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Sample records for child protection case

  1. Child Protection Decision Making: A Factorial Analysis Using Case Vignettes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Jacqueline; Schmidt, Glen

    2012-01-01

    This study explored decision making by child protection social workers in the province of British Columbia, Canada. A factorial survey method was used in which case vignettes were constructed by randomly assigning a number of key characteristics associated with decision making in child protection. Child protection social workers (n = 118) assessed…

  2. Criminal investigations in child protective services cases: an empirical analysis.

    PubMed

    Cross, Theodore P; Chuang, Emmeline; Helton, Jesse J; Lux, Emily A

    2015-05-01

    This study analyzed the frequency and correlates of criminal investigation of child maltreatment in cases investigated by child protective service (CPS), using national probability data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Criminal investigations were conducted in slightly more than 25% of cases. Communities varied substantially in percentage criminally investigated. Sexual abuse was the most frequent type of maltreatment criminally investigated followed by physical abuse. Logistic regression results indicated that criminal investigations were more likely when caseworkers perceived greater harm and more evidence; when CPS conducted an investigation rather than an assessment; when a parent or a legal guardian reported the maltreatment; and when cases were located in communities in which CPS and police had a memorandum of understanding (MOU) governing coordination. Most variation between communities in criminal investigation remained unexplained. The findings suggest the potential of MOUs for communities wanting to increase criminal investigation. PMID:25520321

  3. Child Protection and Justice Systems Processing of Serious Child Abuse and Neglect Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlak, Andrea J.; Schultz, Dana; Wells, Susan J.; Lyons, Peter; Doueck, Howard J.; Gragg, Frances

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trajectory of cases through four systems: child protection, law enforcement, the dependency courts, and the criminal courts. Method: This study focused on a county selected from a 41-county telephone survey conducted for the National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS-3). For this…

  4. Child Protective Services Case Management Project. Final Report: Innovations in Protective Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Human Resources, Austin.

    One of seven reports in the Innovations in Protective Services series, this document reports on the development of a model of case management that clarified what is expected from Child Protective Service (CPS) specialists. By conducting a literature review, studying the role of the CPS case manager, and developing a case management model, the Case…

  5. Examining Racial Disproportionality in Child Protective Services Case Decisions.

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A; Berger, Lawrence M; Slack, Kristen S

    2012-11-01

    Using a national sample of 1,461 child protective services (CPS) investigations in the United States, we examine differences between black and white families with regard to caseworker ratings of risk and harm to the child, as well as the probability that a case is substantiated for maltreatment. We employ difference-in-difference methods to identify whether gaps in outcomes for black and white families are equivalent when black and white CPS workers conduct the investigation, and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition methods to identify the portion of the black-white difference in outcomes that is attributable to differences in case characteristics (risk factors) versus differences in associations between these characteristics and the outcomes by race (differential treatment). We find no differences in outcomes by child race after adjusting for case characteristics. At the same time, we find that relative to white caseworkers, black caseworkers are more likely to rate black children at subjectively higher risk of harm than white children and are also more likely to substantiate black families for maltreatment. The decomposition results suggest that-even after accounting for caseworker race-differences in outcomes for black and white children are primarily explained by differences in family and case circumstances rather than differential treatment. Thus, our analyses suggest that interventions addressing maltreatment-related risk factors that disproportionately affect black families may have greater utility for reducing racial disparities in CPS involvement than current emphases on cultural competence training. PMID:22984321

  6. Examining Racial Disproportionality in Child Protective Services Case Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Font, Sarah A.; Berger, Lawrence M.; Slack, Kristen S.

    2012-01-01

    Using a national sample of 1,461 child protective services (CPS) investigations in the United States, we examine differences between black and white families with regard to caseworker ratings of risk and harm to the child, as well as the probability that a case is substantiated for maltreatment. We employ difference-in-difference methods to identify whether gaps in outcomes for black and white families are equivalent when black and white CPS workers conduct the investigation, and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition methods to identify the portion of the black-white difference in outcomes that is attributable to differences in case characteristics (risk factors) versus differences in associations between these characteristics and the outcomes by race (differential treatment). We find no differences in outcomes by child race after adjusting for case characteristics. At the same time, we find that relative to white caseworkers, black caseworkers are more likely to rate black children at subjectively higher risk of harm than white children and are also more likely to substantiate black families for maltreatment. The decomposition results suggest that—even after accounting for caseworker race—differences in outcomes for black and white children are primarily explained by differences in family and case circumstances rather than differential treatment. Thus, our analyses suggest that interventions addressing maltreatment-related risk factors that disproportionately affect black families may have greater utility for reducing racial disparities in CPS involvement than current emphases on cultural competence training. PMID:22984321

  7. Comments on "How Child Protective Services Investigators Decide to Substantiate Mothers for Failure-to-Protect in Sexual Abuse Cases"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadoin, Amy L.; Carnes, Connie N.

    2006-01-01

    This commentary discusses the decisions of child protective service (CPS) investigators to substantiate mothers for failure-to-protect (FTP) in child sexual abuse cases. Four areas are identified in which the scientific literature remains inadequate to fully inform child maltreatment researchers, CPS practitioners and child welfare policymakers on…

  8. Discourses of Education, Protection, and Child Labor: Case Studies of Benin, Namibia and Swaziland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses discontinuities between local, national and international discourse in the fields of education, protection of children, and child labor, using Benin, Namibia and Swaziland as case studies. In Benin, child abuse and child labor are related to poverty, whereas in Namibia and Swaziland they are also interrelated with HIV/AIDS.…

  9. Re-Referral to Child Protective Services: The Influence of Child, Family, and Case Characteristics on Risk Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Christian M.; Bergeron, Natasha; Katz, Karol H.; Saunders, Leon; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines child, family, and case characteristics that impact rates of re-referral to Child Protective Services (CPS) using data on all closed CPS investigations for the state of Rhode Island between 2001 and 2004. Method: A longitudinal dataset of all referrals to CPS was created using state submissions to the National…

  10. Data Surveillance in Child Protection Systems Development: An Indonesian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boothby, Neil; Stark, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Successful implementation of child protection program interventions and child and family welfare services is contingent upon the availability and use of good quality information, as emphasized by the recent Convention on the Rights of the Child's General Comment 13. Yet, the role of information within child protection is not well…

  11. "I Made Her Realise that I Could Be There for Her, that I Could Support Her": Child Protection Practices with Women in Domestic Violence Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapierre, Simon; Cote, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study that investigated child protection policies and practices, and focuses on data gathered in a child protection agency located in Quebec, Canada. This research project draws upon a qualitative case-study methodology, involving a documentary analysis of both national and local child protection policies, as…

  12. Child Protection Assessment in Humanitarian Emergencies: Case Studies from Georgia, Gaza, Haiti and Yemen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Alastair; Blake, Courtney; Stark, Lindsay; Daniel, Tsufit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The paper reviews the experiences of conducting child protection assessments across four humanitarian emergencies where violence and insecurity, directly or indirectly, posed a major threat to children. We seek to identify common themes emerging from these experiences and propose ways to guide the planning and implementation of…

  13. Systematically Identifying Relevant Research: Case Study on Child Protection Social Workers' Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Paula; Taylor, Brian J.; Campbell, Anne; McQuilkin, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Context: The development of a consolidated knowledge base for social work requires rigorous approaches to identifying relevant research. Method: The quality of 10 databases and a web search engine were appraised by systematically searching for research articles on resilience and burnout in child protection social workers. Results: Applied Social…

  14. Locating Child Protection in Preservice Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Laskey, Louise; McInnes, Elspeth; Farrell, Ann; Mathews, Ben; Briggs, Freda

    2011-01-01

    A recent report delivered by the Australian Centerer for Child Protection has highlighted the need for empirical evidence of effective pedagogies for supporting teaching and learning of child protection content in Australian teacher education programs (Arnold & Mai-Taddeo, 2007). This paper advances this call by presenting case study accounts of…

  15. Rethinking Compassion Fatigue Through the Lens of Professional Identity: The Case of Child-Protection Workers.

    PubMed

    Geoffrion, Steve; Morselli, Carlo; Guay, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    Compassion fatigue is currently the dominant model in work-related stress studies that explain the consequences of caring for others on child-protection workers. Based on a deterministic approach, this model excludes the role of cognition a priori and a posteriori in the understanding of the impact of caregiving or providing social support. By integrating the notion of professional identity, this article adds a subjective perspective to the compassion fatigue model allowing for the consideration of positive outcomes and takes into account the influence of stress caused by accountability. Mainly, it is argued that meanings derived from identity and given to situations may protect or accelerate the development of compassion fatigue or compassion satisfaction. To arrive at this proposition, the notions of compassion fatigue and identity theory are first reviewed. These concepts are then articulated around four work-related stressors specific to child-protection work. In light of this exercise, it is argued that professional identity serves as a subjective interpretative framework that guides the understanding of work-related situations. Therefore, compassion fatigue is not only a simple reaction to external stimuli. It is influenced by meanings given to the situation. Furthermore, professional identity modulates the impact of compassion fatigue on psychological well-being. Practice, policy, and research implications in light of these findings are also discussed. PMID:25985989

  16. Commentary on "How Child Protective Service Investigators Decide to Substantiate Mothers for Failure-to-Protect in Sexual Abuse Cases"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieth, Victor I.

    2006-01-01

    As this author traveled around the country, many university professors and domestic violence advocates told him that prosecuting or even intervening with social services is morally "wrong" in cases in which parents fail to protect their children. There are two problems with these arguments. First, these arguments assume that mothers should "never"…

  17. Risk Assessment in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Jill S.; Morin, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Despite continuing improvements in risk assessment for child protective services (CPS) and movement toward actuarial prediction of child maltreatment, current models have not adequately addressed child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse cases present unique and ambiguous indicators to the investigating professional, and risk factors differ from those…

  18. Children with Disabilities in the Child Protective Services System: An Analog Study of Investigation and Case Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manders, Jeanette E.; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The study used a series of vignettes to investigate how the presence of three disabilities (cerebral palsy, intellectual disabilities, emotional/behavioral disabilities) affects the processes and outcomes of child abuse investigations at two levels of child injury severity (moderate, severe). Method: Seventy-five CPS case workers…

  19. Prevention and the Child Protection System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The nation's child protection system (CPS) has historically focused on preventing maltreatment in high-risk families, whose children have already been maltreated. But, as Jane Waldfogel explains, it has also begun developing prevention procedures for children at lower risk--those who are referred to CPS but whose cases do not meet the criteria for…

  20. Adoption and Child Welfare Protection in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumaret, Annick-Camille; Rosset, Dominique-Jeanne

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the French Child Protection system, which is managed by Child Welfare of the local authorities (Aide Sociale a l'Enfance) and by Judicial Juvenile Protection depending on the central government (Protection Judiciaire de la Jeunesse) Children's judges are involved in child protection. The majority of children in care live in…

  1. Workshop Two: Child Protection; Relative Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Anne Sinclair

    1996-01-01

    Presents salient features of workshop discussion examining child abuse. Topics discussed include cross-cultural definitions of abuse, prevalence rates, family-centered versus child-centered approaches, educational perspectives on child protection work, the need for international research, abuses of child protection systems, emotional demands on…

  2. A qualitative case study of child protection issues in the Indian construction industry: investigating the security, health, and interrelated rights of migrant families

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many of India’s estimated 40 million migrant workers in the construction industry migrate with their children. Though India is undergoing rapid economic growth, numerous child protection issues remain. Migrant workers and their children face serious threats to their health, safety, and well-being. We examined risk and protective factors influencing the basic rights and protections of children and families living and working at a construction site outside Delhi. Methods Using case study methods and a rights-based model of child protection, the SAFE model, we triangulated data from in-depth interviews with stakeholders on and near the site (including employees, middlemen, and managers); 14 participants, interviews with child protection and corporate policy experts in greater Delhi (8 participants), and focus group discussions (FGD) with workers (4 FGDs, 25 members) and their children (2 FGDs, 9 members). Results Analyses illuminated complex and interrelated stressors characterizing the health and well-being of migrant workers and their children in urban settings. These included limited access to healthcare, few educational opportunities, piecemeal wages, and unsafe or unsanitary living and working conditions. Analyses also identified both protective and potentially dangerous survival strategies, such as child labor, undertaken by migrant families in the face of these challenges. Conclusions By exploring the risks faced by migrant workers and their children in the urban construction industry in India, we illustrate the alarming implications for their health, safety, livelihoods, and development. Our findings, illuminated through the SAFE model, call attention to the need for enhanced systems of corporate and government accountability as well as the implementation of holistic child-focused and child-friendly policies and programs in order to ensure the rights and protection of this hyper-mobile, and often invisible, population. PMID:24044788

  3. Child Protection in Military Communities. The User Manual Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhurst, Diane D.; And Others

    Intended for use by military personnel involved in child advocacy efforts and by Child Protective Services personnel working in conjunction with the military, this manual describes programs, procedures, and regulations developed to facilitate intervention in cases of child abuse and neglect among military personnel. Initially, an overview of child…

  4. Child Death Review Teams: A Vital Component of Child Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochstadt, Neil J.

    2006-01-01

    The alarming number of children killed and seriously injured as a result of child maltreatment and neglect has led to increased calls for action. In response, interdisciplinary and multiagency child death review teams have emerged as an important component of child protection. Paradoxically, child death review teams are among the least visible and…

  5. Mothers, domestic violence, and child protection.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Heather; Walsh, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    This article explores the relationship between understandings of domestic violence and the child protection response drawing on material gathered in focus groups with workers who support mothers dealing with both domestic violence and child protection issues. The interviewees expressed concern that the dynamics of domestic violence are often misunderstood and inappropriately responded to by child protection workers. This article critically examines the interviewees' concerns and concludes that to properly protect children, it is crucial that child protection workers have a clear understanding of the dynamics of and issues related to domestic violence. PMID:20348440

  6. Children, Child Abuse and Child Protection: Placing Children Centrally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This book provides an overview of the political, moral, and social context within which British child welfare practitioners and managers attempt to work with children, families, and others. The book reviews the development of improved policy and practices in child protection. Placing children at the center of policy, practice, and discourse, it…

  7. [Legal consequences in cases of child abuse].

    PubMed

    Clauß, D; Richter, C; Klohs, G; Heide, S

    2013-09-01

    Medical child protection includes besides interdisciplinary diagnostics and treatment of physical and psychological symptoms also a discussion that looks at the ensuing legal consequences.This study analyses 21 criminally investigated cases of suspected child abuse from a 2 year study period and compares severity of injury to legal outcome.7 of those 21 criminal proceedings were already dropped by the prosecution and never went to trial. 4 of the 8 cases that led to a trial ended with a conviction. In all of the 4 cases that resulted in an acquittal the judges had been convinced that the child had been abused but found themselves unable to exactly identify the perpetrator. Our study's cases did not show a positive correlation between severity of injury and legal outcome.Diagnosing and treating children and minors within the context of medical child protection should always also include the ques-tion of possible legal consequences. The judicial process in cases of serious child abuse requires high medical expertise. Such expertise particularly includes the ability to determine the time of injury as exactly as possible and to provide precise written documentation of any medical findings. However, our study also shows that medical assessment is only one of many aspects in the legal response to child abuse. PMID:23975849

  8. Racial Disparity in Minnesota's Child Protection System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik P.; Clark, Sonja; Donald, Matthew; Pedersen, Rachel; Pichotta, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Minnesota has been recognized by several studies as a state with a significant amount of racial disparity in its child protection system. This study, using 2001 data from Minnesota's Social Services Information Service, was conducted to determine at which of the six decision points in Minnesota's child welfare system racial disparities are…

  9. Child protection: a 50-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Skellern, Catherine Yvette

    2015-01-01

    It has been 50 years since Kempe et al. published 'The Battered Child Syndrome', describing harm from inflicted injury mechanisms derived from parents and care givers. Since then, there has emerged a rapidly expanding literature on paediatric forensic medicine and child protection, which has offered new insights into injury mechanisms, informed us of the sequelae of abuse and neglect, aided diagnosis and guided clinical practice in the treatment and management of children who become involved in the child protection system. Through the scrutiny of government inquiries and at times uncomfortable media exposure, there have been improvements in child protection and forensic practices resulting in recognition of need for specialised forensic training, improved funding, development of resources and development of professional standards that support accountable, objective, safe and robust practice. From the perspective of an Australian child protection paediatrician, this paper chronicles some of the most significant and at times controversial research in the last 50 years in child protection that have played a key role in shaping our current understanding of child abuse and neglect. PMID:25534472

  10. History of Child Welfare and Protection Social Work in Northern Ireland: Finding Continuity amongst Discontinuity in Case Files from 1950 to 1968

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skehill, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on research carried out on 189 child welfare files from the largest welfare authority in Northern Ireland from 1950 to 1968. The literature review provides a commentary on some of the major debates surrounding child welfare and protection social work from the perspective of its historical development. The report of the…

  11. Reorganizing Child Protective Services: Protecting Children and Providing Family Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Elizabeth D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines the proposal to assign the child protective investigative function to law enforcement agencies, while maintaining the family service function in the child welfare system. Reviews the national experience with the separation of income maintenance and social services in public welfare, advising extreme caution in the implementation of this…

  12. Defining Child Neglect Based on Child Protective Services Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubowitz, H.; Pitts, S.C.; Litrownik, A.J.; Cox, C.E.; Runyan, D.; Black, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives:: To compare neglect defined by Child Protective Services official codes with neglect defined by a review of CPS narrative data, and to examine the validity of the different neglect measures using children's functioning at age 8 years. Methods:: Data are from 740 children participating in a consortium of longitudinal studies on child…

  13. [Uncooperative families in child protection services].

    PubMed

    Guay, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the clinical challenges family therapists face in child protection services. These challenges arise in various ways. The first challenge is the legal context that confers a coercive and intrusive character unfavourable to commitment in the therapeutic process; the second challenge consists in succeeding in reconciling the therapeutic alliance with the legal mandate of control and surveillance. The third is taking into account the priority economic needs of families. The author presents a clinical situation that illustrates the dilemma and impasses these challenges pose. In conclusion, approaches favoured by family therapists specialized in child protection are defined. PMID:21761086

  14. Role Definitions and Boundary Problems in Child Protection Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Michael C.

    Specific ethical problems caused by the multiple roles of the psychologist in cases involving child protection are discussed. Psychologists may serve as consultants, evaluators, therapists, reporters, or monitors for the client and/or the court. When more than one person in the family is involved, or the court orders an additional role for the…

  15. Child protection procedures in emergency departments

    PubMed Central

    Sidebotham, P; Biu, T; Goldsworthy, L

    2007-01-01

    Background Emergency departments (EDs) may be the first point at which children who have been subject to abuse or neglect come into contact with professionals who are able to act for their protection. In order to ascertain current procedures for identifying and managing child abuse, we conducted a survey of EDs in England and Northern Ireland. Methods Questionnaires were sent to the lead professionals in a random sample of 81 EDs in England and 20 in Northern Ireland. Departments were asked to provide copies of their procedures for child protection. These were analysed qualitatively using a structured template. Results A total of 74 questionnaires were returned. 91.3% of departments had written protocols for child protection. Of these, 27 provided copies of their protocols for analysis. Factors judged to improve the practical usefulness of protocols included: those that were brief; were specific to the department; incorporated both medical and nursing management; included relevant contact details; included a single page flow chart which could be accessed separately. 25/71 (35.2%) departments reported that they used a checklist to highlight concerns. The most common factors on the checklists included an inconsistent history or one which did not match the examination; frequent attendances; delay in presentation; or concerns about the child's appearance or behaviour, or the parent–child interaction. Conclusions There is a lack of consistency in the approach to identifying and responding to child abuse in EDs. Drawing on the results of this survey, we are able to suggest good practice guidelines for the management of suspected child abuse in EDs. Minimum standards could improve management and facilitate clinical audit and relevant training. PMID:18029514

  16. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... responsible for the investigation of reported cases of child abuse and child neglect, the treatment and... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What must an application for Indian child protection and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION...

  17. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... responsible for the investigation of reported cases of child abuse and child neglect, the treatment and... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What must an application for Indian child protection and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION...

  18. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... responsible for the investigation of reported cases of child abuse and child neglect, the treatment and... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What must an application for Indian child protection and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION...

  19. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... responsible for the investigation of reported cases of child abuse and child neglect, the treatment and... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What must an application for Indian child protection and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION...

  20. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... responsible for the investigation of reported cases of child abuse and child neglect, the treatment and... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must an application for Indian child protection and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION...

  1. Burnout Stress Syndrome in Child Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstraete, Patricia A.

    1994-01-01

    Burnout stress syndrome is a complex concept reflecting a failure in both the individual's defense mechanism and in the work environment. Since child protection agencies cannot afford the costs of staff burnout, time and money spent by the organization to reduce employee stress is an investment in better service delivery. (TJQ)

  2. Costing Child Protective Services Staff Turnover.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graef, Michelle I.; Hill, Erick L.

    2000-01-01

    Details process of determining a child welfare agency's actual dollar costs directly attributed to protective services staff turnover, using the agency's human resources database and interviews with administrative personnel. Provides formulas and process for calculating specific cost elements due to employee separation, replacement, and training.…

  3. [Respecting minors' autonomy in child custody cases].

    PubMed

    Santa Rosa, Bárbara; Corte-Real, Francisco; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Child custody decisions are among the most difficult for judges to make. The possibility of child abuse allegations or parents' deviant/ psychopathologic behaviours within this context, make the decision further complicated. Based on jurisprudence the listening of children opinion is a way to protect their best interest. In fact children have the right to express an opinion in all matters affecting their life. It should be given proper consideration to children opinion according with his/her age and maturity. Nonetheless custody disputes are emotionally draining issues. Asking the child to express an opinion during a public hearing, most likely in the presence of both parents, its not recommended because this is a potential stressful experience. Child interviews should take place in a proper environment and be set to their age. Medicine and Psychology have an important role in assessing children cognitive, emotional and volitional abilities, which is essential to properly account their opinions according to autonomy degree. This essay analyses the contribution of medico-legal and/or psychological exams to respect the autonomy of the child in cases of regulation of parental responsibilities. The conclusion is the need to establish a symbiotic relationship between the medical and legal perspectives of the (open) concept of child's best interests. PMID:24388247

  4. Predicting the decisions of hospital based child protection teams to report to child protective services, police and community welfare services.

    PubMed

    Benbenishty, Rami; Jedwab, Merav; Chen, Wendy; Glasser, Saralee; Slutzky, Hanna; Siegal, Gil; Lavi-Sahar, Zohar; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2014-01-01

    This study examines judgments made by hospital-based child protection teams (CPTs) when determining if there is reasonable suspicion that a child has been maltreated, and whether to report the case to a community welfare agency, to child protective services (CPS) and/or to the police. A prospective multi-center study of all 968 consecutive cases referred to CPTs during 2010-2011 in six medical centers in Israel. Centers were purposefully selected to represent the heterogeneity of medical centers in Israel in terms of size, geographical location and population characteristics. A structured questionnaire was designed to capture relevant information and judgments on each child referred to the team. Bivariate associations and multivariate multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to predict whether the decisions would be (a) to close the case, (b) to refer the case to community welfare services, or (c) to report it to CPS and/or the police. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified a large number of case characteristics associated with higher probability of reporting to CPS/police or of referral to community welfare services. Case characteristics associated with the decisions include socio-demographic (e.g., ethnicity and financial status), parental functioning (e.g., mental health), previous contacts with authorities and hospital, current referral characteristics (e.g., parental referral vs. child referral), physical findings, and suspicious behaviors of child and parent. Most of the findings suggest that decisions of CPTs are based on indices that have strong support in the professional literature. Existing heterogeneity between cases, practitioners and medical centers had an impact on the overall predictability of the decision to report. Attending to collaboration between hospitals and community agencies is suggested to support learning and quality improvement. PMID:23948314

  5. Testing the Measurement Properties of Risk Assessment Instruments in Child Protective Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanshel, David; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study examined 72 children at risk of abuse and the relevant adults, to identify variables predictive of child abuse risk. The measures used (New York Child Protective Services Review Document, Magura-Moses Child Well-Being Scales, and Beck and Jones List of Problems and Conditions) each had predictive value for case decision making.…

  6. Should Child Protection Services Respond Differently to Maltreatment, Risk of Maltreatment, and Risk of Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Barbara; Trocme, Nico; MacLaurin, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine evidence available in large-scale North American datasets on child abuse and neglect that can assist in understanding the complexities of child protection case classifications. Methods: A review of child abuse and neglect data from large North American epidemiological studies including the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported…

  7. Relationship between child abuse exposure and reported contact with child protection organizations: results from the Canadian Community Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Turner, Sarah; Tonmyr, Lil; Hovdestad, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    Much of what is known about child abuse in Canada has come from reported cases of child abuse and at-risk samples, which likely represent the most severe cases of child abuse in the country. The objective of the current study is to examine the prevalence of a broad range of child abuse experiences (physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to IPV) and investigate how such experiences and sociodemographic variables are related to contact with child protection organizations in Canada using a representative general population sample. Data were drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health collected from the 10 provinces using a multistage stratified cluster design (n=23,395; household response rate=79.8%; aged 18 years and older). Physical abuse only (16.8%) was the most prevalent child abuse experience reported with the exposure to specific combinations of two or more types of child abuse ranging from 0.4% to 3.7%. Only 7.6% of the adult population with a history of child abuse reported having had contact with child protection organizations. Experiencing all three types of child abuse was associated with the greatest odds of contact with child protection organizations (AOR=15.8; 95% CI=10.1 to 24.6). Physical abuse only was associated with one of the lowest odds of contact with child protection organizations. Preventing child abuse is widely acknowledged as an important, but challenging public health goal. Strategies to increase reporting of child abuse may help to protect children and to connect families with necessary services. One obvious priority would be physical abuse. PMID:26002601

  8. Applying the Recovery Approach to the Interface between Mental Health and Child Protection Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joe; Davidson, Gavin; Kavanagh, Damien

    2016-01-01

    There is a range of theoretical approaches which may inform the interface between child protection and adult mental health services. These theoretical perspectives tend to be focused on either child protection or mental health with no agreed integrating framework. The interface continues to be identified, in research, case management reviews and…

  9. Predictive analytics and child protection: constraints and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Russell, Jesse

    2015-08-01

    This paper considers how predictive analytics might inform, assist, and improve decision making in child protection. Predictive analytics represents recent increases in data quantity and data diversity, along with advances in computing technology. While the use of data and statistical modeling is not new to child protection decision making, its use in child protection is experiencing growth, and efforts to leverage predictive analytics for better decision-making in child protection are increasing. Past experiences, constraints and opportunities are reviewed. For predictive analytics to make the most impact on child protection practice and outcomes, it must embrace established criteria of validity, equity, reliability, and usefulness. PMID:26142916

  10. Adjudication of Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John E. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues in the adjudication of child sexual abuse allegations and reviews research about the believability of child witnesses. It also examines accommodations for children that could assist the child witness and encourage accurate testimony, while continuing to protect the rights of the accused. Criminal, juvenile, and divorce court…

  11. A History of Child Protection: Back to the Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomison, Adam M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the history of child maltreatment and the development of the public concern to protect children, focusing on efforts since the 1960s in Western societies, especially Australia, to protect children and prevent the occurrence of child maltreatment. Identifies cycles in the professional response to child abuse and neglect,…

  12. Child protection: legal and ethical obligation regarding the report of child abuse in four different countries.

    PubMed

    Cukovic-Bagic, Ivana; Welbury, Richard R; Flander, Gordana Buljan; Hatibovic-Kofman, Sahza; Nuzzolese, Emilio

    2013-12-01

    Child protection is the duty of every single member of the society. Health professionals who work with children, such as members of dental team, are in the unique position to recognize signs of physical, sexual and emotional abuse as well as (dental) neglect. They should report any suspected case where a child is or may be in need of welfare. The professional responsibility is regulated by legal and ethical obligations. In this preliminary work the authors investigate the legal and ethical Acts, and the similarities vs. differences in obligations regarding reporting child abuse and neglect (CAN) cases in four countries: Croatia, United Kingdom, Italy and Canada. In all four countries all health professionals have a duty to report their suspicion if a child is in a harmful situation. All of them who fail to report, or even neglect or delay to report a suspicion, are liable on conviction to a pecuniary fine which varies from country to country. Depending on the country, if a professional has reasonable grounds to suspect that a child is or may be in need of protection, must report to: CAS (children's aid society), to CSS (center for social services), to police, to a Juvenile Court, or to the ombudsman. In all four countries, dentists are not asked to diagnose 'child maltreatment', but simply report the suspicion with supportive evidence. Ethical obligation comes from medical and dental ethical codes regulated by the Chamber or Council of Dentists. In all four countries legal and ethical obligations in reporting CAN are similar. Differences are related mostly to fines for nonreporting or a delay in reporting. Expanded investigation through other European countries and standard operational procedures is needed, in order to harmonize policies and guidelines for reporting CAN and maximize children protection. PMID:24776437

  13. Doing Harm While Doing Good: The Child Protection Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Frank; Hansen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Every Australian citizen expects state and territory governments to protect children from child abuse and neglect. Protecting children from harm is seen as good. This however is not a simple matter. The ultimate act in protecting children is to remove them from parental care. This causes trauma for the child and pain and distress for parents no…

  14. Child custody disputes within the context of child protection investigations: secondary analysis of the Canadian Incident Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect.

