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Sample records for child developmental test

  1. Developmental Screenings in Rural Settings: A Comparison of the Child Development Review and the Denver II Developmental Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brachlow, Allison; Jordan, Augustus E.; Tervo, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    Two developmental screening tests were applied to 73 children, aged 1 month-6.7 years, in Sioux Falls and the Cheyenne River Reservation (South Dakota). There were no racial differences; compared to urban children, rural reservation children of any race were more likely to pass the Child Development Review and to fail the Denver II Developmental…

  2. Child Abuse and Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Joann, Ed.; Bartlette, Don

    1992-01-01

    Literature indicating high rates of abuse in this population is reviewed, as is literature indicating high rates of developmental disabilities in child victims of abuse. Problems in data collecting practices are noted. Reasons for these children's greater risk for abuse are identified, including child attributes, stress, parent vulnerabilities,…

  3. Developmental Disabilities and Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rycus, Judith S.; Hughes, Ronald C.

    This monograph addresses common misconceptions about developmental disabilities, describes the conditions that child welfare workers are most likely to see, provides examples of effective interventions, and stresses the importance of early intervention to promote healthy development. Specific chapters include: (1) "Understanding Developmental…

  4. Developmental Levels of the Child's Storytelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Kranjc, Simona; Fekonja, Urska

    Noting that examining the storytelling skills of children between 4 and 8 years of age can provide insights into the child's overall language development, this study explored the development of children's storytelling, using story coherence and story cohesion to evaluate the developmental level of the child's storytelling. Participating in the…

  5. Interviewing Child Witnesses: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saywitz, Karen; Camparo, Lorinda

    1998-01-01

    Reviews suggestions derived from the clinical and experimental literatures for interviewing child witnesses to abuse. Guidelines for questioning children are provided and phases of a forensic interview are outlined in a step-by-step fashion. The suggestions presented highlight a developmental perspective designed to facilitate children's memory…

  6. Child Neglect: Developmental Issues and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildyard, Kathryn L.; Wolfe, David A.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of child neglect on three developmental periods: infancy/preschool, school-aged and younger adolescents, and older adolescents and adults. The severe cognitive and academic deficits, the social withdrawal and limited peer interactions, and the internalizing problems of neglected children relative to physically…

  7. Child health, developmental plasticity, and epigenetic programming.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Z; Feil, R; Constancia, M; Fraga, M; Junien, C; Carel, J-C; Boileau, P; Le Bouc, Y; Deal, C L; Lillycrop, K; Scharfmann, R; Sheppard, A; Skinner, M; Szyf, M; Waterland, R A; Waxman, D J; Whitelaw, E; Ong, K; Albertsson-Wikland, K

    2011-04-01

    Plasticity in developmental programming has evolved in order to provide the best chances of survival and reproductive success to the organism under changing environments. Environmental conditions that are experienced in early life can profoundly influence human biology and long-term health. Developmental origins of health and disease and life-history transitions are purported to use placental, nutritional, and endocrine cues for setting long-term biological, mental, and behavioral strategies in response to local ecological and/or social conditions. The window of developmental plasticity extends from preconception to early childhood and involves epigenetic responses to environmental changes, which exert their effects during life-history phase transitions. These epigenetic responses influence development, cell- and tissue-specific gene expression, and sexual dimorphism, and, in exceptional cases, could be transmitted transgenerationally. Translational epigenetic research in child health is a reiterative process that ranges from research in the basic sciences, preclinical research, and pediatric clinical research. Identifying the epigenetic consequences of fetal programming creates potential applications in clinical practice: the development of epigenetic biomarkers for early diagnosis of disease, the ability to identify susceptible individuals at risk for adult diseases, and the development of novel preventive and curative measures that are based on diet and/or novel epigenetic drugs. PMID:20971919

  8. Child Health, Developmental Plasticity, and Epigenetic Programming

    PubMed Central

    Feil, R.; Constancia, M.; Fraga, M.; Junien, C.; Carel, J.-C.; Boileau, P.; Le Bouc, Y.; Deal, C. L.; Lillycrop, K.; Scharfmann, R.; Sheppard, A.; Skinner, M.; Szyf, M.; Waterland, R. A.; Waxman, D. J.; Whitelaw, E.; Ong, K.; Albertsson-Wikland, K.

    2011-01-01

    Plasticity in developmental programming has evolved in order to provide the best chances of survival and reproductive success to the organism under changing environments. Environmental conditions that are experienced in early life can profoundly influence human biology and long-term health. Developmental origins of health and disease and life-history transitions are purported to use placental, nutritional, and endocrine cues for setting long-term biological, mental, and behavioral strategies in response to local ecological and/or social conditions. The window of developmental plasticity extends from preconception to early childhood and involves epigenetic responses to environmental changes, which exert their effects during life-history phase transitions. These epigenetic responses influence development, cell- and tissue-specific gene expression, and sexual dimorphism, and, in exceptional cases, could be transmitted transgenerationally. Translational epigenetic research in child health is a reiterative process that ranges from research in the basic sciences, preclinical research, and pediatric clinical research. Identifying the epigenetic consequences of fetal programming creates potential applications in clinical practice: the development of epigenetic biomarkers for early diagnosis of disease, the ability to identify susceptible individuals at risk for adult diseases, and the development of novel preventive and curative measures that are based on diet and/or novel epigenetic drugs. PMID:20971919

  9. Developmental Experiences of Child Sexual Abusers and Rapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Dominique A.; Wurtele, Sandy K.; Durham, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the distinct developmental experiences associated with child sexual abuse and rape. Method: For 269 sexual offenders (137 rapists and 132 child sexual abusers), developmental experiences were recorded from a behavioral checklist, a parental-bonding survey, and a sexual history questionnaire. Offender…

  10. Child maltreatment syndrome: demographics and developmental issues of inpatient cases

    PubMed Central

    Ngiam, Xin Ying; Kang, Ying Qi; Aishworiya, Ramkumar; Kiing, Jennifer; Law, Evelyn Chung Ning

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to describe the demographic, social, developmental and behavioural profile of children hospitalised for alleged child maltreatment syndrome (CMS). METHODS This study was a retrospective review of the consecutive inpatient records of children (0–16 years) admitted to the National University Hospital, Singapore, for alleged CMS over a three-year period. Descriptive data on the demographic characteristics, alleged maltreatment, medical and developmental histories, and family background of these children were collected and analysed. Chi-square statistics were used to test whether family factors were associated with the type of maltreatment and the presence of developmental disorders. RESULTS A total of 89 children, who accounted for 90 admission cases, were studied. Physical abuse (70.0%) was the most common, followed by neglect (11.1%) and sexual abuse (7.8%). Child protection services had already been involved in 29.2% of the cases prior to the child’s admission. Children who were victims of abuse were more likely to come from homes with a prior history of domestic violence (p = 0.028). Financial difficulty was found to be a risk factor for neglect (p = 0.005). Among the 89 children, 15.7% were found to have developmental disorders and 10.1% had mental health diagnoses. Children who had developmental disorders were more likely to have a parent with a mental health disorder (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION A sizeable proportion of the children admitted for alleged CMS had developmental or behavioural disorders. Clinicians have a role in ensuring that these children have appropriate follow-up plans. Children from high-risk families should be screened for maltreatment. PMID:26668405

  11. Training Staff To Provide Developmentally Appropriate Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazier, R. Elaine

    The director of a proprietary child care center implemented a practicum designed to train child caregivers in child development and developmentally appropriate practices. The practicum consisted of three evening workshops and used supplementary reading materials, discussion groups, classroom observations, and individual conferences. After…

  12. Developmental Assessment of Infants and Toddlers in Child Care Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Betty S.

    The Mental Development Scales: Birth to Three Years are instruments designed to assess developmental levels of young children within a setting familiar to the child. They (1) provide a greater understanding of child behavior and development, (2) serve as a basis for planning an individualized curriculum for each child, and (3) furnish the means…

  13. Diversity, Child Care Quality, and Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchinal, Margaret R.; Cryer, Debby

    2003-01-01

    It is widely accepted that high quality child care enhances children's cognitive and social development, but some question whether what constitutes quality care depends on the child's ethnic and cultural background. To address this question, secondary analysis of data from the two largest studies of child care experiences in the United States,…

  14. From Parent-Child Mutuality to Security to Socialization Outcomes: Developmental Cascade toward Positive Adaptation in Preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J.; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    A developmental cascade from positive early parent-child relationship to child security with the parent to adaptive socialization outcomes, proposed in attachment theory and often implicitly accepted but rarely formally tested, was examined in 100 mothers, fathers, and children followed from toddler age to preadolescence. Parent-child Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) was observed in lengthy interactions at 38, 52, 67, and 80 months; children reported their security with parents at age 8. Socialization outcomes (parent- and child-reported cooperation with parental monitoring and teacher-reported school competence) were assessed at age 10. Mediation was tested with PROCESS (Hayes, 2013). The parent-child history of MRO significantly predicted both mother-child and father-child security. For mother-child dyads, security mediated links between history of MRO and cooperation with maternal monitoring and school competence, controlling for developmental continuity of the studied constructs. For father-child dyads, the mediation effect was not evident. PMID:26258443

  15. Developmental toxicity testing of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Paul C; Allais, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Preventative and therapeutic vaccines are increasingly used during pregnancy and present special considerations for developmental toxicity testing. The various components of the vaccine formulation (i.e., protein or polysaccharide antigen, adjuvants, and excipients) need to be assessed for direct effects on the developing conceptus. In addition, possible adverse influences of the induced antibodies on fetal and/or postnatal development need to be evaluated. A guidance document on the preclinical testing of preventative and therapeutic vaccines for developmental toxicity was issued by the FDA in 2006. Preclinical studies are designed to assess possible influences of vaccines on pre- and postnatal development. The choice of model animal for these experiments is influenced by species differences in the timing and extent of the transfer of the induced maternal antibodies to the fetus. The cross-placental transport of maternal immunoglobulins generally only occurs in late gestation and tends to be greater in humans and monkeys than in non-primate species. For many vaccines, the rabbit shows a greater rate of prenatal transfer of the induced antibodies than rodents. For biotechnology-derived vaccines that are not immunogenic in lower species, nonhuman primates may be the only appropriate models. It may be advisable to test new adjuvants using the ICH study designs for conventional pharmaceuticals in addition to the developmental toxicity study with the final vaccine formulation. PMID:23138897

  16. The child with developmental delay: An approach to etiology

    PubMed Central

    Meschino, Wendy S

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe an approach to history, physical examination and investigation for the developmentally delayed child. METHODS: A review of electronic databases from 1997 to 2001 was done searching for articles relating to the approach to or investigations of children with developmental delay. Five studies, including a review of a consensus conference on evaluation of mental retardation, were chosen because of their general approaches to developmental delay and/or mental retardation, or specific evaluations of a particular laboratory investigation. CONCLUSIONS: A diagnosis or cause of mental retardation can be identified in 20% to 60% of cases. Evaluation of the developmentally delayed child should include a detailed history and physical examination, taking special care to record a three-generation pedigree, as well as to look for dysmorphic features. If no other cause is apparent, routine investigations should include a chromosome study and fragile X studies. Further investigations are warranted depending on the clinical features. PMID:20011550

  17. From child maltreatment to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence: A developmental cascade model

    PubMed Central

    Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Cicchetti, Dante

    2010-01-01

    A developmental cascade model tested associations among child maltreatment, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, social competence, and cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms in a longitudinal cohort (N = 415). Nested structural equation models evaluated continuity and cross-domain influences among broad multi-informant constructs across four developmental periods: age 7 to 9, 10 to 12, 13 to 15, and 15 to 18. Results indicated significant paths from child maltreatment to early externalizing and internalizing problems and social competence, as well as to cannabis abuse and dependence (CAD) symptoms in adolescence. Youth CAD symptoms were primarily related directly to child maltreatment and externalizing problems. Childhood internalizing symptoms contributed to later childhood decreases in social competence, which predicted increases in late adolescent externalizing problems. Using a developmental psychopathology framework, results are discussed in relation to cascade and transactional effects and the interplay between problem behaviors during childhood and development of CAD symptoms during early and late adolescence. PMID:20883588

  18. Child health developmental plasticity, and epigenetic programming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasticity in developmental programming has evolved in order to provide the best chances of survival and reproductive success to the organism under changing environments. Environmental conditions that are experienced in early life can profoundly influence human biology and long-term health. Developm...

  19. Developmental Physical Management of the Multi-Disabled Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttram, Beverly; Brown, Glenna

    The manual was designed to provide an overview of the Developmental Physical Management program used at the University of Alabama in classes for infants and children with multiple disabilities. The multidisabled child may be affected by one or more of the following problems: slow development, lack of normal integration of basic reflexes, abnormal…

  20. Developmental Changes in Parent-Child Communication throughout Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijsers, Loes; Poulin, François

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how parent-child communication regarding adolescent unsupervised activities develops over the course of adolescence. We used questionnaire data from 390 adolescents (58% girls; 90% European Canadian) who were followed from age 12 to 19. Latent growth curve modeling revealed curvilinear developmental changes that differed for…

  1. Developmental Outcome in a Tracheostomized Child: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaivre-Douret, Laurence; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports developmental outcomes of a child who experienced a tracheostomy and had prolonged hospitalization and psychomotor therapy in an intensive care unit. Found a pattern of delay in speech and language production with no hearing loss, no cognitive impairment, an average level of fine motor disorders, no behavioral disorders, and normal…

  2. Child Maltreatment: Implications for Developmental Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Dante

    1996-01-01

    Developmental theories can be augmented by incorporating knowledge about atypical ontogenesis. Examination of individuals with high-risk conditions and psychopathological disorders can shed light on system organization, disorganization, and reorganization. Child maltreatment is examined to illustrate benefits from studying individuals subjected to…

  3. The Developmentally Disabled Child as a Victim of Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewark, Carol A.

    Records (1972-1982) showing documentation of abuse or neglect in 95 developmentally disabled children were examined. Information was gathered on the children's functioning level, family income, involvement of communiy services, sibling abuse, and family's general lifestyle. Results indicated that in almost every case, the families experienced…

  4. The Tender Years: Toward Developmentally Sensitive Child Welfare Services for Very Young Children. Child Welfare Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrick, Jill Duerr; Needell, Barbara; Barth, Richard P.; Jonson-Reid, Melissa

    Although the United States has seen a record influx of infants, toddlers, and preschool-aged children into the foster care system in the past decade, there has not been an accompanying shift in policy or practice to attend to the developmental issues these younger children bring to child welfare. This textbook addresses the spectrum of child…

  5. Developmental Norms for the Sentence Repetition Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, John A.; MacDonald, John W.

    1984-01-01

    Obtained developmental norms for the Sentence Repetition Test from children (N=1,081) ranging in age from three to 13 years. Utilized a substanially larger number of children in each age group than previous reports. (Author/LLL)

  6. Developmental changes in parent-child communication throughout adolescence.

    PubMed

    Keijsers, Loes; Poulin, François

    2013-12-01

    This study examined how parent-child communication regarding adolescent unsupervised activities develops over the course of adolescence. We used questionnaire data from 390 adolescents (58% girls; 90% European Canadian) who were followed from age 12 to 19. Latent growth curve modeling revealed curvilinear developmental changes that differed for boys and girls. From age 14 to 19 (but not from age 12 to 14) a linear decrease in parental control was found for both genders. For girls, parent-child communication decreased in early adolescence, as indicated by decreasing parental solicitation, decreasing adolescent disclosure, and increasing secrecy. Girls' communication with parents intensified in middle adolescence, as indicated by increasing parental solicitation, increasing adolescent disclosure, and decreasing adolescent secrecy. For boys, disclosure declined in early adolescence, but secrecy and solicitation were stable throughout adolescence. Parental knowledge decreased from age 12 to 19 for both genders but was temporarily stable for middle adolescent girls. The meaning of these developmental changes, their timing, and gender differences are discussed. PMID:23477535

  7. Developmental retardation in infants as a concomitant of physical child abuse.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, A S

    1977-12-01

    The impact of child abuse on the developmental functioning of infants was investigated. Thirty verified cases of physically abused children were compared to a reference group of 30 nonabused children matched for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status. Abused children scored significantly lower in terms of cognitive and motor development as measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Development delays on three of the four sectors of the Denver Developmental Screening Test, personal-social, language, and gross motor, were also found in the abused children. There were, however, relatively few item differences between the two groups on the 30 more general behavioral variables constituting the Bayley Infant Behavior Record. Results appear to confirm clinical observation of abused children as developmentally retarded with specific delays in the language and gross motor areas. Although methodologically complex, longitudinal studies are clearly indicated to assess the stability and/or reversibility of the present findings. PMID:75219

  8. Effects of Child Age and Level of Developmental Delay on Family Practice Physicians' Diagnostic Impressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epps, Susan; Kroeker, Rose

    1995-01-01

    This study of the effects of child age (20 and 40 months) and level of developmental delay (mild and severe) on identification of developmental disorders by 155 family practice physicians provided evidence that identification of developmental delay was generally high across conditions, with mild delay being less likely to be detected. (Author/JDD)

  9. Developmental immunotoxicity testing of 4-methyl anisole.

    PubMed

    Tonk, Elisa C M; Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R; van Loveren, Henk; Piersma, Aldert H

    2015-07-01

    The developmental immunotoxicity of 4-methyl anisole (4MA) was investigated in the rat. Four study designs were used, with either premating or post-weaning onset of exposure, continued to postnatal day 50, and with or without additional oral gavage of pups from postnatal day 10 onward. Reduced litter size (benchmark dose lower confidence limit (BMDL) 80mg/kg bw/day) was the most sensitive developmental parameter, with pup relative organ weight effects observed at similar BMDLs, in the absence of maternal toxicity. Eosinophil numbers were reduced at lower doses (BMDL 16mg/kg bw/day). KLH challenge resulted in increased IL-13 and TNF-α responses, and variably reduced IgG production (BMDL 27mg/kg bw/day). T4 levels were reduced by 11% at maximum with a BMDL of 73mg/kg bw/day. Differences between exposure cohorts were limited and were considered to be without biological significance. This study shows that 4MA induces developmental immunotoxicity at doses below those inducing developmental and general toxicity. These observations being independent of the study designs applied suggest that the post-weaning period, included in all designs, is the most relevant sensitive period for inducing 4MA mediated developmental immunotoxicity. Moreover, this study stresses the importance of including developmental immunotoxicity testing by default in regulatory toxicology. PMID:25882306

  10. From specialist to generalist: Developmental transformations in the genetic structure of early child abilities.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Amanda K; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2015-07-01

    The heritability of abilities increases substantially over development, and much of heritable variation in abilities is shared with other abilities. No study, however, has formally tested the extent to which developmental increases in heritability occur on shared versus unique variation in child abilities. A transactional perspective predicts that the relative proportion of shared to total genetic variance will increase with age, whereas an endogenous perspective predicts that such proportion will be invariant with age. We tested these competing predictions using data from a sample of 292 twins providing a total of 578 cross-sectional and longitudinal observations between ages 0 and 6 years on measures of Communication, Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Problem-Solving, and Personal-Social abilities. Consistent with predictions of the transactional perspective, developmental increases in heritability were localized to variance shared across abilities. PMID:25975938

  11. Meeting report: alternatives for developmental neurotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Lein, Pamela; Locke, Paul; Goldberg, Alan

    2007-05-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternatives to current animal testing protocols and guidelines. To address this need, the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Toxicology Program are collaborating in a program called TestSmart DNT, the goals of which are to: (a) develop alternative methodologies for identifying and prioritizing chemicals and exposures that may cause developmental neurotoxicity in humans; (b) develop the policies for incorporating DNT alternatives into regulatory decision making; and (c) identify opportunities for reducing, refining, or replacing the use of animals in DNT. The first TestSmart DNT workshop was an open registration meeting held 13-15 March 2006 in Reston, Virginia. The primary objective was to bring together stakeholders (test developers, test users, regulators, and advocates for children's health, animal welfare, and environmental health) and individuals representing diverse disciplines (developmental neurobiology, toxicology, policy, and regulatory science) from around the world to share information and concerns relating to the science and policy of DNT. Individual presentations are available at the CAAT TestSmart website. This report provides a synthesis of workgroup discussions and recommendations for future directions and priorities, which include initiating a systematic evaluation of alternative models and technologies, developing a framework for the creation of an open database to catalog DNT data, and devising a strategy for harmonizing the validation process across international jurisdictional borders. PMID:17520065

  12. Developmental and reproductive toxicity testing of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The majority of new preventative and therapeutic vaccines are now assessed for developmental toxicity according to guidelines issued by the FDA in 2006. Despite the absence of confirmed effects in humans, vaccines are frequently suspected of having adverse side-effects on the development of children. Such suspicions are perhaps unavoidable considering the extremely widespread use of vaccines. The preclinical developmental toxicology studies are designed to assess possible influences of each component of the vaccine formulation-and the induced antibodies-on the development of the conceptus, neonate and suckling organism. Immune modulation by a vaccine or an adjuvant could, for instance, affect the outcome of pregnancy by interfering with the natural shift in immune balance of the mother during gestation. Maternal immunoglobulins are transferred from the mother to the offspring in order to confer passive immunity during early life. This maternal antibody transport is prenatal in humans and monkeys, but tends to be delayed until after birth in other species. Therefore, a suitable model species needs to be chosen for preclinical studies in order to ensure exposure of the foetus to the induced maternal antibodies following vaccination. Rabbits are the best laboratory model for prenatal immunoglobulin transfer, but rodents are more practical for the necessary postnatal investigations. Non-human primates are the only appropriate models for the testing of vaccines that are not immunogenic in lower species. It is advisable to test new adjuvants separately according to the ICH S5(R2) guidelines. Preclinical paediatric investigations are not currently required for vaccines, even though most vaccines are given to children. Other areas of regulatory concern include developmental immunotoxicity and effects on the preimplantation embryo. Because of the limitations of the available animal models for developmental toxicity testing, pharmacovigilance is essential. PMID:22233769

  13. The Impact of the Developmental Training Model on Staff Development in Air Force Child Development Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Candace Maria Edmonds

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to standardize training delivery and to individualize staff development based on observation and reflective practice, the Air Force implemented the Developmental Training Model (DTM) in its Child Development Programs. The goal of the Developmental Training Model is to enhance high quality programs through improvements in the training…

  14. Multilevel developmental approaches to understanding the effects of child maltreatment: Recent advances and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    POLLAK, SETH D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research in the field of child maltreatment has begun to shed new light on the emergence of health problems in children by emphasizing the responsiveness of developmental processes to children’s environmental and biological contexts. Here, I highlight recent trends in the field with an emphasis on the effects of early life stress across multiple levels of developmental domains. PMID:26535932

  15. Multilevel developmental approaches to understanding the effects of child maltreatment: Recent advances and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Seth D

    2015-11-01

    Recent research in the field of child maltreatment has begun to shed new light on the emergence of health problems in children by emphasizing the responsiveness of developmental processes to children's environmental and biological contexts. Here, I highlight recent trends in the field with an emphasis on the effects of early life stress across multiple levels of developmental domains. PMID:26535932

  16. Preschool Children with and without Developmental Delay: Risk, Parenting, and Child Demandingness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mallory A.; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Crnic, Keith A.; Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Although past literature has established relations between early child risk factors, negative parenting, and problematic child behavior, the nature of these interrelations and pathways of influence over time remains largely unknown, especially in children with developmental delays or disabilities. In the current study, data were drawn from the…

  17. Child Maltreatment and Children's Developmental Trajectories in Early to Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Font, Sarah A.; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    Associations between experiencing child maltreatment and adverse developmental outcomes are widely studied, yet conclusions regarding the extent to which effects are bidirectional, and whether they are likely causal, remain elusive. This study uses the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort of 4,898 children followed from birth…

  18. Marital Satisfaction, Parental Stress, and Child Behavior Problems among Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Merideth; Neece, Cameron L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have found that low marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and child behavior problems are linked in families of children with developmental delays (DD). However, previous investigations examining the relationships between parenting stress, child behavior problems, and marital satisfaction rarely examine the interrelationships of these…

  19. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY: EVALUATION OF TESTING PROCEDURES WITH METHYLAZOXYMETHANOL AND METHYLMERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Testing procedures that allow for early, rapid and cost-effective investigation of potential developmental neurotoxicants were evaluated using two prototypical developmental neurotoxicants, methylazoxymethanol (MAM) and methylmercury (MeHg). valuation of offspring of Long-Evans r...

  20. 45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... this section) from the child's entry into the program (for the purposes of 45 CFR 1304.20(a)(1), 45 CFR... processes and those in 45 CFR 1304.20(b)(1) within 30 calendar days from the child's entry into the program... GRANTEE AND DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child health...

  1. 45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... this section) from the child's entry into the program (for the purposes of 45 CFR 1304.20(a)(1), 45 CFR... processes and those in 45 CFR 1304.20(b)(1) within 30 calendar days from the child's entry into the program... GRANTEE AND DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child health...

  2. 45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... this section) from the child's entry into the program (for the purposes of 45 CFR 1304.20(a)(1), 45 CFR... processes and those in 45 CFR 1304.20(b)(1) within 30 calendar days from the child's entry into the program... GRANTEE AND DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child health...

  3. Diversity, Child Care Quality and Developmental Outcomes. FPG Snapshot, #21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FPG Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina, 2004

    2004-01-01

    It is widely accepted that high quality child care enhances children's cognitive and social development, but some people question if what constitutes quality care depends on the child's ethnic and cultural background. To examine this issue, secondary analysis of the two largest U.S. studies of child care--the Cost, Quality, and Outcomes Study and…

  4. Look-normal: the colonized child of developmental science.

    PubMed

    Varga, Donna

    2011-05-01

    This article provides an analysis of the techniques, methods, materials, and discourses of child study observation to illuminate its role in the sociohistorical colonization of childhood. Through analysis of key texts it explains how early 20th-century child study provided for the transcendence of historical, racial, and social contexts for understanding human development. The colonizing project of child study promoted the advancement of Eurocentric culture through a generic "White" development. What a child is and can be, and the meaning of childhood has been disembodied through observation, record keeping, and analytical processes in which time and space are abstracted from behavior, and development symbolized as a universal ideal. PMID:21688723

  5. Child Maltreatment and Children's Developmental Trajectories in Early- to Middle-Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Font, Sarah A.; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    Associations between experiencing child maltreatment and adverse developmental outcomes are widely studied, yet conclusions regarding the extent to which effects are bidirectional, and whether they are likely causal, remain elusive. This study uses the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being study, a birth cohort of 4,898 children followed from birth through age 9. Hierarchical linear modeling and structural equation modeling are employed to estimate associations of maltreatment with cognitive and social-emotional well-being. Results suggest that effects of early childhood maltreatment emerge immediately, though developmental outcomes are also affected by newly occurring maltreatment over time. Additionally, findings indicate that children's early developmental scores predict their subsequent probability of experiencing maltreatment, though to a lesser extent than early maltreatment predicts subsequent developmental outcomes. PMID:25521556

  6. Developmental Horizons: Legacies and Prospects in Child and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Lene Arnett; Larson, Reed W.

    2005-01-01

    This volume brings together leading scholars to describe important new directions in research on child and adolescent development. This introductory chapter places their articles in the context of three larger trends in the field.

  7. Developmental, cognitive, and behavioral sequelae of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Cahill, L T; Kaminer, R K; Johnson, P G

    1999-10-01

    There is growing interest in the neurologic, behavioral, and cognitive effects of child abuse and neglect. This article explores the literature on the short and long term sequelae of physically and sexually abused and neglected children, along with controversies generated by the studies themselves. Recommendations are made for swift and ongoing intervention in cases of child abuse to protect young victims from potentially devastating effects. PMID:10553206

  8. The Serial Use of Child Neurocognitive Tests: Development versus Practice Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slade, Peter D.; Townes, Brenda D.; Rosenbaum, Gail; Martins, Isabel P.; Luis, Henrique; Bernardo, Mario; Martin, Michael D.; DeRouen, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    When serial neurocognitive assessments are performed, 2 main factors are of importance: test-retest reliability and practice effects. With children, however, there is a third, developmental factor, which occurs as a result of maturation. Child tests recognize this factor through the provision of age-corrected scaled scores. Thus, a ready-made…

  9. Supernumerary chromosome marker (1) in a developmentally delayed child

    SciTech Connect

    Lanphear, N.; Oppenheimer, S.; Lamb, A.

    1995-07-03

    A 15-month-old boy with mild developmental delay and several minor anomalies was found to be mosaic 46,XY/47,XY,+mar(1). The marker r(1) was a small de novo ring identified by FISH with a painting type DNA probe. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Developmental Changes in the Early Child Lexicon in Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Meiling; Liu, Youyi; Shu, Hua; Xing, Ailing; Jiang, Ying; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report a large-scale developmental study of early productive vocabulary acquisition by 928 Chinese-speaking children aged between 1;0 and 2;6, using the Early Vocabulary Inventory for Mandarin Chinese (Hao, Shu, Xing & Li, 2008). The results show that: (i) social words, especially words for people, are the predominant type of…

  11. The Child and the Community: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Barbara M.; Newman, Philip R.

    Three dimensions of the relationship between children and their communities that have been identified are (1) children's sense of community as it develops from infancy through middle childhood, (2) characteristics of a competent community, and (3) the interaction between children's developmental growth and community resources. Children's sense of…

  12. Factors Associated with the Empowerment of Japanese Families Raising a Child with Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban…

  13. A Developmental Model of Maternal and Child Contributions to Disruptive Conduct: The First Six Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Barry, Robin A.; Aksan, Nazan; Boldt, Lea J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The parent-child relationship is considered important for children's future conscience, and conscience is seen as protecting them from disruptive behavior problems, but specific mechanisms of this developmental process are rarely studied. Methods: This multi-trait multi-method study examined, in a longitudinal design, paths linking…

  14. Developmental Screening Referrals: Child and Family Factors that Predict Referral Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Danielle J.; Hanline, Mary Frances

    2013-01-01

    This study researched the predictive impact of developmental screening results and the effects of child and family characteristics on completion of referrals given for evaluation. Logistical and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were used to determine the significance of 10 independent variables on the predictor variable. The number of…

  15. The Developmental Impact of Child Abuse on Adulthood: Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, April; Hays, Danica G.

    2010-01-01

    Many adults are exposed to maltreatment during their childhood. As a result, they may experience long-term negative outcomes in a range of developmental areas. The purpose of this article was to examine the social, physical, and mental health consequences of child abuse in adulthood. Implications for counseling practice are provided.

  16. Relationship between Maternal Language Parameters and the Child's Language Competency and Developmental Condition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooshyar, Nahid T.

    Maternal language directed to 21 nonhandicapped, 21 Down syndrome, and 19 language impaired preschool children was examined. The three groups (all Caucasian and middle-class) were matched in mean length of utterance (MLU) and in developmental skills as measured on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. Mother-child language interaction was…

  17. Referral for Occupational Therapy after Diagnosis of Developmental Disorder by German Child Psychiatrists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Marcel; Drosselmeyer, Julia; Kostev, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to assess how many patients received occupational therapy after diagnosis of developmental disorder (DD) in child psychiatrist practices in Germany and which factors influenced the prescription of occupational therapy. Methods: This study was a retrospective database analysis in Germany utilising the Disease…

  18. Contributions of Incidental Teaching, Developmental Quotient, and Peer Interactions to Child Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Amy M.; McWilliam, R. A.; Sims, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the analysis reported in this article was to determine to what extent child and classroom characteristics were associated with the amount of time children with disabilities spent displaying each of 5 categories of engagement. Predictors consisted of children's receipt of incidental teaching, developmental quotient, and quality of…

  19. Parental Factors Correlated with Developmental Outcome in the Migrant Head Start Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siantz, Mary Lou de Leon; Smith, M. Shelton

    1994-01-01

    Examined parental factors correlated with developmental outcomes among 60 Mexican American migrant farmworker children. Found that maternal parenting style accounted for a significant amount of the variance in child behavior problems reported by the mothers, whereas maternal social support helped to explain the variance in peer acceptance reported…

  20. Guidelines for developmental toxicity testing of chemicals in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Tanimura, T.

    1985-11-01

    With the definition of teratogenicity expanded in terms of the developmental stages when an agent acts and the types of developmental anomalies induced, the concept of developmental toxicity has been established. The examination of functional developmental disorders including behavior has become one of the most important items for the evaluation of developmental toxicity of chemicals, especially pharmaceutical drugs. The guidelines for developmental toxicity testing of drugs in Japan stress the need for examination of growth and development including behavior and fertility on the postweaning offspring. The outline of the Japanese guidelines is presented and it is emphasized that studies should be done as research and include self evaluation of the scientific truth of the experiment and extrapolation to humans. In addition, the activities of the Behavioral Teratology Meeting, a satellite meeting to the Japanese Teratology Society, are introduced and enquete surveys of the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and collaborative studies for the standardization of learning tests in Japan are briefly presented.

  1. Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence: Examining moderation by FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5).

    PubMed

    Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    The current study examined the prospective association between child maltreatment and the development of substance use disorder in adolescence with the aim of investigating pathways underlying this relation, as well as genetic moderation of these developmental mechanisms. Specifically, we tested whether youth who experienced maltreatment prior to age 8 were at risk for the development of marijuana dependence in adolescence by way of a childhood externalizing pathway and a childhood internalizing pathway. Moreover, we tested whether variation in FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5) CATT haplotype moderated these pathways. The participants were 326 children (n =179 maltreated; n = 147 nonmaltreated) assessed across two waves of data collection (childhood: ages 7-9 and adolescence: ages 15-18). Results indicated that higher levels of child externalizing symptoms significantly mediated the effect of child maltreatment on adolescent marijuana dependence symptoms for individuals with one or two copies of the FKBP5 CATT haplotype only. We did not find support for an internalizing pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence, nor did we find evidence of moderation of the internalizing pathway by FKBP5 haplotype variation. Findings extend previous research by demonstrating that whether a maltreated child will traverse an externalizing pathway toward substance use disorder in adolescence is dependent on FKBP5 genetic variation. PMID:26535939

  2. 45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 CFR 1304.40(f)(2) (i) and (ii) to enroll and participate in a system of ongoing family health care... this section) from the child's entry into the program (for the purposes of 45 CFR 1304.20(a)(1), 45 CFR 1304.20(a)(2), and 45 CFR 1304.20(b)(1), “entry” means the first day that Early Head Start or...

  3. 45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 CFR 1304.40(f)(2) (i) and (ii) to enroll and participate in a system of ongoing family health care... this section) from the child's entry into the program (for the purposes of 45 CFR 1304.20(a)(1), 45 CFR 1304.20(a)(2), and 45 CFR 1304.20(b)(1), “entry” means the first day that Early Head Start or...

  4. A Comparison of Child-Tested Early Childhood Education Software with Professional Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobedo, Theresa H.; Evans, Sharon

    This study explored children's preferences for 13 computer software programs and field-tested the relationship of developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) ratings of early childhood computer software programs to actual child selection. Participants were 19 4-year-olds. The Haugland and Shade (1990) evaluation instrument was used to assign DAP…

  5. Using Epidemiologic Methods to Test Hypotheses regarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiology uses strong sampling methods and study designs to test refutable hypotheses regarding the causes of important health, mental health, and social outcomes. Epidemiologic methods are increasingly being used to move developmental psychopathology from studies that catalogue correlates of child and adolescent mental health to designs that…

  6. Evaluation of a developmental screening system for use by child health nurses.

    PubMed Central

    Eu, B S

    1986-01-01

    An adapted version of the Woodside system for screening general development of the child is being used by child health nurses as part of their routine duties. In the present paper the system is validated in terms of standardisation, reliability, and validity. The system was standardised on 444 children aged 0-4, the assessments being carried out by a fully trained child health nurse. The inter-tester reliability of the system was found to be at least 95%. The validation sample consisted of all 27 'abnormal' children, all 20 'doubtful' children, and 77 'normal' children, and a highly significant correlation was obtained between the Woodside subsection scores and the relevant Griffiths' scales subsection scores. The findings support initial impressions that the adapted Woodside system is accurate. It is recommended for use by child health nurses as part of their developmental surveillance. PMID:2420288

  7. Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing: A Path Forward

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great progress has been made over the past 40 years in understanding the hazards of exposure to a small number of developmental neurotoxicants. Lead, PCBs, and methylmercury are all good examples of science-based approaches to characterizing the hazard to the developing nervous s...

  8. 2-METHYLHEXANOIC ACID DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an investigation of the developmental effects and structure-activity relationships of aliphatic acids, 2-methylhexanoic acid was administered by gavage to Sprague-Dawley rats on gestation days 6-15 at doses of 0, 300, and 400 mg/kg/day. The dams were allowed to deliver...

  9. 5-METHYLHEXANOIC ACID DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an investigation of the developmental effects and structure-activity relationships of aliphatic acids, 5- methylhexanoic acid was administered by gavage to Sprague-Dawley rats on gestation days 6-15 at doses of 0, 300, and 400 mg/kg/day. The dams were allowed to delive...

  10. Musical Stimulation in the Developmentally Delayed Child: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Nanelle Lavina; Molnar, Eva T.; Knasel, Anne L.

    1987-01-01

    Music is a convenient way of bypassing barriers of communication and eliciting responses that may be helpful in the diagnoses and treatment of illness. The use of background music in elevators, in doctors' offices, and in stores are good examples of how music can be used to affect the subconscious mind. In this pilot study drums were used to better define the effects of particular elements of music and sound. When repetitive rhythms are presented as background music to a group of severely developmentally delayed children, three out of four subjects show a definite change in level of development in the unstructured task of free drawing. To discover more about the effects of the various elements of music and to better identify patterns in the environment that are conducive to optimal functioning, further studies are indicated. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:2468780

  11. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is great interest in developing alternative methods for developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) that are cost-efficient, use fewer animals and are based on current scientific knowledge of the developing nervous system. Alternative methods will require demonstration of the...

  12. TESTING FOR DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY: CURRENT APPROACHES AND FUTURE NEEDS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are many adverse effects on the nervous system following exposure to environmental chemicals during development. In a number of cases (e.g., lead, methyl mercury) the developing nervous system is a highly susceptible. Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT) guidelines...

  13. Borderline Personality Features in Childhood: The Role of Subtype, Developmental Timing and Chronicity of Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Kathryn F.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Crick, Nicki

    2014-01-01

    Child maltreatment has been established as a risk factor for borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet few studies consider how maltreatment influences the development of BPD features through childhood and adolescence. Subtype, developmental timing and chronicity of child maltreatment were examined as factors in the development of borderline personality features in childhood. Children (M age = 11.30, SD = 0.94), including 314 maltreated and 285 nonmaltreated children from comparable low socioeconomic backgrounds, provided self-reports of developmentally salient borderline personality traits. Maltreated children had higher overall borderline feature scores, higher scores on each individual subscale and were more likely to be identified as at high risk for development of BPD through raised scores on all 4 subscales. Chronicity of maltreatment predicted higher overall borderline feature scores and patterns of onset and recency of maltreatment significantly predicted whether a participant would meet criteria for the high-risk group. Implications of findings and recommendations for intervention are discussed. PMID:25047300

  14. Socioemotional, Personality, and Biological Development: Illustrations from a Multilevel Developmental Psychopathology Perspective on Child Maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, Dante

    2016-01-01

    Developmental theories can be affirmed, challenged, and augmented by incorporating knowledge about atypical ontogenesis. Investigations of the biological, socioemotional, and personality development in individuals with high-risk conditions and psychopathological disorders can provide an entrée into the study of system organization, disorganization, and reorganization. This article examines child maltreatment to illustrate the benefit that can be derived from the study of individuals subjected to nonnormative caregiving experiences. Relative to an average expectable environment, which consists of a species-specific range of environmental conditions that support adaptive development among genetically normal individuals, maltreating families fail to provide many of the experiences that are required for normal development. Principles gleaned from the field of developmental psychopathology provide a framework for understanding multilevel functioning in normality and pathology. Knowledge of normative developmental processes provides the impetus to design and implement randomized control trial (RCT) interventions that can promote resilient functioning in maltreated children. PMID:26726964

  15. Current and future needs for developmental toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Makris, Susan L; Kim, James H; Ellis, Amy; Faber, Willem; Harrouk, Wafa; Lewis, Joseph M; Paule, Merle G; Seed, Jennifer; Tassinari, Melissa; Tyl, Rochelle

    2011-10-01

    A review is presented of the use of developmental toxicity testing in the United States and international regulatory assessment of human health risks associated with exposures to pharmaceuticals (human and veterinary), chemicals (agricultural, industrial, and environmental), food additives, cosmetics, and consumer products. Developmental toxicology data are used for prioritization and screening of pharmaceuticals and chemicals, for evaluating and labeling of pharmaceuticals, and for characterizing hazards and risk of exposures to industrial and environmental chemicals. The in vivo study designs utilized in hazard characterization and dose-response assessment for developmental outcomes have not changed substantially over the past 30 years and have served the process well. Now there are opportunities to incorporate new technologies and approaches to testing into the existing assessment paradigm, or to apply innovative approaches to various aspects of risk assessment. Developmental toxicology testing can be enhanced by the refinement or replacement of traditional in vivo protocols, including through the use of in vitro assays, studies conducted in alternative nonmammalian species, the application of new technologies, and the use of in silico models. Potential benefits to the current regulatory process include the ability to screen large numbers of chemicals quickly, with the commitment of fewer resources than traditional toxicology studies, and to refine the risk assessment process through an enhanced understanding of the mechanisms of developmental toxicity and their relevance to potential human risk. As the testing paradigm evolves, the ability to use developmental toxicology data to meet diverse critical regulatory needs must be retained. PMID:21922641

  16. Setting the Stage: Early Child and Family Characteristics as Predictors of Later Loneliness in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Angela; Hauser-Cram, Penny; Kersh, Joanne E.

