progeny. In this context, Arboviruses (or ARthropod-BOrne viruses), will represent with certainty a threat for the coming century. The unprecedented epidemic of Chikungunya virus which occurred between 2005 and 2006 in the French Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean, followed by several outbreaks in other parts of the world, such as India and Southern Europe, has attracted the attention of medical and state authorities about the risks linked to this re-emerging mosquito-borne virus. This is an excellent model to illustrate the issues we are facing today and to improve how to respond tomorrow. PMID:24175207

  18. Aedes hensilli as a Potential Vector of Chikungunya and Zika Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ledermann, Jeremy P.; Guillaumot, Laurent; Yug, Lawrence; Saweyog, Steven C.; Tided, Mary; Machieng, Paul; Pretrick, Moses; Marfel, Maria; Griggs, Anne; Bel, Martin; Duffy, Mark R.; Hancock, W. Thane; Ho-Chen, Tai; Powers, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    An epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) illness that occurred in July 2007 on Yap Island in the Federated States of Micronesia prompted entomological studies to identify both the primary vector(s) involved in transmission and the ecological parameters contributing to the outbreak. Larval and pupal surveys were performed to identify the major containers serving as oviposition habitat for the likely vector(s). Adult mosquitoes were also collected by backpack aspiration, light trap, and gravid traps at select sites around the capital city. The predominant species found on the island was Aedes (Stegomyia) hensilli. No virus isolates were obtained from the adult field material collected, nor did any of the immature mosquitoes that were allowed to emerge to adulthood contain viable virus or nucleic acid. Therefore, laboratory studies of the probable vector, Ae. hensilli, were undertaken to determine the likelihood of this species serving as a vector for Zika virus and other arboviruses. Infection rates of up to 86%, 62%, and 20% and dissemination rates of 23%, 80%, and 17% for Zika, chikungunya, and dengue-2 viruses respectively, were found supporting the possibility that this species served as a vector during the Zika outbreak and that it could play a role in transmitting other medically important arboviruses. PMID:25299181

  19. Differential Analysis of the Secretome of WRL68 Cells Infected with the Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    Thio, Christina Li-Ping; Yusof, Rohana; Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Bahari, Syareena; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri Shafinaz; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2015-01-01

    The Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod borne virus. In the last 50 years, it has been the cause of numerous outbreaks in tropical and temperate regions, worldwide. There is limited understanding regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in CHIKV replication and how the virus interacts with its host. In the present study, comparative proteomics was used to identify secreted host proteins that changed in abundance in response to early CHIKV infection. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to analyse and compare the secretome profiles of WRL-68 cells infected with CHIKV against mock control WRL-68 cells. The analysis identified 25 regulated proteins in CHIKV infected cells. STRING network analysis was then used to predict biological processes that may be affected by these proteins. The processes predicted to be affected include signal transduction, cellular component and extracellular matrix (ECM) organization, regulation of cytokine stimulus and immune response. These results provide an initial view of CHIKV may affect the secretome of infected cells during early infection. The results presented here will compliment earlier results from the study of late host response. However, functional characterization will be necessary to further enhance our understanding of the roles played by these proteins in the early stages of CHIKV infection in humans. PMID:26083627

  20. Chikungunya and Dengue Fever among Hospitalized Febrile Patients in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Hertz, Julian T.; Munishi, O. Michael; Ooi, Eng Eong; Howe, Shiqin; Lim, Wen Yan; Chow, Angelia; Morrissey, Anne B.; Bartlett, John A.; Onyango, Jecinta J.; Maro, Venance P.; Kinabo, Grace D.; Saganda, Wilbrod; Gubler, Duane J.; Crump, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Consecutive febrile admissions were enrolled at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed acute Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Dengue virus (DENV), and flavivirus infection were defined as a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result. Presumptive acute DENV infection was defined as a positive anti-DENV immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunsorbent assay (ELISA) result, and prior flavivirus exposure was defined as a positive anti-DENV IgG ELISA result. Among 870 participants, PCR testing was performed on 700 (80.5%). Of these, 55 (7.9%) had confirmed acute CHIKV infection, whereas no participants had confirmed acute DENV or flavivirus infection. Anti-DENV IgM serologic testing was performed for 747 (85.9%) participants, and of these 71 (9.5%) had presumptive acute DENV infection. Anti-DENV IgG serologic testing was performed for 751 (86.3%) participants, and of these 80 (10.7%) had prior flavivirus exposure. CHIKV infection was more common among infants and children than adults and adolescents (odds ratio [OR] 1.9, P = 0.026) and among HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression (OR 10.5, P = 0.007). CHIKV infection is an important but unrecognized cause of febrile illness in northern Tanzania. DENV or other closely related flaviviruses are likely also circulating. PMID:22232469

