Science.gov

Sample records for child injury prevention

  1. Injury prevention and the attainment of child and adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Alison; Peden, Margie; Soori, Hamid; Bartolomeos, Kidist

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Urgent attention is required to tackle the problem of child and adolescent injury across the world. There have been considerable shifts in the epidemiological patterns of child deaths; while great progress has been made in preventing infectious diseases, the exposure of children and adolescents to the risks of injury appear to be increasing and will continue to do so in the future. The issue of injuries is too often absent from child and adolescent health agendas. In December 2008, WHO and the United Nations Children’s Fund published the World report on child injury prevention, calling global attention to the problem of child injuries. This article expands on the report’s arguments that child injuries must be integrated into child health initiatives and proposes initial steps for achieving this integration. PMID:19551258

  2. Can child injury prevention include healthy risk promotion?

    PubMed Central

    Brussoni, Mariana; Brunelle, Sara; Pike, Ian; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Herrington, Susan; Turner, Heather; Belair, Scott; Logan, Louise; Fuselli, Pamela; Ball, David J

    2015-01-01

    To reflect on the role of risk-taking and risky play in child development and consider recommendations for the injury prevention field, a symposium was held prior to the November 2013 Canadian Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Conference. Delegates heard from Canadian and international researchers, practitioners and play safety experts on child development, play space design and playground safety, provision of recreation, and legal and societal perceptions of risk and hazard. The presenters provided multidisciplinary evidence and perspectives indicating the potential negative effect on children's development of approaches to injury prevention that prioritise safety and limit children's opportunities for risky play. Delegates considered the state of the field of injury prevention and whether alternative approaches were warranted. Each presenter prepared a discussion paper to provide the opportunity for dialogue beyond attendees at the symposium. The resulting discussion papers provide a unique opportunity to consider and learn from multiple perspectives in order to develop a path forward. PMID:25535208

  3. Can child injury prevention include healthy risk promotion?

    PubMed

    Brussoni, Mariana; Brunelle, Sara; Pike, Ian; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Herrington, Susan; Turner, Heather; Belair, Scott; Logan, Louise; Fuselli, Pamela; Ball, David J

    2015-10-01

    To reflect on the role of risk-taking and risky play in child development and consider recommendations for the injury prevention field, a symposium was held prior to the November 2013 Canadian Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Conference. Delegates heard from Canadian and international researchers, practitioners and play safety experts on child development, play space design and playground safety, provision of recreation, and legal and societal perceptions of risk and hazard. The presenters provided multidisciplinary evidence and perspectives indicating the potential negative effect on children's development of approaches to injury prevention that prioritise safety and limit children's opportunities for risky play. Delegates considered the state of the field of injury prevention and whether alternative approaches were warranted. Each presenter prepared a discussion paper to provide the opportunity for dialogue beyond attendees at the symposium. The resulting discussion papers provide a unique opportunity to consider and learn from multiple perspectives in order to develop a path forward. PMID:25535208

  4. Child-to-child training for prevention of school injuries in Odemis, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ergün, Sibel; Kalkim, Asli; Dolgun, Eda

    2013-10-01

    Students encounter many risks for injury, which can impact their health and educational success; prevention of these injuries are paramount for school nurses. These article report results of a study conducted to determine the efficacy of training given to children regarding prevention of school injuries and to compare the effectiveness of instructor-to-child training to that of the child-to-child training method in affecting student attitudes toward the prevention of school injuries. An interventional teaching program was developed with the objective of positively impacting students' attitudes toward preventing school injuries. The health care training using instructor-to-child and child-to-child training produced a similar effect in changing the attitudes of students with respect to preventing school injuries. Given the high ratio of children to school nurses within the school systems in Turkey, nurses could consider the use of child-to-child training to supplement their own health care training to support changes in students' attitudes toward prevention of school injuries. PMID:23263266

  5. Child Injury Deaths: Comparing Prevention Information from Two Coding Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzer, Patricia G.; Ewigman, Bernard G.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives The International Classification of Disease (ICD) external cause of injury E-codes do not sufficiently identify injury circumstances amenable to prevention. The researchers developed an alternative classification system (B-codes) that incorporates behavioral and environmental factors, for use in childhood injury research, and compare the two coding systems in this paper. Methods All fatal injuries among children less than age five that occurred between January 1, 1992, and December 31, 1994, were classified using both B-codes and E-codes. Results E-codes identified the most common causes of injury death: homicide (24%), fires (21%), motor vehicle incidents (21%), drowning (10%), and suffocation (9%). The B-codes further revealed that homicides (51%) resulted from the child being shaken or struck by another person; many fires deaths (42%) resulted from children playing with matches or lighters; drownings (46%) usually occurred in natural bodies of water; and most suffocation deaths (68%) occurred in unsafe sleeping arrangements. Conclusions B-codes identify additional information with specific relevance for prevention of childhood injuries. PMID:15944169

  6. Assessment of caregiver responsibility in unintentional child injury deaths: challenges for injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Schnitzer, Patricia G; Covington, Theresa M; Kruse, Robin L

    2011-02-01

    Most unintentional injury deaths among young children result from inadequate supervision or failure by caregivers to protect the child from potential hazards. Determining whether inadequate supervision or failure to protect could be classified as child neglect is a component of child death review (CDR) in most states. However, establishing that an unintentional injury death was neglect related can be challenging as differing definitions, lack of standards regarding supervision, and changing norms make consensus difficult. The purpose of this study was to assess CDR team members' categorisation of the extent to which unintentional injury deaths were neglect related. CDR team members were surveyed and asked to classify 20 vignettes-presented in 10 pairs-that described the circumstances of unintentional injury deaths among children. Vignette pairs differed by an attribute that might affect classification, such as poverty or intent. Categories for classifying vignettes were: (1) caregiver not responsible/not neglect related; (2) some caregiver responsibility/somewhat neglect related; (3) caregiver responsible /definitely neglect related. CDR team members from five states (287) completed surveys. Respondents assigned the child's caregiver at least some responsibility for the death in 18 vignettes (90%). A majority of respondents classified the caregiver as definitely responsible for the child's death in eight vignettes (40%). This study documents attributes that influence CDR team members' decisions when assessing caregiver responsibility in unintentional injury deaths, including supervision, intent, failure to use safety devices, and a pattern of previous neglectful behaviour. The findings offer insight for incorporating injury prevention into CDR more effectively. PMID:21278098

  7. Fathers' views on their financial situations, father-child activities, and preventing child injuries.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Lise L; Oliffe, John L; Brussoni, Mariana; Creighton, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are a leading public health problem for children, particularly among those living at lower socioeconomic levels. Parents play an important preventive role, and the aim of this study was to examine fathers' views on the role of their family financial situation in preventing children's injuries. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 fathers of children 2 to 7 years living in western Canada. Questions solicited fathers' views about their financial situation and their child injury prevention efforts. Data analysis was underpinned by masculinity theory and guided by constant comparative grounded theory methods. Findings included that fathers living with fewer financial limitations emphasized use of safety equipment and aligned themselves with provider and protector masculine ideals. Fathers with moderate financial constraint described more child-centered safety efforts and efforts to manage finances. Those facing greatest constraint demonstrated aspects of marginalized masculinities, whereby they acknowledged their economic provider limitations while strongly aligning with the protector role. These findings hold relevance for development of interventions aimed at reducing child injury risk inequities. Taking into account how masculinities may shape their beliefs and practices can inform design of father-centered interventions for men living at different points on the socioeconomic spectrum. PMID:24334676

  8. Child unintentional injury prevention in Eastern Mediterranean Region

    PubMed Central

    Soori, Hamid; Khodakarim, Soheila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Unintentional injuries are one of the leading causes of death and disability among children in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The issue of child injuries in the EMR is a major public health concern. Objectives: This study aimed to present the epidemiological pattern of children's unintentional injuries in this region and compare the results for the EMR member states and the global status based on the findings of the World Report. Materials and Methods: This is a secondary analysis and focuses on unintentional injuries specifically road traffic injuries, drowning, burns, falls and poisoning, and adjusted for countries from EMR. Results: About 12% of all deaths due to unintentional injuries taking place globally under the age of 20 years took place in EMR with 113 327 deaths which is about 19% higher than the world rate (45.5 Vs. 38.8 per 100 000). In EMR the top five leading causes of death due to childhood unintentional injuries are reported to be from road traffic injuries (17.4 per 100 000), drowning (6.8 per 100 000), burns (4.5 per 100 000), falls (2.9 per 100 000) and poisoning (1.6 per 100 000). Estimated mortality showed that boys were more likely to be killed than girls. However, there was no significant difference for by age group. Conclusions: Injuries are the leading cause of death and disability among children in the EMR and that injury programmes focusing on major risk factors need to be integrated into other child health strategies, with ministries of health playing a pivotal role. PMID:27051620

  9. Public Health Models for Preventing Child Maltreatment: Applications From the Field of Injury Prevention.

    PubMed

    Scott, Debbie; Lonne, Bob; Higgins, Daryl

    2016-10-01

    Contemporary approaches to child protection are dominated by individualized forensically focused interventions that provide limited scope for more holistic preventative responses to children at risk and the provision of support to struggling families and communities. However, in many jurisdictions, it is frequently shown, often through public inquiries and program reviews, that investigatory and removal approaches are failing in critically important ways, particularly regarding reducing the inequities that underpin neglect and abuse. Consequently, there have been increasing calls for a public health model for the protection of children, although there is often a lack of clarity as to what exactly this should entail. Yet, there are opportunities to learn from public health approaches successfully used in the field of injury prevention. Specifically, we advocate for the use of Haddon's Matrix, which provides a detailed theoretical and practical framework for the application of a comprehensive and integrated public health model to guide intervention program design and responses to child protection risk factors. A broad overview of the application of Haddon's Matrix's principles and methods is provided with examples of program and intervention design. It is argued that this framework provides the range of interventions necessary to address the complex social and structural factors contributing to inequity and the maltreatment of children. It also provides the foundation for a holistic and integrated system of prevention and intervention to contribute to system-level change and address child maltreatment. PMID:27580666

  10. Child-to-Child Training for Prevention of School Injuries in Odemis, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergün, Sibel; Kalkim, Asli; Dolgun, Eda

    2013-01-01

    Students encounter many risks for injury, which can impact their health and educational success; prevention of these injuries are paramount for school nurses. These article reports results of a study conducted to determine the efficacy of training given to children regarding prevention of school injuries and to compare the effectiveness of…

  11. [Effective interventions to prevent child injuries: a review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Nguyen Thanh, Viêt; Clément, Juliette; Thélot, Bertrand; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Lamboy, Béatrice; Arwidson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Child injuries represent an important public health problem. The aim of this paper is to review the current scientific knowledge on interventions designed to prevent child injuries. The current state of knowledge in this area was assessed by means of a specific method involving a review of literature reviews and a classification of health promotion interventions identified in these reviews (rapid reviews). We found a large number of effective or promising programmes devoted to the prevention of the most common child injuries: drowning, burns, falls, poisoning, electrocution, sports and leisure injuries. Some interventions are based on environmental measures, while others are educational or use law and regulatory processes. Some are primary prevention measures, others are secondary prevention measures, while others are multidimensional and can effectively reduce several types of injuries. For example, home safety education and provision of safety equipment, or home-based parenting interventions, can have an impact on injury rates. These findings present a number of limitations due to the marked diversity of the quality of the documents reviewed. It should also be stressed that interventions that are not listed in this article are not necessarily ineffective: they may simply lack a rigorous evaluation enabling them to be identified in our review. PMID:26751923

  12. Child Pedestrian Injury: A Review of Behavioral Risks and Preventive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Davis, Aaron L.; O’Neal, Elizabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    Pedestrian injury is among the leading causes of pediatric death in the United States and much of the world. This paper is divided into two sections. First, we review the literature on behavioral risk factors for child injury. Cognitive and perceptual development risks are discussed. The roles of distraction, temperament and personality, and social influences from parents and peers are presented. We conclude the first section with brief reviews of environmental risks, pedestrian safety among special populations, and the role of sleep and fatigue on pediatric pedestrian safety. The second section of the review considers child pedestrian injury prevention strategies. Categorized by mode of presentation, we discuss parent instruction strategies, school-based instruction strategies (including crossing guards), and streetside training techniques. Technology-based training strategies using video, internet, and virtual reality are reviewed. We conclude the section on prevention with discussion of community-based interventions. PMID:23066380

  13. Prevention and Control of Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuchfarber, Barbara S.; Zins, Joseph E.; Jason, Leonard A.

    Childhood injury continues to be a major public health crisis in the United States, with a large percentage of injuries being preventable and controllable. This chapter provides information related to understanding child and youth injury. Studies have shown that injuries affect identifiable high-risk groups. Such host factors that put children at…

  14. Health and Safety in the Child Care Setting: Prevention of Injuries--A Curriculum for the Training of Child Care Providers. Module 2. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Evinger, Sara, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This curriculum was first published in June 1998 to be used by qualified health and safety trainers to fulfill part of the learning needs and licensing requirements of child care providers (Health and Safety Code, Section 1596.866) in California. This second and updated edition of Module 2, Prevention of Injuries, covers the content of the…

  15. Barriers and Enablers to Enacting Child and Youth Related Injury Prevention Legislation in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Linda; Pike, Ian; Belton, Kathy; Olsen, Lise; Fuselli, Pam; Macpherson, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Injury prevention policy is crucial for the safety of Canada’s children; however legislation is not adopted uniformly across the country. This study aimed to identify key barriers and enablers to enacting injury prevention legislation. Purposive snowball sampling identified individuals involved in injury prevention throughout Canada. An online survey asked respondents to identify policies that were relevant to them, and whether legislation existed in their province. Respondents rated the importance of barriers or enablers using a 5-point Likert type scale and included open-ended comments. Fifty-seven respondents identified the most common injury topics: bicycle helmets (44, 77%), cell phone-distracted driving (36, 63%), booster seats (28, 49%), ski helmets (24, 42%), and graduated driver’s licensing (21, 37%). The top enablers were research/surveillance, managerial/political support and professional group consultation, with much variability between injury topics. Open-ended comments emphasized the importance of a united opinion as an enabler and barriers included costs of protective equipment and inadequate enforcement of legislation. The results highlighted the importance of strategies that include research, management and community collaboration and that injury prevention topics should be addressed individually as information may be lost if topics are considered together. Findings can inform the process of turning injury prevention evidence into action. PMID:27399745

  16. Barriers and Enablers to Enacting Child and Youth Related Injury Prevention Legislation in Canada.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Linda; Pike, Ian; Belton, Kathy; Olsen, Lise; Fuselli, Pam; Macpherson, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Injury prevention policy is crucial for the safety of Canada's children; however legislation is not adopted uniformly across the country. This study aimed to identify key barriers and enablers to enacting injury prevention legislation. Purposive snowball sampling identified individuals involved in injury prevention throughout Canada. An online survey asked respondents to identify policies that were relevant to them, and whether legislation existed in their province. Respondents rated the importance of barriers or enablers using a 5-point Likert type scale and included open-ended comments. Fifty-seven respondents identified the most common injury topics: bicycle helmets (44, 77%), cell phone-distracted driving (36, 63%), booster seats (28, 49%), ski helmets (24, 42%), and graduated driver's licensing (21, 37%). The top enablers were research/surveillance, managerial/political support and professional group consultation, with much variability between injury topics. Open-ended comments emphasized the importance of a united opinion as an enabler and barriers included costs of protective equipment and inadequate enforcement of legislation. The results highlighted the importance of strategies that include research, management and community collaboration and that injury prevention topics should be addressed individually as information may be lost if topics are considered together. Findings can inform the process of turning injury prevention evidence into action. PMID:27399745

  17. Child injury in a changing world.

    PubMed

    Towner, E; Towner, J

    2009-01-01

    The importance of child injuries has now been recognised as a significant public health problem internationally. The World Health Organisation (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) have recently published the first world report on child injury prevention. As infectious diseases decline, the relative importance of injury has increased, but the pace of change of global processes means that absolute increases in injury may occur over the next 20-30 years. This paper examines child injury in a changing world by outlining the ways in which the forces of globalisation, urbanisation, motorisation and environmental change could have an impact on injury epidemiology and policy. We consider how those in public health and those in the injury field should respond to the changing world of injury. Child injury prevention needs to be incorporated into planning for the rapidly changing urban environments of low-income countries and strategies devised for the large numbers of people displaced by environmental change. PMID:19513912

  18. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    Head Injury Prevention Tips American Association of Neurological Surgeons 5550 Meadowbrook Drive, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008-3852 ... defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the ...

  19. Prevention of unintentional childhood injury.

    PubMed

    Theurer, Wesley M; Bhavsar, Amit K

    2013-04-01

    Unintentional injury accounts for 40 percent of childhood deaths annually, most commonly from motor vehicle crashes. The proper use of child restraints is the most effective strategy to prevent injury or death. Motor vehicle restraint guidelines have recently been revised to an age-based system that delays the progression in type of restraint for most children. Strategies to prevent suffocation in children include using appropriate bedding, positioning babies on their backs to sleep, and removing items from the sleep and play environment that could potentially entrap or entangle the child. Fencing that isolates a swimming pool from the yard and surrounding area and "touch" adult supervision (i.e., an adult is in the water and able to reach and grab a child) have been shown to be most effective in preventing drownings. Swimming lessons are recommended for children older than four years. Poison prevention programs have been shown to improve prevention behavior among caregivers, but may not decrease poisoning incidence. Syrup of ipecac is not recommended. Smoke detector maintenance, a home escape plan, and educating children about how to respond during a fire emergency are effective strategies for preventing fire injuries or death. Fall injuries may be reduced by not using walkers for infants and toddlers or bunk beds for children six years and younger. Consistent helmet use while bicycling reduces head and brain injuries. Although direct counseling by physicians appears to improve some parental safety behaviors, its effect on reducing childhood injuries is uncertain. Community-based interventions can be effective in high-risk populations. PMID:23547592

  20. Research on prevention of bilirubin-induced brain injury and kernicterus: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development conference executive summary. 2003.

    PubMed

    Blackmon, Lillian R; Fanaroff, Avroy A; Raju, Tonse N K

    2004-07-01

    In July 2003, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development convened a conference, "Research on Prevention of Bilirubin-Induced Brain Injury and Kernicterus: Bench-to-Bedside." This article will provide a summary of presentations and discussions from this conference. The summary will focus on the identified knowledge gaps in 5 areas related to bilirubin-induced brain injury and kernicterus: 1) neurobiology and neuroimaging; 2) epidemiology and issues of clinical management; 3) methodologies for assessing clinical jaundice and direct and noninvasive measurement of serum bilirubin and hemolysis; 4) therapies for management of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia; and 5) public health surveillance and systems-based approaches to prevention. PMID:15231933

  1. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing anticipatory guidance and child maltreatment risk factor screening will be described. The modalities and strengths and weaknesses of community-based prevention programs will be discussed, and providers will be given tools to identify the effectiveness of available community-based programs. At a broader level, the article will describe ways that pediatricians can advocate at the local, state, and national level for policies and programs that support families and children. PMID:25242703

  2. Preventing Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvy, Kerby T.

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on two major and general approaches to analyzing the problems of child abuse; briefly discusses the prevention implications; deals with the individual physical abuse of children, with particular emphasis on the relationship between theoretical formulations of the causes of individual physical abuse and preventative programs; and, finally,…

  3. Prevention of running injuries.

    PubMed

    Fields, Karl B; Sykes, Jeannie C; Walker, Katherine M; Jackson, Jonathan C

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for preventive strategies to lessen running injuries is needed as these occur in 40%-50% of runners on an annual basis. Many factors influence running injuries, but strong evidence for prevention only exists for training modification primarily by reducing weekly mileage. Two anatomical factors - cavus feet and leg length inequality - demonstrate a link to injury. Weak evidence suggests that orthotics may lessen risk of stress fracture, but no clear evidence proves they will reduce the risk of those athletes with leg length inequality or cavus feet. This article reviews other potential injury variables, including strength, biomechanics, stretching, warm-up, nutrition, psychological factors, and shoes. Additional research is needed to determine whether interventions to address any of these will help prevent running injury. PMID:20463502

  4. Prevention of youth injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Laraque, D.; Barlow, B.; Durkin, M.

    1999-01-01

    There are four categories of causes responsible for the majority of injuries in youth 10-19 years of age: 1) motor vehicle traffic; 2) violence (intra-familial, extra-familial, self, pregnancy-related); 3) recreational; and 4) occupational. This article presents data from the National Center for Health Statistics mortality data and the National Pediatric Trauma Registry morbidity data. Nationwide, the pediatric injury death rate is highest among adolescents 15-19 years of age. Motor vehicle-related deaths account for 41% and firearm-related deaths account for 36% of injury deaths in this age group. For youths aged 10-14 years, motor vehicle-related deaths account for 38% and; firearm-related deaths account for 26% of injury deaths. For both age groups, occupant motor vehicle-related deaths account for the majority of deaths and underscore the need for seat belt use. Using theoretical principles based on the Haddon matrix and a knowledge of adolescent development, proposed interventions to decrease injuries and deaths related to motor vehicles and firearms include graduated licensing, occupant restraint, speed limits, conflict resolution, and gun control. Occupational injuries, particularly injury associated with agricultural production, account for an estimated 100,000 injuries per year. Preventive strategies include OSHA regulations imposing standards for protective devices and further study for guidelines for adolescent work in agriculture. Injuries related to recreation include drowning and sports injuries. Preventive strategies may include proper supervision and risk reduction with respect to use of alcohol/drugs. The data presented support the use of primary prevention to achieve the most effective, safe community interventions targeting adolescents. PMID:10599188

  5. Prevention of pediatric sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Demorest, Rebecca A; Landry, Gregory L

    2003-12-01

    With over 30 million children participating in sports each year across the United States, a number of significant injuries are to be expected. Although mild injuries such as strains, sprains, and contusions predominate, catastrophic injuries do occur. Young athletes are at an increased risk for growth plate and apophyseal injuries, overuse injuries, and heat illness. Many of these sports injuries can be prevented. Prevention strategies include protective equipment, rule changes, preseason and season prevention interventions, safety measures, better coaching, education, and a societal awareness of injury and prevention. This article discusses current injury prevention for children participating in baseball, football, soccer, and ice hockey. PMID:14583164

  6. Time to add a new priority target for child injury prevention? The case for an excess burden associated with sport and exercise injury: population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Caroline F; Wong Shee, Anna; Clapperton, Angela

    2014-01-01

    hospital costs, bed-day usage and YLD impacts) for sports injury compared with road traffic injury for children aged <15 years indicates an urgent need to prioritise sports injury prevention in this age group. PMID:24993758

  7. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have been commonly used. However, many dangers to the eyes are either not recognized or are not taken seriously enough. This paper discusses some of the common causes of serious eye injuries in the home, in sports and in industry. Imagesp464-aFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21289691

  8. A Data Book of Child and Adolescent Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains 54 graphs and accompanying narrative which summarize available data on child and adolescent non-natural injuries and deaths and are intended to help in the multi-disciplinary and multi-agency "Healthy People 2000" campaign to improve the nation's health and prevent needless child and adolescent injuries. Graphs illustrate…

  9. Unintentional injuries in child care centers in the United States: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hashikawa, Andrew N; Newton, Manya F; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Stevens, Martha W

    2015-03-01

    The study systematically reviewed all types of unintentional injury and injury prevention research studies occurring within child care centers in the United States. A total of 2 reviewers searched 11 electronic databases to identify 53 articles meeting inclusion criteria. No studies used trauma registries or randomized control trials. Data were not pooled for further analysis because studies lacked standardized definitions for injury, rates, severity, exposure, and demographics. The following child care center injury rates were reported: (0.25-5.31 injuries per 100,000 child-hours); (11.3-18 injuries per 100 children per year); (6-49 injuries per 1000 child-years); (2.5-8.29 injuries per child-year); (2.6-3.3 injuries per child); (3.3-6.3 injuries per 100 observations); (635-835 medically attended injuries per year per 100,000 children and 271-364 child care center playground injuries per year per 100,000 children); and (3.8 injuries per child per 2000 exposure hours). Child care center injury rates were comparable to injury rates published for schools, playground, and summer camp. Most injuries were minor, while most severe injuries (fractures and concussions) were falls from playground structures. Future studies need to use standardized injury definitions and injury severity scales, focus efforts on preventing severe playground injuries in child care centers, and report child care parameters for inclusion in national injury databases. PMID:24092867

  10. Primary prevention of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Bethea, L

    1999-03-15

    In 1993, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect declared a child protection emergency. Between 1985 and 1993, there was a 50 percent increase in reported cases of child abuse. Three million cases of child abuse are reported in the United States each year. Treatment of the abuser has had only limited success and child protection agencies are overwhelmed. Recently, efforts have begun to focus on the primary prevention of child abuse. Primary prevention of child abuse is defined as any intervention that prevents child abuse before it occurs. Primary prevention must be implemented on many levels before it can be successful. Strategies on the societal level include increasing the "value" of children, increasing the economic self-sufficiency of families, discouraging corporal punishment and other forms of violence, making health care more accessible and affordable, expanding and improving coordination of social services, improving the identification and treatment of psychologic problems, and alcohol and drug abuse, providing more affordable child care and preventing the birth of unwanted children. Strategies on the familial level include helping parents meet their basic needs, identifying problems of substance abuse and spouse abuse, and educating parents about child behavior, discipline, safety and development. PMID:10193598

  11. Preventing Injury: A Safety Curriculum. Grades 5 and 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, J. Scott; And Others

    The focus of this curriculum is on prevention of spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The program is aimed at children because it is early in life that behavioral patterns are formed which become increasingly more difficult to modify as the child enters adolescence. The curriculum is based on principles of child development,…

  12. Child neglect: injuries of omission.

    PubMed

    Cowen, P S

    1999-01-01

    Child neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment in the United States. Researchers have indicated that child neglect is strongly correlated with poverty, single-parent caretakers, unemployment, and multifaceted family problems. When neglect is present, it is usually pervasive in the lives of all family members, with both parents and children often perceiving themselves to be powerless and viewing attempts at goal achievement to be futile. Treatment for neglectful families requires multidisciplinary efforts to improve family functioning and promote a safe and supportive environment. Nurses have a variety of roles in the assessment of and primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention interventions for child neglect, with child safety and optimal family functioning as the desired outcomes. Early identification and intervention has the potential for reducing or preventing the developmental consequences associated with the deprivations of neglect. The nurse's role as child/family advocate is often the critical determinant of whether "at-risk" families are identified and receive the therapeutic interventions and tangible services they need. Additionally, nurses often have direct responsibilities for monitoring and remediating parenting patterns that have placed the child in hazardous conditions. PMID:12024360

  13. Injury prevention in youth sports.

    PubMed

    Veigel, Jake D; Pleacher, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Sport is the principal cause of injury in children and adolescents. Youth participation in organized athletics is estimated to be 45 million in the United States alone. These injuries influence health and fitness and have socioeconomic impact. Many injuries can be prevented. This article outlines the efficacy of current injury prevention strategies in youth sports through the use of educational programs, rule changes in baseball and hockey, safety equipment, and conditioning programs. PMID:19005358

  14. Child Maltreatment Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse and neglect reported to child protective services (CPS) in 2014. The youngest children are the most ... reported victims being under the age of three. CPS reports may underestimate the true occurrence of abuse ...

  15. Editorial. Bicycle injuries and injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Pless, I B

    2014-07-01

    In 1989, long before this journal added injuries to its title, it published two papers on childhood injuries and I was asked to write an editorial for this occasion. I chose the title "Challenges for Injury Prevention: Two Neglected Aspects" because I thought the papers neglected to mention the inadequacy of injury statistics (at the time there were no emergency department data) and also failed to emphasize the public health importance of childhood injuries. It is instructive, therefore, to compare this issue's offerings with how matters stood nearly 25 years ago and see what progress we've made. Papers in this and the previous issue of this journal discuss bicycle safety in general and helmet use in particular. Although this is a somewhat narrow focus, it serves as one indicator of how the field has evolved and what remains to be done to improve both the science and policy in this domain. PMID:24991769

  16. Empirically derived injury prevention rules.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, L; Schick, B

    1993-01-01

    This study describes a set of empirically derived safety rules that if followed, would have prevented the occurrence of minor injuries. Epidemiologists have criticized behavioral interventions as increasing "safe" behavior but failing to demonstrate a decrease in injury. The present study documents retrospectively the link between safe behavior and injury. It demonstrates that these empirically derived rules are very similar to rules for the prevention of serious injury. The study also shows that these rules are not widely accepted and implemented by parents. Suggestions for future research in this area are advanced. PMID:8307829

  17. Parents as Advocates for Child Pedestrian Injury Prevention: What Do They Believe about the Efficacy of Prevention Strategies and about How to Create Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFrancesco, Susan; Gielen, Andrea Carlson; Bishai, David; Mahoney, Patricia; Ho, Shiu; Guyer, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    This study describes the support of parents and other community members for child pedestrian safety measures, their willingness to pay in terms of volunteer time and money for efforts to make child pedestrian safety improvements in their neighborhood, and their views on how to affect child pedestrian safety improvements in their communities. In…

  18. Prevent Child Abuse America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse Cases A recent report from the Indianapolis Star has revealed multiple occasions in which allegations of ... Gymnastics. In many of the cases that the Star investigated, complaint… Read more Who we are Prevent ...

  19. Health and Safety in the Child Care Setting: Prevention of Injuries. Module 2. Second Edition. A Curriculum for the Training of Child Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.

    This curriculum module is intended to help childcare providers understand how injuries happen and how, by planning ahead and taking simple precautions, most injuries can be avoided. The 3- to 5-hour curriculum is designed to fulfill the learning needs and licensing requirements of childcare providers in California. Introductory remarks present…

  20. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, 2016 Protecting your eyes from injury is one of the most basic things you can do to keep your vision healthy throughout your life. You may be somewhat aware of the possible ...

  1. Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Finance Human Resources and Administrative Services Information Technology Marketing and Sales Membership Practice Public Affairs Quality Publishing ... Feedback Recent a a a print email share Facebook Twitter 2016 Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet 3/ ...

  2. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... ups and training sessions before practices and before games. This will help ensure that they have fun ... be allowed periods of rest during practices and games. previous continue Common Types of Sports Injuries Three ...

  3. Preventing Injury: A Safety Curriculum. Grades 3 and 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, J. Scott; And Others

    The focus of this curriculum is on prevention of spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The program is aimed at young children because it is during the early years that behavioral patterns are formed which become increasingly more difficult to modify as the child enters adolescence. The curriculum is based on principles of…

  4. Preventing Injury: A Safety Curriculum. Preschool-Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, J. Scott; And Others

    The focus of this curriculum is on prevention of spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The program is aimed at young children because it is during the early years that behavioral patterns are formed which become increasingly more difficult to modify as the child enters adolescence. The curriculum is based on principles of…

  5. Preventing Injury: A Safety Curriculum. Grades 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, J. Scott; And Others

    The focus of this curriculum is on prevention of spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The program is aimed at young children because it is during the early years that behavioral patterns are formed which become increasingly more difficult to modify as the child enters adolescence. The curriculum is based on principles of…

  6. Preventing Knee Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... to tearing. Growth Plate Injuries, Fractures, and Dislocations Knee fractures rarely occur in childhood sports, but with any ... is the bump on the front of the knee where the patellar tendon attaches. Fractures to the growth plate in this area often ...

  7. National survey of the injury prevention activities of children's centres

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Michael C; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Kendrick, Denise; Stewart, Jane; Coupland, Carol; Hayes, Mike; Wynn, Persephone

    2014-01-01

    Children's centres were established across England to provide a range of services including early education, social care and health to pre-school children and their families. We surveyed children's centres to ascertain the activities they were undertaking to prevent unintentional injuries in the under fives. A postal questionnaire was sent to a sample of children's centre managers (n = 694). It included questions on current activities, knowledge and attitudes to injury prevention, health priorities and partnership working. Responses were received from 384 (56%) children's centres. Overall, 58% considered unintentional injury prevention to be one of the three main child health priorities for their centre. Over half the respondents (59%) did not know if there was an injury prevention group in their area, and 21% did not know if there was a home safety equipment scheme. Knowledge of how child injury deaths occur in the home was poor. Only 11% knew the major cause of injury deaths in children under five. Lack of both staff time and funding were seen as important barriers by children's centre staff to undertake injury prevention activities. Nearly all stated that training (97%) and assistance with planning injury prevention (94%) would be helpful to their centres. Children's centres need further support if they are to effectively tackle this important public health area. PMID:23837887

  8. Our Shrinking Globe: Implications for Child Unintentional Injuries.

    PubMed

    Alonge, Olakunle; Khan, Uzma R; Hyder, Adnan A

    2016-02-01

    Unintentional injuries are a leading cause of deaths for children of all ages. Globally, they accounted for 15.4% of 2.6 million deaths recorded among children aged 1 to 14 years in 2013. The 12 highest burden countries in the world by absolute death count and mortality are low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) except for Russia and Equatorial Guinea. These countries accounted for 58% of the 406,442 unintentional injury deaths among 1 to 14 year olds in 2013. Globalization drives inequalities in the distribution of economic gains, risks, and opportunities for preventing child unintentional injuries between high-income countries and LMIC. PMID:26613695

  9. Effective primary prevention programs in public health and their applicability to the prevention of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Rivara, Frederick P; Johnston, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Principles of public health practice can be applied to problems, such as child maltreatment, that have behavioral antecedents and injury outcomes. Successful campaigns to promote bicycle helmet use to prevent brain injury and to promote supine sleeping to prevent sudden infant death are described. These programs were universally applied, featured simple behavioral goals, were based on the best available evidence, and monitored both behavioral and health-related outcomes. PMID:24199326

  10. Marine injuries. Prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Frey, C

    1994-08-01

    Penetrating wounds, stings, and inoculation of venom are common marine injuries to unwary walkers during the summer season. In many circumstances, foreign bodies such as wood splinters or small shards of glass can be removed readily with fine-pointed forceps. Other times, objects may not be noticed until radiographic examination of the injured area. With deeply penetrated foreign bodies, attempts at removal must often be weighed against the likelihood of continued symptoms and damage should the object be left in the foot. This review presents methods of prevention and treatment for common sources of marine foot injuries. PMID:7997347

  11. Kinesiology and Injury Prevention. Every Dancer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clippinger-Robertson, Karen

    1986-01-01

    This article focuses on three aspects of kinesiology: training principles, technique, and class design as they relate to injury prevention. Recommendations for prevention of some common dance injuries are offered. (MT)

  12. Internet Resources for Injury and Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Krista; Sleet, David A.; Mickalide, Angela; Gorcowski, Susan; Bryn, Stephanie; Balsley, Tara; Mitchko, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Access to injury prevention information is being transformed by the Internet and information technology. These new strategies for "knowledge management" are creating new opportunities for health education and injury prevention. This article provides an overview and a list of internet resources on unintentional injury prevention, acute care and…

  13. Preventing paraffin-related injury.

    PubMed

    Schwebel, David C; Swart, Dehran

    2009-07-01

    Paraffin (called kerosene in North America and other parts of the world) is the most commonly used fuel in ‎non-electrified dwellings worldwide. It is especially popular in Africa and South Asia. Although paraffin ‎offers many advantages-especially its comparatively low cost to produce-it poses two major risks of ‎injury. First, paraffin poisoning is common, either through ingestion or through inhalation of smoke and ‎fumes. Second, paraffin is highly flammable, and poses fire risk through multiple causes. This commentary ‎discusses strategies to prevent paraffin-related injury. Prevention of paraffin-related injury must be through ‎multiple strategies, and should include policy-oriented change, changes to the safety of home environments, ‎and behavioral changes targeting how individuals store and use paraffin and paraffin appliances. We review ‎successful prevention strategies in each of these domains and discuss appropriate research and community ‎initiatives that should be implemented to improve paraffin safety among at-risk populations. ‎ PMID:21483184

  14. [Sodium dichloroisocyanurate-induced acute lung injury in a child].

    PubMed

    Wiel, E; Sicot, J; Leteurtre, S; Binoche, A; Nisse, P; Assez, N

    2013-04-01

    Intoxication, by cyanurate and its chlorated derivatives in children, is increasingly reported in the literature due to accidental ingestion compared to accidental inhalation. We report a case in a 5-year-old child who presented with acute lung injury due to accidental inhalation of gas formed after a reaction of sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets with water. Prevention remains the best way to reduce the risk of children being intoxicated by inhalation of the gas formed after contact of tablets with water. PMID:23433843

  15. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes – muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness – all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1) screening; (2) physical training; (3) nutrition and rest; (4) specialized dance health care; and (5) becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers. PMID:24379726

  16. Pressurised air injury in a child.

    PubMed

    Poovazhagi, V; Thangavelu, S; Shanthi, S

    2011-08-01

    We report the case of a 7 year old girl, who sustained accidental injury following injection of pressurized air from a bicycle tyre air nozzle. She presented with generalized subcutaneous emphysema along with pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum, pneumoretroperitoneum and pneumorra-chis. The child was recovered completely on conservative management. PMID:21918272

  17. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolen, Rebecca M.

    2003-01-01

    Current child sexual abuse prevention programs assume that, by targeting potential victims, they can reduce the prevalence of child sexual abuse. This article presents findings that suggest this assumption is flawed. Suggests instead that potential offenders are more appropriate targets of prevention programs. (Contains 39 references.)

  18. Youth Sport Injury Prevention is KEY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimon, Jane M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how providing a well-designed injury prevention program that includes attention to growth and development, training and conditioning, protective equipment, and emergency care can minimize youth sport injuries. (SM)

  19. Child Care as Welfare Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Working for Change, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Part of a series from the Child Care Law Center, this issue of "Working for Change" discusses the need for quality, affordable child care as a support for working parents trying to break out of welfare dependency. This report details the current realities of poor parents who struggle to find and pay for child care while they work and those who…

  20. Prevention of physical child abuse: concept, evidence and practice.

    PubMed

    Coles, Lisa

    2008-06-01

    Given a lack of standardised procedures for preventing child abuse, what can be done in terms of thinking and action about the prevention of physical child abuse in health visiting and community practice? This paper reflects on knowledge gained while undertaking case series research into non-accidental head injury (NAHI), qualitative research with health visitors and mothers and fathers into the feasibility of preventing NAHI, and work as a team member of the Welsh Child Protection Systematic Review Group. Prevention is an abstract term, with dimensions of an ethical nature, and requires prompt and timely action. To identify when preventive action is required, an understanding is needed of where there is risk, and what benefit or outcome may follow interventions. However, the knowledge in this field is limited, which means that it is wise to be cautious in claiming effectiveness of prevention activity. Nonetheless, if prevention is not seen to be practised, the development of skills and the means to evaluate interventions will not become embedded in the routine care of families with small children, and physical child abuse will not be prevented. PMID:18672856

  1. Current trends and update on injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Curry, Parichat; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Vavilala, Monica S

    2011-01-01

    Injuries are a major and growing public health problem, a leading cause of death and disabilities among people aged 1-44 years around the world. Each year, 5.8 million people die from injuries, accounting for 10% of the world's deaths. Road traffic injuries (RTIs), self-inflicted injuries and violence are the top three leading causes of all injury deaths, while RTIs, falls and drowning are the top three leading causes of unintentional injury death. In many high-income countries, trends of injury death have been decreasing as a result of prevention measures. In contrast, trends in low- and middle-income countries have been rising. In this article, we review the prevention strategies for RTIs, violence, falls and drowning developed over decades to disseminate the knowledge and inform health care providers, especially acute care physicians, about the importance of injury prevention. PMID:22096775

  2. Current trends and update on injury prevention

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Parichat; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Vavilala, Monica S.