    2007-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities often report having few friends. Researchers have tended to focus on social skill deficits, neglecting other potent predictors of children's feelings of loneliness. In a sample of 82 children with developmental disabilities, we examined characteristics of the child at age 3 (i.e., the conclusion of early…

  17. Quality of Life of Families with Children Who Have Severe Developmental Disabilities: A Comparison Based on Child Residence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFelea, Joni Taylor; Raver, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This study measured the quality of life of two groups of families with children who had severe developmental disabilities-families whose child lived at home and families whose child lived in a residential facility. Participants were 54 primary caregivers of children who had severe intellectual disabilities and who lacked the ability to both…

  18. Program Helps Design Tests Of Developmental Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hops, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    Computer program called "A Formal Test Representation Language and Tool for Functional Test Designs" (TRL) provides automatic software tool and formal language used to implement category-partition method and produce specification of test cases in testing phase of development of software. Category-partition method useful in defining input, outputs, and purpose of test-design phase of development and combines benefits of choosing normal cases having error-exposing properties. Traceability maintained quite easily by creating test design for each objective in test plan. Effort to transform test cases into procedures simplified by use of automatic software tool to create cases based on test design. Method enables rapid elimination of undesired test cases from consideration and facilitates review of test designs by peer groups. Written in C language.

  19. Developmental logics: Brain science, child welfare, and the ethics of engagement in Japan.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Kathryn E

    2015-10-01

    This article explores the unintended consequences of the ways scholars and activists take up the science of child development to critique the Japanese child welfare system. Since World War II, Japan has depended on a system of child welfare institutions (baby homes and children's homes) to care for state wards. Opponents of institutional care advocate instead for family foster care and adoption, and cite international research on the developmental harms of institutionalizing newborns and young children during the "critical period" of the first few years. The "critical period" is understood as the time during which the caregiving a child receives shapes neurological development and later capacity to build interpersonal relationships. These discourses appear to press compellingly for system reform, the proof resting on seemingly objective knowledge about child development. However, scientific evidence of harm is often mobilized in tandem with arguments that the welfare system is rooted in Japanese culture, suggesting durability and resistance to change. Further, reform efforts that use universalizing child science as "proof" of the need for change are prone to slip into deterministic language that pathologizes the experiences of people who grew up in the system. This article explores the reasons why deterministic models of child development, rather than more open-ended models like neuroplasticity, dominate activist rhetorics. It proposes a concept, "ethics of engagement," to advocate for attention to multiple scales and domains through which interpersonal ties are experienced and embodied over time. Finally, it suggests the possibility of child welfare reform movements that take seriously the need for caring and transformative relationships throughout life, beyond the first "critical years," that do not require deterministic logics of permanent delay or damage. PMID:25530189

  20. Utilization of genetic testing among children with developmental disabilities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kiely, Bridget; Vettam, Sujit; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Several professional societies recommend that genetic testing be routinely included in the etiologic workup of children with developmental disabilities. The aim of this study was to determine the rate at which genetic testing is performed in this population, based on data from a nationally representative survey. Methods Data were analyzed from the Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Services, a telephone-based survey of parents and guardians of US school-age children with current or past developmental conditions. This study included 3,371 respondents who indicated that their child had an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), and/or developmental delay (DD) at the time of survey administration. History of genetic testing was assessed based on report by the parent/s. Children were divided into the following five mutually exclusive condition groups: ASD with ID; ASD with DD, without ID; ASD only, without ID or DD; ID without ASD; and DD only, without ID or ASD. Logistic regression was used to assess the demographic correlates of genetic testing, to compare the rates of genetic testing across groups, and to examine associations between genetic testing and use of other health-care services. Results Overall, 32% of this sample had a history of genetic testing, including 34% of all children with ASD and 43% of those with ID. After adjusting for demographics, children with ASD + ID were more than seven times as likely as those with ASD only, and more than twice as likely as those who had ID without ASD, to have undergone genetic testing. Prior specialist care (developmental pediatrician or neurologist) and access to all needed providers within the previous year were associated with higher odds of genetic testing. Conclusion The majority of children in this nationally representative sample did not undergo recommended genetic testing. Research is needed to identify barriers to the use of genetic testing in this population. PMID:27468247

  1. Can i have a second child? dilemmas of mothers of children with pervasive developmental disorder: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) has an uncertain etiology, no method of treatment, and results in communication deficiencies and other behavioral problems. As the reported recurrence risk is 5%-10% and there are no methods of either prevention or prenatal testing, mothers of PDD children may face unique challenges when contemplating second pregnancies. The purpose of this study was to explore the mothers' lived experiences of second child-related decision-making after the birth of a child with PDD. Methods The participants for this study were restricted to mothers living within the greater Tokyo metropolitan area who had given birth to a first child with PDD within the past 18 years. The ten participants were encouraged to describe their experiences of second-child related decision-making after the birth of a child with PDD on the basis of semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was performed by using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), which is concerned with understanding what the participant thinks or believes about the topic under discussion. Results We identified two superordinate themes. The first was balancing hopes and fears, in which hope was the potential joy to be gained by the birth of a new child without PDD and fears were characterized as uncertainty of PDD and perception of recurrence risk, burden on later-born children, and negative effects on a child with PDD. The second superordinate theme was assessing the manageability of the situation, which was affected by factors as diverse as severity of PDD, relationship between mother and father, and social support and acceptance for PDD. Our 10 participants suffered from extreme psychological conflict, and lack of social support and acceptance for PDD created numerous practical difficulties in having second children. Conclusions Our participants faced various difficulties when considering second pregnancies after the birth of children with PDD in the Japanese society. As lack

  2. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study: examining developmental origins of allergy and asthma.

    PubMed

    Subbarao, Padmaja; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R; Denburg, Judah A; HayGlass, Kent T; Kobor, Michael S; Kollmann, Tobias R; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lou, W Y Wendy; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Miller, Gregory E; Moraes, Theo J; Pare, Peter D; Scott, James A; Takaro, Tim K; Turvey, Stuart E; Duncan, Joanne M; Lefebvre, Diana L; Sears, Malcolm R

    2015-10-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study recruited 3624 pregnant women, most partners and 3542 eligible offspring. We hypothesise that early life physical and psychosocial environments, immunological, physiological, nutritional, hormonal and metabolic influences interact with genetics influencing allergic diseases, including asthma. Environmental and biological sampling, innate and adaptive immune responses, gene expression, DNA methylation, gut microbiome and nutrition studies complement repeated environmental and clinical assessments to age 5. This rich data set, linking prenatal and postnatal environments, diverse biological samples and rigorous phenotyping, will inform early developmental pathways to allergy, asthma and other chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26069286

  3. Test Review: The Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Altomare, Alyssa A.; Matchullis, Ryan L.; Jitlina, Katia

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of the "Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration" (6th edition). The "Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration" is a newly updated measure of visual-motor abilities for individuals aged 2 to 100 years that principally represents a normative update from the fifth edition. Published by Pearson,…

  4. Zebrafish as a systems toxicology model for developmental neurotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yuhei; Murakami, Soichiro; Ashikawa, Yoshifumi; Sasagawa, Shota; Umemoto, Noriko; Shimada, Yasuhito; Tanaka, Toshio

    2015-02-01

    The developing brain is extremely sensitive to many chemicals. Exposure to neurotoxicants during development has been implicated in various neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Although rodents have been widely used for developmental neurotoxicity testing, experiments using large numbers of rodents are time-consuming, expensive, and raise ethical concerns. Using alternative non-mammalian animal models may relieve some of these pressures by allowing testing of large numbers of subjects while reducing expenses and minimizing the use of mammalian subjects. In this review, we discuss some of the advantages of using zebrafish in developmental neurotoxicity testing, focusing on central nervous system development, neurobehavior, toxicokinetics, and toxicodynamics in this species. We also describe some important examples of developmental neurotoxicity testing using zebrafish combined with gene expression profiling, neuroimaging, or neurobehavioral assessment. Zebrafish may be a systems toxicology model that has the potential to reveal the pathways of developmental neurotoxicity and to provide a sound basis for human risk assessments. PMID:25109898

  5. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING GUIDELINES: VARIABILITY IN MORPHOMETRIC ASSESSMENTS OF NEUROPATHOLOGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline (OPPTS 870.6300) calls for neuropathological and morphometric assessments of rat pups on postnatal day (PND) 11 and at study termination (after PND 60). In recent discussions about conducting these studies on pesti...

  6. Developmental testing of a programmable multizone furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, E. Y.; Larson, D. J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A multizone furnace was evaluated for its potential utilization for process experimentation on board the Space Shuttle. A temperature gradient can be created through the use of a series of connected temperature zones and can be translated by the coordinated sequencing of zone temperatures. The Bridgman-Stockbarger thermal configuration for directional solidification was implemented so that neither the sample nor furnace was translated. The thermal behavior of the furnace was measured and characterized. Limitations due to both thermal and electronic (computer) factors are identified. The results indicate that the multizone design is limited to low temperature gradients because of the indirect furnace-to-sample thermal coupling needed to blend the discrete thermal zones. The multizone furnace design inherently consumes more power than a similar (two temperature) conventional Bridgman type directional solidification furnace because every zone must be capable of the high cooling rates needed to produce the maximum desired temperature drop. Typical achievable static temperature gradients for the furnace tested were between 6 and 75 C/in. The maximum gradient velocity was approximately 10 in./hr. Several aspects of the tested system could be improved, but the dependence of the multizone design on high heat loss will limit Space Shuttle applications in the form tested unless additional power is available. The multizone furnace offers great flexibility but requires a high level of operator understanding for full advantage to be obtained.

  7. Child support and father-child contact: testing reciprocal pathways.

    PubMed

    Nepomnyaschy, Lenna

    2007-02-01

    I use three waves of panel data to examine the relationship between child support payments and fathers' contact with their nonmarital children. I disaggregate support into fathers' formal and informal payments and incorporate cross-lagged effects models to identify the direction of causality between payments and contact. After including the behavior from the prior wave (lagged term) and a rich set of family characteristics, I find a marginally significant effect of paying formally at Time 1 on the likelihood of contact at Time 2 but no effect of contact at Time 1 on formal payments at Time 2. In the first examination of the relationship between informal support and father-child contact, I find a strong, positive reciprocal relationship between the likelihood and frequency of father-child contact and the likelihood and amount of informal support, with slightly stronger and more consistent effects of contact on payments than of payments on contact. PMID:17461338

  8. Parent–Child Conflict and Early Childhood Adjustment in Two-Parent Low-Income Families: Parallel Developmental Processes

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Crossan, Jennifer L.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2015-01-01

    Parent–child conflict is central to most intervention models focused on reducing child problem behavior, yet few longitudinal studies have examined these processes during early childhood. The current study investigates (1) growth in mother–child and father figure (FF)–child conflict, (2) associations between trajectories of mother–child and FF–child conflict and children’s adjustment; and (3) intervention effects in attenuating conflict. Participants are 195 ethnically diverse mother–FF–child triads drawn from a larger parenting intervention study for families with children at risk for developing conduct problems. Mother–child conflict decreased from ages 2 to 4, but decreases were unrelated to changes in children’s adjustment problems. In contrast, the slope of FF–child conflict was positively related to the slope of child externalizing behaviors. Random assignment to a family-centered parenting intervention predicted rate of decline in mother–child conflict. Findings are discussed with respect to developmental patterns of parent–child conflict in early childhood and implications for prevention. PMID:24610382

  9. Creative solutions for complex developmental testing

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was requested to establish the FAA Aging Aircraft Nondestructive Inspection (NDI) Development and Demonstration Center. The Center is housed in a hangar at the Albuquerque International Airport and owns its own aged transport airplane. The Center`s work encompasses research and development in enhanced structural inspection. The goals of the Center are to: promote NDI technology development and maturation; help transfer new nondevelopment item technology to the hangar floor; validate NDI techniques; assess reliability or probability of detection of NDI processes. An important part of this project will be to make sure that the cost of implementation and operation of any technique is seriously considered and that techniques are usable in the field. Among the initial techniques to be evaluated are: enhanced visual, magneto-optic eddy current; coherent optics; ultrasonics; thermographics; eddy current scanners; experimental modal analysis. This project is a perfect example of how Development Testing draws on its own resources and teams up with others, as necessary, to get the job done. In this case, New Mexico State University and a private company, Science Applications International Corporation, are assisting.

  10. Viking Mars lander 1975 dynamic test model/orbiter developmental test model forced vibration test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortenberry, J.; Brownlee, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    The Viking Mars Lander 1975 dynamic test model and orbiter developmental test model were subjected to forced vibration sine tests. Flight acceptance (FA) and type approval (TA) test levels were applied to the spacecraft structure in a longitudinal test configuration using a 133,440-N (30,000-lb) force shaker. Testing in the two lateral axes (X, Y) was performed at lower levels using four 667-N (150-lb) force shakers. Forced vibration qualification (TA) test levels were successfully imposed on the spacecraft at frequencies down to 10 Hz. Measured responses showed the same character as analytical predictions, and correlation was reasonably good. Because of control system test tolerances, orbiter primary structure generally did not reach the design load limits attained in earlier static testing. A post-test examination of critical orbiter structure disclosed no apparent damage to the structure as a result of the test environment.

  11. Should We Consider Alternatives to Universal Well-Child Behavioral-Developmental Screening?

    PubMed Central

    Urkin, Jacob; Bar-David, Yair; Porter, Basil

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of developmental disabilities in the young age is of the order of 15%. When behavioral and social-emotional disorders, physical impairments, and sensory disorders are included, the need for special intervention increases to one out of four children. As the sensitivity and specificity of the best screening tests are in the range of 70–80%, their predictive value is controversial. The cost of conducting definitive tests and repeat screening for those who fail the screening tests is high. Children with severe disorders can be identified clinically without a screening test. The poor predictability, difficulty in implementation, and the high costs of developmental testing suggest that children, particularly those in high-risk communities, might be better served by implementing intervention programs for all, instead of trying to identify the outliers through screening. PMID:25853111

  12. Annual Research Review: Current limitations and future directions in MRI studies of child- and adult-onset developmental psychopathologies

    PubMed Central

    Horga, Guillermo; Kaur, Tejal; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the study of child- and adult-onset developmental psychopathologies has generated many investigations that have measured brain structure and function in vivo throughout development, often generating great excitement over our ability to visualize the living, developing brain using the attractive, even seductive images that these studies produce. Often lost in this excitement is the recognition that brain imaging generally, and MRI in particular, is simply a technology, one that does not fundamentally differ from any other technology, be it a blood test, a genotyping assay, a biochemical assay, or behavioral test. No technology alone can generate valid scientific findings. Rather, it is only technology coupled with a strong experimental design that can generate valid and reproducible findings that lead to new insights into the mechanisms of disease and therapeutic response. In this review we discuss selected studies to illustrate the most common and important limitations of MRI study designs as most commonly implemented thus far, as well as the misunderstanding that the interpretations of findings from those studies can create for our theories of developmental psychopathologies. Those limitations are in large part responsible thus far for the generally poor reproducibility of findings across studies, poor generalizability to the larger population, failure to identify developmental trajectories, inability to distinguish causes from effects of illness, and poor ability to infer causal mechanisms in most MRI studies of developmental psychopathologies. For each of these limitations in study design and the difficulties they entail for the interpretation of findings, we discuss various approaches that numerous laboratories are now taking to address those difficulties, which have in common the yoking of brain imaging technologies to studies with inherently stronger designs that permit more valid and more powerful

  13. Classroom Developmental Assessment: The Link Between Testing and Teaching. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Arna; McAfee, Oralie

    This paper presents a concise non-technical explanation of the process of classroom developmental assessment, a child-centered, classroom-centered multi-dimensional assessment process designed to help teachers find out as much as possible about individual children so that appropriate educational experiences can be planned for each child. A…

  14. Parent-Child Relationships of Boys in Different Offending Trajectories: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijsers, Loes; Loeber, Rolf; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study tested the theoretical assumption that transformations of parent-child relationships in late childhood and adolescence would differ for boys following different offending trajectories. Methods: Using longitudinal multiinformant data of 503 boys (ages 7-19), we conducted Growth Mixture Modeling to extract offending…

  15. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities: 1981 Research Programs of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The monograph reviews federal research activities and progress in biomedical and behavioral/social science research in mental retardation. Activities represent the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities branch. The following categories are addressed in terms of biomedical…

  16. EMOTIONAL AVAILABILITY IN EARLY MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTIONS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS, OTHER PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS, AND DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY.

    PubMed

    Gul, Hesna; Erol, Nese; Pamir Akin, Duygu; Ustun Gullu, Belgin; Akcakin, Melda; Alpas, Başak; Öner, Özgür

    2016-03-01

    Emotional availability (EA) is a method to assess early parent-child dyadic interactions for emotional awareness, perception, experience, and expression between child and parent that describe global relational quality (Z. Biringen & M. Easterbrooks, ). The current study aimed to examine the effects of an infant's diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), other psychiatric disorders (OPD), and developmental delay (DD) on the maternal EA Scale (EAS; Z. Biringen & M. Easterbrooks, ; Z. Biringen, J.L. Robinson, & R.N. Emde, ) scores and the relative contributions of infant's age, gender, diagnosis, developmental level, and maternal education on EAS scores in a clinical Turkish sample. Three hundred forty-five infant-mother dyads participated in this study. Results of the research indicated that EAS adult scores were associated with maternal education and infant's diagnosis whereas child scores were associated with infant's age, diagnosis, and developmental level. Infants' involvement and responsiveness to the mother were lower in the group with ASD. Children with OPD, particularly when their mothers have lower education, might be at increased risk of having problems in parent-child interactions. Young ASD subjects with developmental delay are in greatest need of support to increase reactions toward their mother. These findings underscore the importance of using all of the EA dimensions rather than only one measure on children in high-risk populations. PMID:26891759

  17. Using a Time Timer[TM] to Increase Appropriate Waiting Behavior in a Child with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Ian; Healy, Olive; Leader, Geraldine; Hayes, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the use of a predictive stimulus (Time Timer[TM]) and delayed reinforcement to increase appropriate waiting behavior in a child with developmental disabilities and problem behavior maintained by access to tangible items and activities. The study employed a changing criterion design across settings to gradually increase…

  18. Linking Maternal Efficacy Beliefs, Developmental Goals, Parenting Practices, and Child Competence in Rural Single-Parent African American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Flor, Douglas L.; Gibson, Nicole Morgan

    1999-01-01

    Traced links among family financial resource adequacy, maternal beliefs and behavior, developmental goals, and child outcomes in rural, single-parent African American families of 6- to 9-year-olds. Found that financial adequacy was linked with childrearing efficacy. Efficacy beliefs were linked with parenting practices indirectly through…

  19. Assessment of Global Functioning in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Utility of the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan W.; Smith, Laura A.; Schry, Amie R.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of global functioning is an important consideration in treatment outcome research; yet, there is little guidance on its evidence-based assessment for children with autism spectrum disorders. This study investigated the utility and validity of clinician-rated global functioning using the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment…

  20. Brief Report: Effects of Pressure Vest Usage on Engagement and Problem Behaviors of a Young Child with Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichow, Brian; Barton, Erin E.; Good, Leslie; Wolery, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of wearing a pressure vest for a young boy with developmental delays. An A-B-A withdrawal design was used to examine the relation between wearing the pressure vest and child behaviors during a preschool art activity. Although the data showed moderate variability, no systematic differences were…

  1. Parental Adaptation to Out-of-Home Placement of a Child with Severe or Profound Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jeffrey B.; Roper, Susanne Olsen

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing grounded theory qualitative research methods, a model was developed for describing parental adaptation after voluntary placement of a child with severe or profound developmental disabilities in out-of-home care. Interviews of parents from 20 families were analyzed. Parents' cognitive appraisals of placement outcomes were classified…

  2. Mothers' Perceived Physical Health during Early and Middle Childhood: Relations with Child Developmental Delay and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; N = 116) or typical development (TD; N = 129) was examined across child ages 3-9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent…

  3. Parenting Stress and Child Behavior Problems within Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities: Transactional Relations across 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Mawdsley, Helena P.; Hauser-Cram, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children with developmental disabilities (DD) are at increased risk of experiencing psychological stress compared to other parents. Children’s high levels of internalizing and externalizing problems have been found to contribute to this elevated level of stress. Few studies have considered the reverse direction of effects, however, in families where a child has a DD. The present study investigated transactional relations between child behavior problems and maternal stress within 176 families raising a child with early diagnosed DD. There was evidence of both child-driven and parent-driven effects over the 15-year study period, spanning from early childhood (age 3) to adolescence (age 18), consistent with transactional models of development. Parent-child transactions were found to vary across different life phases and with different domains of behavior problems. PMID:25462487

  4. Developmental flight test in combat (Joint STARS at war)

    SciTech Connect

    Muellner, G.K.; Cusimano, G.J. USAF, Electronic Systems Div., Melbourne, FL )

    1992-02-01

    The Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (Joint STARS), which employs a refurbished 707 commercial airframe as its platform and is intended to furnish AWACS-like real-time battlefield intelligence to ground operations, first flew on January 14, 1991, in support of Operation Desert Shield. Attention is presently given to Joint STARS' developmental and testing activity, with emphasis on the cycle-development and testing that occurred in Saudi Arabia and on Desert Storm combat-mission support experience gained with the system. Basic ECCM and the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System are incorporated by Joint STARS.

  5. LEARNING AND MEMORY TESTS IN DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING: A CROSS-LABORATORY COMPARISON OF CONTROL DATA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline (OPPTS 870.6300) calls for functional tests to assess the impact of chemicals on cognitive function in offspring following maternal exposure. A test of associative learning and memory is to be conducted around th...

  6. Developmental pathways to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence: child maltreatment, emerging personality, and internalizing versus externalizing psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A; Burnette, Mandi L; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-12-01

    Child maltreatment is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and substance abuse and dependence. However, developmental processes unfolding from childhood into adolescence that delineate this trajectory are not well understood. The current study used path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to examine multiple mediator models, including ego control, ego resiliency, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms to investigate this developmental process. Participants were 415 children, assessed across 3 waves of data, (i.e., at ages 7 to 9, 10 to 12, and 13 to 15). The sample included maltreated (n = 259) and nonmaltreated (n = 156) children; groups were comparable in sociodemographic characteristics. Findings support an transactional-ecological model by revealing a developmental sequence in which severity of early childhood maltreatment potentiates less adaptive childhood personality functioning, followed by externalizing problems in preadolescence, and ultimately adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms. A developmental pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms via personality and preadolescent internalizing problems was not supported. Understanding developmental pathways by which maltreatment experiences increase risk for substance abuse and dependence symptoms in youth has far-reaching implications for the treatment and prevention of substance use disorders. PMID:21534646

  7. Child Abuse: Implications for Child Development and Psychopathology. Second Edition. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David A.

    This book examines the role child abuse plays within a victim's individual development from childhood through their adult life. It begins by describing the different types of child abuse, prevalence rates, and risk factors. It also describes four types of child maltreatment that include: physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse.…

  8. Developmental toxicity testing for safety assessment: new approaches and technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee held a 2-day workshop entitled "Developmental Toxicology-New Directions" in April 2009. The fourth session of this workshop focused on new approaches and technolog...

  9. Paternal versus maternal coping styles with child diagnosis of developmental delay.

    PubMed

    Barak-Levy, Yael; Atzaba-Poria, Na'ama

    2013-06-01

    Parents of children with disabilities vary in their reaction to their children's diagnosis. The current study focused on fathers in addition to mothers and examined their resolution and coping styles when having children diagnosed with developmental delay (DD). Sixty-five fathers and 71 mothers were interviewed using the reaction to the diagnosis interview (RDI; Pianta & Marvin, 1992a). Results indicated that the majority of parents were unresolved with their child's diagnosis, with no differences found between fathers' and mothers' rates of resolution. Furthermore, both parents of children that were diagnosed at a later age and parents that were less educated tended to be unresolved, as did fathers of a lower socioeconomic status. Older age of both children and mothers was related to maternal lack of resolution. Finally, an in-depth examination revealed significant differences in the manner in which fathers and mothers cope with their children's diagnosis: whereas mothers were more prone to using an emotional coping style, fathers tended to use a cognitive coping style. The clinical implications of paternal versus maternal coping styles are discussed. PMID:23584184

  10. Smart merger of developmental and operational test and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frizzelle, Charles Delano, Jr.

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has implemented Acquisition Reform to take advantage of commercial products, to compress the acquisition cycle, and to reduce the overall life-cycle cost of major weapon systems. This initiative, following requirements of the National Performance Review to perform faster, cheaper, and better, is expected to produce significant savings required to fund a new generation of weapons for the United States military. The DoD has a clear requirement to verify through a rigorous test and evaluation (T&E) that these advanced weapons are suitable and effective for use in combat. T&E is an inherently expensive and time-consuming activity performed to ensure that the system under test can meet contractual specifications and the operational user requirements. With a detailed and rich theoretical base, T&E has come to consider alternatives. Making a change from the safe and traditional paradigm of sequential developmental and operational T&E to a combined T&E strategy is one option. The central research question for this dissertation is "Does combining developmental and operational T&E permit faster acquisition cycle times without unnecessarily increasing risks of deploying ineffective systems?" In this interrupted time-series multiple case study, the impact of the independent variable of acquisition reform is assessed regarding the applicability and utility of a combined T&E strategy for the dependent variable of the Brilliant Eyes, Follow-on Early Warning System, and Space-based Infra-red System programs. In this analysis, the Brilliant Eyes and Follow-on Early Warning System preceded application of the independent variable while the Space-based Infra-red System followed Acquisition Reform. The conclusion of this dissertation is that the combined T&E strategy, where developmental and operational T&E events and resources are merged to the greatest extent possible consistent with mission requirements, provides significant advantages in cost and

  11. Direct Observational Assessment during Test Sessions and Child Clinical Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.

    2005-01-01

    Test sessions and child clinical interviews offer opportunities for direct observations of children's behavior in controlled settings. Moreover, standardized instruments for test session and interview observations offer more reliable and valid assessment methods than do anecdotal reports. This article reviews characteristics and psychometric…

  12. Testing English Language Learners under No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    Title III of Public Law 107-110 (No Child Left Behind; NCLB) provided for creation of assessments of English language learners (ELLs) and established, through the Enhanced Assessment Grant program, a platform from which four consortia of states developed ELL tests aligned to rigorous statewide content standards. Those four tests (ACCESS for ELLs,…

  13. Help Your Child Prepare for Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Public Education Department, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document offers suggestions to parents and students to prepare New Mexico students for the four state-required assessments. Test descriptions, dates and audiences are identified. Before testing, it is recommended that students: (1) Get plenty of rest; (2) Eat a good breakfast; and (3) Relax. During testing, students are encouraged to: (1)…

  14. Parent-Child Shared Time from Middle Childhood to Late Adolescence: Developmental Course and Adjustment Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across…

  15. Interventions for postnatal depression assessing the mother–infant relationship and child developmental outcomes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Tsivos, Zoe-Lydia; Calam, Rachel; Sanders, Matthew R; Wittkowski, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Postnatal depression (PND) has negative effects on maternal well-being as well as implications for the mother–infant relationship, subsequent infant development, and family functioning. There is growing evidence demonstrating that PND impacts on a mother’s ability to interact with sensitivity and responsiveness as a caregiver, which may have implications for the infant’s development of self-regulatory skills, making the infant more vulnerable to later psychopathology. Given the possible intergenerational transmission of risk to the infant, the mother–infant relationship is a focus for treatment and research. However, few studies have assessed the effect of treatment on the mother–infant relationship and child developmental outcomes. The main aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review and investigate effect sizes of interventions for PND, which assess the quality of the mother–infant dyad relationship and/or child outcomes in addition to maternal mood. Nineteen studies were selected for review, and their methodological quality was evaluated, where possible, effect sizes across maternal mood, quality of dyadic relationship, and child developmental outcomes were calculated. Finally, clinical implications in the treatment of PND are highlighted and recommendations made for further research. PMID:25960678

  16. Poster Presentation: Optical Test of NGST Developmental Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Geary, Joseph; Reardon, Patrick; Peters, Bruce; Keidel, John; Chavers, Greg

    2000-01-01

    An Optical Testing System (OTS) has been developed to measure the figure and radius of curvature of NGST developmental mirrors in the vacuum, cryogenic environment of the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The OTS consists of a WaveScope Shack-Hartmann sensor from Adaptive Optics Associates as the main instrument, a Point Diffraction Interferometer (PDI), a Point Spread Function (PSF) imager, an alignment system, a Leica Disto Pro distance measurement instrument, and a laser source palette (632.8 nm wavelength) that is fiber-coupled to the sensor instruments. All of the instruments except the laser source palette are located on a single breadboard known as the Wavefront Sensor Pallet (WSP). The WSP is located on top of a 5-DOF motion system located at the center of curvature of the test mirror. Two PC's are used to control the OTS. The error in the figure measurement is dominated by the WaveScope's measurement error. An analysis using the absolute wavefront gradient error of 1/50 wave P-V (at 0.6328 microns) provided by the manufacturer leads to a total surface figure measurement error of approximately 1/100 wave rms. This easily meets the requirement of 1/10 wave P-V. The error in radius of curvature is dominated by the Leica's absolute measurement error of VI.5 mm and the focus setting error of Vi.4 mm, giving an overall error of V2 mm. The OTS is currently being used to test the NGST Mirror System Demonstrators (NMSD's) and the Subscale Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (SBNM).

  17. Competency Testing and the Exceptional Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Stanley L.

    Recommendations are made by the Illinois Council for Exceptional Children regarding minimal competency testing (MCT) for handicapped children. The position endorses the use of the individualized education program (IEP) as the most appropriate device to insure an appropriate education for handicapped children. Legal issues involving discrimination…

  18. Developmental toxicity of thyroid-active compounds in a zebrafish embryotoxicity test.

    PubMed

    Jomaa, Barae; Hermsen, Sanne A B; Kessels, Maurijn Y; van den Berg, Johannes H J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Piersma, Aldert H; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos were exposed to concentration ranges of selected thyroid-active model compounds in order to assess the applicability of zebrafish-based developmental scoring systems withinan alternative testing strategy to detect the developmental toxicity ofthyroid-active compounds. Model compounds tested included triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU), methimazole (MMI), sodium perchlorate (NaClO4) and amiodarone hydrochloride (AMI), selected to represent different modes of action affecting thyroid activity. Tested time windows included 48-120 hours post fertilization (hpf), 0-72 hpf and 0-120 hpf. All tested compounds resulted in developmental changes, with T3 being the most potent. The developmental parameters affected included reflective iridophores, beat and glide swimming, inflated swim bladders, as well as resorbed yolk sacs. These effects are only evident by 120 hpf and therefore an existing General Morphology Score (GMS) system was extended to create a General Developmental Score(GDS) that extends beyond the 72 hpfscoring limit of GMS and includes additional parameters that are affected by exposure to model thyroid-active compounds. Moreover, the GDS is cumulative as it includes not only the scoring of developmental morphologies but also integrates developmental dysmorphologies. Exposures from 48-120 hpf did not provide additional information to exposures from 0-120 hpf. The results indicate that the zebrafish GDS can detect the developmental toxicity of thyroid toxicants and may be of use in an integrated testing strategy to reduce, refine and in certain cases replace animal testing. PMID:24793664

  19. Developmental toxicity testing for safety assessment: new approaches and technologies.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Thomas B; Kavlock, Robert J; Daston, George P; Stedman, Donald; Hixon, Mary; Kim, James H

    2011-10-01

    The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee held a 2-day workshop entitled "Developmental Toxicology-New Directions" in April 2009. The fourth session of this workshop focused on new approaches and technologies for the assessment of developmental toxicology. This session provided an overview of the application of genomics technologies for developmental safety assessment, the use of mouse embryonic stem cells to capture data on developmental toxicity pathways, dynamical cell imaging of zebrafish embryos, the use of computation models of development pathways and systems, and finally, high-throughput in vitro approaches being utilized by the EPA ToxCast program. Issues discussed include the challenges of anchoring in vitro predictions to relevant in vivo endpoints and the need to validate pathway-based predictions with targeted studies in whole animals. Currently, there are 10,000 to 30,000 chemicals in world-wide commerce in need of hazard data for assessing potential health risks. The traditional animal study designs for assessing developmental toxicity cannot accommodate the evaluation of this large number of chemicals, requiring that alternative technologies be utilized. Though a daunting task, technologies are being developed and utilized to make that goal reachable. PMID:21770025

  20. Reciprocal Influences between Developmental Transitions and Parent-Child Relationships in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masche, J. Gowert

    2008-01-01

    Inconsistent findings exist on the effects of young adult-parent relationships on developmental status transitions into adulthood. Such transitions in turn predicted less conflicted and closer young adult-parent relationships. But systematic investigations of reciprocal effects between developmental transitions and young adult-parent relationships…

  1. Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD): First psychometric evaluation of a new child and parenting assessment tool for children with a developmental disability.

    PubMed

    Emser, Theresa S; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Christiansen, Hanna; Sanders, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD), a brief inventory for assessing emotional and behavioral problems of children with developmental disabilities aged 2- to 16-years, as well as caregivers' self-efficacy in managing these problems. A sample of 636 parents participated in the study. Children's ages ranged from 2 to 15. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 21-item, three-factor model of CAPES-DD child adjustment with 13 items describing behavioral (10 items) and emotional (3 items) problems and 8 items describing prosocial behavior. Three additional items were included due to their clinical usefulness and contributed to a Total Problem Score. Factor analyses also supported a 16-item, one factor model of CAPES-DD self-efficacy. Psychometric evaluation of the CAPES-DD revealed scales had satisfactory to very good internal consistency, as well as very good convergent and predictive validity. The instrument is to be in the public domain and free for practitioners and researchers to use. Potential uses of the measure and implications for future validation studies are discussed. PMID:26921524

  2. Preschool Developmental Screening with Denver II Test in Semi-Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eratay, Emine; Bayoglu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and reliability of screening semi-urban preschool children with Denver II, developmental and neurological status was examined in relation with one-year outcome. Methodology: Denver II developmental screening test was applied to 583 children who visited family physicians or other health centers in a province of…

  3. Effects of a Developmental Boot Camp: Improving Student Performance on a College Placement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Heather H.

    2012-01-01

    Nationwide, students are entering college unprepared for college-level work. Recent high school graduates are placing into developmental courses at an alarming rate. The purpose of this research study is to examine the effect of a developmental boot camp on standardized placement test scores of students enrolling at a community college in North…

  4. Genetic Moderation of Early Child-Care Effects on Social Functioning Across Childhood: A Developmental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Pluess, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Data from 508 Caucasian children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development shows that the DRD4 (but not 5-HTTLPR) polymorphism moderates the effect of child-care quality (but not quantity or type) on caregiver-reported externalizing problems at 54 months and in kindergarten and teacher-reported social skills at kindergarten and…

  5. Mother-Child Attachment and Preschool Behavior Problems in Children with Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMont, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Secure mother-child attachment has been found to be an important factor in the healthy emotional development of children and has been shown to have effects on child, adolescent, and adult behavior. Previous research has primarily focused on attachment in children who are typically developing. However, little research has been conducted in…

  6. Pilot Testing Behavior Therapy for Chronic Tic Disorders in Neurology and Developmental Pediatrics Clinics.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Emily J; Gilbert, Donald L; Zinner, Samuel H; Mink, Jonathan W; Lipps, Tara D; Wiegand, Geoffrey A; Vierhile, Amy E; Ely, Laura J; Piacentini, John; Walkup, John T; Woods, Douglas W

    2016-03-01

    Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT) is an efficacious treatment with limited regional availability. As neurology and pediatric clinics are often the first point of therapeutic contact for individuals with tics, the present study assessed preliminary treatment response, acceptability, and feasibility of an abbreviated version, modified for child neurology and developmental pediatrics clinics. Fourteen youth (9-17) with Tourette disorder across 2 child neurology clinics and one developmental pediatrics clinic participated in a small case series. Clinician-rated tic severity (Yale Global Tic Severity Scale) decreased from pre- to posttreatment, z = -2.0, P < .05, r = -.48, as did tic-related impairment, z = -2.4, P < .05, r = -.57. Five of the 9 completers (56%) were classified as treatment responders. Satisfaction ratings were high, and therapeutic alliance ratings were moderately high. Results provide guidance for refinement of this modified CBIT protocol. PMID:26271790

  7. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  8. Development of a test battery (NPM-X) for neuropsychological and neuromotor examination of children with developmental disabilities or mental retardation. A theoretical and clinical study.

    PubMed

    Gjaerum, B

    1997-01-01

    Biological and behavioural diagnosis often do not provide information on functional competence. This is, however, of utmost importance in planning services as well as in research on treatment effects for children with developmental disorders. For school-aged children neuropsychological assessment has proved its value in this respect. For children of chronological age (CA) below 5-7 with specific developmental disabilities, and for children with severe mental retardation there has been a lack of applicable test batteries. This thesis presents a new test battery for neuropsychological and neuromotor examination, NPM-X, for these two groups of children. The first part of the thesis reviews available medical and psychological tests and assessment procedures with respect to applicability and relevance for neuropsychological assessment to children with mental retardation and mental age (MA) below 7. The second part describes the theoretical background and the content of the new test battery. The methodology for testing these children, who due to their age and/or their developmental disabilities often co-operate poorly, is described. Scoring categories, specifically developed to enable a detailed and differentiated description of the child, are presented. Because of the instability of the behavioural function in early age as well as in cases of severe disability, the scoring system records both the child's optimal functional capacity and inconsistencies in behaviour. For the purpose of planning treatment and training according to the child's resources as well as dysfunctions, two different functional profiles are provided. In the normative functional profile the child's functional level is compared to normal expectations for the child's CA, and in the ideographic functional profile the child's function in each area is compared to the child's average functional level. In the third part of the thesis the reliability results are presented and discussed. A pair of trained M

  9. Testing reality during adolescence: the contribution of Erikson's concepts of fidelity and developmental actuality.

    PubMed

    Browning, Deborah L

    2011-07-01

    The process of reality testing can be thought of as a lifespan developmental line, where adolescence provides a critical developmental advance but not an endpoint. Erikson's concepts of fidelity and developmental actuality provide a frame of reference for considering this. Three means of reality testing are identified--contemplation, action, and conversation--where these modes of approach can be used separately or in concert to clarify the reality status of situations and phenomena. These methods of testing reality are illustrated within four arenas of adolescent functioning-thought, time, parental representations, and the experience of the embodied self. PMID:21874992

  10. Developmental milestones record

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the early years is to follow your child's development. Most parents also watch for different milestones. Talk ... child's provider if you have concerns about your child's development. Closely watching a "checklist" or calendar of developmental ...

  11. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171... Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a) The... and they can be of either sex. The subjects must be within the ranges of weight and height...

  12. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171... Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a) The... and they can be of either sex. The subjects must be within the ranges of weight and height...

  13. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171... Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a) The... and they can be of either sex. The subjects must be within the ranges of weight and height...

  14. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171... Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a) The... and they can be of either sex. The subjects must be within the ranges of weight and height...

  15. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Immersion Suits § 160.171-19 Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a)...

  16. ADAPTING THE MEDAKA EMBRYO ASSAY TO A HIGH-THROUGHPUT APPROACH FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY TESTING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical exposure during embryonic development may cause persistent effects, yet developmental toxicity data exist for very few chemicals. Current testing procedures are time consuming and costly, underlining the need for rapid and low cost screening strategies. While in vitro ...

  17. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING GUIDELINES: A QUALIFICATIVE RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF POSITIVE CONTROL DATA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline calls for both functional and neuropathological assessments in offspring during and following maternal exposure. This guideline also requires data from positive control (PC) agents. Submission of these data permit e...

  18. Current Practices and Future Trends in Neuropathology Assessment for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The continuing education course on "Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing" (DNT) was designed to communicate current practices for DNT neuropathology, describe promising innovations in quantitative analysis and non-invasive imaging, and facilitate a discussion among experienced neu...

  19. Precursors of Adolescent Substance Use from Early Childhood and Early Adolescence: Testing a Developmental Cascade Model

    PubMed Central

    Sitnick, Stephanie; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hyde, Luke

    2013-01-01

    This study examined developmentally-salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting, maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers’ depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24029248

  20. Psychometric Characteristics of a Measure of Emotional Dispositions Developed to Test a Developmental Propensity Model of Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Applegate, Brooks; Chronis, Andrea M.; Jones, Heather A.; Williams, Stephanie Hall; Loney, Jan; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2010-01-01

    Lahey and Waldman (2003; 2005) proposed a developmental propensity model in which three dimensions of children's emotional dispositions are hypothesized to transact with the environment to influence risk for conduct disorder, heterogeneity in conduct disorder, and comorbidity with other disorders. To prepare for future tests of this model, a new measure of these dispositions was tested. Exploratory factor analysis of potential items was conducted in a sample of 1,358 4-17 year olds. Confirmatory factor analyses then confirmed the three dispositional dimensions in a second sample of 2,063 pairs of 6-17 year old twins. Caretaker ratings of the dispositional dimensions were associated as predicted with symptoms of conduct disorder and other psychopathology. In a third sample, caretaker ratings of each disposition correlated uniquely with relevant observational measures of child behavior and unintentional injuries. These findings provide initial support for the new dispositional measure. PMID:18991130

  1. Preclinical testing for teratogenicity and developmental toxicity: methods and limitations.

    PubMed

    Barrow, P C

    2002-01-01

    With regard to the risk of reproductive or developmental toxicity, the regulatory decisions to allow clinical trials in humans or the marketing of a new drug are based almost entirely on animal data. This is not the case for other types of toxicity for which the preclinical data are supported by data from clinical trials. Whilst animal studies have been remarkably successful in the detection of reproductive toxicology over the last 40 years, they are not infallible. The efficacy of animal experimentation is largely dependent on the selection of appropriate animal models. Progress in the study of teratogenic mechanisms, comparative physiology, developmental biology and pharmacokinetics will hopefully continue to bring about more economical and effective uses of animals. Nevertheless, owing to the limitations of animal models, the monitoring of human births unfortunately remains an essential defence in the detection and early prevention of chemical-induced birth defects. PMID:12185956

  2. The Course of Childhood Anxiety Symptoms: Developmental Trajectories and Child-Related Factors in Normal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broeren, Suzanne; Muris, Peter; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Baker, Jess R.