  1. The Usual Suspects: Comparison of the Relative Roles of Potential Urban Chikungunya Virus Vectors in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Cassie C.; Williams, Craig R.; van den Hurk, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    The global re-emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) over the last decade presents a serious public health risk to Australia. An increasing number of imported cases further underline the potential for local transmission to occur if local mosquitoes bite an infected traveller. Laboratory experiments have identified a number of competent Australian mosquito species, including the primary vectors of CHIKV abroad, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and local endemic species Aedes vigilax and Aedes notoscriptus. The implication of these additional endemic species as potential vectors has generated much uncertainty amongst public health professionals regarding their actual role in CHIKV transmission in the field. Using data estimated from or documented in the literature, we parameterise a simple vectorial capacity model to evaluate the relative roles of Australian mosquito species in potential CHIKV transmission. The model takes into account a number of key biological and ecological variables which influence the role of a species in field transmission, including population density, human feeding rates, mosquito survival rates and vector competence. We confirm the relative importance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in sustaining potential CHIKV transmission in Australia. Even at maximum estimated densities and human feeding rates, Ae. vigilax and Ae. notoscriptus are likely to play a relatively minor role in CHIKV transmission, when compared with either Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus. This relatively straightforward analysis has application for any region where mosquito species have been incriminated in vector competence experiments, but where their actual role in CHIKV transmission has not been established. PMID:26247366

  2. Characterization of Chikungunya Virus Induced Host Response in a Mouse Model of Viral Myositis

    PubMed Central

    Dhanwani, Rekha; Khan, Mohsin; Lomash, Vinay; Rao, Putcha Venkata Lakshmana; Ly, Hinh; Parida, Manmohan

    2014-01-01

    While a number of studies have documented the persistent presence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in muscle tissue with primary fibroblast as the preferable cell target, little is known regarding the alterations that take place in muscle tissue in response to CHIKV infection. Hence, in the present study a permissive mouse model of CHIKV infection was established and characterized in order to understand the pathophysiology of the disease. The two dimensional electrophoresis of muscle proteome performed for differential analysis indicated a drastic reprogramming of the proteins from various classes like stress, inflammation, cytoskeletal, energy and lipid metabolism. The roles of the affected proteins were explained in relation to virus induced myopathy which was further supported by the histopathological and behavioural experiments proving the lack of hind limb coordination and other loco-motor abnormalities in the infected mice. Also, the level of various pro-inflammatory mediators like IL-6, MCP-1, Rantes and TNF-α was significantly elevated in muscles of infected mice. Altogether this comprehensive study of characterizing CHIKV induced mouse myopathy provides many potential targets for further evaluation and biomarker study. PMID:24667237

  3. Aedes hensilli as a potential vector of Chikungunya and Zika viruses.

    PubMed

    Ledermann, Jeremy P; Guillaumot, Laurent; Yug, Lawrence; Saweyog, Steven C; Tided, Mary; Machieng, Paul; Pretrick, Moses; Marfel, Maria; Griggs, Anne; Bel, Martin; Duffy, Mark R; Hancock, W Thane; Ho-Chen, Tai; Powers, Ann M

    2014-10-01

    An epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) illness that occurred in July 2007 on Yap Island in the Federated States of Micronesia prompted entomological studies to identify both the primary vector(s) involved in transmission and the ecological parameters contributing to the outbreak. Larval and pupal surveys were performed to identify the major containers serving as oviposition habitat for the likely vector(s). Adult mosquitoes were also collected by backpack aspiration, light trap, and gravid traps at select sites around the capital city. The predominant species found on the island was Aedes (Stegomyia) hensilli. No virus isolates were obtained from the adult field material collected, nor did any of the immature mosquitoes that were allowed to emerge to adulthood contain viable virus or nucleic acid. Therefore, laboratory studies of the probable vector, Ae. hensilli, were undertaken to determine the likelihood of this species serving as a vector for Zika virus and other arboviruses. Infection rates of up to 86%, 62%, and 20% and dissemination rates of 23%, 80%, and 17% for Zika, chikungunya, and dengue-2 viruses respectively, were found supporting the possibility that this species served as a vector during the Zika outbreak and that it could play a role in transmitting other medically important arboviruses. PMID:25299181