    2011-01-01

    Injuries are a major and growing public health problem, a leading cause of death and disabilities among people aged 1–44 years around the world. Each year, 5.8 million people die from injuries, accounting for 10% of the world's deaths. Road traffic injuries (RTIs), self-inflicted injuries and violence are the top three leading causes of all injury deaths, while RTIs, falls and drowning are the top three leading causes of unintentional injury death. In many high-income countries, trends of injury death have been decreasing as a result of prevention measures. In contrast, trends in low- and middle-income countries have been rising. In this article, we review the prevention strategies for RTIs, violence, falls and drowning developed over decades to disseminate the knowledge and inform health care providers, especially acute care physicians, about the importance of injury prevention. PMID:22096775

  3. Interventions to prevent child maltreatment and associated impairment.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, Harriet L; Wathen, C Nadine; Barlow, Jane; Fergusson, David M; Leventhal, John M; Taussig, Heather N

    2009-01-17

    Although a broad range of programmes for prevention of child maltreatment exist, the effectiveness of most of the programmes is unknown. Two specific home-visiting programmes-the Nurse-Family Partnership (best evidence) and Early Start-have been shown to prevent child maltreatment and associated outcomes such as injuries. One population-level parenting programme has shown benefits, but requires further assessment and replication. Additional in-hospital and clinic strategies show promise in preventing physical abuse and neglect. However, whether school-based educational programmes prevent child sexual abuse is unknown, and there are currently no known approaches to prevent emotional abuse or exposure to intimate-partner violence. A specific parent-training programme has shown benefits in preventing recurrence of physical abuse; no intervention has yet been shown to be effective in preventing recurrence of neglect. A few interventions for neglected children and mother-child therapy for families with intimate-partner violence show promise in improving behavioural outcomes. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for sexually abused children with symptoms of post-traumatic stress shows the best evidence for reduction in mental-health conditions. For maltreated children, foster care placement can lead to benefits compared with young people who remain at home or those who reunify from foster care; enhanced foster care shows benefits for children. Future research should ensure that interventions are assessed in controlled trials, using actual outcomes of maltreatment and associated health measures. PMID:19056113

  4. Injury prevention. Where are the resources?

    PubMed

    Feury, Karen Jean

    2003-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control (2002), each year nearly 150,000 Americans die from injuries, making injury the leading cause of death among children and young adults and a significant problem for Americans of all ages. Nonfatal injuries account for approximately 114 million physician office visits and 25% of all emergency department examinations. It is estimated that one in four Americans will suffer a potentially preventable injury serious enough to require medical attention (Shienfield Gorin & Arnold, 1998). As injury-prevention advocates, we must address this public health problem with a multidimensional approach that includes the three Es: education, engineering, and enforcement. Professionals from many disciplines, including nurses, physicians, health educators, school teachers, social workers, police officers, firefighters, emergency medical technicians, and coaches, must have accurate information to educate. Education in injury prevention must be a collaborative approach. These injury-prevention leaders must stay informed and knowledgeable of this ever-changing science. This article highlights common injuries, preventive strategies, and resources for injury-prevention information. This information will assist the healthcare provider in finding accurate sources of information concerning injury prevention (Shienfield Gorin & Arnold, 1998). PMID:12703396

  5. [Ankle braces prevent ligament injuries].

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Jon

    2002-09-01

    The Cochrane collaboration has performed a meta-analysis of all studies found on the prevention of ankle ligament injuries, frequent in sports like soccer, European handball and basketball. Interventions include the use of modified footwear and associated supports, training programmes and health education. Five randomized trials totalling 3,954 participants were included. With the exception of ankle disc training, all prophylactic interventions entailed the application of an external ankle support in the form of a semi-rigid orthosis, air-cast or high top shoes. The studies showed a significant reduction in the number of ankle sprains in individuals allocated to external ankle support. This reduction was greater for those with a previous history of ankle sprains. PMID:12362747

  6. Parent Support Groups to Prevent Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, C. Jerry

    1982-01-01

    Describes the organization and training of a parent support group to prevent child abuse. Initial training assisted group members to become aware of their attitudes toward child abusers. Training also focused on developing listening skills, procedures for making referrals, and the handling of confidential information. (RC)

  7. Teachers and Child Abuse Prevention. Item 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Joy

    1988-01-01

    The monograph considers the role of teachers in child abuse prevention and reporting from the perspective of a New Zealand educator. A 1985 study of the author is summarized in which a training program resulted in commitment by 80% of teachers involved to identify and report child abuse and by 60% of teachers to further educate themselves in child…

  8. Community perceptions of unintentional child injuries in Makwanpur district of Nepal: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Nepal, childhood unintentional injury is an emerging public health problem but it has not been prioritised on national health agenda. There is lack of literature on community perceptions about child injuries. This study has explored community perceptions about child injuries and how injuries can be prevented. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with mothers, school students and community health volunteers from urban and rural parts of Makwanpur district in Nepal. FGDs were conducted in Nepali languages. These were recorded, transcribed and translated into English. A theoretical framework was identified and thematic analysis conducted. Results Three focus group discussions, with a total of 27 participants, took place. Participants were able to identify examples of child injuries which took place in their community but these generally related to fatal and severe injuries. Participants identified risk factors such as the child’s age, gender, behaviours and whether they had been supervised. Consequences of injuries such as physical and psychological effects, impact on household budgets and disturbance in household plans were identified. Suggestions were made about culturally appropriate prevention measures, and included; suitable supervision arrangements, separation of hazards and teaching about safety to the parents and children. Conclusion Community members in Nepal can provide useful information about childhood injuries and their prevention but this knowledge is not transferred into action. Understanding community perceptions about injuries and their prevention can contribute to the development of preventive interventions in low income settings. PMID:24886124

  9. Developing a Playground Injury Prevention Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Heather M.; Hudson, Susan D.; Thompson, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Playgrounds are a major source of unintentional injuries in the school environment. In fact, 80% of all injuries on public playground equipment happen at school. Thus, the need for developing a playground injury prevention plan is critical to provide safe educational outdoor environments for children. The S.A.F.E.[TM] framework for injury…

  10. Cheerleading Injuries. Patterns, Prevention, Case Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Mark R.

    1997-01-01

    Although cheerleading carries a relatively low injury risk, injuries that do occur can be severe, commonly affecting the ankle, head, and neck. Two case reports are presented that illustrate acute injuries typical of cheerleading. Prevention recommendations are offered related to supervising, screening, limiting stunts, optimizing the environment…

  11. Head Injury Secondary to Suspected Child Maltreatment: Results of a Prospective Canadian National Surveillance Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Susan; Ward, Michelle; Moreau, Katherine; Fortin, Gilles; King, Jim; MacKay, Morag; Plint, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine the incidence, clinical features, and demographic profile of head injury secondary to suspected child maltreatment (abuse or neglect) in Canada to help inform the development and evaluation of prevention programs for abusive head injuries. Methods: From March 1, 2005 to February 28, 2008, an average of 2,545…

  12. Domain 2: Sport Safety and Injury Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurchiek, Larry; Mokha, Monique Butcher

    2004-01-01

    Most coaches recognize the importance of creating a safe environment and preventing injuries of their athletes. Domain 2 is dedicated to this important aspect of coaching, and outlines specific areas within safety and injury prevention that coaches should address. Domain 2 sets the standards for facility, equipment, and environmental safety…

  13. ThinkFirst National Injury Prevention Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... all ages how to prevent traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries! The ThinkFirst Foundation is a 501c3 nonprofit organization. ... The mission of ThinkFirst is to prevent brain, spinal cord and other traumatic injuries through education, research and advocacy. Support ThinkFirst Support ...

  14. What Everyone Can Do To Prevent Child Abuse: Child Abuse Prevention Community Resource Packet, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS/ACF), Washington, DC. Children's Bureau.

    Child abuse is a national tragedy, taking the lives of three children every day and affecting millions of children and families every year. To mark the 20th anniversary of the first presidential proclamation of Child Abuse Prevention Month, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Children's Bureau, Office on Child Abuse and Neglect,…

  15. Child cyclist injuries: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Armson, C J; Pollard, C W

    1986-02-01

    A prospective study of pedalcycle accident morbidity and mortality was carried out from February to mid-November 1983 because of the high frequency of child cyclist injuries that were occurring on the relatively flat Redcliffe Peninsula. These injuries were apparently associated with the large number of young children who use a bicycle as their main mode of transport to and from school. The schools were surveyed for the extent of bicycle use and cyclists were surveyed for the amount of protective clothing that was worn while involved in cycling. It was found that a disturbingly large number of young children made regular bicycle trips on public roads with the minimal use of safety helmets or any other form of protective clothing. Nearly 40% of on-road accidents involved children of less than 12 years of age, and over 10% of these involved children of six years of age or less. No child in our series of on-road accidents was, at the time of injury, wearing a safety helmet or any other form of protective clothing. No bicycle accidents occurred on the exclusive cycle track of approximately 1 km in length on the Peninsula. PMID:3945202

  16. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  17. Prevention and the Child Protection System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The nation's child protection system (CPS) has historically focused on preventing maltreatment in high-risk families, whose children have already been maltreated. But, as Jane Waldfogel explains, it has also begun developing prevention procedures for children at lower risk--those who are referred to CPS but whose cases do not meet the criteria for…

  18. Preventing childhood unintentional injuries--what works? A literature review.

    PubMed Central

    Dowswell, T.; Towner, E. M.; Simpson, G.; Jarvis, S. N.

    1996-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this paper is to report on a systematic review of the world literature to provide information about the most effective forms of health promotion interventions to reduce childhood (0-14 years) unintentional injuries. The findings are of relevance to policy makers at a local or national level, to practitioners and researchers. METHODS: The relevant literature has been identified through the use of electronic databases, hand searching of journals, scanning reference lists, and consultation with key informants. RESULTS: Examples of interventions that have been effective in reducing injury include: bicycle helmet legislation, area wide traffic calming measures, child safety restraint legislation, child resistant containers to prevent poisoning, and window bars to prevent falls. Interventions effective in changing behaviour include bicycle helmet education and legislation, child restraint legislation, child restraint loan schemes, child restraint educational campaigns, pedestrian education aimed at the child/parent, provision of smoke detectors, and parent education on home hazard reduction. For the community based campaigns, the key to success has been the sustained use of surveillance systems, the commitment of interagency cooperation and the time needed to develop networks and implement a range of interventions. Education, environmental modification and legislation all have a part to play and their effect in combination is important. CONCLUSION: The design of evaluations in injury prevention needs to be improved so that more reliable evidence can be obtained. Better information is needed on process, so that successful strategies can be replicated elsewhere. There is also a need for literature reviews on effectiveness to be updated regularly and for their findings to be widely disseminated to policy makers, researchers, and practitioners. PMID:9346079

  19. Occupational injury prevention research: progress and priorities.

    PubMed

    Stout, N A; Linn, H I

    2002-12-01

    The twentieth century witnessed remarkable reductions in the number and rate of occupational fatalities and injuries. However, many preventable injuries and deaths still occur. Barriers to progress in occupational injury prevention are discussed, along with strategies for overcoming them. In mining, the frequency of death has dramatically declined over the century. The latest figures from the BLS indicate that less than 6000 worker deaths from injury occurred in 2000. Catastrophic events have prompted increased attention, resources, and action on workplace hazards and risks, resulting in sweeping changes, including new protective laws. Science based approaches to prevention have contributed to progress. Multidisciplinary collaboration among injury prevention researchers, and collaboration and cooperation among multiple sectors, have improved the relevance and application of injury prevention research and development. Barriers to further progress include lack of evaluation of the effectiveness of prevention strategies and technologies, including cost effectiveness; lack of widespread implementation of known, effective prevention; and lack of efficient transfer and implementation of prevention knowledge and products to the workplace. Evaluation and implementation of prevention efforts are most successfully achieved in partnership between researchers and the industry at risk, which requires outreach efforts on the part of the occupational research community. PMID:12460949

  20. Eye Injury Prevention for the Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Annette K; Philip, Swetha S; Yardley, Anne-Marie E; Mackey, David A

    2016-05-01

    Each year an estimated 3.3 to 5.7 million pediatric eye injuries occur worldwide. It is widely reported that 90% of ocular injuries are preventable. Our aim was to identify legislation and policies, education, and mandatory eye protection strategies that have successfully contributed to reducing rates of children's eye injuries. A literature search was conducted using the terms "pediatric" or "children" or "adolescent" and "ocular" or "eye" and "protection" or "injury prevention." Articles were retrieved based on titles and abstracts and assessed in the context of our research question. Strategies identified aimed at reducing ocular trauma fell into 3 broad categories: legislation and policies, education, and personal eye protection. Policies including restrictions on the sale and supply of certain consumer products, mandatory vehicle seatbelts, and laminated windscreens in vehicles have assisted in reducing children's eye injuries. Educational tools aimed at children and their caregivers have been effective in changing attitudes to eye health and safety. Effective pediatric eye injury prevention systems require a multifactorial approach combining legislation, policies, standards, education, and personal eye protection to limit exposure to ocular hazards. A paucity of standardized measurement and lack of funding have limited advances in the field of children's eye injury prevention. Improved eye injury surveillance and research funding along with collaboration with health care providers are important components for strategies to prevent pediatric ocular trauma. PMID:27183290

  1. Eye Injuries Can Be Prevented.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Eleven thousand eye injuries are suffered annually by 5- to-14-year-old youngsters during sports and recreational activities. Baseball-related accidents result in more eye injuries to youth than any other sport. Protective face gear is discussed and recommended. (MT)

  2. Ways to Prevent Percussion Overuse Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidyk, Steve

    2009-01-01

    It is a proven fact that the repetitive nature of percussion playing can cause carpal tunnel syndrome, bursitis, and tendinitis. This paper offers ways to prevent percussion overuse injuries, particularly by developing a healthy warmup routine.

  3. Core Competencies for Injury and Violence Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Stephens-Stidham, Shelli; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Bou-Saada, Ingrid; Hunter, Wanda; Lindemer, Kristen; Runyan, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to reduce the burden of injury and violence require a workforce that is knowledgeable and skilled in prevention. However, there has been no systematic process to ensure that professionals possess the necessary competencies. To address this deficiency, we developed a set of core competencies for public health practitioners in injury and violence prevention programs. The core competencies address domains including public health significance, data, the design and implementation of prevention activities, evaluation, program management, communication, stimulating change, and continuing education. Specific learning objectives establish goals for training in each domain. The competencies assist in efforts to reduce the burden of injury and violence and can provide benchmarks against which to assess progress in professional capacity for injury and violence prevention. PMID:19197083

  4. Knee Braces to Prevent Injuries in Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)

  5. Applying a Developmental Approach to Injury Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercy, James A.; Sleet, David A.; Doll, Lynda S.

    2003-01-01

    The epidemiology of unintentional injury and violence, including likely causes and individuals' abilities to respond to risks, are closely related to the stages of human development. The epidemiology and prevention of injury are also influenced by the social contexts (i.e., family, community, and socio-cultural) in which human development occurs.…

  6. Community-based Injury Prevention Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Terry P.; MacKay, J. Morag; Moher, David; Walker, Annie; Jones, Alison L.

    2000-01-01

    Reviewed 32 studies that evaluated the impact of community-based injury prevention efforts on childhood injuries, safety behaviors, and adoption of safety devices. Interventions targeted schools, municipalities, and cities. This approach effectively increased some safety practices (e.g, bicycle helmet and car seat use) but not others. Common…

  7. Parental Compliance with Childhood Injury Prevention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBailly, Susan A.; And Others

    Preliminary data from a study documenting parental perceptions of injuries and steps taken by inner-city and suburban parents to make their homes safe are reported. Participants were 407 families with children under 5 years old. Families were provided one of the following interventions: (1) a well child visit; (2) safety equipment (3) physician…

  8. Core Stability Training for Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Huxel Bliven, Kellie C.; Anderson, Barton E.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Enhancing core stability through exercise is common to musculoskeletal injury prevention programs. Definitive evidence demonstrating an association between core instability and injury is lacking; however, multifaceted prevention programs including core stabilization exercises appear to be effective at reducing lower extremity injury rates. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for epidemiologic, biomechanic, and clinical studies of core stability for injury prevention (keywords: “core OR trunk” AND “training OR prevention OR exercise OR rehabilitation” AND “risk OR prevalence”) published between January 1980 and October 2012. Articles with relevance to core stability risk factors, assessment, and training were reviewed. Relevant sources from articles were also retrieved and reviewed. Results: Stabilizer, mobilizer, and load transfer core muscles assist in understanding injury risk, assessing core muscle function, and developing injury prevention programs. Moderate evidence of alterations in core muscle recruitment and injury risk exists. Assessment tools to identify deficits in volitional muscle contraction, isometric muscle endurance, stabilization, and movement patterns are available. Exercise programs to improve core stability should focus on muscle activation, neuromuscular control, static stabilization, and dynamic stability. Conclusion: Core stabilization relies on instantaneous integration among passive, active, and neural control subsystems. Core muscles are often categorized functionally on the basis of stabilizing or mobilizing roles. Neuromuscular control is critical in coordinating this complex system for dynamic stabilization. Comprehensive assessment and training require a multifaceted approach to address core muscle strength, endurance, and recruitment requirements for functional demands associated with daily activities, exercise, and sport. PMID:24427426

  9. Preventing head injuries in children

    MedlinePlus

    ... they are in a car or other motor vehicle: Use a child safety seat or booster seat ... riding a snowmobile, motorcycle, scooter, or all-terrain vehicle (ATV). If possible, children should not ride on ...

  10. Preventing equestrian injuries. Locking the stable door.

    PubMed

    Watt, G M; Finch, C F

    1996-09-01

    The medical and sports literature databases were searched for equestrian sports-related injury published in English since 1980, together with conference abstracts and discussions with equestrian sporting bodies. This literature was critically reviewed, with emphasis on measures to prevent or control injury i.e. countermeasures. While there is considerable literature available on the epidemiology of injury incurred in most equestrian sports, there is little on the prevention of these injuries. Case-control or other studies evaluating the effectiveness of the countermeasures suggested by authors do not seem to exist. There is a good body of epidemiology that supports the proper use of approved helmets as a means of preventing injury in these sports. However, protective helmets do not always prevent injury as expected, and many riders do not choose to wear them because of perceived poor design. The search for the ideal equestrian helmet should continue. Ideally the effectiveness of helmets should be assessed scientifically. Among the other countermeasures discussed are the use of rules and regulations for conduct of events, knowledge of horse behaviour, well-conducted lessons, contraindicated medical conditions, public education, rider education, appropriate equipment and clothing, the riding environment, rider experience, safety stirrups, body protectors, falling techniques, and first aid measures. Even though the injury rate for equestrians is relatively low when compared with other sports, the injuries that are incurred are usually severe. prevention is often difficult because the behaviour of the horse is unpredictable. Countermeasures used for prevention should be evaluated for the effectiveness to reduce the frequency and severity of injuries to equestrians. PMID:8883215

  11. [Prevention of injuries associated with horseback riding].

    PubMed

    ten Kate, Chantal A; de Kooter, Tabitha A; Kramer, William L M

    2015-01-01

    Each year 9,900 equestrians present at Accident and Emergency Departments, 40% of them 10-19 year old females. The most common horse-riding injuries are to the head, brain, neck and face, torso and extremities. Because of the relatively larger head, children more often fall on their head. Wearing a helmet gives considerable protection. Despite the common use of a helmet by horseback riders, serious head injury still occurs regularly. Further research into improvement of the protective function of the helmet is indicated. The current safety vest (body protector) does not significantly reduce the risk of torso injury. Improvement of its protective function is necessary. Injury to the lower extremities is caused when they become trapped in the stirrup in a fall from or with the horse. Safety stirrups and sturdy footwear are possible preventive measures. Investment in the quality and promotion of preventive measures could reduce the frequency and severity of equestrian injuries. PMID:25923496

  12. Firearm injury prevention training in Preventive Medicine Residency programs.

    PubMed

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H; Dake, Joseph A

    2009-08-01

    Preventive medicine plays a central role in the reducing the number of deaths due to preventable causes of premature deaths. General Preventive Medicine Residency programs have not been studied in relation to training in this area. A three-wave mail survey was conducted with email and telephone follow-ups. The outcome measures were the portion of program directors involved in training residents on firearm injury prevention issues and their perceived benefits and barriers of training residents on firearm injury prevention issues. Only 25% of the programs provided formal training on firearm injury prevention. Program directors who provided formal training perceived significantly higher number of benefits to offering such training than did directors who did not provide such training but no significant difference was found between the two for number of perceived barriers. If preventive medicine residency graduates are to play a role in reducing premature morbidity and mortality from firearms it will require more residencies to offer formal training in this area. The Association for Prevention Teaching and Research needs to develop guidelines on specific curriculum topics regarding firearm injury prevention. PMID:19326195

  13. Future Directions in Preventing Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krugman, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to prevent the abuse and neglect of children requires: professionals and citizens who care to make a difference; development of multidisciplinary units, teams, or organizations to deal with specific parts of the problem; a clear statement of child protection policy; programs that work; commitment to research and program evaluation; and a…

  14. Fifteen tips for success in injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Judkins, Daniel G

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen tips for success in injury prevention include the following: (1) make a plan; (2) understand injury epidemiology; (3) read, learn, and get educated; (4) show me the data; (5) select prevention strategies thoughtfully; (6) define risk factors and understand risk taking; (7) evaluate; (8) schedule a lunch meeting; (9) use principles of health behavior change, adult education theory, and communication theory; (10) be friends with the marketing and public affairs people; (11) recognize the fact that people are more emotional about injury in children than in adults; (12) understand cost-benefits and payoffs; (13) get stuff; (14) report your results; and (15) be patient. Several useful tables for basic references to resources in injury prevention are included. PMID:20029280

  15. The Role of School Health Instruction in Preventing Injury: Making It Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Robert M.

    Reducing the incidence and severity of child and adolescent injuries requires a multifaceted approach involving broad-based health and social service agencies, including schools. Recognition of the need for injury prevention education began with the Industrial Revolution in the 1900s, and safety education was developed as a unit of health…

  16. Hamstring Strain Injuries: Recommendations for Diagnosis, Rehabilitation and Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Heiderscheit, Bryan C.; Sherry, Marc A.; Silder, Amy; Chumanov, Elizabeth S.; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Hamstring strain injuries remain a challenge for both athletes and clinicians given the high incidence rate, slow healing, and persistent symptoms. Moreover, nearly one-third of these injuries recur within the first year following a return to sport, with subsequent injuries often being more severe than the original. This high reinjury rate suggests that commonly utilized rehabilitation programs may be inadequate at resolving possible muscular weakness, reduced tissue extensibility, and/or altered movement patterns associated with the injury. Further, the traditional criteria used to determine the readiness of the athlete to return to sport may be insensitive to these persistent deficits, resulting in a premature return. There is mounting evidence that the risk of reinjury can be minimized by utilizing rehabilitation strategies that incorporate neuromuscular control exercises and eccentric strength training, combined with objective measures to assess musculotendon recovery and readiness to return to sport. In this paper, we first describe the diagnostic examination of an acute hamstring strain injury, including discussion of the value of determining injury location in estimating the duration of the convalescent period. Based on the current available evidence, we then propose a clinical guide for the rehabilitation of acute hamstring injuries including specific criteria for treatment progression and return to sport. Finally, we describe directions for future research including injury-specific rehabilitation programs, objective measures to assess reinjury risk, and strategies to prevent injury occurrence. Level of evidence: Diagnosis/therapy, level 5. PMID:20118524

  17. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective. PMID:25646308

  18. Prevention of Childhood Injuries: Evaluation of the Statewide Childhood Injury Prevention Program (SCIPP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyer, Bernard; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluates the effectiveness of a community-based injury prevention program in nine communities. Discusses the intervention methods and measurement techniques implemented to avoid injury to children from infancy to five years old. Finds the program effective in reducing motor vehicle occupant injuries and in increasing safety knowledge and…

  19. Sports Related Injuries: Incidence, Management and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, Michael A.

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of injury related to various sports is reviewed according to sport, area of injury, number of participants and hours per week spent at the sport. Organized sports accounted for fewer injuries than unsupervised recreational activities like tree climbing, skateboarding and running. The knee is the most commonly injured site. Sensitivity to patients' commitment to their sport is necessary: sometimes instead of rest, they can substitute a less hazardous form of exercise. Principles of prevention involve proper familiarity with the sport, proper equipment and proper conditioning. PMID:21286103

  20. Preventing head injuries in children

    MedlinePlus

    ... strapped in with the safety harness. Store all firearms and bullets in a locked cabinet. ... of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Heads up. Facts for physicians about ...

  1. Prevent Injury After a Disaster

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor ... Heat Prevention Guide (Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme ...

  2. Injury prevention education in medical schools: an international survey of medical students

    PubMed Central

    Villaveces, A; Kammeyer, J; Bencevic, H

    2005-01-01

    Background: Injuries account for an estimated 9% of global mortality. Health professionals worldwide receive little formal injury prevention training, especially in developing countries. Objective: To identify injury prevention training topics taught in a sample of medical schools throughout the world. Design and setting: Cross sectional survey of 82 medical schools from 31 countries. Based on a convenience sample, respondents recalled the injury prevention concepts they were taught, estimated the time dedicated to these topics, specified the courses and rotations where these concepts were taught, and noted whether they were compulsory or elective sessions. Participants: Medical students in their last year of medical training. Main exposure measures: Student recall of classes and rotations where topics of injury prevention and control were discussed. Results: Basic injury prevention concepts including risk factors for injuries and injury classification systems were not covered in 60% of medical schools. Concepts related to child abuse and neglect and emergency care were more commonly taught than others such as traffic injury prevention and youth violence prevention. In general, injury prevention and control concepts were less frequently taught in Middle Eastern and African universities compared with other regions and some topics such as violence prevention were more frequently taught in medical schools in the Americas. Injury prevention concepts were taught most frequently in preventive medicine, forensic medicine, emergency medicine, surgery and pediatrics courses, and rotations. Conclusions: Injury prevention and control education is infrequent and fragmented in medical schools around the world. Inclusion or further development of curricula on this subject could benefit prevention and control efforts. PMID:16326768

  3. What Can I Do to Help Prevent Traumatic Brain Injury?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Congress: Epidemiology and Rehabilitation Report to Congress: Military Personnel TBI in the US: Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations ... sustaining a traumatic brain injury, including: Buckling your child in the car using a child safety seat, ...

  4. Child murder by mothers: patterns and prevention.

    PubMed

    Hatters Friedman, Susan; Resnick, Phillip J

    2007-10-01

    The tragedy of maternal filicide, or child murder by mothers, has occurred throughout history and throughout the world. This review of the research literature sought to identify common predictors in the general population as well as in correctional and psychiatric samples. Further research is needed to improve identification of children and mothers at risk. Infanticide laws are discussed. Suggestions for prevention are made based on the current literature and the authors' experiences. PMID:18188430

  5. Child murder by mothers: patterns and prevention

    PubMed Central

    HATTERS FRIEDMAN, SUSAN; RESNICK, PHILLIP J

    2007-01-01

    The tragedy of maternal filicide, or child murder by mothers, has occurred throughout history and throughout the world. This review of the research literature sought to identify common predictors in the general population as well as in correctional and psychiatric samples. Further research is needed to improve identification of children and mothers at risk. Infanticide laws are discussed. Suggestions for prevention are made based on the current literature and the authors' experiences. PMID:18188430

  6. [Bicycle spoke-related injuries in children: emphasise prevention].

    PubMed

    Kramer, William L M; Haaring, Gert-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Three children, a 6-year-old boy and two girls aged 5 and 4 years, were seen at an emergency department due to distal lower-leg injuries sustained from the spokes of bicycle wheels. All three patients had been passengers on rear carrying seats of moving bicycles. Only the third bicyclist had used a special child safety seat. The second girl had drawn her foot up from underneath a strap and suffered a tibial fracture later treated with an osteosynthetic plate. The other two patients recovered after conservative casting treatment. Bicycle spoke-related injuries are sustained when the foot or lower limb makes contact with the spokes of a bicycle wheel and usually by children who are bicycle passengers. In the Netherlands, approximately 4600 children are seen at emergency departments with such injuries each year. Bicycle spoke-related accidents can cause severe damage that can result in lengthy recovery periods. Not only physical complications but also psychological ones can occur. The latter are often overlooked but do deserve proper treatment. The physician treating a spoke-related injury is in a good position to advice parents as to preventive measures, particularly on the use of special child safety seats. PMID:22085522

  7. The Select Panel for the Promotion of Child Health: Injury. Recommendations in Retrospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, John A.; Mitrovich, Kimberly A.

    1987-01-01

    In 1980 recommendations were made to prevent child injuries. They addressed the following topics: (1) motor vehicle safety; (2) home and neighborhood safety; and (3) the development of a national data base from which policy can be formulated. There is evidence that progress has been made since the morbidity and mortality rates for accidents have…

  8. Injury prevention and care: an important public health agenda for health, survival and safety of children.

    PubMed

    Gururaj, Gopalkrishna

    2013-03-01

    Injuries affect the lives of thousands of young people and their families each year in India. With the gradual decline of communicable and nutritional diseases, injuries will be a leading cause of mortality, morbidity and disabilities and the success achieved so far in child health and survival is in jeopardy. Available data indicate that among children less than 18 y, 10-15 % of deaths, 20-30 % of hospital registrations and 20 % of disabilities are due to injuries. Based on available data, it is estimated that injuries result in death of nearly 1, 00,000 children every year in India and hospitalisations among 2 million children. Road Traffic Injuries (RTI's), drowning, falls, burns and poisoning are leading injury causes in India. Drowning and burns are major causes of mortality in less than 5 y, while RTIs, falls and poisoning are leading causes in 5-18 y. A shift in the occurrence of suicides to younger age groups of 15-20 y is a matter of serious concern in recent years. More number of males, those in rural areas, and majority of poor income households are affected due to injuries.Child injuries are predictable and preventable. Children have limitations of size, development, vision, hearing and risk perceptions as compared to adults and hence are more susceptible and vulnerable to injuries. Thus, it is important to make products and home - road and school environments safer along with greater supervision by parents and care givers. The key approaches include vehicle and product safety, environmental modification, legislation and enforcement, education and skills development along with availability of quality trauma care. Child injury prevention and care requires good quality data, building human and financial resources, strengthening policies and programmes based on evidence and integrated implementation of countermeasures along with monitoring and evaluation. Child injury prevention and control is crucial and should be an integral part of child health and

  9. Gastrointestinal radiation injury: Prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shadad, Abobakr K; Sullivan, Frank J; Martin, Joseph D; Egan, Laurence J

    2013-01-01

    With the recent advances in detection and treatment of cancer, there is an increasing emphasis on the efficacy and safety aspects of cancer therapy. Radiation therapy is a common treatment for a wide variety of cancers, either alone or in combination with other treatments. Ionising radiation injury to the gastrointestinal tract is a frequent side effect of radiation therapy and a considerable proportion of patients suffer acute or chronic gastrointestinal symptoms as a result. These side effects often cause morbidity and may in some cases lower the efficacy of radiotherapy treatment. Radiation injury to the gastrointestinal tract can be minimised by either of two strategies: technical strategies which aim to physically shift radiation dose away from the normal intestinal tissues, and biological strategies which aim to modulate the normal tissue response to ionising radiation or to increase its resistance to it. Although considerable improvement in the safety of radiotherapy treatment has been achieved through the use of modern optimised planning and delivery techniques, biological techniques may offer additional further promise. Different agents have been used to prevent or minimize the severity of gastrointestinal injury induced by ionising radiation exposure, including biological, chemical and pharmacological agents. In this review we aim to discuss various technical strategies to prevent gastrointestinal injury during cancer radiotherapy, examine the different therapeutic options for acute and chronic gastrointestinal radiation injury and outline some examples of research directions and considerations for prevention at a pre-clinical level. PMID:23345942

  10. Noise Injury: Etiology and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Lees, R. E. M.

    1982-01-01

    Exposure to noise might be responsible for a wide and varied spectrum of physical and mental morbidity, although many of the claims of cause and effect relationship are controversial and unproven. The etiological relationship between noise and high frequency hearing loss is, however, well documented. While noise-induced hearing loss is considered to be primarily an occupational problem, current leisure time activities have created the potential for it to become more common in the community at large. Once developed, this hearing loss is permanent and cannot be influenced by therapy. Noise-induced hearing loss is almost completely preventable and the family physician has an important responsibility for primary and secondary prevention, whether the noise source is in the workplace or in some other location. PMID:21286519

  11. The Educator's Guide to Preventing Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary, Ed.; Clark, Kay, Ed.

    This collection of articles was created to give professionals and educators an informed overview of current issues in the field of child sexual abuse prevention. Articles are grouped under the headings of Introduction, Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention, and Guidelines for Prevention Education and include: (1) "Prevention Education in…

  12. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, J. L.; Makhija, L. K.; Bajaj, S. P.

    2010-01-01

    The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI) would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme. PMID:21321659

  13. National programme for prevention of burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, J L; Makhija, L K; Bajaj, S P

    2010-09-01

    The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI) would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme. PMID:21321659

  14. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  15. Evaluation of a community based childhood injury prevention program.

    PubMed Central

    Bablouzian, L.; Freedman, E. S.; Wolski, K. E.; Fried, L. E.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This pilot study evaluates the effectiveness of a community based childhood injury prevention program on the reduction of home hazards. METHODS: High risk pregnant women, who were enrolled in a home visiting program that augments existing health and human services, received initial home safety assessments. Clients received education about injury prevention practices, in addition to receiving selected home safety supplies. Fourteen questions from the initial assessment tool were repeated upon discharge from the program. Matched analyses were conducted to evaluate differences from initial assessment to discharge. RESULTS: A significantly larger proportion of homes were assessed as safe at discharge, compared with the initial assessment, for the following hazards: children riding unbuckled in all auto travel, Massachusetts Poison Center sticker on the telephone, outlet plugs in all unused electrical outlets, safety latches on cabinets and drawers, and syrup of ipecac in the home. CONCLUSIONS: A community based childhood injury prevention program providing education and safety supplies to clients significantly reduced four home hazards for which safety supplies were provided. Education and promotion of the proper use of child restraint systems in automobiles significantly reduced a fifth hazard, children riding unbuckled in auto travel. This program appears to reduce the prevalence of home hazards and, therefore, to increase home safety. PMID:9113841

  16. 75 FR 21307 - Injury Prevention Program; Announcement Type: Cooperative Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Injury Prevention Program; Announcement Type: Cooperative Agreement... Service (IHS) announces competitive cooperative agreement (CA) funding for the Injury Prevention Program... Cooperative Agreement Program (TIPCAP) grantees. (B) PART II is for applicants that will use...

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries: Costly but Preventable

    MedlinePlus

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries Costly but Preventable Language: English Español ( ... and how to prevent future crashes. Problem Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury in ...

  18. Common cycling injuries. Management and prevention.

    PubMed

    Mellion, M B

    1991-01-01

    The increasing participation in the athletic forms of bicycling warrants expanded physician attention to the traumatic and overuse injuries experienced by cyclists. The modern bicycle consists of a frame with various components, including handlebars, brakes, wheels, pedals, and gears, in various configurations for the various modes of cycling. For high performance cycling the proper fit of the bicycle is critical. The most efficient method to provide an accurate fit is the Fitkit, but proper frame selection and adjustment can be made by following simple guidelines for frame size, seat height, fore and aft saddle position, saddle angle, reach and handlebar height. The human body functions most effectively in a narrow range of pedal resistance to effort. Riding at too much pedal resistance is a major cause of overuse problems in cyclists. Overuse injuries are lower using lower gear ratios at a higher cadence. Cycling injuries account for 500,000 visits per year to emergency rooms in the US. Over half the accidents involve motor vehicles, and road surface and mechanical problems with the bicycle are also common causes of accidents. Head injuries are common in cyclists and account for most of the fatal accidents. Despite good evidence of their effectiveness, victims with head injuries have rarely worn helmets. Contusions, sprains and fractures may occur throughout the body, most commonly to the hand, wrist, lower arm, shoulder, ankle and lower leg. The handlebar and seat have been implicated in a wide variety of abdominal and genital injuries. Abrasions, lacerations and bruises of the skin are the most common traumatic injuries. Trauma may be prevented or reduced by proper protective safety equipment and keeping the bike in top mechanical condition. Anticipation of the errors of others and practising and adopting specific riding strategies also help to prevent traumatic injuries. Management of overuse injuries in cycling generally involves mechanical adjustment as well

  19. Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV during Childbirth

    MedlinePlus

    HIV and Pregnancy Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV During Childbirth (Last updated 8/17/2015; last ... the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV reduced during childbirth? During childbirth, women with HIV ...

  20. The History of Injury Control and the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, David C.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a historical overview of injury control and prevention in the United States and offers a summary of current knowledge about the importance of different causes of childhood injury, looking at risk and protective factors that have a bearing on preventive efforts. Injury remains the most important cause of death and disability for children…

  1. The Epidemiology and Prevention of Traffic Accidents Involving Child Pedestrians

    PubMed Central

    Read, John H.; Bradley, Eleanor J.; Morison, Joan D.; Lewall, David; Clarke, David A.

    1963-01-01

    A study of 713 motor vehicle accidents involving 749 children in the city of Vancouver is reported. A control group of 110 children who did not have accidents was included in the concurrent study. Factors investigated were the driver, the vehicle, the weather, the time of day, the day of week, the month, the width of roadway, the location of the accident, the child's age, sex, personality, school record, and family background, the type of injury, and the ambulance and hospital service received. Boys were more commonly involved than girls, and most accidents occurred in the 3 to 7 year age group. Head injuries prevailed in the younger age groups and decreased steadily with the age of the child. Specific epidemic areas in the city were identified and selective enforcement was suggested as a possible countermeasure. Hospital records seldom provided a detailed history of the events leading up to the accident. In order to apply the preventive techniques of education and enforcement it was suggested that in each pedestrian traffic accident the driver should be required to accompany the victim to the site of medical care. ImagesFig. 4 PMID:14055829

  2. Epidemiology of Child Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries and Fatalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Durbin, Dennis R.

    Although children represent only 10-15 % of the overall traffic fatality burden in the United States, motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) remain the leading cause of death and disability for children and young adults; and, close to half of all unintentional injury deaths to children and adolescents (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System [CDC NCIPC WISQARS] 2010). Moreover, their exposure to motor vehicle risk is significant because they travel by motor vehicles nearly as much as adults. Prevention of the fatalities, injuries and disability associated with MVC must be a priority for ensuring our children's overall health.

  3. Implementing Injury Prevention Counseling in a Clinic Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBailly, Susan A.; And Others

    While physicians should provide injury prevention counseling to parents of young children, they do not always feel they are adequately prepared to provide such counseling. An injury prevention training project was developed to train physicians in injury prevention counseling and to examine factors related to parental compliance with injury…

  4. Disparities in Under-Five Child Injury Mortality between Developing and Developed Countries: 1990–2013

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yun; Wu, Yue; Schwebel, David C.; Zhou, Liang; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Using estimates from the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study, we update evidence on disparities in under-five child injury mortality between developing and developed countries from 1990 to 2013. Methods: Mortality rates were accessed through the online visualization tool by the GBD study 2013 group. We calculated percent change in child injury mortality rates between 1990 and 2013. Data analysis was conducted separately for <1 year and 1–4 years to specify age differences in rate changes. Results: Between 1990 and 2013, over 3-fold mortality gaps were observed between developing countries and developed countries for both age groups in the study time period. Similar decreases in injury rates were observed for developed and developing countries (<1 year: −50% vs. −50% respectively; 1–4 years: −56% vs. −58%). Differences in injury mortality changes during 1990–2013 between developing and developed nations varied with injury cause. There were greater reductions in mortality from transport injury, falls, poisoning, adverse effects of medical treatment, exposure to forces of nature, and collective violence and legal intervention in developed countries, whereas there were larger decreases in mortality from drowning, exposure to mechanical forces, and animal contact in developing countries. Country-specific analysis showed large variations across countries for both injury mortality and changes in injury mortality between 1990 and 2013. Conclusions: Sustained higher child injury mortality during 1990–2013 for developing countries merits the attention of the global injury prevention community. Countries that have high injury mortality can benefit from the success of other countries. PMID:27399740

  5. Planning, Funding, and Implementing a Child Abuse Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Rebekah L.; Moore, Douglas J.; Schaerfl, Caroline A.