    2013-01-01

    This three-wave longitudinal study explored developmental trajectories for various types of childhood anxiety symptoms (i.e., specific fears, social anxiety, generalized anxiety, and separation anxiety) and examined how these trajectories were associated with several factors thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety. Parents of a…

  3. Paternal versus Maternal Coping Styles with Child Diagnosis of Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak-Levy, Yael; Atzaba-Poria, Na'ama

    2013-01-01

    Parents of children with disabilities vary in their reaction to their children's diagnosis. The current study focused on fathers in addition to mothers and examined their resolution and coping styles when having children diagnosed with developmental delay (DD). Sixty-five fathers and 71 mothers were interviewed using the reaction to the diagnosis…

  4. Teaching Independent Eating to a Developmentally Handicapped Child Showing Chronic Food Refusal and Disruption at Mealtimes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, Judy; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A successful intervention to establish independent eating behaviors in a developmentally handicapped, autistic-like three-year-old involved teaching appropriate behavior in a hospital setting (where he was being treated for dehydration and malnutrition) and then teaching his mother to implement the strategies at home. Skills were maintained at…

  5. Identification and Differential Diagnosis of Developmental Speech Problems in a Bilingual Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzivinikou, Sotiria

    2005-01-01

    The present, multi-method (methodological triangulation), case study aimed to investigate whether it is possible to obtain a differential diagnosis between the speech problems derived from bilingualism, and the developmental speech problems of an Albanian eight-year-old boy who attended a public primary school in Greece. Although there existed…

  6. Developmental Levels and Suggested Learning Activities for the Visually Impaired Preschool Child. A Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Lois, Comp.

    The paper presents developmental charts detailing the needs and patterns of very young visually impaired children. Five age levels are considered (0-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-.25 years, 2.5-4 years, and 4-5 years) within the context of auditory awareness, body image, development of meaningful language, tactual awareness and manipulative skills,…

  7. The Profoundly Handicapped Child: Assessing Sensorimotor and Communication Abilities. Working Papers in Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fieber, Nancy

    The paper addresses the assessment of sensorimotor and communication skills in profoundly/multiply handicapped children. The problems inherent in assessing this population are described, including lack of validity of developmental norms established on children with intact sensory systems. Factors affecting sensory organization are reviewed,…

  8. Was Pre-Modern Man a Child? The Quintessence of the Psychometric and Developmental Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W.

    2012-01-01

    The essay integrates the psychometric intelligence approach with the cognitive-developmental approach or the stage theory erected by Piaget and his disciples. The latter led to Piagetian Cross-Cultural Psychology and the accumulation of an immense body of data. It shows that different IQ levels are indicative of the peculiar stages of cognitive…

  9. Parent-child shared time from middle childhood to late adolescence: developmental course and adjustment correlates.

    PubMed

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M; Crouter, Ann C

    2012-11-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across adolescence, but dyadic time with mothers and fathers peaked in early and middle adolescence, respectively. In addition, secondborns' social time declined more slowly than firstborns', and gendered time use patterns were more pronounced in boys and in opposite-sex sibling dyads. Finally, youths who spent more dyadic time with their fathers, on average, had higher general self-worth, and changes in social time with fathers were positively linked to changes in social competence. PMID:22925042

  10. Parent-Child Shared Time From Middle Childhood to Late Adolescence: Developmental Course and Adjustment Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across adolescence, but dyadic time with mothers and fathers peaked in early and middle adolescence, respectively. Additionally, secondborns’ social time declined more slowly than firstborns’, and gendered time use patterns were more pronounced in boys and in opposite-sex sibling dyads. Finally, youths who spent more dyadic time with their fathers, on average, had higher general self-worth, and changes in social time with fathers were positively linked to changes in social competence. PMID:22925042

  11. The Debate over the Young "Disadvantaged Child": Preschool Intervention, Developmental Psychology, and Compensatory Education in the 1960s and Early 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    I focus on the role of preschool intervention and developmental psychology researchers in defining the concept of the "disadvantaged child" and in designing and evaluating remedies to alleviate educational "disadvantages" in young children. I argue that preschool interventions concentrated especially on compensating for supposedly deficient…

  12. Socialization and the Child Rearing Practice. [Proceedings from the] Fenno-Hungarian Conference on Developmental Psychology (4th, Debrecen, Hungary, October 4-6, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar-Kadar, Julia, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The fourth meeting of the Fenno-Hungarian Conferences on Developmental Psychology had as its theme "Socialization and the Child-Rearing Practice. The conference consisted of three Symposia. The first symposium, "Results of the collaborations on the basis of the series of the Fenno-Hungarian conferences," contains the following papers; (1)…

  13. Predicting Mental Health among Mothers of School-Aged Children with Developmental Disabilities: The Relative Contribution of Child, Maternal and Environmental Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Pallant, Julie F.; Law, Mary; Howie, Linsey

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Many mothers of children with developmental disabilities are known to experience high levels of stress, and compromised mental health. Research is crucial to better understand and assist mothers with compromised mental health, and ultimately better service families raising and supporting a child with a disability. Method: Data were collected…

  14. The Effectiveness of a Group Triple P with Chinese Parents Who Have a Child with Developmental Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Fan, Angel; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of Group Triple P, a Level 4 variant of the Triple P multilevel system of parenting support, with Chinese parents who had a preschool aged child with a developmental disability, using randomized controlled trial design. Participants (Intervention group: 42; Waitlist Control group: 39) completed measures on…

  15. Trauma Adapted Family Connections: Reducing Developmental and Complex Trauma Symptomatology to Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathryn S.; Strieder, Frederick H.; DePanfilis, Diane; Tabor, Maureen; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela A.; Linde, Linnea; Greenberg, Patty

    2011-01-01

    Families living in urban poverty, enduring chronic and complex traumatic stress, and having difficulty meeting their children's basic needs have significant child maltreatment risk factors. There is a paucity of family focused, trauma-informed evidence-based interventions aimed to alleviate trauma symptomatology, strengthen family functioning, and…

  16. What Happened to My Child? Unknown Causes of Developmental Disability and Research in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pevsner, Jonathan; Silverman, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    At one time or the other, virtually every parent has gone to the doctor concerned about his or her child. Thanks to the advances of modern medicine, the doctor can diagnose the problem most of the time and treat it successfully. Many potential problems, some life-threatening like diphtheria and neural tube defects, can even be prevented altogether…

  17. Observing Purchase-Related Parent-Child Communication in Retail Environments: A Developmental and Socialization Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2008-01-01

    In a quantitative observation study, we unobtrusively examined purchase-related communication between 0- to 12-year-old children and their parents (N = 269 dyads) during supermarket and toy store visits. The aims of the study were to determine (a) the development of purchase-related parent-child communication (i.e., children's purchase influence…

  18. Variations in Latino Parenting Practices and Their Effects on Child Cognitive Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Von Figueroa-Moseley, Colmar; Ramey, Craig T.; Keltner, Bette; Lanzi, Robin G.

    2006-01-01

    This research examines variations in parenting and its effects on child cognitive outcomes across Latino subgroups from a national sampling that utilized a subset of 995 former Head Start Latino parents and children. Comparisons of the Parenting Dimension Inventory scaled scores revealed Latino subgroup differences on nurturance and consistency.…

  19. Head impact mechanisms of a child occupant seated in a child restraint system as determined by impact testing.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryoichi; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Mizuno, Koji; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Hosokawa, Naruyuki

    2011-11-01

    In side collision accidents, the head is the most frequently injured body region for child occupants seated in a child restraint system (CRS). Accident analyses show that a child's head can move out of the CRS shell, make hard contact with the vehicle interior, and thus sustain serious injuries. In order to improve child head protection in side collisions, it is necessary to understand the injury mechanism of a child in the CRS whose head makes contact with the vehicle interior. In this research, an SUV-to-car oblique side crash test was conducted to reconstruct such head contacts. A Q3s child dummy was seated in a CRS in the rear seat of the target car. The Q3s child dummy's head moved out beyond the CRS side wing, moved laterally, and made contact with the side window glass and the doorsill. It was demonstrated that the hard head contact, which produced a high HIC value, could occur in side collisions. A series of sled tests was carried out to reproduce the dummy kinematic behavior observed in the SUV-to-car crash test, and the sled test conditions such as sled angle, ECE seat slant angle and velocity-time history that duplicated the kinematic behavior were determined. A parametric study also was conducted with the sled tests; and it was found that the impact angle, harness slack, chest clip, and the CRS side wing shape affected the torso motion and head contact with the vehicle interior. PMID:22869307

  20. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Screening and Prioritization of Chemicals for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and gUidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemic...

  1. A developmental approach to the risk of a first recurrence in child protective services.

    PubMed

    Hélie, Sonia; Laurier, Catherine; Pineau-Villeneuve, Catherine; Royer, Marie-Noële

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the risk of a first recurrence over a five-year period following initial child protective services (CPS) intervention and identify the characteristics associated with the risk of recurrence for three different age groups. Recurrence is defined as the first substantiated report within the observation period after initial services have ended. The study involved a cohort of 25,897 Quebec children who received postinvestigation services for the first time and whose cases were closed between 2005 and 2009. Survival analysis was used to estimate the five-year risk of recurrence and Cox regression to model the risk of recurrence for three age groups. The covariates introduced into the regression analyses were characteristics of the child and initial services. The risk of recurrence in the five years following termination of initial CPS services was 36% for the entire cohort and varied depending on the child's age at the time of case closure. Children aged 6-11 when their cases were closed had the highest risk of recurrence. Although Aboriginal descent and prior CPS investigations have a consistent effect on the risk of recurrence in all three age groups, the effects of other covariates, such as out-of-home placement and court involvement, vary or are even reversed, depending on the child's age. These findings highlight the need to adopt a differential approach that takes into account the child's age, both in the provision of protective services and in research involving the population receiving such services. PMID:23768933

  2. Does Successful Attainment of Developmental Tasks Lead to Happiness and Success in Later Developmental Tasks? A Test of Havighurst's (1948) Theses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Gelhaar, Tim

    2008-01-01

    This study tested Havighurst's (1948) contention that successful attainment of age-specific developmental tasks leads to happiness and success in achieving subsequent tasks. A longitudinal study on 146 participants was carried out to investigate the links between developmental progression in adolescence and young adulthood and happiness, which was…

  3. Cognitive rehabilitation in a child with Joubert Syndrome: Developmental trends and adaptive changes in a single case report.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Chiara; Brenna, Viola; Romaniello, Romina; Arrigoni, Filippo; Tavano, Alessandro; Romani, Marta; Valente, Enza Maria; Borgatti, Renato

    2015-12-01

    We report the clinical and rehabilitative follow up of M, a female child carrying a compound heterozygous pathogenic mutations in the TCTN1 gene and affected by Joubert Syndrome (JS). JS is a congenital cerebellar ataxia characterized by "the molar tooth sign" on axial MRI, a pathognomonic neuroradiological malformation involving the cerebellum and brainstem. JS presents with high phenotypic/cognitive variability, and little is known about cognitive rehabilitation programs. We describe the therapeutic settings, intensive rehabilitation targets and outcome indexes in M's cognitive development. Using a single case evidence-based approach, we attempt to distinguish the effectiveness of the intervention from the overall developmental trend. We assume that an adequate amount of focused, goal directed treatment in a relative short period of time can be at least as effective as one provided in longer time, and much less interfering with the child's everyday life. We conclude by discussing specific issues in cognitive development and rehabilitation in JS and, more broadly, in cerebellar malformations. PMID:26489806

  4. Child Anxiety Symptoms Related to Longitudinal Cortisol Trajectories and Acute Stress Responses: Evidence of Developmental Stress Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.; Wright, Dorianne B.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children’s (n=107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9–10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress—reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure—may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. PMID:25688433

  5. Mutual influences between child emotion regulation and parent-child reciprocity support development across the first 10 years of life: Implications for developmental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth

    2015-11-01

    Elucidating the mechanisms by which infant birth conditions shape development across lengthy periods is critical for understanding typical and pathological development and for targeted early interventions. This study examined how newborns' regulatory capacities impact 10-year outcomes via the bidirectional influences of child emotion regulation (ER) and reciprocal parenting across early development. Guided by dynamic systems theory, 125 infants were tested at seven time points: birth, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months and 5 and 10 years. Initial regulatory conditions were measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; vagal tone) and neurobehavioral regulation (Brazelton, 1973) at birth. At each assessment between 3 months and 5 years, infant ER was microcoded from age-appropriate paradigms and mother-child reciprocity observed during social interactions. Four regulation-related outcomes were measured at 10 years: child RSA, empathy measured by mother-child conflict discussion and a lab paradigm, accident proneness, and behavior problems. An autoregressive cross-lagged structural model indicated that infant birth conditions impacted 10-year outcomes via three mechanisms. First, child ER and reciprocal parenting were individually stable across development and were each predicted by regulatory birth conditions, describing gradual maturation of ER and reciprocity over time. Second, better ER skills at one time point were related to greater reciprocity at the next time point and vice versa, and these cross-time effects defined a field of individual-context mutual influences that mediated the links between neonatal RSA and 10-year outcomes. Third, direct associations emerged between neonatal regulation and outcome, suggesting that birth conditions may establish a neurobiological milieu that promotes a more mature and resilient system. These mechanisms describe distinct "attractor" states that constrain the system's future options, emphasize the importance of defining behavior

  6. Revolutionizing Toxicity Testing For Predicting Developmental Outcomes (DNT4)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterizing risk from environmental chemical exposure currently requires extensive animal testing; however, alternative approaches are being researched to increase throughput of chemicals screened, decrease reliance on animal testing, and improve accuracy in predicting adverse...

  7. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of TSCA and in 40 CFR Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice Standards... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false TSCA reproduction/developmental... AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9355 TSCA...

  8. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of TSCA and in 40 CFR Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice Standards... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false TSCA reproduction/developmental... AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9355 TSCA...

  9. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of TSCA and in 40 CFR Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice Standards... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false TSCA reproduction/developmental... AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9355 TSCA...

  10. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of TSCA and in 40 CFR Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice Standards... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true TSCA reproduction/developmental... AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9355 TSCA...

  11. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of TSCA and in 40 CFR Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice Standards... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false TSCA reproduction/developmental... AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9355 TSCA...

  12. Developmental trajectory from early responses to transgressions to future antisocial behavior: Evidence for the role of the parent-child relationship from two longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna; Boldt, Lea J.; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; O’Bleness, Jessica J.

    2014-01-01

    Parent-child relationships are critical in development, but much remains to be learned about mechanisms of their impact. We examined early parent-child relationship as a moderator of the developmental trajectory from children’s affective and behavioral responses to transgressions to future antisocial, externalizing behavior problems in Family Study (102 community mothers, fathers, and infants, followed through age 8) and Play Study (186 low-income, diverse mothers and toddlers, followed for 10 months). The relationship quality was indexed by attachment security in Family Study and maternal responsiveness in Play Study. Responses to transgressions (tense discomfort and reparation) were observed in laboratory mishaps that led children to believe they had damaged a valued object. Antisocial outcomes were rated by parents. In both studies, early relationship moderated the future developmental trajectory: Children’s attenuated tense discomfort predicted more antisocial outcomes, but only in insecure or unresponsive relationships. That risk was defused in secure or responsive relationships. Moderated mediation analyses in Family Study indicated that the links between low tense discomfort and future antisocial behavior in insecure parent-child dyads were mediated by parental stronger discipline pressure. By influencing indirectly future developmental sequelae, early relationship may increase or decrease the probability that the parent-child dyad will embark on a path toward antisocial outcomes. PMID:24280347

  13. Developmental Testing of Electric Thrust Vector Control Systems for Manned Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Lisa B.; Young, David T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent developmental testing to verify the integration of a developmental electromechanical actuator (EMA) with high rate lithium ion batteries and a cross platform extensible controller. Testing was performed at the Thrust Vector Control Research, Development and Qualification Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. Electric Thrust Vector Control (ETVC) systems like the EMA may significantly reduce recurring launch costs and complexity compared to heritage systems. Electric actuator mechanisms and control requirements across dissimilar platforms are also discussed with a focus on the similarities leveraged and differences overcome by the cross platform extensible common controller architecture.

  14. The behavioral neurogenetics of fragile X syndrome: analyzing gene-brain-behavior relationships in child developmental psychopathologies.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Allan L; Dant, Christopher C

    2003-01-01

    Analyzing gene-brain-behavior linkages in childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, a research approach called "behavioral neurogenetics," has provided new insights into understanding how both genetic and environmental factors contribute to complex variations in typical and atypical human development. Research into etiologically more homogeneous disorders, such as fragile X syndrome, in particular, allows the use of more precise metrics of genetic risk so that we can more fully understand the complex pathophysiology of childhood onset neurodevelopmental disorders. In this paper, we review our laboratory's behavioral neurogenetics research by examining gene-brain-behavior relationships in fragile X syndrome, a single-gene disorder that has become a well-characterized model for studying neurodevelopmental dysfunction in childhood. Specifically, we examine genetic influences, trajectories of cognition and behavior, variation in brain structure and function, and biological and environmental factors that influence developmental and cognitive outcomes of children with fragile X. The converging approaches across these multilevel scientific domains indicate that fragile X, which arises from disruption of a single gene leading to the loss of a specific protein, is associated with a cascade of aberrations in neurodevelopment, resulting in a central nervous system that is suboptimal with respect to structure and function. In turn, structural and functional brain alterations lead to early disruption in emotion, cognition, and behavior in the child with fragile X. The combination of molecular genetics, neuroimaging, and behavioral research have advanced our understanding of the linkages between genetic variables, neurobiological measures, IQ, and behavior. Our research and that of others demonstrates that neurobehavior and neurocognition, genetics, and neuroanatomy are all different views of the same intriguing biological puzzle, a puzzle that today is rapidly emerging into a

  15. Wake-up test in total hip arthroplasty with high-riding developmental dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun-Hui; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Sung, Chun-Sung; Wu, Po-Kuei; Chen, Cheng-Fong; Liu, Chien-Lin; Chen, Wei-Ming

    2014-07-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) for patients with Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip is technically challenging. This group of patients has a higher incidence of nerve injury during THA. Although neurophysiologic intraoperative monitoring has been developed to provide nerve monitoring, it is not always available. The wake-up test has been used for intraoperative spinal cord monitoring during major spinal surgery, but no study has reported the use of the wake-up test for neurologic monitoring during THA in patients with severe developmental dysplasia of the hip. The authors retrospectively reviewed 22 THA procedures in 20 patients with Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip who underwent the wakeup test during THA. In the current study, 1 patient could not dorsiflex her foot during the wake-up test. Therefore, the authors immediately reduced the length of limb lengthening by 1 cm. Postoperative drop foot and numbness occurred but resolved completely 2 months later. None of the patients who showed no deficits in motion of the feet during the intraoperative wake-up test had signs of postoperative nerve injury. In the current study, there was no false-positive or false-negative finding. The authors concluded that the wake-up test, which is simple, safe, and reliable, is a useful technique and a possible alternative to neurophysiologic intraoperative monitoring in checking nerve function during THA in patients with severe developmental dysplasia of the hip. PMID:24992057

  16. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception-Third Edition (DTVP-3): A Review, Critique, and Practice Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ted; Murdolo, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    The "Developmental Test of Visual Perception-Third Edition" (DTVP-3) is a recent revision of the "Developmental Test of Visual Perception-Second Edition" (DTVP-2). The DTVP-3 is designed to assess the visual perceptual and/or visual-motor integration skills of children from 4 to 12 years of age. The test is standardized using…

  17. Genetic testing in patients with global developmental delay / intellectual disabilities. A review

    PubMed Central

    MICLEA, DIANA; PECA, LOREDANA; CUZMICI, ZINA; POP, IOAN VICTOR

    2015-01-01

    Genetic factors are responsible for up to 40% developmental disability cases, such as global developmental delay/intellectual disability (GDD/DI). The American and more recently the European guidelines on this group of diseases state that genetic testing is essential and should become a standardized diagnostic practice. The main arguments for the necessity of implementing such a practice are: (1) the high prevalence of developmental disabilities (3% of the population); (2) the high genetic contribution to this type of pathology; (3) insufficient referral for genetic consultation. In an attempt to address these issues, the purpose of this paper is to present the genetic etiology of global developmental delay / intellectual disability with emphasis on the need to implement a genetic testing protocol for the patients with GDD/DI, as indicated by the current guidelines. Chromosomal abnormalities and fragile X syndrome are the most frequent causes of developmental disabilities and the techniques employed to detect such genetic disorders should be used as first line investigations of GDD/DI. PMID:26609258

  18. HTI CONE PENETROMETER PROBES PREPARATION DEVELOPMENTAL TESTING REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    IWATATE, D.F.

    1998-10-26

    The HTI subsurface characterization task will use the Hanford Cone Penetrometer platform (CPP) to deploy soil sensor and sampling probes into the vadose zone/soils around AX-104 during FY-99. This report provides the data and information compiled during vendor field development tests and laboratory/bench checkout. This document is a vendor deliverable item identified in the ARA Statement of Work HNF-2881, Revision 1. This version of the DTR includes to-be-determined items and some incomplete sections. The Rev. 0 is being released to support the concurrent task of procedure preparation and Qualification Test Plan preparation. Revision 1 is planned to contain all data and information.

  19. Developmental transitions in presentations of externalizing problems among boys and girls at risk for child maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    VILLODAS, MIGUEL T.; LITROWNIK, ALAN J.; THOMPSON, RICHARD; JONES, DEBORAH; ROESCH, SCOTT C.; HUSSEY, JON M.; BLOCK, STEPHANIE; ENGLISH, DIANA J.; DUBOWITZ, HOWARD

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of children’s maltreatment experiences on the emergence of externalizing problem presentations among children during different developmental periods. The sample included 788 youth and their caregivers who participated in a multisite, prospective study of youth at-risk for maltreatment. Externalizing problems were assessed at ages 4, 8, and 12, and symptoms and diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder were assessed at age 14, during interviews with youth and caregivers. Information about maltreatment allegations was coded from official records. Latent transition analysis identified three groups of youth with similar presentations of externalizing problems (“well adjusted,” “hyperactive/oppositional,” and “aggressive/rule-breaking”) and transitions between groups from ages 4, 8, and 12. A “defiant/deceitful” group also emerged at age 12. Girls were generally more likely to present as well adjusted than boys. Children with recent physical abuse allegations had an increased risk for aggressive/rule-breaking presentations during the preschool and preadolescent years, while children with sexual abuse or neglect allegations had lower probabilities of having well-adjusted presentations during middle childhood. These findings indicate that persistently severe aggressive conduct problems, which are related to the most concerning outcomes, can be identified early, particularly among neglected and physically and sexually abused children. PMID:25045912

  20. Child social skills training in developmental crime prevention: effects on antisocial behavior and social competence.

    PubMed

    Beelmann, Andreas; Lösel, Friedrich

    2006-08-01

    Social skills training for children is becoming increasingly popular as a measure for developmental crime prevention. Although previous reviews of such programs have shown positive effects, they have also revealed problems of research design, outcome measures, and long-term follow up. Accordingly, this article reports on a recent meta-analysis of randomized evaluations of the effect of social skills training in preventing antisocial behavior and promoting social competence. Of 841 retrievable references, 84 research reports with a total of 136 treatment-control comparisons fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Results showed a small but significant overall positive effect of d = .39 at post-intervention and d = .28 at follow-up (3 months and later). Effect sizes were somewhat greater for outcome measures of social competence than for measures of antisocial behavior, particularly when delinquency was assessed. Cognitive-behavioral programs revealed the best results in terms of generalization over time and on outcome criteria. In addition, prevention measures indicated for children and adolescents who already manifested some behavioral problems had higher effect sizes than universal approaches. Because most studies dealt with small sample sizes, non-official outcome data, and measurements after less than one year, the results should be interpreted with caution. Further high-quality studies with long-term empirical outcome criteria are needed, particularly outside the United States. PMID:17296094

  1. MOTOR ACTIVITY IN DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING: A CROSS-LABORATORY COMPARISON OF CONTROL DATA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline (OPPTS 870.6300) calls for a battery of functional and neuropathological assessments in offspring during and following maternal exposure. The battery includes measurement of motor activity on post-natal days (PND) ...

  2. International Space Station Alpha's bearing, motor, and roll ring module developmental testing and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, David L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the design and developmental testing associated with the bearing, motor, and roll ring module (BMRRM) used for the beta rotation axis on International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The BMRRM with its controllers located in the electronic control unit (ECU), provides for the solar array pointing and tracking functions as well as power and signal transfer across a rotating interface.

  3. Conference Report: Advancing the Science of Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing for Better Safety Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Introduction The 3rd International Conference on Alternatives for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT3), organized by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, was held from May 10 -13, 20...

  4. Optimization of high-throughput nanomaterial developmental toxicity testing in zebrafish embryos

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanomaterial (NM) developmental toxicities are largely unknown. With an extensive variety of NMs available, high-throughput screening methods may be of value for initial characterization of potential hazard. We optimized a zebrafish embryo test as an in vivo high-throughput assay...

  5. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Performance in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Chwen-Yng; Su, Jui-Hsing

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the executive functions measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) between children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and age-matched normal controls. A second purpose was to examine the relations between executive functions and school functions in DCD children.…

  6. A Test of Motor (Not Executive) Planning in Developmental Coordination Disorder and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Swieten, Lisa M.; van Bergen, Elsje; Williams, Justin H. G.; Wilson, Andrew D.; Plumb, Mandy S.; Kent, Samuel W.; Mon-Williams, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Grip selection tasks have been used to test "planning" in both autism and developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We differentiate between "motor" and "executive" planning and present a modified motor planning task. Participants grasped a cylinder in 1 of 2 orientations before turning it clockwise or anticlockwise. The rotation resulted in a…

  7. STATISTICAL APPROACH TO BRAIN MORPHOMETRY DATA REQUIRED IN DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY (DNT) TESTING GUIDELINES: PROFILE ANALYSIS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brain morphometry measurements are required in test guidelines proposed by the USEPA to screen chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity. Because the DNT is a screening battery, the analysis of this data should be sensitive to dose-related changes in the pattern of brain growt...

  8. Microarray as a First Genetic Test in Global Developmental Delay: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakadis, Yannis; Shevell, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Microarray technology has a significantly higher clinical yield than karyotyping in individuals with global developmental delay (GDD). Despite this, it has not yet been routinely implemented as a screening test owing to the perception that this approach is more expensive. We aimed to evaluate the effect that replacing karyotype with…

  9. Standardization of the Denver Developmental Screening Test on Infants from Yucatan, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomons, Hope C.

    1982-01-01

    Standardization of the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) on 288 babies raning in age from two to 54 weeks in Yucatan, Mexico, yielded such findings as that subtest scores increased with age, and that the DDST failed to identify a "questionable" 16 or 17 babies with borderline scores on the Bayley Motor Scale. (Author/MC)

  10. Putting Theory to the Test: Modeling a Multidimensional, Developmentally-Based Approach to Preschool Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Carter, Alice S.; Burns, James L.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There is increasing emphasis on dimensional conceptualizations of psychopathology, but empirical evidence of their utility is just emerging. In particular, although a range of multidimensional models have been proposed, the relative fit of competing models has rarely been tested. Furthermore, developmental considerations have received…

  11. Automated testing of developmental satellite communications systems and subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, K. A.; Kerczewski, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Lower frequency bands allocated for satellite communications use are becoming saturated due to steadily increasing demand. An ongoing program to develop the new technologies required to meet the demands of future systems is described. Higher frequency components and more efficient system techniques are developed. In order to accurately evaluate the performance of these technologies, an automated test system was designed and built. The automated system's design an capabilities are discussed.

  12. B-52 Testing Developmental Space Shuttle Drag Chute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A close-up of an experimental drag chute deploying in a cloud of dust behind NASA's B-52 research aircraft just after landing on Rogers Dry Lake, adjacent to the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on a 1990 research flight. The B-52's tests led to the development of a drag chute to help the Space Shuttle land more safely and easily. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover

  13. B-52 Testing Developmental Space Shuttle Drag Chute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A rear view of NASA's B-52 research aircraft deploying an experimental drag chute just after landing on Rogers Dry Lake, adjacent to the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on a 1990 research flight. The B-52's tests led to the development of a drag chute to help the Space Shuttle land more safely and easily. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid

  14. B-52 Testing Developmental Space Shuttle Drag Chute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An aerial view of NASA's B-52 research aircraft deploying an experimental drag chute just after landing on Rogers Dry Lake, adjacent to the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on a 1990 research flight. The B-52's tests led to the development of a drag chute to help the Space Shuttle land more safely and easily. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid

  15. B-52 Testing Developmental Space Shuttle Drag Chute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An experimental drag chute deploys amidst a cloud of dust behind NASA's B-52 research aircraft just after landing on Rogers Dry Lake, adjacent to the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on a 1990 research flight. The B-52's tests led to the development of a drag chute to help the Space Shuttle land more safely and easily. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space

  16. B-52 Testing Developmental Space Shuttle Drag Chute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's B-52 research aircraft deploys an experimental drag chute just after landing the runway at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on a 1990 research flight. The B-52's tests led to the development of a drag chute to help the Space Shuttle land more safely and easily. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also

  17. Pyrethroid insecticide exposure and cognitive developmental disabilities in children: The PELAGIE mother-child cohort.

    PubMed

    Viel, Jean-François; Warembourg, Charline; Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaïd; Lacroix, Agnès; Limon, Gwendolina; Rouget, Florence; Monfort, Christine; Durand, Gaël; Cordier, Sylvaine; Chevrier, Cécile

    2015-09-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used in agriculture and in homes. Despite the neurotoxicity of these insecticides at high doses, few studies have examined whether lower-level exposures could adversely affect children's neurodevelopment. The PELAGIE cohort included 3421 pregnant women from Brittany, France between 2002 and 2006. When their children reached their sixth birthday, 428 mothers from the cohort were randomly selected, successfully contacted and found eligible. A total of 287 (67%) mothers agreed to participate with their children in the neuropsychological follow-up. Two cognitive domains were assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: verbal comprehension and working memory. Five pyrethroid and two organophosphate insecticide metabolites were measured in maternal and child first-void urine samples collected between 6 and 19 gestational weeks and at 6years of age, respectively. Linear regression models were used to estimate associations between cognitive scores and urinary pyrethroid metabolite concentrations, adjusting for organophosphate metabolite concentrations and potential confounders. Maternal prenatal pyrethroid metabolite concentrations were not consistently associated with any children's cognitive scores. By contrast, childhood 3-PBA and cis-DBCA concentrations were both negatively associated with verbal comprehension scores (P-trend=0.04 and P-trend<0.01, respectively) and with working memory scores (P-trend=0.05 and P-trend<0.01, respectively). No associations were observed for the three other childhood pyrethroid metabolite concentrations (4-F-3-PBA, cis-DCCA, and trans-DCCA). Low-level childhood exposures to deltamethrin (as cis-DBCA is its principal and selective metabolite), in particular, and to pyrethroid insecticides, in general (as reflected in levels of the 3-PBA metabolite) may negatively affect neurocognitive development by 6years of age. Whatever their etiology, these cognitive deficits may be of importance

  18. (Positive) power to the child: The role of children's willing stance toward parents in developmental cascades from toddler age to early preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J

    2015-11-01

    In a change from the once-dominant view of children as passive in the parent-led process of socialization, children are now seen as active agents who can considerably influence that process. However, these newer perspectives typically focus on the child's antagonistic influence, due either to a difficult temperament or aversive, resistant, negative behaviors that elicit adversarial responses from the parent and lead to future coercive cascades in the relationship. Children's capacity to act as receptive, willing, even enthusiastic, active socialization agents is largely overlooked. Informed by attachment theory and other relational perspectives, we depict children as able to adopt an active willing stance and to exert robust positive influence in the mutually cooperative socialization enterprise. A longitudinal study of 100 community families (mothers, fathers, and children) demonstrates that willing stance (a) is a latent construct, observable in diverse parent-child contexts, parallel at 38, 52, and 67 months and longitudinally stable; (b) originates within an early secure parent-child relationship at 25 months; and (c) promotes a positive future cascade toward adaptive outcomes at age 10. The outcomes include the parent's observed and child-reported positive, responsive behavior, as well as child-reported internal obligation to obey the parent and parent-reported low level of child behavior problems. The construct of willing stance has implications for basic research in typical socialization and in developmental psychopathology as well as for prevention and intervention. PMID:26439058

  19. (Positive) Power to the Child: The Role of Children's Willing Stance toward Parents in Developmental Cascades from Toddler Age to Early Preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to once dominant views of children as passive in the parent-led process of socialization, they are now seen as active agents who can considerably influence that process. But those newer perspectives typically focus on the child's antagonistic influence, due either to a difficult temperament or aversive, resistant, negative behaviors that elicit adversarial responses from the parent and lead to future coercive cascades in the relationship. Children's capacity to act as receptive, willing, even enthusiastic, active socialization agents is largely overlooked. Informed by attachment theory and other relational perspectives, we depict children as able to adopt an active willing stance and to exert robust positive influence in the mutually cooperative socialization enterprise. A longitudinal study of 100 community families (mothers, fathers, and children) demonstrates that willing stance (a) is a latent construct, observable in diverse parent-child contexts parallel at 38, 52, and 67 months, and longitudinally stable, (b) originates within an early secure parent-child relationship at 25 months, and (c) promotes a positive future cascade toward adaptive outcomes at age 10. The outcomes include the parent's observed and child-reported positive, responsive behavior, as well as child-reported internal obligation to obey the parent and parent-reported low level of child behavior problems. The construct of willing stance has implications for basic research in typical socialization and in developmental psychopathology, and for prevention and intervention. PMID:26439058

  20. [The Developmental Generalizability of Scales Designed to Evaluate Parent-Child Interactions: Technical Reports on the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching and Feeding Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Daniel W.; King, Lynda A.

    This paper presents results of a generalizability assessment of two sets of scales designed to evaluate the quality of verbal and nonverbal interactions between parent and child. The Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS) and Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scales (NCATS) were developed as part of a longitudinal study aimed at…

  1. Parental Stress and Child Behavior and Temperament in the First Year after the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Pal, Sylvia; Maguire, Celeste M.; Le Cessie, Saskia; Veen, Sylvia; Wit, Jan M.; Walther, Frans J.; Bruil, Jeanet

    2008-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial involving 128 infants born prematurely compared basic developmental care (nests and incubator covers) and the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) intervention (behavior observations and guidance by a trained developmental specialist) in relation to effects on parental stress and…

  2. Bilingualism and Performance on Two Widely Used Developmental Neuropsychological Test Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Räsänen, Pekka; Kärnä, Antti; Delatte, Sonia; Lagerström, Emma; Mård, Lena; Steffansson, Mikaela; Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of bilingualism on the two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition (NEPSY-II) in children. The sample consisted of 100 Finland-Swedish children in two age groups. About half (n = 52) of the participants were early simultaneous bilinguals, and the other half (n = 48) were monolinguals. As no Finland-Swedish versions of the tests are available at the moment, both tests were translated and adapted to suit this population. The results revealed no difference in the performance between bilingual and monolingual children. This speaks against a cognitive advantage in bilingual children and indicates that development of separate norms for monolingual and bilingual children is not needed for clinical use. PMID:25922937

  3. Pitfalls in developmental diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Illingworth, R S

    1987-01-01

    I have never seen a paper or chapter of a book devoted to pitfalls and mistakes in developmental diagnosis. This paper is designed to try to fill the gap. It concerns the avoidance of mistakes in developmental diagnosis and is based entirely on mistakes that I have made myself and now learned to try to avoid and on mistakes that I have seen, most of them repeatedly. I have made no mention of mistakes that could theoretically be made but that I have not personally seen. I believe that most assessment errors are due to overconfidence and to the view that developmental diagnosis is easy. Many other mistakes are due to reliance on purely objective tests with consequent omission of a detailed history and physical examination, so that factors that profoundly affect development but are not directly related to the child's mental endowment are not weighed up before an opinion is reached. PMID:2444167

  4. Comparison of the validity of direct pediatric developmental evaluation versus developmental screening by parent report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare the validity of direct pediatric developmental evaluation with developmental screening by parent report, parents completed a developmental screen (the Child Development Review), a pediatrician performed a direct developmental evaluation (Capute Scales), and a psychologist administered the...

  5. Adult headform impact tests of three Japanese child bicycle helmets into a vehicle.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Koji; Ito, Daisuke; Yoshida, Ryoichi; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Fujii, Chikayo

    2014-12-01

    The head is the body region that most frequently incurs fatal and serious injuries of cyclists in collisions against vehicles. Many research studies investigated helmet effectiveness in preventing head injuries using accident data. In this study, the impact attenuation characteristics of three Japanese child bicycle helmets were examined experimentally in impact tests into a concrete surface and a vehicle. A pedestrian adult headform with and without a Japanese child bicycle helmet was dropped onto a concrete surface and then propelled into a vehicle at 35 km/h in various locations such as the bonnet, roof header, windshield and A-pillar. Accelerations were measured and head injury criterion (HIC) calculated. In the drop tests using the adult headform onto a concrete surface from the height of 1.5m, the HIC for a headform without a child helmet was 6325, and was reduced by around 80% when a child helmet was fitted to the headform. In the impact tests, where the headform was fired into the vehicle at 35 km/h at various locations on a car, the computed acceleration based HIC varied depending on the vehicle impact locations. The HIC was reduced by 10-38% for impacts headforms with a child helmet when the impact was onto a bonnet-top and roof header although the HIC was already less than 1000 in impacts with the headform without a child helmet. Similarly, for impacts into the windshield (where a cyclist's head is most frequently impacted), the HIC using the adult headform without a child helmet was 122; whereas when the adult headform was used with a child helmet, a higher HIC value of more than 850 was recorded. But again, the HIC values are below 1000. In impacts into the A-pillar, the HIC was 4816 for a headform without a child helmet and was reduced by 18-38% for a headform with a child helmet depending on the type of Japanese child helmet used. The tests demonstrated that Japanese child helmets are effective in reducing accelerations and HIC in a drop test using

  6. Testing the 8-Syndrome Structure of the Child Behavior Checklist in 30 Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Fombonne, Eric; Fonseca, Antonio Castro; Frigerio, Alessandra; Grietens, Hans; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Larsson, Bo; Leung, Patrick; Liu, Xianchen; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Dumenci, Levent; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Yang, Hao-Jan; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank C.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Almqvist, Fredrik; Weintraub, Sheila; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chen, Wei J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing need for multicultural collaboration in child mental health services, training, and research. To facilitate such collaboration, this study tested the 8-syndrome structure of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in 30 societies. Parents' CBCL ratings of 58,051 6- to 18-year-olds were subjected to confirmatory factor analyses,…

  7. Developmental delay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the child’s nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...

  8. Validity and Reliability of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception - Third Edition (DTVP-3).

    PubMed

    Brown, Ted

    2016-07-01

    The Developmental Test of Visual Perception - Third Edition (DTVP-3) is a recently published revision of a visual perceptual test from the United States, frequently used by occupational therapists. It is important that tests have adequate documented reliability and validity and are evaluated in cross-cultural contexts. The purpose of the study was to assess the reliability and validity of the DTVP-3 when completed by a group of Australian participants. Thirty-nine typically developing children 6-8 years of age completed the DTVP-3 and the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration - 6th edition (VMI-6). The internal consistency of the DVTP-3 was assessed using Cronbach alpha coefficients and the DTVP-3's convergent validity was examined by correlating it with the VMI-6 and its two supplementary tests. The five DTVP-3 subscales' Cronbach alpha coefficients ranged from.60 to.80 while its three composite indexes had coefficients all at the.80 level. The VMI-6 was significantly correlated with the DTVP-3 Figure Ground and Visual Closure subscales and the Motor-Reduced Visual Perception Index (MRVPI). The VMI-6 Visual Perception Supplementary Test was significantly correlated with the DTVP-3 Figure Ground, Visual Closure, Form Constancy, MRVPI, and General Visual Perception Index. The DTVP-3 exhibited acceptable levels of internal consistency and moderate levels of convergent validity with the VMI-6 when completed by a group of Australian children. PMID:26913939

  9. Developmental Continuity and Stability of Emotional Availability in the Family: Two Ages and Two Genders in Child-Mother Dyads from Two Regions in Three Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gini, Motti; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; Heslington, Marianne; de Galperín, Celia Zingman

    2010-01-01

    This study employs an intra-national and cross-national, prospective and longitudinal design to examine age, gender, region, and country variation in group mean-level continuity and individual-differences stability of emotional availability in child-mother dyads. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. American metropolitan and rural residence mothers and their daughters and sons were observed at home when children were 5 and 20 months of age. Similar patterns of continuity and discontinuity of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months were observed across regions and countries, but not between genders. Stability of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months was moderate and similar across genders, regions, and countries. Universal and gender-specific developmental processes in child-mother emotional availability as revealed in intra- and cross-national study are discussed. PMID:20824179

  10. Developmental toxicity testing of biopharmaceuticals in nonhuman primates: previous experience and future directions.