    PubMed

    Saini, Michael A; Black, Tara; Fallon, Barbara; Marshall, Alena

    2013-01-01

    This national study of child custody disputes within the context of child protection investigations confirms and reinforces the perception in the field that child custody disputes are more likely to reopen for investigations, include higher rates of malicious referrals and involve a higher proportion of children with emotional and functioning issues compared to non-custody-related investigations. Future research might consider the reasons for these higher rates so to improve the identification of these cases and to make more informed decisions about how best to respond to these families. The greatest contribution of this study is that it provides important new evidence to reinforce the need to prioritize child custody disputes within the context of child protection services given the unique challenges and opportunities for making well-informed case plan decisions. PMID:23984488

  15. Developing a Template for National Child Protection Index Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Alastair; Stark, Lindsay; Chu, Erin; Dewan, Shweta; Boothby, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: What impact does the strengthening of child rights have on the experience and circumstances of children? CRC General Comment 13 emphasizes that defining measurable targets for improvements in child protection is a key element of efforts to strengthen child rights and well-being across the world. This paper describes an attempt to…

  16. Child Protective Services: A Bibliography with Partial Annotation and Cross-Indexing -- 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naughton, M. James; And Others

    Contained in the bibliography are citations for 1500 publications concerned with child abuse and neglect of which 700 include abstracts. Titles are listed alphabetically by author under the following broad subjects or child protective service case types: generalized abuse/neglect, generalized abuse, generalized neglect, physical abuse, physical…

  17. Pediatric Response to a Large-Scale Child Protection Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukefahr, James L.; Kellogg, Nancy D.; Anderst, James D.; Gavril, Amy R.; Wehner, Karl K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In a rural area of the US state of Texas, in April 2008, the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services (DFPS) responded to evidence of widespread child abuse in an isolated religious compound by removing 463 individuals into state custody. This mass child protection intervention is the largest such action that has ever occurred…

  18. The Role of School Psychologists in Child Protection and Safeguarding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Kevin; Bond, Caroline; Tyldesley, Kath; Farrell, Peter; Humphrey, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Child protection and safeguarding are important aspects of work for all professionals working with children. The current article outlines the international context of school psychologists' work in relation to child protection and safeguarding and describes the United Kingdom context in more detail. Given the relatively recent broadening of the UK…

  19. The Munro Review of Child Protection: An Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parton, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 40 years child protection systems in all Advanced Western Societies have been subject to high profile criticisms and regular major reviews. In many respects the Munro Review of Child Protection (2011) in England, is very different to those which have gone before. This paper summarises the main findings and recommendations of The…

  20. Measuring the Impact of Child Protection through Activation States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackenridge, Celia H.; Pawlaczek, Zofia; Bringer, Joy D.; Cockburn, Claudi; Nutt, Gareth; Pitchford, Andy; Russell, Kate

    2005-01-01

    Child protection (CP) has risen to the top of the UK sports policy agenda in the past four years and the Football Association has invested in this major strategy as part of its commitment to "use the power of football to build a better future" (Football Association, 2000a). Evidencing the impact of child protection is, however, a complex task,…

  1. Citizen Review Panels for Child Protective Services: A National Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Blake L.; Royse, David

    2008-01-01

    Citizen Review Panels (CRPs) for Child Protective Services are groups of citizen-volunteers throughout the United States who are federally mandated to evaluate local and state child protection systems. This study presents a profile of 332 CRP members in 20 states with regards to their demographic information, length of time on the panel, and …

  2. Citizen review panels for Child Protective Services: a national profile.

    PubMed

    Jones, Blake L; Royse, David

    2008-01-01

    Citizen Review Panels (CRPs) for Child Protective Services are groups of citizen-volunteers throughout the United States who are federally mandated to evaluate local and state child protection systems. This study presents a profile of 332 CRP members in 20 states with regards to their demographic information, length of time on the panel, and attitudes regarding the variables that promote and hinder collaboration between the panels and state child welfare agencies. Results indicate that the average review panel member tends to be a professional, middle-aged female with an advanced degree. Better communication (between child protective services and the CRPs) and clearer goals/objectives for CRPs were the most cited suggestions of how CRPs and child welfare agencies can work together. Lack of funding and the defensiveness of the child welfare agency were seen as the top obstacles to such collaboration. Policy implications and avenues of further study are discussed. PMID:19189808

  3. Testing if Social Services Prevent Fatal Child Maltreatment Among a Sample of Children Previously Known to Child Protective Services.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Emily M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the potential impact of child welfare services on the risk for fatal child maltreatment. This was conducted using a subsample of children who were identified as "prior victims" in the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System from 2008 to 2012. At the multivariate level, the analyses show that case management services act to protect children from death as do family support services, family preservation services, and foster care, but that the results vary by type of maltreatment experienced. The author recommends that before strong conclusions are drawn, additional research in this area is warranted. PMID:27412527

  4. Child advocacy center multidisciplinary team decision and its association to child protective services outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brink, Farah W; Thackeray, Jonathan D; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Letson, Megan M; Scribano, Philip V

    2015-08-01

    Limited studies exist evaluating the multidisciplinary team (MDT) decision-making process and its outcomes. This study evaluates the MDT determination of the likelihood of child sexual abuse (CSA) and its association to the outcome of the child protective services (CPS) disposition. A retrospective cohort study of CSA patients was conducted. The MDT utilized an a priori Likert rating scale to determine the likelihood of abuse. Subjects were dichotomized into high versus low/intermediate likelihood of CSA as determined by the MDT. Clinical and demographic characteristics were compared based upon MDT and CPS decisions. Fourteen hundred twenty-two patients were identified. A high likelihood for abuse was determined in 997 cases (70%). CPS substantiated or indicated the allegation of CSA in 789 cases (79%, Kappa 0.54). Any CSA disclosure, particularly moderate risk disclosure (AOR 59.3, 95% CI 26.50-132.80) or increasing total number of CSA disclosures (AOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.11-1.57), was independently associated with a high likelihood for abuse determination. Specific clinical features associated with discordant cases in which MDT determined high likelihood for abuse and CPS did not substantiate or indicate CSA included being white or providing a low risk CSA disclosure or other non-CSA disclosure. MDT determination regarding likelihood of abuse demonstrated moderate agreement to CPS disposition outcome. CSA disclosure is predictive of the MDT determination for high likelihood of CSA. Agreement between MDT determination and CPS protection decisions appear to be driven by the type of disclosures, highlighting the importance of the forensic interview in ensuring appropriate child protection plans. PMID:25957751

  5. Children's experiences of domestic violence: developing an integrated response from police and child protection services.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Nicky; Miller, Pam; Foster, Helen Richardson; Thomson, Gill

    2011-08-01

    Police notifications of incidents of domestic violence to child protection services constitute an acknowledgement of the harm that domestic violence inflicts on children. However, these notifications represent a substantial demand on child welfare services and the outcomes for children and victims of domestic violence have been questioned. This paper presents findings from the first UK study to examine these notifications in depth and examines the interface between the police and child protection services in responding to domestic violence incidents. The research reports on police interventions in 251 incidents of domestic violence involving children; the communication of information to child protection services and the subsequent filtering and service response. Social workers found that notifications conveyed little information on children's experiences of domestic violence. Forty per cent of families notified had had no previous contact with child protection services in that area, but those cases most likely to receive social work assessment or intervention were those where the case was already open. Notifications triggered a new social work intervention in only 5% of cases. The study also identified a range of innovative approaches for improving the co-ordination of police and child protective services in relation to children's exposure to domestic violence. Arrangements that maximized opportunities for police and social workers to share agency information appeared to offer the best option for achieving informed decisions about the appropriate level of service response to children and families experiencing domestic violence. PMID:20889537

  6. Child protection and the conception of parental responsibility.

    PubMed

    Mass, Mili; van Nijnatten, Carolus

    2005-04-01

    The legal discourse on child protection that is characterized by the normalization-moralization paradigm focuses more on society's response to parental failure than on the predicament of the child. Findings from texts of legal discourse in Israel and in Holland portray an alliance between the respective legal systems and an epistemology of normality with regard to parenting that thereby turns normality into normalization. Both sets of texts are guided by an ontology of moral judgment that protects societal morale rather than the child. Morality is turned into moralization. To focus on the protection of the child, the article proposes a paradigm wherein the definition of morality is derived from concern for the other and relies on constructs that represent the evolving transaction between parent and child. PMID:15839759

  7. Conceptions of Professional Authority in Child Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nijnatten, Carolus; van den Ackerveken, Marielle; Slaats, Mariette

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the motivation of Dutch adolescents to obey authorities, noting authority relations between parents and adolescents and between adolescents and professional authorities at child welfare agencies. Interview data indicated that adolescents attributed twice as much authority to parents as to child welfare supervisors. Teens and…

  8. The Significance of Animal Cruelty in Child Protection Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girardi, Alberta; Pozzulo, Joanna D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency with which child protection workers (CPWs) in Ontario, Canada, seek information about animal cruelty during investigations of child maltreatment and the extent to which they consider information about animal cruelty when making decisions about whether intervention is required. The CPWs (N…

  9. The "Good Enough" Parent: Implications for Child Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Peter W.; Engstrom, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Child protection workers must determine under what conditions a child should be sustained within the family system. A standard that is often referred to is "good enough" parenting or minimal parenting competence. Research and clinical literature fails to offer workers guidance on the practical application of this terminology. Such…

  10. Child slavery in Hong Kong: case report and historical review.

    PubMed

    Lee, A C W; So, K T

    2006-12-01

    An 11-year-old girl was admitted with multiple injuries sustained during a 1-year servitude of domestic labour. She was acquired from her parents in Mainland China by a relative in Hong Kong. The child's parents received a sum of money that the child had to repay with work. Her hardship was characterised by long hours of incessant labour and physical torture when she failed to meet the demands of her mistress or her mistress' children. This case resembles Mui Tsai, a form of child slavery and exploitative domestic labour that was rife in Hong Kong a century ago, and illustrates the new challenges to child rights and protection consequent to the increasing social and economic integration between the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Mainland China. PMID:17148801

  11. Protective Informal Social Control of Child Maltreatment and Child Abuse Injury in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Eremina, Tatiana; Yang, Hye Lin; Yoo, Changgeun; Yoo, Jieun; Jang, Ja Kyung

    2015-11-01

    Previous findings on the relationship between neighborhood informal social control and child abuse have been mixed. We implemented a scale created by Emery, Trung, and Wu to study protective informal social control of child maltreatment (ISC_CM) by neighbors in a three-stage random cluster sample of 541 families in Seoul, South Korea. Random-effects regression models found that protective ISC_CM significantly moderated the relationship between very severe abuse and child injuries. Very severe abuse was associated with fewer injuries when levels of protective ISC_CM were higher. Implications are discussed. PMID:25392376

  12. Comparing Child Protective Investigation Performance between Law Enforcement Agencies and Child Welfare Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Neil; Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Gustafson, Mara; Armstrong, Mary; McNeish, Roxann; Vargo, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the comparative effectiveness of using law enforcement agencies for child protective investigation (CPI), in contrast with the traditional approach of CPI conducted by the public child welfare agency. The analysis uses 2006-2007 data from a natural experiment conducted in Florida to show modest differences in performance and…

  13. Child Abuse, Child Protection, and Defensive "Touch" in PE Teaching and Sports Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Heather; Garratt, Dean; Taylor, Bill

    2013-01-01

    This text introduces recently completed research on "no touch" sports coaching, by placing it in a broader social context which problematises the way child abuse and child protection (or safeguarding) are conceived and discussed in terms of policy and practice. It also provides a brief indicative summary of the research findings and…

  14. The Impact of Child, Family, and Child Protective Services Factors on Reports of Child Sexual Abuse Recurrence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinanan, Allison N.

    2011-01-01

    This study identified selected child factors (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, disabilities, prior victimization, and relationship to perpetrator of abuse), family risk factors (e.g., substance abuse, domestic violence, inadequate housing, and financial problems), and services provided by child protective services that likely increased reports…

  15. Protective factors in the development of early child conduct problems

    PubMed Central

    Vanderbilt-Adriance, Ella; Shaw, Daniel S.; Brennan, Lauretta M.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2014-01-01

    The present study utilized a resilience model to investigate child, family, and community protective factors in toddlerhood as they relate to low levels of conduct problems at age 5 in a sample of low income children at risk for early disruptive problem behavior. Child, family, and community factors were associated with lower levels of conduct problems at age 5. Child, family, and community protective factors also distinguished between children who remained below and above a clinical threshold for aggressive problems between age 2 and 5. Finally, each domain of protective factors made small but significant unique contributions to lower aggression at age 5. These results emphasize the importance of multivariate analysis of the ecology of development predicting child outcome, and suggest potential areas for intervention with children at high risk for conduct problems. PMID:25774071

  16. An Exploratory Study of Drug-Exposed Infants: Case Substantiation and Subsequent Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, An-Pyng; Freese, Margaret P.; Fitzgerald, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This study explores factors related to drug-exposed infants' case substantiation and subsequent child maltreatment. Child protective services computerized administrative data (from January 1998 to October 2001) were obtained from an urban Nevada county. The data included 457 drug-exposed infant cases. Chi-square, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and…

  17. Nurses' Perceived Training Needs in Child Protection Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Beth R.; Lister, Pam Green

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore nurses' perceptions of their current skills and knowledge and training needs to identify cases of child abuse and their understanding of their roles and responsibilities in relation to child abuse. Nurses, including health visitors and midwives, have been recognised as having a key role in the…

  18. How to Protect Kids from Child Molesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    When one mother was asked how often she worried about her child's safety, she replied, "Every time she goes out the door." Many parents rely on school abuse prevention programs to teach kids how to stay safe. But what if these programs actually increase the risk of sex crimes that target kids? What happens if parental efforts to safeguard kids…

  19. The screening unit: an experimental approach to child protective service.

    PubMed

    Barone, N; Adams, W; Tooman, P

    1981-03-01

    The Bronx screening unit was established on the assumption that in a populous urban area, a central registry reporting system would receive a sizable number of bogus or malicious reports. The unit tried to identify some of these reports by their characteristics and then to verify these suspicions through the diagnostic skill of experienced and highly motivated workers. The short-term goal was the easing of a workload crisis. The experiences of the screening unit showed that the process was highly successful, and represents an important way to use staff more efficiently in case management. During the 19-month period, an average of 93 regular CPS workers processed 4282 cases, or 46 cases per worker. During that same period, four screening workers averaged 186 cases per worker. The screening process allows the regular CPS worker additional time to focus on serious cases. It also minimizes intrusion into the lives of persons harassed by bogus reporting. The process meets the legally mandated requirements of New York State and the federal government and provides for adequate case recording and record maintenance. One aspect of the Bronx screening unit worthy of special mention is the emphasis on referrals to community services. More than a third of the "unfounded" cases, though not requiring agency intervention, did warrant some type of social service and were referred for assistance. It is important that screening unit workers be familiar with community social service programs in order to serve as resource persons for clients. There exists a tendency to prematurely view cases for screening as easy or unfounded. Determining that a child abuse or neglect report is unfounded is the result of a specific investigative process, and only some cases lend themselves to shortening of this process. Administrative awareness of screening unit limitations will enable these units to function effectively and fulfill their primary responsibility of safeguarding children. Screening

  20. NHS dental professionals' evaluation of a child protection learning resource.

    PubMed

    Harris, J C; Bradbury, J; Porritt, J; Nilchian, F; Franklin, C D

    2011-01-22

    The aim of this survey was to evaluate the impact of an educational child protection resource which had been developed and made available, free of charge, to all NHS dental practices and salaried primary dental care services in England and concurrently published online. A postal questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 1000 NHS dental practices to assess whether the learning objectives of the educational resource had been met. A total of 467 questionnaires were completed (46.7% response rate). Almost two thirds of participants (63.4%) remembered receiving the Child Protection and Dental Team (CPDT) handbook or seeing the website and almost all of them had used (looked at or read) it and felt able to access it if needed. Of the 265 users, 76.2% felt it had improved their knowledge of child protection, 60.5% had adopted a child protection policy, 53.7% had identified a child protection lead and 25.8% had arranged further training as a result of using the educational resource. The findings from the evaluation indicated that the learning objectives of the CPDT educational resource had been met and highlighted ways in which the resource could be further improved to effectively meet the needs of dental professionals. PMID:21252889

  1. Current and historical involvement of dentistry in child protection and a glimpse of the future.

    PubMed

    Park, C M; Welbury, R

    2016-10-01

    Dental teams have been involved with child protection for over 40 years. This brief review summarises their involvement in the detection of various types of child abuse and goes on to discuss the gap between the proportions of dental professionals who suspect child abuse or neglect in their paediatric patients and those who refer such cases on. Potential reasons for this discrepancy are discussed, and a glimpse of the future is given as to where further research may be necessary to tackle this existing gap. PMID:27027280

  2. Why are suspected cases of child maltreatment referred by educators so often unsubstantiated?

    PubMed

    King, Colin B; Scott, Katreena L

    2014-01-01

    School professionals have a unique vantage point for identifying child maltreatment and they are a frequent source of referral to child protective services. Disturbingly, past studies have found that maltreatment concerns reported by educators go unsubstantiated by child protective services at much higher rates than suspected maltreatment reported by other professionals. This study explores whether there are systematic differences in the characteristics of cases reported by educators as compared to other professionals and examines whether such variation might account for differences in investigation outcome. Analyses were based on 7,725 cases of suspected maltreatment referred by professionals to child protective services from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect - 2003 a national database on the characteristics of children and families investigated by child protective services. School professionals were responsible for 35.8% of professional referrals. Reports by educators were much more likely to be unsubstantiated (45.3%) than those by other professionals (28.4%) in subsequent child protective investigation. Cases reported by educators were found to contain significantly more child risk factors (e.g., child emotional and behavioural problems) and fewer caregiver and family risk factors (e.g., caregiver mental health problem, single parent family) than cases reported by other professionals. Even controlling for these differences, educator-reported concerns were still 1.84, 95% CI [1.41, 2.40] times as likely to be unsubstantiated as reports from other professionals. Contrary to the notion that educators are mostly reporting non-severe cases, suspected/substantiated cases reported by school professionals were more likely to be judged as chronic and more likely to involve families with a previous child protection history. Results are concerning for the capacity of the education and child protection systems to work together to meet their

  3. Parental Cognitive Impairment, Mental Health, and Child Outcomes in a Child Protection Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Maurice; McConnell, David; Aunos, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    Parents with cognitive impairments (CI) are overrepresented in child custody cases and their children are at risk for adverse outcomes. Ecological-transactional researchers propose that child outcomes are a function of the interaction of multiple distal, intermediate, and proximal risk and resilience factors. This study tested the fit of, and…

  4. Risk and Protective Factors of Child Delinquency. OJJDP Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Gail A.; Keenan, Kate; Tremblay, Richard E.; Coie, John D.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Loeber, Rolf; Petechuck, David

    Sparked by high-profile cases involving children who commit violent crimes, public concerns regarding child delinquents have escalated. Compared with juveniles who first become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents (offenders younger than age 13) face a much greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic juvenile…

  5. Criminal Prosecution of Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martone, Mary; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study of police and hospital records for 451 intrafamilial/caretaker child sexual abuse allegations in Chicago, Illinois, found that few children had to appear as witnesses, as 95% of cases were resolved through plea bargaining. Trial resolution took 12 to 16 months. Of 77 felony complaints initiated, 48 ended in convictions, with 43 convicts…

  6. "International Criminalisation and Child Welfare Protection": The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography has two overall aims: (i) to strengthen international criminalisation and (ii) to provide welfare protection for child victims. This article reviews the context of the Protocol including the work of the Special…

  7. Doulas' Perceptions on Single Mothers' Risk and Protective Factors, and Aspirations Relative to Child-Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arat, Gizem

    2013-01-01

    This study the author aims to explore the perceptions of doulas on single mothers' risk and protective factors, and aspirations relative to child-birth in the postpartum care. The current study was conducted by semi-structured questions, case file reviews, field notes, and twelve home visits via utilizing Grounded Theory. These mothers receive…

  8. Risk Assessment in Child Protective Services: Consensus and Actuarial Model Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Christopher; Wagner, Dennis; Healy, Theresa; Johnson, Kristen

    1999-01-01

    Compared reliability of three widely used child protective service risk-assessment models (one actuarial, two consensus based). Found that, although no system approached 100% interrater reliability, raters employing the actuarial model made consistent estimates of risk for a high percentage of cases they assessed. Interrater reliability for the…

  9. Legal Outcomes of Sexually Abused Children Evaluated at the Philippine General Hospital Child Protection Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugue-Castillo, Mariella

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the legal outcomes and factors associated with case reaching court and conviction for sexual abuse of children seen at the Philippine General Hospital Child Protection Unit (PGH-CPU) from 1997 to 2000. Methods: Mixed transdisciplinary research design combined longitudinal cohort with qualitative methods. Data were obtained…

  10. Infant oral mutilation - a child protection issue?

    PubMed

    Girgis, S; Gollings, J; Longhurst, R; Cheng, L

    2016-04-01

    Infant oral mutilation (IOM) is a primitive traditional practice involving the 'gouging out' of an infant's healthy primary tooth germs. This can lead to transmission of blood-borne diseases such as HIV/ AIDS, septicaemia and death. Other complications include eradication and/ or malformation of the child's permanent dentition. IOM is usually performed by village healers in low income countries as an accepted remedy for common childhood illness. The gingival swelling of the unerupted teeth is mistakenly thought to indicate the presence of 'tooth worms'. Crude methods to remove these are employed using unsterile tools. IOM has been reported in many African countries. More recently, some immigrants living in high income countries, such as the UK, have shown signs of IOM. Our aim is to raise awareness among clinicians about the existence of IOM practice being carried out among respective African immigrant groups. We encourage clinicians, particularly those working with paediatric patients to inform parents and carers of children with a history of IOM about the risks and consequences. As part of child safeguarding policies, dental practitioners and health care professionals should intervene if they are aware of any perceived plan that IOM is to be carried out in the future. PMID:27056520