    Preventing child abuse is an endeavor that requires equal parts of caring, optimism, and pragmatism. Drawing on the experiences of more than 100 child abuse prevention projects, this field-tested manual integrates the abstract principles of program development and prevention with the real world experiences and challenges faced by prevention…

  6. Preventing heat injury: military versus civilian perspective.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J K

    1997-01-01

    Guidelines for preventing heat injury (HI) among military personnel are not directly applicable to civilian personnel. Military guidelines call for relatively large volumes of prophylactic water consumption and physical activity limitations depending on the wet bulb globe temperature. However, in civilian populations, there is an increased prevalence of HI risk factors: older age, medication use, especially anticholinergic and psychotropic medications, obesity, previous HI, and skin disorders. Although dehydration is a major contributor to HI in military situations, it is unlikely in classical heat stroke among civilians. Civilian guidelines are based on the heat index. Activity levels must be restricted more for civilians, and prophylactic water consumption (beyond replacing loss from sweat) is not necessary. This review discusses the pathophysiology of heat injury, contrasts the military and civilian approach to prevention of HI, and describes appropriate field intervention for HI. PMID:9002705

  7. [Injury prevention in the elderly population].

    PubMed

    Richter, M; Becker, C; Seifert, J; Gebhard, F; Pieske, O; Holch, M; Lob, G

    2002-12-01

    Injuries in the elderly population have more considerable consequences (more difficult treatment, higher costs,worse outcome) than in the younger population. Therefore, the prevention is especially important. The majority of the injuries are caused by traffic accidents and falls. TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS: An analysis of the current injury situation in elderly road users (65 years and older) involved in road traffic accidents was intended to allow conclusions regarding future prophylaxis. FALLS: Falls are mostly caused by numerous factors. The most important predictors for falls are dementia,Parkinson-Syndrome and neurologic deficits after cerebrovascular insults. The most important symptoms, that indicate an increased risk for fall are gait abnormalities, balance lack and underweight. The most important anamnestic indications are more than one falls in the recent 90 days, need for assistance in daily living and prevailing medication. Another important factor is the residential setting (lighting, stairs, floor conditions,bath installations). The most affective protective interventions involve multiple factors. The incidence of falls could be reduced by 30%. The hip protector is an effective protection against proximal femur fractures. which is the most frequent fracture in the elderly population that requires treatment as an inpatient. Injury prevention in the elderly population is an interdisciplinary task as for example shown by the successful fall clinics in the anglo-american area. PMID:12486574

  8. Population-based prevention of child maltreatment: the U.S. Triple p system population trial.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Ronald J; Sanders, Matthew R; Shapiro, Cheri J; Whitaker, Daniel J; Lutzker, John R

    2009-03-01

    The prevention of child maltreatment necessitates a public health approach. In the U.S. Triple P System Population Trial, 18 counties were randomly assigned to either dissemination of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program system or to the services-as-usual control condition. Dissemination involved Triple P professional training for the existing workforce (over 600 service providers), as well as universal media and communication strategies. Large effect sizes were found for three independently derived population indicators: substantiated child maltreatment, child out-of-home placements, and child maltreatment injuries. This study is the first to randomize geographical areas and show preventive impact on child maltreatment at a population level using evidence-based parenting interventions. PMID:19160053

  9. Factors related to child maltreatment in children presenting with burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Wibbenmeyer, Lucy; Liao, Junlin; Heard, Jason; Kealey, Lyn; Kealey, Gerald; Oral, Resmiye

    2014-01-01

    The underpinnings of maltreatment in children presenting with burn injuries are necessary to discern as detection and prevention rest on a clear delineation of factors associated with maltreatment. Inaccurate identification of child victims can result in perpetuation of the maltreatment and its attendant neuropsychological sequela. The authors sought to determine factors associated with maltreatment in children presenting with burn injuries, which would guide the burn team in assessing the likelihood of maltreatment. All consenting children admitted with burn injuries were surveyed regarding their injury mechanism and current sociodemographic status. Suspicious injuries were referred by the burn team to the multidisciplinary review team (MRT). The MRT reported injuries with signs of physical abuse, supervision neglect, neglect of other basic needs, or sexual abuse. These children constituted the cases in our study. Variables related to maltreatment were entered into stepwise logistic regression to identify independent predicting variables. P< .05 was considered significant. MRT identified 16 children (24%) admitted with burn injuries with suspicions of maltreatment. Risk factors related to suspicions of maltreatment included: young age, large burns, tap water injury, immersion lines, delay in care, absence of a two-parent family (unconventional family structure), young parents, inconsistent history, and injury pattern. In this single-center prospective study, the authors identified several factors that, when present in injuries with initial suspicion of maltreatment, should trigger a child maltreatment workup. Burn clinicians have an important role as advocates for children and their families. It is important to continue to further the knowledge of maltreatment detection and prevention among children presenting with burn injuries. PMID:24823333

  10. UNICEF's child injury league table. An analysis of legislation: more mixed messages.

    PubMed

    Towner, E; Towner, J

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents a summary table and discussion of legislation related to child injury prevention in member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. The table is an expanded version of the one which appeared in the UNICEF Report Card "Child Deaths by Injury in Rich Countries" (2001). A commentary is provided on the variations in legislation between countries in terms of range and form of measures and an estimate of degree of enforcement. As legislation is generally considered a powerful tool in injury prevention, the paper examines whether those countries with the widest range of legislation and the strongest enforcement have made the most progress in reducing child injury deaths since the 1970s. It also considers whether a commitment to extensive legislation is reflected in a country's position in the UNICEF league table of injury death. The initial conclusion to these two basic issues is that no clear picture can be seen and we thus need to know far more about the relationship between legislation and societies and cultures as they vary from place to place. This paper hopes to stimulate more widespread debate about the role of legislation in different countries. PMID:12120843

  11. Protective Informal Social Control of Child Maltreatment and Child Abuse Injury in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Eremina, Tatiana; Yang, Hye Lin; Yoo, Changgeun; Yoo, Jieun; Jang, Ja Kyung

    2015-11-01

    Previous findings on the relationship between neighborhood informal social control and child abuse have been mixed. We implemented a scale created by Emery, Trung, and Wu to study protective informal social control of child maltreatment (ISC_CM) by neighbors in a three-stage random cluster sample of 541 families in Seoul, South Korea. Random-effects regression models found that protective ISC_CM significantly moderated the relationship between very severe abuse and child injuries. Very severe abuse was associated with fewer injuries when levels of protective ISC_CM were higher. Implications are discussed. PMID:25392376

  12. Child Development and Pediatric Sport and Recreational Injuries by Age

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Brezausek, Carl M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: In 2010, 8.6 million children were treated for unintentional injuries in American emergency departments. Child engagement in sports and recreation offers many health benefits but also exposure to injury risks. In this analysis, we consider possible developmental risk factors in a review of age, sex, and incidence of 39 sport and recreational injuries. Objective: To assess (1) how the incidence of 39 sport and recreational injuries changed through each year of child and adolescent development, ages 1 to 18 years, and (2) sex differences. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: Emergency department visits across the United States, as reported in the 2001–2008 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Patients or Other Participants: Data represent population-wide emergency department visits in the United States. Main Outcome Measure(s) Pediatric sport- and recreation-related injuries requiring treatment in hospital emergency departments. Results: Almost 37 pediatric sport or recreational injuries are treated hourly in the United States. The incidence of sport- and recreation-related injuries peaks at widely different ages. Team-sport injuries tend to peak in the middle teen years, playground injuries peak in the early elementary ages and then drop off slowly, and bicycling injuries peak in the preteen years but are a common cause of injury throughout childhood and adolescence. Bowling injuries peaked at the earliest age (4 years), and injuries linked to camping and personal watercraft peaked at the oldest age (18 years). The 5 most common causes of sport and recreational injuries across development, in order, were basketball, football, bicycling, playgrounds, and soccer. Sex disparities were common in the incidence of pediatric sport and recreational injuries. Conclusions: Both biological and sociocultural factors likely influence the developmental aspects of pediatric sport and recreational injury risk. Biologically, changes in

  13. Abdominal injury due to child abuse.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Peter M; Norton, Catherine M; Dunstan, Frank D; Kemp, Alison M; Yates, David W; Sibert, Jonathan R

    Diagnosis of abuse in children with internal abdominal injury is difficult because of limited published work. We aimed to ascertain the incidence of abdominal injury due to abuse in children age 0-14 years. 20 children (identified via the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit) had abdominal injuries due to abuse and 164 (identified via the Trauma Audit and Research Network) had injuries to the abdomen due to accident (112 by road-traffic accidents, 52 by falls). 16 abused children were younger than 5 years. Incidence of abdominal injury due to abuse was 2.33 cases per million children per year (95% CI 1.43-3.78) in children younger than 5 years. Six abused children died. 11 abused children had an injury to the gut (ten small bowel) compared with five (all age >5 years) who were injured by a fall (relative risk 5.72 [95% CI 2.27-14.4]; p=0.0002). We have shown that small-bowel injuries can arise accidentally as a result of falls and road-traffic accidents but they are significantly more common in abused children. Therefore, injuries to the small bowel in young children need special consideration, particularly if a minor fall is the explanation. PMID:16023514

  14. Household Safety: Preventing Injuries from Firearms (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... room a child shouldn't enter to prevent wandering into places that haven't been properly childproofed. ... the activities that develop your child's body and mind. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  15. The Role of Child Care Providers in Child Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibel, Nancy L.; Gillespie, Linda G.; Temple, Tabitha

    2008-01-01

    Child care providers are likely to be the professionals who most frequently interact with families with young children. Thus, infant and toddler child care providers are uniquely positioned to recognize and respond to families' needs for information and support. This article describes knowledge, skills, and strategies that support child care…

  16. 75 FR 27797 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Prevention of Suicidal Behavior through the Enhancement...

  17. Patient participation in pressure injury prevention: giving patient's a voice.

    PubMed

    Latimer, Sharon; Chaboyer, Wendy; Gillespie, Brigid

    2014-12-01

    Pressure injuries burden patients and healthcare organisations, with some preventative practices having little impact on prevalence reduction. Patient participation in care may be an effective pressure injury prevention strategy, yet patient preferences are unknown. The aim of this interpretive study was to describe patients' perceptions of their current and future role in pressure injury prevention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 adult inpatients recruited from four medical units, at two Australian metropolitan hospitals. Interview data were analysed using content analysis, with three categories emerging: 'experiencing pressure injuries'; 'participating in pressure injury prevention'; and 'resourcing pressure injury prevention and treatment'. These categories reflect the complex nature of participants' pressure injury experience. The findings suggest participants gather pressure injury knowledge from first-hand and vicarious experience; knowledge they bring to hospital. Most participants preferred a proactive pressure injury prevention role. Many identified barriers in the healthcare environment that impeded their participation and affected their experience of pressure injuries and pressure injury prevention. If patient participation as a pressure injury prevention strategy is to be considered, nurses and organisations need to view patients as partners. PMID:24117711

  18. Prevention of Overuse Sports Injuries in the Young Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Paterno, Mark V.; Taylor-Haas, Jeffery A.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The purpose of this article is to review current theories regarding prevalence, mechanism and prevention strategies for overuse injuries in a young, athletic population. This information will provide valuable insight into the state of current evidence regarding overuse injuries in young athletes as well as potential future directions in the development of overuse injury prevention interventions. PMID:24095071

  19. Injuries in Female Gymnasts: Trends Suggest Prevention Tactics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackie, Susan J.; Taunton, Jack E.

    1994-01-01

    Survey of 100 young female gymnasts examined injuries over a 40-month period. Injury rates were similar to those found in other studies of female competitive gymnasts, but there were several notable findings regarding injury patterns. Prevention methods to reduce injury include modifying mat design and prescribing strengthening and stretching…

  20. Prevention of Child Maltreatment: The Use of Social Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dale Robert

    A review of the clinically relevant literature on prevention of child maltreatment was conducted in an attempt to provide: (1) a definition and theoretical understanding of some aspects of prevention, child maltreatment, and social support systems; (2) a proposal of the usefulness of social isolation as an important theme in interpreting the…

  1. Nurse-Led School-Based Child Obesity Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.

    2015-01-01

    School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role…

  2. A Multilevel Evaluation of a Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Michael A.; Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Byrnes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which participation in a county-wide prevention program leads to improvements in protective factors associated with child abuse prevention (CAP) and whether improvements in measured protective factors relate to decreased odds of child abuse. Method: Using multilevel growth modeling,…

  3. Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families: A Model Child Abuse Prevention Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Maril

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about a model child abuse prevention approach called, "Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families." It is NAEYC's professional development initiative to help early childhood educators play leading roles in preventing child abuse and neglect through family strengthening efforts. It focuses on six strategies that high-quality…

  4. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Evaluation of a Teacher Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, M. K.; Gold, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Evaluates teacher-training programs on child-sexual-abuse prevention developed by Hazzard, Kleemeir, Pohl, and Webb (1986). Trained teachers demonstrated significant increase in knowledge about child sexual abuse, attitudes regarding prevention, identifying behavioral indicators of abuse, and appropriate intervention in potential abuse cases.…

  5. Father-Child Interactions and Children's Risk of Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    StGeorge, Jennifer; Fletcher, Richard; Freeman, Emily; Paquette, Daniel; Dumont, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injury is an important cause of infant and child hospitalisation and parents play a key role in reducing children's risk-taking behaviour. Studies show that maternal and paternal parenting and supervision of children differ, but there is little research showing how fathers' parenting may influence children's tendency to engage in…

  6. Emerging Issues in the Research on Child Sexual Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Roberts, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies major issues in current research on child sexual-abuse prevention including the effectiveness of assessment methods, potential side-effects of prevention programs, the developmental appropriateness of programs, the differential effectiveness of presenters of prevention materials, parental involvement in sexual-abuse prevention efforts,…

  7. Penetrating Cardiac Nail Gun Injury in a Child.

    PubMed

    Kulaylat, Afif N; Chesnut, Charles H; Patel, Sunil; Rocourt, Dorothy V; Clark, Joseph B

    2016-08-01

    Nail gun injuries primarily occur in the extremities of adult males as a consequence of accidental occupational trauma. Such injury involving the thorax is much less common, and penetrating cardiac injury secondary to pneumatic nail gun discharge is rare. Although potentially lethal, most cases with cardiac trauma are survivable with expedient surgical intervention. Despite improvements in engineered safety mechanisms, the incidence of nail gun injuries has risen as use of the devices has increased. The widespread availability of these tools to nonprofessional consumers exposes a broader population to the potential hazards associated with these devices. We describe the presentation and successful management of the first reported case of penetrating cardiac nail gun injury in a young child. PMID:27018525

  8. Tribal motor vehicle injury prevention programs for reducing disparities in motor vehicle-related injuries.

    PubMed

    West, Bethany A; Naumann, Rebecca B

    2014-04-18

    A previous analysis of National Vital Statistics System data for 2003-2007 that examined disparities in rates of motor vehicle-related death by race/ethnicity and sex found that death rates for American Indians/Alaska Natives were two to four times the rates of other races/ethnicities. To address the disparity in motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths among American Indians/Alaska Natives, CDC funded four American Indian tribes during 2004-2009 to tailor, implement, and evaluate evidence-based road safety interventions. During the implementation of these four motor vehicle-related injury prevention pilot programs, seat belt and child safety seat use increased and alcohol-impaired driving decreased. Four American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities-the Tohono O'odham Nation, the Ho-Chunk Nation, the White Mountain Apache Tribe, and the San Carlos Apache Tribe-implemented evidence-based road safety interventions to reduce motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths. Each community selected interventions from the Guide to Community Preventive Services and implemented them during 2004-2009. Furthermore, each community took a multifaceted approach by incorporating several strategies, such as school and community education programs, media campaigns, and collaborations with law enforcement officers into their programs. Police data and direct observational surveys were the main data sources used to assess results of the programs. Results included increased use of seat belts and child safety seats, increased enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws, and decreased motor vehicle crashes involving injuries or deaths. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion as an example of a program that might be effective for reducing motor vehicle-related injury disparities in the United States. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recognizes these selected interventions as effective; this report examines the

  9. Childhood injury prevention: intervention in the Bedouin city of Rahat.

    PubMed

    Hemmo-Lotem, Michal; Merrick, Efrat; Endy-Findling, Liri; Freh, Aziza Abu; Jinich-Aronowitz, Claudia; Korn, Liat; Merrick, Joav

    2005-08-01

    For several years, the National Center for Children's Health and Safety (Beterem) has worked on many levels to promote safety and prevent injury of the children in Israel. As part of intervention programs in 20 communities around Israel, this paper describes a 1-year, multidisciplinary, multistrategic childhood safety promotion and injury prevention project. The project took place in the Bedouin city of Rahat in the Southern part of Israel, the Negev, conducted by a local safety coordinator. This specific intervention study took place from March 2003 to March 2004. The main goal was to identify hazards and dangerous obstacles in public places in Rahat, then remove or repair the obstacles found, in order to secure a safe public environment for children. "Obstacle" was defined as any barrier that could endanger the safety of a child. Ten examples are used to illustrate this applied research project, and 80% of the problems were solved within the project period (time to solve between 1 week to 3 months, depending on various factors). We recommend the involvement of a safety coordinator from the community to focus on safety hazards for children, the use of a documentation diary to log the time frame, and also the use of pictures to illustrate the hazards and the changes, or to use as arguments in the lobbying process. PMID:16088342

  10. Child Care Lead Poisoning Prevention. Training Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Dept. of Health Services, Oakland. Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Branch.

    In an effort to address young children's substantial risk for exposure to lead in out-of-home child care programs, outreach and training were developed for child care providers. This workshop curriculum consists of training activities and materials appropriate for child care providers in centers or homes for the purpose of educating them about the…

  11. Child Delinquency: Early Intervention and Prevention. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P.; Petechuk, David

    Sparked by high-profile cases involving children who commit violent crimes, public concerns regarding child delinquents have escalated. Compared with juveniles who first become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents (offenders younger than age 13) face a much greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic juvenile…

  12. Watching as an ordinary affect: Care and mothers’ preemption of injury in child supervision

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Amy

    2014-01-01

    As unintentional injuries continue to be the leading cause of hospitalization and death for toddlers between the ages of 1 and 4, the Centers for Disease Control has argued that child supervision is a key factor in reducing these injuries and fatalities. This article focuses on the affective relationships in the concept of supervision and practice of watching as an injury prevention method. Three parts frame our argument. First, we describe how watching is an ordinary affect. Second, as part of the ethos of caring, watching is embedded in a temporal frame of anticipation and gives rise to an affectsphere of watching and to a parents’ subjectivity as ‘good’ or ‘bad’ supervisors. Third, these affective relationships generate seemingly contradictory outcomes wherein children are expected to gain independence and experience injury. The affective qualities of watching provide a critique of the individualizing forces of supervision and an analysis of subjectivities generated by gender and class. PMID:25114724

  13. Latino families report lower child injury rates than white families.

    PubMed

    Simon, Tamara D; Emsermann, Caroline Bublitz; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Davidson, Arthur J; Hambidge, Simon J

    2008-09-01

    Latino children have lower visit rates to emergency departments and primary care physicians than white children in the USA. Using a nationally representative household survey, this study asked whether parental report of injury was also lower for Latino children, after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, health status and health care access factors. Data were obtained on injuries for which medical advice or treatment was received from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) from 1997 to 2003. Using the multistage probability design of NHIS, annual rates and adjusted odds of childhood injury report by race and ethnicity were calculated. Respondents reported lower rates of injury for Latino children (6.0 (95% CI 5.3-6.8)/100 person-years) than white children (13.4 (12.7-14.2)/100 person-years). Lower injury rates were mainly due to lower rates of sports injuries and accidental falls. Latino children had lower odds of reported injury than white children, even after adjusting for multiple factors (odds ratio 0.7; 95% CI 0.6-0.8). Lower odds of injury report among Latino children are independent of direct measures of demographic, socioeconomic, health status and health care access factors and indirect measures of acculturation including respondent language and country of origin. Potential explanations include lower exposure to risk, greater child supervision, reporting bias, differences in cultural attitudes toward seeking of health care and reduced health care access that cannot be explored in NHIS due to the form of the current questions. Further research is needed to investigate cultural differences in risk exposure, child supervision and seeking of injury care. PMID:18821378

  14. PREVENT: a program of the National Training Initiative on Injury and Violence Prevention.

    PubMed

    Runyan, Carol W; Gunther-Mohr, Carol; Orton, Stephen; Umble, Karl; Martin, Sandra L; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2005-12-01

    Training practitioners to use evidence-based approaches to the primary prevention of violence is challenging as a result of the dearth of well-evaluated intervention programs and the lack of familiarity of some practitioners in drawing critically on existing literature. An element of the National Training Initiative in Injury and Violence Prevention, the PREVENT (Preventing Violence Through Education, Networking, and Technical Assistance) program began in late 2003 to train practitioners to address multiple types of violence by encouraging more widespread use of evidence-based approaches to primary prevention. It is intended to reach practitioners involved in addressing violence against women, sexual violence, child maltreatment, youth violence, and suicide in varied community settings. The program uses a combination of varied types of face-to-face training and distance learning coupled with opportunities for networking and technical assistance. Ultimately the program intends to stimulate and facilitate changes in individual, organizational, and cultural awareness and practices fostering primary prevention of violence. The project employs formative, process, and impact evaluation techniques aimed at improving delivery of the training as well as tracking changes in individual and organizations. PMID:16376727

  15. Prevention of bicycle-related injuries in childhood: role of the caregiver.

    PubMed

    Jones, C S; King, W; Poteet-Johnson, D; Wang, M Q

    1993-08-01

    To assess perceptions of bicycle-related head injuries, helmet use, and safety practices, we had questionnaires distributed to caregivers of 2,500 children in the third through sixth grades; 1,006 (40.2%) completed surveys were returned. Eight hundred thirty-two caregivers (82.7%) indicated that they had a child cyclist in their household; approximately 65% responded that they believed head injury was likely if their child was involved in a bicycle mishap. A majority (approximately 70%) also said that a bicycle helmet may prevent head injury in between 25% and 75% of all occurrences. Yet 758 (91.1%) students did not own or have access to a bicycle helmet. Among the caregivers whose child did not have a bicycle helmet, 530 (69.9%) stated that they had never thought about purchasing one. Caregivers of both helmeted and nonhelmeted youngsters indicated concern for bicycle safety (100% versus 94%, respectively). Most caregivers (approximately 64%) stated that they would encourage their child to attend a bicycle safety camp. These findings suggest that caregivers perceive the dangers associated with bicycling but are not cognizant of available programs and methods that prevent the risk of serious injury to bicyclists. PMID:8351542

  16. 75 FR 39544 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Centers (PERLC)...

  17. 76 FR 9018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Annual Estimates of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness for...

  18. 75 FR 30041 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Effectiveness of Empiric Antiviral Treatment for...

  19. 75 FR 7606 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Healthy Passages Longitudinal Study of Youth, Funding...

  20. 76 FR 10371 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational Safety and Health Training Project Grant,...

  1. Pediatric farm injuries involving non-working children injured by a farm work hazard: five priorities for primary prevention

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, W; Brison, R; Berg, R; Zentner, J; Linneman, J; Marlenga, B

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To describe pediatric farm injuries experienced by children who were not engaged in farm work, but were injured by a farm work hazard and to identify priorities for primary prevention. Design: Secondary analysis of data from a novel evaluation of an injury control resource using a retrospective case series. Data sources: Fatal, hospitalized, and restricted activity farm injuries from Canada and the United States. Subjects: Three hundred and seventy known non-work childhood injuries from a larger case series of 934 injury events covering the full spectrum of pediatric farm injuries. Methods: Recurrent injury patterns were described by child demographics, external cause of injury, and associated child activities. Factors contributing to pediatric farm injury were described. New priorities for primary prevention were identified. Results: The children involved were mainly resident members of farm families and 233/370 (63.0%) of the children were under the age of 7 years. Leading mechanisms of injury varied by data source but included: bystander and passenger runovers (fatalities); drowning (fatalities); machinery entanglements (hospitalizations); falls from heights (hospitalizations); and animal trauma (hospitalizations, restricted activity injuries). Common activities leading to injury included playing in the worksite (all data sources); being a bystander to or extra rider on farm machinery (all data sources); recreational horseback riding (restricted activity injuries). Five priorities for prevention programs are proposed. Conclusions: Substantial proportions of pediatric farm injuries are experienced by children who are not engaged in farm work. These injuries occur because farm children are often exposed to an occupational worksite with known hazards. Study findings could lead to more refined and focused pediatric farm injury prevention initiatives. PMID:15691981

  2. Child Deaths Due to Injury in the Four UK Countries: A Time Trends Study from 1980 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Hardelid, Pia; Davey, Jonathan; Dattani, Nirupa; Gilbert, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Background Injuries are an increasingly important cause of death in children worldwide, yet injury mortality is highly preventable. Determining patterns and trends in child injury mortality can identify groups at particularly high risk. We compare trends in child deaths due to injury in four UK countries, between 1980 and 2010. Methods We obtained information from death certificates on all deaths occurring between 1980 and 2010 in children aged 28 days to 18 years and resident in England, Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. Injury deaths were defined by an external cause code recorded as the underlying cause of death. Injury mortality rates were analysed by type of injury, country of residence, age group, sex and time period. Results Child mortality due to injury has declined in all countries of the UK. England consistently experienced the lowest mortality rate throughout the study period. For children aged 10 to 18 years, differences between countries in mortality rates increased during the study period. Inter-country differences were largest for boys aged 10 to 18 years with mortality rate ratios of 1.38 (95% confidence interval 1.16, 1.64) for Wales, 1.68 (1.48, 1.91) for Scotland and 1.81 (1.50, 2.18) for Northern Ireland compared with England (the baseline) in 2006–10. The decline in mortality due to injury was accounted for by a decline in unintentional injuries. For older children, no declines were observed for deaths caused by self-harm, by assault or from undetermined intent in any UK country. Conclusion Whilst child deaths from injury have declined in all four UK countries, substantial differences in mortality rates remain between countries, particularly for older boys. This group stands to gain most from policy interventions to reduce deaths from injury in children. PMID:23874585

  3. Injury Prevention and Control for Children and Youth. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widome, Mark D., Ed.

    This book was compiled for pediatricians and others who are interested in the control of pediatric injuries. The manual's three sections are: (1) "The Field of Pediatric Injury Prevention and Control," which provides a broad overview of the field and highlights the roles of the pediatrician in the control of injuries and a developmental approach…

  4. CDC School Health Guidelines to Prevent Unintentional Injuries and Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Lisa C.; Sleet, David A.; Mercy, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of all deaths among children and adolescents aged five to 19 years results from injury-related causes: motor-vehicle crashes, all other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Schools have a responsibility to prevent injuries from occurring on school property and at school-sponsored events. In addition, schools can…

  5. Sole parenthood and the risk of child pedestrian injury.

    PubMed

    Roberts, I

    1994-12-01

    Children of sole parents have the worst mortality record of all social groups. Road vehicle related injuries account for a large part of their excess mortality. In this case-control study the association between sole parent status and the risk of child pedestrian injury was examined. Cases (n = 258) were children killed or hospitalized as a result of a pedestrian injury in the Auckland region over a period of 2 years and 2 months. Controls were a random sample of the child population. The children of sole parents were at a significantly increased risk of injury (odds ratio = 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09, 2.27). However, there was a striking difference in the effect of sole parent status according to ethnic group. Among European families, sole parenthood was associated with a greatly increased risk of injury (OR = 3.13; 95%CI 1.84, 5.31), whereas in Pacific Island families sole parenthood was associated with a significant protective effect (OR = 0.40; 95%CI 0.18, 0.89). The protective effect of sole parent status in Pacific Island families may reflect the beneficial effects of the social support provided by extended family networks. Children of sole parents in the context of the nuclear family may be particularly vulnerable. PMID:7865268

  6. Public Attitudes and Behaviors with Respect to Child Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Gelles, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Examines public attitudes toward parental discipline practices, incidences of parental practices, the public's support for and involvement in child abuse prevention efforts, and the public's perceptions of causes of child maltreatment. Found that most persons view physical punishment and repeated yelling and swearing at children as harmful.…

  7. Who Completes Child Maltreatment Prevention Programs? Data Trends #153

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" describes child maltreatment prevention programs designed to increase protective factors and decrease risk factors in families who may otherwise succumb to child abuse and…

  8. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: A Midpoint Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Duke Endowment launched its Child Abuse Prevention Initiative in 2002 by funding two program sites, the Durham Family Initiative in Durham, North Carolina, and Strong Communities in Greenville, South Carolina. Both sites aimed to reduce rates of child abuse, improve parenting practices and behaviors, strengthen community service systems, and…

  9. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Evaluation of a Teacher Training Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleemeier, Carol; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of a six-hour teacher training workshop on child sexual abuse prevention was evaluated. Findings indicated that trained teachers demonstrated significant increases in knowledge about child sexual abuse and pro-intervention opinions. Trained teachers were better able to identify behavioral indicators of abuse and suggest…

  10. Prevention of Injury and Violence in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Haegerich, Tamara M; Dahlberg, Linda L; Simon, Thomas R; Baldwin, Grant T; Sleet, David A; Greenspan, Arlene I

    2015-01-01

    In the first three decades of life, more individuals in the USA die from injuries and violence than from any other cause. Millions more people survive and are left with physical, emotional, and financial problems. Injuries and violence are not accidents; they are preventable. Prevention has a strong scientific foundation, yet efforts are not fully implemented or integrated into clinical and community settings. In this Series paper, we review the burden of injuries and violence in the USA, note effective interventions, and discuss methods to bring interventions into practice. Alliances between the public health community and medical care organisations, health-care providers, states, and communities can reduce injuries and violence. We encourage partnerships between medical and public health communities to consistently frame injuries and violence as preventable, identify evidence-based interventions, provide scientific information to decision makers, and strengthen the capacity of an integrated health system to prevent injuries and violence. PMID:24996591

  11. Wisconsin EMT Association: A Statewide Injury Prevention Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Ralph; Evans, Diane

    This report provides a detailed description of a statewide injury prevention program of the Wisconsin Emergency Medical Technician Association. A project introduction is followed by brief descriptions of the components of the injury prevention program: occupant protection seminars; mock crash seminars; Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Buckle Bear,…

  12. Lifting Safety: Tips To Help Prevent Back Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Lifting Safety: Tips to Help Prevent Back Injuries Lifting Safety: Tips to Help Prevent Back Injuries Have you checked the object before you try to lift it? Test every load before you lift by pushing the object lightly with your hands or feet to see how easily ...

  13. Solar Injury and Heat Illness. Treatment and Prevention in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Greg

    1995-01-01

    Children are especially vulnerable to solar injury and heat illness. Physicians can lower children's risk through education about short-term and long-term sequelae and through various prevention efforts. The paper discusses how to screen for risk factors and how to prevent and treat heat illness and solar injury. (SM)

  14. Effect of vehicle incompatibility on child occupant injury risk.

    PubMed

    Kallan, Michael J; Arbogast, Kristy B; Durbin, Dennis R

    2005-01-01

    With the vehicle fleet of family transportation in the United States continuing to evolve primarily through the increasing number of light truck vehicles (LTV), studying the effects of vehicle incompatibility has become increasingly important. Using data collected from a population-based sample of child-involved crashes in insured vehicles, we explored the effect of variations in crash partner vehicle type on child occupant injury risk, stratified by direction of impact. Children in passenger cars and LTVs involved in onside collisions were at an increased risk of serious injury if struck by a LTV as compared to a passenger vehicle (passenger cars and minivans). Though smaller in magnitude, this trend was also present in offside and rear crashes as well. PMID:16179154

  15. Strategies for the prevention of volleyball related injuries

    PubMed Central

    Reeser, J C; Verhagen, E; Briner, W W; Askeland, T I; Bahr, R

    2006-01-01

    Although the overall injury rate in volleyball and beach volleyball is relatively low compared with other team sports, injuries do occur in a discipline specific pattern. Epidemiological research has revealed that volleyball athletes are, in general, at greatest risk of acute ankle injuries and overuse conditions of the knee and shoulder. This structured review discusses both the known and suspected risk factors and potential strategies for preventing the most common volleyball related injuries: ankle sprains, patellar tendinopathy, and shoulder overuse. PMID:16799111

  16. Strategies for the prevention of volleyball related injuries.

    PubMed

    Reeser, J C; Verhagen, E; Briner, W W; Askeland, T I; Bahr, R

    2006-07-01

    Although the overall injury rate in volleyball and beach volleyball is relatively low compared with other team sports, injuries do occur in a discipline specific pattern. Epidemiological research has revealed that volleyball athletes are, in general, at greatest risk of acute ankle injuries and overuse conditions of the knee and shoulder. This structured review discusses both the known and suspected risk factors and potential strategies for preventing the most common volleyball related injuries: ankle sprains, patellar tendinopathy, and shoulder overuse. PMID:16799111

  17. Innovative Approaches to Preventing Child Abuse: Volunteers in Action. Prevention Focus Working Paper 015.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, Chicago, IL.

    Collected in this working paper are summary descriptions of 17 innovative community action programs designed to prevent child abuse. These programs were developed by individuals, community groups, hospitals, and/or state chapters of the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, as well as by other groups and organizations. Located in…

  18. Graduate psychiatric nurse's training on firearm injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Wiblishauser, Michael; Price, James H; Thompson, Amy

    2011-08-01

    Psychiatric nurses should be uniquely positioned for helping to prevent firearm suicides and homicides among the mentally ill. This study assessed the prevalence of firearm injury prevention training in graduate psychiatric nursing training programs through a three-wave mail survey of program directors. Most (87%) of the directors reported that they had not seriously thought about providing firearm injury prevention training. Almost half (48%) reported they did not routinely screen patients for firearm ownership. In addition, most (66%) thought that the American Psychiatric Nurses Association (APNA) should provide curriculum guidelines regarding firearm injury prevention training. Leadership is needed by the APNA to help reduce firearm violence in the mentally ill. PMID:21784283

  19. A national program for injury prevention in children and adolescents: the injury free coalition for kids.

    PubMed

    Pressley, Joyce C; Barlow, Barbara; Durkin, Maureen; Jacko, Sally A; Dominguez, DiLenny Roca; Johnson, Lenita

    2005-09-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death and a major source of preventable disability in children. Mechanisms of injury are rooted in a complex web of social, economic, environmental, criminal, and behavioral factors that necessitate a multifaceted, systematic injury prevention approach. This article describes the injury burden and the way physicians, community coalitions, and a private foundation teamed to impact the problem first in an urban minority community and then through a national program. Through our injury prevention work in a resource-limited neighborhood, a national model evolved that provides a systematic framework through which education and other interventions are implemented. Interventions are aimed at changing the community and home environments physically (safe play areas and elimination of community and home hazards) and socially (education and supervised extracurricular activities with mentors). This program, based on physician-community partnerships and private foundation financial support, expanded to 40 sites in 37 cities, representing all 10 US trauma regions. Each site is a local adaptation of the Injury Free Coalition model also referred to as the ABC's of injury prevention: A, "analyze injury data through local injury surveillance"; B, "build a local coalition"; C, "communicate the problem and raise awareness that injuries are a preventable public health problem"; D, "develop interventions and injury prevention activities to create safer environments and activities for children"; and E, "evaluate the interventions with ongoing surveillance." It is feasible to develop a comprehensive injury prevention program of national scope using a voluntary coalition of trauma centers, private foundation financial and technical support, and a local injury prevention model with a well-established record of reducing and sustaining lower injury rates for inner-city children and adolescents. PMID:15958785

  20. Epidemiology of Injuries and Prevention Strategies in Competitive Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Wanivenhaus, Florian; Fox, Alice J. S.; Chaudhury, Salma; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Competitive swimmers are predisposed to musculoskeletal injuries of the upper limb, knee, and spine. This review discusses the epidemiology of these injuries, in addition to prevention strategies that may assist the physician in formulating rehabilitation programs for the swimmer following an injury. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search was performed by a review of Google Scholar, OVID, and PubMed articles published from 1972 to 2011. Results: This study highlights the epidemiology of injuries common to competitive swimmers and provides prevention strategies for the sports health professional. Conclusions: An understanding of swimming biomechanics and typical injuries in swimming aids in early recognition of injury, initiation of treatment, and design of optimal prevention and rehabilitation strategies. PMID:23016094

  1. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  2. Sport Injuries for Females: Incidence and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindig, Louise E.

    Comparisons between sport-related injuries for male and female athletes are discussed in relation to statistics gathered by the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) and other sources. Tables display data on: (1) athletic injuries and fatalities in colleges and universities by sport, l975-76; (2) average annual frequency of…

  3. Prevention of Neurologic Injuries in Equestrian Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, William H.; Bixby-Hammett, Doris M.

    1988-01-01

    Risk of neurological injuries accompanies horseback riding, especially for children and adolescents. This article describes the mechanisms of craniospinal injuries and suggests measures to lessen risks. Measures include: identifying individuals who should not ride, developing criteria for resumption of riding after injury, developing protective…

  4. [Child sexual abuse. Epidemiology, clinical diagnostics, therapy, and prevention].