    PubMed

    Martin, Pauline L; Weinbauer, Gerhard F

    2010-12-01

    Developmental toxicity studies for pharmaceutical safety testing are designed to evaluate potential adverse effects of drug treatment on pregnancy and on the developing embryo/fetus. Biopharmaceuticals present specific challenges for developmental toxicity testing because the pharmacology of these molecules, which are frequently human-specific proteins, is often restricted to humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs). For those species-restricted molecules, the only option for the evaluation of potential effects on development of the human biopharmaceutical is to use NHPs. This article reviews each of the stages of development in cynomolgus macaques (the most frequently used NHP) and the potential exposure of the embryo, fetus, and infant following administration of a biopharmaceutical during pregnancy and lactation. Because the purpose of the NHP developmental studies is to identify potential human risks, a comparison between macaque and human development and potential exposure has been made when possible. Understanding the potential exposure of the conceptus relative to critical periods in development is essential to designing a scientifically based study that adequately addresses human risks. Some options for NHP study designs, including the option of combining end points into a single study, and the pros and cons of each of the study options have been reviewed. Developmental studies for biopharmaceuticals in NHPs need to be optimally designed on a case-by-case basis taking into consideration the pharmacology of the molecule, the type of molecule (antibody or non-antibody), the potential exposure relative to the development of potential target organs, the clinical use, and the ethical considerations associated with the use of NHPs. PMID:20926830

  11. Testing the Sexually Abused Child for the HIV Antibody: Issues for the Social Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, George A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses identifying children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through sexual abuse. Reviews testing guidelines. Sees social workers contributing to test decision making when perinatal HIV transmissions is possibility, when assailant may be tested, and when parents/legal guardians insist on testing child. Discusses family…

  12. Children Becoming More Intelligent: Can the Flynn Effect Be Generalized to Other Child Intelligence Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resing, Wilma C. M.; Tunteler, Erika

    2007-01-01

    In this article, time effects on intelligence test scores have been investigated. In particular, we examined whether the "Flynn effect" is manifest in children from the middle and higher IQ distribution range, measured with a child intelligence test based on information processing principles--the Leiden Diagnostic Test. The test was administered…

  13. The World of the Developmentally Disabled Child: A Parents' Handbook with Directory of Services for Families in Lake County, Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suelzle, Marijean; Keenan, Vincent

    Intended for parents of developmentally disabled children, the handbook provides information on service needs and services available in Lake County, Illinois. Section I focuses on life course planning with sections of diagnosis and assessment, professionals involved with special education, education for the developmentally disabled, vocational…

  14. Aerobic capacity of Peruvian Quechua: a test of the developmental adaptation hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kiyamu, Melisa; Rivera-Chira, María; Brutsaert, Tom D

    2015-03-01

    High altitude natives are reported to have outstanding work capacity in spite of the challenge of oxygen transport and delivery in hypoxia. To evaluate the developmental effect of lifelong exposure to hypoxia on aerobic capacity, VO2peak was measured on two groups of Peruvian Quechua subjects (18-35 years), who differed in their developmental exposure to altitude. Male and female volunteers were recruited in Lima, Peru (150 m), and were divided in two groups, based on their developmental exposure to hypoxia, those: a) Born at sea-level individuals (BSL), with no developmental exposure to hypoxia (n = 34) and b) Born at high-altitude individuals (BHA) with full developmental exposure to hypoxia (n = 32), but who migrated to sea-level as adults (>16-years-old). Tests were conducted both in normoxia (BP = 750 mm Hg) and normobaric hypoxia at sea-level (BP = 750 mm Hg, FiO2  = 0.12, equivalent to 4,449 m), after a 2-month training period (in order to control for initial differences in physical fitness) at sea-level. BHA had a significantly higher VO2peak at hypoxia (40.31 ± 1.0 ml/min/kg) as compared to BSL (35.78 ± 0.96 ml/min/kg, P = 0.001), adjusting for sex. The decrease of VO2peak at HA relative to SL (ΔVO2peak ) was not different between groups, controlling for baseline levels (VO2peak at sea-level) and sex (BHA = 0.35 ± 0.04 l/min, BSL = 0.44 ± 0.04 l/min; P = 0.12). Forced vital capacity (controlling for height) and the residuals of VO2peak (controlling for weight) had a significant association in the BHA group only (r = 0.155; P = 0.031). In sum, results indicate that developmental exposure to altitude constitutes an important factor to determine superior exercise performance. PMID:25385548

  15. The relation of preschool child-care quality to children's cognitive and social developmental trajectories through second grade.

    PubMed

    Peisner-Feinberg, E S; Burchinal, M R; Clifford, R M; Culkin, M L; Howes, C; Kagan, S L; Yazejian, N

    2001-01-01

    The cognitive and socioemotional development of 733 children was examined longitudinally from ages 4 to 8 years as a function of the quality of their preschool experiences in community child-care centers, after adjusting for family selection factors related to child-care quality and development. These results provide evidence that child-care quality has a modest long-term effect on children's patterns of cognitive and socioemotional development at least through kindergarten, and in some cases, through second grade. Differential effects on children's development were found for two aspects of child-care quality. Observed classroom practices were related to children's language and academic skills, whereas the closeness of the teacher-child relationship was related to both cognitive and social skills, with the strongest effects for the latter. Moderating influences of family characteristics were observed for some outcomes, indicating stronger positive effects of child-care quality for children from more at-risk backgrounds. These findings contribute further evidence of the long-term influences of the quality of child-care environments on children's cognitive and social skills through the elementary school years and are consistent with a bioecological model of development that considers the multiple environmental contexts that the child experiences. PMID:11699686

  16. The challenge of developmentally appropriate care: predictive genetic testing in young people for familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Rony E; Gillam, Lynn; Savulescu, Julian; Williamson, Robert; Rogers, John G; Delatycki, Martin B

    2010-03-01

    Predictive genetic tests for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) are routinely offered to young people during early adolescence. While this is not controversial, due to the medical benefit conferred by the test, it is nonetheless challenging as a consequence of the stage of life of the young people, and the simultaneous involvement of multiple family members. Despite these challenges, it is possible to ensure that the test is offered in such a way that it actively acknowledges and facilitates young people's developing autonomy and psychosocial well-being. In this paper we present findings from ten in-depth interviews with young people who have undergone predictive genetic testing for FAP (four male, six female; five gene-positive, five gene-negative; aged 10-17 years at the time of their predictive test; aged 12-25 years at the time of their research interview). We present five themes that emerged from the interviews which highlight key ethical challenges associated with such testing. These are: (1) the significance of the test; (2) young people's lack of involvement in the decision to be tested; (3) young people's limited understanding; (4) provision of the blood test at the first visit; and (5) group testing of family members. We draw on these themes to make eight recommendations for future practice. Together, these recommendations highlight the importance of providing developmentally appropriate care to young people undergoing predictive genetic testing for FAP. PMID:19760114

  17. Adapting the medaka embryo assay to a high-throughput approach for developmental toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Oxendine, Sharon L; Cowden, John; Hinton, David E; Padilla, Stephanie

    2006-09-01

    Chemical exposure during embryonic development may cause persistent effects, yet developmental toxicity data exist for very few chemicals. Current testing procedures are time consuming and costly, underlining the need for rapid and low cost screening strategies. While in vitro methods are useful for screening, these methods do not replicate all the intricacies of embryonic development and should ideally be complemented by an in vivo screening strategy. In this study, we modify a medaka fish embryo assay to meet the requirements of high-throughput, developmental toxicant testing in vivo. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) offers several advantages over traditional mammalian model systems, including economic husbandry, high fecundity, and rapid ex utero development. In most studies where fish eggs are exposed to a chemical, the exposure takes place in a common vessel, with many embryos being exposed to the same solution. This type of design is not amenable to high-throughput methodology, does not allow the investigator to follow the same embryo throughout gestation, and may confound statistical analysis of the results. Therefore, we developed a 96-well microtiter plate method to facilitate exposure of individual medaka embryos in single wells and compared this approach to the common vessel method using the industrial solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the test compound. At lower DMSO concentrations (0% or 1%), the 96-well microtiter plate assay replicated results obtained using the common vessel exposure method. There was, however, increased lethality and decreased hatching rate in the bottle-reared embryos treated with the higher DMSO concentrations (5% or 10%). Because the embryos reared in the 96-well microtiter plates never showed increased adverse effects (as compared to the bottle-reared embryos) at any DMSO concentration, we conclude that the 96-well microtiter plate assay provides a rapid and efficient alternative for developmental toxicity screens that

  18. UNDERTAKING POSITIVE CONTROL STUDIES AS PART OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING: A REPORT FROM THE ILSI RESEARCH FOUNDATION/RISK SCIENCE INSTITUTE EXPERT WORKING GROUP ON NEURODEVELOPMENTAL ENDPOINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing involves functional and neurohistological assessments in offspring during and following maternal and/or neonatal exposure. Data from positive control studies are an integral component in developmental neurotoxicity risk assessments. Positive ...

  19. CDA (Child Development Associate) Instructional Materials. Assessing Competency: Tests for CDA Competencies (Experimental Edition). Book 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotvedt, Kathleen J.; Hotvedt, Martyn O.

    This book of tests is designed to assess the competencies of the Child Development Associate (CDA) trainee: both what the trainee knows and how well the trainee works with children. The tests are designed as posttests to be administered after the trainee's completion of the relevant learning module. Each test consists of multiple choice questions,…

  20. Ethnicity, educational level and attitudes contribute to parental intentions about genetic testing for child obesity.

    PubMed

    Kocken, Paul L; Theunissen, Meinou H C; Schönbeck, Yvonne; Henneman, Lidewij; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Detmar, Symone B

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess parental beliefs and intentions about genetic testing for their children in a multi-ethnic population with the aim of acquiring information to guide interventions for obesity prevention and management. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in parents of native Dutch children and children from a large minority population (Turks) selected from Youth Health Care registries. The age range of the children was 5-11 years. Parents with lower levels of education and parents of non-native children were more convinced that overweight has a genetic cause and their intentions to test the genetic predisposition of their child to overweight were firmer. A firmer intention to test the child was associated with the parents' perceptions of their child's susceptibility to being overweight, a positive attitude towards genetic testing, and anticipated regret at not having the child tested while at risk for overweight. Interaction effects were found in ethnic and socio-economic groups. Ethnicity and educational level play a role in parental beliefs about child overweight and genetic testing. Education programmes about obesity risk, genetic testing and the importance of behaviour change should be tailored to the cultural and behavioural factors relevant to ethnic and socio-economic target groups. PMID:23389423

  1. Biological and Rearing Mother Influences on Child ADHD Symptoms: Revisiting the Developmental Interface between Nature and Nurture

    PubMed Central

    Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Barrett, Douglas; Elam, Kit; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David; Thapar, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background Families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report more negative family relationships than families of children without ADHD. Questions remain as to the role of genetic factors underlying associations between family relationships and children’s ADHD symptoms, and the role of children’s ADHD symptoms as an evocative influence on the quality of relationships experienced within such families. Utilizing the attributes of two genetically sensitive research designs, the present study examined associations between biologically related and non-biologically related maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. The combined attributes of the study designs permit assessment of associations while controlling for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examining evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE); two relatively under examined confounds of past research in this area. Methods A cross-sectional adoption-at-conception design (Cardiff IVF Study; C-IVF) and a longitudinal adoption-at-birth design (Early Growth and Development Study; EGDS) were used. The C-IVF sample included 160 mothers and children (age 5–8 years). The EGDS sample included 320 linked sets of adopted children (age 6 years), adoptive-, and biologically-related mothers. Questionnaires were used to assess maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. A cross-rater approach was used across measures of maternal behavior (mother reports) and child ADHD symptoms (father reports). Results Significant associations were revealed between rearing mother ADHD symptoms, hostile parenting behavior, and child ADHD symptoms in both samples. Because both samples consisted of genetically-unrelated mothers and children, passive rGE was removed as a possible explanatory factor underlying these associations. Further, path analysis revealed evidence for

  2. Translating neurobehavioural endpoints of developmental neurotoxicity tests into in vitro assays and readouts

    PubMed Central

    van Thriel, Christoph; Westerink, Remco; Beste, Christian; Bale, Ambuja S.; Lein, Pamela J.; Leist, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    The developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to chemical insults. Exposure to chemicals can results in neurobehavioural alterations, and these have been be used as sensitive readouts to assess neurotoxicity in animals and man. Deconstructing neurobehaviour into relevant cellular and molecular components may allow for detection of specific neurotoxic effects in cell-based systems, which in turn may allow an easier examination of neurotoxic pathways and modes of actions and eventually inform the regulatory assessment of chemicals with potential developmental neurotoxicity. Here, current developments towards these goals are reviewed. Imaging genetics (CB) provides new insights into the neurobiological correlates of cognitive function that are being used to delineate neurotoxic mechanisms. The gaps between in vivo neurobehaviour and real-time in vitro measurements of neuronal function are being bridged by ex vivo measurements of synaptic plasticity (RW). An example of solvent neurotoxicity demonstrates how an in vivo neurological defect can be linked via the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-glutamate receptor as a common target to in vitro readouts (AB). Axonal and dendritic morphology in vitro proved to be good correlates of neuronal connectivity and neurobehaviour in animals exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and organophosphorus pesticides (PJL). Similarly, chemically-induced changes in neuronal morphology affected the formation of neuronal networks on structured surfaces. Such network formation may become an important readout for developmental neurotoxicity in vitro (CvT), especially when combined with human neurons derived from embryonic stem cells (ML). We envision that future in vitro test systems for developmental neurotoxicity will combine the above approaches with exposure information, and we suggest a strategy for test system development and cell-based risk assessment. PMID:22008243

  3. Reliability and Responsiveness of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition Test in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Jui-Hsing; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To examine the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and responsiveness of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition (MABC-2) Test for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Method: One hundred and forty-four Taiwanese children with DCD aged 6 to 12 years (87 males, 57 females) were tested on…

  4. Reproductive and developmental toxicity testing: Examination of the extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study guideline.

    PubMed

    Saghir, Shakil A; Dorato, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    An important aspect of safety assessment of chemicals (industrial and agricultural chemicals and pharmaceuticals) is determining their potential reproductive and developmental toxicity. A number of guidelines have outlined a series of separate reproductive and developmental toxicity studies from fertilization through adulthood and in some cases to second generation. The Extended One-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study (EOGRTS) is the most recent and comprehensive guideline in this series. EOGRTS design makes toxicity testing progressive, comprehensive, and efficient by assessing key endpoints across multiple life-stages at relevant doses using a minimum number of animals, combining studies/evaluations and proposing tiered-testing approaches based on outcomes. EOGRTS determines toxicity during preconception, development of embryo/fetus and newborn, adolescence, and adults, with specific emphasis on the nervous, immunological, and endocrine systems, EOGRTS also assesses maternal and paternal toxicity. However, EOGRTS guideline is complex, criteria for selecting doses is unclear, and monitoring systemic dose during the course of the study for better interpretation and human relevance is not clear. This paper discusses potential simplification of EOGRTS, suggests procedures for relevant dose selection and monitors systemic dose at multiple life-stages for better interpretation of data and human relevance. PMID:27074386

  5. Problems in testing and risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals with regard to developmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, A; Stazi, A V; Macrì, C; Maranghi, F; Ricciardi, C

    1999-10-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may affect mammalian development either indirectly (by impairing implantation, placental development, lactation, etc.) or directly, altering the maturation of target tissues. Current regulatory tests for reproductive/developmental toxicity should be carefully evaluated with regard to risk assessment of EDCs, considering hazard identification (are relevant endpoints being assessed?) and dose-response assessment (are sensitive NOEL/dose-response curves being provided?). Many in vitro and in vivo assays for sex steroid disruption are available; provided that the metabolic capacities of the assays are defined, they could be integrated in a sensitive battery for early detection of steroid-disrupting potentials. The screening battery should address further regulatory in vivo tests (e.g. what specific parameters have to be investigated). As regards dose-response, qualitative differences may be observed between lower and higher exposures, showing primary hormone-related effects and frank embryotoxicity, respectively. Other problems concern (a) the identification of critical developmental windows, according to hormone concentrations and/or receptor levels in the developing target tissues; (b) the potential for interactions between chemicals with common mechanism/target (e.g. xenoestrogens); (c) most important, besides sex steroids more attention should be given to other mechanisms of endocrine disruption, e.g., thyroid effects, which can be highly relevant to prenatal and postnatal development. PMID:10467724

  6. Too young to correct: a developmental test of the three-stage model of social inference.

    PubMed

    Hagá, Sara; Garcia-Marques, Leonel; Olson, Kristina R

    2014-12-01

    The 3-stage model of social inference posits that people categorize behaviors and characterize actors or situations effortlessly, but they correct these characterizations with additional information effortfully. The current article tests this model using developmental data, assuming that the less cognitively demanding processes in the model (i.e., categorization, characterization) should appear earlier in development, whereas the more demanding correction process should not appear until later in development. Using 2 different paradigms, Studies 1 and 3 found that younger children failed to take situational information into account while characterizing the actor. Study 2 found that younger children failed to take dispositional information into account while characterizing the situation. In contrast, in these 3 studies, older children used the available information to correct their characterizations of the actors and of the situations. Consistent with the 3-stage model, during elementary school years, children start to integrate additional information when drawing explicit social inferences. In Study 4, children of all age levels used a prior expectancy to draw a dispositional inference, ignoring situational information, suggesting that characterizations based on prior expectancies about an actor are a highly efficient process, not contemplated by the model. The 4 studies together illustrate how developmental data can be valuably used to test adult socio-cognitive models, to extend their validity, or to simply further inform those models. PMID:25111304

  7. Interpreting in vitro developmental toxicity test battery results: The consideration of toxicokinetics.

    PubMed

    Bosgra, Sieto; Westerhout, Joost

    2015-08-01

    In the EU collaborative project ChemScreen an alternative, in vitro assay-based test strategy was developed to screen compounds for reproductive toxicity. A toxicokinetic modeling approach was used to allow quantitative comparison between effective concentrations in the in vitro test battery and observations of developmental toxicity in vivo. This modeling strategy is based on (1) the definition of relevant observations of toxicity in vivo, (2) simulation of the corresponding systemic concentrations in vivo by toxicokinetic modeling, and (3) correction for differences in protein binding and lipid partitioning between plasma and in vitro test media. The test results of a feasibility study with a number of known reproductive toxicants has been described previously (Piersma et al. [15]). In the present paper, we take a more detailed look at the toxicokinetics of these compounds, and add the analysis of some compounds from subsequent studies. We discuss how the consideration of toxicokinetics allowed comparison between test systems with differing test medium composition, has helped to interpret the in vitro findings in light of in vivo observations, and to gain confidence in the predictive value of the test battery outcomes. The same toxicokinetic modeling strategy, in reverse order, can now be used for risk assessment purposes to predict toxic doses in vivo from effective concentrations in vitro. PMID:25462785

  8. Parental Expressivity, Child Physiological and Behavioral Regulation, and Child Adjustment: Testing a Three-Path Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; Johnson, Audrea Y.; Smith, Tracy R.; Thoemmes, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Parental expressivity, child physiological regulation (indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia suppression), child behavioral regulation, and child adjustment outcomes were examined in 45 children (M age = 4.32 years, SD = 1.30) and their parents. With the exception of child adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing…

  9. Longitudinal Test of a Developmental Model of the Transition to Early Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Settles, Regan E.; Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a longitudinal test of a developmental model of early drinking that specifies transactions among personality, learning and behavior in the risk process. The model was tested on 1906 children making the transition from elementary school to middle school across three time points: the spring of 5th grade, the fall of 6th grade, and the spring of 6th grade. In a transaction that has been referred to as Acquired Preparedness, individual differences in the trait positive urgency at the end of 5th grade were associated with increases in expectancies for social facilitation from alcohol at the start of 6th grade, which then predicted drinker status at the end of 6th grade. In addition, the alcohol expectancy and drinker status predicted each other reciprocally across time. Multiple factors appear to transact to predict early drinking behavior. PMID:24661166

  10. High-Stakes Math Tests: How "No Child Left Behind" Leaves Newcomer English Language Learners behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Wayne E.; Li, Xiaoshi

    2008-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act" establishes federal education policy for the United States, with a heavy focus on accountability through high-stakes testing. Provisions specific to English language learners (ELLs) include the mandate for their inclusion in state math tests, even for newcomer students enrolled for less than one year. Most ELLs take…

  11. Testing the Suitability of Mediation of Child Support Orders in Title IV-D Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraufnagel, Scot; Li, Quan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to test mediation versus a traditional court process for the establishment or modification of child support orders. The intention is to determine which dispute resolution process is associated with greater client satisfaction and compliance. An auxiliary objective is to test the type of cases which are most…

  12. PROJECT HEAD START MEDICAL--A GUIDE FOR DIRECTION OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Economic Opportunity, Washington, DC.

    HEALTH SERVICES OF PROJECT HEAD START CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTERS PROVIDE--A MEDICAL EVALUATION OF EACH CHILD INCLUDING MEDICAL HISTORY, DEVELOPMENTAL ASSESSMENT, AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATION, SCREENING TESTS FOR VISION, HEARING, SPEECH, AND TUBERCULOSIS, LABORATORY TESTS OF URINE FOR ALBUMIN AND TESTS OF SUGAR AND BLOOD FOR ANEMIA, DENTAL ASSESSMENT,…

  13. Does food insecurity affect parental characteristics and child behavior? Testing mediation effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Oshima, Karen M Matta; Kim, Youngmi

    2010-01-01

    Using two waves of data from the Child Development Supplement in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study investigates whether parental characteristics (parenting stress, parental warmth, psychological distress, and parent's self-esteem) mediate household food insecurity's relations with child behavior problems. Fixed-effects analyses examine data from a low-income sample of 416 children from 249 households. This study finds that parenting stress mediates the effects of food insecurity on child behavior problems. However, two robustness tests produce different results from those of the fixed-effects models. This inconsistency suggests that household food insecurity's relations to the two types of child behavior problems need to be investigated further with a different methodology and other measures. PMID:20873019

  14. [Value of ancillary testing in the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder in adults].

    PubMed

    Ota, Toyosaku; Iida, Junzo; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in adults with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) who seek general psychiatric services for various psychiatric problems. The diagnosis of PDD requires the careful collection of information about the patient's developmental history. A structured diagnostic interview is useful and should be performed, but has limitations now. The clinical value of the measurement of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Autism-Spectrum Quotient Japanese Version, and the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale was demonstrated by a questionnaire survey that the authors conducted in 2010. These additional tests are useful if interpreted with caution. For example, a discrepancy between the performance intelligence quotient (IQ) and the verbal IQ in the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale does not by itself diagnose PDD. We examined whether the Japanese version of the National Adult Reading Test (Japanese Adult Reading Test; JART), a valid scale for evaluating pre-morbid IQ in patients with schizophrenia, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) are useful for discriminating between PDD and schizophrenia. Sixteen patients with adult PDD and 16 patients with schizophrenia matched for age, education and sex participated in this study. In addition, the two groups were matched for JART and the Global Assessment of Functioning scores. All subjects were scored on the JART and WAIS-R after giving informed consent for the study. The result was that significant diagnosis-by-IQ examination interactions were found (F [1, 30]=10.049, P=0.003). Also, the WAIS-R scores of the PDD group were higher than those of the schizophrenia group (P=0.002) when the two groups were matched for JART. In conclusion, the comparison of IQ in the PDD group and in the schizophrenia group by JART and WAIS-R might be an easy and useful method for helping to discriminate between PDD and schizophrenia. In addition, the

  15. Basal tissue structure in the earliest euconodonts: Testing hypotheses of developmental plasticity in euconodont phylogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dong, X.-P.; Donoghue, P.C.J.; Repetski, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis that conodonts are vertebrates rests solely on evidence of soft tissue anatomy. This has been corroborated by microstructural, topological and developmental evidence of homology between conodont and vertebrate hard tissues. However, these conclusions have been reached on the basis of evidence from highly derived euconodont taxa and the degree to which they are representative of plesiomorphic euconodonts remains an open question. Furthermore, the range of variation in tissue types comprising the euconodont basal body has been used to establish a hypothesis of developmental plasticity early in the phylogeny of the clade, and a model of diminishing potentiality in the evolution of development systems. The microstructural fabrics of the basal tissues of the earliest euconodonts (presumed to be the most plesiomorphic) are examined to test these two hypotheses. It is found that the range of microstructural variation observed hitherto was already apparent among plesiomorphic euconodonts. Thus, established histological data are representative of the most plesiomorphic euconodonts. However, although there is evidence of a range in microstructural fabrics, these are compatible with the dentine tissue system alone, and the degree of variation is compatible with that seen in clades of comparable diversity. ?? The Palaeontological Association.

  16. Morphology-based mammalian stem cell tests reveal potential developmental toxicity of donepezil.

    PubMed

    Lau, Caroline G Y; Marikawa, Yusuke

    2014-11-01

    Various compounds, including therapeutic drugs, can adversely impact the survival and development of embryos in the uterus. Identification of such development-interfering agents is a challenging task, although multi-angle approaches--including the use of in vitro toxicology studies involving embryonic stem cells--should alleviate some of the current difficulties. In the present study, we utilized the in vitro elongation of embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from mouse embryonal carcinoma stem cell line P19C5 as a model of early embryological events, specifically that of gastrulation and axial patterning. From our study, we identified donepezil, a medication indicated for the management of Alzheimer's disease, as a potential developmental toxicant. The extent of P19C5 EB axial elongation was diminished by donepezil in a dose-dependent manner. Although donepezil is a known inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, interference of elongation was not mediated through this enzyme. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR revealed that donepezil altered the expression pattern of a specific set of developmental regulator genes involved in patterning along the anterior-posterior body axis. When tested in mouse whole embryo culture, donepezil caused morphological abnormalities including impaired somitogenesis. Donepezil also diminished elongation morphogenesis of EBs generated from human embryonic stem cells. These results suggest that donepezil interferes with axial elongation morphogenesis of early embryos by altering the expression pattern of regulators of axial development. PMID:25269881

  17. Testing the developmental distinctiveness of male proactive and reactive aggression with a nested longitudinal experimental intervention.

    PubMed

    Barker, Edward D; Vitaro, Frank; Lacourse, Eric; Fontaine, Nathalie M G; Carbonneau, Rene; Tremblay, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    An experimental preventive intervention nested into a longitudinal study was used to test the developmental distinctiveness of proactive and reactive aggression. The randomized multimodal preventive intervention targeted a subsample of boys rated disruptive by their teachers. These boys were initially part of a sample of 895 boys, followed from kindergarten to 17 years of age. Semiparametric analyses of developmental trajectories for self-reported proactive and reactive aggression (between 13 and 17 years of age) indicated three trajectories for each type of aggression that varied in size and shape (Low, Moderate, and High Peaking). Intent-to-treat comparisons between the boys in the prevention group and the control group confirmed that the preventive intervention between 7 and 9 years of age, which included parenting skills and social skills training, could impact the development of reactive more than proactive aggression. The intervention effect identified in reactive aggression was related to a reduction in self-reported coercive parenting. The importance of these results for the distinction between subtypes of aggressive behaviors and the value of longitudinal-experimental studies from early childhood onward is discussed. PMID:20052694

  18. Developing the Observatory Test of Capacity, Performance, and Developmental Disregard (OTCPDD) for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kuan-Chun; Chen, Hao-Ling; Wang, Tien-Ni; Shieh, Jeng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument, named the Observatory Test of Capacity, Performance, and Developmental Disregard (OTCPDD), for measuring the amount and quality of use of affected upper limb functions in the daily routines of children with CP. Methods Forty-eight participants (24 children with CP and 24 matched typically developing children) were recruited. The OTCPDD was administered twice (the spontaneous use condition first, followed by the forced use condition) on children with CP. Their parents were asked to complete the Pediatric Motor Activity Log-Revised (PMAL-R). The internal consistency, the intrarater and interrater reliabilities, and the convergent and discriminate validities were measured. Results The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) and the intrarater and interrater reliabilities were higher than 0.9 for all of the OTCPDD scores. The convergent validity was confirmed by significant correlations between the OTCPDD and the PMAL-R. For the discriminant validity, significant differences (p<0.05) were found between children with CP and typically developing children. Conclusions The results support that the OTCPDD is a reliable and valid observation-based assessment. The OTCPDD, which uses bimanual daily living activities, is able to represent the children’s general affected hand functions (including capacity, performance, and developmental disregard) in their daily routines. PMID:27010941

  19. Interpersonal Conceptions in Children with Difficulties in Interpersonal Relations: Toward the Integration of Developmental and Child Clinical Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Robert L.; And Others

    This paper discusses a developmental-descriptive approach to the study of children, adolescent, and adult understanding of interpersonal relationships. A study is reported which compares the level of interpersonal reasoning of children with clinically identified peer relation problems with the reasoning level of a case-control sample of better…

  20. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Specific Phobias with a Child Demonstrating Severe Problem Behavior and Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Thompson E., III; Kurtz, Patricia F.; Gardner, Andrew W.; Carman, Nicole B.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBTs) are widely used for anxiety disorders in typically developing children; however, there has been no previous attempt to administer CBT for specific phobia (in this case study, one-session treatment) to developmentally or intellectually disabled children. This case study integrates both cognitive-behavioral and…

  1. Low Rates of Genetic Testing in Children With Developmental Delays, Intellectual Disability, and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Peabody, John; DeMaria, Lisa; Tamandong-LaChica, Diana; Florentino, Jhiedon; Acelajado, Maria Czarina; Burgon, Trever

    2015-01-01

    To explore the routine and effective use of genetic testing for patients with intellectual disability and developmental delay (ID/DD), we conducted a prospective, randomized observational study of 231 general pediatricians (40%) and specialists (60%), using simulated patients with 9 rare pediatric genetic illnesses. Participants cared for 3 randomly assigned simulated patients, and care responses were scored against explicit evidence-based criteria. Scores were calculated as a percentage of criteria completed. Care varied widely, with a median overall score of 44.7% and interquartile range of 36.6% to 53.7%. Diagnostic accuracy was low: 27.4% of physicians identified the correct primary diagnosis. Physicians ordered chromosomal microarray analysis in 55.7% of cases. Specific gene sequence testing was used in 1.4% to 30.3% of cases. This study demonstrates that genetic testing is underutilized, even for widely available tests. Further efforts to educate physicians on the clinical utility of genetic testing may improve diagnosis and care in these patients. PMID:27335989

  2. A Study of 571 Children with Developmental Disorders in a Slum-Population of Bombay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkarni, Madhuri; And Others

    This paper summarizes a study of 571 children with developmental disabilities between 6 weeks and 12 years of age living in the largest slum in Asia, the Dharavi neighborhood of Bombay, India. Each child was administered developmental and psychological tests, diagnosed, and treated by a special early intervention clinic. Most had not had their…

  3. Preschool Teachers' Child-Centered Beliefs: Direct and Indirect Associations with Work Climate and Job-Related Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hur, Eunhye; Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early childhood teachers' child-centered beliefs, defined as teachers' attitudes about how children learn, have been associated with teachers' developmentally appropriate practices and positive child outcomes. The predictors of teachers' child-centered beliefs, however, are less frequently explored. Objective: This study tested whether…

  4. The Age of Entry into High-Quality Preschool, Child and Family Factors, and Developmental Outcomes in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2006-01-01

    Three blocks of factors were considered as predictors of four year old children's (N = 286) personality, non-verbal intelligence and social behaviour in preschool: (a) personality characteristics at time 1 (T1) when the participants were three years old; (b) parental education and parenting practices measured at T1; and (c) age of child's entry to…

  5. The Associations of Emotion Knowledge and Teacher-Child Relationships to Preschool Children's School-Related Developmental Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Pamela W.; Waajid, Badiyyah

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of emotion knowledge and teacher-child relational variables to school competence. Seventy-four economically and ethnically diverse preschoolers (40 boys, 34 girls) completed an emotion knowledge task and a standardized school competence measure. Classroom teachers and their assistants rated the…

  6. My Child Doesn't Test Well. Carnegie Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    The writer examines a variety of reasons why test performance may not always be a valid measure of a person's competence or potential. Citing that a sizable percentage of students perform well in their schoolwork but poorly on standardized, multiple-choice tests, Bond defines and discusses four candidates as source factors for the phenomenon: (1)…

  7. Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing in Suspected Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esernio-Jenssen, Debra; Barnes, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that site-specific cultures be obtained, when indicated, for sexually victimized children. Nucleic acid amplification testing is a highly sensitive and specific methodology for identifying sexually transmitted infections. Nucleic acid amplification tests are also less invasive than culture, and this…

  8. Perspective on a Modified Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity Testing Strategy for Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Prell, Rodney A; Halpern, Wendy G; Rao, Gautham K

    2016-05-01

    The intent of cancer immunotherapy (CIT) is to generate and enhance T-cell responses against tumors. The tumor microenvironment establishes several inhibitory pathways that lead to suppression of the local immune response, which is permissive for tumor growth. The efficacy of different CITs, alone and in combination, stems from reinvigorating the tumor immune response via several mechanisms, including costimulatory agonists, checkpoint inhibitors, and vaccines. However, immune responses to other antigens (self and foreign) may also be enhanced, resulting in potentially undesired effects. In outbred mammalian pregnancies, the fetus expresses paternally derived alloantigens that are recognized as foreign by the maternal immune system. If unchecked or enhanced, maternal immunity to these alloantigens represents a developmental and reproductive risk and thus is a general liability for cancer immunotherapeutic molecules. We propose a tiered approach to confirm this mechanistic reproductive liability for CIT molecules. A rodent allopregnancy model is based on breeding 2 different strains of mice so that paternally derived alloantigens are expressed by the fetus. When tested with a cross-reactive biotherapeutic, small molecule drug, or surrogate molecule, this model should reveal on-target reproductive liabilities if the pathway is involved in maintaining pregnancy. Alternatively, allopregnancy models with genetically modified mice can be interrogated for exquisitely specific biotherapeutics with restricted species reactivity. The allopregnancy model represents a relatively straightforward approach to confirm an expected on-target reproductive risk for CIT molecules. For biotherapeutics, it could potentially replace more complex developmental and reproductive toxicity testing in nonhuman primates when a pregnancy hazard is confirmed or expected. PMID:26786669

  9. In vitro developmental toxicity test detects inhibition of stem cell differentiation by silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Margriet V.D.Z. Annema, Wijtske; Salvati, Anna; Lesniak, Anna; Elsaesser, Andreas; Barnes, Clifford; McKerr, George; Howard, C. Vyvyan; Lynch, Iseult; Dawson, Kenneth A.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Jong, Wim H. de

    2009-10-01

    While research into the potential toxic properties of nanomaterials is now increasing, the area of developmental toxicity has remained relatively uninvestigated. The embryonic stem cell test is an in vitro screening assay used to investigate the embryotoxic potential of chemicals by determining their ability to inhibit differentiation of embryonic stem cells into spontaneously contracting cardiomyocytes. Four well characterized silica nanoparticles of various sizes were used to investigate whether nanomaterials are capable of inhibition of differentiation in the embryonic stem cell test. Nanoparticle size distributions and dispersion characteristics were determined before and during incubation in the stem cell culture medium by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering. Mouse embryonic stem cells were exposed to silica nanoparticles at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 {mu}g/ml. The embryonic stem cell test detected a concentration dependent inhibition of differentiation of stem cells into contracting cardiomyocytes by two silica nanoparticles of primary size 10 (TEM 11) and 30 (TEM 34) nm while two other particles of primary size 80 (TEM 34) and 400 (TEM 248) nm had no effect up to the highest concentration tested. Inhibition of differentiation of stem cells occurred below cytotoxic concentrations, indicating a specific effect of the particles on the differentiation of the embryonic stem cells. The impaired differentiation of stem cells by such widely used particles warrants further investigation into the potential of these nanoparticles to migrate into the uterus, placenta and embryo and their possible effects on embryogenesis.

  10. Developmental changes and fructose absorption in children: effect on malabsorption testing and dietary management.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hilary F; Butler, Ross N; Moore, David J; Brooks, Doug A

    2013-05-01

    Fructose malabsorption came to prominence in the pediatric arena as so-called "apple juice diarrhea," with excess consumption of fructose being linked to gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain. Over the past two decades the amount of fructose in children's diets has been increasing in the United States. A test for fructose malabsorption has yet to be fully validated, due mainly to the lack of an established etiology. In animal models, however, the fructose transporter GLUT5 is developmentally regulated, and this could be consistent with the greater susceptibility of children, especially toddlers, to fructose malabsorption. Additionally, the available evidence indicates the fructose breath hydrogen test has no apparent diagnostic utility in infants younger than 1 year; it may, therefore, be advisable to test for malabsorption by dietary exclusion in these patients. The present review aims to expound on the biological basis for fructose malabsorption in children and evaluate the current evidence for diagnostic procedures in order to identify clinical testing strategies that can be recommended and areas where further investigation is required. PMID:23590706

  11. Treatment with a combination of intra-oral sensory stimulation and electropalatography in a child with severe developmental dyspraxia.

    PubMed

    Lundeborg, Inger; McAllister, Anita

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a combination of intra-oral sensory stimulation and electropalatography (EPG) in the treatment of a case with severe developmental verbal dyspraxia. A multiple-baseline design was used. The treatment duration was 11 months and started when the subject was 5 years old. The efficacy of the treatment was assessed by calculations of percentage of correctly articulated words, percentage of consonants correct, percentage of phonemes correct and percentage of words correct. Intelligibility assessments were conducted by both naïve and expert listeners. The experts also assessed visual deviances in articulatory gestures from video recordings. Qualitative analysis of EPG data was made. The subject's speech was significantly improved by the treatment in all aspects. The results and their generalization to other cases of developmental verbal dyspraxia are discussed. PMID:17613788

  12. A novel 5q11.2 microdeletion in a child with mild developmental delay and dysmorphic features.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Paolo; Tortora, Cristina; Petillo, Roberta; Falco, Mariateresa; Miniero, Martina; De Brasi, Davide; Pisanti, Maria Antonietta

    2016-09-01

    5q11.2 Deletion is a very rare genomic disorder, and its clinical phenotype has not yet been characterized. This report describes a patient with an 8.6 Mb deletion, showing hypotonia, mild developmental delay, short stature, and distinctive dysmorphic features (frontal bossing, square face, deep-set eyes, prominent columella, long philtrum, thin lips). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27374896

  13. Testing Multicultural Robustness of the Child Behavior Checklist in a National Epidemiological Sample in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Laura; Garrido, Gabriela; Rescorla, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Comparisons of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores from 31 societies (Rescorla et al. "Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders" 15:13-142 2007) supported the instrument's multicultural robustness, but none of these societies was in South America. The present study tested the multicultural robustness of the 2001 CBCL using data from a…

  14. 77 FR 11651 - Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child Test Dummy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... certification requirements for a new test dummy representative of a 10- year-old child (70 FR 40281, July 13... published July 13, 2005 (70 FR 40281). The agency is concurrently publishing in this issue of the Federal... we published an NPRM to adopt the HIII-10C into FMVSS No. 213.\\1\\ \\1\\ 70 FR 51720 (August 31,...

  15. "No Child" Effect on English-Learners Mulled: Teachers Welcome Attention, Fault Focus on Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    Educators who specialize in teaching English-language learners agree that the 4-year-old No Child Left Behind Act has brought unprecedented attention to those students by requiring schools to isolate test-score data for them. They disagree, though, on whether changes in instruction spurred by the law have been positive or negative overall. Such…

  16. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Problems for the No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), standardized test scores are the indicator used to hold schools and school districts accountable for student achievement. Each state is responsible for constructing an accountability system, attaching consequences--or stakes--for student performance. The theory of action implied by this…

  17. Speechreading Development in Deaf and Hearing Children: Introducing the Test of Child Speechreading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Fiona E.; Campbell, Ruth; Mohammed, Tara; Coleman, Mike; MacSweeney, Mairead

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors describe the development of a new instrument, the Test of Child Speechreading (ToCS), which was specifically designed for use with deaf and hearing children. Speechreading is a skill that is required for deaf children to access the language of the hearing community. ToCS is a deaf-friendly, computer-based test…

  18. Comparing three novel endpoints for developmental osteotoxicity in the embryonic stem cell test

    SciTech Connect

    Nieden, Nicole I. zur; Davis, Lesley A.; Rancourt, Derrick E.

    2010-09-01

    Birth defects belong to the most serious side effects of pharmaceutical compounds or environmental chemicals. In vivo, teratogens most often affect the normal development of bones, causing growth retardation, limb defects or craniofacial malformations. The embryonic stem cell test (EST) is one of the most promising models that allow the in vitro prediction of embryotoxicity, with one of its endpoints being bone tissue development. The present study was designed to describe three novel inexpensive endpoints to assess developmental osteotoxicity using the model compounds penicillin G (non-teratogenic), 5-fluorouracil (strong teratogen) and all-trans retinoic acid (bone teratogen). These three endpoints were: quantification of matrix incorporated calcium by (1) morphometric analysis and (2) measurement of calcium levels as well as (3) activity of alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme involved in matrix calcification. To evaluate our data, we have compared the concentration curves and resulting ID{sub 50}s of the new endpoints with mRNA expression for osteocalcin. Osteocalcin is an exclusive marker found only in mineralized tissues, is regulated upon compound treatment and reliably predicts the potential of a chemical entity acting as a bone teratogen. By comparing the new endpoints to quantitative expression of osteocalcin, which we previously identified as suitable to detect developmental osteotoxicity, we were ultimately able to illustrate IMAGE analysis and Ca{sup 2+} deposition assays as two reliable novel endpoints for the EST. This is of particular importance for routine industrial assessment of novel compounds as these two new endpoints may substitute previously used molecular read-out methods, which are often costly and time-consuming.