  11. Establishment of Interdisciplinary Child Protection Teams in Turkey 2002-2006: Identifying the Strongest Link Can Make a Difference!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agirtan, Canan A.; Akar, Taner; Akbas, Seher; Akdur, Recep; Aydin, Cahide; Aytar, Gulsen; Ayyildiz, Suat; Baskan, Sevgi; Belgemen, Tugba; Bezirci, Ozdecan; Beyazova, Ufuk; Beyaztas, Fatma Yucel; Buken, Bora; Buken, Erhan; Camurdan, Aysu D.; Can, Demet; Canbaz, Sevgi; Canturk, Gurol; Ceyhan, Meltem; Coskun, Abdulhakim; Celik, Ahmet; Cetin, Fusun C.; Coskun, Ayse Gul; Dagcinar, Adnan; Dallar, Yildiz; Demirel, Birol; Demirogullari, Billur; Derman, Orhan; Dilli, Dilek; Ersahin, Yusuf; Esiyok, Burcu; Evinc, Gulin; Gencer, Ozlem; Gokler, Bahar; Hanci, Hamit; Iseri, Elvan; Isir, Aysun Baransel; Isiten, Nukhet; Kale, Gulsev; Karadag, Ferda; Kanbur, Nuray; Kilic, Birim; Kultur, Ebru; Kurtay, Derya; Kuruoglu, Asli; Miral, Suha; Odabasi, Aysun B.; Oral, Resmiye; Orhon, Filiz Simsek; Ozbesler, Cengiz; Ozdemir, Dilsad Foto; Ozkok, M. Selim; Ozmert, Elif; Oztop, Didem B.; Ozyurek, Hamit; Pasli, Figen; Peksen, Yildiz; Polat, Onur; Sahin, Figen; Sahin, Ahmet Rifat; Salacin, Serpil; Suskan, Emine; Tander, Burak; Tekin, Deniz; Teksam, Ozlem; Tiras, Ulku; Tomak, Yilmaz; Tumer, Ali Riza; Turla, Ahmet; Ulukol, Betul; Uslu, Runa; Tas, Fatma V.; Vatandas, Nilgun; Velipasaoglu, Sevtap; Yagmur, Fatih; Yagmurlu, Aydin; Yalcin, Songul; Yavuz, Sukruye; Yurdakok, Kadriye

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The University of Iowa Child Protection Program collaborated with Turkish professionals to develop a training program on child abuse and neglect during 2002-2006 with the goals of increasing professional awareness and number of multidisciplinary teams (MDT), regional collaborations, and assessed cases. This paper summarizes the 5-year…

  12. Comparing child protective investigation performance between law enforcement agencies and child welfare agencies.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Neil; Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Gustafson, Mara; Armstrong, Mary; McNeish, Roxann; Vargo, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the comparative effectiveness of using law enforcement agencies for child protective investigation (CPI), in contrast with the traditional approach of CPI conducted by the public child welfare agency. The analysis uses 2006-2007 data from a natural experiment conducted in Florida to show modest differences in performance and cost-efficiency between the two approaches to CPI. These findings may have implications for other states considering outsourcing CPI to law enforcement. PMID:21942106

  13. Evaluation of the siblings of physically abused children: a comparison of child protective services caseworkers and child abuse physicians.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Melissa A; Squires, Janet; Zuckerbraun, Noel S; Berger, Rachel P

    2010-05-01

    Current theories suggest that all children in a home are at risk for physical abuse, when one child is abused. However, little evidence exists to guide decisions regarding the medical management of siblings of physically abused children (contact children [CC]). This study sought to compare child protective services (CPS) caseworkers' and child abuse physicians' (CAP) recommendations regarding the need for medical evaluation of CC in case scenarios of unequivocal physical abuse. In all cases, caseworkers and physicians disagreed on which CC warranted a medical evaluation. In addition, 25% of caseworkers did not think that physicians should make recommendations on the need for medical evaluation of CC. The findings of the authors suggest that the home visit is a critical part of the decision-making process for caseworkers and that it often acts as a substitute for a medical evaluation. Caseworkers indicated that visible injury to the contact child and severity of injury to the index child were among the most important factors in deciding which CC need a medical evaluation. Although caseworkers and physicians disagree on certain issues related to the evaluation of CC, it is clear that limited resources should be directed at CC at highest risk for physical abuse. PMID:20147344

  14. An ethical approach to resolving value conflicts in child protection.

    PubMed

    Webb, E; Moynihan, S

    2010-01-01

    Child protection professionals working in diverse societies are regularly faced with value conflicts. Recognising these, and resolving them in the best interests of children, is a task that requires child protection specialists to make complex judgements and decisions. In this paper the philosophical concepts of absolutism and relativism to child abuse are applied, and it explores how this approach has practical relevance to solving ethical dilemmas in child protection. Children's interests are best served by erring towards an absolutist approach to the diagnosis and recognition of maltreatment and towards a relativistic approach in determining how services respond to a harmful incident or situation. Absolutism and relativism are not alternatives, but part of a continuous process of recognising and negotiating ever-changing community, national and global norms. At the service level the dichotomy transpires into the need to be culturally competent in handling the conflicting needs, rights and values of children, families, communities and professionals, whilst retaining the skill of child advocacy. PMID:19531523

  15. The role of the school nurse in child protection.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Alison J

    2013-12-01

    School nurses are the only health professionals with a remit specifically to address the health needs of school-aged children and young people in the U.K. However, evidence within one Scottish city suggests that the health needs of vulnerable school-aged children are not always identified or met by the school nurse. Using a qualitative approach, a purposive sample of six school nurses was selected to explore their perceptions of their role in child protection and to identify training needs. Data collection comprised semistructured interviews and the data were analysed thematically. The school nurses in this study perceived that there was confusion and lack of clarity in relation to their role and involvement in child protection. Report writing, child trafficking, and legal issues were identified as training needs. PMID:24383164

  16. Veteran Parents in Child Protective Services: Theory and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Wendy J.; Affronti, Melissa L.; Coombes, Margaret L.

    2009-01-01

    "Veteran parents" (VPs), or parents who have experienced challenges concerning their children's health and then mentor other families through similar situations, are widely used for parent support. This model has been adopted by Child Protective Services (CPS) to increase parent engagement. Here, we expand the theoretical discussion of VPs in CPS…

  17. Adolescent Fathers Involved with Child Protection: Social Workers Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Derrick M.; Watkins, Natasha D.; Walling, Sherry M.; Wilhelm, Sara; Rayford, Brett S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adolescent paternity through structured interviews with their social workers. It adds to the literature by exploring if there were young men involved with the child protection services (CPS) system who are fathers, identifying their unique needs, and beginning discussions on working with these young men. CPS social workers from…

  18. Commission on Child Online Protection (COPA) Report to Congress. Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    The appendices for the Commission on Child Online Protection (COPA) Report to Congress, October 20, 2000, include the following: Commission overview, which includes scope and timeline, original statute, amended statute, technologies and methods, and biographies of the commissioners; Commission finances; Commission meetings for the year 2000;…

  19. Welfare Recipients' Involvement with Child Protective Services after Welfare Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Yunju; Meezan, William; Danziger, Sandra K.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study identifies factors associated with child protective services (CPS) involvement among current and former welfare recipients after welfare reform legislation was passed in the US in 1996. Method: Data come from the Women's Employment Study, a longitudinal study of randomly selected welfare recipients living in a Michigan city…

  20. Future Outlook for Child Protection Policies in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agathonos-Georgopoulu, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Explores current and future challenges to children in Europe. Social trends and the impact on European family life are analyzed, including having smaller families and delaying childbearing. Discusses the need to collect data on children in the European Union and to establish pan-European child protection policies. (CR)

  1. Child protection network and the intersector implementation of the circle of security as alternatives to medication☆

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Ana Laura Martins M.M.; de Souza, Paulo Haddad; de Oliveira, Mônica Martins; Paraguay, Nestor Luiz Bruzzi B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the clinical history of a child with aggressive behavior and recurring death-theme speech, and report the experience of the team of authors, who proposed an alternative to medication through the establishment of a protection network and the inter-sector implementation of the circle of security concept. Case description: A 5-year-old child has a violent and aggressive behavior at the daycare. The child was diagnosed by the healthcare center with depressive disorder and behavioral disorder, and was medicated with sertraline and risperidone. Side effects were observed, and the medications were discontinued. Despite several actions, such as talks, teamwork, psychological and psychiatric follow-up, the child's behavior remained unchanged. Remarks: A unique therapeutic project was developed by Universidade Estadual de Campinas' Medical School students in order to establish a connection between the entities responsible for the child's care (daycare center, healthcare center, and family). Thus, the team was able to develop a basic care protection network. The implementation of the inter-sector circle of security, as well as the communication and cooperation among the teams, produced very favorable results in this case. This initiative was shown to be a feasible and effective alternative to the use of medication for this child. PMID:25479857

  2. How do public child healthcare professionals and primary school teachers identify and handle child abuse cases? A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Public child healthcare doctors and nurses, and primary school teachers play a pivotal role in the detection and reporting of child abuse, because they encounter almost all children in the population during their daily work. However, they report relatively few cases of suspected child abuse to child protective agencies. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate Dutch frontline workers’ child abuse detection and reporting behaviors. Methods Focus group interviews were held among 16 primary school teachers and 17 public health nurses and physicians. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed according to factors of the Integrated Change model, such as knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, skills, social influences and barriers influencing detection and reporting of child abuse. Results Findings showed that although both groups of professionals are aware of child abuse signs and risks, they are also lacking specific knowledge. The most salient differences between the two professional groups are related to attitude and (communication) skills. Conclusion The results suggest that frontline workers are in need of supportive tools in the child abuse detection and reporting process. On the basis of our findings, directions for improvement of child abuse detection and reporting are discussed. PMID:24007516

  3. Social Security Child Protection Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Marchant, Kenny [R-TX-24

    2011-09-22

    09/28/2011 Referred for a period ending not later than September 28, 2011, (or for a later time if the Chairman so designates) to the Subcommittee on Social Security, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the subcommittee concerned. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Specialist Advocacy Services for Parents with Learning Disabilities Involved in Child Protection Proceedings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarleton, Beth

    2008-01-01

    Parents with learning disabilities frequently become involved with child protection and judicial proceedings. Parents report not understanding and being disempowered by the child protection system. This paper presents fourteen parents' views regarding how two specialist advocacy services supported them during child protection. The parents believed…

  5. Child Protection, Public Services and the Chimera of Market Force Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Richard W.

    1996-01-01

    Describes child protection systems in England and ongoing changes in their services. Considers effects of a market force approach on the organization of child protection services in relation to coordination versus fragmentation and profit versus professionalism. Concludes that the idea that a market force approach to child protection will lead to…

  6. Social support and child protection: Lessons learned and learning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ross A

    2015-03-01

    Social support has been a topic of research for nearly 50 years, and its applications to prevention and intervention have grown significantly, including programs advancing child protection. This article summarizes the central conclusions of the 1994 review of research on social support and the prevention of child maltreatment prepared for the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, and surveys advances in the field since its publication. Among the lessons learned twenty years ago are (a) the diversity of the social support needs of at-risk families and their association with child endangerment, (b) the need to supplement the emotionally affirmative aspects of social support with efforts to socialize parenting practices and monitor child well-being, (c) the desirability of integrating formal and informal sources of social support for recipients, and (d) the importance of considering the complex recipient reactions to receiving support from others. The lessons we are now learning derive from research exploring the potential of online communication to enhance social support, the neurobiology of stress and its buffering through social support, and the lessons of evaluation research that are identifying the effective ingredients of social support interventions. PMID:25043921

  7. Schools as Agencies of Protection in Namibia and Swaziland: Can They Prevent Dropout and Child Labor in the Context of HIV/AIDS and Poverty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses a particular area of research in the field of education and child protection: the protective role of schools in the contexts of HIV/AIDS and poverty. Such adverse situations may lead children not to enroll in school or to drop out of school and subsequently to be subjected to abusive child labor and, in some cases, the worst…

  8. Victim Resistance in Child Sexual Abuse: A Look into the Efficacy of Self-Protection Strategies Based on the Offender's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leclerc, Benoit; Wortley, Richard; Smallbone, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy, as experienced by offenders with their victim, of self-protection strategies used in child sexual abuse cases. It also investigates whether the efficacy of self-protection varies according to victim characteristics. The sample consists of 94 adult offenders who sexually abused a single child and who agreed to…

  9. Child abuse and neglect in Turkey: professional, governmental and non-governmental achievements in improving the national child protection system.

    PubMed

    Akco, Seda; Dagli, Tolga; Inanici, Mehmet Akif; Kaynak, Hatice; Oral, Resmiye; Sahin, Figen; Sofuoglu, Zeynep; Ulukol, Betul

    2013-11-01

    Since ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1995, significant efforts were made in Turkey to improve protection of children from abuse and neglect. The government took steps to amend relevant laws. Several state departments recognized the need for professional in-service training of relevant governmental agency staff. University hospitals established numerous hospital-based multidisciplinary child protection centres. The government established an Interministerial Higher Council, which has been overseeing the foundation of 13 child advocacy centres for a multidisciplinary and interagency response to child sexual abuse. In addition to undertaking research, non-governmental organizations contributed to this process by instituting professional and public education. These ground-breaking developments in the last decade give promise of even further improvement in the national child protection system from investigative, child protective and rehabilitative perspectives. PMID:24070409

  10. Does Breastfeeding Protect Against Substantiated Child Abuse and Neglect? A 15-Year Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Strathearn, Lane; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Najman, Jake M.; O'Callaghan, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Child maltreatment is associated with multiple adverse developmental outcomes in children. Surprisingly, the most frequently reported perpetrator is the biological mother. Understanding early relationship factors that may help prevent maltreatment is of utmost importance. We explored whether breastfeeding may protect against maternally-perpetrated child maltreatment. Methods 7223 Australian mother-infant pairs were followed prospectively over 15 years. In 6621 cases (91.7%), the duration of breastfeeding was analyzed with respect to child maltreatment (including neglect, physical abuse and emotional abuse), based on substantiated child protection agency reports. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare no maltreatment with non-maternal and maternally-perpetrated maltreatment, and to adjust for confounding in 5890 cases with complete data (81.5%). Potential confounders included sociodemographic factors, pregnancy wantedness, substance abuse during pregnancy, postpartum employment, attitudes regarding infant caregiving, and symptoms of anxiety or depression. Results Of 512 children with substantiated maltreatment reports, over 60% experienced at least one episode of maternally-perpetrated abuse or neglect (4.3% of cohort). The odds ratio (OR) for maternal maltreatment increased as breastfeeding duration decreased, with the odds of maternal maltreatment in non-breastfed children 4.8 times the odds for children breastfed 4 or more months (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 3.3−6.9). After adjusting for confounding, the odds for non-breastfed infants remained 2.6 times higher (95% CI 1.7−3.9), with no association seen between breastfeeding and non-maternal maltreatment. Maternal neglect was the only maltreatment subtype independently associated with breastfeeding duration (adjusted OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.1−7.0). Conclusion Among other factors, breastfeeding may also help to protect against maternally-perpetrated child maltreatment, particularly child

  11. The curious case of the "inseparable child".

    PubMed

    Navkhare, Praveen; Kalra, Gurvinder

    2014-07-01

    Streptococcal infections in children rarely lead to neuropsychiatric manifestations referred to as pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections. The common sequelae include tics, Tourette's syndrome or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Rare presentations may include separation anxiety disorder, body dysmorphic disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We present a case of a 10-year-old child that presented primarily with abrupt onset of separation anxiety without any other neuropsychiatric manifestations such as tics or obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Streptococcal infections may present with varied neuropsychiatric manifestations in the pediatric age group and one needs to be more vigilant in cases that have an abrupt onset and unusual presentation. A high index of suspicion is important to diagnose such cases and provide them with a timely treatment. PMID:25316942

  12. Identifying the characteristics of child sexual abuse cases associated with the child or child's parents withdrawing the complaint.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Larissa S; Sharman, Stefanie J; Powell, Martine B

    2016-07-01

    Most child sexual abuse cases do not result in a full trial or guilty plea; rather, case attrition occurs at earlier stages of the criminal justice system. One reason for the attrition of these cases is the withdrawal of complaints, by children or their caregivers. The aim of the current study was to determine the case characteristics associated with complaint withdrawal in child sexual abuse cases by the child or his or her parents once a report has been made to authorities. All child sexual abuse incidents reported to authorities in one jurisdiction of Australia in 2011 were analyzed (N=659). A multinomial logistic regression was used to predict the following case outcomes: (1) withdrawn by the child or his or her parents, (2) exited for other reasons (e.g., the alleged offender was not identified, the child refused to be interviewed), and (3) resulted in a charge. Five predictors significantly added to the prediction of case outcome: child age, suspect gender, suspect age, child-suspect relationship, and abuse frequency. These results should contribute to the design of interventions in order to reduce complaint withdrawals if these withdrawals are not in the child's best interests. PMID:27318035

  13. Exploring Demand and Provision in English Child Protection Services

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Rick; Goldacre, Allie; Grant, Robert; Jones, Ray

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory study linking the national data-sets for all children in need and child protection services in England. The study was informed by an emerging literature on systems thinking in public services, and aimed to examine variations and patterns of response in local authorities to demand for child welfare services in their area. One hundred and fifty-two local authority census returns and other statistical indicators covering up to a thirteen-year period were combined into a single data-set. Statistical analysis was undertaken to explore the characteristics of demand, workload and workforce, trends over time and variations between local authorities. The results showed that the overall system has become increasingly geared towards protective interventions, especially since the Baby P scandal of 2008. Deprivation levels continue to be the key driver of referrals and other categories of demand, and are strongly associated with variations in service response, particularly in the initial stages of referral and assessment. Implications are considered for the current organisation of child welfare services in light of recent reviews and reforms. PMID:27559206

  14. Child Protection in Sport: Implications of an Athlete-Centered Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Gretchen A.; Stirling, Ashley E.

    2008-01-01

    As sport is a highly child-populated domain, the establishment of child-protection measures to reduce the potential for child maltreatment in sport is critical. Concern for the protection of children in sport has a history that is as old as modern sport itself; however, it is only recently that concern has been established about children's…

  15. Effectiveness of Child Protection Training for Pre-Service Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Bronagh E.; Dillenburger, Karola

    2012-01-01

    International evidence confirms that early childhood educators can enter professional practice unprepared for child protection due to inadequate pre-service preparation. This paper makes an original contribution by using the Child Protection Questionnaire for Educators (CPQE) to examine the pre- and post-intervention child maltreatment and…

  16. Jury Selection in Child Sex Abuse Trials: A Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Robert J.; Adams, Desiree D.; Brodsky, Stanley L.

    2009-01-01

    Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include…

  17. Decision making in child protective services: a risky business?

    PubMed

    Camasso, Michael J; Jagannathan, Radha

    2013-09-01

    Child Protective Services (CPS) in the United States has received a torrent of criticism from politicians, the media, child advocate groups, and the general public for a perceived propensity to make decisions that are detrimental to children and families. This perception has resulted in numerous lawsuits and court takeovers of CPS in 35 states, and calls for profound restructuring in other states. A widely prescribed remedy for decision errors and faulty judgments is an improvement of risk assessment strategies that enhance hazard evaluation through an improved understanding of threat potentials and exposure likelihoods. We examine the reliability and validity problems that continue to plague current CPS risk assessment and discuss actions that can be taken in the field, including the use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve technology to improve the predictive validity of risk assessment strategies. PMID:23231374

  18. A developmental approach to the risk of a first recurrence in child protective services.

    PubMed

    Hélie, Sonia; Laurier, Catherine; Pineau-Villeneuve, Catherine; Royer, Marie-Noële

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the risk of a first recurrence over a five-year period following initial child protective services (CPS) intervention and identify the characteristics associated with the risk of recurrence for three different age groups. Recurrence is defined as the first substantiated report within the observation period after initial services have ended. The study involved a cohort of 25,897 Quebec children who received postinvestigation services for the first time and whose cases were closed between 2005 and 2009. Survival analysis was used to estimate the five-year risk of recurrence and Cox regression to model the risk of recurrence for three age groups. The covariates introduced into the regression analyses were characteristics of the child and initial services. The risk of recurrence in the five years following termination of initial CPS services was 36% for the entire cohort and varied depending on the child's age at the time of case closure. Children aged 6-11 when their cases were closed had the highest risk of recurrence. Although Aboriginal descent and prior CPS investigations have a consistent effect on the risk of recurrence in all three age groups, the effects of other covariates, such as out-of-home placement and court involvement, vary or are even reversed, depending on the child's age. These findings highlight the need to adopt a differential approach that takes into account the child's age, both in the provision of protective services and in research involving the population receiving such services. PMID:23768933

  19. The effect of material hardship on child protective service involvement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mi-Youn

    2015-03-01

    This study employs four waves of survey data on 1,135 families from the Illinois Families Study, a longitudinal panel study of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families in Illinois. This study explores the following issues within this low-income population: (1) whether material hardships are associated with child protective services (CPS) investigations, (2) whether the effect of material hardship on CPS differs by the type of child maltreatment investigated, and (3) whether psychological distress mediates the association between material hardship and CPS involvement. Results from pooled and fixed effects logistic regressions suggest that caregivers who experience material hardship are more likely to become involved in CPS. In general, investigated neglect reports are responsive to particular types of hardship such as housing and food, while investigated physical abuse reports are responsive to levels of hardship regardless of specific types. The association between material hardship and CPS involvement is not fully explained by depressive symptoms or parenting stress. The study results suggest that in order to prevent child maltreatment, it may be necessary to address a family's unmet material needs through economic support interventions. PMID:24908518

  20. Group Services for Child Protective Clients. Final Report: Innovations in Protective Services, September 1, 1982 through August 31, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Human Resources, Austin. Office of Programs.

    The Group Services for Child Protective Clients Project was established to train child protective services staff members to provide effective group services. The project had four components: (1) group services training; (2) support groups for staff; (3) group services to clients; and (4) planning to continue the project after federal funding…

  1. The effect of fathers or father figures on child behavioral problems in families referred to child protective services.

    PubMed

    Marshall, D B; English, D J; Stewart, A J

    2001-11-01

    This study examines some possible effects of the presence and quality of parent-child interaction of fathers and father figures on the behavior of young children in a sample of families reported to child protective services. Whereas the presence or absence of a father or father figure seemed to make little difference in child behavioral problems at age 4, lower levels of aggression and depression were observed for children by age 6 if an adult male in some form of father-like relationship was present in the child's life. When controlling for mother's ethnicity, child's gender, the number of referrals to child protective services, and the presence of domestic violence, the direct effect of a father/father figure was no longer significant but remained in the multivariate models as a significant interaction term. PMID:11675812

  2. Child protection workers dealing with child abuse: The contribution of personal, social and organizational resources to secondary traumatization.

    PubMed

    Dagan, Shlomit Weiss; Ben-Porat, Anat; Itzhaky, Haya

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared secondary traumatization among child protection social workers versus social workers employed at social service departments. In addition, based on Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, the study examined the contribution of working in the field of child protection as well as the contribution of background variables, personal resources (mastery), and resources in the workers' social and organizational environment (social support, effectiveness of supervision, and role stress) to secondary traumatization. The findings indicate that levels of mastery and years of work experience contributed negatively to secondary traumatization, whereas exposure to child maltreatment, trauma history, and role stress contributed positively to secondary traumatization. However, no significant contribution was found for social support and effectiveness of supervision. The study identifies factors that can prevent distress among professionals such as child protection workers, who are exposed to the trauma of child abuse victims. Recommendations are provided accordingly. PMID:26549769

  3. Social protection for all ages? Impacts of Ethiopia's Productive Safety Net Program on child nutrition.

    PubMed

    Porter, Catherine; Goyal, Radhika

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the impact of a large-scale social protection scheme, the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) in Ethiopia, on child nutritional outcomes. Children living in households that receive cash transfers should experience improved child nutrition. However, in the case of the PSNP, which for the majority of participants is a public works program, there are several potential threats to finding effects: first, without conditionality on child inputs, increased household income may not be translated into improved child nutrition. Second, the work requirement may impact on parental time, child time use and calories burned. Third, if there is a critical period for child human capital investment that closes before the age of 5 then children above this age may not see any improvement in medium-term nutritional outcomes, measured here as height-for-age. Using a cohort study that collected data both pre-and post-program implementation in 2002, 2006 and 2009, we exploit several novel aspects of the survey design to find estimates that can deal with non-random program placement. We present both matching and difference-in-differences estimates for the index children, as well as sibling-differences. Our estimates show an important positive medium-term nutritional impact of the program for children aged 5-15 that are comparable in size to Conditional Cash Transfer program impacts for much younger children. We show indicative evidence that the program impact on improved nutrition is associated with improved food security and reduced child working hours. Our robustness checks restrict the comparison group, by including only households who were shortlisted, but never received PSNP, and also exclude those who never received aid, thus identifying impact based on timing alone. We cannot rule out that the nutritional impact of the program is the same for younger and older children. PMID:27176466

  4. Battered Child Syndrome; a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Pezeshki, Arastoo; Rahmani, Farzad; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Fekri, Sanaz

    2015-01-01

    One of the important and usual missed causes of pediatric traumas is child abuse. This ominous phenomenon, which can be presented physically, psychologically, sexually, and emotionally has grown significantly in recent years. Many children are not diagnosed in the early stages of evaluation. Battered Child Syndrome is used to describe the clinical condition of the child serious physical abuse by parents or caregivers. Medical staff should always keep the syndrome in their mind for those brought to the emergency department with trauma. In this report, we described a patient complained of dysphagia following a falling from a height and multiple epidural hematomas and final diagnosis of battered child syndrome. PMID:26495388

  5. Multidisciplinary Child Protection Decision Making About Physical Abuse: Determining Substantiation Thresholds and Biases

    PubMed Central

    Jent, Jason F.; Eaton, Cyd K.; Knickerbocker, Lauren; Lambert, Walter F.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Dandes, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the threshold at which multidisciplinary child protection team (CPT) professionals substantiate physical abuse allegations and the extent that they utilize potentially biased constructs in their decision making when presented with the same case evidence. State legal definitions of child maltreatment are broad. Therefore, the burden of interpretation is largely on CPT professionals who must determine at what threshold physical acts by parents surpass corporal discipline and constitute child physical abuse. Biased or subjective decisions may be made if certain case-specific characteristics or CPT professionals’ personal characteristics are used in making physical abuse determinations. Case vignettes with visual depictions of inflicted injuries were sent to CPT professionals in Florida and their substantiation decisions, personal beliefs about corporal discipline, and coercive discipline were collected. Results of the study demonstrated relatively high agreement among professionals across vignettes about what constitutes physical abuse. Further, CPT professionals strongly considered their perceptions of the severity of inflicted injuries in substantiation decisions. Although case specific characteristics did not bias decisions in a systematic way, some CPT professional characteristics influenced the substantiation of physical abuse. Practice implications and future directions of research are discussed. PMID:21804681

  6. Female Sexual Abuse and Criminal Justice Intervention: A Comparison of Child Protective Service and Criminal Justice Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bader, Shannon M.; Scalora, Mario J.; Casady, Thomas K.; Black, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study compared a sample of female perpetrators reported to Child Protective Services (CPS) to a sample of women from the criminal justice system. Instead of examining a clinical or criminal justice sample in isolation, this comparison allows a more accurate description of female sexual offending. Methods: Cases were drawn…

  7. The Continuing Child Protection Emergency: A Challenge to the Nation. Third Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, Washington, DC.