    PubMed

    Fegert, J M; Hoffmann, U; Spröber, N; Liebhardt, H

    2013-02-01

    The article provides an overview of the research on sexual abuse and the current political developments in Germany. First, the terminology of sexual child abuse is discussed, followed by the presentation of epidemiological data. The section on diagnostics and therapy shows that--because of mostly nonspecific indicators--the diagnosis of child sexual abuse is very difficult to define. Child sexual abuse is discussed as a traumatic experience for children and adolescents with different psychiatric and physical diseases. Current studies have shown that especially cognitive behavioral therapeutic-oriented approaches are effective in curing posttraumatic stress disorders. Based on the new German Child Protection Act, the focus lies on the clarification of confidentiality for medical professionals and their right to consulting services for child protection. In conclusion, guidelines and minimum standards for a child prevention and protection model are presented as well as institutional recommendations addressed to all institutions (also clinical) that take care of or treat children and adolescents. PMID:23361204

  5. Injury prevention in an urban setting: challenges and successes.

    PubMed Central

    Laraque, D.; Barlow, B.; Durkin, M.; Heagarty, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Harlem Hospital Injury Prevention Program (HHIPP) was established in 1988 with the goal of reducing injuries to children in central Harlem by providing safe play areas, supervised activities, and injury prevention education. To achieve this goal, a broad-based coalition was formed with state and local governmental agencies interested in injury prevention and with community groups, schools, parents, and hospital staff. An evaluation of the program in terms of both process and outcome formed a critical element of this effort. Since 1988 the HHIPP, as the lead agency for the Healthy Neighborhoods/Safe Kids Coalition, developed or participated in two types of programs: injury-prevention education programs and programs that provide safe activities and/or environments for children. The educational programs included Window Guards campaign; Safety City Program; Kids, Injuries and Street Smarts Program (KISS); Burn Prevention Curriculum and Smoke Detector Distribution; Harlem Alternative to Violence Program; Adolescent Outreach Program; and Critical Incident Stress Management Teams. The safe activities and environmental programs included the Bicycle Safety Program/Urban Youth Bike Corps; Playground Injury Prevention Program; the Greening of Harlem Program; the Harlem Horizon Art Studio; Harlem Hospital Dance Clinic; Unity through Murals project; baseball at the Harlem Little League; winter baseball clinic; and the soccer league. Each program was conceived using injury data, coupled with parental concern and activism, which acted as catalysts to create a community coalition to respond to a specific problem. Data systems developed over time, which monitored the prevalence and incidence of childhood injuries in northern Manhattan, including central Harlem, became essential not only to identify specific types of childhood injuries in this community but also to evaluate these programs for the prevention of injuries in children. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7581311

  6. Injury prevention in an urban setting: challenges and successes.

    PubMed

    Laraque, D; Barlow, B; Durkin, M; Heagarty, M

    1995-01-01

    The Harlem Hospital Injury Prevention Program (HHIPP) was established in 1988 with the goal of reducing injuries to children in central Harlem by providing safe play areas, supervised activities, and injury prevention education. To achieve this goal, a broad-based coalition was formed with state and local governmental agencies interested in injury prevention and with community groups, schools, parents, and hospital staff. An evaluation of the program in terms of both process and outcome formed a critical element of this effort. Since 1988 the HHIPP, as the lead agency for the Healthy Neighborhoods/Safe Kids Coalition, developed or participated in two types of programs: injury-prevention education programs and programs that provide safe activities and/or environments for children. The educational programs included Window Guards campaign; Safety City Program; Kids, Injuries and Street Smarts Program (KISS); Burn Prevention Curriculum and Smoke Detector Distribution; Harlem Alternative to Violence Program; Adolescent Outreach Program; and Critical Incident Stress Management Teams. The safe activities and environmental programs included the Bicycle Safety Program/Urban Youth Bike Corps; Playground Injury Prevention Program; the Greening of Harlem Program; the Harlem Horizon Art Studio; Harlem Hospital Dance Clinic; Unity through Murals project; baseball at the Harlem Little League; winter baseball clinic; and the soccer league. Each program was conceived using injury data, coupled with parental concern and activism, which acted as catalysts to create a community coalition to respond to a specific problem. Data systems developed over time, which monitored the prevalence and incidence of childhood injuries in northern Manhattan, including central Harlem, became essential not only to identify specific types of childhood injuries in this community but also to evaluate these programs for the prevention of injuries in children. PMID:7581311

  7. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention reduces injury incidence in Physical Education Teacher Education students.

    PubMed

    Goossens, L; Cardon, G; Witvrouw, E; Steyaert, A; De Clercq, D

    2016-01-01

    Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) students are at considerable risk for non-contact sports injuries of the lower extremities. Multifactorial injury prevention interventions including exercises have been successful in sports populations, but no such study has ever been performed in PETE students. This study investigated the efficacy of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention on injury incidence reduction in PETE students. PETE students in the intervention group (n = 154) and in the control group (n = 189) registered sports injuries prospectively. The intervention lasted one academic year and consisted of an injury awareness programme and preventive strategies, implemented by the PETE sports lecturers. Differences in injury incidence between the intervention and control group were tested by Poisson regression Wald tests. There was a trend towards significantly lower incidence rate (2.18 vs. 2.73; p = 0.061) in the intervention group compared with the control group. Students in the intervention group had significantly less acute, first-time and extracurricular injuries. The largest reduction was observed for injuries during unsupervised practice sessions. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention embedded into a regular PETE programme is a promising and feasible strategy to prevent injuries in PETE students. Further research is needed to investigate whether the results may be generalised to other PETE programmes. PMID:25768808

  8. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Parent-Provider Partnerships in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibel, Nancy; Britt, Donna; Gillespie, Linda Groves; Parlakian, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This book is an innovative approach to the primary prevention of child maltreatment. It focuses on the impact that child care providers can make in helping to reduce the risk of abuse and neglect in families with very young children. This research- and practice-based curriculum offers concepts, information, strategies, and practices focused on…

  9. An injury prevention program to prevent gymnastic injuries in children and teenagers.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Swainston, Erin M; Dahlstrom, Jill J; Gubler, K; Long, William B; Beaton, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    There are more than 5 million participants in 1 of 6 gymnastic disciplines that are prone to spinal cord injuries. Working with the gifted scholar and attorney, Jeffrey Beaton, the authors have participated in developing an injury prevention program for children and teenagers who participate in gymnastics. This program includes the following components: (1) a gymnastics center that complies with the e-Book design of gymnasticszone.com; (2) all teachers and students in gymnastics should be members of USA Gymnastics (USAG) and purchase a copy of the USA Gymnastics Safety Manual, the official manual of the United States Gymnastics Safety Association; (3) trampolines should be sunk in the ground with the bed level with the floor; and finally, (4) immediate emergency access of the injured gymnast to either a skilled orthopedic or neurosurgeon. PMID:20528743

  10. Preventing School Failure: The Native American Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nel, Johanna

    1993-01-01

    Special needs of the Native American child in school are addressed including adjustment problems in the "white" school and value conflicts concerning competition, individualism, acquisitiveness; personal praise; generosity; concept of time; nonverbal and verbal communication; individual freedom and independence; eye contact, humility, respect; and…

  11. The prevention of spinal injuries in rugby football.

    PubMed

    Silver, J R; Stewart, D

    1994-07-01

    The incidence of injuries to the spinal cord sustained at rugby in South Africa, New Zealand and Australia is reviewed. Ninety-seven injuries seen at Stoke Mandeville Hospital at the National Spinal Injuries Centre (NSIC) between 1956 and 1993 are analysed in detail. There were 93 accidents at rugby union, two at American football and two at rugby league. The injuries were of the cervical spine apart from four hysterics and one thoracic injury. The thoracic injury occurred after the game when the player fell downstairs. The injuries were analysed according to the mechanism of injury, the neurological condition, the causation, the standard of the player and the position in the field. The injuries caused were the result of force being applied to the skull which was transmitted to the cervical spine resulting in injury to the cervical cord. As a result of this research, representations were made to the appropriate authorities and changes in the laws were made. As a result of these law changes there has been a dramatic reduction in the overall number of injuries and the elimination of the injury from the loose scrum. This paper discusses the historical sequence of how these preventative measures came about to reduce the incidence of injuries and the legal implications whereby the authors took part in two law suits. The legal consequences are analysed in detail. PMID:7970845

  12. Racquetball. A game with preventable injuries.

    PubMed

    Soderstrom, C A; Doxanas, M T

    1982-01-01

    One hundred fifty-seven racquetball injuries were identified. Eighty-two involved the face, but ocular injuries were probably underrepresented as a result of patient triage protocols. Facial trauma occurred more frequently among novice players. Only 9.9% of the players wore protective facial equipment and 23.1% had taken lessons before being injured. We propose that injuries could be reduced with proper player education, including the wearing of protective facial equipment. A modification in the design of conventional facial equipment is suggested to further reduce injury. PMID:7114354

  13. An Agent-Based Model for Studying Child Maltreatment and Child Maltreatment Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Puddy, Richard W.

    This paper presents an agent-based model that simulates the dynamics of child maltreatment and child maltreatment prevention. The developed model follows the principles of complex systems science and explicitly models a community and its families with multi-level factors and interconnections across the social ecology. This makes it possible to experiment how different factors and prevention strategies can affect the rate of child maltreatment. We present the background of this work and give an overview of the agent-based model and show some simulation results.

  14. Translating an Evidence-Based Injury Prevention Program for Implementation in a Home Visitation Setting.

    PubMed

    Nicks, Shannon E; Weaver, Nancy L; Recktenwald, Angela; Jupka, Keri A; Elkana, Maia; Tompkins, Ron

    2016-07-01

    Safe N' Sound (SNS), a computer-based childhood injury prevention program, provides individually tailored information to parents about their child's injury risks with specific behavioral recommendations. We translated SNS for implementation in a home visitation organization in order to increase its capacity to effectively address injury prevention and decrease the burden of injury experienced by high-need families. The aim of this study was to identify behavioral and organizational barriers and facilitators to translating and implementing SNS in a home visitation setting. Nurse home visitors (NHVs) participated in semistructured interviews that examined perceptions of program implementation, intervention characteristics, individual characteristics of NHVs, and recommendations for improving implementation. The utility of the program for promoting injury prevention systematically and its alignment with the organization's mission were facilitators of successful implementation. Barriers included NHVs' concerns about overburdening clients and missed educational opportunities related to injury risks not addressed by the program and delayed delivery of educational reports. Findings illustrate the dynamic interactions of intervention characteristics with organizational and individual factors and suggest that customizing implementation to organizational capacity and specific needs may better support successful program implementation in home visitation settings. PMID:26826110

  15. Studying injury prevention: practices, problems, and pitfalls in implementation.

    PubMed

    Sangvai, Shilpa; Cipriani, Lynne; Colborn, D Kathleen; Wald, Ellen R

    2007-04-01

    This prospective, randomized, controlled trial was conducted to determine feasibility and effectiveness of a chronic care model approach to injury prevention compared with standard anticipatory guidance. Enrolled caregivers of children aged 0 to 5 years received focused counseling from a physician and health assistant, educational handouts, phone follow-up, and access to free safety devices and automobile restraint evaluations. Only 35.1% of eligible parents participated. Home visits were completed at 6 months to observe safety practices. Injuries were gleaned from parent report and medical record review. Safety practices were evaluated in 27 households. Chart review showed no significant difference in the number of medically attended injuries between groups (P = 0.6). The impact of the chronic care model on injury prevention in primary care could not be determined with certainty. Evaluating effectiveness of injury prevention strategies on actual safety practices with direct observation is challenging. PMID:17416878

  16. Preventing Dance Injuries: An Interdisciplinary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    This book on the interdisciplinary nature of dance medicine as an emerging field of inquiry contains the following chapters: (1) "A Comparison of Patterns of Injury in Ballet, Modern, and Aerobic Dance" (Marie Schafle, And Others); (2) "Pronation as a Predisposing Factor in Overuse Injuries" (Steven R. Kravitz); (3) "Some Common Foot and Ankle…

  17. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism.

    PubMed

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn

    2016-08-01

    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism. PMID:27352090

  18. Molten metal burn of the foot: a preventable injury.

    PubMed

    Himel, H J; Syptak, J M; Jones, K C; Towler, M A; Edlich, R F

    1992-01-01

    Molten metal burns of the feet remain a common injury to foundry workers. A case is reported of a foundry worker who sustained circumferential molten metal burns of the distal foot and toes necessitating amputation of four toes. This severe injury could easily have been prevented by the use of protective footwear and spats. PMID:1351490

  19. Injury Prevention in Physical Education: Scenarios and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrie, Michael D.; Shewmake, Cole; Calleja, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide physical educators with practical strategies that can assist in preventing injuries in the classroom. The dynamic nature of physical education and the numerous tasks physical educators must complete daily can be challenging. Embedded in these challenges is the constant risk of student injury. Fortunately,…

  20. Using communities that care for community child maltreatment prevention.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Amy M; Haggerty, Kevin P; de Haan, Benjamin; Catalano, Richard F; Vann, Terri; Vinson, Jean; Lansing, Michaele

    2016-03-01

    The prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) disorders among children and adolescents is a national priority. One mode of implementing community-wide MEB prevention efforts is through evidence-based community mobilization approaches such as Communities That Care (CTC). This article provides an overview of the CTC framework and discusses the adaptation process of CTC to prevent development of MEBs through preventing child abuse and neglect and bolstering child well-being in children aged 0 to 10. Adaptations include those to the intervention itself as well as those to the evaluation approach. Preliminary findings from the Keeping Families Together pilot study of this evolving approach suggest that the implementation was manageable for sites, and community board functioning and community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention in pilot sites looks promising. Implications and next steps are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26963184

  1. Preventing Burns and Scalds. Injury Prevention for Young Children from the National Safety Certification System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Sheryl L.; Walker, April L.

    This booklet outlines a comprehensive fire and burn injury prevention program which includes an instructor's manual, a videotape, and a test: the video provides additional information and examples of injury prevention techniques, and the test measures the amount of knowledge acquired. Following an introduction, the prevalence and extent of burn…

  2. Staying Healthy in Child Care: Preventing Infectious Diseases in Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Beth, Ed.

    This guide provides explanations of control methods for infection and diseases in child care with an emphasis on prevention and health. The guide consists of two parts. The first part covers the following topics on preventing illness in children: how infections spread; handwashing; separation into age groups; nappy changing and toileting; cleaning…

  3. Communities Putting Prevention to Work: Results of an Obesity Prevention Initiative in Child Care Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Ruby; Camejo, Stephanie; Sanders, Lee M.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant public health issue affecting even our youngest children. Given that a significant amount of young children are enrolled in child care, the goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child care facility-based obesity prevention program. Over 1,000 facilities participated in the study. The intervention…

  4. Ankle Sprains: Healing and Preventing Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... you to stand on your foot. Ice--Using ice packs, ice slush baths or ice massages can decrease ... after your injury. Ice treatments can consist of ice packs, ice slush baths or ice massages. To use ...

  5. GIS and Injury Prevention and Control: History, Challenges, and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Nathaniel; Schuurman, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Intentional and unintentional injury is the leading cause of death and potential years of life lost in the first four decades of life in industrialized countries around the world. Despite surgical innovations and improved access to emergency care, research has shown that certain populations remain particularly vulnerable to the risks and consequences of injury. Recent evidence has shown that the analytical, data linkage, and mapping tools of geographic information systems (GIS) technology provide can further address these determinants and identify populations in need. This paper traces the history of injury prevention and discusses current and future challenges in furthering our understanding of the determinants of injury through the use of GIS. PMID:20617015

  6. Prevention, Evaluation, and Rehabilitation of Cycling-Related Injury.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Dana H; Babu, Ashwin N; Robidoux, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The unique quality of the bicycle is its ability to accommodate a wide variety of injuries and disabilities. Cycling for recreation, transportation, and competition is growing nationwide, and has proven health and societal benefits. The demands of each type of cycling dictate the necessary equipment, as well as potential for injury. Prevention of cycling-related injury in both the athlete and the recreational cyclist involves understanding the common mechanisms for both traumatic and overuse injury, and early correction of strength and flexibility imbalances, technique errors, and bicycle fit. PMID:27172085

  7. Predicting and Preventing Injury in Major League Baseball.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Chalmers, Peter N; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) players are at significant risk for both chronic, repetitive overuse injuries as well as acute traumatic injuries. Pitchers have been shown to be at higher risk for sustaining injuries, especially upper extremity injuries, than position players. The past several MLB seasons have seen a dramatic rise in the number of ulnar collateral ligament reconstructions performed in MLB pitchers. Several recent prospective studies have identified risk factors for injuries to both the shoulder and elbow in MLB pitchers. These risk factors include a lack of external rotation, a lack of total rotation, and a lack of flexion in the throwing arm. Thus far, no study has demonstrated a correlation between cumulative work (number of games pitched, total pitches thrown, total innings pitched, innings pitched per game, and pitches thrown per game) and injuries in MLB pitchers, despite several studies showing this correlation in youth pitchers. Although many risk factors have been translated into guidelines for prevention, no study has been conducted to determine whether adherence to these guidelines effectively prevents injuries. Further studies are necessary to define exactly how injuries in MLB players can be prevented. PMID:26991568

  8. Preventing running injuries. Practical approach for family doctors.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, C. A. M.; Taunton, J. E.; Lloyd-Smith, D. R.; McKenzie, D. C.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a practical approach for preventing running injuries. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Much of the research on running injuries is in the form of expert opinion and comparison trials. Recent systematic reviews have summarized research in orthotics, stretching before running, and interventions to prevent soft tissue injuries. MAIN MESSAGE: The most common factors implicated in running injuries are errors in training methods, inappropriate training surfaces and running shoes, malalignment of the leg, and muscle weakness and inflexibility. Runners can reduce risk of injury by using established training programs that gradually increase distance or time of running and provide appropriate rest. Orthoses and heel lifts can correct malalignments of the leg. Running shoes appropriate for runners' foot types should be selected. Lower-extremity strength and flexibility programs should be added to training. Select appropriate surfaces for training and introduce changes gradually. CONCLUSION: Prevention addresses factors proven to cause running injuries. Unfortunately, injury is often the first sign of fault in running programs, so patients should be taught to recognize early symptoms of injury. PMID:14526862

  9. Foetal Injury in Clinical Trials and Accountability to the Child Once Born.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Maria K

    2016-04-01

    Sponsors of clinical trials have excluded pregnant women from trial participation mainly because of the fear of legal liability for foetal injury. Yet, to prevent untested treatments exposing foetuses generally to unwarranted risks, it is necessary that pregnant women are included in clinical trials. Despite sponsors' fears there are, however, major stumbling blocks for the child once born claiming compensation under English law. Neither the new EU Regulation 536/2014 on clinical trials nor tort law or statutory regulations have achieved a clear and fair avenue for the compensation of children injured in utero. There are also inadequacies with the voluntary pharmaceutical industry guidelines regarding such compensation. Greater clarity and fairness regarding tort and civil liability might encourage sponsors to conduct more trials in pregnant women and more pregnant women to volunteer taking part in research in the knowledge that their children will be compensated if they sustain injuries in utero. PMID:27228682

  10. Health Literacy and Injury Prevention Behaviors Among Caregivers of Infants

    PubMed Central

    Heerman, William J.; Perrin, Eliana M.; Yin, H. Shonna; Sanders, Lee M.; Eden, Svetlana K.; Shintani, Ayumi; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Bronaugh, Andrea B.; Barkin, Shari L.; Rothman, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Unintentional injury is a leading cause of infant mortality. Purpose To examine the role of caregiver health literacy in infant injury prevention behaviors. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2010–2012 from a randomized trial at four pediatric clinics was performed in 2012–2013. Caregiver health literacy was assessed with the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Caregiver-reported adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics-recommended injury prevention behaviors was assessed across seven domains: (1) car seat position; (2) car seat use; (3) sleeping safety; (4) fire safety; (5) hot water safety; (6) fall prevention; and (7) firearm safety. Results Data were analyzed from 844 English and Spanish-speaking caregivers of 2-month-old children. Many caregivers were non-adherent with injury prevention guidelines, regardless of health literacy. Notably, 42.6% inappropriately placed their children in the prone position to sleep, and 88.6% did not have their hot water heater set <120°F. Eleven percent of caregivers were categorized as having low health literacy. Low caregiver health literacy, compared to adequate health literacy, was significantly associated with increased odds of caregiver non-adherence with recommended behaviors for car seat position (AOR=3.4, 95% CI=1.6, 7.1), and fire safety (AOR=2.0, 95% CI=1.02, 4.1) recommendations. Caregivers with low health literacy were less likely to be non-adherent to fall prevention recommendations (AOR=0.5, 95% CI=0.2, 0.9). Conclusions Non-adherence to injury prevention guidelines was common. Low caregiver health literacy was significantly associated with some injury prevention behaviors. Future interventions should consider the role of health literacy in promoting injury prevention. PMID:24745634

  11. GPS and Injury Prevention in Professional Soccer.

    PubMed

    Ehrmann, Fabian E; Duncan, Craig S; Sindhusake, Doungkamol; Franzsen, William N; Greene, David A

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship between GPS variables measured in training and gameplay and injury occurrences in professional soccer. Nineteen professional soccer players competing in the Australian Hyundai A-League were monitored for 1 entire season using 5 Hz Global Positioning System (GPS) units (SPI-Pro GPSports) in training sessions and preseason games. The measurements obtained were total distance, high-intensity running distance, very-high-intensity running distance, new body load, and meters per minute. Noncontact soft tissue injuries were documented throughout the season. Players' seasons were averaged over 1- and 4-week blocks according to when injuries occurred. These blocks were compared with each other and with players' seasonal averages. Players performed significantly higher meters per minute in the weeks preceding an injury compared with their seasonal averages (+9.6 and +7.4% for 1- and 4-week blocks, respectively) (p < 0.01), indicating an increase in training and gameplay intensity leading up to injuries. Furthermore, injury blocks showed significantly lower average new body load compared with seasonal averages (-15.4 and -9.0% for 1- and 4-week blocks, respectively) (p < 0.01 and p = 0.01). Periods of relative underpreparedness could potentially leave players unable to cope with intense bouts of high-intensity efforts during competitive matches. Although limited by Fédération Internationale de Football Association regulations, the results of this study isolated 2 variables predicting soft tissue injuries for coaches and sports scientists to consider when planning and monitoring training. PMID:26200191

  12. Interactions Between Child Behavior Patterns and Parent Supervision: Implications for Children's Risk of Unintentional Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Klemencic, Nora; Corbett, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death for children. Prior research has implicated both child behavioral attributes and parent supervisory patterns as risk factors. The present study assessed interactions between these two risk factors and determined whether supervision moderates the relation between child attributes and injury.…

  13. Prevention, Recognition, and Management of Urologic Injuries During Gynecologic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Howard T; Adelman, Marisa R

    2016-06-01

    The urethra, bladder, and ureters are particularly susceptible to injury during gynecologic surgery. When preventive measures fail, prompt recognition and management of injury can avoid long-term sequelae such as fistula formation and loss of renal function. Intraoperative identification should be the primary goal when an injury occurs, although this is not always possible. Postoperative injury recognition requires a high level of suspicion and vigilance. In addition to history and physical examination, appropriate radiologic studies can be useful in localizing injury and planning management strategies. Some injuries may require Foley catheter drainage or ureteral stenting alone, whereas others will require operative intervention with ureteral resection and reanastomosis or reimplantation. Prompt restoration of urinary drainage or diversion will avoid further renal compromise. PMID:27159741

  14. Creating an alternative framework for preventing rape: applying Haddon's injury prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Mantak, F J

    1995-01-01

    As rape becomes recognized as a public health issue, new paradigms must be constructed to discover viable solutions to this highly prevalent problem. Although the injury prevention field has begun to examine rape and offer solutions, physical injuries surrounding rape tend to become the focus in injury prevention literature, thereby minimizing the trauma of rape itself. This article applies William Haddon's ten general strategies for injury prevention to rape, in order to shift our focus away from women and their behavior onto the systemic causes of rape. These strategies have the advantage of encompassing a wide variety of injury reduction measures from many hazards and have provided the means to conceptualize solutions to an extensive range of issues. The application of these strategies emphasizes sociocultural factors and perpetrator, not victim, responsibility. Through this process, a broader range of normative and structural changes can be identified to promote rape prevention. PMID:7738157

  15. Lateral Knee Braces in Football: Do They Prevent Injury?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulos, Lonnie E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The results of three recently presented clinical studies and a biomechanical study of the use of lateral knee braces to prevent knee injuries are reviewed. The results raise serious doubts about the efficacy of the preventive knee braces which are currently available. (Author/MT)

  16. Injury Prevention Awareness in an Urban Native American Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, James S. J.; Williams, Scott D.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 50 Native American and 100 other families assessed injury prevention awareness and practices among urban Native Americans in Salt Lake City (Utah). Native American families were less aware of and less likely to practice prevention than others. These characteristics are more likely caused by low-income status than culture. (SLD)

  17. Infection prevention and treatment in patients with major burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Rowley-Conwy, G

    Infection is a significant challenge in burn care, particularly for those patients who have major burn injuries. This article aims to review the literature and establish best practice in prevention and treatment of infection in patients with major burns. The article considers the causes and clinical features of wound infection, and examines systemic and local methods of prevention and treatment. PMID:21138123

  18. 75 FR 30040 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318,...

  19. 75 FR 34750 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Cooperative Agreement Program for the National Academic Centers...

  20. 76 FR 19261 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-8382 Filed 4-5-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8645 of March 31, 2011 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Our Nation's children are our hope for the...

  1. 75 FR 17841 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-8022 Filed 4-6-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8490 of April 1, 2010 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Our children are our most valuable resource,...

  2. 77 FR 20493 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-8318 Filed 4-4-12; 8:45 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8791 of April 2, 2012 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 By the... work of raising our children stands among our greatest responsibilities and our most profound...

  3. 78 FR 20215 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-07920 Filed 4-3-13; 8:45 am] Billing code... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8949 of March 29, 2013 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013 By the... to pursue our own measure of happiness and live free from fear. But for the millions of children...

  4. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention and Treatment. Continuing Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stovall, Bennie

    This self-study manual, for use by individuals or groups, was developed for social work practitioners, and focuses on total family assessment to determine prevention and treatment intervention in cases of child sexual abuse and neglect. The introduction presents the philosophy of continuing education on which the manual is based, an overview of…

  5. Reflective Practice and Supervision in Child Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wightman, Barbara; Whitaker, Kate; Traylor, Diane; Yeider, Sheri; Hyden, Vivian C.; Weigand, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The contributors to this article reflect on the process and value of participating together in a monthly reflective supervision group for supervisors in a child abuse prevention program. Some of them joined the group with considerable interest in and experience with reflective supervision. For others this was an entirely new experience that they…

  6. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs in Texas Public Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanning, Beth; Robinson, James III; Ballard, Danny J.

    1999-01-01

    Assessed the elementary-school child-sexual-abuse-prevention programs in 89 large Texas public school districts. Surveys examined types of programs, training available, evaluation used, involvement of local agencies, and funding. Results indicated that 58 districts addressed the issue formally, and most districts trained their presenters.…

  7. Preventing the Spread of Illness in Child Care or School

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prenatal Baby (0-12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School 5-12yrs. Teen 12- ... Disinfectants Influenza Prevention and Control: Strategies for Early Education and Child Care Programs (AAP.org) Last Updated ...

  8. Child Abuse Prevention Optional Unit. Teacher Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This teacher resource manual complements the optional Child Abuse Prevention Unit of the Elementary Health Program for schools in Alberta, Canada. The activities and suggestions contained in the manual are intended to be supportive, not prescriptive. The stated goal of this unit is to enable all children to develop the knowledge, skills, and…

  9. Child Maltreatment Prevention and the Scope of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Constantino, John N

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is one of the most deleterious known influences on the mental health and development of children. This article briefly reviews a complement of methods that are ready to incorporate into child and adolescent psychiatric practice, by having been validated either with respect to the prevention of child maltreatment or with respect to adverse outcomes associated with maltreatment (and primarily focused on enhancing the caregiving environment); they are feasible for integration into clinical decision making, and most importantly, can be included in the training of the next generation of clinicians. PMID:26980121

  10. Preventing Workplace Injuries Among Perinatal Nurses.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Laura; Hurst, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of perinatal nursing put nurses at risk for injuries, including frequent repetitive bending, lifting of clients, and exposure to potentially large amounts of body fluids such as blood and amniotic fluid. Violence is also a potential risk with stressful family situations that may arise around childbirth. Workplace injuries put a health care facility at risk for staff turnover, decreases in the number of skilled nurses, client dissatisfaction, workers' compensation payouts, and employee lawsuits. Through the use of safety equipment, improved safety and violence training programs, "no manual lift" policies, reinforcement of personal protective equipment usage, and diligent staff training to improve awareness, these risks can be minimized. PMID:26902445

  11. Strategies to prevent injury in adolescent sport: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Abernethy, Liz; Bleakley, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This systematic review set out to identify randomised controlled trials and controlled intervention studies that evaluated the effectiveness of preventive strategies in adolescent sport and to draw conclusions on the strength of the evidence. A literature search in seven databases (Medline, SportDiscus, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Cochrane Review and DARE) was carried out using four keywords: adolescent, sport, injury and prevention (expanded to capture any relevant literature). Assessment of 154 papers found 12 studies eligible for inclusion. It can be concluded that injury prevention strategies that focus on preseason conditioning, functional training, education, balance and sport‐specific skills, which should be continued throughout the sporting season, are effective. The evidence for the effectiveness of protective equipment in injury prevention is inconclusive and requires further assessment. PMID:17496070

  12. Preventing child marriages: first international day of the girl child “my life, my right, end child marriage”

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    On 17 November 2011, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution (A/RES/66/170) designating 11 October as the first International Day of the Girl Child choosing ending child marriages as the theme of the day. Child marriage is a fundamental human rights violation and impacts all aspects of a girl’s life. These marriages deny a girl of her childhood, disrupts her education, limits her opportunities, increases her risk of violence and abuse, and jeopardizes her health. The article presents data about the prevalence and effects, contributing factors and recommends action for prevention. PMID:23163964

  13. Preventing Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Adolescents: The Signs of Self-Injury Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Walsh, Barent W.; McDade, Moira

    2010-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) continues to be a problem among youth and there is a great need for programming aimed at reducing NSSI in adolescents. The signs of self-injury program is the first known NSSI school-based prevention program for adolescents that attempts to increase knowledge, improve help-seeking attitudes and behaviors, and…

  14. Are pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury preventable?

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, L. M.; Redmond, A. D.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine what proportion of pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury--deaths at the scene of the accident and those that occur before the person has reached hospital--are preventable. DESIGN--Retrospective study of all deaths from accidental injury that occurred between 1 January 1987 and 31 December 1990 and were reported to the coroner. SETTING--North Staffordshire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Injury severity score, probability of survival (probit analysis), and airway obstruction. RESULTS--There were 152 pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury (110 males and 42 females). In the same period there were 257 deaths in hospital from accidental injury (136 males and 121 females). The average age at death was 41.9 years for those who died before reaching hospital, and their average injury severity score was 29.3. In contrast, those who died in hospital were older and equally likely to be males or females. Important neurological injury occurred in 113 pre-hospital deaths, and evidence of airway obstruction in 59. Eighty six pre-hospital deaths were due to road traffic accidents, and 37 of these were occupants in cars. On the basis of the injury severity score and age, death was found to have been inevitable or highly likely in 92 cases. In the remaining 60 cases death had not been inevitable and airway obstruction was present in up to 51 patients with injuries that they might have survived. CONCLUSION--Death was potentially preventable in at least 39% of those who died from accidental injury before they reached hospital. Training in first aid should be available more widely, and particularly to motorists as many pre-hospital deaths that could be prevented are due to road accidents. PMID:8173428

  15. Identifying hazards and risk opportunity in child farm injury.

    PubMed

    Wolfenden, K; McKenzie, A; Sanson-Fisher, R W

    1992-06-01

    Although children are overrepresented in farm injury, little is known about the environmental hazards and risk behaviours associated with injury, or about how to identify these factors at a local level. This study addresses the measurement of these hazards and hazardous behaviours. The study was conducted in 1990 at Gloucester, New South Wales, a small dairy, beef and hobby farm community. After some formative research and local consultation, a checklist survey was constructed and sent to 120 farm families with school-age children. Families were sent the checklist forms again two weeks later to assess test-retest reliability, which was found to be acceptable among the 38 per cent who responded on both occasions. The findings on the prevalence of environmental hazards and risk behaviours from the 84 per cent of respondents were useful to refine the existing injury information available from local hospital morbidity figures, which had identified injuries related to riding (horses, bicycles and motorcycles) and to machinery and drowning as major rural injury issues. In particular the importance of bicycle riding and horse-related injury were confirmed. The survey importantly identified some previously undetected issues, most notably the danger to children's hearing. The prevalence data were used to identify targets for the development of local health promotion initiatives, leading the local farm safety action group to select horses, helmets and hearing as issues for preventive action. Findings from the method indicated the importance of local information, involving farmers in constructing the checklist, and feeding back results to the community. PMID:1391153

  16. Preventing Injuries. Teenage Health Teaching Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The Teenage Health Teaching Modules (THTM) program is a health education curriculum for adolescents. Each THTM module frames an adolescent health task emphasizing development of self-assessment, communication, decision making, health advocacy, and self-management. This module deals with the epidemiology or nationwide patterns of injuries, and the…

  17. Preventing injuries from all-terrain vehicles.

    PubMed

    Yanchar, Natalie L

    2012-11-01

    All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) are widely used in Canada for recreation, transportation and occupations such as farming. As motorized vehicles, they can be especially dangerous when used by children and young adolescents who lack the knowledge, physical size, strength, and cognitive and motor skills to operate them safely. The magnitude of injury risk to young riders is reflected in explicit vehicle manual warnings and the warning labels on current models, and evidenced by the significant number of paediatric hospitalizations and deaths due to ATV-related trauma. However, helmet use is far from universal among youth operators, and unsafe riding behaviours, such as driving unsupervised and/or driving with passengers, remain common. Despite industry warnings and public education that emphasize the importance of safety behaviours and the risks of significant injury to children and youth, ATV-related injuries and fatalities continue to occur. Until measures are taken that clearly effect substantial reductions in these injuries, restricting ridership by young operators, especially those younger than 16 years of age, is critical to reducing the burden of ATV-related trauma in children and youth. This document replaces a previous Canadian Paediatric Society position statement published in 2004. PMID:24179426

  18. Prevention of back injuries and pain

    SciTech Connect

    Baptiste, B.

    1982-10-11

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in conjunction with Hansen and Associates (San Mateo, CA), developed an employee education and training class in back care. In three years about 1500 LLNL employees have attended this class. According to accident statistics and employee questionnaires, the class has been effective in reducing back injury and pain.

  19. Parent-Focused Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Tamar; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

    2015-08-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health issue. Current after-the-fact approaches to treating victims and punishing offenders are not adequate to address a problem of this magnitude; development and rigorous evaluation of CSA prevention strategies are critical. We propose that CSA prevention efforts should target parents of young children. Parents have been neglected as a focus of CSA prevention; they merit attention given their potential to improve children's safety via effective communication and monitoring. This paper provides an overview of current strategies for reducing CSA prevalence and their limitations, presents a rationale for parent-focused CSA prevention, and discusses considerations pertinent to development of an effective parent-focused approach. Parent-focused CSA prevention offers potential as a public health approach to prevention of CSA, and it is time that we devote resources toward developing and studying this important area. PMID:25757528

  20. Eyelid hook injury – A preventable domestic injury

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Nazri; Salleh, Rafidah

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this report is to describe the presentation and management of eyelid injury resulting from the hook of a rubber string. A seven-year-old boy presented with pain of the right upper eyelid. A rubber string with metal hook ends, snatched his right eye from below. The hook pierced through his upper eyelid from the conjunctival surface and remained in situ. However, there was no globe laceration noted. Removal was performed by reverse-tracking of the hook through the wound. The wound was stitched with 6’0 Vicryl sutures. Healing was excellent with minimal scarring. PMID:23960864

  1. An Injury Prevention Strategy for Teen Restaurant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Julie A.; de Castro, A. B.; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun; Linker, Darren; Hildahl, Lyle; Miller, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of youth employment, workplace hazards, and characteristics unique to adolescents contribute to a relatively high incidence of injuries among teens in the restaurant industry. This article discusses the ProSafety model of injury prevention among teen restaurant workers. Through integration with an existing career and technical education program, the ProSafety project seeks to prevent occupational injuries among the teen worker population through classroom safety education and internship skills reinforcement. ProSafety is the product of an innovative collaboration with occupational health nurses, business professionals, educators, and government. Its approach is derived from Social Cognitive Theory, is consistent with key values and strategies of occupational health nurses, and provides lessons for practitioners seeking to reduce occupational injuries in food service or among other populations of adolescent workers. PMID:20180503

  2. PREVENTION OF INJURY FROM X-RADIATION

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Francis R.; Tochilin, Eugene; Hine, Charles H.; Lewis, Leon

    1951-01-01

    Despite continued advances in x-ray technology, evidence indicates that x-radiation injuries occur today to an excessive degree. These injuries have led to a progressive stiffening of standards of permissible exposure, especially in the past 15 years. Protection from radiation damage is logically based on dosimetry, preferably administered by a centralized service laboratory. The experience of two large hospitals in the control of x-radiation exposure is cited. Personnel exposed to x-radiation may be monitored by either pocket dosimeters of the ion chamber or electroscope type or by standardized film badge dosimeters. A recently developed film badge dosimeter that measures effective x-ray energy and radiation exposure in a quantitative manner is described. PMID:14812354

  3. Prevention of injury from x-radiation.

    PubMed

    HOLDEN, F R; TOCHILIN, E; HINE, C H; LEWIS, L

    1951-03-01

    Despite continued advances in x-ray technology, evidence indicates that x-radiation injuries occur today to an excessive degree. These injuries have led to a progressive stiffening of standards of permissible exposure, especially in the past 15 years. Protection from radiation damage is logically based on dosimetry, preferably administered by a centralized service laboratory. The experience of two large hospitals in the control of x-radiation exposure is cited. Personnel exposed to x-radiation may be monitored by either pocket dosimeters of the ion chamber or electroscope type or by standardized film badge dosimeters. A recently developed film badge dosimeter that measures effective x-ray energy and radiation exposure in a quantitative manner is described. PMID:14812354

  4. Shoulder injuries in the skeletally immature baseball pitcher and recommendations for the prevention of injury.

    PubMed

    Zaremski, Jason L; Krabak, Brian J

    2012-07-01

    Since 1996, when the first article on pitch restriction recommendations was published, the number of research articles involving skeletally immature pitchers has increased. Potential shoulder injuries in this age group are proximal humeral epiphysiolysis, glenohumeral instability, rotator cuff dysfunction, and superior labrum anteroposterior lesions. Fatigue, improper biomechanics, and overuse are the most common reasons for these injuries. In the hopes of preventing injury to young pitchers, numerous organizations, including the USA Baseball Medical & Safety Advisory Committee, The American Sports Medicine Institute, Little League Baseball & Softball, and the Long Term Athlete Development Program for Baseball Canada, have developed recommendations on pitching restrictions that include limits on pitch count, pitches per week, pitches per season, and rest between pitching. Awareness by sports medicine providers, coaches, and parents/guardians of the most up-to-date recommendations on injury prevention and return to play guidelines should reduce the incidence of acute and chronic injuries in adolescent baseball pitchers. PMID:22814728

  5. Firearm-related injuries in Canada: issues for prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Chapdelaine, A; Samson, E; Kimberley, M D; Viau, L

    1991-01-01

    We reviewed the available data on firearm-related injuries in Canada to suggest strategies for prevention in the context of the proposed amendments to the Criminal Code (Bill C-17) currently before Parliament. The risk of death from a firearm in Canada is equivalent to the risk of death from a motor vehicle crash. We discuss the risks associated with firearms with regard to suicides, homicides and "accidents." We also discuss the accessibility of firearms. This article builds upon a recently published update on the epidemiologic basis of the public health approach for the prevention of firearm-related injuries and deaths. The key to the etiologic approach to preventing such injuries and deaths is to view the incidents, regardless of their medicolegal circumstances, as having one factor in common: the discharge of a firearm. PMID:1933704

  6. [Prevention of hand injuries - current situation in Europe].