  19. Testing the 8-syndrome structure of the child behavior checklist in 30 societies.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Masha Y; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Fombonne, Eric; Fonseca, Antonio Castro; Frigerio, Alessandra; Grietens, Hans; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael; Achenbach, Thomas M; Larsson, Bo; Leung, Patrick; Liu, Xianchen; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S; Novik, Torunn S; Oh, Kyung Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Dumenci, Levent; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Yang, Hao-Jan; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank C; Rescorla, Leslie A; Almqvist, Fredrik; Weintraub, Sheila; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chen, Wei J

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing need for multicultural collaboration in child mental health services, training, and research. To facilitate such collaboration, this study tested the 8-syndrome structure of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in 30 societies. Parents' CBCL ratings of 58,051 6- to 18-year-olds were subjected to confirmatory factor analyses, which were conducted separately for each society. Societies represented Asia; Africa; Australia; the Caribbean; Eastern, Western, Southern, and Northern Europe; the Middle East; and North America. Fit indices strongly supported the correlated 8-syndrome structure in each of 30 societies. The results support use of the syndromes in diverse societies. PMID:17658984

  20. Response to Cross and Saxe's "A Critique of the Validity of Polygraph Testing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Vergil L.

    1995-01-01

    Responds to an article (1992) in which Cross and Saxe assert that polygraph testing is inaccurate and inappropriate in the area of child sexual abuse. Presents a summary of recent polygraph validity and reliability studies to refute their claims, and discusses current uses of polygraph testing in child sexual abuse cases. (JPS)

  1. Social influence in child care centers: a test of the theory of normative social behavior.

    PubMed

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Shugart, Alicia; Todd, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    Child care centers are a unique context for studying communication about the social and personal expectations about health behaviors. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB; Rimal & Real, 2005 ) provides a framework for testing the role of social and psychological influences on handwashing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and handwashing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on handwashing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to handwashing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to handwashing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase handwashing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be useful in organizational contexts. PMID:23682754

  2. Testing a Social Ecological Model for Relations between Political Violence and Child Adjustment in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E. Mark; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of inter-relations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M= 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland completed measures of community discord, family relations, and children’s regulatory processes (i.e., emotional security) and outcomes. Historical political violence in neighborhoods based on objective records (i.e., politically motivated deaths) were related to family members’ reports of current sectarian and non-sectarian antisocial behavior. Interparental conflict and parental monitoring and children’s emotional security about both the community and family contributed to explanatory pathways for relations between sectarian antisocial behavior in communities and children’s adjustment problems. The discussion evaluates support for social ecological models for relations between political violence and child adjustment and its implications for understanding relations in other parts of the world. PMID:20423550

  3. Testing a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-05-01

    Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family, and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of interrelations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M = 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, completed measures of community discord, family relations, and children's regulatory processes (i.e., emotional security) and outcomes. Historical political violence in neighborhoods based on objective records (i.e., politically motivated deaths) were related to family members' reports of current sectarian antisocial behavior and nonsectarian antisocial behavior. Interparental conflict and parental monitoring and children's emotional security about both the community and family contributed to explanatory pathways for relations between sectarian antisocial behavior in communities and children's adjustment problems. The discussion evaluates support for social ecological models for relations between political violence and child adjustment and its implications for understanding relations in other parts of the world. PMID:20423550

  4. Effects of Antecedent Prompt and Test Procedure on Teaching Simulated Menstrual Care Skills to Females with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersoy, Gulhan; Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Kircaali-Iftar, Gonul

    2009-01-01

    Although menstrual care is among the most important skill areas for females with mild to moderate developmental disabilities to facilitate their independence, there is limited research examining this issue. The present study was designed to analyze the acquisition and maintenance effects of antecedent prompt and test procedure on teaching changing…

  5. The Impact of Developmental Education on the Graduation Rate of Students with Low Combined Differential Aptitude Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, James

    Since 1974, Cincinnati Technical College (CTC) has offered a Developmental Education (DE) program designed to upgrade students' skills in mathematics, reading, English, and basic sciences, as well as study and interpersonal skills. The DE program offers students, particularly those with low combined Differential Aptitude Test (DAT) scores, a…

  6. Developmental Gender Differences on the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test in a Nationally Normed Sample of 5-17 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2006-01-01

    Lynn [Lynn, R., 2002. Sex differences on the progressive matrices among 15-16 year olds: some data from South Africa. "Personality and Individual Differences 33," 669-673.] proposed that biologically based developmental sex differences produce different IQ trajectories across childhood and adolescence. To test this theory we analyzed the Naglieri…

  7. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuron as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity Ingrid L. Druwe1, Timothy J. Shafer2, Kathleen Wallace2, Pablo Valdivia3 ,and William R. Mundy2. 1University of North Carolina, Curriculum in Toxicology...

  8. Avian Test Battery for the Evaluation of Developmental Abnormalities of Neuro- and Reproductive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Takaharu; Ahmed, Walaa M. S.; Nagino, Koki; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Most of the currently used toxicity assays for environmental chemicals use acute or chronic systemic or reproductive toxicity endpoints rather than neurobehavioral endpoints. In addition, the current standard approaches to assess reproductive toxicity are time-consuming. Therefore, with increasing numbers of chemicals being developed with potentially harmful neurobehavioral effects in higher vertebrates, including humans, more efficient means of assessing neuro- and reproductive toxicity are required. Here we discuss the use of a Galliformes-based avian test battery in which developmental toxicity is assessed by means of a combination of chemical exposure during early embryonic development using an embryo culture system followed by analyses after hatching of sociosexual behaviors such as aggression and mating and of visual memory via filial imprinting. This Galliformes-based avian test battery shows promise as a sophisticated means not only of assessing chemical toxicity in avian species but also of assessing the risks posed to higher vertebrates, including humans, which are markedly sensitive to nervous or neuroendocrine system dysfunction. PMID:27445667

  9. Avian Test Battery for the Evaluation of Developmental Abnormalities of Neuro- and Reproductive Systems.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Takaharu; Ahmed, Walaa M S; Nagino, Koki; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Most of the currently used toxicity assays for environmental chemicals use acute or chronic systemic or reproductive toxicity endpoints rather than neurobehavioral endpoints. In addition, the current standard approaches to assess reproductive toxicity are time-consuming. Therefore, with increasing numbers of chemicals being developed with potentially harmful neurobehavioral effects in higher vertebrates, including humans, more efficient means of assessing neuro- and reproductive toxicity are required. Here we discuss the use of a Galliformes-based avian test battery in which developmental toxicity is assessed by means of a combination of chemical exposure during early embryonic development using an embryo culture system followed by analyses after hatching of sociosexual behaviors such as aggression and mating and of visual memory via filial imprinting. This Galliformes-based avian test battery shows promise as a sophisticated means not only of assessing chemical toxicity in avian species but also of assessing the risks posed to higher vertebrates, including humans, which are markedly sensitive to nervous or neuroendocrine system dysfunction. PMID:27445667

  10. Toddler Developmental Delays After Extensive Hospitalization: Primary Care Practitioner Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lehner, Dana C; Sadler, Lois S

    2015-01-01

    This review investigated developmental delays toddlers may encounter after a lengthy pediatric hospitalization (30 days or greater). Physical, motor, cognitive, and psychosocial development of children aged 1 to 3 years was reviewed to raise awareness of factors associated with developmental delay after extensive hospitalization. Findings from the literature suggest that neonatal and pediatric intensive care unit (NICU/PICU) graduates are most at risk for developmental delays, but even non-critical hospital stays interrupt development to some extent. Primary care practitioners (PCPs) may be able to minimize risk for delays through the use of formal developmental screening tests and parent report surveys. References and resources are described for developmental assessment to help clinicians recognize delays and to educate families about optimal toddler development interventions. Pediatric PCPs play a leading role in coordinating health and developmental services for the young child following an extensive hospital stay. PMID:26665423

  11. Studies of the Variables Affecting Behavior of Larval Zebrafish for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental toxicity. We are exploring methods to detect developmentally neurotoxic chemicals using zebrafish behavior at 6 days of age. The behavioral paradig...

  12. Studies of the Variables Affecting Behavior of Larval Zebrafish for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental toxicity. We are exploring methods to screen for developmentally neurotoxic chemicals using zebrafish behavior at 6 days of age. The behavioral par...

  13. Evaluation and Improved Use of Fecal Occult Blood Test in the Constipated Child.

    PubMed

    Kilway, Denise M

    2016-01-01

    This quality improvement project examined the use of fecal occult blood test in the constipated child in a pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic. A retrospective chart review was completed on 100 children seen for an initial visit with the gastroenterology provider. The number of fecal occult blood tests performed and the child's coinciding symptoms were tallied and compared with the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition recommendations. An educational intervention was held with the pediatric gastroenterology providers consisting of a PowerPoint presentation summarizing aims of the quality improvement project and reviewing recommendations for use of fecal occult blood test in the constipated child. Pre- and post-intervention chart review data sets were compared. Results showed a 19.6% decrease in the use of fecal occult blood tests performed during the post-intervention timeframe. However, when used in conjunction with North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition recommendations, the appropriateness of fecal occult blood test use increased by 71.4% in the post-intervention patients. Reviewing the recommendations with gastroenterology providers assisted in optimizing the meaningful use of fecal occult blood test, improving quality and safety of care for children seen in the pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic. PMID:27070795

  14. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    Detection of drugs in a child may be the first objective finding that can be reported in cases of suspected child abuse. Hair and urine toxicology testing, when performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation for suspected child abuse or maltreatment, may serve to facilitate the identification of at-risk children. Furthermore, significant environmental exposure to a drug (considered by law to constitute child abuse in some states) may be identified by toxicology testing of unwashed hair specimens. In order to determine the clinical utility of hair and urine toxicology testing in this population we performed a retrospective chart review on all children for whom hair toxicology testing was ordered at our academic medical center between January 2004 and April 2014. The medical records of 616 children aged 0-17.5 years were reviewed for injury history, previous medication and illicit drug use by caregiver(s), urine drug screen result (if performed), hair toxicology result, medication list, and outcome of any child abuse evaluation. Hair toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 106 cases (17.2%), with unexplained drugs in 82 cases (13.3%). Of these, there were 48 cases in which multiple compounds (including combination of parent drugs and/or metabolites within the same drug class) were identified in the sample of one patient. The compounds most frequently identified in the hair of our study population included cocaine, benzoylecgonine, native (unmetabolized) tetrahydrocannabinol, and methamphetamine. There were 68 instances in which a parent drug was identified in the hair without any of its potential metabolites, suggesting environmental exposure. Among the 82 cases in which hair toxicology testing was positive for unexplained drugs, a change in clinical outcome was noted in 71 cases (86.5%). Urine drug screens (UDS) were performed in 457 of the 616 reviewed cases. Of these, over 95% of positive UDS results could be explained by iatrogenic drug

  15. Improving child self-regulation and parenting in families of pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities and behavioral difficulties.

    PubMed

    Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Healey, Cynthia V; Yoerger, Karen; Fisher, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    The transition to school may be particularly difficult for children with developmental disabilities and behavioral difficulties. Such children are likely to experience problems with self-regulation skills, which are critical to school adjustment. Additionally, inconsistent discipline practices and low parental involvement in children's schooling may contribute to a poor transition to school. This study employed a randomized clinical trial to examine the effects of a school readiness intervention that focused on children's self-regulation skills as well as parenting and parental involvement in school. Results showed that the intervention had positive effects on children's self-regulation in kindergarten as measured by teacher and observer reports. Additionally, the intervention significantly reduced ineffective parenting prior to school entry, which in turn affected parental involvement. This finding is significant because it demonstrates that parental involvement in school may be increased by efforts to improve parenting skills in general. Overall, the study demonstrated that school adjustment across kindergarten among children with developmental disabilities and behavioral difficulties can be enhanced through an intervention aimed specifically at improving school readiness skills. PMID:24676874

  16. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yachun; Shi, Chunmei; Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P<0.001) in all age groups. For several ages, the scores obtained in this study were significantly different from the reported scores of Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (P<0.005). Compared with English-speaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical-horizontal time

  17. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the “vertical scores” were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P<0.001) in all age groups. For several ages, the scores obtained in this study were significantly different from the reported scores of Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (P<0.005). Compared with English-speaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical

  18. Conducting Informal Developmental Assessments of Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Craig P.; Sobjak-Gibson, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    In terms of assessing a child's developmental abilities, what age group first comes to mind? Often, early childhood educators begin thinking about developmental assessments when children are between the ages of 3 and 5. However, they need to be cognizant of the fact that child development begins from the moment a child is born. It is, therefore,…

  19. Continuing education course #3: current practices and future trends in neuropathology assessment for developmental neurotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Bolon, Brad; Garman, Robert H; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen G; Allan Johnson, G; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Krinke, Georg; Little, Peter B; Makris, Susan L; Mellon, R Daniel; Sulik, Kathleen K; Jensen, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The continuing education course on Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT) was designed to communicate current practices for DNT neuropathology, describe promising innovations in quantitative analysis and noninvasive imaging, and facilitate a discussion among experienced neuropathologists and regulatory scientists regarding suitable DNT practices. Conventional DNT neuropathology endpoints are qualitative histopathology and morphometric endpoints of particularly vulnerable sites (e.g., cerebral, cerebellar, or hippocampal thickness). Novel imaging and stereology measurements hold promise for automated analysis of factors that cannot be effectively examined in routinely processed specimens (e.g., cell numbers, fiber tract integrity). The panel recommended that dedicated DNT neuropathology data sets be acquired on a minimum of 8 sections (for qualitative assessment) or 3 sections (for quantitative linear and stereological analyses) using a small battery of stains to examine neurons and myelin. Where guidelines permit discretion, immersion fixation is acceptable for younger animals (postnatal day 22 or earlier), and peripheral nerves may be embedded in paraffin. Frequent concerns regarding DNT data sets include false-negative outcomes due to processing difficulties (e.g., lack of concordance among sections from different animals) and insensitive analytical endpoints (e.g., qualitative evaluation) as well as false-positive results arising from overinterpretation or misreading by inexperienced pathologists. PMID:21075916

  20. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Chwen-Yng; Su, Jui-Hsing

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the executive functions measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) between children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and age-matched normal controls. A second purpose was to examine the relations between executive functions and school functions in DCD children. Seventy-one children with DCD and 70 children without motor problems were recruited from 14 public schools. Executive functions and school functions were assessed using the WCST, and the School Function Assessment--Chinese Version (SFA-C) respectively. Univariate analyses demonstrated significant between-group differences in five WCST measures. The logistic regression analysis showed differences between two groups on eight SFA-C subscales, and significant correlation between items measured on WCST and SFA-C was also found. The result of the study provides further evidence of impaired sub-domains of executive functions (i.e., mental shifting, flexibility) in children with DCD. The finding also adds to recent investigations into the relationship between executive functions and school functions in DCD. Implications for rehabilitation professionals and recommendations for further research are discussed. PMID:21458225

  1. International STakeholder NETwork (ISTNET): Creating a Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT) Roadmap for Regulatory Purposes

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major problem in developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) risk assessment is the lack of toxicological hazard information for most compounds. Therefore, new approaches are being considered to provide adequate experimental data that allow regulatory decisions. This process requires a m...

  2. Screening for Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Carol; Duran-Flores, Deborah; Dumars, Kenneth W.; Stills, Stanley

    1985-01-01

    Developmental disabilities are responsible for a combination of severe physical, mental, psychological and social deficits. They develop before age 22 years and involve a little more than 1% of the population. Screening for developmental disabilities is the first step in their prevention. Various screening instruments are available for use throughout the developmental years that are designed to detect the wide variety of developmental problems that interfere with a developing person's optimal adaptation to his or her environment. The screening instruments must be inexpensive, reproducible, widely available and cost effective to the child, family and society. PMID:2413633

  3. A test battery of child development for examining functional vision (ABCDEFV).

    PubMed

    Atkinson, J; Anker, S; Rae, S; Hughes, C; Braddick, O

    2002-12-01

    A battery of 22 tests is described, intended to give an integrated assessment of children's functional visual capacities between birth and four years of age. As well as sensory visual measures such as acuity, visual fields and stereopsis, the battery is intended to tap a range of perceptual, motor, spatial and cognitive aspects of visual function. Tests have been drawn from practice in ophthalmology and orthoptics, vision research, paediatric neurology, and developmental psychology to give an overall view of children's visual competences for guidance in diagnosis, further investigation, management and rehabilitation of children with developmental disorders. 'Core vision tests' require no motoric capacities beyond saccadic eye movements or linguistic skills and so assess basic visual capacities in children of any age. 'Additional tests' have age-specific requirements and are designed to pinpoint specific deficits in the perceptual, visuo-motor and spatio-cognitive domains. Normative data are reported on nine age groups between 0-6 weeks and 31-36 months, each including 32-43 typically developing children. Pass/fail criteria for each test are defined. These data allow the selection of a subset of tests for each age group which are passed by at least 85% of normally developing children, and so are appropriate for defining normal development. The normalized battery has been applied to a range of at-risk and clinical groups. Aspects of children's visual performance are discussed in relation to neurobiological models of visual development. PMID:12660850

  4. Political Violence and Child Adjustment: Longitudinal Tests of Sectarian Antisocial Behavior, Family Conflict, and Insecurity as Explanatory Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Edward M.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of political violence on child maladjustment is a matter of international concern. Recent research has advanced a social ecological explanation for relations between political violence and child adjustment. However, conclusions are qualified by the lack of longitudinal tests. Toward examining pathways longitudinally,…

  5. Parental Stress and Behaviour Problems of Children with Developmental Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Richard P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a model whereby children's behavior problems, parental stress, and parenting behavior are related. It reports evidence that child behavior problems lead to parental stress but finds other model aspects have not been tested in the developmental disability field. Also considered are practical implications integrating research of…

  6. Examining the Developmental History of Child Maltreatment, Peer Relations, and Externalizing Problems among Adolescents with Symptoms of Paranoid Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the childhood history of maltreatment, peer relations, and externalizing problems among individuals who manifested low, moderate, or high symptom levels of paranoid personality disorder (PPD) in adolescence. Participants included 174 children who attended a longitudinal summer camp research program between the ages of 9 to 12. Multiple sources of information (self-, peer-, and counselor-reports) were utilized. Subsequently, they participated in a personality disorder assessment during adolescence (Mean age =15.30). The results indicated that children who manifested higher levels of PPD symptoms in adolescence had higher odds of having a history of child maltreatment. Children who manifested high levels of PPD symptoms in adolescence showed a faster growth rate for peer bullying and externalizing problems in childhood. In addition, their peers rated them as less cooperative, less likely to be leaders, and more likely to initiate fights. These finding suggested that children who manifested elevated PPD symptoms in adolescence had shown early signs of behavioral disturbances in childhood, some of which gradually worsened as they approach adolescence. PMID:19825263

  7. Testing if Social Services Prevent Fatal Child Maltreatment Among a Sample of Children Previously Known to Child Protective Services.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Emily M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the potential impact of child welfare services on the risk for fatal child maltreatment. This was conducted using a subsample of children who were identified as "prior victims" in the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System from 2008 to 2012. At the multivariate level, the analyses show that case management services act to protect children from death as do family support services, family preservation services, and foster care, but that the results vary by type of maltreatment experienced. The author recommends that before strong conclusions are drawn, additional research in this area is warranted. PMID:27412527

  8. Child effects and child care: Implications for risk and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Snell, Emily K; Hindman, Annemarie H; Belsky, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Evocative effects of child characteristics on the quality and quantity of child care were assessed in two studies using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. We focus on the influence of child characteristics on two important aspects of the child care experience: language stimulation provided by caregivers and quantity of care. In Study 1, associations between the developmental status of children aged 15 to 54 months and the language stimulation provided by their caregivers were examined using path models, and longitudinal child effects were detected across the earliest time points of the study. In Study 2, the associations among child behavior, temperament, development, and time in care were examined. Little evidence was found for such child effects on time in care. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of child care on child development and implications for developmental processes, particularly for children at greatest risk for developmental delay or psychopathology. PMID:26439062

  9. Supporting Each Child's Spirit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Buchanan, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    In using developmentally appropriate practices, teachers should intentionally address all aspects of a child's being, the spiritual along with the physical and the cognitive. Because spirituality is a vital part of human nature, a whole-child teaching approach must include the part of the child some call spirituality. Many have attempted to…

  10. Prediction of the developmental toxicity hazard potential of halogenated drinking water disinfection by-products tested by the in vitro hydra assay

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, L.J.; Johnson, E.M.; Newman, L.M. )

    1990-06-01

    A series of seven randomly selected potential halogenated water disinfection by-products were evaluated in vitro by the hydra assay to determine their developmental toxicity hazard potential. For six of the chemicals tested by this assay (dibromoacetonitrile; trichloroacetonitrile; 2-chlorophenol; 2,4,6-trichlorophenol; trichloroacetic acid; dichloroacetone) it was predicted that they would be generally equally toxic to both adult and embryonic mammals when studied by means of standard developmental toxicity teratology tests. However, the potential water disinfection by-product chloroacetic acid (CA) was determined to be over eight times more toxic to the embryonic developmental portion of the assay than it was to the adults. Because of this potential selectivity, CA is a high-priority item for developmental toxicity tests in pregnant mammals to confirm or refute its apparent unique developmental hazard potential and/or to establish a NOAEL by the route of most likely human exposure.

  11. Head Trajectories of Restrained Child Dummy in Sled Tests Over 56 kph Delta-V

    PubMed Central

    Hauschild, Hans W.

    2000-01-01

    Child restraint devices (CRDs) have been used for many years to protect children in automotive crashes. The following data was collected to find out whether current restraints would be able to pass more stringent dynamic testing at higher changes in velocity (delta-v), such as the NHTSA NCAP program or the IIHS offset barrier test, and to look at one possible misuse mode. Three basic types of CRDs were sled tested at a delta-v between 57.5 & 61.4 kph (35.7 & 38.1 mph). Data from each test are presented and compared. Comparisons are made between each seat’s sled test results and various countries’ standards. PMID:11558089

  12. Comparison of the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test, the rat Whole Embryo Culture and the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test as alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing of six 1,2,4-triazoles

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, Esther de; Barenys, Marta; Hermsen, Sanne A.B.; Verhoef, Aart; Ossendorp, Bernadette C.; Bessems, Jos G.M.; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2011-06-01

    The relatively high experimental animal use in developmental toxicity testing has stimulated the search for alternatives that are less animal intensive. Three widely studied alternative assays are the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test (EST), the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test (ZET) and the rat postimplantation Whole Embryo Culture (WEC). The goal of this study was to determine their efficacy in assessing the relative developmental toxicity of six 1,2,4-triazole compounds, flusilazole, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, triadimefon, myclobutanil and triticonazole. For this purpose, we analyzed effects and relative potencies of the compounds in and among the alternative assays and compared the findings to their known in vivo developmental toxicity. Triazoles are antifungal agents used in agriculture and medicine, some of which are known to induce craniofacial and limb abnormalities in rodents. The WEC showed a general pattern of teratogenic effects, typical of exposure to triazoles, mainly consisting of reduction and fusion of the first and second branchial arches, which are in accordance with the craniofacial malformations reported after in vivo exposure. In the EST all triazole compounds inhibited cardiomyocyte differentiation concentration-dependently. Overall, the ZET gave the best correlation with the relative in vivo developmental toxicities of the tested compounds, closely followed by the EST. The relative potencies observed in the WEC showed the lowest correlation with the in vivo developmental toxicity data. These differences in the efficacy between the test systems might be due to differences in compound kinetics, in developmental stages represented and in the relative complexity of the alternative assays.

  13. Filling the Gap on Developmental Change: Tests of a Dynamic Field Theory of Spatial Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Anne R.; Spencer, John P.

    2010-01-01

    In early childhood, there is a developmental transition in spatial memory biases. Before the transition, children's memory responses are biased toward the midline of a space, while after the transition responses are biased away from midline. The Dynamic Field Theory (DFT) posits that changes in neural interaction and changes in how children…

  14. Testing the Feasibility of Developmental Asset Measures on College Students to Guide Health Promotion Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Ward, Rose Marie; King, Keith A.; Patton, Jon M.; Murray, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the reliability and validity of eight developmental asset measures among a stratified, random sample (N = 540) of college students to guide health promotion efforts. The sample was randomly split to produce exploratory and confirmatory samples for factor analysis using principal axis factoring and…

  15. Subtypes of Developmental Dyslexia: Testing the Predictions of the Dual-Route and Connectionist Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the phonological and surface subtypes of developmental dyslexia in light of competing predictions made by two computational models of single word reading, the Dual-Route Cascaded Model (DRC; Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001) and Harm and Seidenberg's connectionist model (HS model; Harm & Seidenberg, 1999). The…

  16. Teaching Assistants' Preferences for Supervisory Style: Testing a Developmental Model of GTA Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Loreto R.

    1999-01-01

    Surveyed graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) to determine the frequency of their supervision, their preferences for supervisory style, and how those preferences conformed to theoretical expectations within a comprehensive developmental model. Most GTAs received supervision, but the frequency of supervision was often inadequate. They preferred a…

  17. Are Child Abusers Sexually Attracted to Submissiveness? Assessment of Sex-Related Cognition With the Implicit Association Test.

    PubMed

    Kanters, Thijs; Hornsveld, Ruud H J; Nunes, Kevin L; Huijding, Jorg; Zwets, Almar J; Snowden, Robert J; Muris, Peter; van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2016-08-01

    Child sexual abuse is associated with social anxiety, low self-esteem, and intimacy deficits. This, in combination with the core belief of a dangerous world, might suggest that child abusers are sexually attracted to submissiveness. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) was used to examine this hypothesis. Results indicated that child abusers have a stronger sexual preference for submissiveness than rapists, although there were no differences between child abusers and non-sexual offenders. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that submissive-sexy associations have incremental value over child-sex associations in differentiating child abusers from other offenders. The predictive value of both implicit associations was explored by correlating IAT scores with measures for recidivism risk, aggression, and interpersonal anxiety. Child abusers with stronger child-sex associations reported higher levels of interpersonal anxiety and hostility. More research on implicit cognition in sex offenders is required for a better understanding of what these and similar implicit measures are exactly measuring and what role implicit cognition may play in sexual offending. PMID:25079778

  18. 'A Mental Test for Every Child': The Use of Intelligence Tests in Progressive School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Paul Davis

    This essay shows that the adoption of intelligence tests by the schools was a complex development. Tests were adopted during the 1920s as part of the reform program fashioned by the network of applied psychologists and school people. While the network itself often viewed testing as a means to improve the schools and society, immigrants and blacks…

  19. MicroRNA Profiling as Tool for In Vitro Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing: The Case of Sodium Valproate

    PubMed Central

    Smirnova, Lena; Block, Katharina; Sittka, Alexandra; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Seiler, Andrea E. M.; Luch, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Studying chemical disturbances during neural differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) has been established as an alternative in vitro testing approach for the identification of developmental neurotoxicants. miRNAs represent a class of small non-coding RNA molecules involved in the regulation of neural development and ESC differentiation and specification. Thus, neural differentiation of mESCs in vitro allows investigating the role of miRNAs in chemical-mediated developmental toxicity. We analyzed changes in miRNome and transcriptome during neural differentiation of mESCs exposed to the developmental neurotoxicant sodium valproate (VPA). A total of 110 miRNAs and 377 mRNAs were identified differently expressed in neurally differentiating mESCs upon VPA treatment. Based on miRNA profiling we observed that VPA shifts the lineage specification from neural to myogenic differentiation (upregulation of muscle-abundant miRNAs, mir-206, mir-133a and mir-10a, and downregulation of neural-specific mir-124a, mir-128 and mir-137). These findings were confirmed on the mRNA level and via immunochemistry. Particularly, the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) as well as muscle-specific genes (Actc1, calponin, myosin light chain, asporin, decorin) were found elevated, while genes involved in neurogenesis (e.g. Otx1, 2, and Zic3, 4, 5) were repressed. These results were specific for valproate treatment and―based on the following two observations―most likely due to the inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity: (i) we did not observe any induction of muscle-specific miRNAs in neurally differentiating mESCs exposed to the unrelated developmental neurotoxicant sodium arsenite; and (ii) the expression of muscle-abundant mir-206 and mir-10a was similarly increased in cells exposed to the structurally different HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). Based on our results we conclude that miRNA expression profiling is a suitable molecular endpoint for

  20. Test Selection, Adaptation, and Evaluation: A Systematic Approach to Assess Nutritional Influences on Child Development in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prado, Elizabeth L.; Hartini, Sri; Rahmawati, Atik; Ismayani, Elfa; Hidayati, Astri; Hikmah, Nurul; Muadz, Husni; Apriatni, Mandri S.; Ullman, Michael T.; Shankar, Anuraj H.; Alcock, Katherine J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Evaluating the impact of nutrition interventions on developmental outcomes in developing countries can be challenging since most assessment tests have been produced in and for developed country settings. Such tests may not be valid measures of children's abilities when used in a new context. Aims: We present several principles for the…

  1. An Observational Approach to Testing Bi-Directional Parent-Child Interactions as Influential to Child Eating and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Defne; Skouteris, Helen; Dell'Aquila, Daniela; Aksan, Nazan; McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity among children has been on the rise globally for the past few decades. Previous research has centred mainly on self/parent-reported measures examining only uni-directional parental feeding styles and practices. Recent discussions in the literature have raised the importance of bi-directional parent-child interactions in influencing…

  2. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    PubMed

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:25259848

  3. Developmental Planning: An Introduction for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Jim

    2009-01-01

    "Developmental Planning" is the thinking process of using developmental milestones as a general basis for planning and predicting needs for the child within the early years. It considers the time frames associated with normal development across all facets of the child's development. The areas include bone and joint development, movement, sensory…

  4. Developmental Discipline in the Early Childhood Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flicker, Eileen S.; Hoffman, Janet Andron

    2002-01-01

    Describes a classroom management approach called developmental discipline that incorporates observation with knowledge of the individual child, situation, and child development to guide appropriate behavior. Discusses factors associated with behavior problems and how teachers can work with parents to apply developmental discipline techniques and…

  5. The Valid Use of NAEP Achievement Level Scores to Confirm State Test Results in the No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneberg, Bert D.

    2007-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act sanctions the use of NAEP scores to confirm state testing results. The U.S. Department of Education, as test developer, is responsible to set forth how NAEP scores are to be interpreted and used. Thus far, the Department has not published a clear set of guidelines for using NAEP achievement level scores to conduct a…

  6. Growing up with No Child Left Behind: An Initial Assessment of the Understanding of College Students' Knowledge of Accountability Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zilberberg, Anna; Anderson, Robin D.; Swerdzewski, Peter J.; Finney, Sara J.; Marsh, Kimberly R.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the extensive testing for federal accountability mandates, college students' understanding of federal accountability testing (e.g., No Child Left Behind, Race to the Top, Spellings) has not been examined, resulting in a lack of knowledge regarding how such understanding (or lack thereof) impacts college students' behavior on accountability…

  7. Teaching to the Test: How No Child Left Behind Impacts Language Policy, Curriculum, and Instruction for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menken, Kate

    2006-01-01

    In the wake of the federal No Child Left Behind legislation, standardized tests have become increasingly high-stakes. Yet English language learners (ELLs) typically score far below native English speakers, creating pressure to "teach to the test." This article shares findings from an intensive year long study in 10 New York City high schools,…

  8. Testing the Measurement Properties of Risk Assessment Instruments in Child Protective Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanshel, David; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study examined 72 children at risk of abuse and the relevant adults, to identify variables predictive of child abuse risk. The measures used (New York Child Protective Services Review Document, Magura-Moses Child Well-Being Scales, and Beck and Jones List of Problems and Conditions) each had predictive value for case decision making.…

  9. Testing a developmental cascade model of emotional and social competence and early peer acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Blandon, Alysia Y.; Calkins, Susan D.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Keane, Susan P.; O’Brien, Marion

    2011-01-01

    A developmental cascade model of early emotional and social competence predicting later peer acceptance was examined in a community sample of 440 children across the ages of 2 to 7. Children’s externalizing behavior, emotion regulation, social skills within the classroom and peer acceptance were examined utilizing a multitrait-multimethod approach. A series of longitudinal cross-lag models that controlled for shared rater variance were fit using structural equation modeling. Results indicated there was considerable stability in children’s externalizing behavior problems and classroom social skills over time. Contrary to expectations, there were no reciprocal influences between externalizing behavior problems and emotion regulation, though higher levels of emotion regulation were associated with decreases in subsequent levels of externalizing behaviors. Finally, children’s early social skills also predicted later peer acceptance. Results underscore the complex associations among emotional and social functioning across early childhood. PMID:20883578

  10. Performance Evaluation of Child Safety Seats in Far-Side Lateral Sled Tests at Varying Speeds

    PubMed Central

    Ghati, Yoganand; Menon, Rajiv A.; Milone, Mary; Lankarani, Hamid; Oliveres, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    Protection of children in Child Safety Seats (CSS) in side impact crashes has been a topic of recent studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of CSS in far-side impacts through a series of sled tests conducted at varying test speeds. Forty eight sled tests were conducted at three speeds (24 km/h, 29 km/h and 36 km/h), under two different CSS attachment conditions (LATCH and seat belt attached), using rear facing and forward facing CSS from four different manufacturers. Analyses were conducted to examine head retention within the CSS, velocity of the head as it passes an imaginary plane (cross over into other occupant space or door), lateral trajectory of the head and knee; head, chest and pelvis accelerations; neck and lumbar loads and moments. In addition to these parameters, the CSS were visually inspected for structural integrity after each test. Results from these sled tests highlighted the differential performance of CSS in far-side impacts. During the tests, all CSS experienced significant lateral movement irrespective of attachment type. In rear facing CSS tests, one of the designs failed as the seat disengaged from its base. In forward facing CSS tests, it was observed that the seat belt attached CSS experienced less rotational motion than the LATCH attached CSS. ATD head retention within the seat was not achieved with either CSS attachments at any speed. The findings from this study augment the current efforts to define regulatory sled setup procedure for far-side impact crashes involving children in CSS, which currently does not exist and will eventually further the protection of children in automobiles. PMID:20184846

  11. Consensus Statement: Chromosomal Microarray Is a First-Tier Clinical Diagnostic Test for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities or Congenital Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David T.; Adam, Margaret P.; Aradhya, Swaroop; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Brothman, Arthur R.; Carter, Nigel P.; Church, Deanna M.; Crolla, John A.; Eichler, Evan E.; Epstein, Charles J.; Faucett, W. Andrew; Feuk, Lars; Friedman, Jan M.; Hamosh, Ada; Jackson, Laird; Kaminsky, Erin B.; Kok, Klaas; Krantz, Ian D.; Kuhn, Robert M.; Lee, Charles; Ostell, James M.; Rosenberg, Carla; Scherer, Stephen W.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J.; Tepperberg, James H.; Thorland, Erik C.; Vermeesch, Joris R.; Waggoner, Darrel J.; Watson, Michael S.; Martin, Christa Lese; Ledbetter, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Chromosomal microarray (CMA) is increasingly utilized for genetic testing of individuals with unexplained developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), or multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). Performing CMA and G-banded karyotyping on every patient substantially increases the total cost of genetic testing. The International Standard Cytogenomic Array (ISCA) Consortium held two international workshops and conducted a literature review of 33 studies, including 21,698 patients tested by CMA. We provide an evidence-based summary of clinical cytogenetic testing comparing CMA to G-banded karyotyping with respect to technical advantages and limitations, diagnostic yield for various types of chromosomal aberrations, and issues that affect test interpretation. CMA offers a much higher diagnostic yield (15%–20%) for genetic testing of individuals with unexplained DD/ID, ASD, or MCA than a G-banded karyotype (∼3%, excluding Down syndrome and other recognizable chromosomal syndromes), primarily because of its higher sensitivity for submicroscopic deletions and duplications. Truly balanced rearrangements and low-level mosaicism are generally not detectable by arrays, but these are relatively infrequent causes of abnormal phenotypes in this population (<1%). Available evidence strongly supports the use of CMA in place of G-banded karyotyping as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for patients with DD/ID, ASD, or MCA. G-banded karyotype analysis should be reserved for patients with obvious chromosomal syndromes (e.g., Down syndrome), a family history of chromosomal rearrangement, or a history of multiple miscarriages. PMID:20466091

  12. Get Ready to Read! Making Child Care Work for You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moomaw, Sally; Hieronymus, Brenda; Pearson, Yvonne

    2006-01-01

    Teachers can help parents foster emerging literacy skills in their preschool children in a way that is developmentally appropriate and fun: by collaborating to develop their child's lifelong love of reading and writing. Incorporating selected teacher-tested activities from the popular book "More Than Letters," this accessible guide includes a…

  13. Individualized Child-Focused Curriculum: A Differentiated Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronlund, Gaye

    2016-01-01

    How do you focus on each individual child in a full classroom? Learn to integrate individualized curriculum into daily practice with this step-­by-­step guide. Even good observers and documenters do not always use these insights to inform their curriculum planning. Using Developmental Studies, a new tool created and successfully field­-tested by…

  14. A History of the Test of Written English: The Developmental Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    A history of the Test of Written English (TWE), a section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), describes its inception and development process. The new test is a thirty-minute essay test providing a measure of a non-native English-speaker's ability to perform academic writing tasks similar to those required of international…

  15. Developmental delays and autism: Screening and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Delahunty, Carol

    2015-11-01

    Screening and surveillance are crucial components to the early detection of developmental disorders in children, which enables early interventions that provide the best chances for improved outcomes. Identifying a developmental disorder is the initial step in evaluating the disorder. Surveillance is a flexible, continuous, longitudinal process aimed at identifying concerns, and it should be performed at every well-child visit. Screening involves administering a brief, standardized tool normalized for specific ages and stages of development to identify any developmental delays or specific concerns such as autism. Screening is recommended at every office visit and whenever a parent expresses a concern. Two general types of screening tests are available: problem-specific screening and broadband developmental screening. For each type, there are multiple different tests available that can be administered by a parent or a health care provider. Factors to consider in the test selection are the age range for which it is intended, time it takes to complete and score, cost, whether the test is paper-based or electronic, and the language availability. PMID:26555812

  16. Developmental Toxicology##

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental toxicology encompasses the study of developmental exposures, pharmacokinetics, mechanisms, pathogenesis, and outcomes potentially leading to adverse health effects. Manifestations of developmental toxicity include structural malformations, growth retardation, functi...