    Three years after the release of its original report (1990), the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect reports that the child protection emergency has clearly deepened in all parts of the nation. Reports of child abuse and neglect have continued to climb; an inordinate number of children continue to die at the hands of caretakers; and…

  8. Measuring the Effectiveness of Routine Child Protection Services: The Results from an Evidence Based Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Most of what is known about the effectiveness of child welfare is found in studies of specific programs. Little is known about the effectiveness of the routine services provided in child protection systems. Family and Children's Services of Renfrew County is a Canadian child welfare agency that decided to expand its mission beyond protecting…

  9. Developing Evidence-Based Child Protection Practice: A View from Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindler, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    The child welfare system in Germany has been described as family service-oriented because families in need are entitled to request family support services. If there is any form of child maltreatment, there may be some kind of mandatory state intervention to protect the child. Using trends in the number of children affected by maltreatment, the…

  10. Child Sexual Abuse: Psychosocial Aspects of 101 Cases Seen in an Urban Malaysian Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassim, Kasmini; Kasim, Mohd. Sham

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of 101 cases of child sexual abuse in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) found overrepresentation of the Indian ethnic group and a mean age of children involved of 6 to 8 years. Associated psychosocial factors included the absence of a protective adult at home, unemployment, and history of perpetrator drug abuse. (DB)

  11. Protecting the interests of the child bone marrow donor.

    PubMed

    Terry, Louise M; Campbell, Anne

    2004-01-01

    At a time when designer babies have been created to act as cord blood donors to sick siblings, ethical debate has focused predominantly on the extent to which it is acceptable to create one human being to assist another. However, children are frequently used this way, by their families and doctors who extract their bone marrow, to try to save the life of another, usually a sibling. With any life-threatening illness, there is the possibility that the urgency of the sick sibling's need means that the short-term welfare of the donor child receives less attention than it should by parents and doctors. This article suggests ways to protect the interests of such children and empower them within the decision-making process and concludes that the drive to save life must be tempered by recognition of the intrinsic worth of donor children and their rights not to be exploited. PMID:15685919

  12. [Child maltreatment prevention: the pediatrician's function. Part 1: Overview, evidence, risk factors, protective factors and triggers].

    PubMed

    Mouesca, Juan P

    2015-12-01

    Child maltreatment is a common and serious problem. It harms children in the short and long term, affecting their future health and their offspring. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary preventing interventions target on child abuse are described. Evidence-based recommendations on child abuse prevention and examples of researches with proven efficacy are detailed. Risk factors, protective factors and triggers of child abuse and their relationships are described. PMID:26593803

  13. Decision-making in child protective services: Influences at multiple levels of the social ecology.

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-09-01

    Decision-making in the child protection system is influenced by multiple factors; agency and geographic contexts, caseworker attributes, and families' unique circumstances all likely play a role. In this study, we use the second cohort of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being to explore how these factors are associated with two key case decisions-substantiation and removal to out-of-home care. Analyses are conducted using weighted hierarchical linear models. We find that substantiation is strongly influenced by agency factors, particularly constraints on service accessibility. Substantiation is less likely when agencies can provide services to unsubstantiated cases and when collaboration with other social institutions is high. This supports the concept that substantiation may be a gateway to services in some communities. Agency factors contributed less to the probability of removal among substantiated cases, though time resources and constraints on decision-making had some influence. For both substantiation and removal risks, county, caseworker, and child characteristics were less influential than agency characteristics and family risk factors. PMID:25726323

  14. Decision-making in Child Protective Services: Influences at multiple levels of the social ecology

    PubMed Central

    Font, Sarah A.; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making in the child protection system is influenced by multiple factors; agency and geographic contexts, caseworker attributes, and families' unique circumstances all likely play a role. In this study, we use the second cohort of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being to explore how these factors are associated with two key case decisions—substantiation and removal to out-of-home care. Analyses are conducted using weighted hierarchical linear models. We find that substantiation is strongly influenced by agency factors, particularly constraints on service accessibility. Substantiation is less likely when agencies can provide services to unsubstantiated cases and when collaboration with other social institutions is high. This supports the concept that substantiation may be a gateway to services in some communities. Agency factors contributed less to the probability of removal among substantiated cases, though time resources and constraints on decision-making had some influence. For both substantiation and removal risks, county, caseworker, and child characteristics were less influential than agency characteristics and family risk factors. PMID:25726323

  15. Commission on Child Online Protection (COPA) Report to Congress [and] Personal Statements of COPA Commissioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    In October, 1998, Congress enacted the Child Online Protection Act and established the Commission on Online Child Protection (COPA) to study methods to help reduce access by minors to certain sexually explicit material, defined in the statute as harmful to minors. Congress directed the Commission to evaluate the accessibility, cost, and…

  16. Conducting Research with Children: The Limits of Confidentiality and Child Protection Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Emma; Goodenough, Trudy; Kent, Julie; Ashcroft, Richard

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of child protection protocols within research conducted with children. Based partly on primary data this paper raises questions about the role of ethics committees in defining the limits of confidentiality in relation to child protection protocols within research, the perceptions of both children and parents about…

  17. Child Protection in Primary Schools: A Contradiction in Terms or a Potential Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Helen; McGarry, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the topic of child protection in Irish primary schools, and reports on a recently completed survey of newly qualified teachers' knowledge of and familiarity with their school's child protection policies and procedures. The study was undertaken by means of a questionnaire survey, and conducted with 103 teachers from different…

  18. Current issues and future directions in evidence-based child protection practices: a view from Romania.

    PubMed

    Iovu, Mihai-Bogdan

    2013-10-01

    The constantly changing nature of social care practice necessitates continuous development of educational programs to prepare current practitioners. Basing social work practice on methodologically sound research evidence is an appealing prospect for the child protection services. However, Romania, once considered an Eastern European model for child welfare policy and practice, is somehow lagging behind. In this article the author gives a short overview of where the Romanian Child Protection System currently stands in terms of evidence-based practice. PMID:24066629

  19. A new age for child protection--General Comment 13: why it is important, how it was constructed, and what it intends?

    PubMed

    Hart, Stuart N; Lee, Yanghee; Wernham, Marie

    2011-12-01

    Children continue to be subjected to high levels of violence (i.e., physical, psychological and sexual maltreatment) throughout the world. International concern about violence against children has increased significantly during the last decade. A Study on Violence Against Children, encouraged by the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, conducted under the auspices of the United Nations Secretary General and reported in 2006, has become a rallying call to improve child protection. Child protection practices and systems have been judged to be generally inadequate and, in some cases, destructive. It is widely recognized that business as usual-more of the same-will not do. A General Comment (guide to fulfilling obligations) for Article 19, the central conceptualization of child protection of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, has the potential to promote a worldwide reformulation of child protection priorities, policies, and practices by virtue of the infusion of a child rights approach. It can be a mechanism for framing and promoting the transformational change needed - for a genuine paradigm shift. Here, explication is given for the historical context, rationale, centrality of child rights, process of development, holistic nature, and primary elements of General Comment 13 (GC13): The child's right to freedom from all forms of violence. GC13 embodies and champions a child rights approach to child protection entailing strong support for proactive primary prevention, promotion of good child care, and a commitment to secure the rights and well-being of all children. A child rights-based, comprehensive coordinating framework is recommended for the implementation of GC13. PMID:22050955

  20. Insect Repellents: Protect Your Child from Insect Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Choosing an Insect Repellent for Your Child Page Content Article Body Mosquitoes , ... sunscreen needs to be reapplied often. Reactions to Insect Repellents If you suspect that your child is having ...

  1. Child maltreatment syndrome: demographics and developmental issues of inpatient cases

    PubMed Central

    Ngiam, Xin Ying; Kang, Ying Qi; Aishworiya, Ramkumar; Kiing, Jennifer; Law, Evelyn Chung Ning

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to describe the demographic, social, developmental and behavioural profile of children hospitalised for alleged child maltreatment syndrome (CMS). METHODS This study was a retrospective review of the consecutive inpatient records of children (0–16 years) admitted to the National University Hospital, Singapore, for alleged CMS over a three-year period. Descriptive data on the demographic characteristics, alleged maltreatment, medical and developmental histories, and family background of these children were collected and analysed. Chi-square statistics were used to test whether family factors were associated with the type of maltreatment and the presence of developmental disorders. RESULTS A total of 89 children, who accounted for 90 admission cases, were studied. Physical abuse (70.0%) was the most common, followed by neglect (11.1%) and sexual abuse (7.8%). Child protection services had already been involved in 29.2% of the cases prior to the child’s admission. Children who were victims of abuse were more likely to come from homes with a prior history of domestic violence (p = 0.028). Financial difficulty was found to be a risk factor for neglect (p = 0.005). Among the 89 children, 15.7% were found to have developmental disorders and 10.1% had mental health diagnoses. Children who had developmental disorders were more likely to have a parent with a mental health disorder (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION A sizeable proportion of the children admitted for alleged CMS had developmental or behavioural disorders. Clinicians have a role in ensuring that these children have appropriate follow-up plans. Children from high-risk families should be screened for maltreatment. PMID:26668405

  2. A Survey of Health Care and Child Protective Services Provider Knowledge Regarding the Toe Tourniquet Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biehler, Jefry L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Health and child welfare professionals reviewed a history and photographic findings of a child with toe tourniquet syndrome. More than 50% of respondents (n=84) indicated that they would report the case as suspected abuse. Child welfare workers were more likely to make a referral for suspected abuse than osteopathic physicians, allopathic…

  3. The Use of Research in Teaching Practice Skills in Child Protective Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachdev, Paul; Thompson, J. Victor

    Presented at the Annual Program Meeting of the Council on Social Work Education in 1979, the paper extensively reviews the literature on child abuse, and provides a knowlege base to generate constellations of skills to guide child abuse practitioners' activity in dealing with child abuse cases. A multicausal model encompassing the interactive…

  4. Should child obesity be an issue for child protective services? A call for more research on this critical public health issue.

    PubMed

    Jones, Deborah J; Gonzalez, Michelle; Ward, Dianne S; Vaughn, Amber; Emunah, Josie; Miller, Lindsey; Anton, Margaret

    2014-04-01

    Given the lasting effects on adolescent and adult health, childhood obesity is a major public health issue. The relatively slow progress toward the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity, however, has prompted leaders in both academic and practice sectors to advocate for what may be considered a radical intervention approach, to conceptualize extreme child obesity as an issue of child maltreatment. Advocates of this approach suggest that this conceptualization affords a new angle for intervention-the involvement of child protective services (CPS) in mandating family-focused lifestyle changes aimed at reducing child overweight and, in the most extreme cases, the removal of the obese child from the home. However, surprisingly little research has been conducted to inform policies or practices consistent with this recommendation, which is already being implemented in some states. This article aims to provide an overview of the challenges to the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity that have motivated the call for CPS involvement in extreme cases and to review the existing research related to this approach. Given that relatively little data are currently available to support or refute the merits of CPS involvement, recommendations for future research that would better inform public policy and decision making regarding this and other intervention strategies are also highlighted. PMID:24231942

  5. 25 CFR 63.31 - Can both the Bureau of Indian Affairs and tribes operate Indian child protection and family...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Indian child protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.31 Section 63.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.31 Can both the Bureau...

  6. 25 CFR 63.31 - Can both the Bureau of Indian Affairs and tribes operate Indian child protection and family...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Indian child protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.31 Section 63.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.31 Can both the Bureau...

  7. 25 CFR 63.31 - Can both the Bureau of Indian Affairs and tribes operate Indian child protection and family...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Indian child protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.31 Section 63.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.31 Can both the Bureau...

  8. 25 CFR 63.31 - Can both the Bureau of Indian Affairs and tribes operate Indian child protection and family...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Indian child protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.31 Section 63.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.31 Can both the Bureau...

  9. 25 CFR 63.31 - Can both the Bureau of Indian Affairs and tribes operate Indian child protection and family...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Indian child protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.31 Section 63.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.31 Can both the Bureau...

  10. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Under what authority are Indian child protection and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian...

  11. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Under what authority are Indian child protection and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian...

  12. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family...

  13. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Under what authority are Indian child protection and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian...

  14. Case Study: A Gifted Child at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Caryln L.

    1998-01-01

    A counseling psychologist in private practice provides a psychoeducational report of an 8-year-old second-grade male experiencing behavior problems. Results of testing show the boy to be highly intelligent. After results are shared with family and school personnel, adjustments are made and the child's performance dramatically improves. (MKA)

  15. Beyond Child Protection: Promoting Mental Health for Children and Families in the Child Welfare System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Mary Bruce; Harden, Brenda Jones

    2003-01-01

    This article examines federal, state, and local initiatives that have influenced child welfare policy and practice on a national scale, with particular emphasis on those policies that offer opportunities for better coordination of services between mental health and child welfare agencies. The special circumstances of child welfare clients are…

  16. Protecting child witnesses: judicial efforts to minimize trauma and reduce evidentiary barriers.

    PubMed

    Hafemeister, T L

    1996-01-01

    Growing attention has been given to the need to protect child witnesses from the potential trauma associated with providing testimony in the courtroom, as well as to the importance of maximizing the validity and reliability of that testimony. At the same time, these efforts may conflict with the right of an accused to confront his or her accuser or various evidentiary rights of the accused. Numerous educational programs have been conducted to assist judges and lawyers to better respond to these issues. A nation-wide survey of judges was conducted to determine the relative use of various means to minimize trauma or reduce evidentiary barriers in child sexual abuse cases, how judges evaluate these means, and the impact of educational programs in this area. The survey indicated that although judges use a broad range of approaches to minimize this trauma or reduce evidentiary barriers, they are particularly likely to use simpler techniques that are relatively easy to implement and which they consider both effective and fair to the parties appearing before the court. Attending educational programs appears to influence the use of these approaches. Survey results also indicated the best methods for disseminating relevant information on child sexual abuse to judges. PMID:8870217

  17. Pulsed current cathodic protection of well casings

    SciTech Connect

    Bich, N.N.; Bauman, J.

    1995-04-01

    Electric pulses of several hundred volts, applied for very brief periods of time, several thousand times per second, are more effective and economical than conventional steady-state DC currents in protecting deep and/or close-spaced well casings against external corrosion. More uniform current distribution, greater depth of protection, reduced stray current interference, and small anode bed requirements are the main benefits of pulsed technology. Operating principles, equivalent electrical circuits, design considerations, and field cathodic protection logging experience is reviewed.

  18. Tips for Protecting Child Athletes from Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask these questions to find out if preventing child sexual abuse is a priority for your child’s youth-sports ... Does staff receive training on recognizing and reporting child sexual abuse? How often? Is there a staff code of ...

  19. Child Protection Center: Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1977

    The final report details activities of a 3-year child abuse and neglect program which provided community and professional education about child abuse as well as treatment services (individual counselinq, crisis intervention, medical care, and homemaking services). Implementation pproblems and operation issues (including staff turnover and the use…

  20. Timely and Needed Perspectives on Differential Response in Child Protective Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Alberta J.

    2013-01-01

    This article is an invited commentary and analysis of the authors' completed systematic evaluation of Child Protective Services (CPS) differential response (DR) models. I write this commentary based on 25 years of public child welfare experience followed by 13 years as a social work professor and researcher. In their review of DR, the…

  1. A Randomized Trial of Wraparound Facilitation versus Usual Child Protection Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Dillon T.; Puente-Duran, Sofia; Shlonsky, Aron; Thabane, Lehana; Verticchio, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether the addition of a wraparound facilitator to regular child protection services improved child and family functioning over 20 months. Method: A single blind randomized controlled trial with concealment and stratification across three sites (N = 135 eligible families with substantiated maltreatment). Results: Based on 2…

  2. Tough Times: Community Coordination and Development in Child Protective Services in a Rurban Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Bob; Morgan, Dan

    The origins and development of the Missoula Council for Child Protection and Family Support are traced during its first 9 months as a community group focusing upon projects and issues to alleviate child abuse and neglect. The approach used is described as a mixture of rural community development and planning. Among projects listed as completed…

  3. Child Protection and Anti-Oppressive Practice: The Dynamics of Partnership with Parents Explored.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jocelyn

    1994-01-01

    Outlines the impact of legislative changes in England and Wales following implementation of the Children Act 1989. Notes the central role of partnership to the act. Focuses on preventive practice and partnership with parents for child protection, exploring the balance between collusive and oppressive child welfare practice. Concludes with a case…

  4. Effectiveness of a Parent Training Program "Incredible Years" in a Child Protection Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letarte, Marie-Josee; Normandeau, Sylvie; Allard, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a parent training program in improving parenting practices, parents' feeling of self-efficacy and parents' perception of their child's behavior, implemented in a child protection service, with trained professionals from the agency acting as facilitators. Method: Thirty-five parents…

  5. Children's Experiences of Domestic Violence: Developing an Integrated Response from Police and Child Protection Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Nicky; Miller, Pam; Richardson Foster, Helen; Thomson, Gill

    2011-01-01

    Police notifications of incidents of domestic violence to child protection services constitute an acknowledgement of the harm that domestic violence inflicts on children. However, these notifications represent a substantial demand on child welfare services and the outcomes for children and victims of domestic violence have been questioned. This…

  6. What Criteria Do Child Protective Services Investigators Use to Substantiate Exposure to Domestic Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coohey, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether child protective services investigators apply a recognizable set of criteria to substantiate batterers and victims of battering for exposing their children to domestic violence. Although domestic violence occurred in 35% of the 1,248 substantiated incidents of child maltreatment, only 31…

  7. Epilogue: The Current Threat to Protective Services and the Child Welfare System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meezan, William; Giovannoni, Jeanne

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Personal Responsibility Act (HR 4) as passed by the U.S. House of Representatives and considered by the Senate. Argues that unless this act is radically altered the potential effects for child protection and the entire child welfare system could be catastrophic. (MDM)

  8. Children at Risk of Neglect: Challenges Faced by Child Protection Practitioners in Guatemala City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coope, Caroline M.; Theobald, Sally

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives were to (1) delineate the definition, common forms, and perceived risk factors contributing to child neglect in Guatemala from the perspective of different stakeholders and (2) identify the challenges faced by child protection practitioners in identifying children at risk of neglect within the context of Guatemala.…

  9. Describing Maltreatment: Do Child Protective Service Reports and Research Definitions Agree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runyan, Desmond K.; Cox, Christine E.; Dubowitz, Howard; Newton, Rae R.; Upadhyaya, Mukund; Kotch, Jonathan B.; Leeb, Rebecca T.; Everson, Mark D.; Knight, Elizabeth D.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The National Research Council identified inadequate research definitions for abuse and neglect as barriers to research in child maltreatment. We examine the concordance between child protective services (CPS) classifications of maltreatment type with the determinations of type from two research coding systems. We contrast the two coding…

  10. Child abuse: A classic case report with literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kemoli, Arthur M.; Mavindu, Mildred

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are serious global problems and can be in the form of physical, sexual, emotional or just neglect in providing for the child's needs. These factors can leave the child with serious, long-lasting psychological damage. In the present case report, a 12-year-old orphaned boy was physically abused by a close relative who caused actual bodily and emotional trauma to the boy. After satisfactorily managing the trauma and emotional effects to the patient, in addition to the counseling services provided to the caregiver, the patient made a steady recovery. He was also referred to a child support group for social support, and prepare him together with his siblings for placement in a children's home in view of the hostile environment in which they were living. PMID:24963259

  11. Jury selection in child sex abuse trials: a case analysis.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Robert J; Adams, Desiree D; Brodsky, Stanley L

    2009-01-01

    Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include authoritarianism, dogmatism, need for cognition, pretrial knowledge, and race/socioeconomic status. Case-specific variables include sexual attitudes, homonegativity, juror abuse history, and beliefs about children. The paper also provides a factual background of a representative case, incorporates relevant case law, identifies sources for voir dire and juror questionnaire items, and discusses lessons from the primary author's first experience as a trial consultant for the defense. PMID:19306206

  12. Enhancing the child survival agenda to promote, protect, and support early child development.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Sarah K G; Bouhouch, Raschida R; Walson, Judd L; Daelmans, Bernadette; Bahl, Rajiv; Darmstadt, Gary L; Dua, Tarun

    2015-08-01

    High rates of child mortality and lost developmental potential in children under 5 years of age remain important challenges and drivers of inequity in the developing world. Substantive progress has been made toward Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 to improve child survival, but as we move into the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, much more work is needed to ensure that all children can realize their full and holistic physical, cognitive, psychological, and socio-emotional development potential. This article presents child survival and development as a continuous and multifaceted process and suggests that a life-course perspective of child development should be at the core of future policy making, programming, and research. We suggest that increased attention to child development, beyond child survival, is key to operationalize the sustainable development goals (SDGs), address inequities, build on the demographic dividend, and maximize gains in human potential. An important step toward implementation will be to increase integration of existing interventions for child survival and child development. Integrated interventions have numerous potential benefits, including optimization of resource use, potential additive impacts across multiple domains of health and development, and opportunity to realize a more holistic approach to client-centered care. However, a notable challenge to integration is the continued division between the health sector and other sectors that support child development. Despite these barriers, empirical evidence is available to suggest that successful multisectoral coordination is feasible and leads to improved short- and long-term outcomes in human, social, and economic development. PMID:26234921

  13. Treatment of Concurrent Substance Dependence, Child Neglect and Domestic Violence: A Single Case Examination Involving Family Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Valerie; Allen, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    Although child neglect and substance abuse co-occur in greater than 60% of child protective service cases, intervention outcome studies are deplorably lacking. Therefore, a home-based Family Behavior Therapy is described in the treatment of a woman evidencing child neglect, substance dependence, domestic violence and other co-occurring problems. Treatment included contingency management, self control, stimulus control, communication and child management skills training exercises, and financial management components. Results indicated improvements in child abuse potential, home hazards, domestic violence, and drug use, which were substantiated by objective urinalysis testing, and tours of her home. Validity checks indicated the participant was being truthful in her responses to standardized questionnaires, and assessors were “blind” to study intent. Limitations (i.e., lack of experimental control and follow-up data collection) of this case example are discussed in light of these results. PMID:23226920

  14. "I Want Child Care He's Gonna Be Happy in": A Case Study of a Father's Child Care Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceglowski, Deborah; Shears, Jeffrey; Furman, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: This in-depth single case study explores the experiences of a single father with finding and maintaining child care for his son. This American middle-income, Caucasian father lives and works in Minnesota. Findings include difficulty locating and maintaining child care, dissatisfaction with child care quality, concerns about…

  15. Protecting Children through Mandated Child-Abuse Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel; McQuillan, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    Explains legal reporting requirements for child abuse and neglect. Describes legal standards for reasonable suspicion and indicators of various types of abuse. Details what should be included in a report and discusses implications for school personnel. (Contains 49 references.) (SK)

  16. Responding to abuse: Children's experiences of child protection in a central district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Child, Jennifer Christine; Naker, Dipak; Horton, Jennifer; Walakira, Eddy Joshua; Devries, Karen M

    2014-10-01

    Part of a comprehensive response to violence against children involves child protection systems, but there are few data available on such systems in low-income countries. This study describes the characteristics and help seeking behavior of children referred to local child protection services and the quality of the first-line response in one district in Uganda. Participants included 3,706 children from 42 primary schools who participated in a baseline survey on violence as part of the Good Schools Study (NCT01678846, clinicaltrial.gov). Children who disclosed violence were referred according to predefined criteria based on the type, severity, and timeframe of their experiences. Children were followed up to 4 months after the study ended. First-line responses by receiving agencies were classified into 3 categories: plan for action only, some action taken, and no plan and no action taken. Appropriateness of responses was based on which agency responded, timeliness of the response, quality of the documentation, and final status of the case. From the baseline survey, 529 children (14%) were referred. Girls were more likely to be referred and to meet the criteria for a serious case (9% girls, 4% boys). In total, 104 referrals (20%) had some kind of concrete action taken, but only 20 (3.8%) cases met all criteria for having received an adequate response. Nearly half (43%) of referred children had ever sought help by disclosing their experiences of violence prior to the baseline survey. In our study areas, the first-line response to children's reports of abuse was poor even though some referral structures are in place. PMID:25035172

  17. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  18. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  19. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  20. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  1. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  2. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... treatment programs. (c) Develop and implement multidisciplinary child abuse investigation and prosecution...) Purchase equipment to assist in the investigation of cases of child abuse and child neglect. (f) Develop..., courts of competent jurisdiction, and related agencies to ensure investigations of child abuse cases...

  3. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment programs. (c) Develop and implement multidisciplinary child abuse investigation and prosecution...) Purchase equipment to assist in the investigation of cases of child abuse and child neglect. (f) Develop..., courts of competent jurisdiction, and related agencies to ensure investigations of child abuse cases...

  4. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... treatment programs. (c) Develop and implement multidisciplinary child abuse investigation and prosecution...) Purchase equipment to assist in the investigation of cases of child abuse and child neglect. (f) Develop..., courts of competent jurisdiction, and related agencies to ensure investigations of child abuse cases...

  5. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... treatment programs. (c) Develop and implement multidisciplinary child abuse investigation and prosecution...) Purchase equipment to assist in the investigation of cases of child abuse and child neglect. (f) Develop..., courts of competent jurisdiction, and related agencies to ensure investigations of child abuse cases...