    PubMed

    Leixnering, M; Quadlbauer, S; Szolarcz, C; Schenk, C; Leixnering, S; Körpert, K

    2013-12-01

    Hand injuries are a frequent occurrence and account for 41% of all occupational injuries. In general such accidents are the result of stress, inattention, tiredness, use of defective or poorly maintained machinery. However, artention must equally be directed at the large number of accidents occurring in leisure time activities since the inability to work due to a leisure time accident is similarly cost-intensive. Throughout Europe attempts have been made in the past 10 years to improve prevention. At the initiative of the Hand Trauma Committee (HTC) of FESSH prevention conferences were stated in 2009. These have in part reduced the number of hand injuries in -Europe. In Austria a special controlling committee was founded by the Austrian Workers' Compensation Board (AUVA) with the specific objective of reducing the number of hand injuries. Similarly the "Circle for Leisure Time Hand Injury Prevention" was created to specifically deal with hand injuries occurring during leisure time activities. Through the cooperation of these 2 committees and implementation of the thus decided measures, a reduction in the number of accidents involving the hand is to be expected with a concomitant reduction in the associated costs. PMID:24357478

  7. Evaluating injury prevention programs: the Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project.

    PubMed

    Mallonee, S

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of injury prevention programs is critical for measuring program effects on reducing injury-related morbidity and mortality or on increasing the adoption of safety practices. During the planning and implementation of injury prevention programs, evaluation data also can be used to test program strategies and to measure the program's penetration among the target population. The availability of this early data enables program managers to refine a program, increasing the likelihood of successful outcomes. The Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project illustrates how an evaluation was designed to inform program decisions by providing methodologically sound data on program processes and outcomes. This community intervention trial was instituted to reduce residential fire-related injuries and deaths in a geographic area of Oklahoma City that was disproportionately affected by this problem. The distribution of free smoke alarms in targeted neighborhoods was accompanied by written educational pamphlets and home-based follow-up to test whether the alarms were functioning correctly. Early evaluation during the planning and implementation phases of the program allowed for midcourse corrections that increased the program's impact on desired outcomes. During the six years following the project, the residential fire-related injury rate decreased 81% in the target population but only 7% in the rest of Oklahoma City. This dramatic decline in fire-related injuries in the target area is largely attributed to the free smoke alarm distribution as well as to educational efforts promoting awareness about residential fires and their prevention. PMID:10911692

  8. The health consequences of child mental health problems and parenting styles: Unintentional injuries among European schoolchildren☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Susser, Ezra; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Hamilton, Ava; Bitfoi, Adina; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Kovess, Viviane

    2015-01-01

    Objective Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Methods Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Europe project and included 4517 schoolchildren across seven diverse European regions. Past year injuries serious enough to seek medical atten tion were reported by mothers. Child mental health problems were assessed using validated measures and re ported by the mothers, teachers, and children. Parenting styles were based on The Parenting Scale and the Parent Behaviors and Attitudes Questionnaire. Results. Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and oppositional defant symptoms had a higher risk of injury compared to other children whether based on parent report (OR = 1.47, 95% C.I. 1.2 1.9), teacher report (OR = 1.36, 95% C.I. 1.1 1.7), or parent- and teacher-report combined (OR = 1.53, 95% C.I. 1.1 2.1). Children who self reported oppositional symptoms also had higher risk of injury (OR = 1.6, 95% C.I. 1.1 2.4). Low caring behavior of parents increased the risk of injury (OR = 1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.9). Conclusion Unintentional injury is a potential adverse health consequence of child externalizing problems. Interventions to improve parent child relationships and prevention as well as focused treatment for externaliz ing problems may reduce the burden of injury. PMID:25073079

  9. Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of lightning injuries.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Farinholt, Heidi-Marie A; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D; Long, William B

    2005-01-01

    Lightning is the second most common cause of weather-related death in the United States. Lightning is a natural atmospheric discharge that occurs between regions of net positive and net negative electric charges. There are several types of lightning, including streak lightning, sheet lightning, ribbon lightning, bead lightning, and ball lightning. Lightning causes injury through five basic mechanisms: direct strike, flash discharge (splash), contact, ground current (step voltage), and blunt trauma. While persons struck by lightning show evidence of multisystem derangement, the most dramatic effects involve the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Cardiopulmonary arrest is the most common cause of death in lightning victims. Immediate resuscitation of people struck by lightning greatly affects the prognosis. Electrocardiographic changes observed following lightning accidents are probably from primary electric injury or burns of the myocardium without coronary artery occlusion. Lightning induces vasomotor spasm from direct sympathetic stimulation resulting in severe loss of pulses in the extremities. This vasoconstriction may be associated with transient paralysis. Damage to the central nervous system accounts for the second most debilitating group of injuries. Central nervous system injuries from lightning include amnesia and confusion, immediate loss of consciousness, weakness, intracranial injuries, and even brief aphasia. Other organ systems injured by lightning include the eye, ear, gastrointestinal system, skin, and musculoskeletal system. The best treatment of lightning injuries is prevention. The Lightning Safety Guidelines devised by the Lightning Safety Group should be instituted in the United States and other nations to prevent these devastating injuries. PMID:15777170

  10. Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…

  11. 3 CFR 8355 - Proclamation 8355 of April 1, 2009. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8355 of April 1, 2009 Proc. 8355 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009By the President of the... they are our future. National Child Abuse Prevention Month provides the opportunity to underscore our commitment to preventing and responding appropriately to child abuse. This month, we emphasize the...

  12. 3 CFR 8645 - Proclamation 8645 of March 31, 2011. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8645 of March 31, 2011 Proc. 8645 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011By the President of the... them is one of our greatest responsibilities. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our commitment to preventing child abuse and neglect by promoting healthy families,...

  13. A Better Start: Child Maltreatment Prevention as a Public Health Priority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Francie; Mercy, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse prevention programs have historically focused on individual and family dynamics rather than community-based or societal strategies to prevent child maltreatment. Recently, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of communitywide efforts to prevent child maltreatment before abuse or neglect occurs by offering a continuum…

  14. Reporting on road traffic injury: content analysis of injuries and prevention opportunities in Ghanaian newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Yankson, Isaac Kofi; Browne, Edmund N L; Tagbor, H; Donkor, Peter; Quansah, Robert; Asare, George Ernest; Mock, Charles N; Ebel, Beth E

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyse traffic injury reporting in Ghanaian newspapers and identify opportunities for improving road safety, the content of 240 articles on road traffic injury was reviewed from 2005 to 2006 editions of two state-owned and two privately owned newspapers. The articles comprised reports on vehicle crashes (37%), commentaries (33%), informational pieces (12%), reports on pedestrian injury (10%), and editorials (8%). There was little coverage of pedestrian injuries, which account for half of the traffic fatalities in Ghana, but only 22% of newspaper reports. Only two articles reported on seatbelt use. Reporting patterns were similar between public and private papers, but private papers more commonly recommended government action (50%) than did public papers (32%, p=0.006). It is concluded that Ghanaian papers provide detailed coverage of traffic injury. Areas for improvement include pedestrian injury and attention to preventable risk factors such as road risk factors, seatbelt use, speed control, and alcohol use. PMID:20570987

  15. CDC Grand Rounds: Evidence-based injury prevention.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 5.8 million persons die from injuries each year, accounting for 10% of all deaths worldwide. In the United States, 180,000 persons die each year from injuries, making the category the country's leading cause of death for those aged 1-44 years and the leading cause of years of potential life lost before age 65 years. Injuries also result in 2.8 million hospitalizations and 29 million emergency department visits each year in the United States. Motor vehicle crashes, falls, homicides, suicides, domestic violence, child maltreatment, and other forms of intentional and unintentional injury affect all strata of society, with widespread physical, mental, and reproductive health consequences. Injuries and violence affect not only individuals, but also families and communities, producing substantial economic and societal burdens related to health-care costs, work loss, and disruption of education. The estimated annual U.S. cost in medical expenses and lost productivity resulting from injuries is $355 billion. PMID:24381079

  16. Hamstring injuries: prevention and treatment—an update

    PubMed Central

    Brukner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Despite increased knowledge of hamstring muscle injuries, the incidence has not diminished. We now know that not all hamstring injuries are the same and that certain types of injuries require prolonged rehabilitation and return to play. The slow stretch type of injury and injuries involving the central tendon both require longer times to return to play. A number of factors have been proposed as being indicators of time taken to return to play, but the evidence for these is conflicting. Recurrence rates remain high and it is now thought that strength deficits may be an important factor. Strengthening exercise should be performed with the hamstrings in a lengthened position. There is conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma injection in the treatment of hamstring injuries so at this stage we cannot advise their use. Various tests have been proposed as predictors of hamstring injury and the use of the Nordboard is an interesting addition to the testing process. Prevention of these injuries is the ultimate aim and there is increasing evidence that Nordic hamstring exercises are effective in reducing the incidence. PMID:26105015

  17. Profiling Young Children's Participation in Track and Field, Injuries Sustained and Prevention Methods Employed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulon, Lyn; Mok, Magadalena

    1999-01-01

    Explored nature and extent of track and field injuries of 8- and 9-year-olds and their injury prevention methods. Found that about one-third had at least one injury. About one-fourth considered their injuries serious. Most serious injuries occurred during track and field events. There were no age or gender differences in injury rates. Injury…

  18. [Child maltreatment prevention: the pediatrician's role. Part 2. Prevention before it happens, when suspected and when abuse is confirmed].

    PubMed

    Mouesca, Juan P

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric actions that can prevent child abuse are described. Interdisciplinary work, training in communication skills, child development and family functions are recommended. Given the intense feelings generated by this subject, self-care strategies are suggested. PMID:26914077

  19. Societal interventions to prevent child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Hay, T; Jones, L

    1994-01-01

    A framework for understanding child maltreatment in terms of complex and interacting factors from the individual to the societal level can aid in conceptualizing and implementing prevention efforts. Research on interventions at the societal level can guide a broad range of activities, increasing their effectiveness and viability. Fundamental approaches include evaluation of specific interventions and systems-level research on implementation and development of best practice in prevention activities for different portions of society. Research can indicate the roles that each individual, agency, organization, community, and level of government can play. The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child provides a useful framework for societal level change to improve the welfare of children and families. PMID:7924560

  20. Prevention of Elbow Injuries in Youth Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Fleisig, Glenn S.; Andrews, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Although baseball is a relatively safe sport, numerous reports suggest a rapid rise in elbow injury rate among youth baseball pitchers. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for epidemiologic, biomechanical, and clinical studies of elbow injuries in baseball (keywords: “youth OR adolescent” AND baseball AND pitching AND “ulnar collateral ligament OR elbow”; published January 2000 – April 2012). Studies with relevance to youth baseball pitchers were reviewed. Relevant references from these articles were also retrieved and reviewed. Original data, insight, and recommendations were added. Results: The majority of baseball elbow injuries are noncontact injuries to the dominant arm resulting from repetitive pitching. Five percent of youth pitchers suffer a serious elbow or shoulder injury (requiring surgery or retirement from baseball) within 10 years. The risk factor with the strongest correlation to injury is amount of pitching. Specifically, increased pitches per game, innings pitched per season, and months pitched per year are all associated with increased risk of elbow injury. Pitching while fatigued and pitching for concurrent teams are also associated with increased risk. Pitchers who also play catcher have an increased injury risk, perhaps due to the quantity of throws playing catcher adds to the athlete’s arm. Another risk factor is poor pitching biomechanics. Improper biomechanics may increase the torque and force produced about the elbow during each pitch. Although throwing breaking pitches at a young age has been suggested as a risk factor, existing clinical, epidemiologic, and biomechanical data do not support this claim. Conclusions: Some elbow injuries to youth baseball pitchers can be prevented with safety rules, recommendations, education, and common sense. Scientific and medical organizations have published safety rules and recommendations, with emphasis on prevention of overuse and pitching while fatigued. Strength

  1. On the road to prevention: road injury and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Road traffic injuries are already the leading cause of injury mortality and morbidity globally and by 2030 are predicted to be the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world. Australia has seen a dramatic reduction in road deaths and serious injuries since the 1970s and holds an international reputation for road traffic injury prevention due, in part, to its success in pioneering the multidisciplinary and intersectoral approach needed to address this significant issue and by applying an evidence-led approach to policy development. The paper will discuss Australia's early success in road traffic injury prevention (road safety), particularly the achievements following the implementation of targeted programs that focussed on road user behaviours for which health promotion played a role. The most successful of these programs was the introduction of comprehensive seat belt laws, random breath testing and more recently, strategic speed enforcement programs. Amid an array of significant challenges faced by the transport system in the future, the rapid development in information and communication technologies applied to transport is likely to provide the next generation of road safety benefits. The potential for a semi-autonomous transport system is likely to provide the next significant decline in road fatalities and serious injuries over the next 2 decades and the role of health promotion in relation to raising community engagement and building coalitions to increase uptake of new technologies will be discussed. PMID:24739772

  2. Youth Sports: A Pediatrician's Perspective on Coaching and Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Koester, Michael C.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: My objective is to review the factors that influence youth participation in sports, to discuss the role coaches may play in youth sports injuries, and to call on athletic trainers and other health professionals to become involved in youth sports in an effort to limit injury risk. Background: Millions of American youths participate in team sports. Their primary motivation to participate is to have fun. Unfortunately, large numbers of participants have sustained correspondingly large numbers of injuries. Many injuries can be attributed to improper technique and conditioning methods taught by volunteer coaches. Although not the only contributors to injuries, these may be the most amenable to preventive measures, such as formal instruction for coaches in the areas of proper biomechanics and player-coach communication. Description: I provide an overview of the reasons why children participate in sports, discuss participation motivation, and review the literature on coaches' communication methods that have been proved effective in maximizing learning and enjoyment for young athletes. Clinical Advantages: This article provides certified athletic trainers with the background knowledge needed to take an active role in youth sports injury prevention at the community level. PMID:16558664

  3. Epidemiology of Unintentional Child Injuries in the Makwanpur District of Nepal: A Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Puspa Raj; Towner, Elizabeth; Ellis, Matthew; Manandhar, Dharma; Pilkington, Paul; Mytton, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Secondary sources of information indicate that the proportion of child deaths due to injuries is increasing in Nepal. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of unintentional injuries in children, explore risk factors and estimate the burden faced by families and the community in the Makwanpur district. We conducted a household survey in Makwanpur, covering 3441 households. Injuries that occurred during the 12 months before the survey and required treatment or caused the child to be unable to take part in usual activities for three or more days were included. We identified 193 cases of non-fatal unintentional child injuries from 181 households and estimated an annual rate of non-fatal injuries of 24.6/1000 children; rates for boys were double (32.7/1000) that for girls (16.8/1000). The rates were higher among the children of age groups 1–4 years and 5–9 years. Falls were the most common cause of non-fatal child injuries followed by burns in preschool children and road traffic injuries were the most likely cause in adolescence. Mean period of disability following injury was 25 days. The rates and the mechanisms of injury vary by age and gender. Falls and burns are currently the most common mechanisms of injury amongst young children around rural homes. PMID:26633439

  4. Preventing Death and Serious Injury from Falling Trees and Branches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Of 128 outdoor education related deaths examined since 1960, 14 have been due to falling trees or branches. This article examines the grounds on which death or serious injury due to falling trees or branches can be regarded as an inherent risk in outdoor education, and the extent to which such incidents can be regarded as preventable. It compares…

  5. Injury Prevention for the Elderly. Field Test Instructor Coursebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bonnie

    This coursebook is intended for use by the instructors presenting a workshop on preventing injuries in the elderly that was developed as a field test of a larger 10-module training program for staff of long-term health care facilities, senior center and adult day care staff, and home health aides. The curriculum guide served as a blueprint for the…

  6. Evaluating Injury Prevention Programs: The Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallonee, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates how evaluating the Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project increased its success in reducing residential fire-related injuries and deaths. The program distributed and tested smoke alarms in residential dwellings and offered educational materials on fire prevention and safety. Evaluation provided sound data on program processes and outcomes,…

  7. Photoreceptor IRBP prevents light induced injury.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhongcui; Zhang, Meng; Liu, Wei; Tian, Jie; Xu, Gezhi

    2016-01-01

    Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) is a classic inducer of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). Although IRBP causes neuronal loss in susceptible animals, resistant animals such as Sprague-Dawley (SPD) rats can benefit from the evoked protective autoimmune responses. The aim of the present study was to analyze the neuroprotective effects of IRBP against light-induced photoreceptor degeneration. We immunized 75 male SPD rats with IRBP and the rats were then exposed to blue light for 24 hours (IRBP group). Seventy five rats were included in the control group. We found that the number of apoptotic cells in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) peaked on 1 day after light exposure, and the ONL thickness decreased significantly on day 3. OX42-positive cells appeared in the ONL immediately after light exposure, and their number peaked on day 3, and changed from resting ramified cells to activated amoeboid cells. Compared with the control group (n=75), the IRBP group showed less apoptotic cells, a thicker ONL, and reduced expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. These outcomes indicate the IRPB might protect retinal photoreceptors against light-induced injury. PMID:27100484

  8. Environmental and occupational medicine and injury prevention: education and impact, classroom and community.

    PubMed

    Richter, Elihu D; Berman, Tamar

    2002-01-01

    The core value guiding the work of physicians and health workers, including those in Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology and Medicine and Injury Prevention, is to protect the health of the public, especially its most vulnerable individuals. In these fields, we emphasize teaching the use of epidemiology, the core discipline of public health, as a tool for early detection and prevention of disease and injury, as well as an instrument for hypothesis testing. The classic core topics are toxic and physical exposures and their effects, and strategies for their prevention; emerging issues are child labor, mass violence, and democide. In environmental health, students need to be prepared for the reality that the most important and severe problems are often the most difficult to investigate, solve, and evaluate. The following are some recommendations for producing graduates who are effective in protecting communities from environmental hazards and risks: (1) Teach the precautionary principle and its application; (2) Evaluate programs for teaching environmental and occupational health, medicine and epidemiology in schools of public health by their impact on the WHO health indicators and their impact on measures of ecosystem sustainability; (3) Develop problem-oriented projects and give academic credit for projects with definable public health impact and redefine the role of the health officer as the chief resident for Schools of Public Health and Community Medicine; (4) Teach the abuses of child labor and working conditions of women in the workplace and how to prevent the hazards and risks from the more common types of child work; (5) Upgrade teaching of injury prevention and prevention of deaths from external causes; (6) Teach students to recognize the insensitivity of epidemiology as a tool for early detection of true risk; (7) Teach the importance of context in the use of tests of statistical significance; (8) Teach the epidemiologic importance of short latency

  9. Optimization of injury prevention outreach for helmet safety.

    PubMed

    Adams, Christy; Drake, Christiana; Dang, Michelle; Le-Hinds, Nho

    2014-01-01

    Injury prevention initiatives are an effective strategy to reduce pediatric morbidity and mortality, but resource constraints can limit hospital-based prevention programs' capacity for carrying out such initiatives. Partnerships that leverage hospital leadership roles and promote collaborative outreach may provide a less resource-intensive means to expand prevention program capacity. One hospital piloted a collaborative helmet safety initiative, partnering with a nursing school and a local school district. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the resulting student nurse-administered school helmet safety program in improving use, knowledge, and attitudes toward helmets among school-age children. PMID:24828777

  10. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  11. Community-Level Approaches to Child Maltreatment Prevention.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Beth E; Beatriz, Elizabeth D; Beardslee, William R

    2016-10-01

    Often the focus of the field of child maltreatment has concentrated on identifying and intervening on risk and protective factors at the individual and family levels; however, since the 1970s, the important roles that communities play in both exacerbating and preventing child maltreatment have received attention as well. This article outlines the development of this area of scientific inquiry, describes the theoretical frameworks utilized by existing programs, and describes several community-level programs aimed at preventing child maltreatment that show promise as scalable strategies to enhance individual and family strengths and reduce caregiver stress. Challenges inherent in community-level programming in increasingly diverse environments and in building/maintaining political will for sustainability of evidence-based efforts are discussed as well. A multilevel, holistic approach that takes into account developmental changes and needs of individuals as well as their environments is likely to bring about more sustainable change in protecting children from abuse and neglect than efforts focused solely on individuals. PMID:27580664

  12. Child sexual abuse prevention: evaluation of a teacher training model.

    PubMed

    Kleemeier, C; Webb, C; Hazzard, A; Pohl, J

    1988-01-01

    Teachers are potentially helpful resource persons for large numbers of sexually abused children who may have difficulty disclosing abuse, particularly to family members. In the present study, the effectiveness of a 6-hour teacher training workshop on child sexual abuse prevention was evaluated. Responses of 26 female elementary teachers who participated in the workshop were compared to responses of 19 control teachers on several pre-, post-, and follow-up measures. Relative to controls, trained teachers demonstrated significant increases from pre- to post-testing in knowledge about child sexual abuse and pro-prevention opinions. On a post-only vignettes measure, trained teachers were better able than control teachers to identify behavioral indicators of abuse and suggest appropriate interventions for hypothetical sexually abused children. Over a 6-week follow-up period, trained teachers read more about child abuse than control teachers but did not differ on other behavioral dimensions such as reporting suspected abuse cases. Further research will examine the effects of additional teacher training over an extended follow-up period. PMID:3233520

  13. Pressure injury prevention: continence, skin hygiene and nutrition management.

    PubMed

    Roosen, Kerri; Fulbrook, Paul; Nowicki, Tracy

    2010-08-10

    To prevent pressure injuries research indicates the importance of focusing on three key areas of practice: continence, skin hygiene and nutrition. These are a synergistic trio and many patients require considered management in all three areas. In addition to targeting specific aspects of nursing care in these areas, it is also crucial that there is organisational buy-in for strategic initiatives. Some of the ways that we achieved this are outlined below: Support from managerial level by presenting evidence and education to senior nurses and directors. Nurse unit managers completed individual ward action plans outlining their individual commitments to reducing pressure injuries. Providing support and education to staff to choose and use continence products effectively. Support from allied health colleagues in prevention of pressure injuries. After implementing the actions described above, pressure injury prevalence at the Prince Charles Hospital in Brisbane decreased from 13.78% in 2008 to 5.15% in 2010, representing a 62% reduction overall. Of these pressure injuries, 53% were stage one. PMID:20862898

  14. Interpretation of postmortem forensic toxicology results for injury prevention research.

    PubMed

    Drummer, Olaf H; Kennedy, Briohny; Bugeja, Lyndal; Ibrahim, Joseph Elias; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2013-08-01

    Forensic toxicological data provides valuable insight into the potential contribution of alcohol and drugs to external-cause deaths. There is a paucity of material that guides injury researchers on the principles that need to be considered when examining the presence and contribution of alcohol and drugs to these deaths. This paper aims to describe and discuss strengths and limitations of postmortem forensic toxicology sample selection, variations in analytical capabilities and data interpretation for injury prevention research. Issues to be considered by injury researchers include: the circumstances surrounding death (including the medical and drug use history of the deceased person); time and relevant historical factors; postmortem changes (including redistribution and instability); laboratory practices; specimens used; drug concentration; and attribution of contribution to death. This paper describes the range of considerations for testing and interpreting postmortem forensic toxicology, particularly when determining impairment or toxicity as possible causal factors in injury deaths. By describing these considerations, this paper has application to decisions about study design and case inclusion in injury prevention research, and to the interpretation of research findings. PMID:23197673

  15. Predicting Severity of Child Abuse Injury with Ordinal Probit Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuravin, Susan J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined reports of one physically abused child from each of 789 families. Results of ordinal probit regression analysis identified that model with four predictors (perpetrator identity, reporter identity, severity of allegations, and season report was made) and two interaction terms (child's age by mother's age and child's age by child's gender)…

  16. Preventing injuries in workers: the role of management practices in decreasing injuries reporting

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Fariba; Khodabakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Researchers have found that management safety practices may predict occupational injuries and psychological distresses in the workplace. The present study examined the perception of management safety practices related to injuries reporting and its dimensions among workers of Isfahan Steel Company (ESCO). Methods: A self-administered anonymous survey was distributed to 189 workers. The survey included demographic factors, management safety perception, injuries reporting and its components (physical symptoms, psychological symptoms, and injuries). The data were analyzed by Multivariate and correlation techniques. Results: The results showed that: 1) there were significant correlations between management safety perception with injuries reporting and its two dimensions namely physical and psychological symptoms; 2) there was no significant relationship between management safety perception and injury; 3) in Multivariate analysis, management safety perception significantly predicted about 26%, 19%, and 28% of the variances of variables of injuries reporting, physical symptoms, and psychological symptoms respectively (P< 0.01). Conclusion: Improving employees’ perception of management safety practices can be important to prevent the development of job injuries and to promote workers’ safety and well-being. PMID:25279379

  17. 3 CFR 8490 - Proclamation 8490 of April 1, 2010. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proclamation 8490 of April 1, 2010. National Child... 8490 of April 1, 2010 Proc. 8490 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010By the President of the... support to thrive and grow into healthy, productive adults. During National Child Abuse Prevention...

  18. 3 CFR 8791 - Proclamation 8791 of April 2, 2012. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8791 of April 2, 2012 Proc. 8791 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012By the President of the... Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our commitment to break the cycle of violence, strengthen support... unit is the surest defense against child abuse, and parents and caregivers who have...

  19. Effects of a Citizens Review Panel in Preventing Child Maltreatment Fatalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palusci, Vincent J.; Yager, Steve; Covington, Theresa M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Child maltreatment (CM) fatalities are often preventable, and reviewing these deaths often highlights problems in law, policy or practice that can be addressed to prevent future deaths. Citizen Review Panels (CRPs) comprised of medical and child welfare professionals were established in 1996 to review Child Protective Services (CPS)…

  20. Teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, N; Casey, K; Daro, D

    1992-01-01

    In considering the great responsibility placed upon teachers to involve themselves in child abuse prevention, education, and detection, the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA) conducted a nationwide survey of teachers from 40 school districts in 29 randomly selected counties. The survey explores teachers knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention. Five hundred and sixty-eight teachers responded, revealing that while the majority of teachers confront child abuse among their students, they are provided insufficient education on how to address it. Other findings are reported with respect to teachers' reporting behavior, potential barriers to reporting, child assault prevention programs, and corporal punishment in schools. PMID:1559171

  1. Preventing Flow-Metabolism Uncoupling Acutely Reduces Axonal Injury after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mironova, Yevgeniya A.; Chen, Szu-Fu; Richards, Hugh K.; Pickard, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We have previously presented evidence that the development of secondary traumatic axonal injury is related to the degree of local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and flow-metabolism uncoupling. We have now tested the hypothesis that augmenting LCBF in the acute stages after brain injury prevents further axonal injury. Data were acquired from rats with or without acetazolamide (ACZ) that was administered immediately following controlled cortical impact injury to increase cortical LCBF. Local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (LCMRglc) and LCBF measurements were obtained 3 h post-trauma in the same rat via 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and 14C-iodoantipyrine co-registered autoradiographic images, and compared to the density of damaged axonal profiles in adjacent sections, and in additional groups at 24 h used to assess different populations of injured axons stereologically. ACZ treatment significantly and globally elevated LCBF twofold above untreated-injured rats at 3 h (p<0.05), but did not significantly affect LCMRglc. As a result, ipsilateral LCMRglc:LCBF ratios were reduced by twofold to sham-control levels, and the density of β-APP-stained axons at 24 h was significantly reduced in most brain regions compared to the untreated-injured group (p<0.01). Furthermore, early LCBF augmentation prevented the injury-associated increase in the number of stained axons from 3–24 h. Additional robust stereological analysis of impaired axonal transport and neurofilament compaction in the corpus callosum and cingulum underlying the injury core confirmed the amelioration of β-APP axon density, and showed a trend, but no significant effect, on RMO14-positive axons. These data underline the importance of maintaining flow-metabolism coupling immediately after injury in order to prevent further axonal injury, in at least one population of injured axons. PMID:22321027

  2. Traumatic Injury in a Child with Scurvy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Angsanuntsukh, Chanika; Chulsomlee, Kulapat; Taracheewin, Anan; Jaovisidha, Suphaneewan; Woratanarat, Thira; Woratanarat, Patarawan

    2015-09-01

    This case report aimed to describe the clinical presentation, treatments and prognosis of a child who had scurvy and traumatic injury of the left thigh. A 30-month-old boy had presented with left hip pain two weeks after falling down on the floor while walking. He developed pain, warmness of the left hip and thigh, and finally was unable to bear weight. He also had a high fever gingival hemorrhage, dental caries, petechiae, positive rolling test and limited range of motion of the left hip. The radiographs revealed Wimberger's ring and Frenkel line as scurvy. Vitamin C supplement had been prescribed for one week. However, there was no clinical response and magnetic resonance imaging (MR) suggested subperiosteal abscess as well as osteomyelitis of bilateral femurs and tibias. Debridement and biopsy of the left femur were performed and found only subperiosteal blood. A clinical improvement was noted on the second day after surgery. Vitamin C level was reported at 0.03 mg/dl which was very low. Bacterial culture was negative and the pathological findings were callus formation with hemorrhage. The patient continued the treatment for two months and all conditions were healed eventually. In severe scurvy with trauma, prolonged subperiosteal hematoma was susceptible to infection, and may need debridement simultaneously with vitamin C supplement to shorten the clinical course. PMID:26529822

  3. Does injury prevention education initiate household changes in a Spanish-speaking minority population?

    PubMed

    Setien, Miguel A; Han, Daikwon; Zuniga, Genny Carrillo; Mier, Nelda; Lucio, Rose L; Treviño, Laura

    2014-02-01

    Young children from low income families are among the most affected population of unintentional injury. This non-randomized longitudinal study examined knowledge for home and child safety with an injury prevention training offered to parents of children who reside in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Eighty eight parents received the training and pre-and post-test surveys were used to measure knowledge outcomes. A follow-up survey was conducted 2 months after the educational intervention to identify how many parents reported household and safety behavior changes as a result of the training. The most significant change in behavior, as it pertains to the household, was related to locking and storage of dangerous cleaning chemicals. Other significant changes in behavior were in areas that directly related to the child such as learning how to swim, use of sun block and fire safety in the home. This study suggests that tailored trainings can improve parent knowledge and change in behaviors for the promotion of safety activities to avoid risks for unintentional injuries. Further, the study identified certain at-risk areas that need to be addressed from an educational perspective. These areas include bicycle and water safety; specifically, the use of protective gear when bicycling; understanding and adhering to traffic rules when bicycling; and, the dangers of drowning in small quantities of water. PMID:23974955

  4. Diagnostic criteria for cutaneous injuries in child abuse: classification, findings, and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Tsokos, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Physical abuse of children has many manifestations. Depending on the type of force involved, specific injury patterns are produced on the body of the child, the morphology and localization of which are forensically relevant in terms of diagnostic classification as child abuse. Typical patterned bruising includes, for example, tramline bruises resulting from blows with oblong, stick-like objects. In addition to rounded or one-sided horseshoe-shaped bite injuries, injuries of different ages, clustered injuries (e.g., three or more individual injuries in the same body region), and thermal injuries are typical results of abuse. Abusive scalds are usually characterized by a symmetrical impression and localization with sharp delineation of the scald wound edges, in contrast to accidental scalding injuries with radiating splash patterns ending in tapered points. The coloration of a hematoma can help indicate the time when the injury occurred. Lack of a coherent and comprehensible explanation for accidental injury constitutes grounds for suspecting abuse. Suspicions should be raised in cases of a delayed visit to a doctor, waiting for an unusually long period before summoning emergency medical help for serious injuries to a child, and when differing versions of a purported accident are provided. Documentation of the findings is highly relevant in later reviews of the diagnosis, for instance, when new relevant facts and investigative results come to light in subsequent criminal proceedings. PMID:25772121

  5. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: What Makes them Effective in Protecting Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraizer, Sherryll; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes a school-based child abuse prevention program. The program's effectiveness is evaluated in terms of prevention of sexual abuse, the age of maximum receptivity to prevention education, and implications of the evaluation for early childhood educators. (RJC)

  6. Unintentional Injury Risk in School-Age Children: Examining Interrelations between Parent and Child Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Melissa; Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Kane, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research on children's risk of injury reveals that parent and child factors are often interrelated. This study examined relations between children's risk taking, parent appraisal of this risk taking, and children's rate of injury in youth 8 and 9 years old. Methods: Responses to questionnaires and laboratory tasks were used to examine…

  7. Estimates of child deaths prevented from malaria prevention scale-up in Africa 2001-2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Funding from external agencies for malaria control in Africa has increased dramatically over the past decade resulting in substantial increases in population coverage by effective malaria prevention interventions. This unprecedented effort to scale-up malaria interventions is likely improving child survival and will likely contribute to meeting Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 to reduce the < 5 mortality rate by two thirds between 1990 and 2015. Methods The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model was used to quantify the likely impact that malaria prevention intervention scale-up has had on malaria mortality over the past decade (2001-2010) across 43 malaria endemic countries in sub-Saharan African. The likely impact of ITNs and malaria prevention interventions in pregnancy (intermittent preventive treatment [IPTp] and ITNs used during pregnancy) over this period was assessed. Results The LiST model conservatively estimates that malaria prevention intervention scale-up over the past decade has prevented 842,800 (uncertainty: 562,800-1,364,645) child deaths due to malaria across 43 malaria-endemic countries in Africa, compared to a baseline of the year 2000. Over the entire decade, this represents an 8.2% decrease in the number of malaria-caused child deaths that would have occurred over this period had malaria prevention coverage remained unchanged since 2000. The biggest impact occurred in 2010 with a 24.4% decrease in malaria-caused child deaths compared to what would have happened had malaria prevention interventions not been scaled-up beyond 2000 coverage levels. ITNs accounted for 99% of the lives saved. Conclusions The results suggest that funding for malaria prevention in Africa over the past decade has had a substantial impact on decreasing child deaths due to malaria. Rapidly achieving and then maintaining universal coverage of these interventions should be an urgent priority for malaria control programmes in the future. Successful scale-up in many

  8. Partners in health: Injury prevention and the coal mining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hoerner, E.F.

    1996-12-31

    It is necessary to solve many of the work-related problems and areas of concern that are present in the mining industry. An overview of concerns and how to attack the problems is discussed. Some of the worker`s injury problems, such as back pain syndromes, are by no means unique to the industry. However, other problems such as bolter shoulder syndrome problems, are job specific and need biomechanical investigation to determine specific causal relation of job task to injury. The goal would be defined as twofold. The primary goal is to identify the specific job contribution to high risk occupations, and secondly, to implement a total work force injury prevention program. These goals are discussed.

  9. Prevention of pelvic sepsis in major open pelviperineal injury.

    PubMed

    Govaert, Geertje; Siriwardhane, Mehan; Hatzifotis, Michael; Malisano, Lawrence; Schuetz, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Compound pelvic fractures are deemed to be one of the most severe orthopaedic injuries with an extremely high morbidity and mortality. After the initial resuscitation phase the prevention of pelvic sepsis is one of the main treatment goals for patients with an open pelvic fracture. If there is a suspicion of a rectal injury or if the wounds are in the perineal area, The Princess Alexandra Hospital's management plan includes early faecal diversion combined with vigorous soft tissue debridement, VAC(®) therapy and (if indicated) external fixation of the pelvic fracture. We present our flowchart for the treatment of trauma patients with compound pelvic fractures illustrated by a case report describing a 32 year old patient who sustained an open pelvic ring injury in a workplace accident. The aim of this paper is to underline the importance of a safe, straightforward approach to compound pelvic fractures. PMID:22222367

  10. Child maltreatment and risk patterns among participants in a child abuse prevention program.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Jennifer Y; Hughes, Marcia; Asnes, Andrea G; Leventhal, John M

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between risk factors and Child Protective Services (CPS) outcomes in families who participate in home visiting programs to prevent abuse and neglect and who are reported to CPS is largely unknown. We examined the relationship between parental risk factors and the substantiation status and number of CPS reports in families in a statewide prevention program. We reviewed CPS reports from 2006 to 2008 for families in Connecticut's child abuse prevention program. Six risk factors (histories of CPS, domestic violence [DV], mental health, sexual abuse, substance abuse, and criminal involvement) and the number of caregivers were abstracted to create risk scores for each family member. Maltreatment type, substantiation, and number of reports were recorded. Odds ratios were calculated. Of 1,125 families, 171 (15.6%) had at least one CPS report, and reports of 131 families were available for review. Families with a substantiated (25.2%) versus unsubstantiated (74.8%) first report had a high number of paternal risk factors (OR=6.13, 95% CI [1.89, 20.00]) and were more likely to have a history of maternal DV (OR=8.47, 95% CI [2.96, 24.39]), paternal DV (OR=11.23, 95% CI [3.33, 38.46]), and maternal criminal history (OR=4.55; 95% CI [1.32, 15.60]). Families with >1 report (34.4%) versus 1 report (65.6%) were more likely to have >3 caregivers, but this was not statistically significant (OR=2.53, 95% CI [0.98, 6.54]). In a prevention program for first-time families, DV, paternal risk, maternal criminal history, and an increased number of caregivers were associated with maltreatment outcomes. Targeting parental violence may impact child abuse prevention. PMID:25484318

  11. Shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers: review and development of a FIFA 11+ shoulder injury prevention program

    PubMed Central

    Ejnisman, Benno; Barbosa, Gisele; Andreoli, Carlos V; de Castro Pochini, A; Lobo, Thiago; Zogaib, Rodrigo; Cohen, Moises; Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, shoulder injuries have represented an increasing health problem in soccer players. The goalkeepers are more exposed to shoulder disorders than other field players. Injury prevention exercises for upper limbs were cited in few studies involving throwing athletes, but we know that goalkeepers need a specific program. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of an adapted Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ program, namely the FIFA 11+ shoulder, which targets the prevention of shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers. The FIFA 11+ shoulder program is structured into three parts: general warming-up exercises, exercises to improve strength and balance of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger muscles, and advanced exercises for core stability and muscle control. The exercises were selected based on recommendations from studies demonstrating high electromyographic activity. PMID:27563262

  12. Shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers: review and development of a FIFA 11+ shoulder injury prevention program.

    PubMed

    Ejnisman, Benno; Barbosa, Gisele; Andreoli, Carlos V; de Castro Pochini, A; Lobo, Thiago; Zogaib, Rodrigo; Cohen, Moises; Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, shoulder injuries have represented an increasing health problem in soccer players. The goalkeepers are more exposed to shoulder disorders than other field players. Injury prevention exercises for upper limbs were cited in few studies involving throwing athletes, but we know that goalkeepers need a specific program. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of an adapted Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ program, namely the FIFA 11+ shoulder, which targets the prevention of shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers. The FIFA 11+ shoulder program is structured into three parts: general warming-up exercises, exercises to improve strength and balance of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger muscles, and advanced exercises for core stability and muscle control. The exercises were selected based on recommendations from studies demonstrating high electromyographic activity. PMID:27563262

  13. [Child maltreatment prevention: the pediatrician's function. Part 1: Overview, evidence, risk factors, protective factors and triggers].

    PubMed

    Mouesca, Juan P

    2015-12-01

    Child maltreatment is a common and serious problem. It harms children in the short and long term, affecting their future health and their offspring. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary preventing interventions target on child abuse are described. Evidence-based recommendations on child abuse prevention and examples of researches with proven efficacy are detailed. Risk factors, protective factors and triggers of child abuse and their relationships are described. PMID:26593803

  14. [Nerve injury following implant placement: prevention, diagnosis and treatment modalities].