  4. Human keratinocytes restrict chikungunya virus replication at a post-fusion step

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Eric; Simmons, Graham; Chazal, Nathalie; and others

    2015-02-15

    Transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) to humans is initiated by puncture of the skin by a blood-feeding Aedes mosquito. Despite the growing knowledge accumulated on CHIKV, the interplay between skin cells and CHIKV following inoculation still remains unclear. In this study we questioned the behavior of human keratinocytes, the predominant cell population in the skin, following viral challenge. We report that CHIKV rapidly elicits an innate immune response in these cells leading to the enhanced transcription of type I/II and type III interferon genes. Concomitantly, we show that despite viral particles internalization into Rab5-positive endosomes and efficient fusion of virus and cell membranes, keratinocytes poorly replicate CHIKV as attested by absence of nonstructural proteins and genomic RNA synthesis. Accordingly, human keratinocytes behave as an antiviral defense against CHIKV infection rather than as a primary targets for initial replication. This picture significantly differs from that reported for Dengue and West Nile mosquito-borne viruses. - Highlights: • Human keratinocytes support endocytosis of CHIKV and fusion of viral membranes. • CHIKV replication is blocked at a post entry step in these cells. • Infection upregulates type-I, –II and –III IFN genes expression. • Keratinocytes behave as immune sentinels against CHIKV.

  5. The role of environmental variables on Aedes albopictus biology and chikungunya epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Waldock, Joanna; Chandra, Nastassya L; Lelieveld, Jos; Proestos, Yiannis; Michael, Edwin; Christophides, George; Parham, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is a vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses in the field, along with around 24 additional arboviruses under laboratory conditions. As an invasive mosquito species, Ae. albopictus has been expanding in geographical range over the past 20 years, although the poleward extent of mosquito populations is limited by winter temperatures. Nonetheless, population densities depend on environmental conditions and since global climate change projections indicate increasing temperatures and altered patterns of rainfall, geographic distributions of previously tropical mosquito species may change. Although mathematical models can provide explanatory insight into observed patterns of disease prevalence in terms of epidemiological and entomological processes, understanding how environmental variables affect transmission is possible only with reliable model parameterisation, which, in turn, is obtained only through a thorough understanding of the relationship between mosquito biology and environmental variables. Thus, in order to assess the impact of climate change on mosquito population distribution and regions threatened by vector-borne disease, a detailed understanding (through a synthesis of current knowledge) of the relationship between climate, mosquito biology, and disease transmission is required, but this process has not yet been undertaken for Ae. albopictus. In this review, the impact of temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity on Ae. albopictus development and survival are considered. Existing Ae. albopictus populations across Europe are mapped with current climatic conditions, considering whether estimates of climatic cutoffs for Ae. albopictus are accurate, and suggesting that environmental thresholds must be calibrated according to the scale and resolution of climate model outputs and mosquito presence data. PMID:23916332

  6. Easy and inexpensive molecular detection of dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses in febrile patients.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Eliana P; Sánchez-Quete, Fernando; Durán, Sandra; Sandoval, Isabel; Castellanos, Jaime E

    2016-11-01

    Dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and zika (ZIKV) are arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) sharing a common vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. At initial stages, patients infected with these viruses have similar clinical manifestations, however, the outcomes and clinical management of these diseases are different, for this reason early and accurate identification of the causative virus is necessary. This paper reports the development of a rapid and specific nested-PCR for detection of DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV infection in the same sample. A set of six outer primers targeting the C-preM, E1, and E gene respectively was used in a multiplex one-step RT-PCR assay, followed by the second round of amplification with specific inner primers for each virus. The specificity of the present assay was validated with positive and negative serum samples for viruses and supernatants of infected cells. The assay was tested using clinical samples from febrile patients. In these samples, we detected mono and dual infections and a case of triple co-infection DENV-CHIKV-ZIKV. This assay might be a useful and an inexpensive tool for detection of these infections in regions where these arboviruses co-circulate. PMID:27477452