  6. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... treatment programs. (c) Develop and implement multidisciplinary child abuse investigation and prosecution...) Purchase equipment to assist in the investigation of cases of child abuse and child neglect. (f) Develop..., courts of competent jurisdiction, and related agencies to ensure investigations of child abuse cases...

  7. Child, Caregiver, and Family Characteristics Associated with Emergency Department Use by Children Who Remain at Home after a Child Protective Services Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Leslie, Laurel K.; Zhang, Jinjin; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine emergency department (ED) use among children involved with child protective services (CPS) in the US but who remain at home, and to determine if ED use is related to child, caregiver and family characteristics as well as receipt of CPS services. Method: We analyzed data on 4,001 children in the National Survey of Child and…

  8. A Call for Field-Relevant Research about Child Forensic Interviewing for Child Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olafson, Erna

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews some sensitivity versus specificity imbalances in forensic investigations of child sexual abuse. It then proposes the development or further testing of additional approaches for those children who do not respond to the current, single-interview National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) protocol. Although…

  9. Victim Recantation in Child Sexual Abuse Cases: The Prosecutor's Role in Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Susan Perlis

    1996-01-01

    Explores reasons for recantation of abuse allegations and the problems recantation presents for the continued safety of the child and for the efficacy of child protective services and criminal justice interventions. Offers practical steps for prosecutors, child protective workers, attorneys, law enforcement investigators, and members of…

  10. Child Abuse in the Southeast: Analysis of 1172 Reported Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Clara L.

    Presented is an analysis of 1172 reported cases of child abuse in the eight southeastern States in Region IV (Georgia, Alabama, Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Mississippi). Described in Chapter 1 is the methodology of the study including aims, sampling procedure, and data collection and processing. In Chapter 2,…

  11. Transitional Probability Analysis of Two Child Behavior Analytic Therapy Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xavier, Rodrigo Nunes; Kanter, Jonathan William; Meyer, Sonia Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to highlight the process of therapist direct contingent responding to shape client behavior in two Child Behavior Analytic Therapy (CBAT) cases using transitional probabilities. The Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Rating Scale (FAPRS) was used to code client behaviors and the Multidimensional System for Coding Behaviors in…

  12. Investigation laws and practices in child protective services.

    PubMed

    Kopels, Sandra; Charlton, Taliah; Wells, Susan J

    2003-01-01

    This study was triggered by the experience of one state agency when a state audit found that its investigation response and completion rates of child abuse and neglect reports did not reach 100%. At compliance rates of 99.6% and 97.58%, respectively, the auditors and news media reported a lack of compliance by the state child welfare agency. This article reviews the approaches legislatures and agencies have used to address and resolve problems of ensuring agency responsiveness without setting standards and expectations that are impossible to meet. PMID:14736029

  13. Interagency Child Abuse Network Project. Annual Report: Innovations in Protective Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis-Small, Lucretia

    This annual report describes the Interagency Child Abuse Network (ICAN) Project, a joint venture of the Texas Department of Human Services and the Alamo Area Council of Governments in Bexar County. The goal of the ICAN Project was to establish a network of agencies in the county that could develop a team approach to handling child abuse cases. The…

  14. Child Protection in Africa--The Road Ahead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachman, Peter

    1996-01-01

    This paper identifies themes of the Second African Conference on Child Abuse (1993), notes the importance of the breakdown of family structure, and stresses the importance of prevention. Prerequisites for prevention programs in developing countries are considered and development of a macro campaign and local micro efforts is urged. Examples of…

  15. Creating Community Responsibility for Child Protection: Possibilities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Deborah Daro and Kenneth Dodge observe that efforts to prevent child abuse have historically focused on directly improving the skills of parents who are at risk for or engaged in maltreatment. But, as experts increasingly recognize that negative forces within a community can overwhelm even well-intentioned parents, attention is shifting toward…

  16. Protecting Our Own. Community Child Passenger Safety Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This manual provides information on implementing a local child passenger safety program. It covers understanding the problems and solutions; deciding what can be done; planning and carrying out a project; providing adequate, accurate, and current technical information; and reaching additional sources of information. Chapter 1 provides community…

  17. Creating community responsibility for child protection: possibilities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Daro, Deborah; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    Deborah Daro and Kenneth Dodge observe that efforts to prevent child abuse have historically focused on directly improving the skills of parents who are at risk for or engaged in maltreatment. But, as experts increasingly recognize that negative forces within a community can overwhelm even well-intentioned parents, attention is shifting toward creating environments that facilitate a parent's ability to do the right thing. The most sophisticated and widely used community prevention programs, say Daro and Dodge, emphasize the reciprocal interplay between individual-family behavior and broader neighborhood, community, and cultural contexts. The authors examine five different community prevention efforts, summarizing for each both the theory of change and the empirical evidence concerning its efficacy. Each program aims to enhance community capacity by expanding formal and informal resources and establishing a normative cultural context capable of fostering collective responsibility for positive child development. Over the past ten years, researchers have explored how neighborhoods influence child development and support parenting. Scholars are still searching for agreement on the most salient contextual factors and on how to manipulate these factors to increase the likelihood parents will seek out, find, and effectively use necessary and appropriate support. The current evidence base for community child abuse prevention, observe Daro and Dodge, offers both encouragement and reason for caution. Although theory and empirical research suggest that intervention at the neighborhood level is likely to prevent child maltreatment, designing and implementing a high-quality, multifaceted community prevention initiative is expensive. Policy makers must consider the trade-offs in investing in strategies to alter community context and those that expand services for known high-risk individuals. The authors conclude that if the concept of community prevention is to move beyond the

  18. [Child abuse in Tlaxcala: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Herrada-Huidobro, A; Nazar-Beutelspacher, A; Cassaball-Núñez, M; Vega-Ramos, R; Nava-Cruz, C B

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study about child abuse was carried out in the Hospitals of the Tlaxcala Secretariat of Health, Mexico. The information was obtained from hospitalized children's charts between January first and November 30, 1991. The charts included were those belonging to zero to 14 year old children with injuries, poisoning, and II-III degrees of malnutrition. Four child-abuse criteria were established: physical, sexual, non organic malnutrition and mixed (physical and non organic malnutrition). Two control groups were defined. Different patterns were observed between accidental and non accidental injuries, malnutrition and poisoning among the case and the control groups. The study provides useful information for the integral diagnosis of child abuse in hospitalized children. PMID:1475698

  19. The White Mountain Apache Child Protection Service Training Curriculum. Nohwii Chaghashe Baa da gontzaa (Protect Our Apache Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Santin, Edwin, Comp.

    This curriculum manual provides 8 days of training for child protective services (CPS) personnel (social workers and administrators) working in the White Mountain Apache tribal community. Each of the first seven units in the manual contains a brief description of contents, course objectives, time required, key concepts, possible discussion topics,…

  20. The Development and Validation of the Protective Factors Survey: A Self-Report Measure of Protective Factors against Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Counts, Jacqueline M.; Buffington, Elenor S.; Chang-Rios, Karin; Rasmussen, Heather N.; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the internal structure of a self-report measure of multiple family-level protective factors against abuse and neglect and explore the relationship of this instrument to other measures of child maltreatment. Methods: For the exploratory factor analysis, 11 agencies from 4 states administered…

  1. Mothers' Strategies for Protecting Children from Batterers: The Perspectives of Battered Women Involved in Child Protective Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haight, Wendy L.; Shim, Woochan S.; Linn, Linda M.; Swinford, Laura

    2007-01-01

    During in-depth, individual interviews, seventeen battered women involved in the public child welfare system discussed the effects of domestic violence on their children, and their strategies for protecting and supporting them. Most mothers articulated the detrimental effects of domestic violence on their children and coherent strategies to…

  2. Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saadoon, Muna; Al-Sharbati, Marwan; Nour, Ibtisam El; Al-Said, Basma

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is common worldwide, and can take many forms. It may even endanger the child’s life, especially when younger children are the victims. CM affects the child’s quality of life and consequently leads to long term issues to be dealt with by the child, family and community. This case series discusses six children who have been subjected to CM, and diagnosed by the child protection team of the departments of Child Health and Behavioural Medicine at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman. The aim of this case series is to increase the level of awareness of CM among Oman’s medical professionals and to highlight the difficulties encountered in diagnosing and providing optimal care for these children. Although treatment is provided in Oman’s health care system, it is clear that there are gaps in the existing system which affect the quality of child protection services provided to the children and their families. PMID:22375265

  3. 28 CFR 541.23 - Protection cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection cases. 541.23 Section 541.23 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE... present documentary evidence, to request witnesses, to be present throughout the hearing, and...

  4. Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed linkages of mothers’ emotion coaching and children’s emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity with children’s adjustment in 72 mother-child dyads seeking treatment for Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Dyads completed questionnaires and discussed emotion-related family events. Maternal emotion coaching was associated with children’s emotion regulation, which in turn was related to higher mother-reported adaptive skills, higher child-reported internalizing symptoms, and lower child-reported adjustment. When children were high in emotion lability/negativity, mothers’ emotion coaching was associated with lower mother and child reports of externalizing behavior. Results suggest the role of emotion regulation and emotion lability in child awareness of socio-emotional problems and support the potential of maternal emotion coaching as a protective factor for children with ODD, especially for those high in emotion lability. PMID:24187441

  5. Implementing scientific evidence to improve the quality of Child Protection.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Laura; Tempest, Vanessa; Maguire, Sabine; Mann, Mala; Naughton, Aideen; Wain, Laura; Kemp, Alison

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to other areas of medical practice, there was a lack of a clear, concise and accessible synthesis of scientific literature to aid the recognition and investigation of suspected child abuse, and no national training program or evidence based guidelines for clinicians. The project's aim was to identify the current scientific evidence for the recognition and investigation of suspected child abuse and neglect and to disseminate and introduce this into clinical practice. Since 2003 a comprehensive program of Systematic Reviews of all aspects of physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect of children, has been developed. Based on NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination standards, methodology was devised and reviewers trained. Dissemination was via peer reviewed publications, a series of leaflets highlighting key points in a Question and Answer format, and a website. To date, 21 systematic reviews have been completed, generating 28 peer reviewed publications, and six leaflets around each theme (eg fractures, bruising). More than 250,000 have been distributed to date. Our website generates more than 10,000 hits monthly. It hosts primary reviews that are updated annually, links to all included studies, publications, and detailed methodology. The reviews have directly informed five national clinical guidelines, and the first evidence based training in Child Maltreatment. Child abuse is every health practitioner's responsibility, and it is vital that the decisions made are evidence based, as it is expected in all other fields of medicine. Although challenging, this project demonstrates that it is possible to conduct high quality systematic reviews in this field. For the first time a clear concise synthesis of up to date scientific evidence is available to all practitioners in a range of accessible formats. This has underpinned high quality national guidance and training programs. It ensures all professionals have the appropriate knowledge base in this difficult

  6. Differentiating between child protection and family support in the Canadian child welfare system's response to intimate partner violence, corporal punishment, and child neglect.

    PubMed

    Trocmé, Nico; Fallon, Barbara; Sinha, Vandna; Van Wert, Melissa; Kozlowski, Anna; Maclaurin, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Rates of reported child maltreatment nearly doubled in Canada over the period 1998-2003, an increase that reflects growing awareness of the harmful effects of an expanding array of parental behaviors, including corporal punishment, lack of supervision, and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV). Some of these situations may benefit from voluntary family support programs outside of the child welfare system. Analyzing a sample of 11,807 investigations, this paper compares cases where the sole concern is exposure to IPV, or hitting a child, or neglect, or other forms of investigated maltreatment. Situations where exposure to IPV or potentially abusive hitting were the sole reason for investigation presented with fewer risk factors and were less likely to lead to ongoing child welfare interventions compared to other maltreatment investigations. While situations involving alleged neglect presented a higher risk profile and elicited a more intensive child welfare response than did exposure to IPV or hitting, opportunities for alternative services were nevertheless identified. The study also found that visible minority families were overrepresented in cases involving hitting and that Aboriginal families were overrepresented in cases involving neglect. Overall the findings support the development of alternative response programs in Canada. PMID:23597012

  7. Understanding risk and protective factors for child maltreatment: the value of integrated, population-based data.

    PubMed

    Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Needell, Barbara; Rhodes, Anne E

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we argue for expanded efforts to integrate administrative data systems as a "practical strategy" for developing a richer understanding of child abuse and neglect. Although the study of child maltreatment is often critiqued for being atheoretical, we believe that a more pressing concern is the absence of population-based and prospective epidemiological data that can be used to better understand the distribution and interacting nature of risk and protective factors for maltreatment. We begin by briefly addressing the relevance of empirical observations to etiological theories of child maltreatment. Although the latter is widely cited as critical to the development of effective prevention and intervention responses, less attention has been paid to the role of population-based data in the development of theories relevant to highly applied research questions such as those pertaining to child abuse and neglect. We then discuss how child protection data, in isolation, translates into a relatively narrow range of questions that can be asked and answered, with an inherently pathology-focused construction of risks and little attention paid to strengths or protective factors. We next turn to examples of recent findings--spanning multiple countries--emerging from information integrated across data systems, concluding by calling for expanded administrative data linkages in an effort to better understand and prevent child maltreatment. PMID:23260115

  8. A Global Investigation of Child Labor: Case Studies from India, Uganda, and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Selena

    This curriculum guide was developed to help students gain a broader perspective about child labor and become more familiar with the issues, controversies, and debates that surround it. Three case studies are highlighted: (1) a street child in India; (2) child soldiers in Uganda; and (3) a migrant farm worker child in the United States. Each case…

  9. 25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... by the state will be handled according to the Indian Child Welfare Act, Public Law 95-608, and 25 CFR... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child...

  10. 25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... by the state will be handled according to the Indian Child Welfare Act, Public Law 95-608, and 25 CFR... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child...

  11. 25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... by the state will be handled according to the Indian Child Welfare Act, Public Law 95-608, and 25 CFR... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child...

  12. 25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... by the state will be handled according to the Indian Child Welfare Act, Public Law 95-608, and 25 CFR... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child...

  13. 25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... by the state will be handled according to the Indian Child Welfare Act, Public Law 95-608, and 25 CFR... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child...

  14. Practices Changes in the Child Protection System to Address the Needs of Parents With Cognitive Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Sandra T.; Maggi, Mirella C.; Proctor, Stephon Nathanial

    2016-01-01

    Parents with cognitive disabilities (PCD) are over-represented in the child protection system. However, the current state of the child protection system is not well prepared for working with them. Biases that exist against their parenting, the need for accommodations in assessment and intervention practices, and specific training in staff and cross systems barriers need to be addressed. This paper argues for changes that will ensure such parents are more effectively served and that child protection staff and contract providers are better equipped to work with them. Specific changes are discussed in assessment and intervention practices. These changes will require human capacity building and organizational restructuring. Although empirically based behavioral approaches with PCD will be emphasized, recent empirical work suggests that social information processing and neurocognitive problems occur in PCD. Approaches to working with such problems are emerging and must also be considered and integrated into a blueprint for change.

  15. Engaging fathers in child protection services: A review of factors and strategies across ecological systems

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Derrick M.; Oliveros, Arazais; Hawes, Samuel W.; Iwamoto, Derek K.; Rayford, Brett S.

    2014-01-01

    Current policy regarding child protection services places increasing demands for providers to engage fathers whose children are involved in the child protection process. This requisite brings to the fore the ongoing challenges that fathers have historically faced in working within these systems. Despite this need, there is little empirical evidence regarding the factors and strategies that impact the engagement of fathers in interventions relevant to child protection services. This comprehensive and systemic review synthesizes the available literature regarding factors and strategies that may foster paternal involvement in the child protection system and their services. We organize the literature concerning paternal engagement in child and family services around an ecological model that examines paternal engagement from individual, family, service provider, program, community, and policy levels. We consider factors and strategies along a continuum of engagement through intent to enroll, enrollment, and retention. This review advances theory by elucidating key factors that foster father engagement. The review also highlights the gaps in the literature and provides strategies for how researchers can address these areas. Future directions in the arenas of practice and policy are discussed. PMID:25232202

  16. What Can We Do to Bring the Sparkle Back into This Child's Eyes? Child Rights/Community Development Principles: Key Elements for a Strengths-Based Child Protection Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan; McKenzie, Margaret; Schjelderup, Liv; Omre, Cecilie; Walker, Shayne

    2014-01-01

    Working from practice experiences, Social Work educators from Aotearoa/New Zealand, Norway and Western Australia have developed a framework for child welfare work . The framework brings together the Rights of the Child, Community Development and Child Protection. This article describes the principles and theoretical underpinnings of this…

  17. A Case of Giant Right Atrial Aneurysm in a Child.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Ravindra S; Tiwari, Ashish; Suresh, P V; Raj, Vimal; Kaushik, Pradeepkumar

    2016-07-01

    Giant right atrial aneurysm is a rare entity in infants and children. It needs to be distinguished from an atrial diverticulum, which can have similar presentation. Generally, an incidental finding in children, it can present with varied symptoms. We report a case of a giant right atrial aneurysm in an asymptomatic child with a large clot in the dilated right atrium, who underwent successful resection of the atrial aneurysm. PMID:26884450

  18. Neighborhood-level social processes and substantiated cases of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Beth E; Goerge, Robert M; Gilsanz, Paola; Hill, Andrea; Subramanian, S V; Holton, John K; Duncan, Dustin T; Beatriz, Elizabeth D; Beardslee, William R

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a preventable public health problem. Research has demonstrated that neighborhood structural factors (e.g. poverty, crime) can influence the proportion of a neighborhood's children who are victims of maltreatment. A newer strategy is the identification of potentially modifiable social processes at the neighborhood level that can also influence maltreatment. Toward this end, this study examines neighborhood-level data (maltreatment cases substantiated by Illinois' child protection agency, 1995-2005, social processes measured by the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, U.S. Census data, proportions of neighborhoods on public assistance, and crime data) that were linked across clusters of contiguous, relatively homogenous Chicago, IL census tracts with respect to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition. Our analysis-an ecological-level, repeated cross-sectional design utilizing random-intercept logit models-with a sensitivity analysis using spatial models to control for spatial autocorrelation-revealed consistent associations between neighborhood social processes and maltreatment. Neighborhoods higher in collective efficacy, intergenerational closure, and social networks, and lower in disorder had lower proportions of neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse substantiated cases, controlling for differences in structural factors. Higher collective efficacy and social network size also predicted a lower proportion of substance-exposed infants. This research indicates that strategies to mobilize neighborhood-level protective factors may decrease child maltreatment more effectively than individual and family-focused efforts alone. PMID:26684963

  19. Differentiating single and multiple victim child sexual abuse cases: a research note considering social disorganization theory.

    PubMed

    Mustaine, Elizabeth Ehrhardt; Tewksbury, Richard; Corzine, Jay; Huff-Corzine, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the utility of social disorganization theory as an explanation for child sexual abuse with a focus on differentiating single and multiple victim cases. Drawing on 1,172 child sexual abuse cases (including 159 cases with multiple victims) in Orange County, Florida, from 2004 to 2006, the present study considered case characteristics and elements of social disorganization as potential predictors of child sexual abuse cases involving single and multiple victims. We found that social disorganization theory does not successfully predict the locations of multiple victim child sexual abuse incidents and is not useful for distinguishing between child sexual abuse incidents with single or multiple victims. PMID:24393089

  20. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Child: A Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Sherubin, J Eugenia; Agnihotri, PG; Sangeetha, GS

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is the second most common malignant tumor affecting both major and minor salivary glands. Clinically, it is a slowly growing tumor with high propensity for local invasion, recurrence and distant metastasis. It is predominantly seen in the ffith and sixth decades of life. Here, we report a rare case of ACC affecting the right maxilla of a 12-year-old girl. How to cite this article: Mathai M, Sherubin JE, Agnihotri PG, Sangeetha GS. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Child: A Rare Case. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):206-208. PMID:25709303

  1. Linear psoriasis: case report on three year old child*

    PubMed Central

    Figueiras, Daniela de Almeida; Cauas, Renata Cavalcanti; Takano, Daniela Mayumi; Ramos, Ticiana Batista; Marinho, Ayana Karla de Oliveira Ferreira; Bezerra, Milena Sonely Mendonça

    2015-01-01

    Atypical and unusual locations of psoriasis are very frequent. However, localized linear psoriasis is rare, with few cases described in the literature. It is characterized by a linear distribution of psoriasis lesions along Blaschko lines. We report the case of a three years old child, who presented unilateral erythematous scaly plaques arranged along Blaschko lines in the left hemithorax, with no associated symptoms and no lesions in other parts of the body. The differentiation of linear psoriasis from other linear dermatoses is not easy. The combination of a thorough history, a careful examination of the skin and histopathology are essential to ensure the correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:26312714

  2. Dipylidium caninum infection in a child: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Narasimham, M V; Panda, P; Mohanty, I; Sahu, S; Padhi, S; Dash, M

    2013-01-01

    Dipylidiasis is a zoonotic parasitic infestation caused by the dog tapeworm Dipylidium caninum. Human dipylidiasis has been rarely reported in English literature. Young children are mostly at risk of acquiring the infection due to their close association with dogs and cats. We report a rare case of Dipylidium caninum infection in a 4 year old male child. The diagnosis was based on microscopic examination of stool. Confirmation of the proglottid segments was done by histopathological examination. To the best of our knowledge this is the first human case of Dipylidium caninum reported from this part of the country. PMID:23508438

  3. The experience of paediatric residents participating in a child protection rotation: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Lewington, Laura; Unruh, Anita; Ornstein, Amy

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Practitioners working in the field of child maltreatment are at risk for vicarious traumatization. For Canadian paediatric residents, exposure to child abuse during training is limited. OBJECTIVE: To explore how paediatric residents experience a mandatory rotation within a hospital-based child protection team (CPT) from an emotional and professional development standpoint. METHOD: Eight paediatric residents were interviewed following their CPT rotation and transcripts were analyzed using a phenomenological approach. Exemplar quotes were then highlighted. RESULTS: Four major themes were identified: baseline experiences; individual resident factors; intrinsic CPT rotation factors; and overall rotation assessment. The themes and their subthemes were used to inform a conceptual model of residents’ experiences. CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge provided through residents’ accounts can be applied to strengthen future educational opportunities in the field of child maltreatment and offer insight to help guide the development of support systems and debriefing processes that are important in this challenging field. PMID:24421681

  4. True and False Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse: Assessment and Case Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, Tara, Ed.

    This book addresses the clinical, legal, and ethical issues arising in child sexual abuse cases; the assessment and case management of allegations; research issues; and practice recommendations. Chapter titles are as follows: "Assessing Allegations in Child Sexual Abuse: An Overview" (Tara Ney); "The Nature of Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse"…

  5. The evolving evidence base for child protection in Chinese societies.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Michael P; Chen, Jing Qi; Wan Yuen Choo

    2008-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a substantial public health problem worldwide. Although extensively studied in Western countries, until recently little systematic research had been published about the situation in the world's most populous nation and ethnic diaspora. In this review, we examine trends from community-based research with Chinese young people and parents in mainland China, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan, Singapore, and Malaysia. It is clear that many Chinese adolescents experience a substantial burden from various forms of maltreatment and the psychological and behavioral correlates are similar to those found in other cultures. However, the research reveals a large gap between this reality and Chinese adults' perceptions about emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. Comprehensive awareness programs are needed to close this information gap and thereby mobilize support for prevention and care initiatives. PMID:19124321

  6. Reprint of "Decision-making in child protective services: Influences at multiple levels of the social ecology".

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-11-01

    Decision-making in the child protection system is influenced by multiple factors; agency and geographic contexts, caseworker attributes, and families' unique circumstances all likely play a role. In this study, we use the second cohort of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being to explore how these factors are associated with two key case decisions-substantiation and removal to out-of-home care. Analyses are conducted using weighted hierarchical linear models. We find that substantiation is strongly influenced by agency factors, particularly constraints on service accessibility. Substantiation is less likely when agencies can provide services to unsubstantiated cases and when collaboration with other social institutions is high. This supports the concept that substantiation may be a gateway to services in some communities. Agency factors contributed less to the probability of removal among substantiated cases, though time resources and constraints on decision-making had some influence. For both substantiation and removal risks, county, caseworker, and child characteristics were less influential than agency characteristics and family risk factors. PMID:26499371

  7. Applying Automation to Investigations of Child Abuse. Impact Evaluation Report on the Case Decision Project (September 1, 1984, to August 31, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jeffrey; And Others

    Because increased need for child protective services exceeded the Texas Department of Human Services' capacity for timely response, a 2-year Case Decision Project was implemented with the aim of applying automation to parts of the case investigation process. The project produced a Case Investigation Decision Support System with two sections: a…

  8. Child Labor in Agriculture: Changes Needed To Better Protect Health and Educational Opportunities. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    In a response to a Congressional request, this report presents information and statistics on child labor in agriculture. Specifically, the report examines: (1) the extent and prevalence of child labor in agriculture, (2) the legislative protections available to children working in agriculture, (3) the enforcement of these protections as they apply…

  9. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian...