  17. Research on Children's Play: Analysis of Developmental and Early Education Journals from 2005 to 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Mei-Fang; Johnson, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Our review examined four early childhood journals ("Early Child Development and Care," "Early Childhood Education Journal," "Journal of Research in Childhood Education," and "Early Childhood Research Quarterly") and four developmental science journals ("Child Development," "Developmental Psychology," "Journal of Applied Developmental…

  18. Neuropsychological test scores, academic performance, and developmental disorders in Spanish-speaking children.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Español (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms. PMID:11827093

  19. Cytological Characterization and Allelism Testing of Anther Developmental Mutants Identified in a Screen of Maize Male Sterile Lines

    PubMed Central

    Timofejeva, Ljudmilla; Skibbe, David S.; Lee, Sidae; Golubovskaya, Inna; Wang, Rachel; Harper, Lisa; Walbot, Virginia; Cande, William Zacheus

    2013-01-01

    Proper regulation of anther differentiation is crucial for producing functional pollen, and defects in or absence of any anther cell type result in male sterility. To deepen understanding of processes required to establish premeiotic cell fate and differentiation of somatic support cell layers a cytological screen of maize male-sterile mutants has been conducted which yielded 42 new mutants including 22 mutants with premeiotic cytological defects (increasing this class fivefold), 7 mutants with postmeiotic defects, and 13 mutants with irregular meiosis. Allelism tests with known and new mutants confirmed new alleles of four premeiotic developmental mutants, including two novel alleles of msca1 and single new alleles of ms32, ms8, and ocl4, and two alleles of the postmeiotic ms45. An allelic pair of newly described mutants was found. Premeiotic mutants are now classified into four categories: anther identity defects, abnormal anther structure, locular wall defects and premature degradation of cell layers, and/or microsporocyte collapse. The range of mutant phenotypic classes is discussed in comparison with developmental genetic investigation of anther development in rice and Arabidopsis to highlight similarities and differences between grasses and eudicots and within the grasses. PMID:23390600

  20. Individual and combined developmental toxicity assessment of bisphenol A and genistein using the embryonic stem cell test in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dan; Xing, Lina; Liu, Ran; Jiang, Jianjun; Wang, Wanyi; Shang, Lanqin; Wei, Xuetao; Hao, Weidong

    2013-10-01

    The potential developmental toxicity of environmental estrogenic endocrine disruptors have become a great concern in recent years. In this study, two typical environmental oestrogen, namely, bisphenol A (BPA) and genistein (GEN) were investigated for potential embryotoxicity using the embryonic stem cell test model. Afterwards, a 4×4 full factorial design and the estimated marginal means plot were performed to assess the combined effects of these two compounds. According to the linear discriminant functions and classification criteria, bisphenol A and genistein were classified as weakly embryotoxic and strongly embryotoxic respectively. As for combined effects, the overall interaction between BPA and GEN on embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiation was synergistic at low dosages, however, on ESCs and 3T3 cell proliferation, the predominate action was additive. Considering the actual daily intake of these chemicals, it is concluded that BPA alone might not have adverse reproductive or developmental effects on human being. However, given that BPA and GEN do have synergistic effect at low concentration, they may disturb normal embryo development together, which could result in birth defect and behavioral alterations later in life. PMID:23948354

  1. Multi-parametric profiling network based on gene expression and phenotype data: a novel approach to developmental neurotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Reiko; Akanuma, Hiromi; Qin, Xian-Yang; Imanishi, Satoshi; Toyoshiba, Hiroyoshi; Yoshinaga, Jun; Ohsako, Seiichiroh; Sone, Hideko

    2012-01-01

    The establishment of more efficient approaches for developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) has been an emerging issue for children's environmental health. Here we describe a systematic approach for DNT using the neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) as a model of fetal programming. During embryoid body (EB) formation, mESCs were exposed to 12 chemicals for 24 h and then global gene expression profiling was performed using whole genome microarray analysis. Gene expression signatures for seven kinds of gene sets related to neuronal development and neuronal diseases were selected for further analysis. At the later stages of neuronal cell differentiation from EBs, neuronal phenotypic parameters were determined using a high-content image analyzer. Bayesian network analysis was then performed based on global gene expression and neuronal phenotypic data to generate comprehensive networks with a linkage between early events and later effects. Furthermore, the probability distribution values for the strength of the linkage between parameters in each network was calculated and then used in principal component analysis. The characterization of chemicals according to their neurotoxic potential reveals that the multi-parametric analysis based on phenotype and gene expression profiling during neuronal differentiation of mESCs can provide a useful tool to monitor fetal programming and to predict developmentally neurotoxic compounds. PMID:22312247

  2. Multi-Parametric Profiling Network Based on Gene Expression and Phenotype Data: A Novel Approach to Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Reiko; Akanuma, Hiromi; Qin, Xian-Yang; Imanishi, Satoshi; Toyoshiba, Hiroyoshi; Yoshinaga, Jun; Ohsako, Seiichiroh; Sone, Hideko

    2012-01-01

    The establishment of more efficient approaches for developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) has been an emerging issue for children’s environmental health. Here we describe a systematic approach for DNT using the neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) as a model of fetal programming. During embryoid body (EB) formation, mESCs were exposed to 12 chemicals for 24 h and then global gene expression profiling was performed using whole genome microarray analysis. Gene expression signatures for seven kinds of gene sets related to neuronal development and neuronal diseases were selected for further analysis. At the later stages of neuronal cell differentiation from EBs, neuronal phenotypic parameters were determined using a high-content image analyzer. Bayesian network analysis was then performed based on global gene expression and neuronal phenotypic data to generate comprehensive networks with a linkage between early events and later effects. Furthermore, the probability distribution values for the strength of the linkage between parameters in each network was calculated and then used in principal component analysis. The characterization of chemicals according to their neurotoxic potential reveals that the multi-parametric analysis based on phenotype and gene expression profiling during neuronal differentiation of mESCs can provide a useful tool to monitor fetal programming and to predict developmentally neurotoxic compounds. PMID:22312247

  3. The domain of developmental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Sroufe, L A; Rutter, M

    1984-02-01

    It is the "developmental" component of developmental psychopathology that distinguishes this discipline from abnormal psychology, psychiatry, and even clinical child psychology. At the same time, the focus on individual patterns of adaptation and maladaptation distinguishes this field from the larger discipline of developmental psychology. In this essay a developmental perspective is presented, and the implications of this perspective for research in developmental psychopathology are discussed. A primary consideration is the complexity of the adaptational process, with developmental transformation being the rule. Thus, links between earlier adaptation and later pathology generally will not be simple or direct. It will be necessary to understand both individual patterns of adaptation with respect to salient issues of a given developmental period and the transaction between prior adaptation, maturational change, and subsequent environmental challenges. Some examples are discussed, with special attention to the case of depression. PMID:6705619

  4. Child Development and Playgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.

    Four major issues are explored in this study of child development research and its implications for children's playgrounds: (1) theories and philosophies of play; (2) the historical evolution of playgrounds; (3) research on child development, play, and playgrounds; and (4) creating playgrounds that meet children's developmental needs. Discussion…

  5. USING PEA AND SOYBEAN IN DEVELOPMENTAL TESTS FOR NON-TARGET PLANT EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current tests required for pesticide registration do not investigate the potential effects of chemical exposure on plant development. The tests investigate only seedling emergence and early growth. Previous research has shown that significant impacts can occur to plant developm...

  6. Can the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Test Be the "Gold Standard" for the Motor Assessment of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis; Ellinoudis, Theodoros; Fatouros, Ioannis; Giannakidou, Dimitra; Kourtessis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is an important risk factor in the development of children that can have a significant academic and social impact. This reinforces the need for its timely identification using appropriate assessment methods and accurate screening tests. The commonly used standardized motor test for the DCD identification…

  7. Sex-Specific Pathways to Early Puberty, Sexual Debut, and Sexual Risk Taking: Tests of an Integrated Evolutionary-Developmental Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jenee; Ellis, Bruce J.; Schlomer, Gabriel L.; Garber, Judy

    2012-01-01

    The current study tested sex-specific pathways to early puberty, sexual debut, and sexual risk taking, as specified by an integrated evolutionary-developmental model of adolescent sexual development and behavior. In a prospective study of 238 adolescents (n = 129 girls and n = 109 boys) followed from approximately 12-18 years of age, we tested for…

  8. Influence of developmental stage, salts and food presence on various end points using Caenorhabditis elegans for aquatic toxicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Donkin, S.G.; Williams, P.L.

    1995-12-01

    This study used a randomized block design to investigate the importance of several variables in using the free-living soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, for aquatic toxicity testing. Concentration-response data were obtained on nematodes of various developmental stages exposed to four metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, and Hg) and a water-soluble organic toxicant, sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP), under conditions of varied solvent medium (with or without salts and with or without a bacterial food source). The end points measured were 24- and 96-h mortality LC50 value, as well as development of larval stages to adulthood and evidence of reproduction. The results suggest that nematodes of various ages respond similarity to a given toxicant for all end points measured, although adults cultured from eggs appeared more sensitive than adults cultured from dauer larvae. The most important environmental variable in determining toxicity was the medium in which the tests were conducted. The presence of potassium and sodium salts in the medium significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the toxicity of many test samples. The presence of bacteria had little effect on 24-h tests with salts, but was important in 96-h survival and development. Based on sensitivity and ease of handling, adults cultured from eggs are recommended in both 24h and 96-h tests.

  9. Developing and testing a framework for evaluating the quality of comprehensive family assessment in child welfare.

    PubMed

    Smithgall, Cheryl; Jarpe-Ratner, Elizabeth; Gnedko-Berry, Natalya; Mason, Sally

    2015-06-01

    Over the last decade, Comprehensive Family Assessment (CFA) has become a best practice in child welfare. Comprehensive Family Assessments go beyond risk assessment to develop a full picture of the child's and family's situation. When appropriately synthesized, assessment information can lead to a clear articulation of the patterns of child or family functioning which are related to child abuse and maltreatment or which can be strengthened to facilitate change. This study defines and provides concrete examples of dimensions of quality in child welfare assessment reports that are consistent with the CFA guidelines and best practices embraced by child welfare agencies, courts, and other key stakeholders. Leveraging a random assignment design, the study compares the quality of reports written by a caseworker alone versus those written by a caseworker paired with a licensed Integrated Assessment (IA) screener. Findings are discussed in the context of the dual professional model and factors contributing to the timely completion of high quality assessment reports. PMID:25563410

  10. Child's Play: Therapist's Narrative

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Rajakumari P.; Hirisave, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Play has been recognized as an essential component to children's healthy development. Schools of play therapy differ philosophically and technically, but they all embrace the therapeutic and developmental properties of play. This case report is an illustration of how a 6-year-old child with emotional disorder was facilitated to express concerns in child-centered play therapy. The paper discusses the therapist's narration of the child's play. PMID:24860228

  11. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Problems for the No Child Left Behind Act. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), standardized test scores are the indicator used to hold schools and school districts accountable for student achievement. Each state is responsible for constructing an accountability system, attaching consequences--or stakes--for student performance. The theory of action implied by this…

  12. Combined repeated dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test of 4-methoxy-2-nitroaniline in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Yasuhiro; Aso, Sunao; Koga, Takayuki; Kikuchi, Junichi; Kobayashi, Toshio; Hoshuyama, Satsuki; Oshima, Yutaka; Miyata, Katsumi; Kusune, Yuji; Muroi, Takako; Yoshida, Tomohiko; Hasegawa, Ryuichi; Ajimi, Shozo; Furukawa, Kotaro

    2015-10-01

    4-Methoxy-2-nitroaniline (4M2NA) is widely used as an intermediate for the synthesis of dyes, pigments and other chemical compounds. Since 4M2NA has amino-group and nitro-group on the benzene ring, it was expected that it induced obvious hemolytic anemia. We conducted a combined repeated dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guideline No. 422 (OECD TG 422) to enrich the toxic information and ensure the safety of 4M2NA. 4M2NA was administered to Crl:CD(SD) male and female rats by gavage at 0, 12.5, 75 or 450 mg/kg/day for 42 to maximum of 54 days through pre-mating, mating, pregnancy and lactation periods. An extramedullary hematopoiesis and congestion in spleen, and higher reticulocyte ratio were noted in only females at 450 mg/kg/day without decreased anemic parameters in the hematological examination. Hypertrophy of centrilobular hepatocytes in both sexes was observed with increased relative liver weight at 450 mg/kg/day. Furthermore, the diffuse follicular cell hypertrophy of the thyroid was observed in females at 450 mg/kg/day. No abnormalities were detected in the reproductive indices of copulation, delivery or fetal viability. We concluded the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for repeated-dose toxicity was 75 mg/kg/day based on the trace evidences of hemolytic anemia, and the NOAEL for reproductive/developmental toxicity as 450 mg/kg/day based on no toxicological concerns for reproductive endpoints. The hemolytic anemia was much milder than expected. Thus, we discussed the reason of this much less hemolytic effect from the point of view of the structural characteristics of 4M2NA. PMID:25367778

  13. Seasonal changes in humidity impact drought resistance in tropical Drosophila leontia: testing developmental effects of thermal versus humidity changes.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Ravi; Ranga, Poonam

    2014-03-01

    Drosophila leontia is native to highly humid equatorial tropical habitats but its desiccation sensitivity (~10h) is not consistent with its abundance during the drier autumn season in the subtropical regions. We have tested the effects of developmental acclimation on desiccation resistance and water balance related traits of D. leontia collected during rainy and autumn seasons. The isofemale lines of seasonal populations were reared under ecologically relevant growth temperatures (18 or 26 °C) or humidity conditions (35 or 85% RH) but tested at different times under identical experimental conditions. The larvae as well as flies reared under two thermal conditions (18 or 26 °C) showed no effect on desiccation related traits as well as storage and utilization of energy metabolites. In contrast, for D. leontia reared under low humidity (35% RH), significant changes at larval as well adult stages include increase in the desiccation resistance as well as cuticular lipid quantity, reduced levels of rate of body water loss, higher storage of carbohydrates but lower rate of utilization of carbohydrates as compared with flies reared at high humidity (85% RH). D. leontia has responded to rearing under low humidity conditions by increasing its desiccation resistance but not due to changes in the growth temperatures. These laboratory observations on seasonal populations highlight differences due to rearing conditions but not due to seasons. Further, direct analysis of wild-caught seasonal populations has shown trends similar to developmental acclimation effects. For wild caught flies, there are significant seasonal differences i.e. higher desiccation resistance as well as cuticular lipid quantity but reduced rate of water loss for autumn than rainy season flies. Thus, our laboratory observations are relevant for understanding seasonal adaptations of natural populations of tropical D. leontia to wet-dry conditions in the wild. PMID:24345458

  14. Bystanding an abused child: testing the applicability of the stages of change construct.

    PubMed

    Mudde, Aart N; Hoefnagels, Cees J; Van Wijnen, Lisa G C; Kremers, Stef P J

    2007-02-01

    A minority of child abuse cases is recognized by professionals, making the role of non-professional bystanders essential. The stages of change construct, as proposed by the Transtheoretical Model, may provide a useful approach to explain non-professional helping behavior. The objective of this study was to test the applicability of the stages of change construct by (i) assessing whether cognitive determinants distinguish between the stages, (ii) testing the predictive value of the stages for future helping behavior and (iii) examining the mediating role of the stages in the relation between previous and future helping behavior. Data of 126 adult non-professional bystanders were analyzed. Respondents were questioned by telephone or via an Internet questionnaire, at baseline and after a follow-up of about two months later. Attitude toward helping was significantly less positive in pre-contemplation than in the other stages, and self-efficacy expectations were significantly higher in preparation compared with the other stages. Moreover, baseline preparators were more likely to conduct future helping behavior than those in the two earlier stages. Finally, the stages of change mediated the relation between previous and future helping behavior. Initial support was found for the applicability of the stages of change construct for helping behavior by non-professional bystanders. PMID:16849390

  15. Developmental Neurotoxicology: History and Outline of Developmental Neurotoxicity Study Guidelines.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present work provides a brief review of basic concepts in developmental neurotoxicology, as well as current representative testing guidelines for evaluating developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of xenobiotics. Historically, DNT was initially recognized as a “functional” teratoge...

  16. Developmental reversals in recognition memory in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Gross, Julien; Gardiner, Beatrix; Hayne, Harlene

    2016-01-01

    Older members of a given species typically exhibit superior learning and memory abilities relative to younger members, however, the developmental difference does not always occur in this younger-to-older direction. Developmental reversals are thought to reflect adaptive responses to the unique challenges imposed by the infant's niche. In humans, identification of developmental reversals has largely been precluded because infants, children, and adults are rarely tested using the same experimental procedures. Here, we adapted the visual recognition memory task and tested 3-year-olds and adults using one set of child-oriented stimuli and one set of adult-orientated stimuli. When tested immediately, children and adults exhibited recognition memory for both stimuli. When tested after a 1-week delay, children exhibited recognition memory for the child-oriented stimuli, but not for the adult-oriented stimuli and adults exhibited recognition memory for the adult-oriented stimuli, but not for the child-oriented stimuli. These data have important implications for current theories of memory development. PMID:26248798

  17. The Effects of Attention Problems on Depression: Developmental, Academic, and Cognitive Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Keith C.; Ostrander, Rick

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated developmental pathways between inattention and depression, particularly the roles of school maladjustment and child cognitions. Additionally, a measure of conduct problems was included in all analyses to test competing theories about the emergence of depressive symptoms. Results supported the hypothesized path models…

  18. Amidst the Test: The Lived Experience of Teaching "under" No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Barbara Agard

    2011-01-01

    In this hermeneutic phenomenological inquiry I explore the lived experience of public school teachers teaching amidst the federal law entitled No Child Left Behind. My research question wonders, "What is the lived experience of teaching under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB)?" My exploration relies heavily upon the work of Ted Aoki,…

  19. Analysis and test of a 16-foot radial rib reflector developmental model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Shawn A.

    1989-01-01

    Analytical and experimental modal tests were performed to determine the vibrational characteristics of a 16-foot diameter radial rib reflector model. Single rib analyses and experimental tests provided preliminary information relating to the reflector. A finite element model predicted mode shapes and frequencies of the reflector. The analyses correlated well with the experimental tests, verifying the modeling method used. The results indicate that five related, characteristic mode shapes form a group. The frequencies of the modes are determined by the relative phase of the radial ribs.

  20. AN INTELLIGENT REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TESTING PARADIGM FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Addressing the chemical evaluation bottleneck that currently exists can only be achieved through progressive changes to the current testing paradigm. The primary resources for addressing these issues lie in computational toxicology, a field enriched by recent advances in computer...

  1. Maternal age, investment, and parent-child conflict: a mediational test of the terminal investment hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Schlomer, Gabriel L; Belsky, Jay

    2012-06-01

    Drawing on the evolutionary terminal investment hypothesis and Trivers' (1974) parent-offspring conflict theory, we advance and evaluate a mediational model specifying why and how maternal age, via mating effort and parental investment, affects mother-child conflict. Data from a longitudinal study of 757 families indicate that (a) older maternal age predicts lower mating effort during the child's first 5 years of life, and (b) thereby, higher maternal investment in middle childhood when the child is around 10 years old. (c) Higher maternal investment, in turn, forecasts less child-perceived mother-child conflict in adolescence (age 15). These results proved robust against theoretically relevant covariates (family resources, parity, maternal education, and maternal personality characteristics) and in the context of an autoregressive model. Study limitations are noted and results are discussed in terms of the unique contributions of an evolutionary perspective to the determinants-of-parenting literature. PMID:22468690

  2. Validation of alternative tests for developmental and reproductive toxicology testing: an ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute perspective.

    PubMed

    Kim, James H

    2013-01-01

    The current political and societal climate is driving the science of toxicology towards developing non-animal testing methodologies. Though alternative and in vitro tests have always been a mainstay for toxicological testing, technological advances in the last decade have allowed toxicologists to move rapidly towards a better understanding of the relevance of in vitro endpoints for traditional apical endpoints. Non-animal research using new technologies have illuminated toxicologists on the mechanisms of protection and adverse health outcomes. In this context, the "validation" of alternative and in vitro tests has taken on significant importance, particularly in regard to satisfying safety concerns of drugs and chemicals in a regulatory setting. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly review the impetus for the development of alternative and in vitro tests, discuss the projects underway at the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) that are oriented towards this topic, and summarize the processes for formal validation. It should be noted that though there are validated assays and tests, these are under constant evaluation by scientific researchers as our understanding of the underlying biological processes continues to evolve. PMID:23138922

  3. Developmental test report, assessment of XT-70E percussion drill rig operation in tank farms

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, L.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-10

    The following report documents the testing of the XT-70E percussion drill rig for use in the 241-SX Tank Farm. The test is necessary to support evaluation of the safety and authorization level of the proposed activity of installing up to three new drywells in the 241- SX Tank Farm. The proposed activity plans to install drywells by percussion drilling 7 inch O.D./6 inch I.D. pipe in close proximity of underground storage tanks and associated equipment. The load transmitted from the drill rig`s percussion hammer through the ground to the tank structure and equipment is not known and therefore testing is required to ensure the activity is safe and authorized.

  4. Maternal overcontrol and child anxiety: the mediating role of perceived competence.

    PubMed

    Affrunti, Nicholas W; Ginsburg, Golda S

    2012-02-01

    Previous research has shown that maternal overcontrol is related to higher levels of child anxiety. It has been theorized, though not empirically tested, that maternal overcontrol decreases child perceived competence and mastery, which increases child anxiety. The present study investigated this theory using a sample of 89 mother-child dyads (children aged 6-13, 84.3% Caucasian, 6.7% African American, and 51.7% male). After statistically controlling for maternal anxiety level, child perceived competence was shown to partially mediate the relationship between maternal overcontrol and child anxiety. Though current findings are based on cross sectional data, they suggest multiple pathways through which maternal overcontrol impacts child anxiety. One pathway, described in theoretical models, posits that greater levels of parental control reduce children's opportunities to acquire appropriate developmental skills, lowering their perceived competence, and thus increasing their anxiety. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21874362

  5. Antecedents of Career Exploration among Hong Kong Chinese University Students: Testing Contextual and Developmental Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Raysen; Arnold, John

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate the antecedents of career exploration. We apply the perspectives of Flum and Blustein [Flum, H., & Blustein, D. L. (2000). Reinvigorating the study of vocational exploration: A framework for research. "Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56", 380-404] for the first time in Hong Kong, and we also test culture-specific…

  6. Auditory and Visual Differences in Time Perception? An Investigation from a Developmental Perspective with Neuropsychological Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelanti, Pierre S.; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Adults and children (5- and 8-year-olds) performed a temporal bisection task with either auditory or visual signals and either a short (0.5-1.0s) or long (4.0-8.0s) duration range. Their working memory and attentional capacities were assessed by a series of neuropsychological tests administered in both the auditory and visual modalities. Results…

  7. Developmental Pathways to Conduct Problems: A Further Test of the Childhood and Adolescent-Onset Distinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandreaux, Danielle M.; Frick, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested several theoretically important differences between youth with a childhood-onset and youth with an adolescent-onset to their severe conduct problems. Seventy-eight pre-adjudicated adolescent boys (ranging in age from 11 to 18) housed in two short-term detention facilities and one outpatient program for youth at risk for…

  8. The Effects of Alternative Study Guide Labels on Testing in Developmental Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Shellie Calhoun

    2012-01-01

    Methods and teaching tools have been researched to determine if they prove to be successful in effectively teaching the underprepared. This study was conducted to compare the differences in the utilization of alternative labeling on study guides to determine if the usage affects the outcome on participant's test scores. A quasi-experimental…

  9. Integrating Concepts and Tests of Intelligence from the Differential and Developmental Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Robbie; Demetriou, Andreas; Platsidou, Matria; Kazi, Smaragda

    2001-01-01

    Studied a possible convergence in the structure of cognitive abilities as specified by classical psychometric theory and two neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development by administering a large test battery to 120 children aged 7 to 10. Results support the integration of several theories of intelligence into a comprehensive system. (SLD)

  10. Developmental neurotoxicity testing in vitro: Models for assessing chemical effects on neurite outgrowth

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro models may be useful for the rapid toxicological screening of large numbers of chemicals for their potential to produce toxicity. Such screening could facilitate prioritization of resources needed for in vivo toxicity testing towards those chemicals most likely to resul...

  11. Finding the Roots of Adolescent Aggressive Behaviour: A Test of Three Developmental Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacz, Fabienne; Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Boet, Sylvie; Born, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive behaviours in adolescence often originate in early development. This study tested three longitudinal pathways starting in early childhood, in a sample of 325 Belgian participants (162 girls) assessed every 1 or 2 years from birth through age 14. Structural equation models supported the "mother early dissatisfaction" pathway…

  12. Early developmental delays: neuropsychological sequelae and subsequent diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee

    2012-01-01

    Developmental delay is a frequent diagnosis given to young children when developmental milestones are not met in an age-expected time frame. Research on early delays in speech and motor milestones is unclear regarding possible long-term cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile of children who suffered early developmental delays in speech or motor function. Participants (N = 60) completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition, Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test, Children's Memory Test (CMT), the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, and the Child Behavior Checklist/Youth Self-Report. The Delay group had a significantly lower Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ), and when controlling for IQ (analysis of covariance), the Delay group had significantly lower scores on measures of immediate and delayed visual memory skills (CMT). Group scores were not significantly different for any other tests. Neither group had any test scores significantly below FSIQ, a finding suggesting developmental delays may subsequently lead to weaknesses but not impairments. Results appear to support the resiliency of the young brain. Chi-square analysis showed the Delay group was more likely to subsequently be diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) but not learning disorders. Data appear to suggest that early developmental delays may place children as risk for ADHD and perhaps visual memory weaknesses, though not clear impairments. PMID:23428279

  13. Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration Performance in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Griffin P.; Barchard, Kimberly A.; Bello, Danielle T.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Ringdahl, Erik; Mayfield, Joan; Allen, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of visuoconstructional abilities is a common part of clinical neuropsychological assessment, and the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI; K. E. Beery & N. A. Beery, 2004) is often used for this purpose. However, few studies have examined its psychometric properties when used to assess children and…

  14. Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: A United States national study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nathaniel J.; Glisson, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Theories of organizational culture and climate (OCC) applied to child welfare systems hypothesize that strategic dimensions of organizational culture influence organizational climate and that OCC explains system variance in youth outcomes. This study provides the first structural test of the direct and indirect effects of culture and climate on youth outcomes in a national sample of child welfare systems and isolates specific culture and climate dimensions most associated with youth outcomes. The study applies multilevel path analysis (ML-PA) to a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,380 youth in 73 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Youths were selected in a national, two-stage, stratified random sample design. Youths’ psychosocial functioning was assessed by caregivers’ responses to the Child Behavior Checklist at intake and at 18-month follow-up. OCC was assessed by front-line caseworkers’ (N=1,740) aggregated responses to the Organizational Social Context measure. Comparison of the a priori and subsequent trimmed models confirmed a reduced model that excluded rigid organizational culture and explained 70% of the system variance in youth outcomes. Controlling for youth- and system-level covariates, systems with more proficient and less resistant organizational cultures exhibited more functional, more engaged, and less stressful climates. Systems with more proficient cultures and more engaged, more functional, and more stressful climates exhibited superior youth outcomes. Findings suggest child welfare administrators can support service effectiveness with interventions that improve specific dimensions of culture and climate. PMID:24094999

  15. Fantasy Orientation Constructs and Related Executive Function Development in Preschool: Developmental Benefits to Executive Functions by Being a Fantasy-Oriented Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierucci, Jillian M.; O'Brien, Christopher T.; McInnis, Melissa A.; Gilpin, Ansley Tullos; Barber, Angela B.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored unique constructs of fantasy orientation and whether there are developmental benefits for fantasy-oriented children. By age 3, children begin developing executive functions, with some children exhibiting high fantasy orientation in their cognitions and behaviors. Preschoolers ("n" = 106) completed fantasy orientation…

  16. A Letter to the Parent(s) of a Child with Developmental Apraxia of Speech. Part II: The Nature and Causes of DAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Penelope K.

    2000-01-01

    One of a series of letters to parents of children with developmental apraxia of speech (DAS), this letter discusses issues and current thinking about the nature and causes of the disorder. These include the idea that DAS is a disorder of overall language development or that DAS is a problem of the "motor-programming" system for speech. An…

  17. A Child with Signs of Developmental Apraxia of Speech with Whom a Palatal Lift Prosthesis Was Used to Manage Palatal Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Penelope K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A 7-year-old girl who exhibited characteristics consistent with developmental apraxia of speech, including excessive nasal resonance and nasal emission of air resulting from velopharyngeal port dysfunction, was fitted with a palatal lift prosthesis and followed for 11 years. Results of use of the lift and speech/language remedial programing are…

  18. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays: Implications for Parental Mental Health and Child Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neece, Cameron L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents of children with developmental delays (DD) typically report elevated levels of parental stress compared with parents of typically developing children. Children with DD are also at high risk for exhibiting significant behaviour problems. Parental stress has been shown to impact the development of these behaviour problems;…

  19. Editors' Conclusion: Child, Youth, and Parent Responses to the Terrorism of September 11, 2001--Implications for Applied Developmental Science and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aber, J. Lawrence; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.

    2004-01-01

    Even as the events of September 11, 2001 recede into the past, the need for applied developmental science to lend its expertise to assist with one's understanding of and coping with civilian responses to terrorism has never been greater. What has the field learned from studies of the effects of events of September 11th on children, youths, and…

  20. Validation of the Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview (3Di) among Chinese Children in a Child Psychiatry Clinic in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Kelly Y. C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Mo, Flora Y. M.; Lee, Marshall M. C.; Shea, Caroline K. S.; Chan, Grace F. C.; Che, Kiti K. I.; Luk, Ernest S. L.; Mak, Arthur D. P.; Warrington, Richard; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a disorder with high levels of co-morbidities. The Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview (3Di) is a relatively new instrument designed to provide dimensional as well as categorical assessment of autistic behaviours among children with normal intelligence. Its sound psychometric properties and…

  1. Effects of supercypermethrin, a synthetic developmental pyrethroid, on four biological test systems.

    PubMed

    Miadoková, E; Vlcková, V; Dúhová, V; Trebatická, M; Garajová, L; Grolmus, J; Podstavková, S; Vlcek, D

    1992-01-01

    The genotoxic potential of the insecticide supercypermethrin, a second-generation pyrethroid, was studied on four different test systems. It was non-mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535, TA100, TA1538, TA98 and TA97 in the presence and absence of S9 mixture. It induced gene conversion at the tryptophan locus and induced point mutations at the isoleucine locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. A slight increase in the frequency of aberrant anaphases and telophases in root tips of Hordeum vulgare and Vicia faba was observed, but no genotoxic effects were detected in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:1381478

  2. Developmental differences in explicit and implicit conceptual memory tests: a processing view account.

    PubMed

    Sauzéon, Hélène; Déjos, Marie; Lestage, Philippe; Arvind Pala, Prashant; N'kaoua, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The present study addressed contradictory results in childhood literature about conceptual priming. Based on the processing view, two forms of conceptual priming were investigated across two experiments in children aged from 7 to 16: associative priming (using the free-association test) and relational (categorical) priming (using the categorical exemplar generation test) as well as their explicit memory measure counterparts (the associative-cued recall and the category-cued recall). Experiment 1 compared age differences in associative and relational (categorical) priming. Experiment 2 focused on relational (categorical) priming with manipulations of blocked/unblocked words per category. The results showed that (a) associative priming was unchanged in children aged from 7 to 16, whereas relational (categorical) priming improved from 7-9 to 13-16 years old, and (b) age differences in relational (categorical) priming still occurred under unblocked conditions and blocked condition, while age differences in explicit measures were reduced under blocked conditions. These findings were discussed in line with the debate between the system and processing view and in terms of knowledge and automaticity development. PMID:21500114

  3. Vehicle test report: South Coast Technology electric Volkswagen Rabbit with developmental low-power armature chopper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marte, J. E.; Bryant, J. A.; Livingston, R.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamometer performance of a South Coast Technology electric conversion of a Volkswagen (VW) Rabbit designated SCT-8 was tested. The SCT-8 vehicle was fitted with a transistorized chopper in the motor armature circuit to supplement the standard motor speed control via field weakening. The armature chopper allowed speed control below the motor base speed. This low speed control was intended to reduce energy loss at idle during stop-and-go traffic; to eliminate the need for using the clutch below base motor speed; and to improve the drivability. Test results indicate an improvement of about 3.5% in battery energy economy for the SAE J227a-D driving cycle and 6% for the C-cycle with only a minor reduction in acceleration performance. A further reduction of about 6% would be possible if provision were made for shutting down field power during the idle phases of the driving cycles. Drivability of the vehicle equipped with the armature chopper was significantly improved compared with the standard SCT Electric Rabbit.

  4. Developmental Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Mall, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) during sensitive developmental windows can interfere with cognitive function and behavior, which are critical components of neurodevelopment. The association between developmental exposure to PBDEs and neurodevelopment has been extensively studied using animal models. In this review, we focus on the accumulating evidence in humans. Despite methodological, geographical, and temporal differences between studies, the majority of the epidemiologic evidence supports that early life exposure to PBDEs measured during pregnancy and/or during childhood is detrimental to child neurodevelopment in domains related to child behavior, cognition, and motor skills. While the precise mechanism of action of PBDEs on neurodevelopment is unknown, PBDE-induced neurotoxicity via thyroid hormone disruption and direct action of PBDEs on the developing brain have been proposed and tested. Additional studies are suggested to better understand how early life and/or childhood PBDE exposures, including exposure to specific PBDE congeners, impact neurodevelopmental indices. PMID:25530937

  5. The developmental antecedents of sexual coercion against women: testing alternative hypotheses with structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Knight, Raymond A; Sims-Knight, Judith E

    2003-06-01

    A unified model of the origin of sexual aggression against women on both adult and juvenile sexual offender samples has been developed and successfully tested. This model proposed three major causal paths to sexual coercion against women. In the first path, physical and verbal abuse was hypothesized to produce callousness and lack of emotionality, which disinhibited sexual drive and sexual fantasies. These in turn disinhibited hostile sexual fantasies, and led to sexual coercion. In the second causal path, sexual abuse contributed directly to the disinhibition of sexual drive and sexual fantasies, which through hostile sexual fantasies led to sexual coercion. The third path operated through early antisocial behavior, including aggressive acts. It developed as a result of both physical/verbal abuse and callousness/lack of emotion. It in turn directly affected sexual coercion and worked indirectly through the hostile sexual fantasies path. In the present study, the anonymous responses of a group of 168 blue-collar, community males to an inventory (the Multidimensional Assessment of Sex and Aggression) were used in a structural equation model to test the validity of this model. Moreover, this model was pitted against (Malamuth's (1998)) two-path model. Whereas the three-path model had an excellent fit with the data (CFI =.951, RMSEA =.047), the two-path model fit less well (CFI =.857, RMSEA =.079). These results indicate the superiority of the three-path model and suggest that it constitutes a solid, empirically disconfirmable heuristic for the etiology of sexual coercion against women. PMID:12839887

  6. Political violence and child adjustment: longitudinal tests of sectarian antisocial behavior, family conflict, and insecurity as explanatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Edward M; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of political violence on child maladjustment is a matter of international concern. Recent research has advanced a social ecological explanation for relations between political violence and child adjustment. However, conclusions are qualified by the lack of longitudinal tests. Toward examining pathways longitudinally, mothers and their adolescents (M = 12.33, SD = 1.78, at Time 1) from 2-parent families in Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, completed measures assessing multiple levels of a social ecological model. Utilizing autoregressive controls, a 3-wave longitudinal model test (T1, n = 299; T2, n = 248; T3, n = 197) supported a specific pathway linking sectarian community violence, family conflict, children's insecurity about family relationships, and adjustment problems. PMID:22313052

  7. A Developmental Psychology Perspective in Germany: Co-Construction of Transitions between Family and Education System by the Child, Parents and Pedagogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griebel, Wilfried; Niesel, Renate

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, there exists a traditional gap between kindergarten and primary school. Transition research has led to a new understanding of the need for cooperation between different educational institutions and the family at this time. This article emphasises that educational transitions affect not only the child but also the parents, who actively…

  8. Developmental Continuity and Stability of Emotional Availability in the Family: Two Ages and Two Genders in Child-Mother Dyads from Two Regions in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gini, Motti; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; Heslington, Marianne; de Galperin, Celia Zingman

    2010-01-01

    This study employs an intra-national and cross-national, prospective, and longitudinal design to examine age, gender, region, and country variation in group mean-level continuity and individual-differences stability of emotional availability in child-mother dyads. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and US American metropolitan and rural residence…

  9. Does My Baby Really Look Like Me? Using Tests for Resemblance between Parent and Child to Teach Topics in Categorical Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froelich, Amy G.; Nettleton, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a study to test whether neutral observers perceive a resemblance between a parent and a child. We demonstrate the general approach for two separate parent/ child pairs using survey data collected from introductory statistics students serving as neutral observers. We then present ideas for incorporating the study design…

  10. Political Violence and Child Adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing Pathways in a Social-Ecological Model Including Single- and Two-Parent Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including…

  11. Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview the developmental toxicity resulting from exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). The majority of studies of PFAA-induced developmental toxicity have examined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) a...

  12. Developmental Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Learn More about Your Child’s Development: Developmental Monitoring and Screening Taking a first step, waving “bye-bye,” and pointing to something interesting are all developmental milestones, ...

  13. Developmental Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    Developmental disabilities are severe, long-term problems. They may be physical, such as blindness. They may affect mental ability, ... everyday living. There are many causes of developmental disabilities, including Genetic or chromosome abnormalities. These cause conditions ...

  14. Testing the relationship between human occupancy in the landscape and tadpole developmental stress.

    PubMed

    Eterovick, Paula C; Bar, Luís F F; Souza, Jorge B; Castro, José F M; Leite, Felipe S F; Alford, Ross A

    2015-01-01

    Amphibian population declines are widespread; the main causal factors are human related and include habitat fragmentation due to agriculture, mining, fires, and urban development. Brazil is the richest country in species of amphibians, and the Brazilian regions with the greatest amphibian diversity are experiencing relatively high rates of habitat destruction, but there are presently relatively few reports of amphibian declines. It is thus important to develop research methods that will detect deterioration in population health before severe declines occur. We tested the use of measurements of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) taken on amphibian larvae to detect anthropogenic stress. We hypothesized that greater human occupancy in the landscape might result in more stressful conditions for amphibians. We conducted this study at the Espinhaço mountain range in southeastern Brazil, using as a model an endemic species (Bokermannohyla saxicola, Hylidae). We chose two tadpole denticle rows and eye-nostril distance as traits for FA measurement. We measured percent cover of human-altered habitats in the landscape around tadpole sampling points and measured FA levels in sampled tadpoles. We found FA levels to differ among localities but found no relationship between human modification of the landscape and tadpole FA levels. Levels of FA in the traits we examined may not be strongly affected by environmental conditions, or may be affected by local variables that were not captured by our landscape-scale measures. Alternatively, populations may be genetically differentiated, affecting how FA levels respond to stress and obscuring the effects of anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:25793699

  15. The Bicycle Drawing Test: What Does It Measure in Developmentally Typical Children?

    PubMed

    Cannoni, Eleonora; Di Norcia, Anna; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Di Giunta, Laura

    2015-10-01

    To verify the dimensionality of Bicycle Drawing Test (BDT), we applied the coding system of Greenberg, Rodriguez, and Sesta to bicycle drawings made by 295 boys and 320 girls (6-10 years old) with typical development, and submitted the data to item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. These analyses confirmed only two of the original four dimensions of the BDT: spatial reasoning and visual-motor control. The scores in these two factors were correlated with the Colored Progressive Matrices, the Rey Complex Figure (Copy and Memory) and with the teachers' ratings in mathematics, language, and drawing. The correlations, albeit moderate in magnitude, were consistent with the hypothesized convergent and discriminant validity. After checking for measurement invariance across gender and age, we conducted two analyses of variance, the first of which showed a significant difference between younger children (6-8 years old) and older children (9-10 years old); the analysis of variance by gender did not yield significant differences. These data enhance the usefulness of the BDT as a measure of separate cognitive components, but do not support its use as a measure of mechanical reasoning. PMID:25336037

  16. Effect of primary language on developmental testing in children born extremely preterm

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Jean R.; Nolen, Tracy L.; Vohr, Betty; Adams-Chapman, Ira; Duncan, Andrea F.; Watterberg, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    Aim To better understand the impact of non-English language spoken in the home on measures of cognition, language, and behavior in toddlers born extremely preterm. Methods Eight hundred and fifty children born at <28 weeks gestational ages were studied. 427 male and 423 female participants from three racial/ethnic groups (White, Black, and Hispanic) were evaluated at 18-22 months adjusted age using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development 3rd edition and the Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA). Children whose primary language was Spanish (n=98) were compared with children whose primary language was English (n=752), using multivariable regression adjusted for medical and psychosocial factors. Results Cognitive scores were similar between groups; however, receptive, expressive and composite language scores were lower for children whose primary language was Spanish. These differences remained significant after adjustment for medical and socio-economic factors. Spanish speaking children scored worse on the BITSEA competence and problem scores using univariate analysis, but not after adjustment for medical and socio-economic factors. Conclusions Our finding that preterm children whose primary language was Spanish had similar cognitive but lower language scores than those whose primary language was English suggests that using English language-based testing tools may introduce bias against non-English speaking children born preterm. PMID:23735043

  17. Femininity and Kin-Directed Altruism in Androphilic Men: A Test of an Evolutionary Developmental Model.

    PubMed

    VanderLaan, Doug P; Petterson, Lanna J; Vasey, Paul L

    2016-04-01

    Androphilia refers to sexual attraction and arousal toward males whereas gynephilia refers to sexual attraction and arousal toward females. This study tested the adaptive feminine phenotype model of the evolution of male androphilia via kin selection, which posits that the development of an evolved disposition toward elevated kin-directed altruism among androphilic males is contingent on the behavioral expression of femininity. Gynephilic men, androphilic women, and androphilic men (N = 387) completed measures of childhood and adulthood gender expression and concern for kin's well-being. Adulthood femininity correlated positively with uncle/aunt-like tendencies among androphilic men and women. Although androphilic women reported greater willingness to invest in nieces and nephews than gynephilic and androphilic men, mediation analyses indicated that adult femininity completely mediated these group differences. In addition, changes in the expression of femininity between childhood and adulthood were associated with parallel changes in concern for the well-being of kin among androphilic men. Thus, these findings suggest that femininity is key to the expression of kin-directed altruism among androphilic males and may have been important in the evolution of male androphilia. PMID:26597647

  18. Testing the Relationship between Human Occupancy in the Landscape and Tadpole Developmental Stress

    PubMed Central

    Eterovick, Paula C.; Bar, Luís F. F.; Souza, Jorge B.; Castro, José F. M.; Leite, Felipe S. F.; Alford, Ross A.

    2015-01-01

    Amphibian population declines are widespread; the main causal factors are human related and include habitat fragmentation due to agriculture, mining, fires, and urban development. Brazil is the richest country in species of amphibians, and the Brazilian regions with the greatest amphibian diversity are experiencing relatively high rates of habitat destruction, but there are presently relatively few reports of amphibian declines. It is thus important to develop research methods that will detect deterioration in population health before severe declines occur. We tested the use of measurements of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) taken on amphibian larvae to detect anthropogenic stress. We hypothesized that greater human occupancy in the landscape might result in more stressful conditions for amphibians. We conducted this study at the Espinhaço mountain range in southeastern Brazil, using as a model an endemic species (Bokermannohyla saxicola, Hylidae). We chose two tadpole denticle rows and eye-nostril distance as traits for FA measurement. We measured percent cover of human-altered habitats in the landscape around tadpole sampling points and measured FA levels in sampled tadpoles. We found FA levels to differ among localities but found no relationship between human modification of the landscape and tadpole FA levels. Levels of FA in the traits we examined may not be strongly affected by environmental conditions, or may be affected by local variables that were not captured by our landscape-scale measures. Alternatively, populations may be genetically differentiated, affecting how FA levels respond to stress and obscuring the effects of anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:25793699

  19. Speechreading development in deaf and hearing children: introducing a new Test of Child Speechreading (ToCS)

    PubMed Central

    Kyle, Fiona Elizabeth; Campbell, Ruth; Mohammed, Tara; Coleman, Mike; MacSweeney, Mairéad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We describe the development of a new Test of Child Speechreading (ToCS) specifically designed for use with deaf and hearing children. Speechreading is a skill which is required for deaf children to access the language of the hearing community. ToCS is a deaf-friendly, computer-based test that measures child speechreading (silent lipreading) at three psycholinguistic levels: words, sentences and short stories. The aims of the study were to standardize ToCS with deaf and hearing children and investigate the effects of hearing status, age and linguistic complexity on speechreading ability. Method 86 severely and profoundly deaf and 91 hearing children aged between 5 and 14 years participated. The deaf children were from a range of language and communication backgrounds and their preferred mode of communication varied. Results: Speechreading skills significantly improved with age for both deaf and hearing children. There was no effect of hearing status on speechreading ability and deaf and hearing showed similar performance across all subtests on ToCS. Conclusions The Test of Child Speechreading (ToCS) is a valid and reliable assessment of speechreading ability in school-aged children that can be used to measure individual differences in performance in speechreading ability. PMID:23275416

  20. Reference values for quantitative sensory testing in children and adolescents: developmental and gender differences of somatosensory perception.