  7. Chikungunya disease in nonhuman primates involves long-term viral persistence in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Labadie, Karine; Larcher, Thibaut; Joubert, Christophe; Mannioui, Abdelkrim; Delache, Benoit; Brochard, Patricia; Guigand, Lydie; Dubreil, Laurence; Lebon, Pierre; Verrier, Bernard; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Suhrbier, Andreas; Cherel, Yan; Le Grand, Roger; Roques, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that induces in humans a disease characterized by fever, rash, and pain in muscles and joints. The recent emergence or reemergence of CHIKV in the Indian Ocean Islands and India has stressed the need to better understand the pathogenesis of this disease. Previous CHIKV disease models have used young or immunodeficient mice, but these do not recapitulate human disease patterns and are unsuitable for testing immune-based therapies. Herein, we describe what we believe to be a new model for CHIKV infection in adult, immunocompetent cynomolgus macaques. CHIKV infection in these animals recapitulated the viral, clinical, and pathological features observed in human disease. In the macaques, long-term CHIKV infection was observed in joints, muscles, lymphoid organs, and liver, which could explain the long-lasting CHIKV disease symptoms observed in humans. In addition, the study identified macrophages as the main cellular reservoirs during the late stages of CHIKV infection in vivo. This model of CHIKV physiopathology should allow the development of new therapeutic and/or prophylactic strategies. PMID:20179353

  8. Infectious Chikungunya Virus in the Saliva of Mice, Monkeys and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Joy; Rudd, Penny A.; Prow, Natalie A.; Belarbi, Essia; Roques, Pierre; Larcher, Thibaut; Gresh, Lionel; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Schroder, Wayne A.; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging, ordinarily mosquito-transmitted, alphavirus that occasionally produces hemorrhagic manifestations, such as nose bleed and bleeding gums, in human patients. Interferon response factor 3 and 7 deficient (IRF3/7-/-) mice, which are deficient for interferon α/β responses, reliably develop hemorrhagic manifestations after CHIKV infection. Here we show that infectious virus was present in the oral cavity of CHIKV infected IRF3/7-/- mice, likely due to hemorrhagic lesions in the olfactory epithelium that allow egress of infected blood into the nasal, and subsequently, oral cavities. In addition, IRF3/7-/- mice were more susceptible to infection with CHIKV via intranasal and oral routes, with IRF3/7-/- mice also able to transmit virus mouse-to-mouse without an arthropod vector. Cynomolgus macaques often show bleeding gums after CHIKV infection, and analysis of saliva from several infected monkeys also revealed the presence of viral RNA and infectious virus. Furthermore, saliva samples collected from several acute CHIKV patients with hemorrhagic manifestations were found to contain viral RNA and infectious virus. Oral fluids can therefore be infectious during acute CHIKV infections, likely due to hemorrhagic manifestations in the oral/nasal cavities. PMID:26447467

  9. That Which Bends Up: A Case Report and Literature Review of Chikungunya Virus.

    PubMed

    Peper, Shana M; Monson, Benjamin J; Van Schooneveld, Trevor; Smith, Christopher J

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in a 39-year-old female who developed an acute febrile illness marked by polyarthralgia and rash after returning from Saint Lucia. This epidemic-prone pathogen is increasingly likely to be encountered by primary care and hospital physicians in the coming months. The virus was first locally transmitted in the Caribbean in December 2013 and has since spread to 44 countries and 47 US states, affecting a suspected 1.2 million people. A mosquito-borne virus, CHIKV causes a severe and symmetric polyarthralgia that can relapse for months to years, creating debilitating illness and profound socioeconomic consequences. Current treatment is limited to supportive measures, which are dependent on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Research into immunomodulatory agents, antiviral therapies, and vaccines is ongoing. Prevention remains key in slowing the spread of disease. Patient education should focus on personal protective measures, such as insect repellant and remaining indoors, while public health departments should implement strategies to control vector breeding grounds. Given the possibility of relapsing and debilitating disease, general internists should consider CHIKV in the differential diagnosis of a returning traveler with acute onset of fever, polyarthralgia, and rash. PMID:26194641