  10. Participation of Primary School Pupils Who Stay at Institution of Social Services and Child Protection Dormitories in Social Science Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guven, Sibel; Sahin Taskin, Cigdem

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to understand to what extent primary school pupils who stay at the Institution of Social Services and Child Protection dormitories participate in social science lessons. Data were obtained from pupils staying at the Institution of Social Services and Child Protection dormitories and attending primary schools in Istanbul and…

  11. Client Violence and Its Negative Impacts on Work Attitudes of Child Protection Workers Compared to Community Service Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Junseob

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of client violence toward child protection workers and its negative impacts on the work attitudes of those workers compared with community service workers in South Korea. This study is based on the assumption that child protection workers are more vulnerable to violence than are community service workers…

  12. The New Welfare Law and Vulnerable Families: Implications for Child Welfare/Child Protection Systems. Children and Welfare Reform Issue Brief 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knitzer, Jane; Bernard, Stanley

    This report examines the potential impact of federal welfare legislation, Public Law 104-193, The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, on vulnerable families already in or at risk of entering the child welfare/child protection systems. The report includes an overview of the challenges states face; questions for state…

  13. Is the Diagnosis of Physical Abuse Changed when Child Protective Services Consults a Child Abuse Pediatrics Subspecialty Group as a Second Opinion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderst, James; Kellogg, Nancy; Jung, Inkyung

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize the changes regarding the diagnosis of physical abuse provided to Child Protective Services (CPS) when CPS asks a Child Abuse Pediatrics (CAP) specialty group for a second opinion and works in concert with that CAP group. Methods: Subjects were reported to CPS for suspected physical abuse and were first evaluated by a…

  14. Violence Exposure and Adjustment in Inner-City Youth: Child and Caregiver Emotion Regulation Skill, Caregiver?Child Relationship Quality, and Neighborhood Cohesion as Protective Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Wendy; Cunningham, Jera Nelson; Diehl, Robyn; Parrish, Katie Adams; Walker, Jean M.; Atiyeh, Cynthia; Neace, Brooke; Duncan, Larissa; Taylor, Kelli; Mejia, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    This short-term, longitudinal interview study used an ecological framework to explore protective factors within the child, the caregiver, the caregiver?child relationship, and the community that might moderate relations between community violence exposure and subsequent internalizing and externalizing adjustment problems and the different patterns…

  15. The Uncelebrated Parent: Stories of Mothers with Learning Difficulties Caught in the Child Protection Net

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Tim; Booth, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the stories of three mothers with learning difficulties whose children have been involved in care proceedings. Drawing on the example of the legendary interviewer, Studs Terkel, the authors let the mothers describe their experiences of the child protection system in their own words. From out of their intensely personal accounts…

  16. Enacting Firm, Fair and Friendly Practice: A Model for Strengths-Based Child Protection Relationships?

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Carolyn; Charles, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Strengths-based solution-focused approaches are gaining ground in statutory child protection work, but few studies have asked front line practitioners how they navigate the complex worker–client relationships such approaches require. This paper describes one component of a mixed-methods study in a large Canadian statutory child protection agency in which 225 workers described how they applied the ideas of strengths-based practice in their daily work. Interviews with twenty-four practitioners were analysed using an interpretive description approach. Only four interviewees appeared to successfully enact a version of strengths-based practice that closely mirrored those described by key strengths-based child protection theorists and was fully congruent with their mandated role. They described navigating a shifting balance of collaboration and authority in worker–client relationships based on transparency, impartial judgement, attentiveness to the worker–client interaction and the value that clients were fellow human beings. Their accounts extend current conceptualisations of the worker–client relationship in strengths-based child protection work and are congruent with current understandings of effective mandated relationships. They provide what may be a useful model to help workers understand and navigate relationships in which they must reconcile their own authority and expertise with genuine support for the authority and expertise of their clients. PMID:27559211

  17. Stress Responses and Decision Making in Child Protection Workers Faced with High Conflict Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Vicki R.; Regehr, Cheryl; Shlonsky, Aron; Bogo, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The assessment of children at risk of abuse and neglect is a critical societal function performed by child protection workers in situations of acute stress and conflict. Despite efforts to improve the reliability of risk assessments through standardized measures, available tools continue to rely on subjective judgment. The goal of…

  18. The Value of Family Welfare Conferencing within the Child Protection and Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaney, Carmel; Byrne, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Family Welfare Conference (FWC) is a model used within the child protection and welfare services to address concerns about the needs of children and their family's ability to respond to these needs. The FWC model operates in partnership with family members, who participate in identifying both the issues of concern and potential responses to…

  19. Use Positive Strategies to Protect Your Child with a Disability from Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmquist, Julie

    2011-01-01

    While any child can be a target of bullying, children with disabilities can be especially vulnerable. Research concerning children with disabilities and bullying indicates an increased risk for children with special needs. This article discusses how parents can help protect their children with disabilities from bullying and its devastating effects…

  20. Innovations in the Management of Child Protection Workers: Building Worker Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert T.

    2004-01-01

    Taking children away from their parents is risky business. Child protective services (CPS) workers are charged with monumental tasks and ever-increasing caseloads. As a countywide CPS supervisor in New Mexico, the author shared the pain of one caseworker who experienced daily stress, knowing that her sibling set of three young children had been…

  1. A Survey of Threats and Violence Directed against Child Protection Workers in a Rural State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horejsi, Charles; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Surveyed 166 child protection workers in rural Montana to determine the extent and nature of threats and actual violence they are subject to during the course of their duties. Found that 10% of workers had been pushed, shoved, or hit by clients in the previous year and that 33% received death threats from clients. (MDM)

  2. Engaging with Families in Child Protection: Lessons from Practitioner Research in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Michael; Smith, Mark; Wosu, Helen; Stewart, Jane; Hunter, Scott; Cree, Viviene E.; Wilkinson, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports findings from practitioner-led research on engagement with families in the child protection system in Scotland. Engagement is here defined in a participative sense, to mean the involvement of family members in shaping social work processes. Key findings include the importance of workers building trusting relationships; the value…

  3. [Innovative Services: The Use of Parent Aides in Child Protective Services]. Module 7. Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stephen C.; And Others

    The final module of a seven module package for child protective service workers addresses management system skills necessary to maintain a volunteer parent aide program for abused and neglected children and their families. Four program activities center on the following: (1) listing what the agency will provide the volunteer; (2) developing…

  4. Improving Child Protection Services to Children under Ten Who Display Sexually Reactive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstraete, Patricia A.

    This practicum was designed to improve Child Protective Services in a western state to sexually reactive children under the age of 10 by targeting four areas of the service delivery system: screening, assessment, treatment, and foster care. A panel of agency staff from all service areas researched, designed, proposed, and implemented changes…

  5. Timeliness and Delay in the Cook County Juvenile Court Child Protection Division. Discussion Paper CS-45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Sheila M.; Peters, Clark M.; Goerge, Robert M.; Osuch, Ruth; Minor, Maria; Budde, Stephen

    This study suggests that court procedures in Illinois must improve to assure that more children are placed in permanent homes in a timely way. The University of Chicago's Chapin Hall Center for Children examined the timeliness of the Circuit Court of Cook County, Illinois' Child Protection Division in completing the sequence of hearings and…

  6. Renata Adler Memorial Research Center for Child Welfare and Protection, Tel-Aviv University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronen, Tammie

    2011-01-01

    The Renata Adler Memorial Research Center for Child Welfare and Protection operates within the Bob Shapell School of Social Work at Tel-Aviv University in Israel. The main aims of this research center are to facilitate study and knowledge about the welfare of children experiencing abuse or neglect or children at risk and to link such knowledge to…

  7. A Structural Equation Model of Burnout and Job Exit among Child Protective Services Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Brett; Yadama, Gautam N.

    1996-01-01

    Uses a structural equation model to examine the three elements of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI)--emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment--in relation to job exit among child protective services workers over a 15-month period. The model was supported, showing the relevance of all three MBI elements of job exit.…

  8. Cultural Protective and Risk Factors: Professional Perspectives about Child Sexual Abuse in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Carol A.; Njuguna, Wambui

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore perspectives on cultural risks and protective factors among professionals in Kenya. Method: An exploratory/descriptive survey of Kenyan professionals working to prevent or intervene with child sexual abuse was undertaken to determine their perspectives on how tribal culture impacts vulnerability to…

  9. Vibrotactile stimulation: case study with a profoundly deaf child.

    PubMed

    Geers, A E

    1986-01-01

    This case study reports results obtained from a young, profoundly deaf child, M, who was fitted with a single-channel vibrotactile device, the Tactaid I, at 29 months of age. Her progress in speech and language development was evaluated over a 14-month period. During this period, M learned to understand 101 words through lipreading and the Tactaid I, and to produce consistent approximations of 90 words. Her scores on language tests with hearing-impaired norms progressed from below average to above average for her age. M's scores on language tests with hearing norms also reflected significant progress, although she did not achieve normal language development. These results indicate that a single-channel vibrotactile aid may facilitate the acquisition of spoken language in a profoundly deaf child who is unable to benefit from a conventional hearing aid. PMID:3958992

  10. [Cryptococcus meningitis in an immunocompetent child: a case report].

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, M; Hagerimana, R; Diagne, N S; Faye, M W; Sène, M S; Sow, A D; Sène-Diouf, F; Diop, A G; Ndiaye, M M

    2010-07-01

    Cryptococcus meningitis is uncommon in childhood. We report a Senegalese case of cryptococcus meningitis diagnosed in an apparently immunocompetent child. A 9-year-old boy was admitted for acute meningoencephalitis. A computerized tomography scan of the brain showed an ischemic lesion in the left caudate and study of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed cytological and biochemical abnormalities and Cryptococcus neoformans on direct exam and culture. HIV and syphilis antibodies were negative and the blood CD4 lymphocyte count was 804/mm(3). The child had no immunocompromising factors such as hematologic abnormalities, solid tumor, or undernutrition. He was treated with fluconazole intravenously, but clinical outcome was unsuccessful. The patient died after 1 month from cardiovascular and respiratory distress. PMID:20400277

  11. Maternal and family factors and child eating pathology: risk and protective relationships

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found associations between maternal and family factors and child eating disorder symptoms. However, it is not clear whether family factors predict eating disorder symptoms specifically, or relate to more general child psychopathology, of which eating disorder symptoms may be one component. This study aimed to identify maternal and family factors that may predict increases or decreases in child eating disorder symptoms over time, accounting for children’s body mass index z-scores and levels of general psychological distress. Methods Participants were 221 mother-child dyads from the Childhood Growth and Development Study, a prospective cohort study in Western Australia. Participants were assessed at baseline, 1-year follow-up and 2-year follow-up using interview and self-report measures. Children had a mean age of 10 years at baseline and 46% were male. Linear mixed models and generalised estimating equations were used to identify predictors of children’s eating disorder symptoms, with outcome variables including a global index of eating disorder psychopathology, levels of dietary restraint, levels of emotional eating, and the presence of loss of control (‘binge’) eating. Results Children of mothers with a current or past eating disorder reported significantly higher levels of global eating disorder symptoms and emotional eating than other children, and mothers with a current or past eating disorder reported significantly more concern about their children’s weight than other mothers. Maternal concern about child weight, rather than maternal eating disorder symptoms, was significant in predicting child eating disorder symptoms over time. Family exposure to stress and low maternal education were additional risk factors for eating disorder symptoms, whilst child-reported family satisfaction was a protective factor. Conclusions After adjusting for relevant confounding variables, maternal concern about child weight, children

  12. Protecting the unborn -- reducing mother-to-child transmission.

    PubMed

    Tapper, A

    1998-02-01

    HIV is transmitted to a child during pregnancy, at birth, or through the mother's milk during infancy. Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, 3.8 million children are estimated to have become infected with HIV and 2.7 million have died. More than 9% acquired HIV through their HIV-positive mothers and in 1997, 1600 children were infected daily. Since many women in developing countries do not have access to clean water, it is unsafe for them to bottle feed. As such, HIV-infected women in such settings have been encouraged to breast feed their infants despite the risk of perinatal HIV transmission. The most recent research, however, indicates that 10-25% of fetal/infant HIV infections occur intrauterine, 60-75% during delivery, and 20-40% postpartum. It is estimated that breast feeding increases the risk of infection by 5-40%. These findings have led the principal administrator of the European Union's HIV/AIDS program and other health experts to recommend that children be weaned from breast feeding at 4-6 months, a change from existing breast feeding guidelines. As several trials end in the near future, important results are expected in 1998 on how to prevent perinatal HIV transmission. The ethics of involving pregnant women in Africa and Asia in clinical trials to reduce perinatal HIV transmission and vitamin A supplements and vaginal lavages are discussed. PMID:12293285

  13. Radiation Protection of the Child from Diagnostic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Leung, Rebecca S

    2015-01-01

    In recent years due to the technological advances in imaging techniques, which have undoubtedly improved diagnostic accuracy and resulted in improved patient care, the utilization of ionizing radiation in diagnostic imaging has significantly increased. Computed tomography is the major contributor to the radiation burden, but fluoroscopy continues to be a mainstay in paediatric radiology. The rise in the use of ionizing radiation is of particular concern with regard to the paediatric population, as they are up to 10 times more sensitive to the effects of radiation than adults, due to their increased tissue radiosensitivity, increased cumulative lifetime radiation dose and longer lifetime in which to manifest the effects. This article will review the estimated radiation risk to the child from diagnostic imaging and summarise the various methods through which both the paediatrician and radiologist can practice the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle, which underpins the safe practice of radiology. Emphasis is on the justification for an examination, i.e. weighing of benefits versus radiation risk, on the appropriate utilization of other, non-ionizing imaging modalities such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, and on optimisation of a clinically indicated examination. It is essential that the paediatrician and radiologist work together in this decision making process for the mutual benefit of the patient. The appropriate practical application of ALARA in the workplace is crucial to the radiation safety of our paediatric patients. PMID:26219738

  14. Involvement with child protective services: is this a useful question in population-based surveys?

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Hayley A; Boak, Angela; Mann, Robert E

    2013-09-01

    Direct questions on child maltreatment in population-based surveys are often limited by ethical and methodological issues. This restricts the ability of researchers to examine an important aspect of early adversity and its relationship to health and behavior. An alternative to excluding issues of maltreatment entirely in population-based surveys is to include questions on child and family involvement with child protective services (CPS). A school-based adolescent survey that included a question on child and family involvement with CPS yielded results that were generally consistent with other studies relating child maltreatment to health and behavioral outcomes such as psychological distress symptoms, delinquency, aspects of bullying, and health service utilization. Such findings suggest that questions on involvement with CPS may be a reasonable proxy for child maltreatment. Despite the lack of information on the reason for involvement or specific categories of maltreatment, CPS involvement questions highlight the shared familial experience that surrounds CPS involvement and serves as a general reflection of an adverse experience that can be utilized by researchers interested in early experiences. PMID:23838213

  15. Familial Influences on Recantation in Substantiated Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Lindsay C; Mugno, Allison P; Rivard, Jillian R; Lyon, Thomas D; Quas, Jodi A

    2016-08-01

    The underlying reasons for recantation in children's disclosure of child sexual abuse (CSA) have been debated in recent years. In the present study, we examined the largest sample of substantiated CSA cases involving recantations to date (n = 58 cases). We specifically matched those cases to 58 nonrecanters on key variables found to predict recantation in prior research (i.e., child age, alleged parent figure perpetrator, and caregiver unsupportiveness). Bivariate analyses revealed that children were less likely to recant when they were (1) initially removed from home postdisclosure and (2) initially separated from siblings postdisclosure. Multivariate analyses revealed that children were less likely to recant when family members (other than the nonoffending caregiver) expressed belief in the children's allegations and more likely to recant when family members (other than the nonoffending caregiver) expressed disbelief in the allegations and when visitations with the alleged perpetrator were recommended at their first hearing. Results have implications for understanding the complex ways in which social processes may motivate some children to retract previous reports of sexual abuse. PMID:27234520

  16. Jaguar Attack on a Child: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Iserson, Kenneth V.; Francis, Adama M.

    2015-01-01

    Jaguar attacks on humans rarely occur in the wild. When they do, they are often fatal. We describe a jaguar attack on a three-year-old girl near her home deep in a remote area of the Guyanese jungle. The patient had a complex but, relatively, rapid transport to a medical treatment facility for her life-threatening injuries. The child, who suffered typical jaguar-inflicted injury patterns and survived, is highlighted. We review jaguar anatomy, environmental status, hunting and killing behaviors, and discuss optimal medical management, given the resource-limited treatment environment of this international emergency medicine case. PMID:25834674

  17. Neo-Conservatism and Child Care Services in Alberta: A Case Study. Occasional Paper No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline

    The development and delivery of child care services in Canada has never been without controversy. This case study examines the development of the child care system in Alberta, Canada, showing how the role of the government proceeded through four distinct phases, each determining a different outcome for child care stakeholders. Power mechanisms and…

  18. Child-Invented Health Education Games: A Case Study for Dengue Fever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Jeffrey L.; Coombs, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The study's goal was to demonstrate the ability of an 8-year-old child to create educational games for the topic of dengue fever control. A naturalistic descriptive case study method was employed. The child had two dengue fever educational game creation activities. The study demonstrated that a child could develop functional games related to…

  19. 25 CFR 63.13 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the Bureau of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum Standards of Character and Suitability for Employment § 63.13 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention...

  20. 25 CFR 63.13 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the Bureau of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum Standards of Character and Suitability for Employment § 63.13 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention...

  1. 25 CFR 63.13 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the Bureau of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum Standards of Character and Suitability for Employment § 63.13 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention...

  2. 25 CFR 63.13 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the Bureau of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum Standards of Character and Suitability for Employment § 63.13 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention...

  3. 25 CFR 63.13 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the Bureau of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum Standards of Character and Suitability for Employment § 63.13 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention...

  4. Mediastinal mature teratoma in a child- A case report.

    PubMed

    Liew, W X; Lam, H Y; Narasimman, S; Navarasi, S; Mohd Hamzah, K

    2016-02-01

    Mediastinal teratoma is an infrequent germ cell tumour and comprises of 1 to 5% of all mediastinal tumours. We report a case of mediastinal mature teratoma in a 12 year old boy who presented to us with persistent non-productive cough, fever and dyspnoea for the past 7 months. Computed tomographic scan of thorax revealed a large anterior mediastinal mass measuring 11.2x9.9x14cm with calcification within. He subsequently underwent a median sternotomy with left subcostal extension (L-incision) and excision of tumour. Histopathology of the tumour revealed a mature cystic teratoma. We would like to report a case of successful surgical management of a large mediastinal mature teratoma in a child. PMID:27130743

  5. Wilson disease in a Nigerian child: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Wilson disease is rarely reported among African children. This report describes the second case report of a Nigerian child with Wilson disease in three decades. Case presentation An eight-year-old African boy presented with generalized oedema and ascites and proteinuria. Over the next three weeks he developed conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia, severe coagulopathy and prominent extrapyramidal features consisting of rigidity, tremors at rest and in action, shuffling gait, slurred speech and emotional lability. Slit-lamp examination of his eyes revealed Kayser-Fleischer rings and sunflower cataracts. His serum caeruloplasmin level was 5mg/dL. Using the scoring system proposed by the 8th International Meeting of Wilson Disease and Menkes Disease, a diagnosis of Wilson disease was made. Conclusions Wilson disease does occur in African children, although the diagnosis is rarely made. A diagnosis of Wilson disease should be entertained in the evaluation of African children presenting with liver dysfunction and/or extrapyramidal neurological features. PMID:22800610

  6. Child sexual abuse in Turkey: an analysis of 1002 cases.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad; Yuce, Murat; Karabekiroglu, Koray

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of abuse suffered by children, the dimensions of the psychiatric effects associated with abuse, and the factors affecting these. One thousand two cases aged under 18, exposed to sexual abuse, and referred over a 7-year period were assessed. Girls represented 80.8% of cases, and the numbers rose with age. The aggressors were all male, and 88.2% were known to their victim. Approximately half the children were exposed to sexual abuse involving penetration. Psychological pathology was identified in 62.1%. Female gender, the presence of penetration, physical violence, and incest significantly increased the development of psychological pathology. Levels of awareness in people close to and trusted by the child must be raised to minimize the adverse effects of trauma in the long term, preventive measures must be taken, and medical and social support units from which victims can receive assistance need to be established. PMID:25066376

  7. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Consensus-Based Child Abuse Case Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldbeck, L.; Laib-Koehnemund, A.; Fegert, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluates the effects of expert-assisted child abuse and neglect case management in the German child welfare and healthcare system as perceived by the case workers themselves. Methods: Case workers with different professions (social workers, counselors, clinic-based and office-based psychotherapists, and physicians)…

  8. Caseworker-perceived caregiver substance abuse and child protective services outcomes.

    PubMed

    Berger, Lawrence M; Slack, Kristen S; Waldfogel, Jane; Bruch, Sarah K

    2010-08-01

    The authors used data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being to examine associations of child protective services (CPS) caseworkers' perceptions of caregiver substance abuse with their perceptions of the severity of risk and harm a child experienced as a result of alleged maltreatment, as well as with whether a family experienced a range of CPS outcomes.The outcomes included whether the family received services from CPS, was substantiated for maltreatment, experienced child removal, and was subject to a termination of parental rights (TPR) petition. The authors also compared the magnitude of the association between caseworker-perceived caregiver substance abuse and each outcome to that of the association between other maltreatment-related risk factors and each outcome. Findings suggest that, all else equal, caseworker-perceived caregiver substance abuse is associated with increased caseworker perceptions that children have experienced severe risk and harm and also with an increased probability of each of the CPS outcomes except TPR. Moreover, these associations are equal in magnitude or larger than those between the other risk factors and the outcomes. These findings imply that CPS decisions are heavily influenced by caseworker perceptions of caregiver substance abuse, regardless of the presence of other risk factors for child maltreatment. PMID:20460304

  9. Malingering-by-proxy: need for child protection and guidance for reporting.

    PubMed

    Chafetz, Michael; Dufrene, Melissa

    2014-11-01

    The feigning of disabling illness for compensation at the direction or pressure by others, which is called malingering by proxy (MBP), has been the subject of several spirited articles. Chafetz and Prentkowski (2011) suggested that MBP has the potential for real harm to the child. In a poster at the AACN scientific session in 2011, Chafetz and Binder (2011) pursued a case of MBP that showed the child had clearly suffered and failed to progress in the 6 years that had passed since she was first evaluated as an 11 year old. In the present article, we identify three cases that compare and contrast effects of MBP, illustrating that child abuse and/or neglect can be a serious and reportable consequence of MBP behavior. To illustrate how MBP behavior can cause child abuse, we compare MBP behavior with Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP), another condition of volitional noncredible behavior produced in a vulnerable person at the direction or pressure by others. Guidance criteria for reporting MBP as child abuse/neglect are introduced in this article. PMID:25236718

  10. Child Fatalities in Scottish House Fires 1980-1990: A Case of Child Neglect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Tim; Busuttil, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    This paper considers 168 child fatalities due to house fires in Scotland. It concludes that the fires were largely a direct result of adult activities, including behavior patterns involving alcohol and inadequate child supervision. (DB)

  11. Beyond cultural competence: what child protection managers need to know and do.

    PubMed

    Mederos, Fernando; Woldeguiorguis, Isa

    2003-01-01

    This article addresses issues for child protection managers, such as hiring, program design, service evaluation, and policy development. It presents three frameworks for levels of organizational change: cultural sensitivity, which modifies existing services to better meet the needs of target populations; self-reflective cultural sensitivity, which calls for managers to be aware of personal and organizational cultural values; and cultural solidarity, which acknowledges that organizational power is vested in managers, which can oppress clients. PMID:12699279

  12. Exploring the support mechanisms health visitors use in safeguarding and child protection practice.

    PubMed

    Rooke, Justine

    2015-10-01

    Health visitors lead the Healthy Child Programme (HCP), a universal public health service designed to give children the best start in life. Running through the HCP are responsibilities to safeguard and protect children. Supporting the role of the health visitor is essential to ensure quality interventions and improved outcomes for children. This article describes an empirical study. It explores the experiences and views of health visitors on the mechanisms of support they use for working in child protection and safeguarding. A qualitative approach was used to collect data from two focus groups. The data produced was transcribed and a thematic analysis used to produce the results. The results demonstrate that health visitors gain the majority of their support from their colleagues and from supervision processes. Also identified from the data analysis were three factors which health visitors felt supported their role. These were support for managing the emotions associated with child protection work, feeling safe and effective in practice and having time to reflect and evaluate casework. PMID:26596133

  13. Hematologic manifestations in a child with HIV; a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Osiya, Sh; Binesh, F; Ferdosian, F; Shakiba, M

    2012-01-01

    Background Immune deficiency in human might be primary or secondary and could be seen with a wide variety of manifestations. In the following, we presented a Child with various complains that diagnosed to have HIV infection. Case Report A 2/5 y/o child was admitted to the hospital for FUO with prolonged cough, FTT, cervical lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly and bilateral optic neuritis. . He was hospitalized for fever, cytopenia and hepatosplenomegaly one year ago, and three months later in an outpatient visit, these signs improved, except thrombocytopenia. In evaluation, bicytopenia, elevated ESR, hyperlipidemia, hyperproteinemia, thrombosis of the transverse sinus of brain, antiphospholipid antibodies , decreased levels of protein S and factor V Leiden and increased level of anti thrombin III were detected. Consequently, the result of HIV antibody showed positive. In addition to warfarin and cotrimoxazole therapy, he was referred to special center for possible HARRT therapy. Conclusion In approach to patients with various clinical presentations such as cytopenia, recurrent or persistent lymphadenopathy, unexplained hyperproteinemia or hyperlipidemia, evaluation of HIV infection is highly recommended for consideration and further therapy. PMID:24575260

  14. [Between family-oriented help and child protection--interventions within the scope of the child and youth aid law: an unsolvable dilemma?].

    PubMed

    Wiesner, R

    1996-10-01

    The new child care and protection legislation (German Social Aid) emphasises the support of the parents' responsibility for education. In addition, it includes separate provisions and opportunities for counseling and supporting young children and adolescents in crisis situations. Finally, it requires the Youth Welfare Office to inform the Guardianship Court if a legal decision is required to avert a threat of the child's welfare. In the process of making the complex precise and responsible decision on the prognosis for the child, the experts from the Youth Welfare Office mus decide weather to respond to a threat to the child with family-oriented support, of with intervention concerning parental care that will usually lead to the separation of the child from its social setting. PMID:9011851

  15. Comparing the Effects of Judicial versus Child Protective Service Relationships on Parental Attitudes in the Juvenile Dependency Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Jose B.

    2006-01-01

    This pilot study examined the attitudes of parents in the child dependency process to determine whether their perceptions of fairness, trustworthiness, and satisfaction with the juvenile dependency system differed across types of relationships: relationships with judges or child protective service (CPS) workers. Method: The study relied on a…

  16. Financing Medically-Oriented Child Protection Teams in the Age of Managed Health Care: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giardino, Angelo P.; Montoya, Louise A.; Leventhal, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The direct and indirect costs to society from child maltreatment are estimated to be quite high. The costs related to medical care are of interest to professionals serving on medically-oriented child protection teams that conduct medical evaluations of alleged abuse. This study was designed to explore a number of financially related…

  17. Social, Emotional, and Academic Competence among Children Who Have Had Contact with Child Protective Services: Prevalence and Stability Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Gallop, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence and stability of social, emotional, and academic competence in a nationally representative sample of children involved with child protective services. Method: Children were assessed as part of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Children (N = 2,065) ranged in age from 8 to 16 years and were…

  18. How to Provide for Their Future: Suggestions for Parents Concerned with Providing Lifetime Protection for a Child with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX.