    PubMed

    Nazarian, Y; Eliav, E; Nahlieli, O

    2003-07-01

    Nerve injury is a well-known complication following oral and maxillofacial surgery. Direct trauma, inflammation and infection are postoperative neural disturbances main causes. The most inflicted nerves associated with endosseous implant placement are those innervating the mandible: the inferior alveolar nerve, the mental nerve and the lingual nerve. Evaluation of the nerve injury characteristics and severity as early as possible has always imposed a great challenge for clinicians. We demonstrate a reliable yet simple way of dealing with this kind of problem in conjunction with comparing preoperative and postoperative sensation of the chin, the tongue and the lower lip. On the other hand, it is considerably important to take preventive measures for such injuries by using appropriate radiographic images. If a nerve damage has occurred, best prognosis is to be expected by early and appropriate treatment. It is imperative to treat such injuries in four months following the injury, otherwise a permanent nerve damage may occur. Further investigation of nerve damage risks following implant placement should be performed in order to enable patient to decide whether having implants dependent rehabilitation or choosing an alternative. PMID:14515628

  15. How To Define Child Abuse and Neglect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Nora M.

    This paper examines definitions of child abuse and neglect as put forth by the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and the Child Abuse Amendments of 1984. Four types of child abuse and neglect are identified and briefly described: physical abuse, child neglect, sexual abuse, and mental injury (also referred to as emotional/psychological…

  16. Theoretical integration and the psychology of sport injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Chan, Derwin King-Chung; Hagger, Martin S

    2012-09-01

    Integrating different theories of motivation to facilitate or predict behaviour change has received an increasing amount of attention within the health, sport and exercise science literature. A recent review article in Sports Medicine, by Keats, Emery and Finch presented an integrated model using two prominent theories in social psychology, self-determination theory (SDT) and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), aimed at explaining and enhancing athletes' adherence to sport injury prevention. While echoing their optimistic views about the utility of these two theories to explain adherence in this area and the virtues of theoretical integration, we would like to seize this opportunity to clarify several conceptual principles arising from the authors' integration of the theories. Clarifying the theoretical assumptions and explaining precisely how theoretical integration works is crucial not only for improving the comprehensiveness of the integrated framework for predicting injury prevention behaviour, but also to aid the design of effective intervention strategies targeting behavioural adherence. In this article, we use the integration of SDT and TPB as an example to demonstrate how theoretical integration can advance the understanding of injury prevention behaviour in sport. PMID:22909184

  17. Prevention strategies for infant walker-related injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Trinkoff, A; Parks, P L

    1993-01-01

    The estimated number of walker-related injuries to infants increased during the 1980s, and standards for walker design safety remain voluntary with no monitoring to assess compliance. Although banning the walker has been proposed, this prevention strategy has not been employed. The most recent statistics available indicate that there were an estimated 27,804 walker-related injuries requiring emergency room attention among ages 0-4 years in 1991. Results of a survey of parents of 3-12-month-olds indicated considerable use of walkers, with greater use among parents with lower educational levels. Reported reasons for using walkers were for the infant's entertainment, enjoyment, and containment, as well as to help infants learn to walk. The authors recommend the consideration of a series of preventive strategies according to the epidemiologic framework for injury control and prevention designed by William Haddon, Jr. These include, but are not limited to, prohibiting the manufacture and sale of the walker, mandatory standards, redesign of the walker, design of an alternative to the walker, and consumer education to reduce use and to change patterns of use. PMID:8265765

  18. Prevention and Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Rapid-Onset Natural Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Regens, James L.; Mould, Nick

    2014-01-01

    The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate, or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spatial domain impacted by a rapid-onset natural disaster. This review article elucidates major challenges associated with immediate emergency medical response, long-term care, and prevention of post-event increases in pediatric TBIs because of child abuse when rapid-onset natural disasters occur. PMID:24783188

  19. Prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury due to rapid-onset natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Regens, James L; Mould, Nick

    2014-01-01

    The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate, or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spatial domain impacted by a rapid-onset natural disaster. This review article elucidates major challenges associated with immediate emergency medical response, long-term care, and prevention of post-event increases in pediatric TBIs because of child abuse when rapid-onset natural disasters occur. PMID:24783188

  20. Addendum to "Population-Based Prevention of Child Maltreatment: The U.S. Triple P System Population Trial".

    PubMed

    Prinz, Ronald J; Sanders, Matthew R; Shapiro, Cheri J; Whitaker, Daniel J; Lutzker, John R

    2016-04-01

    A previous article published several years ago (Prinz et al. Prevention Science, 10, 1-12, 2009) described the main results of a place-randomized-design study focused on the prevention of child-maltreatment-related outcomes at a population level through the implementation of a multilevel system of parenting and family support (the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program). The current report, prepared at the encouragement of the journal, provides additional details about procedures, measures, and design-related decisions, presents an additional analysis of the main outcome variables, and poses questions about the study and its implications. We also offer guidance about how the field can move forward to build on this line of research. From the outset, the three designated primary child maltreatment outcomes were county-wide rates for substantiated child maltreatment cases, out-of-home placements, and hospital-treated child maltreatment injuries, derived from independent data sources available through administrative archival records. Baseline equivalence between the two intervention conditions was reaffirmed. The additional analysis, which made use of a 5-year baseline (replacing a 1-year baseline) and ANCOVA, yielded large effect sizes for all three outcomes that converged with those from the original analyses. Overall, the study underscored the potential for community-wide parenting and family support to produce population-level preventive impact on child maltreatment. Issues addressed included (1) the need for replication of population-oriented maltreatment prevention strategies like the one tested in this randomized experiment, (2) the need to demonstrate that a parenting-based population approach to maltreatment prevention can also impact children's adjustment apart from child abuse, and (3) the role of implementation science for achieving greater population reach and maintenance over time. PMID:26780665

  1. 76 FR 77537 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal..., National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  2. Burn injury in patients with dementia: an impetus for prevention.

    PubMed

    Alden, Nicole E; Rabbitts, Angela; Yurt, Roger W

    2005-01-01

    Current literature has reported an increase in the rates of morbidity and mortality in elderly dementia patients who have suffered from illnesses such as pneumonia or traumatic injuries such as falls, motor vehicle collisions, and other insults. The role of dementia in elderly burn patients has not been studied in depth. To assess the extent of this problem, a retrospective, case-control study of patients with dementia who were admitted to a large urban burn center was performed. The demographics, circumstance and severity of injury, critical care use, and discharge disposition of those patients admitted with dementia were reviewed and compared with the findings of age/burn size-matched controls. The results support the premise that burn injuries in this patient population can be severe. Although not statistically significant, 22.2% of the study group patients required ventilatory support, and 75% required monitoring in the intensive care unit compared with the 15.3% and 61.6% of control patients who required ventilatory support and monitoring in the intensive care unit, respectively. Also, although not statistically significant, the mortality rate of the study group was 25%, almost double that of the control group (13.8%). No other significant differences were observed. These findings support the need for assistance and supervision with daily activity and burn prevention education for this population. As our population ages and we are faced with caring for those with dementia, further burn prevention is warranted. PMID:15879750

  3. Prevention of arm injury in youth baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Kerut, Edmund Kenneth; Kerut, Denise Goodfellow; Fleisig, Glenn S; Andrews, James R

    2008-01-01

    The advent of youth year-round baseball has come with an increased incidence of pitching related injury and surgery, most notably involving the shoulder and elbow (ulnar collateral ligament). These injuries become evident in high school and college, but begin at the youth level. Several studies have identified baseball pitching risk factors during youth that increase likelihood for injury and surgery in subsequent years. Based on these studies, the USA Baseball Medical & Safety Advisory Committee has published guidelines for pitching that include limits on pitch count and pitches per week and season as well as recommendations for number of rest days between pitching. Also, recommendations include the restriction of breaking balls prior to puberty, the importance of instruction for proper pitching mechanics as early as possible in development, and at least three months of rest after a season. This review is intended to help guide primary care physicians and pediatricians when discussing youth pitching and injury prevention with parents and coaches. PMID:18681352

  4. Prevention of chaff cutter injuries in rural India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Adarsh; Singh, J K; Singh, Charanjit

    2013-01-01

    Chaff cutter is an extensively used machine in Indian rural households to chop fodder for feeding draft and mulch to animals. A survey was conducted in five villages of Ghaziabad district of Uttar Pradesh (a northern state of India) to determine the causal factors responsible for chaff cutter injuries. It was observed that major injuries were caused during children playing with the machine and workers feeding the fodder in to the chute. Further, a survey of chaff cutter manufacturers was conducted to determine the critical dimensions of the machine so that safety interventions could be developed. Based on the survey results and mechanism of injuries, three safety interventions were developed to prevent the injuries. These interventions can be retrofitted on old machines and can be incorporated in new machines as well. Experiments were conducted using different fodder crops to observe difficulty in chaff cutting with the safety interventions. It was observed that incorporation of the interventions had no effect on performance of chaff cutting operation. These were retrofitted on existing machines at different locations and the response was very positive. PMID:22551169

  5. Is It Safe? Injury Prevention for Young Children. Suggestions for Teachers, Parents and Other Care Providers of Children to Age 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Becky J.

    The United States has a higher child mortality rate than most other industrialized countries, but most childhood injuries, although called "accidents," are the result of predictable and preventable behavior. This book demonstrates how teachers, parents, and caregivers can provide and maintain safe environments while teaching children how to avoid…

  6. 75 FR 7284 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Institutional Collaboration Between Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Malaria, Funding Opportunity...

  7. 75 FR 22816 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Revitalizing Core...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Revitalizing Core Environmental Health Programs Through the Environmental...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the aforementioned meeting: Times...

  8. Influence of Risk Factors for Child Disruptive Behavior on Parent Attendance at a Preventive Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sarah M.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Lochman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Although preventive interventions that include both parent and child components produce stronger effects on disruptive behavior than child-only interventions, engaging parents in behavioral parent training is a significant challenge. This study examined the effects of specific risk factors for child disruptive behavior on parent attendance in…

  9. 3 CFR 8949 - Proclamation 8949 of March 29, 2013. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8949 of March 29, 2013 Proc. 8949 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013By the President of the... experienced abuse or neglect, it is a promise that goes tragically unfulfilled. National Child Abuse... addressing child abuse a priority. Since I took office, we have advocated for responsible parenting...

  10. Their Children's First Educators: Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa

    2012-01-01

    In this descriptive focus group study, we investigated parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education at home and in schools. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 30 Australian adults who identified as the parent or caregiver of a child/children aged 0-5 years. The study explored (1) parents' "knowledge" about child sexual…

  11. Randomized Trial of a Statewide Home Visiting Program: Impact in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Anne; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Fuddy, Loretta; Burrell, Lori; Higman, Susan M.; Windham, Amy; Sia, Calvin

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the impact of home visiting in preventing child abuse and neglect in the first 3 years of life in families identified as at-risk of child abuse through population-based screening at the child's birth. Methods: This experimental study focused on Hawaii Healthy Start Program (HSP) sites operated by three community-based…

  12. Keeping Kids Safe: A Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Manual. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Pnina; Kessner, Sue Levinson

    The material in this book is intended to provide a review of information regarding child abuse prevention. It is divided into two sections. Part 1, The Facilitator's Guide, contains background information on child sexual abuse, with a particular emphasis on the dynamics of incest and other sexual abuse and their effects on the child. It presents a…

  13. Conditioning the heart to prevent myocardial reperfusion injury during PPCI

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    For patients presenting with a ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), early myocardial reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) remains the most effective treatment strategy for limiting myocardial infarct size, preserving left ventricular systolic function, and preventing the onset of heart failure. Recent advances in PCI technology to improve myocardial reperfusion and the introduction of novel anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic agents to maintain the patency of the infarct-related coronary artery continue to optimize PPCI procedure. However, despite these improvements, STEMI patients still experience significant major adverse cardiovascular events. One major contributing factor has been the inability to protect the heart against the lethal myocardial reperfusion injury, which accompanies PPCI. Past attempts to translate cardioprotective strategies, discovered in experimental studies to prevent lethal myocardial reperfusion injury, into the clinical setting of PPCI have been disappointing. However, a number of recent proof-of-concept clinical studies suggest that the heart can be ‘conditioned’ to protect itself against lethal myocardial reperfusion injury, as evidenced by a reduction in myocardial infarct size. This can be achieved using either mechanical (such as ischaemic postconditioning, remote ischaemic preconditioning, therapeutic hypothermia, or hyperoxaemia) or pharmacological (such as cyclosporin-A, natriuretic peptide, exenatide) ‘conditioning’ strategies as adjuncts to PPCI. Furthermore, recent developments in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging can provide a non-invasive imaging strategy for assessing the efficacy of these novel adjunctive therapies to PPCI in terms of key surrogate clinical endpoints such as myocardial infarct size, myocardial salvage, left ventricular ejection fraction, and the presence of microvascular obstruction or intramyocardial haemorrhage. In this article, we review the

  14. Recording actions to prevent child morbidity in children's health cards.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Daniele de Souza; Santos, Nathanielly Cristina Carvalho de Brito; Costa, Dayse Kalyne Gomes da; Pereira, Mayara de Melo; Vaz, Elenice Maria Cecchetti; Reichert, Altamira Pereira da Silva

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the registering of preventative actions in relation to child morbidity using information regarding vaccinations, as well as iron and vitamin A supplements, which are recorded in children's health cards. This transversal study used a quantitative approach and was performed in Family Health Units in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba; the sampling was by convenience and totaled 116 children's health cards. The data was collected by observing the cards and the analysis was simple, statistical. The highest percentage of children had their vaccination cards up to date (92.2%) and those that did not were aged between 6 and 12 months: 78.9% of the cards did not have records relating to iron and vitamin A supplements and others only had records of one of the supplements being administered. The vaccination status of children in the first year of life was found to be satisfactory; however, discrepancies were observed in the recordings of the administration of iron and vitamin A supplements, which complicates monitoring performed by child health care professionals. It is hoped that this study will contribute to discussions and strategies aimed at improving the monitoring and recording of micronutrients in children's health cards. PMID:27383363

  15. Preventing School Injuries: A Comprehensive Guide for School Administrators, Teachers, and Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Marc

    Every aspect of coping with injuries and preventing injuries in school settings is covered in this book. It examines how and why students are injured and in what situations schools can be held responsible. It also explains how schools can provide a quick, efficient, and effective emergency response to injuries. How to collect injury data, how to…

  16. Multicenter assessment of burn team injury prevention knowledge.

    PubMed

    Klas, Karla S; Smith, Sue Jane; Matherly, Annette F; Dillard, B Daniel; Grant, Ernest J; Cusick-Jost, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Engaging burn professionals to utilize "teachable moments" and provide accurate fire safety and burn prevention (FSBP) education is essential in reducing injury incidence. Minimal data is available regarding burn clinicians' evidence-based FSBP knowledge. A committee of prevention professionals developed, pilot-tested, and distributed a 52-question online survey assessing six major categories: demographical information (n = 7); FSBP knowledge (n = 24); home FSBP practices (n = 6); burn center FSBP education (n = 7); self-assessed competence and confidence in providing FSBP education (n = 2); and improving ABA reach (n = 6). Responses with <50% completion of FSBP knowledge section were excluded. Total group's (TG) mean FSBP score of 61.5% was used to define and compare underperformers (UP). After excluding 36 incomplete responses, test scores ranged: TG (n = 427) 21-88% and UP (n = 183) 21-58%. Ten FSBP knowledge questions covering seven topics were incorrectly answered by >50% of TG. ANOVA showed self-reported competence and confidence in providing FSBP education were not good predictors of FSBP scores, but staff with <2 years experience scored lower. Over 90% of TG wants FSBP fact sheets for patient education. Burn professionals have a responsibility to educate patients, families, and communities on FSBP. Team members report competence and confidence in their ability to provide FSBP education. However, this multicenter survey demonstrates the need for professional training on best practices in injury prevention, specifically targeting knowledge gaps on: smoke alarms, fire-safe cigarettes, children's sleepwear, burn/fire epidemiology, fireworks, bathing/scald injuries, and residential sprinklers. Based on these findings, FSBP educational materials will be created. PMID:25094010

  17. A Guide To The Prevention Of Running Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Clement, D. B.; Taunton, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    In North America, estimates of recreational runners have grown from two million in 1970 to 30 million in 1979. In Canada increased interest in running has been sparked by Participaction. Habituation to running is attributed to a sense of wellbeing and increased energy levels, as well as the possibility of reducing the threat of cardiovascular disease. Musculoskeletal injury is common to runners and can be prevented by carefully planned training programs, proper selection of training surface, regular stretching and strength drills, the use of protective footwear and balancing of vulnerable biomechanical alignments with functional orthotics in shoes. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:21293616

  18. Prediction and Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Su Rin; Kim, Won Ho; Kim, Dong Joon; Shin, Il-Woo; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery (CS-AKI) ranges from 33% to 94% and is associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. The etiology is suggested to be multifactorial and related to almost all aspects of perioperative management. Numerous studies have reported the risk factors and risk scores and novel biomarkers of AKI have been investigated to facilitate the subclinical diagnosis of AKI. Based on the known independent risk factors, many preventive interventions to reduce the risk of CS-AKI have been tested. However, any single preventive intervention did not show a definite and persistent benefit to reduce the incidence of CS-AKI. Goal-directed therapy has been considered to be a preventive strategy with a substantial level of efficacy. Many pharmacologic agents were tested for any benefit to treat or prevent CS-AKI but the results were conflicting and evidences are still lacking. The present review will summarize the current updated evidences about the risk factors and preventive strategies for CS-AKI. PMID:27419130

  19. Rear seating and risk of injury to child occupants by vehicle type.

    PubMed

    Winston, F K; Durbin, D R; Kallan, M J; Elliott, M R

    2001-01-01

    The safety of rear-seated child passengers was evaluated across vehicle types. 113,887 children under age 16 in crashes were enrolled as part of an on-going crash surveillance system which links insurance claims data to telephone survey and crash investigation data. Children in the second row suffered less significant injuries than those in the front in all vehicle types except compact extended cab pickup trucks in which the risk for children in the rear was 13% as compared to 2.8% for front-seated occupants. Further research is needed to identify the child and vehicle characteristics which might explain this increased injury risk. PMID:12214365

  20. Are Child Passengers Bringing Up the Rear? Evidence For Differential Improvements in Injury Risk Between Drivers and their Child Passengers

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Flaura K; Xie, Dawei; Durbin, Dennis R; Elliott, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    Since nearly half of children fatally injured in automobile crashes were restrained, optimizing occupant protection systems for children is essential to reducing morbidity and mortality. Data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study were used to compare the differential injury risk between drivers and their child passengers in the same crash, with a focus on vehicle model year. A matched cohort design and conditional logistic regression model were used in the analyses. Overall, injury risk for drivers was higher than for children, but the risk difference was largest for the oldest model year vehicles, particularly for children aged 4–8 in seat belts. While drivers experienced significant benefits in safety with increasing model years, children restrained by safety belts alone derived less safety benefit from newer vehicles. PMID:18184488

  1. Utilizing Online Training for Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Benefits and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paranal, Rechelle; Thomas, Kiona Washington; Derrick, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of child sexual abuse demands innovative approaches to prevent further victimization. The online environment provides new opportunities to expand existing child sexual abuse prevention trainings that target adult gatekeepers and allow for large scale interventions that are fiscally viable. This article discusses the benefits and…

  2. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A review of School Policy and Curriculum Provision in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.

    2013-01-01

    The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…

  3. Comprehensive Outcomes Planning: Strategies for a Non-Profit Child Abuse Prevention Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Christina Olenik; Davis, Stephanie Rice

    This paper discusses the development of evaluation strategies for a nonprofit child abuse prevention agency in Maryland. The Family Tree, an organization associated with National Parents Anonymous and the National Exchange Club Foundation for the Prevention of Child Abuse, serves more than 15,000 people per year through community training,…

  4. Early Childhood Intervention Programs: Opportunities and Challenges for Preventing Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asawa, Lindsay E.; Hansen, David J.; Flood, Mary Fran

    2008-01-01

    Due to the destructive impact of child maltreatment and limited available funding to address its consequences, the value of preventive measures is evident. Early Childhood Intervention Programs (ECIPs) provide excellent opportunities to prevent and identify cases of child maltreatment, among other varied objectives. These programs are typically…

  5. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: Durham Family Initiative Implementation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Durham Family Initiative (DFI) is one of two community-based child abuse prevention efforts that comprise The Duke Endowment's Child Abuse Prevention Initiative. Beginning in 2002, the Endowment provided support to the Durham Family Initiative (DFI) in North Carolina and Strong Communities in South Carolina to develop a comprehensive approach…

  6. The Ability of Elementary School Children to Learn Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutty, Leslie M.

    1992-01-01

    This evaluation of a child abuse prevention program with 200 children (Grades K, 1, 3, and 6) 5 months after a child abuse prevention program found participating children scored significantly higher on the Children's Knowledge of Abuse Questionnaire than did controls. Age was a critical factor. All participants maintained their level of knowledge…

  7. Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Project. Final Report: Innovations in Protective Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis-Small, Lucretia

    This final report is a process evaluation of the Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Project describing the efforts to develop a statewide philosophy and an operational plan in Texas toward primary and secondary prevention of child abuse and neglect. Discussion focuses on the background and origin of the project, first and second year operations…

  8. A League Table of Child Deaths by Injury in Rich Nations. Innocenti Report Card, Issue No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Peter; Micklewright, John; Wright, Anna

    Noting that injuries are the leading cause of child death in all the world's more developed countries, this report is the second in a series of "Innocenti Report Cards" designed to monitor the performance of industrialized nations in meeting the needs of their children. The report focuses on child death by injury in the member countries of the…

  9. Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome following Head Injury in a Child Managed Successfully with Fludrocortisone

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Nagendra; Pathak, Santosh; Gupta, Murli Manohar; Agrawal, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome is an important cause of hyponatremia in head injuries apart from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Proper diagnosis and differentiation between these two entities are necessary for management as the treatment is quite opposite in both conditions. Fludrocortisone can help in managing CSW where alone saline infusion does not work. We report a 17-month-old female child with head injury managed successfully with saline infusion and fludrocortisone. PMID:27213068

  10. Mechanisms of cardiac radiation injury and potential preventive approaches.

    PubMed

    Slezak, Jan; Kura, Branislav; Ravingerová, Táňa; Tribulova, Narcisa; Okruhlicova, Ludmila; Barancik, Miroslav

    2015-09-01

    In addition to cytostatic treatment and surgery, the most common cancer treatment is gamma radiation. Despite sophisticated radiological techniques however, in addition to irradiation of the tumor, irradiation of the surrounding healthy tissue also takes place, which results in various side-effects, depending on the absorbed dose of radiation. Radiation either damages the cell DNA directly, or indirectly via the formation of oxygen radicals that in addition to the DNA damage, react with all cell organelles and interfere with their molecular mechanisms. The main features of radiation injury besides DNA damage is inflammation and increased expression of pro-inflammatory genes and cytokines. Endothelial damage and dysfunction of capillaries and small blood vessels plays a particularly important role in radiation injury. This review is focused on summarizing the currently available data concerning the mechanisms of radiation injury, as well as the effectiveness of various antioxidants, anti-inflammatory cytokines, and cytoprotective substances that may be utilized in preventing, mitigating, or treating the toxic effects of ionizing radiation on the heart. PMID:26030720

  11. Injury prevention and risk communication: a mental models approach.

    PubMed

    Austin, Laurel C; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2012-04-01

    Individuals' decisions and behaviour can play a critical role in determining both the probability and severity of injury. Behavioural decision research studies peoples' decision-making processes in terms comparable to scientific models of optimal choices, providing a basis for focusing interventions on the most critical opportunities to reduce risks. That research often seeks to identify the 'mental models' that underlie individuals' interpretations of their circumstances and the outcomes of possible actions. In the context of injury prevention, a mental models approach would ask why people fail to see risks, do not make use of available protective interventions or misjudge the effectiveness of protective measures. If these misunderstandings can be reduced through context-appropriate risk communications, then their improved mental models may help people to engage more effectively in behaviours that they judge to be in their own best interest. If that proves impossible, then people may need specific instructions, not trusting to intuition or even paternalistic protection against situations that they cannot sufficiently control. The method entails working with domain specialists to elicit and create an expert model of the risk situation, interviewing lay people to elicit their comparable mental models, and developing and evaluating communication interventions designed to close the gaps between lay people and experts. This paper reviews the theory and method behind this research stream and uses examples to discuss how the approach can be used to develop scientifically validated context-sensitive injury risk communications. PMID:22088928

  12. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Are We Ready?

    PubMed Central

    Almuneef, Maha; Al-Eissa, Majid

    2011-01-01

    Although child abuse and neglect (CAN) have been recognized by medical professionals for the last 20 years, child protection services and child maltreatment prevention programs are still emerging in Saudi Arabia. This paper will review the progress made in the country in terms of recognition and implementation of child protection services. Furthermore, it will draw attention to the essential steps required to start child maltreatment prevention programs, as CAN prevention is currently viewed as a global healthcare priority with an emphasis on evidence-based interventions. In addition, this paper will assess Saudi Arabia's readiness to prevent CAN and the challenges that will be faced by the professionals in implementing evidence-based CAN prevention programs. PMID:22048511

  13. Analysis of fatal pedestrian injuries in King County, WA, and prospects for prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Rivara, F P; Reay, D T; Bergman, A B

    1989-01-01

    Pedestrian fatalities caused by motor vehicles in King County, WA, over a 12-month period were reviewed to examine the potential for prevention by various strategies. Cases were identified through the King County Medical Examiner's Office. Between April 1, 1985, and March 31, 1986, a total of 38 pedestrians died of motor vehicle injuries. The victims were generally children (N = 11), the elderly (N = 13), or intoxicated adults (N = 9). Supervision of the child was inadequate in 64 percent of the children's deaths. The driver was at fault in deaths of seven children, five adults, and three elderly persons. None of the children and only one of the elderly victims was injured at night. The majority of injuries occurred on major thorough-fares; only 16 percent occurred on residential streets. Possible strategies for prevention appear to include improved enforcement of pedestrian right-of-way laws, changes in vehicle design, modification of the environment (particularly in urban areas), and improved training programs for children. PMID:2498980

  14. [Measures to prevent injuries related to bicycle seats].

    PubMed

    Martelli, A; Angrisano, A; Verdoni, F

    1999-01-01

    Injuries related to the use of bicycle seats are increasing due to the more frequent use of bicycles, mostly in metropolis. Several cases of children who suffered lesions to the lower limbs are reported from which we may summarize the most frequent clinical features, characterized by a foot swelling caused by the crushing between the wheel spokes, with different degrees of skin injuries. Fractures of the lower part of the leg bones are frequent as well. A greater number of cases was reported in summertime and, in all the bicycles, there was no spoke cover and the seats did not provide any protection to the feet. So far no precise rules for the marketing approval of bicycle seats have been fixed by UE, contrary to what has been already set for cars. Therefore, we suggest that such rules should soon be enforced. We also recommend the compulsory use of the helmet, as in other countries. We underline the usefulness of a more detailed epidemiological monitoring to better understand the dynamic of such traumatic events and, consequently, achieve some further improvements in the seats design, for an increased safety. The critical factor in prevention, however, will always remain a proper sanitary education. In the general chapter of accidents prevention, pediatrics should provide the parents with all the indications and cautions concerned with bicycle seat safety. PMID:10356943

  15. Acute Kidney Injury by Radiographic Contrast Media: Pathogenesis and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Faga, Teresa; Pisani, Antonio; Michael, Ashour

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that iodinated radiographic contrast media may cause kidney dysfunction, particularly in patients with preexisting renal impairment associated with diabetes. This dysfunction, when severe, will cause acute renal failure (ARF). We may define contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) as ARF occurring within 24–72 hrs after the intravascular injection of iodinated radiographic contrast media that cannot be attributed to other causes. The mechanisms underlying contrast media nephrotoxicity have not been fully elucidated and may be due to several factors, including renal ischaemia, particularly in the renal medulla, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduction of nitric oxide (NO) production, and tubular epithelial and vascular endothelial injury. However, contrast-induced AKI can be prevented, but in order to do so, we need to know the risk factors. We have reviewed the risk factors for contrast-induced AKI and measures for its prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers to deeply evaluate them both. PMID:25197639

  16. The new trend in back injury prevention programs

    SciTech Connect

    Rummerfield, P.D.

    1996-12-31

    The reduction in Worker`s Compensation costs through lumbar strengthening programs is now a proven approach. This is the beginning of a new era in injury prevention. Imagine a test for muscle imbalance along with the strength of all the major muscle groups of every person on the mine site. Occupations, such as roof bolters, and operators of haul trucks, dozers, scrapers, continuous miners and shuttle cars could be tested for musculoskeletal strength of the spine and extremities. With this test data you could then compare your findings to the strength norms necessary for that person to perform his/her job task safely. Armed with this information, you could drastically reduce Workers` Compensation costs due to strains and sprains. Earl Hoerner, M.D. and Robert Wainwright, P.T. have consolidated these cutting-edge technologies that will produce the benchmark for industrial injury prevention for the next century. These technologies are available today, waiting to be used in an industrial setting by a management team with vision.

  17. Acute kidney injury by radiographic contrast media: pathogenesis and prevention.

    PubMed

    Andreucci, Michele; Faga, Teresa; Pisani, Antonio; Sabbatini, Massimo; Michael, Ashour

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that iodinated radiographic contrast media may cause kidney dysfunction, particularly in patients with preexisting renal impairment associated with diabetes. This dysfunction, when severe, will cause acute renal failure (ARF). We may define contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) as ARF occurring within 24-72 hrs after the intravascular injection of iodinated radiographic contrast media that cannot be attributed to other causes. The mechanisms underlying contrast media nephrotoxicity have not been fully elucidated and may be due to several factors, including renal ischaemia, particularly in the renal medulla, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduction of nitric oxide (NO) production, and tubular epithelial and vascular endothelial injury. However, contrast-induced AKI can be prevented, but in order to do so, we need to know the risk factors. We have reviewed the risk factors for contrast-induced AKI and measures for its prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers to deeply evaluate them both. PMID:25197639

  18. Proximate Effects of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program in Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Piche, Christiane; Poitras, Michele

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the sexual child abuse prevention program ESPACE were evaluated with 133 Canadian children (grades 1-3). Children participating in the prevention program showed greater preventive knowledge and skills relative to children not participating. Follow-up data showed knowledge gains were maintained while the preventive skill gains may…

  19. The science of softball: implications for performance and injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Flyger, Nicholas; Button, Chris; Rishiraj, Neetu

    2006-01-01

    Whilst the sport of softball has achieved worldwide popularity over the last 100 years, a consideration of the scientific principles underpinning softball is in its infancy. It is clear that the various motor skills associated with softball, such as pitching, batting and fielding, place considerable perceptual and physical demands upon players. Each of these skill categories are examined in more detail by reviewing the biomechanical principles associated with skilled performance. For pitching, a certain amount of information can be gleaned from baseball research; however, the underarm technique required by softball places the highest loads on the arm and shoulder during the accelerative, downward phase of the swing. Kinematic analyses of the bat swing suggest that elite batters have approximately 200 ms to decide whether to swing, and approximately the same duration to complete the swing (resulting in reported bat speeds of up to 40 m/sec). The research conducted on fielding has been limited to a consideration of throwing styles adopted in games. A variety of throwing techniques are adopted in the course of a typical game but elite players commonly adopt a sidearm technique when returning to base as quickly as possible. Data obtained from the National Athletic Training Association indicate a similar level of injury incidence in softball as in baseball. Approximately 17% of injuries are experienced by the pitcher and approximately 25% of all injuries are located in the forearm/wrist/hand joint segments. Sports science and sports medicine research have the potential to contribute significantly to performance enhancement and injury prevention in the future. PMID:16937954

  20. Formative research to develop theory-based messages for a Western Australian child drowning prevention television campaign: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Denehy, Mel; Crawford, Gemma; Leavy, Justine; Nimmo, Lauren; Jancey, Jonine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Worldwide, children under the age of 5 years are at particular risk of drowning. Responding to this need requires the development of evidence-informed drowning prevention strategies. Historically, drowning prevention strategies have included denying access, learning survival skills and providing supervision, as well as education and information which includes the use of mass media. Interventions underpinned by behavioural theory and formative evaluation tend to be more effective, yet few practical examples exist in the drowning and/or injury prevention literature. The Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive Theory will be used to explore participants' perspectives regarding proposed mass media messaging. This paper describes a qualitative protocol to undertake formative research to develop theory-based messages for a child drowning prevention campaign. Methods and analysis The primary data source will be focus group interviews with parents and caregivers of children under 5 years of age in metropolitan and regional Western Australia. Qualitative content analysis will be used to analyse the data. Ethics and dissemination This study will contribute to the drowning prevention literature to inform the development of future child drowning prevention mass media campaigns. Findings from the study will be disseminated to practitioners, policymakers and researchers via international conferences, peer and non-peer-reviewed journals and evidence summaries. The study was submitted and approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee. PMID:27207621

  1. Prevention Programs to Augment Family and Child Resilience Can Have Lasting Effects on Suicidal Risk.

    PubMed

    Brent, David

    2016-04-01

    In this commentary, the effects of four family-based preventive interventions designed to augment parent and child resilience, originally designed to prevent mental health and substance abuse, on suicide ideation and attempts are reviewed. Three of the preventive interventions showed a beneficial effect either on child suicide ideation or attempts, and one found a beneficial effect on parental suicidal ideation. The duration of effects in two of these studies was well longer than a decade. These studies suggest that interventions to augment family and child resiliency originally designed to prevent mental health and substance abuse disorders can also have beneficial, often long-term, effects on suicidal ideation and behavior. PMID:27094110

  2. Preventing Child and Adolescent Firearm Injuries. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie

    In an effort to reduce the current epidemic of gun violence among children and adolescents in the United States, this fact sheet presents various approaches to reducing access to and interest in carrying firearms. Suggested approaches to reducing access include: (1) urging parents to turn in their guns to police; (2) repealing anti-gun control…

  3. 75 FR 75855 - Presidential Determination With Respect To Section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Respect To Section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 Memorandum for the Secretary of... of America, pursuant to section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 (CSPA), title...

  4. Preventing Workplace Injuries and Illnesses through Ergonomics. Listening to Our Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosskam, Ellen; Baichoo, Pavan

    1997-01-01

    Ergonomics focuses on the prevention of injuries through proper design of equipment, workstations, and products. The adoption of an ergonomic philosophy in the workplace has demonstrable benefits. (JOW)

  5. Mitigating Concerns and Maximizing Returns: Social Media Strategies for Injury Prevention Non-profits

    PubMed Central

    McMillan-Cottom, Tressie

    2014-01-01

    Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs) with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns. PMID:25157305

  6. Preventing Preventable Harm to Babies: Promoting Health and Safety in Child Care. Better Care for the Babies Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Abbey

    This report covers the risks to health, safety, and emotional well-being for infants and toddlers in child care settings, and examines opportunities for diminishing those risks and promoting healthy development. Part 1 examines the risks of poor caregiving practices, including the spread of infectious disease, the incidence of injury, and the…

  7. Influence of changing travel patterns on child death rates from injury: trend analysis.

    PubMed Central

    DiGuiseppi, C.; Roberts, I.; Li, L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in child mortality from unintentional injury between 1985 and 1992 and to find how changes in modes of travel contributed to these trends. DESIGN: Poisson regression modelling using data from death certificates, censuses, and national travel surveys. SETTING: England and Wales. SUBJECTS: Resident children aged 0-14. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deaths from unintentional injury and poisoning. RESULTS: Child deaths from injury declined by 34% (95% confidence interval 28% to 40%) per 100,000 population between 1985 and 1992. Substantial decreases in each of the leading causes of death from injury contributed to this overall decline. On average, children walked and cycled less distance and travelled substantially more miles by car in 1992 compared with 1985. Deaths from road traffic accidents declined for pedestrians by 24% per mile walked and for cyclists by 20% per mile cycled, substantially less than the declines per 100,000 population of 37% and 38% respectively. In contrast, deaths of occupants of motor vehicles declined by 42% per mile travelled by car compared with a 21% decline per 100,000 population. CONCLUSIONS: If trends in child mortality from injury continue the government's target to reduce the rate by 33% by the year 2005 will be achieved. A substantial proportion of the decline in pedestrian traffic and pedal cycling deaths, however, seems to have been achieved at the expense of children's walking and cycling activities. Changes in travel patterns may exact a considerable price in terms of future health problems. PMID:9116546

  8. Utility of self-reported mental health measures for preventing unintentional injury: results from a cross-sectional study among French schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Identify children at-risk of having mental health problems is of value to prevent injury. But the limited agreement between informants might jeopardize prevention initiatives. The aims of the present study were 1) to test the concordance between parents and children reports, and 2) to investigate their relationships with parental reports of children’ unintentional injuries. Methods In a population-based sample of 1258 children aged 6 to 11, the associations between child psychopathology (using the Dominic Interactive and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and unintentional injuries in the past 12 months were examined in univariate and multivariate models. Results As compared to children, parents tended to overestimate behavior problems and hyperactivity/inattention, and underestimate emotional symptoms. Unintentional injury in the last 12-month period was reported in 184 out of 1258 children (14.6%) and multivariate analyses showed that the risk of injury was twice as high in children self-reporting hyperactivity/inattention as compared to others. However this association was not retrieved with the parent-reported instrument. Conclusion Our findings support evidence that child-reported measures of psychopathology might provide relevant information for screening and injury prevention purposes, even at a young age. It could be used routinely in combination with others validated tools. PMID:24397489

  9. Yours faithfully -- prevention of parent to child transmission (PPTCT).

    PubMed

    Ray, Sabyasachi; Basak, Subhadeep; Konar, Hiralal

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study is to find out the reasons behind drop out of the mothers from the prevention of parent to child transmission (PPTCT) programme, thereby going undiagnosed of their HIV serostatus. A retrospective 6-year study was undertaken among mothers attending antenatal clinic and the unbooked cases delivering at the medical college. The percentage of mothers taking pretest counselling was 95.19; 94.09 per cent agreed to have their blood tested among those who had registered at the antenatal clinic only. Of them, 33 were found to be seropositive, 12 being found in 2009 alone. But the daily average of unbooked cases delivering at this institution was 16.42 out of 28. And a huge number (58.9%) were unregistered ie, unknown HIV serostatus deliveries were taken place during this 6-year of study (2004-2009). By this study we have found out that our ignorance, work pressure and patients' lack of knowledge, fear of so called 'HIV-AIDS', social stigmas are creating the big gaps in PPTCT programme and thus made it unsuccessful. PMID:22315838

  10. Radiological and forensic medicine aspects of traumatic injuries in child abuse.

    PubMed

    Solarino, M; De Filippi, C; Solarino, B

    2009-12-01

    Child abuse is a topical issue in modern society and has social and medical implications which directly concern the doctor, both as a private citizen and as a health professional. Abuse injuries can be of very different types, e.g. physical, psychological or sexual. Hence they require a multidisciplinary and multispecialty approach, which must begin with an accurate medical examination, conducted in compliance with the lege artis principles and with respect for the victim's dignity. Diagnostic imaging becomes essential, together with epicrisis, which is useful to distinguish between accidental and abusive injuries. This paper describes the radiologist's key role in identifying physical injuries due to child abuse, in accordance with current regulations. PMID:19924509

  11. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  12. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  13. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  14. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  15. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  16. Preventing young children's injuries: analysis of data from a population-based surveillance.

    PubMed

    Toblin, Robin L; Brenner, Ruth A; Taneja, Gitanjali S; Rossi, Maryann W; Collins, Millicent; Mickalide, Angela D; Overpeck, Mary D; Clinton-Reid, Yvette; Dever, Jill A; Boyle, Kerrie; Trumble, Ann C; Scheidt, Peter C

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine prevention strategies for potentially serious injury events among children younger than 3 years of age based upon circumstances surrounding injury events. Surveillance was conducted on all injuries to District of Columbia (DC) residents less than 3 years old that resulted in an Emergency Department (ED) visit, hospitalization, or death for 1 year. Data were collected through abstraction of medical records and interviews with a subset of parents of injured children. Investigators coded injury-related events for the potential for death or disability. Potential prevention strategies were then determined for all injury events that had at least a moderate potential for death or disability and sufficient detail for coding (n = 425). Injury-related events included 10 deaths, 163 hospitalizations, and 2,868 ED visits (3,041 events in total). Of the hospitalizations, 88% were coded as moderate or high potential for disability or death, versus only 21% of the coded ED visits. For potentially serious events, environmental change strategies were identified for 47%, behavior change strategies for 77%, and policy change strategies for 24%. For 46% of the events more than one type of prevention strategy was identified. Only 8% had no identifiable prevention strategy. Prevention strategies varied by specific cause of injury. Potential prevention strategies were identifiable for nearly all potentially serious injury events, with multiple potential prevention strategies identified for a large fraction of the events. These findings support developing multifaceted prevention approaches informed by community-based injury surveillance. PMID:21904860

  17. 78 FR 24751 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Continuing Prospective Birth Cohort Study Involving Environmental Uranium Exposure in the Navajo Nation,...

  18. 77 FR 61756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  19. 78 FR 66937 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  20. 78 FR 9926 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  1. 78 FR 37542 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  2. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  3. 77 FR 36544 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  4. 78 FR 60875 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  5. 78 FR 60877 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  6. 75 FR 52356 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: National Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: National Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Behavioral...