    PubMed

    Blankenburg, M; Boekens, H; Hechler, T; Maier, C; Krumova, E; Scherens, A; Magerl, W; Aksu, F; Zernikow, B

    2010-04-01

    The Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) protocol of the German research network on neuropathic pain (DFNS) encompassing all somatosensory modalities assesses the functioning of different nerve fibers and of central pathways. The aim of our study was: (1) to explore, whether this QST protocol is feasible for children, (2) to detect distribution properties of QST data and the impact of body site, age and gender and (3) to establish reference values for QST in children and adolescents. The QST protocol of the DFNS with modification of instructions and pain rating was used in 176 children aged 6.12-16.12years for six body sites. QST was feasible for children over 5years of age. ANOVAs revealed developmental, gender and body site differences of somatosensory functions similar to adults. The face was more sensitive than the hand and/or foot. Younger children (6-8years) were generally less sensitive to all thermal and mechanical detection stimuli but more sensitive to all pain stimuli than older (9-12years) children, whereas there were little differences between older children and adolescents (13-17years). Girls were more sensitive to thermal detection and pain stimuli, but not to mechanical detection and pain stimuli. Reference values differ from adults, but distribution properties (range, variance, and side differences) were similar and plausible for statistical factors. Our results demonstrate that the full QST protocol is feasible and valid for children over 5years of age with their own reference values. PMID:20138430

  1. Tests of the Dynamic Field Theory and the Spatial Precision Hypothesis: Capturing a Qualitative Developmental Transition in Spatial Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Schutte, Anne R.; Spencer, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a dynamic field theory (DFT) of spatial working memory and an associated spatial precision hypothesis (SPH). Between three and six years of age there is a qualitative shift in how children use reference axes to remember locations: 3-year-olds’ spatial recall responses are biased toward reference axes after short memory delays, whereas 6-year-olds’ responses are biased away from reference axes. According to the DFT and the SPH, quantitative improvements over development in the precision of excitatory and inhibitory working memory processes lead to this qualitative shift. Simulations of the DFT in Experiment 1 predict that improvements in precision should cause the spatial range of targets attracted toward a reference axis to narrow gradually over development with repulsion emerging and gradually increasing until responses to most targets show biases away from the axis. Results from Experiment 2 with 3- to 5-year-olds support these predictions. Simulations of the DFT in Experiment 3 quantitatively fit the empirical results and offer insights into the neural processes underlying this developmental change. PMID:19968430

  2. Child-Parent and Child-Peer Interaction: Observational Similarities and Differences at Age Seven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrits, Marleen H.; Goudena, Paul P.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2005-01-01

    According to Russell et al. ("Developmental Rev" 1998; 18: 313) child-parent interaction could contain horizontal qualities, similar to child-peer interactions. To study this, child-parent and child-peer play interactions were compared on several observed horizontal and vertical characteristics in 55 7-year-old children interacting with their…

  3. Extended Child and Caregiver Benefits of Behavior-Based Child Contingency Learning Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Raab, Melinda; Trivette, Carol M.; Wilson, Linda L.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Parkey, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Findings from 2 studies of the relationship between response-contingent child behavior and child, caregiver-child, and caregiver behavior not directly associated with child contingency learning are described. The participants were 19 children with significant developmental delays and their mothers in 1 study and 22 children with significant…

  4. Using Test Results To Support Clinical Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Linda Kreger

    This paper recommends an evaluation procedure for gifted children which uses test results only to confirm the conclusions resulting from clinical evaluation that involves observation, discussion with the child, an interview with the parents, developmental milestones, and family history. It suggests that traditional test interpretation may lead to…

  5. Young child with severe brain volume loss easily passes the word memory test and medical symptom validity test: implications for mild TBI.

    PubMed

    Carone, Dominic A

    2014-01-01

    The Word Memory Test (WMT) and Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) are two commonly used free-standing measures of test-taking effort. The use of any test as a measure of effort is enhanced when evidence shows that it can be easily passed by patients with severe neurological conditions. The opportunity arose to administer the WMT and MSVT to a 9-year-old girl (referred to as CJ) with severe congenital bilateral brain tissue loss (shown via a compelling brain MRI image), chronic epilepsy, an extremely low Full Scale IQ, extremely low adaptive functioning, developmental delays, numerous severe cognitive impairments, and treatment with multiple high-dose benzodiazepines. She received extensive early intervention services and numerous academic accommodations. Despite this set of problems, CJ passed the WMT and MSVT at perfect to near perfect levels. Implications for failure on these tests among patients with known or alleged mild traumatic brain injury are discussed. PMID:24266623

  6. Autism Assessment and Intervention: The Developmental Individual-Difference, Relationship-Based (DIR [R])/Floortime [TM] Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieder, Serena; Greenspan, Stanley; Kalmanson, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Every child, with and without diagnosis, deserves to be understood from a developmental perspective that honors the unique patterns of individual strengths and vulnerabilities of each child and family. Developmental interventions on behalf of the child help to establish fundamental developmental capacities and relationships. This article presents…

  7. No Child Left Behind: A Legislative Catalyst for Superintendent Action to Eliminate Test-Score Gaps?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Whitney H.

    2008-01-01

    Proponents of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) hail it as vital legislation that supports a civil rights agenda because of explicit recognition that achievement gaps are unacceptable. One way to make sense of NCLB's impact on school divisions and to understand whether NCLB recognizes the complexity of why minority and low-socioeconomic-background…

  8. It Takes a Village to Deliver and Test Child and Family-Focused Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Mary M.; Gopalan, Geetha; Franco, Lydia M.; Kalogerogiannis, Kosta; Umpierre, Mari; Olshtain-Mann, Orly; Bannon, William; Elwyn, Laura; Goldstein, Leah

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article is to highlight the benefits of collaboration in child focused mental health services research. Method: Three unique research projects are described. These projects address the mental health needs of vulnerable, urban, minority children and their families. In each one, service delivery was codesigned,…

  9. Cognitive Testing and the Validity of Child-Report Data from the Elementary School Success Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Natasha K.

    2008-01-01

    The Elementary School Success Profile (ESSP) is a social environmental assessment tool that collects data from third, fourth, and fifth graders, their parents or guardians, and their teachers. Ensuring the validity of the data collected with the child-report component was a primary concern during the development of the ESSP. This article describes…

  10. HIV counseling and testing for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Swaziland: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Sagna, Marguerite L; Schopflocher, Donald

    2015-01-01

    HIV counseling and voluntary testing during antenatal care have been proven to reduce the risk of HIV transmission from mother to child, through increasing knowledge about safe behaviors, ascertaining HIV status and increasing coverage of effective antiretroviral regimens. However, it remains that, in developing countries where 95 % of mother-to-child HIV transmissions (MTCT) take place, such interventions are not widely accessible or available. Using a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey, the present study aimed to examine individual- and contextual-level influences on the receipt of HIV pre-test counseling and uptake of HIV testing during the antenatal care period in Swaziland, a country highly burdened by HIV/AIDS. The study sample was restricted to women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the past five years preceding the survey and who received antenatal care for the most recent birth. The findings of this study indicated that only 62 % of women received pre-test counseling for the prevention of MTCT and no more than 56 % of women consented to be tested for HIV during antenatal care. The multilevel regression analysis revealed that the likelihood of receiving HIV pre-test counseling increases significantly with higher parity, education level, household wealth and antenatal visits while it is lower in areas where poverty is pervasive (OR = 0.474) and in rural regions (OR = 0.598) as well. Beyond all the significant predictors, undergoing pre-test counseling has emerged as an important determinant of HIV testing. Receiving pre-test counseling increases the odds of accepting an HIV test by 77 %. Evidence from this analysis underscores bottlenecks and challenges that persist in increasing the need for and uptake of HIV preventive and treatment services to stop new HIV infections among children. PMID:24810361

  11. The Empirical Interests of Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Kenneth O.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a classification system for developmental psychology that was constructed by means of a survey of articles published in the journals "Child Development" and "Developmental Psychology" in 1969 and 1987. The survey found that eight empirical questions encompassed the full range of empirical interests expressed by developmental…

  12. A transcriptome-based classifier to identify developmental toxicants by stem cell testing: design, validation and optimization for histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rempel, Eugen; Hoelting, Lisa; Waldmann, Tanja; Balmer, Nina V; Schildknecht, Stefan; Grinberg, Marianna; Das Gaspar, John Antony; Shinde, Vaibhav; Stöber, Regina; Marchan, Rosemarie; van Thriel, Christoph; Liebing, Julia; Meisig, Johannes; Blüthgen, Nils; Sachinidis, Agapios; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Hengstler, Jan G; Leist, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    Test systems to identify developmental toxicants are urgently needed. A combination of human stem cell technology and transcriptome analysis was to provide a proof of concept that toxicants with a related mode of action can be identified and grouped for read-across. We chose a test system of developmental toxicity, related to the generation of neuroectoderm from pluripotent stem cells (UKN1), and exposed cells for 6 days to the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) valproic acid, trichostatin A, vorinostat, belinostat, panobinostat and entinostat. To provide insight into their toxic action, we identified HDACi consensus genes, assigned them to superordinate biological processes and mapped them to a human transcription factor network constructed from hundreds of transcriptome data sets. We also tested a heterogeneous group of 'mercurials' (methylmercury, thimerosal, mercury(II)chloride, mercury(II)bromide, 4-chloromercuribenzoic acid, phenylmercuric acid). Microarray data were compared at the highest non-cytotoxic concentration for all 12 toxicants. A support vector machine (SVM)-based classifier predicted all HDACi correctly. For validation, the classifier was applied to legacy data sets of HDACi, and for each exposure situation, the SVM predictions correlated with the developmental toxicity. Finally, optimization of the classifier based on 100 probe sets showed that eight genes (F2RL2, TFAP2B, EDNRA, FOXD3, SIX3, MT1E, ETS1 and LHX2) are sufficient to separate HDACi from mercurials. Our data demonstrate how human stem cells and transcriptome analysis can be combined for mechanistic grouping and prediction of toxicants. Extension of this concept to mechanisms beyond HDACi would allow prediction of human developmental toxicity hazard of unknown compounds with the UKN1 test system. PMID:26272509

  13. Rapid testing at labor and delivery to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in developing settings: issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Pai, Nitika Pant; Klein, Marina B

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 2.5 million children (95% CI: 2.2-2.6) are living with HIV infection. In 2007 alone, approximately 420,000 children (95%CI: 350,000-540,000) were newly infected with HIV - a vast majority of these infections were acquired through maternal-fetal transmission. Many of these infections could have been reduced by timely diagnosis and the delivery of interventions aimed at preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission. This perspective examines the attitudes preventing women from accessing HIV testing early on during pregnancy and the issues and challenges that remain in the institutionalization of interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission at labor and delivery. Socio-cultural and economic factors prevent women from accessing testing at an opportune time during pregnancy. In addition, a lack of adequate infrastructure often prevents timely delivery of interventions to those who access testing at the last minute (i.e., during labor and delivery). In the wake of a pediatric HIV epidemic and the need for lifelong provision of antiretroviral therapy to infected children, a simple strategy for provision of round-the-clock rapid testing and counseling services in the labor rooms may be cost saving to the healthcare systems worldwide. PMID:19102641

  14. Causal Inference and Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, E. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Causal inference is of central importance to developmental psychology. Many key questions in the field revolve around improving the lives of children and their families. These include identifying risk factors that if manipulated in some way would foster child development. Such a task inherently involves causal inference: One wants to know whether…

  15. The Priority of Description in Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugarman, Susan

    1987-01-01

    Argues that there are significant ways in which neither Piaget nor his successors in developmental psychology have adequately described the child's mind and how it changes. Proposes alternative guidelines for research that aims more directly at identifying essential constituent features of the child's mental reality. (PCB)

  16. Research Models in Developmental Behavioral Toxicology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Kim N.; Pearson, Douglas T.

    Developmental models currently used by child behavioral toxicologists and teratologists are inadequate to address current issues in these fields. Both child behavioral teratology and toxicology scientifically study the impact of exposure to toxic agents on behavior development: teratology focuses on prenatal exposure and postnatal behavior…

  17. What Are Good Child Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Evans, V. Jeffery; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Roth, Jodie

    This paper considers the question "What are good child outcomes?" from the perspectives of developmental psychology, economics, and sociology. Section 1 of the paper examines good child outcomes as characteristics of stage-salient tasks of development. Section 2 emphasizes the acquisition of "human capital," the development of productive traits…

  18. Validation of the Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview (3Di) Among Chinese Children in a Child Psychiatry Clinic in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kelly Y C; Leung, Patrick W L; Mo, Flora Y M; Lee, Marshall M C; Shea, Caroline K S; Chan, Grace F C; Che, Kiti K I; Luk, Ernest S L; Mak, Arthur D P; Warrington, Richard; Skuse, David

    2015-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a disorder with high levels of co-morbidities. The Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview (3 Di) is a relatively new instrument designed to provide dimensional as well as categorical assessment of autistic behaviours among children with normal intelligence. Its sound psychometric properties and relatively short administration time make it a versatile instrument. The 3 Di was translated into Chinese (Cantonese) and its applicability among 194 clinic children was examined. Results found excellent reliability and validity, and achieved a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 77%. It was able to capture the diagnosis of ASD among children presenting with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, although the disorder of ASD is considered universal, the use of a western instrument in a Chinese context should also take note of cultural influences that may impact on the manifestation of its symptoms. PMID:25326822

  19. Predictive Modeling of Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of alternative methods in conjunction with traditional in vivo developmental toxicity testing has the potential to (1) reduce cost and increase throughput of testing the chemical universe, (2) prioritize chemicals for further targeted toxicity testing and risk assessment,...

  20. Exceptional Child I: Building Understanding [and] Exceptional Child II: Focusing on Nurturing & Learning. The Developing Child. [Videotapes].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magna Systems, Inc., Crystal Lake, IL.

    These two videotape recordings and accompanying workbook provide information on the developmental stages of childhood, influences on child development, and identifying children with disabilities. The videos, "Exceptional Child 1: Building Understanding," (27 minutes) and "Exceptional Child 2: Focusing on Nurturing & Learning," (28 minutes) address…

  1. Developmental issues in managing children with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Savinetti-Rose, B

    1994-01-01

    Children who are newly diagnosed with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) are expected to learn a substantial amount of new information within a few hospital days. It is important for nurses who design lesson plans for the child with IDDM to assess the child's developmental capabilities in relation to the necessary skills required of diabetes management and understand the family influence on the child's ability to perform self-care. PMID:8159478

  2. A Functional Developmental Approach to Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Stanley I.; Wieder, Serena

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a dynamic, developmental model to be used to guide assessment and intervention in children with autism. The Developmental, Individual-Difference, Relationship-Based model conceptualizes the child's functional emotional developmental capacities, individual differences in sensory processing and modulation, motor planning and…

  3. Associations between Intensity of Child Welfare Involvement and Child Development among Young Children in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Hurlburt, Michael; Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Landsverk, John; Zhang, Jinjin; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine developmental and behavioral status of children in child welfare (CW) over time, by intensity of CW involvement using a national probability sample. Methods: As part of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), data were collected on 1,049 children 12-47 months old investigated by CW agencies for…

  4. The Effectiveness of Aligned Developmental Feedback on the Overhand Throw in Third-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Rona; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Lidor, Ronnie

    2012-01-01

    Background: To improve student performance, teachers need to evaluate the developmental level of the child and to deliver feedback statements that correspond with the student's ability to process the information delivered. Therefore, feedback aligned with the developmental level of the child (aligned developmental feedback--ADF) is sometimes…

  5. Markers of murine embryonic and neural stem cells, neurons and astrocytes: reference points for developmental neurotoxicity testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) is a significant concern for environmental chemicals, as well as for food and drug constituents. The sensitivity of animal-based DNT models is unclear, and they are expensive and time consuming. Murine embryonic stem cells (mESC) recapitulate sev...

  6. Progressive and Regressive Developmental Changes in Neural Substrates for Face Processing: Testing Specific Predictions of the Interactive Specialization Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Jane E.; Gathers, Ann D.; Bhatt, Ramesh S.

    2011-01-01

    Face processing undergoes a fairly protracted developmental time course but the neural underpinnings are not well understood. Prior fMRI studies have only examined progressive changes (i.e. increases in specialization in certain regions with age), which would be predicted by both the Interactive Specialization (IS) and maturational theories of…

  7. Usefulness of Atopy Patch Test on a child with milk protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Scaparrotta, A; Di Pillo, S; Consilvio, N P; Attanasi, M; Cingolani, A; Rapino, D; Cerasa, M; Pucci, N; Di Gioacchino, M; Chiarelli, F

    2013-01-01

    We describe the case of a child affected by milk-protein induced enterocolitis, in which oral challenge with corn was performed without symptoms after a negative specific Atopy Patch Test. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an uncommon nonIgE-mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity of infancy, characterized by severe vomiting and diarrhea arising within 1 to 3 hours after ingestion of the causative food. Little is known about the pathophysiology of FPIES. The absence of food-specific IgE as demonstrated by negative skin prick tests suggests that the disease is not caused by an early onset IgE-mediated reaction. Atopy Patch Test has been described as sensitive and predictive in this syndrome. The hypothesis on the immunological pathogenesis has been discussed on the basis of literature data. PMID:24067480

  8. Developmental and sex differences in somatosensory perception--a systematic comparison of 7- versus 14-year-olds using quantitative sensory testing.

    PubMed

    Blankenburg, M; Meyer, D; Hirschfeld, G; Kraemer, N; Hechler, T; Aksu, F; Krumova, E K; Magerl, W; Maier, C; Zernikow, B

    2011-11-01

    There are controversial discussions regarding developmental- and sex-related differences in somatosensory perception, which were found, eg, when comparing younger children (6-8 years), older children (9-12 years), and adolescents (13-16 years) using quantitative sensory testing (QST). The aim of our current study was to systematically assess the impact of age and sex using the QST protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS). QST, including thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds, was assessed in 86 healthy 7-year-old children (42 girls and 44 boys) and 87 healthy 14-year-old adolescents (43 girls and 44 boys). The sample size was calculated a priori to detect medium-sized effects as found in the previous studies with adequate power. Developmental and sex differences were tested using univariate analysis of variance. Children were more sensitive to most pain stimuli, except cold pain stimuli, compared with adolescents, but did not differ in mechanical and thermal detection thresholds except in regard to cold stimuli. Sex had an impact only on warm detection, with girls being more sensitive. There were no interactions between age and sex. In conclusion, developmental changes during the puberty appear to influence pain perception, whereas sex effects in childhood are negligible. At present, it is not clear what brings about the differences between adult men and women that are apparent in epidemiological studies. Our results contradict the hypothesis that differences in peripheral nerve-fiber functioning underlie sex effects. PMID:21907494

  9. School Age Child Care: A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Ellen; And Others

    This paper examines on-site, school-age child care and the relationship between attendance at on-site, after-school child care programs and familial, environmental, and developmental factors. Topics discussed include: (1) the quality of school-based environments in kindergarten and child care; (2) the socioeconomic status and size of families of…

  10. Evidence of Compensatory Processing in Adults with Developmental Language Impairment: Testing the Predictions of the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Poll, Gerard H.; Miller, Carol A.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) proposes that individuals with primary developmental language impairment (DLI) have a deficient procedural memory, compromising their syntactic abilities. Individuals with DLI may compensate for procedural memory deficits by engaging declarative memory for syntactic tasks. Arguments are part of the lexicon whereas adjuncts rely on syntactic processing. As a result, individuals with DLI may have unusual difficulty processing adjuncts. Alternatively, processing for adjuncts may be typical for individuals with DLI but show frequency effects, indicating compensatory use of declarative memory. Aims Our goal was to test the predictions of the PDH by comparing argument and adjunct processing times for adults with and without DLI, and to seek evidence of compensatory use of declarative memory for adjunct processing. We further evaluated group performance on measures of visual procedural and declarative memory. Methods & Procedures Forty-four adults, 21 with DLI, completed a self-paced listening task, a procedural memory task, and a declarative memory task. The self-paced listening task tracked the word-by-word processing time for sentences that included prepositional phrases acting as arguments or adjuncts. We used regression analysis to determine effects of group membership and argument or adjunct status on processing times. Correlation analyses evaluated relationships between argument and adjunct frequency on processing times by group. Results & Outcomes We found no effect of group membership on the processing time for arguments and adjuncts in the self-paced listening task. Argument phrases were processed more easily by both groups. There were frequency effects for adjunct processing for the group with DLI, but not the group with typical language. We did not find the expected frequency effects for argument processing. The group with DLI also performed more poorly in both the procedural and declarative memory tasks

  11. Child-Centered Education: Incorporating Reconceptualism and Poststructuralism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzuo, Pei Wen; Yang, Chien Hui; Wright, Susan Kay

    2011-01-01

    Reconceptualists and poststructuralists increasingly criticize child-centered pedagogy as being overly reliant on outmoded notions of (developmentally appropriate) practices. Reconceptualists believe that developmental theories should be critically examined cross culturally, whereas poststructuralists work from a social perspective to reconstruct…

  12. Does developmental timing of exposure to child maltreatment predict memory performance in adulthood? Results from a large, population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Erin C; Busso, Daniel S; Raffeld, Miriam R; Smoller, Jordan W; Nelson, Charles A; Doyle, Alysa E; Luk, Gigi

    2016-01-01

    Although maltreatment is a known risk factor for multiple adverse outcomes across the lifespan, its effects on cognitive development, especially memory, are poorly understood. Using data from a large, nationally representative sample of young adults (Add Health), we examined the effects of physical and sexual abuse on working and short-term memory in adulthood. We examined the association between exposure to maltreatment as well as its timing of first onset after adjusting for covariates. Of our sample, 16.50% of respondents were exposed to physical abuse and 4.36% to sexual abuse by age 17. An analysis comparing unexposed respondents to those exposed to physical or sexual abuse did not yield any significant differences in adult memory performance. However, two developmental time periods emerged as important for shaping memory following exposure to sexual abuse, but in opposite ways. Relative to non-exposed respondents, those exposed to sexual abuse during early childhood (ages 3-5), had better number recall and those first exposed during adolescence (ages 14-17) had worse number recall. However, other variables, including socioeconomic status, played a larger role (than maltreatment) on working and short-term memory. We conclude that a simple examination of "exposed" versus "unexposed" respondents may obscure potentially important within-group differences that are revealed by examining the effects of age at onset to maltreatment. PMID:26585216

  13. Niemann-Pick Disease Type C Presenting as a Developmental Coordination Disorder with Bullying by Peers in a School-Age Child.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ryo; Tanaka, Atsushi; Matsui, Toshiharu; Gunji, Tetsuki; Tohyama, Jun; Nairita, Aya; Nanba, Eiji; Ohno, Kousaku

    2015-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder, often with onset after normal early childhood development. Juvenile onset NPC patients slowly develop cerebellar symptoms and cognitive impairment and often experience difficulties at school. However, these problems may be overlooked due to the unpublicized nature of NPC, given that it is a rare metabolic disorder. In this report, we present an 11-year-old male NPC patient, who suffered from clumsiness and difficulties in attention and academic and social skills. His symptoms were initially considered to be due to developmental coordination disorder (DCD) coexisting with bullying by peers. DCD is a type of neurodevelopmental disorder defined according to DSM-IV and is characterized by clumsiness that interferes with academic achievement and social integration not due to other general medical conditions. However, a detailed investigation of the patient suggested that the problems could be attributed to the onset of NPC. Clinicians should keep neurodegenerative disorders as differential diagnosis of children with multiple school problems. PMID:26788393

  14. Deletion 18p11.32p11.31 in a Child with Global Developmental Delay and Atypical, Drug-Resistant Absence Seizures.

    PubMed

    Verrotti, Alberto; Palka, Chiara; Prezioso, Giovanni; Alfonsi, Melissa; Calabrese, Giuseppe; Palka, Giandomenico; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We report the first case of an 18p11.32 deletion, detected by array CGH, associated with a drug-resistant form of atypical absence epilepsy, global developmental delay and no signs of holoprosencephaly (HPE). In particular, this region encompasses 19 genes, and none of these genes have been strictly associated with epilepsy. Among these, TGIF1 is expressed in the fetal and adult nervous system, and its deletion has been related to central nervous system diseases. TGIF1 deletions have previously been reported in patients with a comparable phenotype as seen in our case and in children whose neurological signs and symptoms were considerable, but not epileptiform. Mutations and deletions involving the TGIF1 gene have been described in patients with HPE in an autosomal dominant model of inheritance. However, TGIF1 mutations have also been reported in normal individuals and in patients with mental retardation or showing a very mild phenotype, suggesting the characteristic of incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. Therefore, a TGIF1 deletion may not be always related to HPE, and it may have a link to the development of epilepsy. PMID:26278570

  15. Niemann-Pick Disease Type C Presenting as a Developmental Coordination Disorder with Bullying by Peers in a School-Age Child

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Ryo; Tanaka, Atsushi; Matsui, Toshiharu; Gunji, Tetsuki; Tohyama, Jun; Nairita, Aya; Nanba, Eiji; Ohno, Kousaku

    2015-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder, often with onset after normal early childhood development. Juvenile onset NPC patients slowly develop cerebellar symptoms and cognitive impairment and often experience difficulties at school. However, these problems may be overlooked due to the unpublicized nature of NPC, given that it is a rare metabolic disorder. In this report, we present an 11-year-old male NPC patient, who suffered from clumsiness and difficulties in attention and academic and social skills. His symptoms were initially considered to be due to developmental coordination disorder (DCD) coexisting with bullying by peers. DCD is a type of neurodevelopmental disorder defined according to DSM-IV and is characterized by clumsiness that interferes with academic achievement and social integration not due to other general medical conditions. However, a detailed investigation of the patient suggested that the problems could be attributed to the onset of NPC. Clinicians should keep neurodegenerative disorders as differential diagnosis of children with multiple school problems. PMID:26788393

  16. Expanding the spectrum of phenotypes associated with germline PIGA mutations: a child with developmental delay, accelerated linear growth, facial dysmorphisms, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and progressive CNS abnormalities.

    PubMed

    van der Crabben, Saskia N; Harakalova, Magdalena; Brilstra, Eva H; van Berkestijn, Frédérique M C; Hofstede, Floris C; van Vught, Adrianus J; Cuppen, Edwin; Kloosterman, Wigard; Ploos van Amstel, Hans Kristian; van Haaften, Gijs; van Haelst, Mieke M

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidyl inositol glycan (PIG) enzyme subclasses are involved in distinct steps of glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol anchor protein biosynthesis. Glycolsyl phosphatidyl inositol-anchored proteins have heterogeneous functions; they can function as enzymes, adhesion molecules, complement regulators and co-receptors in signal transduction pathways. Germline mutations in genes encoding different members of the PIG family result in diverse conditions with (severe) developmental delay, (neonatal) seizures, hypotonia, CNS abnormalities, growth abnormalities, and congenital abnormalities as hallmark features. The variability of clinical features resembles the typical diversity of other glycosylation pathway deficiencies such as the congenital disorders of glycosylation. Here, we report the first germline missense mutation in the PIGA gene associated with accelerated linear growth, obesity, central hypotonia, severe refractory epilepsy, cardiac anomalies, mild facial dysmorphic features, mildly elevated alkaline phosphatase levels, and CNS anomalies consisting of progressive cerebral atrophy, insufficient myelinization, and cortical MRI signal abnormalities. X-exome sequencing in the proband identified a c.278C>T (p.Pro93Leu) mutation in the PIGA gene. The mother and maternal grandmother were unaffected carriers and the mother showed 100% skewing of the X-chromosome harboring the mutation. These results together with the clinical similarity of the patient reported here and the previously reported patients with a germline nonsense mutation in PIGA support the determination that this mutation caused the phenotype in this family. PMID:24259184

  17. Coarctation of the aorta and mild to moderate developmental delay in a child with a de novo deletion of chromosome 15(q21.1q22.2)

    PubMed Central

    Lalani, Seema R; Sahoo, Trilochan; Sanders, Merideth E; Peters, Sarika U; Bejjani, Bassem A

    2006-01-01

    Background Deletion of 15q21q22 is a rare chromosomal anomaly. To date, there have been nine reports describing ten individuals with different segmental losses involving 15q21 and 15q22. Many of these individuals have common features of growth retardation, hypotonia and moderate to severe mental retardation. Congenital heart disease has been described in three individuals with interstitial deletion involving this region of chromosome 15. Case presentation We report a child with coarctation of the aorta, partial agenesis of corpus callosum and mild to moderate developmental delay, with a de novo deletion of 15q21.1q22.2, detected by the array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH). We utilized chromosome 15-specific microarray-based CGH to define the chromosomal breakpoints in this patient. Conclusion This is the first description of mapping of an interstitial deletion involving the chromosome 15q21q22 segment using the chromosome 15-specific array-CGH. The report also expands the spectrum of clinical phenotype associated with 15q21q22 deletion. PMID:16472378

  18. Age-Related Performance on the Brixton Spatial Anticipation Test in Healthy Child and Adolescent Girls: A Preliminary Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Lucy; Rose, Mark; Jonsson, Rosie; Lask, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The Brixton Spatial Anticipation Test assesses individuals' cognitive flexibility in terms of rule detection and attainment. It has been used to assess executive functioning in both clinical and nonclinical adult samples. However, little is currently known about the suitability of this task for younger populations. The current study therefore aimed to provide an initial exploration of this task's suitability for young people. Brixton responses from a healthy sample of children and adolescents were presented to investigate performance in both rule detection and rule attainment, respectively. A convenience sample of 72 female participants (Mage = 14.95 years, SD = 1.53 years, range = 11-17 years; MIQ = 103.76, SD = 10.81) was studied. The sample was divided according to age into four groups (11-12 years, 13-14 years, 15 years, and 16-17 years) to allow for developmental trajectory. No significant age performance differences were found. Small effect sizes between age groups lend support to the null findings. The current study suggests that the Brixton task norms are suitable for use with individuals aged 11 to 17 years old. However, normative work is still needed in this area, incorporating an adult sample for comparison, to comment upon the developmental trajectory specific to this task. PMID:25928610

  19. Applied Developmental Science: An Advanced Textbook. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M., Ed.; Jacobs, Fraincine, Ed.; Wertlieb, Donald, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This course textbook has been adapted from the four-volume "Handbook of Applied Developmental Science" (SAGE 2003), a work that offers a detailed roadmap for action and research in ensuring positive child, youth, and family development. In 20 chapters, "Applied Developmental Science: An Advanced Textbook" brings together theory and application…

  20. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social-ecological model including single-and two-parent families.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-07-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children's reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems, and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social-ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single- and two-parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children's functioning are discussed. PMID:20604605

  1. Frontal sled tests comparing rear and forward facing child restraints with 1-3 year old dummies.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, C P; Crandall, J R

    2007-01-01

    Although most countries recommend transitioning children from rear facing (RF) to forward facing (FF) child restraints at one year of age, Swedish data suggests that RF restraints are more effective. The objective of this study was to compare RF and FF orientations in frontal sled tests. Four dummies (CRABI 12 mo, Q1.5, Hybrid III 3 yr, and Q3) were used to represent children from 1 to 3 years of age. Restraint systems tested included both 1) LATCH and 2) rigid ISOFIX with support leg designs. Rear facing restraints with support legs provided the best results for all injury measures, while RF restraints in general provided the lowest chest displacements and neck loads. PMID:18184491

  2. Developmental Milestones

    MedlinePlus

    ... think there’s a problem. Watch the video » Child Development: It’s Better to Know (in Spanish) Learn why ... to do if you have concerns about your child's development. Watch this Spanish language video » Related Pages ...

  3. Fluctuating asymmetry and genetic variability in the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus): a test of the developmental stability hypothesis in mammals using neutral molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Zachos, F E; Hartl, G B; Suchentrunk, F

    2007-06-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), used as an indicator of developmental stability, has long been hypothesized to be negatively correlated with genetic variability as a consequence of more variable organisms being better suited to buffer developmental pathways against environmental stress. However, it is still a matter of debate if this is due to metabolic properties of enzymes encoded by certain key loci or rather to overall genomic heterozygosity. Previous analyses suggest that there might be a general difference between homeo- and poikilotherms in that only the latter tend to exhibit the negative correlation predicted by theory. In the present study, we addressed these questions by analysing roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from five German populations with regard to FA in metric and non-metric skull and mandible traits as well as variability at eight microsatellite loci. Genetic variability was quantified by heterozygosity and mean d2 parameters, and although the latter did not show any relationship with FA, we found for the first time a statistically significant negative correlation of microsatellite heterozygosity and non-metric FA among populations. Because microsatellites are non-coding markers, this may be interpreted as evidence for the role of overall genomic heterozygosity in determining developmental stability. To test if the threshold character of non-metric traits is responsible for the metric vs non-metric difference we also carried out calculations where we treated our metric traits as threshold values. This, however, did not yield significant correlations between FA and genetic variability either. PMID:17375126

  4. Development and psychometric testing of a scale for the assessment of the quality of developmental care in neonatal intensive care units in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Farin; Torkzahrani, Shahnaz; Rafiey, Hassan; Salavati, Mahyar; Nasiri, Malihe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Developmental care provided to infants hospitalized at neonatal intensive care units (NICU) help weaken environmental stressors and reduce infant morbidity rates. Assessments are the first step to improving the quality of any type of care. Therefore, this study was conducted to design and assess the psychometric features of a scale designed for measuring quality of developmental care in the NICU in Iran. Methods This study was conducted from December 2014 through September 2015 in Tehran, Iran. The present mixed-methods sequential exploratory (quantitative-qualitative) study used the Delphi method to design an initial questionnaire through a review of the literature and by using the input of experts. The validity of the questionnaire was ensured by assessing then validity of its content (qualitative-quantitative), face (qualitative-quantitative), and construct (exploratory factor analysis with 500 NICU personnel from 34 hospitals in Tehran), and its reliability was ensured by assessing its internal consistency (using Cronbach’s alpha) and by assessing its stability through the test-retest method. Results The qualitative stage of the study resulted in a 93-item questionnaire with eight domains. After performing the content and face analyses, a factor analysis was performed on 90 items of the questionnaire, yielding a 76-item questionnaire with five domains, including “sleep, pain and stress management,” “routine care,” “the family,” “management,” and “sensory care,” which explained 62.5% of the variance. The reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.9 and its stability was confirmed by an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) of 0.93. Conclusion The questionnaire developed for the assessment of developmental care in the NICU covered all of the dimensions of this type of care, and it is a valid and reliable tool for assessing and improving developmental care in the NICU. PMID:26952183

  5. The Impact of the Correlation between the No Child Left Behind Act's High Stakes Testing and the High Drop-Out Rates of Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walden, Lavada M.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2008-01-01

    The author looks at critical dialogue surrounding the causes for the alarming high numbers of high school dropouts in states that use high stakes standardized testing mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act, and investigates the perceived correlations between high stakes testing and high numbers of high school dropouts of minority students.

  6. Preschool-Age Problem Behavior and Teacher-Child Conflict in School: Direct and Moderation Effects by Preschool Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skalická, Vera; Belsky, Jay; Stenseng, Frode; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the new open-group Norwegian day-care centers would more than traditionally organized centers negatively affect (a) current and (b) future teacher-child relationships, and (c) the developmental legacy of preschool problem behavior. The focus was on eight hundred and fifty 4-year-olds from 153 centers who were…

  7. The Relationship between Clinicians' Confidence and Accuracy, and the Influence of Child Characteristics, in the Screening of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Darren; Brewer, Neil; Nevill, Rose; Uljarevic, Mirko; Butter, Eric; Mulick, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the confidence accuracy relationship, and the influence of child characteristics on clinician confidence, when predicting a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder during screening of 125 referred children aged under 3.5 years. The diagnostic process included observation, interview, language and developmental testing. Clinical…

  8. [Validation of the Child Speech Test using the Heidelberg Speech Development Test with six-year-old preschool children].

    PubMed

    Kasielke, E; Frank, K; Scheidereiter, U

    1992-01-01

    We present and discuss results from researches to validate a new test for diagnosing speech-competences of preschool children KISTE. 41 children (6;0-6;11) were tested both with KISTE and HSET. Correlations, factor- and clusteranalysis showed that the structure of both tests is different and that KISTE has a good differential validity for both aspects of speech: communicative and structural. PMID:1359718

  9. Developmental intervention: a pediatric clinical review.

    PubMed

    Casey, P H; Bradley, R H; Caldwell, B M; Edwards, D R

    1986-08-01

    We have attempted to review developmental intervention for pediatricians in a way that is of clinical relevance to primary care pediatricians. In so doing, we chose not to evaluate certain topics such as therapeutic intervention for handicapped children or center-based educational programs because these have been adequately addressed elsewhere. It is clear that pediatricians have a unique and important role to play in developmental intervention for the following reasons: pediatricians have easy and routinely accepted access to infants and families in the prenatal, perinatal, and preschool periods: pediatricians possess a socially accepted role of authority; and pediatricians can integrate understanding of the child's health and developmental status within the context of the family and social environment to make clinical interpretation regarding the child's developmental status and prognosis. Pediatricians are thus in the best position to convince parents of their impact on their child's development. The following general roles have been identified for pediatricians. First, pediatricians should be aware of the child's biologic status and family environmental situation and the relative degree of risk for developmental problems. This clinical awareness, in combination with the use of appropriate screening instruments of the child's development and family environment, will allow clinical judgment regarding the frequency and type of child health supervision, the need for further diagnostic evaluation, and the need for referral to intervention programs and other resources. Second, the pediatrician should develop an approach for developmental intervention for all children, whatever their degree of biological risk. This review of medical, educational, and psychological literature demonstrate the following recurring important themes as goals for primary intervention: Improve parental understanding of normal child development and developmental expectations. Assist parent

  10. Regulatory Forum Opinion Piece*: New testing paradigms for reproductive and developmental toxicity - The NTP Modified One generation study and OECD 443

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Paul M.D.

    2014-01-01

    The NTP has developed a new flexible study design, termed the modified one generation reproduction (MOG) study. The MOG study will encompass measurements of developmental and reproductive toxicity parameters as well as enable the setting of appropriate dose levels for a cancer bioassay through evaluation of target organ toxicity which is based on test article exposure that starts during gestation. This study design is compared and contrasted with the new OECD 443 test guideline, the extended one generation reproduction study. The MOG study has a number of advantages, with a focus on F1 animals, the generation of adequately powered, robust datasets which include both pre-and postnatal developmental toxicity information, and the measurement of effects on reproductive structure and function in the same animals. This new study design does not employ the use of internal triggers in the design structure for the use of animals already on test and is also consistent with the principles of the 3R’s. PMID:24862797

  11. Regulatory Forum opinion piece: New testing paradigms for reproductive and developmental toxicity--the NTP modified one generation study and OECD 443.

    PubMed

    Foster, Paul M D

    2014-12-01

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) has developed a new flexible study design, termed the modified one generation (MOG) reproduction study. The MOG study will encompass measurements of developmental and reproductive toxicity parameters as well as enable the setting of appropriate dose levels for a cancer bioassay through evaluation of target organ toxicity that is based on test article exposure that starts during gestation. This study design is compared and contrasted with the new Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 443 test guideline, the extended one generation reproduction study. The MOG study has a number of advantages, with a focus on F 1 animals, the generation of adequately powered, robust data sets that include both pre and postnatal developmental toxicity information, and the measurement of effects on reproductive structure and function in the same animals. This new study design does not employ the use of internal triggers in the design structure for the use of animals already on test and is also consistent with the principles of the 3R's. PMID:24862797

  12. Helping Your Child Perform Well on Tests. Assessment Brief. Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietel, Ron

    2004-01-01

    To gain some insight into test preparation, some testing experts were asked to share their thoughts from their own parenting experiences. A crucial performance factor for a substantial number of students is test anxiety. According to University of Southern California Professor Harold O'Neil, Jr., "The relationship between high anxiety and poor…

  13. Developmental biomechanics of the human cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Nuckley, David J; Linders, David R; Ching, Randal P

    2013-04-01

    Head and neck injuries, the leading cause of death for children in the U.S., are difficult to diagnose, treat, and prevent because of a critical void in our understanding of the biomechanical response of the immature cervical spine. The objective of this study was to investigate the functional and failure biomechanics of the cervical spine across multiple axes of loading throughout maturation. A correlational study design was used to examine the relationships governing spinal maturation and biomechanical flexibility curves and tolerance data using a cadaver human in vitro model. Eleven human cadaver cervical spines from across the developmental spectrum (2-28 years) were dissected into segments (C1-C2, C3-C5, and C6-C7) for biomechanical testing. Non-destructive flexibility tests were performed in tension, compression, flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. After measuring their intact biomechanical responses, each segment group was failed in different modes to measure the tissue tolerance in tension (C1-C2), compression (C3-C5), and extension (C5-C6). Classical injury patterns were observed in all of the specimens tested. Both the functional (p<0.014) and failure (p<0.0001) mechanics exhibited significant relationships with age. Nonlinear flexibility curves described the functional response of the cervical spine throughout maturation and elucidated age, spinal level, and mode of loading specificity. These data support our understanding of the child cervical spine from a developmental perspective and facilitate the generation of injury prevention or management schema for the mitigation of child spine injuries and their deleterious effects. PMID:23415075

  14. Developmental Kindergarten Program Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blois, George T.; Cushing, Katherine S.