    The booklet offers suggestions for parents concerned with providing lifetime protection for a child with mental retardation. Emphasis is placed on the interrelationship between the child's prospective needs of social and/or economic supports and the formal mechanisms which can be brought to bear on them. Four major topics are addressed: (1)…

  19. Child pornography possessors: trends in offender and case characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David; Mitchell, Kimberly

    2011-03-01

    This article describes trends in child pornography (CP) possession cases that ended in arrest in 2000 and in 2006, using data from the National Juvenile Online Victimization Study, a two-wave longitudinal survey of a national sample of more than 2,500 U.S. law enforcement agencies. In 2006, there were an estimated 3,672 arrests for CP possession, compared with 1,713 arrests in 2000. Many characteristics of the offenders and the offense remained stable. In both 2006 and 2000, most offenders were White, non-Hispanic males and socioeconomically diverse. Few were known to have committed previous sex crimes. Most had CP that depicted preteen children and serious sexual abuse. In 2006, however, a higher proportion of offenders were aged 18 to 25 years, used peer-to-peer (p2p) networks, had images of children younger than 3 years, and had CP videos. P2p users had more extreme images (e.g., younger victims, sexual violence) and larger numbers of images than those who did not use p2p networks. Findings reflect heightened efforts in the criminal justice system to combat CP crimes. More cases originated with investigations of CP possession and involved proactive investigations aimed at detecting CP. The great majority of cases were successfully prosecuted, with more offenders sentenced to incarceration and serving longer sentences than in 2000. As in 2000, one in six cases that began with investigations of CP possession detected offenders who had molested children. PMID:21349830

  20. Bacillary angiomatosis in an immunocompetent child: the first reported case.

    PubMed

    Paul, M A; Fleischer, A B; Wieselthier, J S; White, W L

    1994-12-01

    Bacillary angiomatosis, an infectious process associated with Rochalima spp., was thought until recently to be restricted to HIV-infected or otherwise immunosuppressed patients. In 1993, bacillary angiomatosis was reported in several immunocompetent adults. An extensive literature review failed to find references to bacillary angiomatosis in immunocompetent children. We describe a 6-year-old female who presented with a single, rapidly growing, friable, erythematous papule on her neck. Histologic examination of a biopsy specimen confirmed the diagnosis of bacillary angiomatosis. The patient was otherwise healthy, and her physical examination was normal. Laboratory studies, including HIV serology, were normal. The patient was treated with six weeks of oral erythromycin without evidence of recurrence. We present and discuss the implications of the first case of bacillary angiomatosis in an immunocompetent child. PMID:7899186

  1. Ophthalmic Rosacea: Case Report in a Child and Treatment Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Potz-Biedermann, Christiane; Mehra, Tarun; Deuter, Christoph; Zierhut, Manfred; Schaller, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of rosacea with ocular involvement in a child that remitted with prolonged anti-inflammatory oral tetracycline therapy and provide general expert recommendations. A 14-year-old girl presented with discrete papules and pustules on both cheeks with blepharitis and conjunctivitis. Ophthalmologic examination confirmed bilateral severe blepharitis, as well as a corneal infiltrate in the right eye with additional neovascularization. The diagnosis of rosacea with ocular involvement was made. In addition to the existing antibiotic and anti-inflammatory topical eye therapy, systemic treatment with minocycline 50 mg twice a day was started. After marked improvement, the dose was reduced to 50 mg once a day. After further amelioration, treatment was switched to maintenance therapy with 40 mg of prolonged-release doxycycline. Three years after a 12-month course of anti-inflammatory therapy, the patient remained recurrence free. PMID:25323001

  2. Girl-Child Education Outcomes: A Case Study from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arku, Frank S.; Angmor, Emmanuel N.; Tetteh, Isaac K.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of girl-child education is largely documented and initiatives to promote girl-child education are widespread. However, studies on service delivery methods, processes and the impacts are limited in the literature. This study assessed the Plan Ghana's girl-child educational project. According to the findings, the project has helped to…

  3. Interrelatedness of child health, protection and well-being: an application of the SAFE model in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Williams, Timothy P; Kellner, Sarah E; Gebre-Medhin, Joy; Hann, Katrina; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne

    2012-05-01

    This study examines the core components of children's basic security and well-being in order to examine issues central to improving child protection in Rwanda. Sources of data included 15 focus groups with adults, 7 focus groups with children ages 10-17, and 11 key informant interviews with child protection stakeholders, including representatives from international NGOs, community-based groups, and the Rwandan Government, all of which took place in April and May of 2010. Participants painted a complex picture of threats to children's basic security in Rwanda. Three key themes were pervasive across all interviews: (1) deterioration of social and community cohesion in post-genocide Rwanda; (2) the cascading effects of poverty; and (3) the impact of caregiver illness and death on the caregiving environment. Consistent with the SAFE (Safety/freedom from harm; Access to basic physiological needs and healthcare; Family and connection to others; Education and economic security) model of child protection, participants rarely elaborated on a child protection threat independent of other basic security needs and rights. Findings suggest a need for integrated approaches to child protection that recognize this interrelatedness and extend beyond issue-specific child protection responses. This study contributes to a growing body of work highlighting the interrelated nature of child protection threats and the implications of adaptive and dangerous survival strategies that children and families engage in to meet their basic security needs. Analysis of this interrelatedness provides a roadmap for improving policies and implementing integrated and robust child protection strategies in Rwanda and other settings. PMID:22459187

  4. Methodological challenges in following up patients of a hospital child protection team: is there a recruitment bias?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aims of this study are to describe the methodological challenges in recruiting a follow-up sample of children referred to an interdisciplinary hospital child protection team (CPT) and to compare participating versus non-participating groups on several demographic variables and maltreatment characteristics. Methods Of the 319 in- and outpatients referred to the CPT at University Children's Hospital Zurich from 2005–2006 a sample of 180 children was drawn to contact for a follow-up. The children and their parents were asked to participate in a face-to-face interview at the hospital; in 42 cases the children and parents consented to do so. Alternatively, the parents could take part in a telephone interview (n = 39). Non-participation resulted because no contact or adequate communication in German, French, or English could be established (n = 49) or because the parents or children refused to participate (n = 50). Results Participants and non-participants did not differ significantly in mean child age at follow-up, gender, family status, place of residence, certainty and type of maltreatment, and type of perpetrator. However, the child's nationality had a significant impact: Percentages of foreign nationals were higher in the fully participating group (45%; n = 19) and the non-contactable group (53%; n = 26) and significantly lower in the refusal (26%; n = 10) and the telephone interview group (18%; n = 9). Although a high percentage of families had moved in the few years since the CPT intervention (32%; n = 57), the percentage of moves was not significantly higher in non-participants compared to participants. Conclusions Further research is needed to support these results in different national backgrounds and to test for biases in variables not included – especially socioeconomic status. This includes gathering more detailed information on non-participants, while respecting ethical boundaries. Overall, the fact that only child's nationality was

  5. Neighborhood informal social control and child maltreatment: A comparison of protective and punitive approaches.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Trung, Hai Nguyen; Wu, Shali

    2015-03-01

    This paper introduces a new measure of informal social control of child maltreatment (henceforth ISC_CM) by neighbors. Research literature typically uses collective efficacy (Sampson, Raudenbush, & Earls, 1997) to examine neighborhood informal social control. We argue that double standards about the application of informal social control to family versus street crime requires a measure of informal social control specific to child maltreatment. We also argue that how neighbors intervene may matter as much as whether they intervene. Neighbors may engage in ISC_CM aimed at protecting the child and calming the parent, or more punitive ISC_CM aimed at deterring future abuse. We tested the relationship of both with very severe physical abuse and with abuse related child behavior problems. We used a random, 2-stage cluster design of Hanoi to collect the sample. Thirty Hanoi wards were randomly selected using probability proportional to size sampling. A simple random sample of families in each ward was then drawn using local government lists of ward residents. Based on power analysis, the target sample size was 300. Of 315 residents contacted, 293 participated, yielding a response rate of 93%. Random effects regression models (which estimate a random effect for each ward) were run in Stata11. We found that protective ISC_CM is associated with lower odds of very severe physical abuse and lower reported externalizing problems when abuse is present. Perceived collective efficacy and punitive ISC_CM is not associated with lower odds of very severe physical abuse. Implications for research, policy and practice are discussed. We conclude that further investigation of neighbor ISC_CM is needed to replicate the findings in other cultural contexts, ultimately followed by experimental manipulation of ISC_CM in a neighborhood context to examine the effects on child maltreatment. If further research corroborates the current findings, the development of neighborhood intervention

  6. Caring for Children: Case Studies of Local Government Child Care Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Fern

    This book of case studies highlights 26 municipalities involved in activities related to child care. Cities selected were of different sizes; were located in different parts of the country; and used diverse approaches for developing ways to improve access to affordable, high-quality child care. Each case study was developed through a telephone…

  7. The School Counselors' Ideas on Features, Determinant and Intervention on Child Negligence and Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usakli, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    It is sad to know that many of the child negligence and child abuse cases, which are being frequently encountered in the society today, still remains unknown. This perhaps is due to lack of information on the part of the administrators, school counselors and other related bodies in the management of such cases. In this study, 50 school counselors…

  8. The protective effect of neighborhood social cohesion in child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Showalter, Kathryn

    2016-02-01

    Relations between parents within a neighborhood have the potential to provide a supportive environment for healthy and positive parenting. Neighborhood social cohesion, or the mutual trust and support among neighbors, is one process through which parenting may be improved. The current study investigates the association between neighborhood social cohesion and abuse and neglect, as well as specific types of abuse and neglect. The sample for the study is comprised of 896 parents in one urban Midwestern County in the United States. Participants were recruited from Women, Infants, and Children clinics. Negative binomial regression is used to examine the association between neighborhood social cohesion and child maltreatment behaviors, as measured by the Conflict Tactics Scale, Parent-to-Child Version (Straus et al., 1998). In this sample of families, neighborhood social cohesion is associated with child neglect, but not abuse. In examining the relationship with specific types of abuse and neglect, it was found that neighborhood social cohesion may have a protective role in some acts of neglect, such as meeting a child's basic needs, but not potentially more complex needs like parental substance abuse. PMID:26774530

  9. Crimes and misdemeanours: the case of child abandonment

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, S

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, a child was abandoned in a Burger King restaurant in Amsterdam by a Chinese woman, who hoped that the baby would be picked up by someone able to give the child a better life. She was convicted for child abandonment and imprisoned. Whereas some forms of child abandonment are criminalised, others are socially accepted and not even on the ethics agenda. This paper is an invitation to reflect on the inconsistency in the ways in which we prosecute, punish or try to correct some forms of child abandonment and yet make allowances for others. PMID:17209107

  10. Missed cases of multiple forms of child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Koc, Feyza; Oral, Resmiye; Butteris, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect is a public health problem and usually associated with family dysfunction due to multiple psychosocial, individual, and environmental factors. The diagnosis of child abuse may be difficult and require a high index of suspicion on the part of the practitioners encountering the child and the family. System-related factors may also enable abuse or prevent the early recognition of abuse. Child abuse and neglect that goes undiagnosed may give rise to chronic abuse and increased morbidity-mortality. In this report, we present two siblings who missed early diagnosis and we emphasize the importance of systems issues to allow early recognition of child abuse and neglect. PMID:25084799

  11. Crimes and misdemeanours: the case of child abandonment.

    PubMed

    Giordano, S

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, a child was abandoned in a Burger King restaurant in Amsterdam by a Chinese woman, who hoped that the baby would be picked up by someone able to give the child a better life. She was convicted for child abandonment and imprisoned. Whereas some forms of child abandonment are criminalised, others are socially accepted and not even on the ethics agenda. This paper is an invitation to reflect on the inconsistency in the ways in which we prosecute, punish or try to correct some forms of child abandonment and yet make allowances for others. PMID:17209107

  12. Religion-Related Child Maltreatment: A Profile of Cases Encountered by Legal and Social Service Agencies.

    PubMed

    Bottoms, Bette L; Goodman, Gail S; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Diviak, Kathleen R; Shaver, Phillip R

    2015-08-01

    Religion can foster, facilitate, and be used to justify child maltreatment. Yet religion-related child abuse and neglect have received little attention from social scientists. We examined 249 cases of religion-related child maltreatment reported to social service agencies, police departments, and prosecutors' offices nationwide. We focused on cases involving maltreatment perpetrated by persons with religious authority, such as ministers and priests; the withholding of medical care for religious reasons; and abusive attempts to rid a child of supposed evil. By providing a descriptive statistical profile of the major features of these cases, we illustrate how these varieties of religion-related child maltreatment occur, who the victims and perpetrators are, and how religion-related child abuse and neglect are reported and processed by the social service and criminal justice systems. We end with a call for greater research attention to these important offenses against children. PMID:26294386

  13. A Rare Case Report on Bilateral Intertrochanteric Fractures in a Child Following Child Abuse

    PubMed Central

    James, Boblee

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of non accidental injury needs careful history elicitation, proper examination and thorough workup including blood investigation and radiological assessment to avoid misdiagnosis or under diagnosis. Correct diagnosis and reporting would avoid possible similar incidents in the future. Four-year-old female child brought to our hospital by her mother with apparent history of fall from height. Following detailed examination and radiological assessment we suspected of child abuse. Child had multiple fractures in different stages of healing which included bilateral intertrochanteric fractures. Child was operated for bilateral intertrochanteric fractures which appeared relatively fresh compared to other old malunited fractures with open reduction and fixation with titanium elastic nailing and was immobilized by hip spica. Two months postoperatively, there was complete radiological union of fractures and child was being counseled by child psychologist. PMID:26557582

  14. Parental Catastrophizing Partially Mediates the Association between Parent-Reported Child Pain Behavior and Parental Protective Responses

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Shelby L.; Romano, Joan M.; Levy, Rona L.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to model and test the role of parental catastrophizing in relationship to parent-reported child pain behavior and parental protective (solicitous) responses to child pain in a sample of children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and their parents (n = 184 dyads). Parents completed measures designed to assess cognitions about and responses to their child's abdominal pain. They also rated their child's pain behavior. Mediation analyses were performed using regression-based techniques and bootstrapping. Results supported a model treating parent-reported child pain behavior as the predictor, parental catastrophizing as the mediator, and parental protective responses as the outcome. Parent-reported child pain behavior predicted parental protective responses and this association was mediated by parental catastrophizing about child pain: indirect effect (SE) = 2.08 (0.56); 95% CI = 1.09, 3.30. The proportion of the total effect mediated was 68%. Findings suggest that interventions designed to modify maladaptive parental responses to children's pain behaviors should assess, as well as target, parental catastrophizing cognitions about their child's pain. PMID:24579047

  15. Do you see what I see? Identification of child protection concerns by hospital staff and general dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Olive, S; Tuthill, D; Hingston, E J; Chadwick, B; Maguire, S

    2016-05-13

    Aim An exploration of the threshold that dentists, doctors and nurses recognise for dental and child protection (CP) actions in sample clinical cases, and any differences between these professional groups.Method We present a cross-sectional survey of dentists, doctors and nurses (50 each), who regularly examine children, utilised five fictitious vignettes, combining an oral examination image and clinical history reflecting dental and CP issues. Demographics were collected, and each participant gave their likely action for the cases presented.Results Dentists were significantly better at answering the dental element than the doctors and nurses, (P <0.0001) with no significant difference between these two; only 8% of the latter had undergone any training in assessment of dental health. Although 90.6% of all professionals had undergone CP training, dentists were significantly less accurate at identifying the CP component than doctors and nurses, (P <0.0001) between whom there were no significant differences. Those with higher levels of CP training were most accurate at identifying correct CP actions.Conclusions CP training is effective at improving recognition of child maltreatment, although there remains a worrying lack of knowledge about thresholds for action among dentists. Doctors and nurses have minimal training in, or knowledge of, dental health in children, thus precluding appropriate onward referrals. PMID:27173703

  16. HIV and Child Mental Health: A Case-Control Study in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Scorza, Pamela; Kanyanganzi, Frederick; Fawzi, Mary C. Smith; Sezibera, Vincent; Cyamatare, Felix; Beardslee, William; Stulac, Sara; Bizimana, Justin I.; Stevenson, Anne; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The global HIV/AIDS response has advanced in addressing the health and well-being of HIV-positive children. Although attention has been paid to children orphaned by parental AIDS, children who live with HIV-positive caregivers have received less attention. This study compares mental health problems and risk and protective factors in HIV-positive, HIV-affected (due to caregiver HIV), and HIV-unaffected children in Rwanda. METHODS: A case-control design assessed mental health, risk, and protective factors among 683 children aged 10 to 17 years at different levels of HIV exposure. A stratified random sampling strategy based on electronic medical records identified all known HIV-positive children in this age range in 2 districts in Rwanda. Lists of all same-age children in villages with an HIV-positive child were then collected and split by HIV status (HIV-positive, HIV-affected, and HIV-unaffected). One child was randomly sampled from the latter 2 groups to compare with each HIV-positive child per village. RESULTS: HIV-affected and HIV-positive children demonstrated higher levels of depression, anxiety, conduct problems, and functional impairment compared with HIV-unaffected children. HIV-affected children had significantly higher odds of depression (1.68: 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–2.44), anxiety (1.77: 95% CI 1.14–2.75), and conduct problems (1.59: 95% CI 1.04–2.45) compared with HIV-unaffected children, and rates of these mental health conditions were similar to HIV-positive children. These results remained significant after controlling for contextual variables. CONCLUSIONS: The mental health of HIV-affected children requires policy and programmatic responses comparable to HIV-positive children. PMID:25049342

  17. Your Child's Immunizations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Immunizations KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations Print A A A Text Size What's in ... But in both cases, the protection is temporary. Immunization (vaccination) is a way of creating immunity to ...

  18. Child with idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis: a case report from Pakistan with multiple ethical and moral issues.

    PubMed

    Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali; Rahman, Arshalooz

    2012-08-01

    This report discusses the case of a young Pakistani child diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH). The key features of IPH were iron deficiency anemia and pulmonary symptoms due to recurrent pulmonary hemorrhages. The child showed complications of the disease process because of late diagnosis. Because various ethical and moral issues were associated with the diagnosis and management of IPH, this case provides insights about the care burden of health care professionals and a child's parents in a Pakistani pediatric setting. During the course of the child's treatment at one of the private tertiary care settings of Karachi, Pakistan, the key challenges were as follows: declaring the diagnosis to the parents, dealing with the request of the child's parents for withdrawal of ventilatory support and withholding treatment, deciding the code status of the child, and ensuring the quality of the child's life after discharge from the hospital. It was learned from this case report that shared decision making and open communication with the child's family enabled the pediatric health care professionals to determine what was in the best interest of the child, resulting in provision of effective palliative care to the child. Moreover, it was realized that early detection of the disease and availability of hospice care can facilitate palliative care of children diagnosed with IPH. PMID:21968218

  19. Sierra Leone's former child soldiers: a longitudinal study of risk, protective factors, and mental health

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether post-conflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method Male and female former child soldiers (N=260, ages 10–17 at baseline) were recruited from the roster of an NGO-run Interim Care Center in Kono District and interviewed in 2002, 2004 and 2008. The retention rate was 69%. Linear growth models were used to investigate trends related to war and post-conflict experiences. Results The long-term mental health of former child soldiers was associated with war experiences and post-conflict risk factors, which were partly mitigated by post-conflict protective factors. Increases in externalizing behavior were associated with killing/injuring others during the war and post-conflict stigma while increased community acceptance was associated with decreases in externalizing problems (B=−1.09). High baseline levels of internalizing problems were associated with surviving rape while increases were associated with younger involvement in armed groups and social and economic hardships. Improvements in internalizing problems were associated with higher levels of community acceptance and increases in community acceptance (B=−0.86). Decreases in adaptive/prosocial behaviors were associated with killing/injuring others during the war and post-conflict stigma, but partially mitigated by social support, being in school and increased community acceptance (B=1.93). Conclusions Psychosocial interventions for former child soldiers may be more effective if they account for post-conflict factors in addition to war exposures. Youth with accumulated risk factors, lack of protective factors, and persistent distress should be identified; sustainable services to promote community acceptance, reduce stigma, and expand social supports and educational access are recommended. PMID

  20. Case Study: Investigating the Impact of the Child Development Associate Credentialing Process on Child Care Provider Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Vickie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to investigate what impact the child development associate (CDA) credential has on the performance of childcare providers in the 6 CDA competency areas. Each participant was interviewed using 9 open-ended questions regarding their experience. Over the past few years, a number of studies have examined the effects…

  1. Investigating mothers' decisions about their child's sun-protective behaviour using the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Courtney E; White, Katherine M; Hamilton, Kyra

    2012-10-01

    This study tested the utility of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to predict mothers' decisions to ensure their child engages in sun-protective behaviours. Mothers (N = 162) of children aged four or five years completed standard TPB items (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, intention) and additional variables of role construction, mothers' own sun safe behaviour, planning and past behaviour. One week later, participants (N = 116) reported their behaviour. Results found support for the TPB constructs, role construction, past behaviour and the mediating role of planning. These findings can inform strategies to prevent skin cancer. PMID:22253324

  2. Child Protective Services: Complex Challenges Require New Strategies. Report to the to the Honorable Nydia Velazquez, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    At the request of the U.S. House of Representatives, this study identified problems confronting child protective service (CPS) units, which affect the system's capacity to protect children from abuse and neglect. State and local responses to these problems, and opportunities for the federal government to assist in improving the system's capacity…

  3. The New UN CRC General Comment 13: "The Right of the Child to Freedom from All Forms of Violence"--Changing How the World Conceptualizes Child Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svevo-Cianci, Kimberly A.; Herczog, Maria; Krappmann, Lothar; Cook, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child established CRC General Comment 13 (April 2011) to address today's unabating high rates of violence against children globally despite CRC advances. GC13 provides clear interpretations and stronger detail to supplement the legal language of CRC Article 19, intended to establish protection of children from…

  4. Where Are They Now? An Update on Defendants. Part 3--High Profile Sexual Abuse in Child Care Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Jim

    1999-01-01

    Following up on "Child Abuse Storm Scale--Part 1" ("Child Care Information Exchange," Jan-Feb 1999) and Part 2 (Mar-Apr 1999), this article shares the current status of prominent sexual abuse in child care cases. Cases include McMartin Preschool, Fells Acres Day Care, Wee Care Nursery School (the Kelly Michaels case), Little Rascals, and Breezy…

  5. Arc Jet Testing of Thermal Protection Materials: 3 Case Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia; Conley, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Arc jet testing is used to simulate entry to test thermal protection materials. This paper discusses the usefulness of arc jet testing for 3 cases. Case 1 is MSL and PICA, Case 2 is Advanced TUFROC, and Case 3 is conformable ablators.

  6. Genetic differentials of child abuse: Is your case rare or real?

    PubMed

    Shur, Natasha; Carey, John C

    2015-12-01

    The clinical geneticist can be called upon to play a role in the medical evaluation of children with clinical findings concerning for child abuse. This Introduction describes a case of suspected child abuse in an 8-month-old baby referred to clinical genetics to exclude osteogenesis imperfecta. The experience from this case raised medical and ethical considerations and prompted consideration of the role of the clinical geneticist in distinguishing rare mimics of child abuse from real cases. From this single case, and a discussion regarding similar cases, arose the idea of this issue in Seminars in Medical Genetics, Genetic Differentials of Child Abuse: Is Your Case Rare or Real? In thinking about child abuse from a clinical genetics perspective, we categorize clinical presentations into fractures, skin lesions, hemorrhage, growth disturbances, and concern for caregiver-fabricated illness (previously known as Munchausen syndrome by proxy). In this Introduction, we also discuss recent questions regarding Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and infantile fractures and concerns about caregiver-fabricated illness in the context of mitochondrial or other rare diseases. The goal is that this issue on child abuse and genetics will serve as a resource to help distinguish the rare causes from the real cases of child abuse, and those critical distinctions and correct diagnoses may be life-saving for some infants and children. PMID:26513547

  7. Legal Aspects of Child Abuse and Neglect Cases in Texas: A Compendium of Cases and Statutory Provisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foerster, Frank; Spearly, James L.