  10. Viremia in North American Mammals and Birds After Experimental Infection with Chikungunya Viruses.

    PubMed

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Nemeth, Nicole M; Kohler, Dennis J; Bowen, Richard A

    2016-03-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus, which is known to cause severe disease only in humans. To investigate its potential zoonotic host range and evaluate reservoir competence among these hosts, experimental infections were performed on individuals from nine avian and 12 mammalian species representing both domestic and wild animals common to North America. Hamsters and inbred mice have previously been shown to develop viremia after inoculation with CHIKV and were used as positive controls for infection. Aside from big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), none of the mammals or birds developed detectable viremia or overt clinical disease. However, most mammals and a smaller proportion of birds developed neutralizing antibody responses to CHIKV. On the basis of these results, it seems unlikely that CHIKV poses a significant health threat to most domestic animals or wildlife and that the species examined do not likely contribute to natural transmission cycles. Additional studies should further evaluate bats and wild rodents as potential reservoir hosts for CHIKV transmission during human epidemics. PMID:26666699

  11. Interferon Response Factors 3 and 7 Protect against Chikungunya Virus Hemorrhagic Fever and Shock

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, Penny A.; Wilson, Jane; Gardner, Joy; Larcher, Thibaut; Babarit, Candice; Le, Thuy T.; Anraku, Itaru; Kumagai, Yutaro; Loo, Yueh-Ming; Gale, Michael; Akira, Shizuo; Khromykh, Alexander A.

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections can produce severe disease and mortality. Here we show that CHIKV infection of adult mice deficient in interferon response factors 3 and 7 (IRF3/7−/−) is lethal. Mortality was associated with undetectable levels of alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) in serum, ∼50- and ∼10-fold increases in levels of IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), respectively, increased virus replication, edema, vasculitis, hemorrhage, fever followed by hypothermia, oliguria, thrombocytopenia, and raised hematocrits. These features are consistent with hemorrhagic shock and were also evident in infected IFN-α/β receptor-deficient mice. In situ hybridization suggested CHIKV infection of endothelium, fibroblasts, skeletal muscle, mononuclear cells, chondrocytes, and keratinocytes in IRF3/7−/− mice; all but the latter two stained positive in wild-type mice. Vaccination protected IRF3/7−/− mice, suggesting that defective antibody responses were not responsible for mortality. IPS-1- and TRIF-dependent pathways were primarily responsible for IFN-α/β induction, with IRF7 being upregulated >100-fold in infected wild-type mice. These studies suggest that inadequate IFN-α/β responses following virus infection can be sufficient to induce hemorrhagic fever and shock, a finding with implications for understanding severe CHIKV disease and dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome. PMID:22761364

  12. Interferon response factors 3 and 7 protect against Chikungunya virus hemorrhagic fever and shock.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Penny A; Wilson, Jane; Gardner, Joy; Larcher, Thibaut; Babarit, Candice; Le, Thuy T; Anraku, Itaru; Kumagai, Yutaro; Loo, Yueh-Ming; Gale, Michael; Akira, Shizuo; Khromykh, Alexander A; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections can produce severe disease and mortality. Here we show that CHIKV infection of adult mice deficient in interferon response factors 3 and 7 (IRF3/7(-/-)) is lethal. Mortality was associated with undetectable levels of alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) in serum, ∼50- and ∼10-fold increases in levels of IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), respectively, increased virus replication, edema, vasculitis, hemorrhage, fever followed by hypothermia, oliguria, thrombocytopenia, and raised hematocrits. These features are consistent with hemorrhagic shock and were also evident in infected IFN-α/β receptor-deficient mice. In situ hybridization suggested CHIKV infection of endothelium, fibroblasts, skeletal muscle, mononuclear cells, chondrocytes, and keratinocytes in IRF3/7(-/-) mice; all but the latter two stained positive in wild-type mice. Vaccination protected IRF3/7(-/-) mice, suggesting that defective antibody responses were not responsible for mortality. IPS-1- and TRIF-dependent pathways were primarily responsible for IFN-α/β induction, with IRF7 being upregulated >100-fold in infected wild-type mice. These studies suggest that inadequate IFN-α/β responses following virus infection can be sufficient to induce hemorrhagic fever and shock, a finding with implications for understanding severe CHIKV disease and dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome. PMID:22761364