    The evaluation of the Developmental Kindergarten (DK) Program at the Harrison School District #2, Colorado Springs, Colorado, involved pre- and post-testing of student academic gains and interviewing of principals and teachers. The program aimed to provide developmentally appropriate activities for students believed to be "at risk" of failure in a…

  15. A Description and an Analysis of Tests for the Bilingual Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symes, Dal S.

    Because of the recent Lau vs. Nichols decision by the Supreme Court, school districts will be looking for various instruments to determine language functionality in bilingual students. Nine tests are reviewed: the Leiter International Performance Scale (LIPS), the Michigan Oral Language Productive Tests Structured Response, the Michigan Oral…

  16. Child Passenger Safety: A Pilot Test of a K-6 Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Livia K.; And Others

    A Car Passenger Safety Curriculum was developed for Grades K-6 and pilot tested in 10 elementary schools. Five schools served as treatment schools, five as comparison schools. The curriculum included materials at K-1, 2-3, and 4-6 grade levels. Observations were made of belt usage by students, and knowledge tests were administered to students…

  17. Genitalia in human figure drawings: childrearing practices and child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, R A; Hartman, G

    1990-05-01

    To replicate and explore the associations of drawing genitalia on a human figure, child-rearing practices, and a history of alleged sexual abuse, we designed a cross-sectional study of 109 alleged child sexual abuse victims, ages 3 through 8 years, and a group of 109 comparison children matched for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status but with no history of abuse. A standardized format was used to collect drawings, administer the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and gather background data on medical, developmental, and child-rearing issues. Seven alleged sexual abuse victims and one comparison child spontaneously drew genitalia (p = 0.02, one-tailed Fisher Exact Test, estimated relative risk 7.96). No differences in drawing maturity (Draw-A-Man score) were identified, although Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores were higher in comparison children (82.1 vs. 91.0, p less than 0.01). Neither drawing genitalia nor history of alleged sexual abuse were significantly associated with histories of medical problems, enuresis, encopresis, urinary tract infection, or child-rearing practices related to sleeping, nudity, bathing, sexual abuse education, or exposure to sexually explicit materials. The similar patterns of child-rearing practices in both samples should make professionals cautious in attributing allegations of abuse to specific child-rearing practices. This study confirms our previous report that the presence of genitalia spontaneously drawn on a child's drawing of a human figure is associated with alleged sexual abuse. PMID:2329432

  18. “A room full of strangers every day”: The psychosocial impact of developmental prosopagnosia on children and their families

    PubMed Central

    Dalrymple, Kirsten A.; Fletcher, Kimberley; Corrow, Sherryse; Nair, Roshan das; Barton, Jason J. S.; Yonas, Albert; Duchaine, Brad

    2014-01-01

    Objective Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (‘face blindness’) have severe face recognition difficulties due to a failure to develop the necessary visual mechanisms for recognizing faces. These difficulties occur in the absence of brain damage and despite normal low-level vision and intellect. Adults with developmental prosopagnosia report serious personal and emotional consequences from their inability to recognize faces, but little is known about the psychosocial consequences in childhood. Given the importance of face recognition in daily life, and the potential for unique social consequences of impaired face recognition in childhood, we sought to evaluate the impact of developmental prosopagnosia on children and their families. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 8 children with developmental prosopagnosia and their parents. A battery of face recognition tests was used to confirm the face recognition impairment reported by the parents of each child. We used thematic analysis to develop common themes among the psychosocial experiences of the children and their parents. Results Three themes were developed from the child reports: 1) awareness of their difficulties, 2) coping strategies, such as using non-facial cues to identify others, and 3) social implications, such as discomfort in, and avoidance of, social situations. These themes were paralleled by the parent reports and highlight the unique social and practical challenges associated with childhood developmental prosopagnosia. Conclusion Our findings indicate a need for increased awareness and treatment of developmental prosopagnosia to help these children manage their face recognition difficulties and to promote their social and emotional wellbeing. PMID:25077856

  19. What every clinical geneticist should know about testing for osteogenesis imperfecta in suspected child abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Pepin, Melanie G; Byers, Peter H

    2015-12-01

    Non-accidental injury (NAI) is a major medical concern in the United States. One of the challenges in evaluation of children with unexplained fractures is that genetic forms of bone fragility are one of the differential diagnoses. Infants who present with fractures with mild forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) (OI type I or OI type IV), the most common genetic form of bone disease leading to fractures might be missed if clinical evaluation alone is used to make the diagnosis. Diagnostic clinical features (blue sclera, dentinogenesis imperfecta, Wormian bones on X-rays or positive family history) may not be present or apparent at the age of evaluation. The evaluating clinician faces the decision about whether genetic testing is necessary in certain NAI cases. In this review, we outline clinical presentations of mild OI and review the history of genetic testing for OI in the NAI versus OI setting. We summarize our data of molecular testing in the Collagen Diagnostic Laboratory (CDL) from 2008 to 2014 where NAI was noted on the request for DNA sequencing of COL1A1 and COL1A2. We provide recommendations for molecular testing in the NAI versus OI setting. First, DNA sequencing of COL1A1, COL1A2, and IFITM5 simultaneously and duplication/deletion testing is recommended. If a causative variant is not identified, in the absence of a pathologic clinical phenotype, no additional gene testing is indicated. If a VUS is found, parental segregation studies are recommended. PMID:26566591

  20. Disturbances in reality testing as markers of risk in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: a systematic review from a developmental psychopathology perspective

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Angela J; Allen, Timothy A; Cullen, Kathryn R; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This comprehensive review examined the prevalence and progression of disturbances in reality testing (DRT), defined as psychotic symptoms, cognitive disruptions, and thought problems, in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (O-BD). Our approach was grounded in a developmental psychopathology perspective and considered a broader phenotype of risk within the bipolar–schizophrenia spectrum as measured by categorical and dimensional assessments of DRT in high-risk youth. Methods Relevant studies were identified from numerous sources (e.g., PubMed, reference sections, and colleagues). Inclusion criteria were: (i) family risk studies published between 1975 and 2012 in which O-BD were contrasted with a comparison group (e.g., offspring of parents who had other psychiatric disorders or were healthy) on DRT outcomes and (ii) results reported for categorical or dimensional assessments of DRT (e.g., schizophrenia, psychotic symptoms, cluster A personality traits, or thought problems), yielding a total of 23 studies. Results Three key findings emerged: (i) categorical approaches of DRT in O-BD produced low incidence base rates and almost no evidence of significant differences in DRT between O-BD and comparison groups, whereas (ii) many studies using dimensional assessments of DRT yielded significant group differences in DRT. Furthermore, (iii) preliminary evidence from dimensional measures suggested that the developmental progression of DRT in O-BD might represent a prodrome of severe psychological impairment. Conclusions Preliminary but promising evidence suggests that DRT is a probable marker of risk for future impairment in O-BD. Methodological strengths and weaknesses, the psychometric properties of primary DRT constructs, and future directions for developmental and longitudinal research with O-BD are discussed. PMID:24034419

  1. Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI): An Effective Outcome Measure for Handwriting Interventions for Kindergarten, First-Grade, and Second-Grade Students?

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Beth; Moskowitz, Beverly; Paoletti, Andrew; Brusilovskiy, Eugene; Zylstra, Sheryl Eckberg; Murray, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    We determined whether a widely used assessment of visual-motor skills, the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), is appropriate for use as an outcome measure for handwriting interventions. A two-group pretest-posttest design was used with 207 kindergarten, first-grade, and second-grade students. Two well-established handwriting measures and the VMI were administered pre- and postintervention. The intervention group participated in the Size Matters Handwriting Program for 40 sessions, and the control group received standard instruction. Paired and independent-samples t tests were used to analyze group differences. The intervention group demonstrated significant improvements on the handwriting measures, with change scores having mostly large effect sizes. We found no significant difference in change scores on the VMI, t(202)=1.19, p=.23. Results of this study suggest that the VMI may not detect changes in handwriting related to occupational therapy intervention. PMID:26114468

  2. Achieving Great Heights: The Climbing Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Readdick, Christine A.; Park, Jennifer J.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the importance of climbing in early childhood and issues of facilitating children's climbing skills. Considers why children climb, when they learn, how they climb, socializing the climbing child, and creating safe, developmentally appropriate climbing environments for children. (JPB)

  3. Relations between Political Violence and Child Adjustment: A Four-Wave Test of the Role of Emotional Insecurity about Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, E. Mark; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    This study further explored the impact of sectarian violence and children's emotional insecurity about community on child maladjustment using a 4-wave longitudinal design. The study included 999 mother-child dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (482 boys, 517 girls). Across the 4 waves, child mean age was 12.19 (SD = 1.82), 13.24 (SD = 1.83),…

  4. State Test Programs Mushroom as NCLB Mandate Kicks in: Nearly Half of States Are Expanding Their Testing Programs to Additional Grades This School Year to Comply with the Federal No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-three states are expanding their testing programs to additional grades this school year to comply with the federal No Child Left Behind Act. In devising the new tests, most states have defied predictions and chosen to go beyond multiple-choice items, by including questions that ask students to construct their own responses. But many state…

  5. Keep Your Eye on Texas and California: A Look at Testing, School Reform, No Child Left Behind, and Implications for Students of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causey-Bush, Tonia

    2005-01-01

    This review looks at the reform movements in the nation's two most populous states--Texas and California. Both states are in a desperate pursuit to demonstrate student competency of standards and achievement by way of student performance on standardized tests to meet federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) compliance. In examining the accountability…

  6. Tests of the accuracy and speed of categorizing foods into child vs. professional categories using two methods of browsing with children.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research tested whether children could categorize foods more accurately and speedily when presented with child-generated rather than professionally-generated food categories; and whether a graphically appealing browse procedure similar to the Apple, Inc, "cover flow" graphical user interface ac...

  7. Developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Ruth S

    2004-10-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is a specific learning disability affecting the normal acquisition of arithmetic skills. Genetic, neurobiologic, and epidemiologic evidence indicates that dyscalculia, like other learning disabilities, is a brain-based disorder. However, poor teaching and environmental deprivation have also been implicated in its etiology. Because the neural network of both hemispheres comprises the substrate of normal arithmetic skills, dyscalculia can result from dysfunction of either hemisphere, although the left parietotemporal area is of particular significance. The prevalence of developmental dyscalculia is 5 to 6% in the school-aged population and is as common in girls as in boys. Dyscalculia can occur as a consequence of prematurity and low birthweight and is frequently encountered in a variety of neurologic disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental language disorder, epilepsy, and fragile X syndrome. Developmental dyscalculia has proven to be a persisting learning disability, at least for the short term, in about half of affected preteen pupils. Educational interventions for dyscalculia range from rote learning of arithmetic facts to developing strategies for solving arithmetic exercises. The long-term prognosis of dyscalculia and the role of remediation in its outcome are yet to be determined. PMID:15559892

  8. [Developmental Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue contains contributions by parents, practitioners, researchers, administrators, and providers of technical assistance, which explore aspects of the complex process of developmental assessment of infants and young children. They describe what is helpful and what can be harmful in current assessment practice. They offer…

  9. Meeting the Needs of the Youngest Infants in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Amanda; Petersen, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    Children may enter group care at very young ages. Developmentally, newborns (from birth to 4 months old) offer unique opportunities and challenges for child care providers. Are child care programs ready? Little information is available on providing group care to children at this critical developmental stage. This article explores the challenges of…

  10. Developmental Predictors of Inattention-Hyperactivity from Pregnancy to Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Foulon, Stéphanie; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Melchior, Maria; Falissard, Bruno; Côté, Sylvana M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to characterize the developmental sequence of pre- and postnatal risk factors for inattention-hyperactivity symptoms in preschoolers. Materials and Methods Longitudinal data came from a French population based birth cohort study (EDEN; N = 1311 mother-child pairs followed from the pregnancy onwards). Inattention-hyperactivity symptoms were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire when participating children were 3 years of age. Potential risk factors were classified in four domains (fetal exposures and child somatic characteristics, child temperament, child neurodevelopmental status, psychosocial environment) and four periods (before pregnancy, prenatal/birth, infancy, toddlerhood). Their role as potential moderator or mediator was tested with path analysis to determine the developmental sequence. Results A low family socioeconomic status before pregnancy was the main environmental risk factor for inattention-hyperactivity symptoms at 3 years, and its effect occurred via two pathways. The first was a risk pathway, where lower SES was associated with higher maternal depression and anxiety during pregnancy; then to higher maternal and child distress and dysregulation in infancy; and in turn to higher levels of inattention-hyperactivity at 3 years. The second was a protective pathway, where higher SES was associated with longer duration of breastfeeding during infancy; then to better child neurodevelopmental status in toddlerhood; and in turn to lower levels of inattention-hyperactivity at 3 years. Discussion This study identified psychosocial factors at several developmental periods that represent potential targets for preventing the emergence of inattention-hyperactivity symptoms in early childhood. PMID:25938453

  11. Using NAEP to Confirm State Test Results in the No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneberg, Bert D.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education has not yet published an official guidance document for using NAEP achievement level scores to confirm state testing results. A review of the literature, however, identified four principles that inform the valid use of NAEP scores in a confirming analysis. The principles address the appropriate NAEP statistics to…

  12. Affective Films for the Hearing Impaired Child: A Test of Captioned Inside/Out Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, John

    Two captioned affective films from the AIT series Inside/Out were tested with 14 intermediate (ages 13 to 15) and 39 elementary (ages 11 and 12) hearing impaired children at the Hawaii School for the Deaf and Blind. Measures of attention, post-film discussion, student comprehension, and student and teacher opinions were taken to determine the…

  13. Contextual social-cognitive mediators and child outcome: a test of the theoretical model in the Coping Power program.

    PubMed

    Lochman, John E; Wells, Karen C

    2002-01-01

    This study tests the contextual social-cognitive model, which has served as the basis for the Coping Power program, an indicated preventive intervention with at-risk preadolescent boys at the time of transition from elementary to middle school. The contextual social-cognitive model assumes that aggressive children have distortions in their social-cognitive appraisals and deficiencies in their social problem solving skills and that their parents have deficiencies in their parenting behaviors. To test this model, boys were identified as being at risk on the basis of fourth grade and fifth grade teachers' ratings of children's aggressive and disruptive behaviors, and interventions were delivered at the end of elementary school and the beginning of middle school. The intervention effect on delinquency, substance use, and school behavior outcomes was at least partially mediated through intervention-produced changes in child and parent variables that were targets for the intervention. These analyses provided unique support for the assumptions in the contextual social-cognitive model that changes in these mediating processes, even among high-risk boys, can have a meaningful impact on later negative outcomes. PMID:12549711

  14. HIV rapid testing as a key strategy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Veloso, Valdiléa G; Bastos, Francisco I; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; João, Esau Custodio; da Silva Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Araújo, Ana Beatriz Busch; Santos, Breno Riegel; da Fonseca, Rosana Campos; Kreitchmann, Regis; Derrico, Monica; Friedman, Ruth Khalili; Cunha, Cynthia B; Morgado, Mariza Gonçalves; Saines, Karin Nielsen; Bryson, Yvonne J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the feasibility of HIV rapid testing for pregnant women at maternity hospital admission and of subsequent interventions to reduce perinatal HIV transmission. METHODS Study based on a convenience sample of women unaware of their HIV serostatus when they were admitted to delivery in public maternity hospitals in Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre, Brazil, between March 2000 and April 2002. Women were counseled and tested using the Determine HIV1/2 Rapid Test. HIV infection was confirmed using the Brazilian algorithm for HIV infection diagnosis. In utero transmission of HIV was determined using HIVDNA-PCR. There were performed descriptive analyses of sociodemographic data, number of previous pregnancies and abortions, number of prenatal care visits, timing of HIV testing, HIV rapid test result, neonatal and mother-to-child transmission interventions, by city studied. RESULTS HIV prevalence in women was 6.5% (N=1,439) in Porto Alegre and 1.3% (N=3.778) in Rio de Janeiro. In Porto Alegre most of women were tested during labor (88.7%), while in Rio de Janeiro most were tested in the postpartum (67.5%). One hundred and forty-four infants were born to 143 HIV-infected women. All newborns but one in each city received at least prophylaxis with oral zidovudine. It was possible to completely avoid newborn exposure to breast milk in 96.8% and 51.1% of the cases in Porto Alegre and Rio de Janeiro, respectively. Injectable intravenous zidovudine was administered during labor to 68.8% and 27.7% newborns in Porto Alegre and Rio de Janeiro, respectively. Among those from whom blood samples were collected within 48 hours of birth, in utero transmission of HIV was confirmed in 4 cases in Rio de Janeiro (4/47) and 6 cases in Porto Alegre (6/79). CONCLUSIONS The strategy proved feasible in maternity hospitals in Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre. Efforts must be taken to maximize HIV testing during labor. There is a need of strong social support to provide this

  15. Texting improves testing: a randomized trial of two-way SMS to increase postpartum prevention of mother-to-child transmission retention and infant HIV testing

    PubMed Central

    Odeny, Thomas A.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Craig R.; Yuhas, Krista; Camlin, Carol S.; McClelland, R. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many sub-Saharan African countries report high postpartum loss to follow-up of mother–baby pairs. We aimed to determine whether interactive text messages improved rates of clinic attendance and early infant HIV testing in the Nyanza region of Kenya. Design Parallel-group, unblinded, randomized controlled trial. Methods HIV-positive pregnant women at least 18 years old and enrolled in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme were randomized to receive either text messages (SMS group, n = 195) or usual care (n = 193). Messages were developed using formative focus group research informed by constructs of the Health Belief Model. The SMS group received up to eight text messages before delivery (depending on gestational age), and six messages postpartum. Primary outcomes included maternal postpartum clinic attendance and virological infant HIV testing by 8 weeks postpartum. The primary analyses were intention-to-treat. Results Of the 388 enrolled women, 381 (98.2%) had final outcome information. In the SMS group, 38 of 194 (19.6%) women attended a maternal postpartum clinic compared to 22 of 187 (11.8%) in the control group (relative risk 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.02–2.70). HIV testing within 8 weeks was performed in 172 of 187 (92.0%) infants in the SMS group compared to 154 of 181 (85.1%) in the control group (relative risk 1.08, 95% confidence interval 1.00–1.16). Conclusions Text messaging significantly improved maternal postpartum visit attendance, but overall return rates for these visits remained low. In contrast, high rates of early infant HIV testing were achieved in both arms, with significantly higher testing rates in the SMS compared to the control infants. PMID:25313586

  16. The Louisville Twin Study: Developmental Synchronies in Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Ronald S.

    1983-01-01

    Results show individual differences in intelligence progressively stabilizing by school age, with each child following a distinct pattern of mental development. Monozygotic twins became increasingly concordant over an Hes and were closely matched on developmental trends. (Author/RH)

  17. Tests of the accuracy and speed of categorizing foods into child vs. professional categories using two methods of browsing with children

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Tom; Beltran, Alicia; Martin, Shelby; Watson, Kathleen B.; Islam, Noemi; Robertson, Shay; Berno, Stephanie; Dadabhoy, Hafza; Thompson, Debbe; Cullen, Karen; Buday, Richard; Subar, Amy F.; Baranowski, Janice

    2009-01-01

    This research tested whether children could categorize foods more accurately and speedily when presented with child-generated than professionally-generated food categories; and whether a graphically appealing browse procedure similar to the Apple, Inc, “cover flow” graphical user interface accomplished this better than the more common tree view structure. In fall 2008, one hundred and four multi-ethnic children ages eight to 13 were recruited at the Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, and randomly assigned to two browse procedures: cover flow (with collages of foods in a category) or tree view (food categories in a list). Within each browse condition children categorized the same randomly ordered 26 diverse foods to both child and professionally organized categories (with method randomly sequenced per child). Acceptance of categorization was determined by dietitians. Speed of categorization was recorded by the computer. Differences between methods were determined by repeated measures analysis of variance. Younger children (eight to nine years old) tended to have lower acceptance and longer speeds of categorization. The quickest categorization was obtained with child categories in a tree structure. Computerized dietary reporting by children can use child generated food categories and tree structures to organize foods for browsing in a hierarchically organized structure to enhance speed of categorization, but not accuracy. A computerized recall may not be appropriate for children nine years or younger. PMID:20102832

  18. ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool Children's Version (ICAST-C): Instrument Development and Multi-National Pilot Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zolotor, Adam J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Dunne, Michael P.; Jain, Dipty; Peturs, Helga R.; Ramirez, Clemencia; Volkova, Elena; Deb, Sibnath; Lidchi, Victoria; Muhammad, Tufail; Isaeva, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To develop a child victimization survey among a diverse group of child protection experts and examine the performance of the instrument through a set of international pilot studies. Methods: The initial draft of the instrument was developed after input from scientists and practitioners representing 40 countries. Volunteers from the…

  19. Revising the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale: A Test of the Four-Factor Structure in a Chinese Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hongfei; Hong, Chaoqin; Tao, Xiaodan; Zhu, Lingyi

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the structure, reliability, and validity of the revised Chinese version of the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (N = 933). The results confirmed the four-factor structure of the Chinese version of the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided.

  20. ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools Retrospective Version (ICAST-R): Delphi Study and Field Testing in Seven Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Michael P.; Zolotor, Adam J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Andreva-Miller, Inna; Choo, Wan Yuen; Dunne, Simon K.; Gerbaka, Bernard; Isaeva, Oksana; Jain, Dipty; Kasim, Mohd Sham; Macfarlane, Bonnie; Mamyrova, Nurgul; Ramirez, Clemencia; Volkova, Elena; Youssef, Randa

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To gain consensus among an ethnically and linguistically diverse group of international child protection experts on the structure and content of a new survey tool for retrospective measurement of child abuse, and to determine the performance of the instrument through an international field trial with young adults. Methods: The…

  1. Investigating the Relationship between Effective Communication of Spouse and Father-Child Relationship (Test Pattern Causes to Education Parents)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ataeifar, Robabeh; Amiri, Sholeh; Ali Nadi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This research is targeted with the plan of father-child model or effective relationship mediating of spouses or investigating attachment style, personality traits, communication skills, and spouses' sexual satisfaction. Based on this, 260 people (father and child) were selected through random sampling method based on share. Participants were…

  2. Furthering the Understanding of Parent–Child Relationships: A Nursing Scholarship Review Series. Part 5: Parent–Adolescent and Teen Parent–Child Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Riesch, Susan K.; Anderson, Lori S.; Pridham, Karen A.; Lutz, Kristin F.; Becker, Patricia T.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this paper is to examine nursing’s contribution to understanding the parent–adolescent and the teen parent–child relationships. CONCLUSION Relationships between parents and adolescents may reflect turmoil and affect adolescents’ health and development. The social and developmental contexts for teen parenting are powerful and may need strengthening. Several interventions to help teen mothers interact sensitively with their infants have been developed and tested. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS Nurse researchers have begun to provide evidence for practitioners to use in caring for families of adolescents and teen parents to acquire interaction skills that, in turn, may promote optimal health and development of the child. PMID:20618633

  3. Neighborhood Social Context and Individual Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposures Associated with Child Cognitive Test Scores.

    PubMed

    Lovasi, Gina S; Eldred-Skemp, Nicolia; Quinn, James W; Chang, Hsin-Wen; Rauh, Virginia A; Rundle, Andrew; Orjuela, Manuela A; Perera, Frederica P

    2014-07-01

    Childhood cognitive and test-taking abilities have long-term implications for educational achievement and health, and may be influenced by household environmental exposures and neighborhood contexts. This study evaluates whether age 5 scores on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R, administered in English) are associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and neighborhood context variables including poverty, low educational attainment, low English language proficiency, and inadequate plumbing. The Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health enrolled African-American and Dominican-American New York City women during pregnancy, and conducted follow-up for subsequent childhood health outcomes including cognitive test scores. Individual outcomes were linked to data characterizing 1-km network buffers around prenatal addresses, home observations, interviews, and prenatal PAH exposure data from personal air monitors. Prenatal PAH exposure above the median predicted 3.5 point lower total WPPSI-R scores and 3.9 point lower verbal scores; the association was similar in magnitude across models with adjustments for neighborhood characteristics. Neighborhood-level low English proficiency was independently associated with 2.3 point lower mean total WPPSI-R score, 1.2 point lower verbal score, and 2.7 point lower performance score per standard deviation. Low neighborhood-level educational attainment was also associated with 2.0 point lower performance scores. In models examining effect modification, neighborhood associations were similar or diminished among the high PAH exposure group, as compared with the low PAH exposure group. Early life exposure to personal PAH exposure or selected neighborhood-level social contexts may predict lower cognitive test scores. However, these results may reflect limited geographic exposure variation and limited generalizability. PMID:24994947

  4. Neighborhood Social Context and Individual Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposures Associated with Child Cognitive Test Scores

    PubMed Central

    Eldred-Skemp, Nicolia; Quinn, James W.; Chang, Hsin-wen; Rauh, Virginia A.; Rundle, Andrew; Orjuela, Manuela A.; Perera, Frederica P.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood cognitive and test-taking abilities have long-term implications for educational achievement and health, and may be influenced by household environmental exposures and neighborhood contexts. This study evaluates whether age 5 scores on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R, administered in English) are associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and neighborhood context variables including poverty, low educational attainment, low English language proficiency, and inadequate plumbing. The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health enrolled African-American and Dominican-American New York City women during pregnancy, and conducted follow-up for subsequent childhood health outcomes including cognitive test scores. Individual outcomes were linked to data characterizing 1-km network buffers around prenatal addresses, home observations, interviews, and prenatal PAH exposure data from personal air monitors. Prenatal PAH exposure above the median predicted 3.5 point lower total WPPSI-R scores and 3.9 point lower verbal scores; the association was similar in magnitude across models with adjustments for neighborhood characteristics. Neighborhood-level low English proficiency was independently associated with 2.3 point lower mean total WPPSI-R score, 1.2 point lower verbal score, and 2.7 point lower performance score per standard deviation. Low neighborhood-level educational attainment was also associated with 2.0 point lower performance scores. In models examining effect modification, neighborhood associations were similar or diminished among the high PAH exposure group, as compared with the low PAH exposure group. Early life exposure to personal PAH exposure or selected neighborhood-level social contexts may predict lower cognitive test scores. However, these results may reflect limited geographic exposure variation and limited generalizability. PMID:24994947

  5. The Abusive Environment and the Child's Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Harold P.

    The biologic and developmental problems of abused children are usually thought of etiologically in relation to the physical trauma which has been suffered. Indeed, physical trauma can cause death, brain damage, developmental delays and deviations in personality development. The environment in which the abused child grows and develops is a most…

  6. [Which tuberculin skin test hyperreactive child should be treated with -our experience].

    PubMed

    Pavić, Ivan; Hojsak, Iva; Žmak, Ljiljana; Tješić-Drinković, Dorian; Bogović, Jasna Čepin; Katalinić-Janković, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Since persons with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) represent a huge reservoir of potential tuberculosis (TB) disease, accurate diagnosis and treatment of LTBI is essential for TB control and eradication. The aim was to assess the diagnostic value of determination of interferon-gamma release assay in school children with hyperreactive tuberculin skin test (TST) reaction. A total of 120 BCG-vaccinated children were investigated due to a hyperreactive TST results. The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) was performed. Fifteen children (12.5%) had positive QFT-GIT and 105 (87.5%) children had negative QFT-GIT. There was no statistically significant difference in TST reaction (21.5 mm u QFT+ vs. 20.9 mm u QFT-group, p=0.458). The children with positive QFT-GIT had a statistically higher level of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) than children with negative QFT-GIT. There were no statistically significant differences in concentrations of IFN-y either basic or upon stimulation with mitogen phytohemagglutinin. After isoniazid prophylaxis QFT-GIT remained positive in two children (p=0.019). In a difficult procedure for diagnosing LTBI in BCG-vaccinated children determination of IFN-γ could be the key factor in making decision whether to use preventive therapy or not. PMID:26502676

  7. Developmental decisions

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, David V.; Saito, Richard Mako

    2012-01-01

    The small nematode C. elegans is characterized by developing through a highly coordinated, reproducible cell lineage that serves as the basis of many studies focusing on the development of multi-lineage organisms. Indeed, the reproducible cell lineage enables discovery of developmental defects that occur in even a single cell. Only recently has attention been focused on how these animals modify their genetically programmed cell lineages to adapt to altered environments. Here, we summarize the current understanding of how C. elegans responds to food deprivation by adapting their developmental program in order to conserve energy. In particular, we highlight the AMPK-mediated and insulin-like growth factor signaling pathways that are the principal regulators of induced cell cycle quiescence. PMID:22510569

  8. Developmental Surveillance and Screening in the Electronic Health Record.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy Ryan

    2016-10-01

    Effective well-child care includes developmental surveillance and screening to identify developmental delays and subsequent interventions. Electronic health records (EHRs) have been widely adopted to improve efficiency and appropriate clinical practice. Developmental surveillance tools have been introduced. This article summarizes a conceptual framework for application and highlights the principles and tools of EHRs applied to developmental assessment, including interoperability, health information exchange, clinical decision support systems, consumer health informatics, dashboards, and patient portals. Further investigation and dedicated resources will be required for successful application to developmental surveillance and screening. PMID:27565369

  9. Testing the Interactive Effect of Parent and Child ADHD on Parenting in Mothers and Fathers: A Further Test of the Similarity-Fit Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psychogiou, Lamprini; Daley, Dave; Thompson, Margaret; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2007-01-01

    Mother and child ADHD symptoms both have a negative effect on parenting. Little is known about how these characteristics interact. In a recent paper, we reported two studies that suggested that maternal ADHD ameliorated the negative effects of child ADHD on negative parenting supporting a "similarity-fit" hypothesis. The aim of the current paper…

  10. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Child Development Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z ... Z # Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Child Development Cancel Submit Search The CDC Child Development Note: ...

  11. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  12. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  13. Child exposure to serious life events, COMT, and aggression: Testing differential susceptibility theory.

    PubMed

    Hygen, Beate Wold; Belsky, Jay; Stenseng, Frode; Lydersen, Stian; Guzey, Ismail Cuneyt; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-08-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in aggression. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met (COMT), a common, functional polymorphism, has been implicated in aggression and aggression traits, as have childhood experiences of adversity. It is unknown whether these effects are additive or interactional and, in the case of interaction, whether they conform to a diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility model. We examined Gene × Environment interactions between COMT and serious life events on measures of childhood aggression and contrasted these 2 models. The sample was composed of community children (N = 704); 355 were boys, and the mean age was 54.8 months (SD = 3.0). The children were genotyped for COMT rs4680 and assessed for serious life events and by teacher-rated aggression. Regression analysis showed no main effects of COMT and serious life events on aggression. However, a significant interactive effect of childhood serious life events and COMT genotype was observed: Children who had faced many serious life events and were Val homozygotes exhibited more aggression (p = .02) than did their Met-carrying counterparts. Notably, in the absence of serious life events, Val homozygotes displayed significantly lower aggression scores than did Met carriers (p = .03). When tested, this constellation of findings conformed to the differential susceptibility hypothesis: In this case, Val homozygotes are more malleable to the effect of serious life events on aggression and not simply more vulnerable to the negative effect of having experienced many serious life events. PMID:26053146

  14. The Child's World: Assessing Children in Need.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwath, Jan, Ed.

    This book provides a comprehensive guide to recent development in the research and practice of assessing children in need. The book examines the policy framework for assessment, the process of assessment, and how to assess a child's developmental needs and the capacity of that child's parents and family to respond to those needs. Following an…

  15. Factors Impacting the Child with Behavioral Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbuckle, Suzanne R.

    2010-01-01

    Various factors influence the developmental course of the behaviorally inhibited child. These factors include reciprocating, contextual factors, such as the child's own traits, the environment, the maternal characteristics, and the environment. Behaviorally inhibited children show physiological and behavioral signs of fear and anxiety when…

  16. Behavioral Manifestations of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, William N.

    1998-01-01

    This paper on the behavioral manifestations of child sexual abuse first reviews previous research concerning child variables, parent/family variables, sexual abuse in combination with other maltreatment, and physiological outcomes. Criteria for future research are offered and specific research needs in the areas of developmental progression,…

  17. Focus on Preschool Aquatics: Child Care Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, Nancy E.

    This paper proposes state regulations for the training of child care staff members in developmentally appropriate safe aquatic practices, outlines required features of any pools that children visit, and suggests safe practices for water-related activities at child care centers and swimming pools. The staff training regulation suggestions include…

  18. Early Childhood Developmental Screenings: Predictors of Screening Referral Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Danielle J.

    2012-01-01

    Developmental screening programs identify young children with delayed skill growth or challenging behaviors and refer them to community agencies for evaluation or other services. This research studied the predictive impact of developmental screening results and child and family characteristics on the completion of these referrals for evaluation. A…

  19. Developmentally Appropriate Practicum Supervision: Perceptions of Students and Supervisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Harriet

    This research examined the developmental progression of child and youth care students in practicum placements and teaching strategies used by practicum supervisors according to their practicum students' developmental levels. Eight university practicum supervisors participated in a focus group regarding their perceptions of differences between…

  20. Another View on "Reinforcement in Developmentally Appropriate Early Childhood Classrooms."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfgang, Charles H.

    2001-01-01

    Contrasts the use of behavioral and developmental theories to address a child's aggression. Presents concerns about the use of social reinforcers, activity reinforcers, and tangible reinforcers. Asserts that behavioral techniques that shape children's surface behaviors without placing the behaviors within a developmental context may interfere with…

  1. A Structural Model for the Developmental Status of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Patricia; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Used structural equation techniques to evaluate model predicting children's (n=1,742) developmental status, taking into consideration demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of mother and her household, characteristics of child at birth, and quality of home environment. Children's developmental status was related strongly and positively to…

  2. When Something Isn't Right: Developmental Delays and Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardie, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Presents strategies for early childhood educators and child caregivers for identifying potential developmental delays and disabilities among the children they work with. Suggests using a developmental checklist, documenting actual activities, talking with the director, meeting with the parents, and referring parents to the appropriate agency. (KB)

  3. Parental recognition of developmental abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed

    De Giacomo, A; Fombonne, E

    1998-09-01

    In order to identify factors associated with the early detection and referral of children with pervasive developmental disorders, a sample of 82 consecutive referrals to an outpatient diagnostic service was studied. All children were thoroughly assessed with the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI), standardized psychological tests and direct observations. Data from the ADI on the first symptoms to arouse parental concern and on the first professional advice sought were analyzed. The mean age of children was 19.1 months (SD = 9.4) when the parents first became concerned, and the first professional advice was sought when children were 24.1 months old (SD = 11.7). The most common parental concerns were for speech and language development, followed by abnormal socio-emotional response, and medical problem or delay in milestone. In both bivariate and multiple regression analyses, the mean age of children at first parental concern and professional advice was significantly lower in the presence of mental retardation in the child, of an older sibling in the family, and of first parental concerns for medical problem/delay in milestone. More specific autistic behaviours, child's gender, social class and place of residence did not influence the age of recognition of the disorder in this sample. Health visitors and general practitioners were the first professionals contacted by parents. The implications of these findings for early detection and diagnosis of autism are discussed. PMID:9826299

  4. Sleep Quality and Psychological Wellbeing in Mothers of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Judy; Richdale, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Sleep and behavioural difficulties are common in children with developmental disabilities. Mothers often wake and tend to their child when their child is having sleep difficulties. Therefore, mothers of children with developmental disabilities can have poor sleep quality due to these disruptions. The present study investigated the impact of sleep…

  5. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities (MRDD) Branch. NICHD Report to the NACHHD Council

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document is the quadrennial report of the Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities (MRDD) Branch to the National Advisory Child Health and Human Development (NACHHD) Council. The MRDD Branch is a vital, evolving entity within the Center for Developmental Biology and Perinatal Medicine (CDBPM) at the National Institute of Child

  6. A Longitudinal Examination of Father Involvement with Children with Developmental Delays: Does Timing of Diagnosis Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, W. Justin; McBride, Brent A.; Jeans, Laurie M.

    2009-01-01

    With a representative sample of U.S. children born in 2001, growth curve modeling was used to investigate the association between father-child involvement and the developmental status of the child. Three groups of children, which varied by timing of developmental delay diagnosis, were compared for father involvement trajectories. These groups of…

  7. Health Outcomes of Midlife and Older Latina and Black American Mothers of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magana, Sandra; Smith, Matthew J.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of caring for a child with a developmental disability on the physical and mental health of Latina and Black American women was examined. We used the National Health Interview Survey to compare the health of older mothers who were co-residing with a child who had a developmental disability to the health of same age mothers without…

  8. [Managing an autistic child].

    PubMed

    Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique

    2010-03-20

    General practitioners and pediatricians are on the front line to detect atypical developmental trajectories in children, They have to inform parents and to guide them toward specialized centers where further multidisciplinary evaluation will be conducted. It is admitted that early intervention is a factor of better prognosis in autism. To help starting early intervention, general practitioners may first indicate sensorymotor or language and communication evaluations. A specific project will then be defined for each child according to the results of the multidisciplinary evaluation. Each individualized project will be based on different behavioral and developpemental interventions, speech therapy, sensorymotor therapy, and psychotherapy. General practitioners and pediatricians will keep up following the child evolution as part of the child care team with parents and specialized centers. PMID:20402134

  9. Chimpanzees Show a Developmental Increase in Susceptibility to Contagious Yawning: A Test of the Effect of Ontogeny and Emotional Closeness on Yawn Contagion

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær; Persson, Tomas; Sayehli, Susan; Lenninger, Sara; Sonesson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others’ emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother) yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the ‘chameleon effect’, targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed. PMID:24146848

  10. Chimpanzees show a developmental increase in susceptibility to contagious yawning: a test of the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on yawn contagion.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær; Persson, Tomas; Sayehli, Susan; Lenninger, Sara; Sonesson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others' emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother) yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the 'chameleon effect', targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed. PMID:24146848

  11. Martha Muchow and Organismic-Developmental Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wapner, Seymour

    1985-01-01

    Examines Martha Muchow's work from the perspective of Heinz Werner's organismic-developmental theory, in terms of its stress on the environment as perceived and experienced by the child and its relevance to Werner's concept of differing "spheres of reality." (Author/SO)

  12. Developmentally Sensitive Assessment of Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Tracy L.; Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.; Henin, Aude; Storch, Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    Social anxiety affects children across the developmental spectrum. Early-onset social phobia may be particularly impairing because of its disruptive effects on social and academic functioning during a child's formative years and because of the elevated risks of childhood adversity in anxious individuals. Unfortunately, little attention has been…

  13. Doing Developmental Research: A Practical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striano, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Addressing practical issues rarely covered in methods texts, this user-friendly, jargon-free book helps students and beginning researchers plan infant and child development studies and get them done. The author provides step-by-step guidance for getting involved in a developmental laboratory and crafting effective research questions and proposals.…

  14. Toward a Developmental Theory of Prosocial Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Martin L.

    This paper presents a summary of behavior concepts that together provide the outline of a possible developmental theory of prosocial motivation. These concepts, based on human role-taking capacities, include empathic distress, sympathetic distress, personal guilt, and existential guild. At first, a child cannot discriminate between himself and…

  15. Recent Trends in Developmental Research: A Quantitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Nina; Cheyne, Allan

    An assessment of recent trends in developmental research examined all articles published in the periodical "Child Development" from 1967-1983. Of the articles that were included in the "Child Development Abstracts and Bibliography" in the same period, 200 articles from each year of the period were randomly selected for assessment. Sixteen keywords…

  16. Tests of the Dynamic Field Theory and The Spatial Precision Hypothesis: Capturing a Qualitative Developmental Transition in Spatial Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Anne R.; Spencer, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a dynamic field theory (DFT) of spatial working memory and an associated spatial precision hypothesis (SPH). Between 3 and 6 years of age, there is a qualitative shift in how children use reference axes to remember locations: 3-year-olds' spatial recall responses are biased toward reference axes after short memory delays, whereas…

  17. An Empirical Study of the Weigl-Goldstein-Scheerer Color-Form Test According to a Developmental Frame of Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Helen; Lewin, Isaac

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed the Weigl-Goldstein-Scheerer Color-Form Test using a sample of Danish children. Distinguished three dimensions: configuration of sorting, verbalization of the sorting principle, and the flexibility of switching sorting principle. The three dimensions proved themselves to constitute the a-priori-defined gradients. Results indicated a…

  18. Child Development and Intergenerational Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crites, Marsha S.

    1989-01-01

    Child development can be fostered through relationships between older adults and children. Children's social isolation resulting from demographic, economic, and social changes can be addressed by means of intergenerational programs. During four developmental stages from infancy to adolescence, older adults can play a significant role in…

  19. Preschool Psychopathology Reported by Parents in 23 Societies: Testing the Seven-Syndrome Model of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel M.; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method: Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory…

  20. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or become violent. An older child may use drugs or alcohol, try to run away or abuse others. Child abuse is a serious problem. If you suspect a child is being abused or neglected, call the police or your local child welfare agency.