  7. 75 FR 46952 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): National Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Behavioral...

  8. 75 FR 55806 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Patient...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Infections Program (EIP), Enhancing Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity, Funding Opportunity Announcement... applications received in response to ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), Emerging...

  9. 75 FR 39033 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Patient...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Infections Program (EIP), Enhancing Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity, Funding Opportunity Announcement... in response to ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), Emerging Infections Program...

  10. 76 FR 9018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Emerging...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Emerging Infections Sentinel Network (EISN) Research, Funding... initial review, discussion, and evaluation of applications received in response to ``Emerging...

  11. The child and adolescent athlete: a review of three potentially serious injuries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The increased participation of children and adolescents in organized sports worldwide is a welcome trend given evidence of lower physical fitness and increased prevalence of overweight in this population. However, the increased sports activity of children from an early age and continued through the years of growth, against a background of their unique vulnerability to injury, gives rise to concern about the risk and severity of injury. Three types of injury–anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, concussion, and physeal injury – are considered potentially serious given their frequency, potential for adverse long-term health outcomes, and escalating healthcare costs. Concussion is probably the hottest topic in sports injury currently with voracious media coverage and exploding research interest. Given the negative cognitive effects of concussion, it has the potential to have a great impact on children and adolescents during their formative years and potentially impair school achievement and, if concussion management is not managed appropriately, there can be long term negative impact on cognitive development and ability to resume sports participation. Sudden and gradual onset physeal injury is a unique injury to the pediatric population which can adversely affect growth if not managed correctly. Although data are lacking, the frequency of stress-related physeal injury appears to be increasing. If mismanaged, physeal injuries can also lead to long-term complications which could negatively affect ability to participate in sports. Management of ACL injuries is an area of controversy and if not managed appropriately, can affect long-term growth and recovery as well as the ability to participate in sports. This article considers the young athlete’s vulnerability to injury, with special reference to ACL injury, concussion, and physeal injury, and reviews current research on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these injury types. This article is

  12. Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior and its predictors in southwest rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Fentahun, Netsanet; Lachat, Carl; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Background Inappropriate child feeding and caring practices are a major cause of malnutrition. To date, no studies have examined concordance and discordance of child feeding and preventive behavior and their predictors in developing countries. Methods We used baseline data generated from A 2-year-longitudinal agriculture-nutrition panel survey conducted from February 9 to April 9, 2014, in nine districts encompassing 20 randomly selected counties in Oromiya Region and Southern Nation, Nationality and Peoples Region in Ethiopia. Households were recruited using the Expanded Program on Immunization sampling method. A total of 623 children under the age of 5 years and their respective caregivers were included in the analyses. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for clustered observations. Results Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was observed in 45.1% of the children, while 45.5% of the children were suffering from discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Concordance and discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior had almost different predictors. Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was significantly associated with the age of the caretaker of ≥40 years (odds ratio (OR)=2.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 4.41), low household dietary diversity (OR=3.69; 95% CI: 1.93, 7.04), medium household dietary diversity (OR=2.17; 95% CI: 1.17, 4.00), severe household food insecurity (OR=1.72; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.93), and increase with increasing child age. Conclusion A substantial number of children in the southwest of rural Ethiopia are exposed to both poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Low household dietary diversity and extreme food insecurity household were predictors of concordance of poor child feeding and poor preventive behavior and provide useful entry points for comprehensive interventions to address child feeding and caring in the area. PMID:27511625

  13. Strategies for Playground Injury Prevention: An Overview of a Playground Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Heather; Hudson, Susan D.; Thompson, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Preventing injuries to children, especially debilitating and life threatening, requires an awareness of where these types of injuries occur during the school days. This review examines falls from playground equipment, events that have been identified as the leading causes of nonfatal unintentional injuries for children. Thus, the issue of…

  14. Preventing Unintentional Injuries in the Home Using the Health Impact Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Karin A.; Liller, Karen D.; Baldwin, Grant; Sleet, David

    2015-01-01

    Injuries continue to be the leading cause of death for the first four decades of life. These injuries result from a confluence of behavioral, physical, structural, environmental, and social factors. Taken together, these illustrate the importance of taking a broad and multileveled approach to injury prevention. Using examples from fall, fire,…

  15. Prevention in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: The Reduction of Risk for Mental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David, Ed.; And Others

    The book describes Project Prevention, an interdisciplinary project developed by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, to identify risk factors for mental disorders and preventive interventions. After an introductory chapter, the following eight chapters cover: the scope of Project Prevention; children at high risk (e.g.,…

  16. Aging and Spinal Cord Injury: External Causes of Injury and Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ying; Allen, Victoria; DeVivo, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite a consistent trend toward older age at time of spinal cord injury (SCI), little is known about the external causes of SCI in the elderly. Objective: To examine environmental circumstances, documented by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification codes, at time of SCI among older adults. Method: Data on individuals injured in 2005 or later were retrieved from the National SCI Database. Demographics, injury profiles, and external causes of injury were compared between the study group (age >60 years, n = 1,079) and reference group (age 16–45 years, n = 3,579) using chi-square and Student t tests. Results: Among the elderly, falls were the most common etiology of SCI (60%), followed by transport accidents (24%) and complications of medical and surgical care (12%). In the younger group, transport accidents were the most common etiology of SCI (49%), followed by falls (22%) and assault (21%). Falls on the same level (30%), from stairs and steps (22%), and other slipping, tripping, and stumbling (11%) were the most common mechanisms of falls in the elderly group. Among motor vehicle accidents, car occupant injured in a collision with another car was the most common mechanism of injury among the elderly (28%). Conclusion: There is an urgent need for effective fall prevention programs among the elderly to reduce SCI in this expanding population. Details on the mechanisms of falls and other major causes of SCI among the elderly provided in this study should inform the development of future interventions for high-risk persons, activities, and environments. PMID:26363588

  17. A systematic literature review of the relationship between stretching and athletic injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Athletic-related injuries are a major cause for healthcare visits and financial burden for an otherwise healthy population of adults. The purpose of this article was to investigate the effects of stretching on injury prevention and to determine whether current stretching guidelines are beneficial for athletes. A systematic review of the literature was conducted through searching MEDLINE and CINAHL on topics related to stretching and injury prevention. Current belief is that stretching reduces injury incidence and that it should be performed prior to athletic activities. An examination of 11 articles provided inconclusive outcomes regarding the positive effect of stretching on injury prevention. A sport or activity-specific tailored stretch and warm-up program yielded the best outcomes in relation to preventing injuries. Direct negative effects of stretching were not identified; therefore, the application of stretching should be performed on an individual basis. PMID:25401202

  18. Development of the System on the Internet for Pre-Assessment of Child Abuse Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko

    Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.

  19. Promoting Health and Preventing Injury in Preschool Children: The Role of Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemagno, Sonia A.; Niles, Sheila A.; Shaffer-King, Peggy; Miller, William J.

    2008-01-01

    There is concern that parents under stress may not be effective in promoting health and preventing injury in young children, but research in this area has been limited. To explore this issue, a study was conducted to look at the relationship between self-reported parenting stress and actions taken to promote health and to prevent injury in…

  20. 77 FR 2549 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Grants for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Grants for Injury Control Research Centers (Panel 3), Funding... Control Research Centers, Panel 3, FOA CE12-001.'' Contact Person for More Information: Donald...

  1. Toppled television sets and head injuries in the pediatric population: a framework for prevention.

    PubMed

    Cusimano, Michael D; Parker, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to children caused by falling televisions have become more frequent during the last decade. These injuries can be severe and even fatal and are likely to become even more common in the future as TVs increase in size and become more affordable. To formulate guidelines for the prevention of these injuries, the authors systematically reviewed the literature on injuries related to toppling televisions. The authors searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar according to the Cochrane guidelines for all studies involving children 0-18 years of age who were injured by toppled TVs. Factors contributing to injury were categorized using Haddon's Matrix, and the public health approach was used as a framework for developing strategies to prevent these injuries. The vast majority (84%) of the injuries occurred in homes and more than three-fourths were unwitnessed by adult caregivers. The TVs were most commonly large and elevated off the ground. Dressers and other furniture not designed to support TVs were commonly involved in the TV-toppling incident. The case fatality rate varies widely, but almost all deaths reported (96%) were due to brain injuries. Toddlers between the ages of 1 and 3 years most frequently suffer injuries to the head and neck, and they are most likely to suffer severe injuries. Many of these injuries require brain imaging and neurosurgical intervention. Prevention of these injuries will require changes in TV design and legislation as well as increases in public education and awareness. Television-toppling injuries can be easily prevented; however, the rates of injury do not reflect a sufficient level of awareness, nor do they reflect an acceptable effort from an injury prevention perspective. PMID:26416669

  2. The Role of Child Care Settings in Obesity Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Mary; Kaphingst, Karen M.; French, Simone

    2006-01-01

    Mary Story, Karen Kaphingst, and Simone French argue that researchers and policymakers focused on childhood obesity have paid insufficient attention to child care. Although child care settings can be a major force in shaping children's dietary intake, physical activity, and energy balance--and thus in combating the childhood obesity…

  3. Combating Child Homicide: Preventive Policing for the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Monique C.; Lord, Wayne D.

    2005-01-01

    High-profile media coverage of crimes against children has heightened public awareness of critical child safety needs and issues. However, numerous research studies in the area of child homicide have illustrated the importance of the power of science to correct false perceptions and misinformation, improving how to best serve and protect our…

  4. The Role of Home-Visiting Programs in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Kimberly Howard and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn examine home visiting, an increasingly popular method for delivering services for families, as a strategy for preventing child abuse and neglect. They focus on early interventions because infants are at greater risk for child abuse and neglect than are older children. In their article, Howard and Brooks-Gunn…

  5. Children--New York's Greatest Resource: The School's Role in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of General Education.

    This publication is intended to assist school personnel to expand their professional understanding of the problem of child abuse and neglect, improve their reporting procedures, and deal with prevention and support activities within the school and community. The nature, causes, extent, and effects of child abuse and neglect are treated briefly in…

  6. The Educator's Role in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhurst, Diane D.

    The manual delineates the roles of the educator in child abuse and neglect identification, treatment, and prevention. Chapter I addresses the nature, extent, causes, and effects of child abuse and neglect. Chapter II explains why educators should be involved with discussion of legal and ethical issues relating to the problem. A third chapter…

  7. Early Identification of Maternal Depression as a Strategy in the Prevention of Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Dorothy

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of broadening the traditional infant health focus of the Australian Maternal and Child Health Nurse or Public Health Nurse to encompass maternal emotional and social well-being to identify maternal depression and prevent child abuse. Conditions under which mothers would find this role expansion acceptable…

  8. Intervening with New Parents: An Effective Way To Prevent Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize current trends in child abuse prevention and to provide program administrators and policymakers with guidelines for implementing successful new parent programs in their communities. Contents address: (1) the scope of the child abuse problem; (2) a theoretical framework or conceptual model for use in…

  9. 78 FR 6113 - Office of Clinical and Preventive Services Indigenous Child Health-Strong Communities, Healthy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Office of Clinical and Preventive Services Indigenous Child Health--Strong Communities, Healthy Children; Single Source Cooperative Agreement; Funding Announcement Number... Indigenous Child Health. This program is authorized under: the Snyder Act, 25 U.S.C. 13. This program...

  10. News Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse and Prevention, 2007-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Dorfman, Lori

    2012-01-01

    News media coverage of child sexual abuse can help policymakers and the public understand what must be done to prevent future abuse, but coverage tends to focus on extreme cases. This article presents an analysis of newspaper coverage from 2007 to 2009 to describe how the daily news presents and frames day-to-day stories about child sexual abuse.…

  11. 3 CFR - Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers.... 2012-18 of September 28, 2012 Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008... HOUSE, Washington, September 28, 2012....

  12. Before Substantiation: The Role for Child Welfare Agencies in Preventing Maltreatment. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah

    Over the past 30 years, the political response to child maltreatment and its prevention has experienced periods of frantic activity, often followed by long periods of benign neglect. To an extent, this pattern reflects deep differences among child welfare advocates, researchers and practitioners on how best to proceed. While most everyone agrees…

  13. For Kids' Sake: A Child Abuse Prevention and Reporting Kit. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazi, Sherry P., Ed.; Grimes, Linda J., Ed.

    This guidebook was designed to help concerned citizens identify and prevent child abuse. The guidebook provides information about the extent of child abuse in the United States generally and within Oklahoma specifically, and stresses that under Oklahoma state law every adult has the responsibility to report suspected abuse. Programs and services…

  14. Using Benefit-Cost Analysis to Assess Child Abuse Prevention and Intervention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnick, Robert D.; Deppman, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Presents a case for using benefit-cost analysis to structure evaluations of child-abuse prevention and intervention programs. Presents the basic concept of benefit-cost analysis, its application in the context of assessing these types of child welfare programs, and limitations on its application to social service programs. (Author)

  15. State Part C Agency Practices and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Sutton, Danielle Thorp; Fox, Lise; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2008-01-01

    Each year nearly 900,000 cases of child abuse and neglect are substantiated in the United States, with the highest rates of maltreatment occurring among infants and toddlers. Children exposed to maltreatment are at increased risk of developmental delay. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act specifies that children under age 3 with…

  16. Preventing Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission among South African Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varga, Christine; Brookes, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Although prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs are predicated on maternal behavior change, little is known about sociocultural factors affecting maternal-child care practices in this arena. The authors used narrative methods (key informant workshops, questionnaires, focus groups, and case study analysis) to explore how…

  17. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect with Parent Training: Evidence and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have identified four common co-occurring parental risk factors--substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and child conduct problems--that lead to child maltreatment. The extent to which maltreatment prevention programs must directly address these risk factors to improve responsiveness to parenting programs or can directly…

  18. Teachers' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs about Child Abuse and Its Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Nadine; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A nationwide survey of teachers (568 responses) from 40 school districts found that, although the majority of teachers confront child abuse among their students, they are provided insufficient education on how to address it. Other findings concerned teachers' reporting behavior, barriers to reporting, child assault prevention programs, and…

  19. 78 FR 56236 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Elaine L....

  20. 76 FR 78263 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 8 a.m.-5 p.m., January... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: December...

  1. 76 FR 9785 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Programs, National Center for HIV, Hepatitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention, CDC, 1600... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  2. 76 FR 45575 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ..., Extramural Programs, National Center for HIV, Hepatitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention, CDC... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for...

  3. 75 FR 6675 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ..., National Center for HIV, Hepatitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, NE... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),...

  4. Geomatics in injury prevention: the science, the potential and the limitations

    PubMed Central

    Cusimano, M D; Chipman, M; Glazier, R H; Rinner, C; Marshall, S P

    2007-01-01

    Background Geomatics describes the activities involved in acquiring and managing geographical data and producing geographical information for scientific, administrative and technical endeavors. As an emerging science, geomatics has a great potential to support public health. Geomatics provides a conceptual foundation for the development of geographic information systems (GIS), computerized tools that manage and display geographical data for analytical applications. As descriptive epidemiology typically involves the examination of person, place and time in the occurrence of disease or injury, geomatics and GIS can play an important role in understanding and preventing injury. Aim This article provides a background to geomatics for those in the injury prevention field who are unfamiliar with spatial analysis. We hope to stimulate researchers and practitioners to begin to use geomatics to assist in the prevention of injury. Methods The authors illustrate the potential benefits and limitations of geomatics in injury prevention in a non-technical way through the use of maps and analysis. Results By analysing the location of patients treated for fall injuries in Central Toronto using GIS, some demographic and land use variables, such as household income, age, and the location of homeless shelters, were identified as explanatory factors for the spatial distribution. Conclusion By supporting novel approaches to injury prevention, geomatics has a great potential for efforts to combat the burden of injury. Despite some limitations, those with an interest in injury prevention could benefit from this science. PMID:17296690

  5. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kai C.; Liu, Jie J.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice

  6. Penetrating Injury of Pelvis, Abdomen and Thorax in a Child with a Trident (Trishula)

    PubMed Central

    Dar Rawat, Jile; S. Kunnur, Vijaymahantesh; Kushwaha, BB; Kushwaha, Renu

    2013-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal injuries are uncommon in the pediatric age group and are associated with a high mortality. A seven year old girl suffered penetrating injury to perineum when she fell onto the trident (trishula – traditional three pronged spear) implanted alongside Lord Shiva’s idol. The rod caused perforations of the transverse mesocolon, ileum at 3 places, right lobe of liver, diaphragm, parietal pleura, and exited from 7th intercostal space. Surgical repair of each damaged site was undertaken. Despite delayed presentation, the child survived following surgery. PMID:23277885

  7. Differential Risk of Injury in Child Occupants by Passenger Car Classification

    PubMed Central

    Kallan, Michael J.; Durbin, Dennis R.; Elliott, Michael R.; Menon, Rajiv A.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2003-01-01

    In the United States, passenger cars are the most common passenger vehicle, yet they vary widely in size and crashworthiness. Using data collected from a population-based sample of crashes in State Farm-insured vehicles, we quantified the risk of injury to child occupants by passenger car size and classification. Injury risk is predicted by vehicle weight; however, there is an increased risk in both Large vs. Luxury and Sports vs. Small cars, despite similar average vehicle weights in both comparisons. Parents who are purchasing passenger cars should strongly consider the size of the vehicle and its crashworthiness. PMID:12941234

  8. Differential risk of injury in child occupants by passenger car classification.

    PubMed

    Kallan, Michael J; Durbin, Dennis R; Elliott, Michael R; Menon, Rajiv A; Winston, Flaura K

    2003-01-01

    In the United States, passenger cars are the most common passenger vehicle, yet they vary widely in size and crashworthiness. Using data collected from a population-based sample of crashes in State Farm-insured vehicles, we quantified the risk of injury to child occupants by passenger car size and classification. Injury risk is predicted by vehicle weight; however, there is an increased risk in both Large vs. Luxury and Sports vs. Small cars, despite similar average vehicle weights in both comparisons. Parents who are purchasing passenger cars should strongly consider the size of the vehicle and its crashworthiness. PMID:12941234

  9. Analysis of a school bus collision: mechanism of injury in the unrestrained child

    PubMed Central

    Lapner, Peter C.; Nguyen, Duong; Letts, Mervyn

    2003-01-01

    Introduction The most common type of school bus crash resulting in injury and death involves the “rollover” mechanism, which may be linked to bus design. To investigate this possibility, we carried out a detailed investigation of a severe school bus crash. Methods The crash involved 12 children, passengers in the school bus. Analysis included the determination of crash dynamics by examination of physical evidence at the crash site and deformation sustained by the structure of the bus and the other vehicle involved. The mechanism of injury was determined by comparing physical evidence collected inside the bus to injuries sustained by the children. Results Two children sustained severe injuries and 1 child was killed. The most common injuries involved the head, neck and shoulder as demonstrated by 3 illustrative reports. Specified changes to school bus design, based on mechanism of injury to the occupants include, in addition to the compartmentalization now in effect, more padding to the sides of the bus, over the window headers and on the panelling between the windows. Conclusions Injuries to the head, neck and spine are the most common types when children are involved in rollover school bus collisions. For additional safety, changes to the current bus design are needed. PMID:12930103

  10. Early airway pressure release ventilation prevents ARDS-a novel preventive approach to lung injury.

    PubMed

    Roy, Shreyas; Habashi, Nader; Sadowitz, Benjamin; Andrews, Penny; Ge, Lin; Wang, Guirong; Roy, Preyas; Ghosh, Auyon; Kuhn, Michael; Satalin, Joshua; Gatto, Louis A; Lin, Xin; Dean, David A; Vodovotz, Yoram; Nieman, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) afflicts 200,000 patients annually with a mortality rate of 30% to 60% despite wide use of low tidal volume (LTV) ventilation, the present standard of care. High-permeability alveolar edema and instability occur early in the development of ARDS, before clinical signs of lung injury, and represent potential targets for therapy. We hypothesize that early application of a protective ventilation strategy (airway pressure release ventilation [APRV]) will stabilize alveoli and reduce alveolar edema, preventing the development of ARDS. Yorkshire pigs (30-40 kg) were anesthetized and subjected to two-hit injury: (a) intestinal ischemia-reperfusion, (b) peritoneal sepsis, or sham surgery. Following surgery, pigs were randomized into APRV (n = 4), according to current published guidelines for APRV; LTV ventilation (n = 3), using the current published ARDS Network guidelines (6 mL/kg); or sham (n = 5). The clinical care of all pigs was administered per the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines. Animals were killed, and necropsy performed at 48 h. Arterial blood gases were measured to assess for the development of clinical lung injury. Lung tissue epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) was measured to assess alveolar permeability. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) surfactant protein A was measured to assess alveolar stability. Lung edema content and histopathology were analyzed at 48 h. Airway pressure release ventilation pigs did not develop ARDS. In contrast, pigs in the LTV ventilation met ARDS criteria (PaO2/FIO2 ratio) (APRV: baseline = 471 ± 16; 48 h = 392 ± 8; vs. LTV ventilation: baseline = 551 ± 28; 48 h = 138 ± 88; P < 0.001). Airway pressure release ventilation preserved alveolar epithelial integrity demonstrated by higher levels of E-cadherin in lung tissue as compared with LTV ventilation (P < 0.05). Surfactant protein A levels were higher in BALF from the APRV group, suggesting APRV preserved alveolar stability

  11. Preventing Musculoskeletal Sports Injuries in Youth: A Guide for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... major injury. Childhood Sports Injuries: A Common and Serious Problem Like Raoul, more than 38 million children ... ll spend more time having fun in the game and be less likely to be sidelined with ...

  12. Strength Training and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Strength Training and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Strength Training ... help prevent injuries and speed up recovery. About Strength Training Strength training is the practice of using free ...

  13. Cause and Prevention of Playground Injuries and Litigation; Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.; Sweeney, Theodora B.

    This study examined 187 playground injuries and 13 fatalities that resulted in lawsuits between 1981 and 1995, taken from the files of two expert witnesses on playground safety who testified in the cases. The data are presented by geographic location, nature of injuries, cause of injuries/fatalities, playground equipment implicated, location of…

  14. Windsurfing Injuries: Added Awareness for Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Daryl A.; Dietz, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    With proper training and safety precautions, windsurfing is relatively safe, but its unique equipment and unpredictable environmental conditions can produce serious injuries. Clinicians may see fall-related ankle injuries, tarsometatarsal injuries, or anterior shoulder dislocations; chronic low-back pain from torso stress; skin lacerations; and…

  15. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... responsible for the investigation of reported cases of child abuse and child neglect, the treatment and... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What must an application for Indian child protection and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION...

  16. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... responsible for the investigation of reported cases of child abuse and child neglect, the treatment and... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What must an application for Indian child protection and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION...

  17. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... responsible for the investigation of reported cases of child abuse and child neglect, the treatment and... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What must an application for Indian child protection and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION...

  18. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... responsible for the investigation of reported cases of child abuse and child neglect, the treatment and... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What must an application for Indian child protection and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION...

  19. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... responsible for the investigation of reported cases of child abuse and child neglect, the treatment and... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must an application for Indian child protection and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION...

  20. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Prevention of Pediatric Overuse Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Decoster, Laura C.; Loud, Keith J.; Micheli, Lyle J.; Parker, J. Terry; Sandrey, Michelle A.; White, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide certified athletic trainers, physicians, and other health care professionals with recommendations on best practices for the prevention of overuse sports injuries in pediatric athletes (aged 6–18 years). Background: Participation in sports by the pediatric population has grown tremendously over the years. Although the health benefits of participation in competitive and recreational athletic events are numerous, one adverse consequence is sport-related injury. Overuse or repetitive trauma injuries represent approximately 50% of all pediatric sport-related injuries. It is speculated that more than half of these injuries may be preventable with simple approaches. Recommendations: Recommendations are provided based on current evidence regarding pediatric injury surveillance, identification of risk factors for injury, preparticipation physical examinations, proper supervision and education (coaching and medical), sport alterations, training and conditioning programs, and delayed specialization. PMID:21391806

  1. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Under what authority are Indian child protection and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian...

  2. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Under what authority are Indian child protection and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian...

  3. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family...

  4. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Under what authority are Indian child protection and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian...

  5. The health profile of professional soccer players: future opportunities for injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Volpi, Piero; Taioli, Emanuela

    2012-12-01

    Injuries are a major adverse event during a soccer player's career; they require medical and surgical treatment and rehabilitation and thus may interrupt the player's activity, often with severe physical and psychological sequel. Specialists have tried to identify the risk factors for injuries, in an attempt to discover predictors that could be prevented and or eliminated before the injury occurs, but the results are scarce. This article reviews the epidemiology of the frequency and occurrence of injuries in Italian soccer players, reports a list of preventable risk factors that are associated with injuries, and identifies preventable risk factors. We have identified personal factors (age, previous traumatic events, physical and biological characteristics of the player, life style habits such as smoking, alcohol, and diet, changes in physical-athletic aspects of the players, such as increased muscle strength, and use of medications) as possible risk factors for injuries. However, environmental factors such as changes in training techniques, field composition, and shoes structure may also have a major influence. This summary indicates that appropriate preventive measures can be undertaken to prevent injuries in professional soccer players. Professionals who are in close contacts with the players should be informed of the predictors of injuries and should be trained to intervene and plan appropriate preventive measures. PMID:22344052

  6. The Status of Legal Authority for Injury Prevention Practice in State Health Departments

    PubMed Central

    Thombley, Melisa L.; Kohn, Melvin A.; Jesada, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the potential for public health strategies to decrease the substantial burden of injuries, injury prevention infrastructure in state health departments is underdeveloped. We sought to describe the legal support for injury prevention activities at state health departments. We searched the Lexis database for state laws providing authority for those activities, and categorized the scope of those laws. Only 10 states have authority that covers the full scope of injury prevention practice; in the others, legal authority is piecemeal, nonspecific, or nonexistent. More comprehensive legal authority could help health departments access data for surveillance, work with partners, address sensitive issues, and garner funding. Efforts should be undertaken to enhance legal support for injury prevention activities across the country. PMID:22515850

  7. Evidence-Based Practice in Primary Prevention of Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A spinal cord injury (SCI) not only causes paralysis, but also has long-term impact on physical and mental health. There are between 236,000 to 327,000 individuals living with the consequences of SCI in the United States, and the economic burden on the individuals sustaining the injury, their support network, and society as a whole is significant. The consequences of SCI require that health care professionals begin thinking about primary prevention. Efforts are often focused on care and cure, but evidence-based prevention should have a greater role. Primary prevention efforts can offer significant cost benefits, and efforts to change behavior and improve safety can and should be emphasized. Primary prevention can be applied to various etiologies of injury, including motor vehicle crashes, sports injuries, and firearm misuse, with a clear goal of eliminating unnecessary injury and its life-changing impact. PMID:23678282

  8. Ketogenesis prevents diet-induced fatty liver injury and hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, David G.; Ercal, Baris; Huang, Xiaojing; Leid, Jamison M.; d’Avignon, D. André; Graham, Mark J.; Dietzen, Dennis J.; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Patti, Gary J.; Crawford, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spectrum disorders affect approximately 1 billion individuals worldwide. However, the drivers of progressive steatohepatitis remain incompletely defined. Ketogenesis can dispose of much of the fat that enters the liver, and dysfunction in this pathway could promote the development of NAFLD. Here, we evaluated mice lacking mitochondrial 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA synthase (HMGCS2) to determine the role of ketogenesis in preventing diet-induced steatohepatitis. Antisense oligonucleotide–induced loss of HMGCS2 in chow-fed adult mice caused mild hyperglycemia, increased hepatic gluconeogenesis from pyruvate, and augmented production of hundreds of hepatic metabolites, a suite of which indicated activation of the de novo lipogenesis pathway. High-fat diet feeding of mice with insufficient ketogenesis resulted in extensive hepatocyte injury and inflammation, decreased glycemia, deranged hepatic TCA cycle intermediate concentrations, and impaired hepatic gluconeogenesis due to sequestration of free coenzyme A (CoASH). Supplementation of the CoASH precursors pantothenic acid and cysteine normalized TCA intermediates and gluconeogenesis in the livers of ketogenesis-insufficient animals. Together, these findings indicate that ketogenesis is a critical regulator of hepatic acyl-CoA metabolism, glucose metabolism, and TCA cycle function in the absorptive state and suggest that ketogenesis may modulate fatty liver disease. PMID:25347470

  9. Evaluating process in child and family interventions: aggression prevention as an example.

    PubMed

    Tolan, Patrick H; Hanish, Laura D; McKay, Mary M; Dickey, Mitchell H

    2002-06-01

    This article reports on 2 studies designed to develop and validate a set of measures for use in evaluating processes of child and family interventions. In Study 1 responses from 187 families attending an outpatient clinic for child behavior problems were factor analyzed to identify scales, consistent across sources: Alliance (Satisfactory Relationship with Interventionist and Program Satisfaction), Parenting Skill Attainment, Child Cooperation During Session, Child Prosocial Behavior, and Child Aggressive Behavior. Study 2 focused on patterns of scale scores among 78 families taking part in a 22-week preventive intervention designed to affect family relationships, parenting, and child antisocial and prosocial behaviors. The factor structure identified in Study 1 was replicated. Scale construct validity was demonstrated through across-source convergence, sensitivity to intervention change, and ability to discriminate individual differences. Path analysis validated the scales' utility in explaining key aspects of the intervention process. Implications for evaluating processes in family interventions are discussed. PMID:12085734

  10. Experiences using New Zealand's hospital based surveillance system for injury prevention research.

    PubMed

    Langley, J D

    1995-09-01

    The focus of this paper is the Injury Prevention Research Unit's (IPRU's) experience in analysing New Zealand's national impatient public hospital injury data set. The existence of the national inpatient data management system has enabled the IPRU to develop an injury morbidity data set for the period of 1979-1992. The IPRU, thus, has data on ove 250,000 injury events that were serious enough to warrant admission to a hospital. This data set has been used extensively by the IPRU to address a wide range of injury issues from demographic, environment, activity, product, and injury perspectives. Apart from the demographic variables, those variables that have proved most useful in our work have been: length of stay, readmission indicator, a personal identifier code number, WHO International Classification of Disease coding for diagnoses and external cause of injury (E-code), and written descriptions of external cause of injuries and location of injury event. Practical examples of IPRU's use of each of these variables are given. These examples demonstrate how invaluable New Zealand's inpatient injury data set is for documenting resource utilisation, accurately determining the incidence of events, undertaking analytical epidemiological studies including evaluations, and addressing shortcomings in E-codes. A key aspect of the system is the narrative information. Evidence is produced demonstrates that the electronic recording of narratives of the circumstances of injury is an invaluable tool for conducting epidemiological research which has direct implications for injury prevention policy and practice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7476464

  11. The Incidence of Injuries Among 87,000 Massachusetts Children and Adolescents: Results of the 1980-81 Statewide Childhood Injury Prevention Program Surveillance System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Susan S.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of data on injuries among 0-19 year-olds showed that injury rates varied considerably by age, sex, and level of severity. Overall, results demonstrated that both morbidity and mortality must be considered when determining prevention priorities and that prevention efforts must be expanded to target injuries of higher incidence among…

  12. The science of fencing: implications for performance and injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Roi, Giulio S; Bianchedi, Diana

    2008-01-01

    In this review we analyse the data from the literature on fencing with the aim of creating a psychobiological and multi-factorial model of fencing performance. Fencing is an open-skilled combat sport that was admitted to the first modern Olympic Games in Athens (1896). It is mainly practised indoors, with three different weapons: the foil, the sabre and the épée, each contested with different rules. A fencing international tournament may last between 9 and 11 hours. Bouts represent only 18% of total competition time, with an effective fight time of between 17 and 48 minutes. The physical demands of fencing competitions are high, involving the aerobic and anaerobic alactic and lactic metabolisms, and are also affected by age, sex, level of training and technical and tactical models utilized in relation to the adversary. The anthropometrical characteristics of fencers show a typical asymmetry of the limbs as a result of the practice of an asymmetrical sport activity. Fencing produces typical functional asymmetries that emphasize the very high level of specific function, strength and control required in this sport. Moreover, the physical demands of fencing are closely linked to the perceptual and psychological ones, and all are subjected to a continuous succession of changes during the bouts based on the behaviour of the opponent. For this reason it is difficult to identify a significant relationship between any one physiological characteristic and performance, and performance is more likely to be influenced by perceptual and neuro-physiological characteristics. Fencers need to anticipate the opponent and to mask their true intentions with a game of feints and counter-feints, which must be supported by an adequate psycho-physical condition to prevent central and peripheral fatigue. Fencing is not particularly dangerous; however, there is a fine line between a fatal lesion and a simple wound from a broken blade. The suggestions for injury prevention fall into three

  13. Child Maltreatment, Subsequent Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and the Mediating Roles of Dissociation, Alexithymia and Self-Blame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swannell, Sarah; Martin, Graham; Page, Andrew; Hasking, Penelope; Hazell, Philip; Taylor, Anne; Protani, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although child maltreatment is associated with later non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), the mechanism through which it might lead to NSSI is not well understood. The current retrospective case-control study examined associations between child maltreatment and later NSSI, and investigated the mediating roles of dissociation, alexithymia,…

  14. Franklin County, Ohio Deceased Child Review System. Working To Eliminate Preventable Child Deaths. 1992 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirner, Pamela; Griggs, Harry

    In 1988, Franklin County (Ohio) Children Services (FCCS) initiated the development of a bi-level, community-based, multi-disciplinary process to review all deaths of children in its open caseload, as well as child deaths in families with which FCCS had contact in the previous 12 months. This report examines the work of the Deceased Child Review…

  15. Accumulating Evidence for Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in the Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Rae; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2011-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) and correlates of maltreatment outcomes were examined. Mothers (N = 150) had a history or were at high risk of maltreating their children. After 12 weeks and compared to waitlist, PCIT mothers were observed to have improved parent-child interactions and…

  16. The Relationship between Practices and Child Care Providers' Beliefs Related to Child Feeding and Obesity Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanigan, Jane D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between child care practices and child care provider knowledge and beliefs about their role in supporting children's healthful eating. Design: Longitudinal design using survey and observation data from baseline and year 1 of the Encouraging Healthy Activity and Eating in Childcare Environments (ENHANCE) pilot…

  17. Flying bullets and speeding cars: analysis of child injury deaths in the Palestinian Territory.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, A; Edwards, P

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fact that children account for over half the Palestinian population, little attention has been paid to the problem of child injuries. We examined the types of injury mortality in children aged 0-19 years in the West Bank and Gaza Strip (Palestinian Territory) and compared these with similar data for children in Israel and England and Wales. We used data from death certificates covering 2001-2003. Death rates per 100 000 children per year were estimated. The leading cause of injury mortality in Palestinian children was accidents caused by firearms missiles (9.6). In comparison, transport accidents were the leading cause of death in children in both Israel (5.0) and England and Wales (3.5). PMID:18561734

  18. Advancing Prevention Research on Child Abuse, Youth Violence, and Domestic Violence: Emerging Strategies and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Neil B.

    2004-01-01

    Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent…

  19. Innovations in the Field of Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedetti, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect prevention is a complex field due, in part, to the diverse and numerous factors that can lead to maltreatment. As a result, prevention strategies, interventions, and initiatives must address multiple issues and rely on expertise from a variety of disciplines. This literature review considers recent and multidisciplinary…

  20. The Teachers' Role in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: Implications for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

    2012-01-01

    In response to the diverse number of child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs currently implemented in school contexts, this paper examines key considerations for selecting such initiatives and the multiplicity of understandings required to inform facilitation of contextually relevant prevention curriculum. First, the paper examines concerns…

  1. Serious Games for Learning: Games-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In spite of research demonstrating conceptual weakness in many child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programmes and outdated modes of delivery, students continue to participate in a diversity of initiatives. Referring to the development of a games-based approach to CSA prevention in Australia, this paper examines empirically based attributes of…

  2. The Role of Context in Risk for Pediatric Injury: Influences from the Home and Child Care Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwebel, David C.; Brezausek, Carl M.

    2007-01-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of pediatric mortality among American children, but the role of environmental context remains poorly understood as a risk for child injury. Couched in Bronfenbrenner's (1977) ecological theory, this study analyzed data from a sample of almost 900 children to identify relations between the home and…

  3. Speak Up: Prevent Errors in Your Child's Care

    MedlinePlus

    SpeakUP TM Prevent Errors in Your Child’s Care Prevent Errors in Your Child’s Care Your child’s health and safety are important ... brochure has tips and answers to questions to prevent errors in your child’s care. The Joint Commission ...

  4. 75 FR 19983 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Initial Review Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Initial Review Group In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following...

  5. 78 FR 78966 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory Infections in a Malaria- Endemic Area of...

  6. 78 FR 17410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial review The meeting announced below concerns Epi-Centers for the Prevention of...

  7. 76 FR 56461 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control... management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for...

  8. 76 FR 67458 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ] Dated: October 25, 2011. Elaine L. Baker, Director, Management Analysis and...

  9. 77 FR 3269 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... Services Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [FR Doc. 2012-1191 Filed 1-20-12; 8:45 am... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 14 (Monday, January 23, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 3269] [FR Doc... Prevention (CDC) Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP):...

  10. 76 FR 7217 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Enhanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Enhanced Surveillance for New Vaccine Preventable Disease, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA),...

  11. 77 FR 34045 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Cooperative Research... Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Times and Dates: 8 a.m.-5 p.m., July...

  12. 78 FR 60878 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Health Promotion... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Times And Dates 8...

  13. 77 FR 25485 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Research Grants...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: DATES:...

  14. 75 FR 28261 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Improved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Improved Diagnostics for Lyme Borreliosis, Funding Opportunity... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  15. 76 FR 32213 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ..., Hepatitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., Mailstop E-60, Atlanta... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... announcements of meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease...

  16. Spinal injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Babcock, J L

    1975-05-01

    Spinal injuries with neurologic sequelae are a rare but catastrophic injury. Many of these injuries might be preventable through proper parent and child education, particularly in water sports and vehicles accidents. A significant number of neurologic injuries are incomplete at the time of injury and proper rescue and initial care may make the difference between life as a quadriplegic and life as a normal individual. Because of the complexity of the management of the child with spinal injuries and their relative rarity, the definitive care is best undertaken at hospitals which specialize in the care of spinal injuries. Progressive deformity of the spine, a problem unique to childhood and adolescent paralysis, is often preventable with prolonged immobilization and protection of the spine. Progressive deformities which interfere with function or result in neurologic deterioration require an aggressive surgical approach. PMID:1124228

  17. RESIDENTIAL BUILDING STAKEHOLDERS’ ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS REGARDING NAIL GUN INJURY RISKS AND PREVENTION

    PubMed Central

    ALBERS, JAMES T.; HUDOCK, STEPHEN D.; LOWE, BRIAN D.