  13. Discovery of berberine, abamectin and ivermectin as antivirals against chikungunya and other alphaviruses.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Finny S; Kaukinen, Pasi; Gläsker, Sabine; Bespalov, Maxim; Hanski, Leena; Wennerberg, Krister; Kümmerer, Beate M; Ahola, Tero

    2016-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic arbovirus of the Alphavirus genus, which has infected millions of people after its re-emergence in the last decade. In this study, a BHK cell line containing a stable CHIKV replicon with a luciferase reporter was used in a high-throughput platform to screen approximately 3000 compounds. Following initial validation, 25 compounds were chosen as primary hits for secondary validation with wild type and reporter CHIKV infection, which identified three promising compounds. Abamectin (EC50 = 1.5 μM) and ivermectin (EC50 = 0.6 μM) are fermentation products generated by a soil dwelling actinomycete, Streptomyces avermitilis, whereas berberine (EC50 = 1.8 μM) is a plant-derived isoquinoline alkaloid. They inhibited CHIKV replication in a dose-dependent manner and had broad antiviral activity against other alphaviruses--Semliki Forest virus and Sindbis virus. Abamectin and ivermectin were also active against yellow fever virus, a flavivirus. These compounds caused reduced synthesis of CHIKV genomic and antigenomic viral RNA as well as downregulation of viral protein expression. Time of addition experiments also suggested that they act on the replication phase of the viral infectious cycle. PMID:26752081

  14. Establishment of a Novel Primary Human Skeletal Myoblast Cellular Model for Chikungunya Virus Infection and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Khairunnisa’ Mohamed; Lee, Regina Ching Hua; Ng, Mary Mah-Lee; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging arbovirus known to cause chronic myalgia and arthralgia and is now considered endemic in countries across Asia and Africa. The tissue tropism of CHIKV infection in humans remains, however, ill-defined. Due to the fact that myositis is commonly observed in most patients infected with CHIKV, we sought to develop a clinically relevant cellular model to better understand the pathogenesis of CHIKV infection. In this study, primary human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSMM) were established as a novel human primary cell line that is highly permissive to CHIKV infection, with maximal amounts of infectious virions observed at 16 hours post infection. Genome-wide microarray profiling analyses were subsequently performed to identify and map genes that are differentially expressed upon CHIKV infection. Infection of HSMM cells with CHIKV resulted in altered expressions of host genes involved in skeletal- and muscular-associated disorders, innate immune responses, cellular growth and death, host metabolism and virus replication. Together, this study has shown the establishment of a clinically relevant primary human cell model that paves the way for the further analysis of host factors and their involvement in the various stages of CHIKV replication cycle and viral pathogenesis. PMID:26892458

  15. SAVY-4000 Surveillance and Life Extension Program Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Timothy A.; Blair, Michael W.; Weis, Eric; Veirs, Douglas K.; Smith, Paul Herrick; Moore, Murray E.; Reeves, Kirk P.; Kelly, Elizabeth J.; Prochnow, David A.; Worl, Laura A.

    2014-03-03

    The Packaging Surveillance Program section of the DOE M441.1-1/sup>1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual (DOE, 2008) requires DOE contractors to “ensure that a surveillance program is established and implemented to ensure the nuclear material storage package continues to meet its design criteria.” In order to ensure continuing safe storage of nuclear material and the maximization of risk reduction, TA-55 has established a Surveillance Program to ensure storage container integrity for operations within its specified design life. The LANL SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan2 defines the near-term field surveillance plan for SAVY-4000 containers as required by the Manual. A long-term surveillance plan will be established based on the results of the first several years of surveillance and the results of the lifetime extension studies as defined in the Accelerated Aging Plan3. This report details progress in positioning the Surveillance Program for successful implementation in FY14 and status of the Design Life Extension Program in terms of its implementation and data collection for FY13.

  16. A model of laboratory surveillance for neuro-arbovirosis applied during 2012 in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pierro, A; Landini, M P; Gaibani, P; Rossini, G; Vocale, C; Finarelli, A C; Cagarelli, R; Sambri, V; Varani, S

    2014-07-01

    Arboviruses with neuroinvasive potential are gaining more attention due to the increased number of cases of autochthonous and imported infections in the human host. Diagnosis of infection caused by these viruses in patients with central nervous system (CNS) diseases is still underestimated and these infections represent an emerging threat to public health. We describe a model suitable for the laboratory surveillance of neuro-arbovirosis that was applied in the Emilia-Romagna region, north-eastern Italy, during the 2012 summer season. One hundred and twenty cases of suspected neuroinvasive infection were tested for arboviral agents on the basis of clinical and laboratory signs and epidemiological data. The most common virus detected was Toscana virus (TOSV): anti-TOSV specific antibodies or viral components were detected in 28.3% of the cases; 79.4% of the TOSV cases were in the acute phase of infection. No cases resulted in acute phase for West Nile (WNV), Usutu (USUV), Chikungunya (CHIKV) or Dengue (DENV) virus infection. Conversely, two patients with a history of staying in a tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) endemic area showed a probable TBEV infection. These results emphasize the importance of a complete and 'ready to act' laboratory diagnostic system to be implemented within the larger frame of a regional integrated surveillance system. PMID:24329773

  17. Operational vector-borne disease surveillance and control: closing the capabilities gap through research at overseas military laboratories.

    PubMed

    Evans, Brian P; Clark, Jeffrey W; Barbara, Kathryn A; Mundal, Kirk D; Furman, Barry D; McAvin, James C; Richardson, Jason H

    2009-01-01

    Malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya virus, leishmaniasis, and a myriad of other vector-borne diseases pose significant threats to the warfighter and to the overall combat effectiveness of units. Military preventive medicine (PM) assets must accurately evaluate the vector-borne disease threat and then implement and/or advise the commander on countermeasures to reduce a particular threat. The success of these measures is contingent upon the biology of the disease vector and on the tools or methods used to conduct vector/pathogen surveillance and vector control. There is a significant gap between the tools available and those required for operational PM assets to provide real-time, effective surveillance and control. A network of US Army and US Navy overseas laboratories is focused on closing the current capabilities gap. Their mission is to develop and field test tools and methods to enhance the combatant commander's ability to identify and mitigate the threat posed by these vector-borne diseases. PMID:20084734

  18. Comparison of Mosquito Magnet and Biogents Sentinel Traps for Operational Surveillance of Container-Inhabiting Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Species.

    PubMed

    Rochlin, Ilia; Kawalkowski, Margaret; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

    2016-03-01

    Container-inhabiting Aedes are among the most medically important mosquito vectors of diseases. They also impact health and quality of life by their persistent and severe biting. Monitoring of container-inhabiting Aedes species is challenging due to the need for specialized traps and lures. Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap has become a standard for Aedes albopictus (Skuse) surveillance; however, it has substantial problems with durability, quality of construction, and sample exposure to the elements. The goal of this study was to develop a methodology for collecting medically important container-inhabiting Aedes species in numbers sufficient for population trend analysis, control efficacy studies, and pathogen testing. Mosquito Magnets (MM) baited with BG lure and R-octenol were selected as the most practical alternative to BGS, collecting significantly more Ae. albopictus (32.1 ± 0.7 vs. 5.6 ± 0.1), Aedes japonicus (Theobald) (10.1 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.02), and Aedes triseriatus (Say) (0.9 ± 0.04 vs. 0.04 ± 0.004) females on average per trapping under a variety of weather conditions. MM can be particularly useful for long-term surveillance or when large numbers of specimens are required for pathogen isolation, such as at the sites with suspected dengue or chikungunya transmission. PMID:26520482

  19. International Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Observer, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The OECD consultation and surveillance mechanism is discussed in detail in this article. Four phases are identified and examined: (1) Notification, (2) Consultation, (3) Supervision, (4) Post-operation. This system is designed to provide the safest possible conditions for sea dumping of radioactive wastes. (MA)

  20. 40 CFR 62.08 - Emission inventories and source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories and source surveillance. 62.08 Section 62.08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS General Provisions § 62.08...