    2015-01-01

    Pneumatic nail guns are ubiquitous at residential construction sites across the United States. These tools are noted for the traumatic injuries that can occur from their operation. Different trigger mechanisms on these tools are associated with different levels of risk. Residential building subcontractors and workers, both native-born and immigrant, were brought together in focus groups to discuss their attitudes and beliefs regarding risk factors for nail gun injury as well as barriers to the adoption of safer technology. Participants’ comments are organized first by influences on traumatic injury occurrence or prevention and later by sociotechnical system category. Participants attributed influences on injury risk to personal and external causation factors in all sociotechnical system categories; however, participants more frequently described influences on injury prevention as related to workers’ behaviors, rather than to external factors. A discussion of these influences with respect to attribution theory and sociotechnical models of injury causation is presented. PMID:24704813

  18. Residential building stakeholders' attitudes and beliefs regarding nail gun injury risks and prevention.

    PubMed

    Albers, James T; Hudock, Stephen D; Lowe, Brian D

    2013-01-01

    Pneumatic nail guns are ubiquitous at residential construction sites across the United States. These tools are noted for the traumatic injuries that can occur from their operation. Different trigger mechanisms on these tools are associated with different levels of risk. Residential building subcontractors and workers, both native-born and immigrant, were brought together in focus groups to discuss their attitudes and beliefs regarding risk factors for nail gun injury as well as barriers to the adoption of safer technology. Participants' comments are organized first by influences on traumatic injury occurrence or prevention and later by sociotechnical system category. Participants attributed influences on injury risk to personal and external causation factors in all sociotechnical system categories; however, participants more frequently described influences on injury prevention as related to workers' behaviors, rather than to external factors. A discussion of these influences with respect to attribution theory and sociotechnical models of injury causation is presented. PMID:24704813

  19. Prevention of iatrogenic inferior alveolar nerve injuries in relation to dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Renton, T

    2010-09-01

    This article aims to review current hypotheses on the aetiology and prevention of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injuries in relation to dental procedures. The inferior alveolar nerve can be damaged during many dental procedures, including administration of local anaesthetic, implant bed preparation and placement, endodontics, third molar surgery and other surgical interventions. Damage to sensory nerves can result in anaesthesia, paraesthesia, pain, or a combination of the three. Pain is common in inferior alveolar nerve injuries, resulting in significant functional problems. The significant disability associated with these nerve injuries may also result in increasing numbers of medico-legal claims. Many of these iatrogenic nerve injuries can be avoided with careful patient assessment and planning. Furthermore, if the injury occurs there are emerging strategies that may facilitate recovery. The emphasis of this review is on how we may prevent these injuries and facilitate resolution in the early post surgical phase. PMID:21133047

  20. Evaluation of a Spiritually Based Child Maltreatment Prevention Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Louisa K.; Rigazio-DiGilio, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors empirically evaluated a spiritually based 1-day child maltreatment training program. Pretest, posttest, and follow-up results indicated that participants' recognition of hypothetical maltreatment did not increase after training. Furthermore, although participants decreased their use of items known to dissuade decisions to report, they…

  1. [Fatal child abuse, bodily injury followed by death or accidental fall?].

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2015-01-01

    Cases in which forensic experts cannot draw their conclusions on the basis of primary findings collected by themselves are not uncommon in medico-legal practice. Often only photographs or statements on the course of events are available to investigate the plausibility of reports on how an accident happened. In cases of child abuse it is often claimed that the injuries occurred due to an accident and explanations are adapted to the diagnostic findings or results of the police investigations. This is demonstrated by the death of a 3-year-and-3-month-old child whose body was never found. According to the father, who had disposed of the body and made false statements as to the whereabouts of the child, the toddler had slipped in the bathtub and hit her head against the fittings and the floor of the tub. Some time later he claimed to have found the child dead in the bedroom. Contrary to his version, the prosecution assumed that the child had been killed intentionally The essential points for checking the plausibility of the father's story are presented. As a result, an accidental fall in the bathtub causing a lethal craniocerebral trauma could be ruled out. Accordingly, the accused was sentenced to 6 years and 6 months' imprisonment for bodily harm followed by death according to Sections 227, 223 StGB (German Criminal Code). PMID:26399119

  2. Strategies to prevent intraoperative lung injury during cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    During open heart surgery the influence of a series of factors such as cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), hypothermia, operation and anaesthesia, as well as medication and transfusion can cause a diffuse trauma in the lungs. This injury leads mostly to a postoperative interstitial pulmonary oedema and abnormal gas exchange. Substantial improvements in all of the above mentioned factors may lead to a better lung function postoperatively. By avoiding CPB, reducing its time, or by minimizing the extracorporeal surface area with the use of miniaturized circuits of CPB, beneficial effects on lung function are reported. In addition, replacement of circuit surface with biocompatible surfaces like heparin-coated, and material-independent sources of blood activation, a better postoperative lung function is observed. Meticulous myocardial protection by using hypothermia and cardioplegia methods during ischemia and reperfusion remain one of the cornerstones of postoperative lung function. The partial restoration of pulmonary artery perfusion during CPB possibly contributes to prevent pulmonary ischemia and lung dysfunction. Using medication such as corticosteroids and aprotinin, which protect the lungs during CPB, and leukocyte depletion filters for operations expected to exceed 90 minutes in CPB-time appear to be protective against the toxic impact of CPB in the lungs. The newer methods of ultrafiltration used to scavenge pro-inflammatory factors seem to be protective for the lung function. In a similar way, reducing the use of cardiotomy suction device, as well as the contact-time between free blood and pericardium, it is expected that the postoperative lung function will be improved. PMID:20064238

  3. Culturally relevant model program to prevent and reduce agricultural injuries.

    PubMed

    Helitzer, D L; Hathorn, G; Benally, J; Ortega, C

    2014-07-01

    Limited research has explored pesticide injury prevention among American Indian farmers. In a five-year agricultural intervention, a university-community partnership, including the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, New Mexico State University, Shiprock Area Cooperative Extension Service, and Navajo Nation communities, used a culturally relevant model to introduce and maintain safe use of integrated pest management techniques. We applied the Diffusion of Innovations theory and community-based approaches to tailor health promotion strategies for our intervention. In a longitudinal study with repeated measures, we trained six "model farmers" to be crop management experts in pesticide safety, application, and control. Subsequently, these model farmers worked with 120 farm families randomized into two groups: intervention (Group 1) and delayed intervention (Group 2). Measurements included a walk-through analysis, test of knowledge and attitudes, and yield analysis. Both groups demonstrated improvements in pesticide storage behaviors after training. Test scores regarding safety practices improved significantly: from 57.3 to 72.4 for Group 1 and from 52.6 to 76.3 for Group 2. Group 1 maintained their knowledge and safety practices after the intervention. Attitudes about pesticides and communication of viewpoints changed across the study years. With pesticides and fertilizer, the number of corn ears increased by 56.3% and yield (kg m(-2)) of alfalfa increased by 41.2%. The study combined traditional farming practices with culturally relevant approaches and behavior change theory to affect knowledge, safety practices, attitudes, communication channels, and crop yield. Storage behaviors, use of pesticides and safety and application equipment, and safety practice knowledge changed significantly, as did attitudes about social networking, social support, and the compatibility and relative advantage of pesticides for farms. PMID:25174150

  4. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian...

  5. Inferior alveolar nerve injury in implant dentistry: diagnosis, causes, prevention, and management.

    PubMed

    Alhassani, Ahmed Ali; AlGhamdi, Ali Saad Thafeed

    2010-01-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve injury is one of the most serious complications in implant dentistry. This nerve injury can occur during local anesthesia, implant osteotomy, or implant placement. Proper understanding of anatomy, surgical procedures, and implant systems and proper treatment planning is the key to reducing such an unpleasant complication. This review discusses the causes of inferior alveolar nerve injury and its diagnosis, prevention, and management. PMID:20545547

  6. Young women's anterior cruciate ligament injuries: an expanded model and prevention paradigm.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Diane L; Goldberg, Linn; Kuehl, Kerry S

    2010-05-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among young female athletes occur at rates three- to eight-times greater than in male competitors and, in general, females experience more sports injuries than males, when balanced for activity and playing time. ACL injuries are a particular concern, as they result in immediate morbidity, high economic costs and may have long-term adverse effects. While several closely monitored ACL injury preventive programmes have been effective, those efforts have not been uniformly protective nor have they achieved widespread use. To date, ACL injury prevention has focused on neuromuscular and anatomical factors without including issues relating more broadly to the athlete. Coincident with greater female sport participation are other influences that may heighten their injury risk. We review those factors, including early single sport specialization, unhealthy dietary behaviours, chronic sleep deprivation and higher levels of fatigue, substance use and abuse, and psychological issues. We augment existing models of ACL injury with these additional dimensions. The proposed expanded injury model has implications for designing injury prevention programmes. High school athletic teams are natural settings for bonded youth and influential coaches to promote healthy lifestyles, as decisions that result in better athletes also promote healthy lifestyles. As an example of how sport teams could be vehicles to address an expanded injury model, we present an existing evidenced-based sport team-centered health promotion and harm reduction programme for female athletes. Widening the lens on factors influencing ACL injury expands the prevention paradigm to combine existing training with activities to promote psychological well-being and a healthy lifestyle. If developed and shown to be effective, those programmes might better reduce injuries and, in addition, provide life skills that would benefit young female athletes both on and off the playing field

  7. The 1990 objectives for the nation for injury prevention: a progress review.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, H F; Schletty, A V; Ing, R T; Wiesner, P J

    1984-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are the principal cause of preventable early death. Beyond terms of human suffering and death, injuries place enormous burdens on this country's economic and health care resources. Demographic, sociological, environmental, and behavioral factors that influence our society contribute to the complexity and scope of the injury problem. Progress in injury prevention will be achieved only through the combined efforts of individuals, organizations, and government at every level of our society. The Federal Government is an important contributor to this process through its role of leading, catalyzing, and providing strategic support. Within the Department of Health and Human Services, numerous agencies have major injury prevention components with a broad range of responsibilities, including the direct delivery of services, establishment of safety standards, sponsorship of education and information efforts, building of the capacity of other sectors, basic and applied research, and surveillance. The Centers for Disease Control, as the lead agency, assists State and local health departments in their injury prevention efforts and coordinates activities undertaken jointly by Federal agencies, State and local governments, and private-sector organizations. To meet the 1990 Objectives for the Nation with respect to injury prevention, both the public health and private-sector providers must recognize the injury problem of the 1980s. Without the support and involvement of the public health and provider communities and of the private sector, injuries and their costs will continue at their present alarming rates. The opportunity is great for promoting health, preventing injuries, and reducing associated costs to society. Making the best of this opportunity is our challenge during this decade. PMID:6422489

  8. Therapeutic hypothermia and frostbite injury: a preventable source.

    PubMed

    Lohana, Parkash; Hart, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Frostbite injury from cold exposure is not uncommon. The application of ice pack is well known in clinical practice; however, its improper use can pose danger to the patient. We report a case of frostbite injury due to prolonged use of ice packs in a ventilated patient. PMID:21680308

  9. Hazard Patterns and Injury Prevention with Infant Walkers and Strollers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishon, Phillip M.; And Others

    Mindful of the potential hazards associated with products intended for young children, this article examines pediatric accidents involving strollers and walkers. According to the latest figures available from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the United States (NEISS), more than 11,800 stroller injuries in 1987 were serious…

  10. Injury incidence, risk factors and prevention in Australian rules football.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2013-05-01

    Along with the enjoyment and the other positive benefits of sport participation, there is also the risk of injury that is elevated in contact sport. This review provides a summary of injury incidence in Australian rules football (ARF), identifies injury risk factors, assesses the efficacy of interventions to reduce injury risk and makes recommendations for future research. The most common injuries were found to be muscle strains, particularly hamstrings; joint ligament sprains, especially ankle; haematomas and concussion. The most severe joint injury was anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Mouthguards are commonly worn and have been shown to reduce orofacial injury. There is evidence that thigh pads can reduce the incidence of thigh haematomas. There is a reluctance to wear padded headgear and an attempt to assess its effectiveness was unsuccessful due to low compliance. The most readily identified risk factor was a history of that injury. There were conflicting findings as to the influence strength imbalances or deficit has on hamstring injury risk in ARF. Static hamstring flexibility was not related to risk but low hip flexor/quadriceps flexibility increased hamstring injury risk. High lower-limb and high hamstring stiffness were associated with an elevated risk of hamstring injury. Since stiffness can be modulated through strength or flexibility training, this provides an area for future intervention studies. Low postural balance ability was related to a greater risk of ankle injury in ARF, players with poor balance should be targeted for balance training. There are preliminary data signifying a link between deficiencies in hip range of motion and hip adductor strength with groin pain or injury. This provides support for future investigation into the effectiveness of an intervention for high-risk players on groin injury rate. Low cross-sectional area of core-region muscle has been associated with more severe injuries and a motor control exercise intervention

  11. Prevention of Lung Injury in Cardiac Surgery: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Young, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Inflammatory lung injury is an inevitable consequence of cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The lungs are particularly susceptible to the effects of the systemic inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. This insult is further exacerbated by a pulmonary ischemia–reperfusion injury after termination of bypass. Older patients and those with pre-existing lung disease will clearly be less tolerant of any lung injury and more likely to develop respiratory failure in the postoperative period. A requirement for prolonged ventilation has implications for morbidity, mortality, and cost of treatment. This review contains a summary of recent interventions and changes of practice that may reduce inflammatory lung injury after cardiac surgery. The review also focuses on a number of general aspects of perioperative management, which may exacerbate such injury, if performed poorly. PMID:25208430

  12. 77 FR 18973 - Reinforced Concrete in Construction, and Preventing Backover Injuries and Fatalities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Reinforced Concrete in Construction, and Preventing Backover Injuries and Fatalities AGENCY: Occupational... aware of employee safety risks in two areas, reinforcing operations in concrete work (construction only... following methods (submissions relating to Reinforced Concrete in Construction to Docket No....

  13. Primary Care Opportunities to Prevent Unintentional Home Injuries: A Focus on Children and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Eileen M.; Mack, Karin; Shields, Wendy C.; Lee, Robin P.; Gielen, Andrea C.

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are a persistent public health problem in the United States. A new health care landscape has the potential to create a clinical environment that fosters greater involvement by health care providers in injury prevention. The aim of this article is to provide evidence supporting the need for engagement by primary care providers in unintentional home injury prevention along with examples of how this could be accomplished. We know a great deal about what population groups are at risk for certain types of injuries. We also know that many injuries can be prevented through policies, programs, and resources that ensure safe environments and promote safe behaviors. For example, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s STEADI (Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries) initiative comprises clinical decision support tools and educational materials for health care providers. Two effective interventions that have demonstrated a reduction in falls among children are the redesign of baby walkers (engineering) and the mandated use of window guards (enforcement). Primary care clinicians can play a key role in promoting their patient’s safety. Taken collectively, a focused attention on preventing unintentional home injuries by primary care providers can contribute to the reduction of injuries and result in optimal health for all. PMID:27141210

  14. Preventing Unintentional Firearm Injury in Children: The Need for Behavioral Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himle, Michael B.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2004-01-01

    Unintentional firearm injury in children is a problem in the United States that warrants attention. Recent research has identified several risk factors for such injuries and has developed prevention strategies for reducing their occurrence. Many of these programs, however, have not been evaluated or have been shown to be ineffective. Research on…

  15. Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Lumbar Spine Injuries in Major League Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Camp, Christopher L; Conti, Matthew S; Sgroi, Terrance; Cammisa, Frank P; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, increased attention has been paid to injuries occurring in Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Although most of the current orthopedic literature regarding baseball injuries pertains to the shoulder and elbow, lumbar spine injuries are another common reason for time out of play. Back and core injuries may represent as many as 12% of all injuries that result in time out of play from MLB. This high rate of injury is likely related to the critical role that the spine plays in every major baseball-related movement. Linking the upper extremities to the hips and lower extremities, a healthy, strong, and stable spine and core is a prerequisite for performance in all levels of baseball. It has been well documented that baseball players with poor spinal control and stabilization are at increased risk for future injury. Common etiologies of lumbar injuries include stress fractures, muscle injury, annular tears with or without disc herniation, facet joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, and stenosis. This review discusses the epidemiology of spinal injuries in baseball. Special attention is paid to the role of the spine in baseball-related activities, common injuries, tips for making the correct diagnosis, treatment options, outcomes, rehabilitation, and injury prevention. PMID:26991566

  16. Head and Maxillofacial Injuries in Child and Adolescent Victims of Automotive Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Lino, Thiago Henrique de Araujo; de Oliveira, Thaliny Batista Sarmento; de Oliveira, Thaisy Sarmento Batista; Cardoso, Andreia Medeiros Rodrigues; de Macedo, Rodrigo Feliciano; Padilha, Wilton Wilney Nascimento; Xavier, Alidianne Fabia Cabral

    2014-01-01

    Background. Victims of motor vehicle accidents may suffer multiple lesions, including maxillofacial injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with head, facial, and maxillofacial injuries in child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents. A cross-sectional study was carried out with analysis of forensic medical reports from the Legal Medical Institute of Campina Grande, Brazil, between January 2008 and December 2011. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was conducted using the chi-square test (α = 0.05). From 1613 medical reports analyzed, the sample is composed 232 (14.4%) reports referring to child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents aged 0–19 years of both sexes. Victims were mostly adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years (64.2%), males (73.7%), and motorcyclists (51.3%). More than half of the victims had single lesions (54.3%) located in the head (20.7%) and face (21.6%). Head injuries occurred more frequently in children aged 0–4 years (53.8%, PR = 5.065, 95% CI = 1.617–5.870) and pedestrians (30.4%, PR = 2.039, 95% CI = 1.024–4.061), while facial and maxillofacial injuries occurred in higher proportion among females (31.1%, PR = 0.489, 95% CI = 0.251–0.954). Our findings suggest that accidents involving motorcyclists are the most prevalent, affecting male adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years, resulting in a high frequency of injuries in the head and face regions. PMID:25574492

  17. Preventive Effects of Eccentric Training on Acute Hamstring Muscle Injury in Professional Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Seagrave, Richard A.; Perez, Luis; McQueeney, Sean; Toby, E. Bruce; Key, Vincent; Nelson, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hamstring injuries are the second most common injury causing missed days in professional baseball field players. Recent studies have shown the preventive benefit of eccentric conditioning on the hamstring muscle group in injury prevention. Specifically, Nordic-type exercises have been shown to decrease the incidence of acute hamstring injuries in professional athletes. Purpose: This was a prospective study performed in coordination with a single Major League Baseball (MLB) organization (major and minor league teams) that targeted the effects of Nordic exercises on the incidence of acute hamstring injuries in the professional-level baseball player. Study Design: Prospective cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: The daily workouts of 283 professional baseball players throughout all levels of a single MLB organization were prospectively recorded. The intervention group participated in the Nordic exercise program and was compared with a randomly selected control group of professional athletes within the organization not participating in the exercise program. The incidence of hamstring injuries in both groups was compared, and the total number of days missed due to injury was compared with the 2 previous seasons. Results: There were 10 hamstring injuries that occurred during the 2012 season among the 283 professional athletes that required removal from play. There were no injuries that occurred in the intervention group (n = 65, 0.00%; P = .0381). The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent 1 hamstring injury was 11.3. The average repetitions per week of the injured group were assessed at multiple time points (2, 4, 6, and total weeks) prior to injury. There were significantly fewer repetitions per week performed in the injured group at all time points compared with overall average repetitions per week in the noninjured group (P = .0459, .0127, .0164, and .0299, respectively). After beginning the Nordic exercise program, there were 136 total days

  18. Children with burns referred for child abuse evaluation: Burn characteristics and co-existent injuries.

    PubMed

    Pawlik, Marie-Christin; Kemp, Alison; Maguire, Sabine; Nuttall, Diane; Feldman, Kenneth W; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2016-05-01

    Intentional burns represent a serious form of physical abuse that must be identified to protect children from further harm. This study is a retrospectively planned secondary analysis of the Examining Siblings To Recognize Abuse (ExSTRA) network data. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of burns injuries in children referred to Child Abuse Pediatricians (CAPs) in relation to the perceived likelihood of abuse. We furthermore compare the extent of diagnostic investigations undertaken in children referred to CAPs for burn injuries with those referred for other reasons. Within this dataset, 7% (215/2890) of children had burns. Children with burns were older than children with other injuries (median age 20 months vs. 10 months). Physical abuse was perceived as likely in 40.9% (88) and unlikely in 59.1% (127). Scalds accounted for 52.6% (113) and contact burns for 27.6% (60). Several characteristics of the history and burn injury were associated with a significantly higher perceived likelihood of abuse, including children with reported inflicted injury, absent or inadequate explanation, hot water as agent, immersion scald, a bilateral/symmetric burn pattern, total body surface area ≥10%, full thickness burns, and co-existent injuries. The rates of diagnostic testing were significantly lower in children with burns than other injuries, yet the yield of skeletal survey and hepatic transaminases testing were comparable between the two groups. This would imply that children referred to CAPs for burns warrant the same level of comprehensive investigations as those referred for other reasons. PMID:27088728

  19. Parent-Child Interaction, Self-Regulation, and Obesity Prevention in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sarah E; Keim, Sarah A

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the epidemiologic evidence linking parent-child relationships, self-regulation, and weight status with a focus on early childhood. The emotional quality of parent-child interactions may influence children's risk for obesity through multiple pathways. Prospective studies linking observer ratings of young children's self-regulation, particularly inhibitory control, to future weight status are discussed. Although findings are preliminary, promoting positive relationships between parents/caregivers and young children holds promise as a component of efforts to prevent childhood obesity. Multi-disciplinary collaborations between researchers with training in developmental science and child health should be encouraged. PMID:27037572

  20. Child abuse and neglect prevention and treatment program--HHS. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1985-04-15

    This rule contains a new basic State grant requirement to implement the Child Abuse Amendments of 1984 (Pub. L. 98-457). As a condition of receiving State grants under the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, States must establish programs and/or procedures within the State's child protective service system to respond to reports of medical neglect, including reports of the withholding of medically indicated treatment for disabled infants with life-threatening conditions. Other changes in regulations required by these Amendments will be published as a separate NPRM at a later date. PMID:10270565

  1. Child abuse and neglect prevention and treatment program--HHS. Notice of proposed rulemaking.

    PubMed

    1984-12-10

    This rule proposes a new basic State grant requirement to implement the Child Abuse Amendments of 1984 (Pub. L. 98-457). As a condition of receiving State grants under the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, States must establish programs and/or procedures within the State's child protective service system to respond to reports of medical neglect, including reports of the withholding of medically indicated treatment for disabled infants with life-threatening conditions. Other changes in regulations required by these Amendments will be published as a separate NPRM at a later date. PMID:10269290

  2. The Importance of Physical Fitness for Injury Prevention: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    This report examines associations between injuries and flexibility, stretching, warm-up, and body composition. Military studies show that either too much or too little flexibility increases injury risk. Static stretching prior to exercise does not appear to reduce the overall injury incidence, although further research is needed on some types of injuries. Static stretching also appears to reduce strength and power (explosive strength). Warm-up (low intensity activity prior to exercise or sports) appears to reduce injury risk. Body mass index (BMI; weight in kg/ height in m²) is a surrogate measure of body fat because it is highly related to laboratory measures of body fat. However, Soldiers can also have a high BMI because of higher muscle mass. If high BMI reflects a larger percentage of body fat relative to height, injury risk might be increased because the additional fat would increase the intensity of physical activity, leading to more rapid fatigue and repetitive stress on the musculoskeletal system. Low BMI could reflect a paucity of fat or muscle/ bone, or both. Low BMI may make Soldiers more susceptible to injury if they lack the muscle mass or strength in the supportive structures (ligaments, bones) required to perform certain physical tasks, and if they overexert or overuse the available muscle mass or supportive structures. Studies in basic combat training show that both high and low BMI increases injury risk. However, studies among active duty Soldiers only show that injury risk increases as BMI increases, possibly because very few active duty Soldiers have very low BMI (i.e., less than 18 kg/m²). PMID:26125174

  3. Back injury prevention: a lift team success story.

    PubMed

    Hefti, Kelly S; Farnham, Richard J; Docken, Lisa; Bentaas, Ruth; Bossman, Sharon; Schaefer, Jill

    2003-06-01

    Work related back injuries among hospital personnel account for high volume, high cost workers' compensation claims. These injuries can be life altering experiences, affecting both the personal and professional lives of injured workers. Lifting must be viewed as a skill involving specialized training and mandated use of mechanical equipment, rather than as a random task performed by numerous health care providers. The use of a lift team specially trained in body mechanics, lifting techniques, and the use of mandated mechanical equipment can significantly affect injury data, financial outcomes, and employee satisfaction. The benefits of a lift team extend beyond the effect on injury and financial outcomes--they can be used for recruitment and retention strategies, and team members serve as mentors to others by demonstrating safe lifting techniques. Ultimately, a lift team helps protect a valuable resource--the health care worker. PMID:12846457

  4. Proposed national strategies for the prevention of leading work-related diseases and injuries. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary strategies developed at the National Symposium on the Prevention of Leading Work Related Diseases and Injuries, held in Atlanta, Georgia on May 1 to 3, 1985 were revised, elaborated, and further developed. Strategies were developed for the prevention of occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, and occupational cardiovascular diseases. Lung diseases considered included silicosis, asbestosis, lung cancer mesothelioma, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asphyxiation, irritation, pulmonary edema, brucellosis, psitticosis, anthrax, mycobacterioses, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Occupational cancers were discussed as they occur in the lung, pleura, peritoneum, bladder, kidneys, blood, nasal cavity, skin, nasal sinuses, and liver.

  5. Training on a knife's edge: how to balance triathlon training to prevent overuse injuries.

    PubMed

    Bales, James; Bales, Karrn

    2012-12-01

    The sport of triathlon offers athletes the chance to build and/or maintain cardiovascular fitness across 3 endurance disciplines. Swimming, biking, and running each have a host of overuse injuries that can occur as a result of overtraining. High running mileage, a history of previous injury, inadequate warm up or cool down, and an increase in the years of triathlon experience are a few of the factors that have been linked to triathlon overuse injuries. Early identification of overtraining symptoms and a corresponding reallocation of balance between each discipline, perhaps with an emphasis on increasing swimming, may help prevent many overuse injuries. PMID:23147091

  6. Comprehensive warm-up programme to prevent injuries in young female footballers: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Myklebust, Grethe; Steffen, Kathrin; Holme, Ingar; Silvers, Holly; Bizzini, Mario; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri; Bahr, Roald; Andersen, Thor Einar

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of a comprehensive warm-up programme designed to reduce the risk of injuries in female youth football. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial with clubs as the unit of randomisation. Setting 125 football clubs from the south, east, and middle of Norway (65 clusters in the intervention group; 60 in the control group) followed for one league season (eight months). Participants 1892 female players aged 13-17 (1055 players in the intervention group; 837 players in the control group). Intervention A comprehensive warm-up programme to improve strength, awareness, and neuromuscular control during static and dynamic movements. Main outcome measure Injuries to the lower extremity (foot, ankle, lower leg, knee, thigh, groin, and hip). Results During one season, 264 players had relevant injuries: 121 players in the intervention group and 143 in the control group (rate ratio 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 1.03). In the intervention group there was a significantly lower risk of injuries overall (0.68, 0.48 to 0.98), overuse injuries (0.47, 0.26 to 0.85), and severe injuries (0.55, 0.36 to 0.83). Conclusion Though the primary outcome of reduction in lower extremity injury did not reach significance, the risk of severe injuries, overuse injuries, and injuries overall was reduced. This indicates that a structured warm-up programme can prevent injuries in young female football players. Trial registration ISRCTN10306290. PMID:19066253

  7. Equestrian injury is costly, disabling, and frequently preventable: the imperative for improved safety awareness.

    PubMed

    Guyton, Kristina; Houchen-Wise, Emily; Peck, Ellen; Mayberry, John

    2013-01-01

    Horse-related injury can be severe and disabling. We investigated the causes, severity, and costs of equestrian injury with the goal of injury prevention. A retrospective review of horse-related injuries from 2001 to 2008 identified 231 patients with a mean age of 38 years and a mean Injury Severity Score of 11 (range, 1 to 45). Mean length of stay was 5.5 days. Fifty-nine patients (25%) required 84 surgeries. Helmet use was 20 per cent and of the 172 patients not wearing a helmet while mounted, 38 per cent received potentially preventable head injuries. There were three deaths of which two were the result of intracranial hemorrhage in riders not wearing a helmet. Mean hospital charge was $29,800 for a total of $6.9 million. Ninety-one patients completed a survey regarding causation and disability. Thirty-four per cent reported wearing a helmet at the time of injury. Forty per cent reported that poor environmental factors contributed, 30 per cent reported poor horse and rider pairing, and 9 per cent reported equipment failure. Fifty-nine per cent reported long-term disabilities. Compared with the general population, respondents had diminution in their ability to perform usual daily activities associated with physical problems, diminution in social function, and higher bodily pain. We conclude that equestrian injury is costly, disabling, and frequently preventable. PMID:23317616

  8. Prevention of shoulder injuries in overhead athletes: a science-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Cools, Ann M.; Johansson, Fredrik R.; Borms, Dorien; Maenhout, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    The shoulder is at high risk for injury during overhead sports, in particular in throwing or hitting activities, such as baseball, tennis, handball, and volleyball. In order to create a scientific basis for the prevention of recurrent injuries in overhead athletes, four steps need to be undertaken: (1) risk factors for injury and re-injury need to be defined; (2) established risk factors may be used as return-to-play criteria, with cut-off values based on normative databases; (3) these variables need to be measured using reliable, valid assessment tools and procedures; and (4) preventative training programs need to be designed and implemented into the training program of the athlete in order to prevent re-injury. In general, three risk factors have been defined that may form the basis for recommendations for the prevention of recurrent injury and return to play after injury: glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD); rotator cuff strength, in particular the strength of the external rotators; and scapular dyskinesis, in particular scapular position and strength. PMID:26537804

  9. Prevention of shoulder injuries in overhead athletes: a science-based approach.

    PubMed

    Cools, Ann M; Johansson, Fredrik R; Borms, Dorien; Maenhout, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    The shoulder is at high risk for injury during overhead sports, in particular in throwing or hitting activities, such as baseball, tennis, handball, and volleyball. In order to create a scientific basis for the prevention of recurrent injuries in overhead athletes, four steps need to be undertaken: (1) risk factors for injury and re-injury need to be defined; (2) established risk factors may be used as return-to-play criteria, with cut-off values based on normative databases; (3) these variables need to be measured using reliable, valid assessment tools and procedures; and (4) preventative training programs need to be designed and implemented into the training program of the athlete in order to prevent re-injury. In general, three risk factors have been defined that may form the basis for recommendations for the prevention of recurrent injury and return to play after injury: glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD); rotator cuff strength, in particular the strength of the external rotators; and scapular dyskinesis, in particular scapular position and strength. PMID:26537804

  10. Modeling the Injury Prevention Impact of Mandatory Alcohol Ignition Interlock Installation in All New US Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Flannagan, Carol A. C.; Bingham, C. Raymond; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Rupp, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the injury prevention impact and cost savings associated with alcohol interlock installation in all new US vehicles. Methods. We identified fatal and nonfatal injuries associated with drinking driver vehicle crashes from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and National Automotive Sampling System’s General Estimates System data sets (2006–2010). We derived the estimated impact of universal interlock installation using an estimate of the proportion of alcohol-related crashes that were preventable in vehicles < 1 year-old. We repeated this analysis for each subsequent year, assuming a 15-year implementation. We applied existing crash-induced injury cost metrics to approximate economic savings, and we used a sensitivity analysis to examine results with varying device effectiveness. Results. Over 15 years, 85% of crash fatalities (> 59 000) and 84% to 88% of nonfatal injuries (> 1.25 million) attributed to drinking drivers would be prevented, saving an estimated $342 billion in injury-related costs, with the greatest injury and cost benefit realized among recently legal drinking drivers. Cost savings outweighed installation costs after 3 years, with the policy remaining cost effective provided device effectiveness remained above approximately 25%. Conclusions. Alcohol interlock installation in all new vehicles is likely a cost-effective primary prevention policy that will substantially reduce alcohol-involved crash fatalities and injuries, especially among young vulnerable drivers. PMID:25790385

  11. Stepchildren, community disadvantage, and physical injury in a child abuse incident: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    D'Alessio, Stewart J; Stolzenberg, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    It is proffered that stepchildren are more likely than genetic children to be physically abused because they are unable to ensure the genetic survival of their adoptive parents. This abuse is theorized to be more pronounced in communities where social and economic resources are scarce. The salience of this cross-level interaction hinges on the assumption that the limited resources of a family are first allocated to genetic offspring because these children, unlike their nongenetic siblings, carry the genes of their parents. A multilevel analysis of child abuse incidents reported to police in 133 U.S. cities during 2005 shows that in cities with a high level of community disadvantage, stepchildren are much more apt than are genetic children to suffer a physical injury in a child abuse incident. Such a finding buttresses the position articulated by proponents of sociobiology. PMID:23393950

  12. Spinal Cord Injury without Radiological Abnormality in an 8 Months Old Female Child: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Kunal R.; Chandanwale, Ajay S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Spinal cord injury in children frequently occurs without fracture or dislocation. SCIWORA is a syndrome occurring when the spinal cord sustains neural damage during a traumatic event without positive radiographic findings. The incidence of SCIWORA was found to be 8% to 32% in various studies with very few cases documented in children below the age of 1 year. We report such a case of spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality in an 8 months old female child. Case Report: An 8 months old female child was brought to the emergency room after a history of fall from the bed four days back. External spine examination revealed no abnormality. She had no upper or lower limb movements, both active and withdrawal movements with painful tactile stimuli, power was grade 0; are flexic; abdominal cremasteric and anal reflexes were absent, bladder was palpable and urine could be expressed on manual pressure. MRI of cervical spine with screening of whole spine: suggestive of non hemorrhagic cord edema at C4 level, with suspicious tear of anterior longitudinal ligament at that level. The child was immobilized in pediatric cervical collar and treatment was initiated with corticosteroids and the dose adjusted as per age of the patient. A paediatric physiotherapist started with physical therapy after four days of commencement of treatment. Conclusion: In present times with wide spread use of MRI, the definition of SCIWORA is slowly turning towards spinal cord injury without neuroimaging abnormality [4]. Traumatic spinal cord infarction is a special type of SCIWORA which presents with normal radiology with delayed neurological deterioration [1]. Corticosteroid usage has been useful in cases of SCIWORA as proved by NASCISII Trial. PMID:27299114

  13. Adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury: Examining the role of child abuse, comorbidity, and disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Kim, Judy C.; Chango, Joanna M.; Spiro, Westley J.; Cha, Christine; Gold, Joseph; Esterman, Michael; Nock, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine how several well-known correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) might work together to contribute to the occurrence of this behavior. Specifically, we examined models including child abuse, psychiatric comorbidity, and disinhibition, testing how these factors may work together to lead to NSSI in the past month. Participants (n=194; 144 female; age 13–18 years) were recruited from a short-term, acute adolescent residential unit. Within 48 hours of admission to the hospital participants completed structured clinical interviews assessing mental disorders and patterns of NSSI. Following the interviews, participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing childhood abuse and a computerized continuous performance task. Consistent with study hypotheses, results revealed that the association between child abuse and NSSI is partially mediated by comorbidity. Although disinhibition is associated with comorbidity, contrary to our hypothesis, disinhibition does not mediate the relation between child abuse and NSSI. Collectively, these findings provide new information about how comorbidity may increase risk for NSSI, and critically, discuss the potential importance of creating targeted programs to reduce the prevalence of child abuse. PMID:25095754

  14. Adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury: examining the role of child abuse, comorbidity, and disinhibition.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Randy P; Kim, Judy C; Chango, Joanna M; Spiro, Westley J; Cha, Christine; Gold, Joseph; Esterman, Michael; Nock, Matthew K

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of the study is to examine how several well-known correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) might work together to contribute to the occurrence of this behavior. Specifically, we examined models including child abuse, psychiatric comorbidity, and disinhibition, testing how these factors may work together to lead to NSSI in the past month. Participants (n=194; 144 female; age 13-18 years) were recruited from a short-term, acute adolescent residential unit. Within 48 hours of admission to the hospital participants completed structured clinical interviews assessing mental disorders and patterns of NSSI. Following the interviews, participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing childhood abuse and a computerized continuous performance task. Consistent with study hypotheses, results revealed that the association between child abuse and NSSI is partially mediated by comorbidity. Although disinhibition is associated with comorbidity, contrary to our hypothesis, disinhibition does not mediate the relation between child abuse and NSSI. Collectively, these findings provide new information about how comorbidity may increase risk for NSSI, and critically, discuss the potential importance of creating targeted programs to reduce the prevalence of child abuse. PMID:25095754

  15. Methemoglobinemia due to quinine causing severe acute kidney injury in a child

    PubMed Central

    Kudale, S.; Sethi, S. K.; Dhaliwal, M.; Kher, V.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital methemoglobinemia is a rare condition resulting from a deficiency of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-cytochrome b5 reductase. Acquired methemoglobinemia may result due to certain drugs, chemicals and food items. Information on epidemiological determinants from India is sparse. This report describes methemoglobinemia in a 4-year-old child after parenteral administration of quinine causing acute kidney injury. This case emphasizes the need of awareness of potential adverse events of antimalarial drugs. Prompt management of methemoglobinemia is essential to avoid potential life-threatening complications. PMID:25484537

  16. Overcoming the organization-practice barrier in sports injury prevention: A nonhierarchical organizational model.

    PubMed

    Dahlström, Ö; Jacobsson, J; Timpka, T

    2015-08-01

    The organization of sports at the national level has seldom been included in scientific discussions of sports injury prevention. The aim of this study was to develop a model for organization of sports that supports prevention of overuse injuries. The quality function deployment technique was applied in seminars over a two-season period to develop a national organizational structure for athletics in Sweden that facilitates prevention of overuse injuries. Three central features of the resulting model for organization of sports at the national level are (a) diminishment of the organizational hierarchy: participatory safety policy design is introduced through annual meetings where actors from different sectors of the sporting community discuss training, injury prevention, and sports safety policy; (b) introduction of a safety surveillance system: a ubiquitous system for routine collection of injury and illness data; and (c) an open forum for discussion of safety issues: maintenance of a safety forum for participants from different sectors of the sport. A nonhierarchical model for organization of sports at the national level - facilitated by modern information technology - adapted for the prevention of overuse injuries has been developed. Further research is warranted to evaluate the new organizational model in prospective effectiveness studies. PMID:25430864

  17. Effects of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention in physical education teachers: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vercruysse, Sien; Haerens, Leen; Verhagen, Evert; Goossens, Lennert; De Clercq, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Physical education (PE) teachers are at a high risk of musculoskeletal sports or work-related injuries because of the physical activity as inherent part of their profession. Such injuries have a negative impact on work and leisure time activities, and effective injury prevention interventions are needed. The present study aimed at testing the effectiveness of an injury prevention intervention that was developed and optimized according to PE teachers' wishes and values. Fifty-five PE teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Intervention group teachers engaged in two days of training during which they familiarized with eight injury prevention strategies (seven intrinsic and one extrinsic). A special feature of the intervention was that the way of delivery was based on the self-determination theory in order to stimulate participants' motivation to adhere to the proposed strategies. Prospective registrations during one school year were conducted concerning injuries and preventive behaviours. Results showed that the intervention group teachers had a lower number of injuries per 1000 h time of exposure (TOE) than the controls (INT: 0.49, CON: 1.14 injuries/1000 h TOE, OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06-5.07), and applied a broader variety of strategies including dynamic and static stretching, core stability, balance and strength training, when compared to the controls who mainly engaged in warming-up. In conclusion, with the same amount of time, an injury reduction was found in PE teachers through a more balanced use of provided preventive strategies. PMID:26848872

  18. Your Child and Good Health: Six Topics in Urban Preventive Child Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammonds, Karl E.

    This booklet is the first in a series providing practical information about major issues in the promotion of child health. Discussion is grouped into four parts. The first part, on health maintenance, discusses the features and significance of good checkups and addresses the need for parents to discuss menstruation as a normal, healthy part of…

  19. Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

  20. Keeping Our Kids Safe. Hearing on Examining State and Local Efforts To Identify and Prevent the Leading Causes of Injuries to Children, before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    These transcripts of hearings present testimony on how we can protect children in dangerous and violent environments. The statements address the longstanding efforts to reduce childhood injury in this country, with an emphasis on prevention as the best approach to child injury and health care. Statements and testimony are presented for the…