    Designed to assist attorneys, social workers, and other interested parties, this manual describes work with child abuse and neglect cases in Texas. After a brief overview of the child abuse and neglect issue in that state, as well as an examination of the role of the Texas Department of Human Resources, the manual discusses suits affecting the…

  8. Traumatic Injury in a Child with Scurvy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Angsanuntsukh, Chanika; Chulsomlee, Kulapat; Taracheewin, Anan; Jaovisidha, Suphaneewan; Woratanarat, Thira; Woratanarat, Patarawan

    2015-09-01

    This case report aimed to describe the clinical presentation, treatments and prognosis of a child who had scurvy and traumatic injury of the left thigh. A 30-month-old boy had presented with left hip pain two weeks after falling down on the floor while walking. He developed pain, warmness of the left hip and thigh, and finally was unable to bear weight. He also had a high fever gingival hemorrhage, dental caries, petechiae, positive rolling test and limited range of motion of the left hip. The radiographs revealed Wimberger's ring and Frenkel line as scurvy. Vitamin C supplement had been prescribed for one week. However, there was no clinical response and magnetic resonance imaging (MR) suggested subperiosteal abscess as well as osteomyelitis of bilateral femurs and tibias. Debridement and biopsy of the left femur were performed and found only subperiosteal blood. A clinical improvement was noted on the second day after surgery. Vitamin C level was reported at 0.03 mg/dl which was very low. Bacterial culture was negative and the pathological findings were callus formation with hemorrhage. The patient continued the treatment for two months and all conditions were healed eventually. In severe scurvy with trauma, prolonged subperiosteal hematoma was susceptible to infection, and may need debridement simultaneously with vitamin C supplement to shorten the clinical course. PMID:26529822

  9. Inclusion in Play: A Case Study of a Child with Autism in an Inclusive Nursery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodorou, Fani; Nind, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the play interaction of a young child with autism and the strategies adopted by her teachers to facilitate her inclusion in and through play. The data are from an ethnographic case study in an inclusive nursery in the South of England spanning 6 months. The aim was to understand and describe the play of a child with autism in…

  10. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  11. Treadmill Training in a Child with Cerebral Palsy: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Julie P.; Arnold, Sandra H.; McEwen, Irene R.; James, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    This case report describes the use of treadmill training without body weight support to improve walking speed in a child with diplegic cerebral palsy. The child was a six-year-old girl with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. She walked short distances independently using a posterior support walker but was unable to keep up with her peers walking…

  12. Biliteracy and Bilingual Development in a Second-Generation Korean Child: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ro, Yeonsun Ellie; Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    Through case study methodology, this study examined how a second-generation bilingual child developed his two languages and associated literacies, the role of the parents' and child's goals as well as the family's daily effort to attain those goals, and the influences of environmental, social, and cultural factors. Based on sociocultural…

  13. Why have all the boys gone? Gender differences in prosecution acceptance of child sexual abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Edelson, Meredyth Goldberg

    2013-10-01

    Cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) referred to the District Attorney (DA) are not necessarily accepted for prosecution. Two pilot studies sought to investigate whether there were gender differences in whether cases of CSA referred to the DA's office were accepted by the DA and, if they existed, what might account for gender differences in decisions to accept cases and file charges. The results of the first study indicated that cases involving male victims were significantly less likely to be accepted for prosecution than cases involving female victims. Comparisons of acceptance rates were based on expected frequencies given CSA prevalence rates by gender in the literature and on the proportion of males and females seen at a Child Abuse Assessment Center (CAAC) from where the DA referrals were obtained. The second study assessed both disclosure-related variables (assessed by content analyses of disclosures made at a CAAC) and abuse-related variables (that occurred at or near the time of the abuse) that might explain these differences. Few variables were found to significantly differentiate males' and females' cases; these were the relationship of the child to the perpetrator, whether the child was offended by a juvenile, whether the child told someone of the abuse, pornography exposure, whether the child displayed concerning behaviors, and whether the child was questioned about possible abuse. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:23192527

  14. 42 CFR 136.404 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family...

  15. 42 CFR 136.404 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family...

  16. 42 CFR 136.404 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family...

  17. 42 CFR 136.404 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family...

  18. 42 CFR 136.404 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family...

  19. Sleep in the modern family: protective family routines for child and adolescent sleep

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, Orfeu M.; Chang, Anne-Marie; Spilsbury, James C.; Bos, Taylor; Emsellem, Helene; Knutson, Kristen L.

    2015-01-01

    Study objectives The overall objective of the 2014 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America Poll “Sleep in the Modern Family” was to obtain a current picture of sleep in families with at least 1 school-aged child. Design Cross-sectional poll. Setting Internet-based interview. Participants Nationally representative Internet panel of US households with a child 6–17 years. Measurements and results Primary measures included parental perception of the importance of sleep, parental and child sleep quality, child sleep duration and habits, technology in bedroom, and family rules. Parents/guardians (n= 1103; mean age, 42; 54% female) completed the survey. Although the majority of parents endorsed the importance of sleep, 90% of children obtain less sleep than recommended. Significant predictors of age-adjusted sufficient sleep duration (estimated conservatively as ≥9 hours for ages 6–11 years and ≥8 hours for ages 12–17 years) included parent education, regular enforcement of rules about caffeine, and whether children left technology on in their bedroom overnight. Significant predictors of excellent sleep quality included whether a bedtime was always enforced and whether children left technology on overnight. Conclusions Children generally have better age-appropriate sleep in the presence of household rules and regular sleep-wake routines. Sufficient sleep quantity and adequate sleep quality were protected by well-established rules of sleep hygiene (limited caffeine and regular bedtime). In contrast, sleep deficiency was more likely to be present when parents and children had electronic devices on in the bedroom after bedtime. Public health intervention goals for sleep health might focus on reducing the encroachment of technology and media into time for sleep and supporting well-known sleep hygiene principles. PMID:26779564

  20. The influence of differential response on decision-making in child protective service agencies.

    PubMed

    Janczewski, Colleen E

    2015-01-01

    Differential response (DR) profoundly changes the decision pathways of public child welfare systems, yet little is known about how DR shapes the experiences of children whose reports receive an investigation rather than an alternate response. Using data from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), this study examined the relationship between DR implementation and decision outcomes in neglect cases, as measured by investigation, substantiation, and removal rates in 297 U.S. counties. Multivariate regression models included county-level measures of child poverty and proportions of African American children. Path analyses were also conducted to identify mediating effects of prior decision points and moderating effects of DR on poverty and race's influence on decision outcomes. Results indicate that compared to non-DR counties, those implementing DR have significantly lower investigation and substantiation rates within county populations but higher substantiation rates among investigated cases. Regression models showed significant reductions in removal rates associated with DR implementation, but these effects became insignificant in path models that accounted for mediation effects of previous decision points. Findings also suggest that DR implementation may reduce the positive association between child poverty rates and investigation rates, but additional studies with larger samples are needed to confirm this moderation effect. Two methods of calculating decision outcomes, population- and decision-based enumeration, were used, and policy and research implications of each are discussed. This study demonstrates that despite their inherit complexity, large administrative datasets such as NCANDS can be used to assess the impact of wide-scale system change across jurisdictions. PMID:25035173

  1. A Guide for Designing and Implementing a Case Processing System for Child Support Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Child Support Enforcement (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    This document was written to provide state and local child support offices with help in refining their case processing systems. The guide is divided into five chapters. Chapter I, Case Processing Overview, defines case processing and the case processing functions and provides a narrative description and graphic illustration of the processes…

  2. The Analyst's Act and the Child's Desire: A Retrospective Case Study.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Annie G

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, I lay out a blueprint for a child analysis, stipulating the terms and ethics of the Lacanian field of psychoanalysis, the position of the analyst in that field, and the invitation to the child to discover a space for desire in the work of play. Drawing on the grounding work of Freud, Lacan, Dolto, Lefort, Mannoni, and Mathelin, I describe the mainsprings of the psychoanalytic clinic with the child. I then offer a child case and its trajectory from the development of a phobia to a symptom, and show how the primal scene fantasy and its articulation can open a space for desire in a child's play. What is particular to this work of playing is the emergence of signifiers that chain across generations, and move into new metaphors that foreground the Real of the child's experience and desire. PMID:26485483

  3. Does Type of Harm Matter? a Factorial Survey Examining the Influence of Child Neglect on Child Protection Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Jackie; Taylor, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Child maltreatment remains a serious social problem, with neglect arguably the most pernicious manifestation. Neglect is characterised by a chronic failure to provide for a child's basic needs and often co-exists with other forms of maltreatment. It usually occurs in a complex social environment where socio-economic disadvantage is rife and…

  4. "Protecting Our Planet"--A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Isobel

    1992-01-01

    Describes the processes followed during the international coproduction of a series of short videos called "Protecting Our Planet" that was developed by the National Film Board of Canada to encourage environmental responsibility among 8 to 12 year olds. Production guidelines are explained, including objectives and desired learning outcomes. (LRW)

  5. Reciprocal Rights and Responsibilities in Parent-Child Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    1978-01-01

    This article examines critically the case for protecting children's rights as against the case for protecting children's welfare. The principle of reciprocity in parent-child relations is rejected. (Author/AM)

  6. A case of female hypersexuality and child abuse and a review.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Sandrine; Delavenne, Héloise; Thibaut, Florence

    2016-08-01

    Mother-son incest as well as female pedophilic disorder remain underrecognized and misdiagnosed. This is the case of a female child abuser who suffered from hypersexual disorder and mental retardation and whose son was viewed as a substitute transitional sexual partner. Our clinical case shared some common features with female sex offenders previously described in the literature but the association of sexual gratification and hypersexuality without pedophilic fantasies is quite uncommon in female child abusers. PMID:26411572

  7. The Case of Top Beginnings and the Missing Child Outcomes: Case Study for the Early Childhood Systems Building Evaluation Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gary; Kubisch, Anne C.; Bruner, Charles; Sridharan, Sanjeev; Philliber, Susan; Shaw, Greg; Dichter, Harriet

    2008-01-01

    The Case of Top Beginnings and the Missing Child Outcomes is a fictionalized case study of a set of evaluation challenges faced in evaluating comprehensive initiatives that are seeking to build systems. In this case, the issue is a multistate foundation-funded early learning system building initiative that has to date primarily employed a case…

  8. Malaysian child infected with Plasmodium vivax via blood transfusion: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Malaria may be a serious complication of blood transfusion due to the asymptomatic persistence of parasites in some donors. This case report highlights the transfusion-transmitted malaria of Plasmodium vivax in a child diagnosed with germ cell tumour. This child had received blood transfusion from three donors and a week later started developing malaria like symptoms. Nested PCR and sequencing confirmed that one of the three donors was infected with P. vivax and this was transmitted to the 12-year-old child. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported transfusion-transmitted malaria case in Malaysia. PMID:24007496

  9. A case report of Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a Malaysian child.

    PubMed

    Rohela, M; Ngui, R; Lim, Y A L; Kalaichelvan, B; Wan Hafiz, W I; Mohd Redzuan, A N

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a 2-year-old Malaysian child. This case was initially reported as 'normal' after the examination of proglottids shed from the anus of the child at a private laboratory on two occasions. The putative proglottids shed was then referred to the Parasite Southeast Asia Diagnostic (Para:SEAD) Laboratory, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya for further examination. Microscopic examination confirmed that the child was infected with H. diminuta based on the characteristic eggs found in the proglottids. She was treated with a single dose praziquantel (20 mg/kg of body weight) and recovered well. PMID:22735844

  10. Cathodic protection of well casings by pulsed current

    SciTech Connect

    Bich, N.N.; Bauman, J.

    1994-12-31

    Electric pulses of several hundred volts, applied for very brief periods of time, several thousand times per second, are more effective and economical than conventional DC currents in protecting deep and/or close spaced well casings against external corrosion. More uniform current distribution, greater depth of protection, reduced stray current interference, and smaller anode bed requirements are the main benefits of pulsed technology. Operating principles, equivalent electrical circuits, design considerations and field cathodic protection logging experience will be reviewed.

  11. A Case Against First Amendment Protections for Commercial Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Kent R.

    Although extending constitutional protection to commercial expression might benefit the consumer, the First Amendment is the wrong instrument for carrying out what are basically economic policies. While in most First Amendment cases the nature of the content determines whether it is constitutionally protected, advertising is distinct in that it…

  12. Project to Study Fair-Hearings Practices in Child Protective Services. Final Report: Innovations in Protective Services, September 1, 1982 through August 31, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Human Resources, Austin. Office of Programs.

    This project was implemented in 1982 as a result of legal action taken against the Texas Department of Human Resources (DHR) by clients of child protective services (CPS) who alleged that they were not given notice of all services available or of their right to a fair hearing. The goal of the project was to determine whether special fair-hearing…

  13. The Question of Best Interest of the Child in Failed Adoptions: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Stacey; Weinberg, Anita

    2001-01-01

    This case study details a problematic adoption. The study briefly describes the requirements of constitutional and Illinois law that set the framework for the ChildLaw Center's internal debate on the case, presents the competing considerations confronted in the case, and the decision made and the implications of the appellate court ruling in the…

  14. "The Interests of the Child" Seen from the Child's Perspective: The Case of the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levering, Bas

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch government has decided to intervene in parents' role in bringing up their children by imposing compulsory parenting support. As such an intervention has to be legitimatised as being "in the interests of the child", it is important to take a closer look at this concept. First it is shown that it is not evident that the government has the…

  15. Child Poverty and Child Rights Meet Active Citizenship: A New Zealand and Sweden Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Michael; Salonen, Tapio

    2011-01-01

    Children's rights and active citizenship have been significant policy emphases and developments in recent years but the relationship between the two has not been actively explored in relation to the implications for child poverty. Recent policy developments in New Zealand and Sweden are drawn on here to explore this relationship. The article…

  16. The influence of differential response and other factors on parent perceptions of child protection involvement.

    PubMed

    Merkel-Holguin, Lisa; Hollinshead, Dana M; Hahn, Amy E; Casillas, Katherine L; Fluke, John D

    2015-01-01

    As Child Protective Services (CPS) agencies examine how to produce better outcomes with the families they serve, child welfare literature has increasingly focused on the perspectives, emotional responses, and engagement of CPS-involved parents or other primary caregivers. Despite this encouraging trend, the construct of engagement is ill-defined and our understanding of precursors to and factors affecting parent engagement is limited. This article extends the literature by presenting a conceptual framework for examining engagement and associating the identified constructs with parent outcomes. Using data from a survey of parents who were randomly assigned to receive either an assessment response (AR) or investigation response (IR) in two states' Differential Response CPS systems, a factor analysis on 12 commonly assessed emotional responses reported by parents indicated that parents responded with three primary emotions: positive affect, worry, or anger and that these responses varied by their receipt of AR or IR. Further, the results of multivariate analyses indicate that pathway assignment (AR or IR), parents' assessments of the quality of the casework they received, and other parent or household factors contribute to differences observed on the three emotional response factors identified. PMID:25499559

  17. Higher maternal protectiveness is associated with higher odds of child overweight and obesity: a longitudinal Australian study.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Kirsten J; Lawrence, David; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in overprotective parenting and the potential role it plays in child development. While some have argued that a trend towards increased parental fear and reduced opportunity for independent mobility may be linked to increasing rates of child overweight and obesity, there is limited empirical information available to support this claim. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, this study aimed to examine the longitudinal relationships between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity. A cohort of 4-5 year old children was followed up at 6-7, 8-9 and 10-11 years of age (n  =  2596). Measures included a protective parenting scale administered when children were 6-7 and 8-9 years of age, child body mass index (BMI), family characteristics including household income, neighbourhood disadvantage, child's position amongst siblings, and maternal BMI, education, employment, mental health and age at first birth. International Obesity Taskforce age- and sex-specific BMI cut points were used to determine if children were in the normal, overweight or obese BMI range. There was no association between maternal protectiveness and the odds of children being overweight or obese at age 4-5, 6-7 or 8-9 years. However at age 10-11 years, a 1 standard deviation increase in maternal protectiveness was associated with a 13% increase in the odds of children being overweight or obese. The results provide evidence of a relationship between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity, however further research is required to understand the mechanism(s) that links the two concepts. PMID:24955586

  18. Outcomes of short course interprofessional training in domestic violence and child protection.

    PubMed

    Szilassy, Eszter; Carpenter, John; Patsios, Demi; Hackett, Simon

    2013-11-01

    The interrelationship between domestic violence and child protection is well established, yet deficiencies in interprofessional collaboration have been reported and training is advocated as a solution. This study evaluates the outcomes of short interagency and interprofessional training in domestic abuse. Participants' attitudes and knowledge were assessed using a self-report scale and compared in a double-baseline time-series design. Participants (N = 177) were recruited from a range of agencies in England. There were consistent, statistically significant improvements in participants' attitudes, knowledge, and self-confidence between the start and end of course (p < .001). The long-term outcomes of training and the implementation of learning, however, remain uncertain. PMID:24379215

  19. Developmental Outcome in a Tracheostomized Child: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaivre-Douret, Laurence; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports developmental outcomes of a child who experienced a tracheostomy and had prolonged hospitalization and psychomotor therapy in an intensive care unit. Found a pattern of delay in speech and language production with no hearing loss, no cognitive impairment, an average level of fine motor disorders, no behavioral disorders, and normal…

  20. Environments for Child Development: The Case of Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravetz, Nathan

    Child development in Israel takes place in a context of many unique influences. Influences which define the nature of family experience include religion, ethnic group membership, immigrant or non-immigrant status, and urban or rural living. All of these influences are situated within, and further influenced by, the continuous state of military…

  1. The Impact of Solution-Focused Training on Professionals' Beliefs, Practices and Burnout of Child Protection Workers in Tenerife Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Antonio; Beyebach, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of a large-scale research project on the child protection services in Tenerife, Spain. In Study 1, the professional beliefs and practices of 152 child protection workers, as measured by a Professional Beliefs and Practices Questionnaire, were correlated with their scores on the Maslach Burnout Inventory.…

  2. Psychological Distress, Service Utilization, and Prescribed Medications among Youth with and without Histories of Involvement with Child Protective Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Hayley A.; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Wekerle, Christine; Danielson, Anna Marie; Mann, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine differences in psychological distress, service utilization, and prescriptions for medications between adolescents with histories of family involvement with child protective services (CPS) and adolescents without such involvement. Data on 3,497 students were obtained from the 2009 cycle of the Ontario…

  3. Prior Victimization and Sexual and Contraceptive Self-Efficacy among Adolescent Females under Child Protective Services Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovsepian, S. Lory; Blais, Martin; Manseau, Helene; Otis, Joanne; Girard, Marie-Eve

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent females under Child Protective Services care in Quebec, Canada (n = 328) completed a questionnaire designed to explore associations between prior victimization (childhood sexual abuse and four forms of dating violence) and four dimensions of sexual and contraceptive self-efficacy. Five MANCOVAs were performed. In each model, a…

  4. The Contribution of Childhood Emotional Abuse to Teen Dating Violence among Child Protective Services-Involved Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wekerle, Christine; Leung, Eman; Wall, Anne-Marie; MacMillan, Harriet; Boyle, Michael; Trocme, Nico; Waechter, Randall

    2009-01-01

    Objective: For child protective services (CPS) youth who may have experienced more than one form of maltreatment, the unique contribution of emotional abuse may be over-looked when other forms are more salient and more clearly outside of accepted social norms for parenting. This study considers the unique predictive value of childhood emotional…

  5. Evaluating the Risks of School Dropout amongst Children in the Care of the French Child Protection System: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derivois, Daniel; Guillier-Pasut, Nathalie; Karray, Amira; Cénat, Jude-Mary; Brolles, Lisbeth; Matsuhara, Hanae

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study is to identify the best way of preventing and assessing the livelihood and risk of school dropout amongst children entrusted to the care of the French child protection system in the Département of Rhone. The sample comprised 91 children and adolescents aged 4- to 17-years-old, of whom 45 were girls. The data were…

  6. Risk Factors and Protective Factors in Relation to Subjective Health among Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships between risk and protective factors and health outcome in a sample of adult females who had been victims of child sexual abuse. Method: Both person- and variable-oriented analyses were applied to questionnaire data from a non-clinical group of women (n=152) reporting sexual abuse during childhood.…

  7. Analyses of Child Sex Abuse Cases in Turkey: A Provincial Case.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Sibel

    2016-04-01

    Sexual abuse is a significant problem, especially for children, but only a limited number of sexual abuse cases involving children are reported to the relevant authorities. One hundred and fifty files recorded in the National Judiciary Information System between 2006-2012 relating to cases of child sexual abuse and considered to be within the scope of Offences Against Sexual Integrity pertaining to Turkish Penal Code were analyzed for this research. Statements of the victims, defendants, and witnesses, together with the minutes issued by law enforcement officers, hospital or forensic reports, and arrest warrants were used to collect data. The average values and percentage test analysis were used to assess data. A large portion of the sexually abused children were determined to be between 14 and 17 years of age, female, and had been abused before, while a majority of the abusers were between 19 and 25 years of age, and all of the abusers identified as male. Most of the cases of abuse were planned and carried out under threat, and a certain number of such crimes resulted in pregnancy, were repeated systematically, and became evident when the mothers of the abused children found out or when a pregnant child was referred to a hospital for childbirth. The sexual abuse of children is a significant problem for Turkish society, just as it is for other societies, and it is recommended that further research be conducted with a broader scope in order to present this issue more clearly and to develop solutions. PMID:27135381

  8. Gingival Recession in a Child-Patient; Easily Missed Etiologies: Case Report with Video

    PubMed Central

    Nwhator, SO

    2014-01-01

    Gingival recession is commonly associated with plaque-induced inflammation and calculus. A high frenal attachment is more important in gingival recession in the child-patient. A healthy child-patient with impeccable oral hygiene presented with localized gingival recession without plaque-induced inflammation which led to the exploration of other possible etiologies. Multiple factors appeared to be acting in consonance (Concomitant multiple etiologies [CME]). The factors were a high frenal attachment, traumatic overbite and bruxism induced by premature tooth contacts. Pedodontists and periodontists should rule out CME in cases of gingival recession in the child-patient. PMID:25031899

  9. The management of child abuse and neglect cases in schools: the Toronto model.

    PubMed

    McClare, G

    1983-01-01

    School staffs have a major role in the prevention, identification and referral of cases of child abuse and neglect. School administrators, teachers and school support staffs require knowledge about abuse and neglect, as well as a clear set of guidelines and procedures for dealing with it if they are to carry out these responsibilities effectively. The Toronto Board of Education has developed a program that has involved superintendents, principals, teachers, pupil personnel staff, caretakers, secretaries and community resources in an educational program oriented to the management of child abuse cases in their schools. The Board's Child Abuse Committee has developed a document which outlines employees' responsibilities under the legislation, provides assistance in the identification of child abuse and neglect cases, and outlines procedures for referral both internally and to the community. The document was used as the base for an extensive staff development program during the school year 1979-80, in which all of the system's 6,000 school based employees participated. The Toronto Board's Child Abuse Program incorporated the establishment of the position "Resource Person, Child Abuse" for the purpose of consultation with school staffs, as well as the ongoing provision of resource material and staff training. The paper outlines the development of the program, includes guidelines and procedures for school staffs, the legislation under which it operates, the content of the training program, and an evaluation of the program with suggestions for replication. PMID:6684980

  10. Forensic, Cultural, and Systems Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Cases--Part 2: Research and Practitioner Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tishelman, Amy C.; Geffner, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the second issue of the special double issue focusing on forensic, cultural, and systems issues in child sexual abuse cases. We briefly review the articles, which include a discussion of child sexual abuse myths, an empirical analysis of extended child sexual abuse evaluations, an article on the role of the medical provider…

  11. The Role of Oral Language Interactions in English Literacy Learning: A Case Study of a First Grade Korean Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kwangok

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a qualitative case study of a Korean first grade child. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of a first grade Korean child's oral language interactions with teachers, parents, peers, and community members and to examine how a child's oral language impacts his literacy learning in English. The data were…

  12. Explaining gender differences in jurors' reactions to child sexual assault cases.

    PubMed

    Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Stevenson, Margaret C; Wiley, Tisha R A; Mitchell, Tracey Schneider; Goodman, Gail S

    2014-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the influence of juror, victim, and case factors on mock jurors' decisions in several types of child sexual assault cases (incest, day care, stranger abduction, and teacher-perpetrated abuse). We also validated and tested the ability of several scales measuring empathy for child victims, children's believability, and opposition to adult/child sex, to mediate the effect of jurors' gender on case judgments. Supporting a theoretical model derived from research on the perceived credibility of adult rape victims, women compared to men were more empathic toward child victims, more opposed to adult/child sex, more pro-women, and more inclined to believe children generally. In turn, women (versus men) made more pro-victim judgments in hypothetical abuse cases; that is, attitudes and empathy generally mediated this juror gender effect that is pervasive in this literature. The experiments also revealed that strength of case evidence is a powerful factor in determining judgments, and that teen victims (14 years old) are blamed more for sexual abuse than are younger children (5 years old), but that perceptions of 5 and 10 year olds are largely similar. Our last experiment illustrated that our findings of mediation generalize to a community member sample. PMID:25430669

  13. The new UN CRC General Comment 13: "The right of the child to freedom from all forms of violence"--changing how the world conceptualizes child protection.

    PubMed

    Svevo-Cianci, Kimberly A; Herczog, Maria; Krappmann, Lothar; Cook, Philip

    2011-12-01

    The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child established CRC General Comment 13 (April 2011) to address today's unabating high rates of violence against children globally despite CRC advances. GC13 provides clear interpretations and stronger detail to supplement the legal language of CRC Article 19, intended to establish protection of children from all forms of violence. Through GC13, the Committee seeks to strengthen policy and practice implementation for all children, including every nation's most vulnerable, by clearly establishing measurable indicators: structure, process and outcomes to children-through improved technical information, expertise and assistance. Based on knowledge and experience gained over the 22 years since the CRC was adopted, GC13 advances best practice approaches and technical resources for States Parties and professionals on preventing violence against children, and on strengthening protection programs, systems, services, research, monitoring, evaluation and reporting. This article addresses child rights and protection issues which have been raised during this period, as well as during the consultation and resulting dialogues, such as the rights of children in early/forced marriage, and the role of the State Party as responsible caregiver when parents or families are not capable of providing protection. PMID:22054698

  14. Mechanisms through which reciprocal filial values protect wellbeing of Chinese adult-child caregivers in the US.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Kuei-Hsiang; Bachman, Jean A; Richardson, Lloyd I; Cheng, Wen-Yung; Zimmerman, Rick S

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we explored the role of reciprocal filial values in protecting the wellbeing of Chinese adult-child caregivers in the US. Using survey data obtained from 137 Chinese adult-child caregivers living in seven US cities, we tested a latent variable model using structural equation modeling. In this model, informed by role theory, social exchange theory and stress-coping theory, reciprocal filial values affect caregiver wellbeing in the face of caregiver role strain, both directly and indirectly through protective effects of role rewards and coping. In the final model, reciprocal filial values had both direct and indirect protective effects on caregivers' wellbeing, offering evidence to address culturally sensitive issues in family caregivers with similar filial values. PMID:24420507

  15. Children in Africa: Key Statistics on Child Survival, Protection and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNICEF, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report presents key statistics relating to: (1) child malnutrition in Africa; (2) HIV/AIDS and Malaria in Africa; (3) child marriage, birth registration and Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C); (4) education in Africa; (5) child mortality in Africa; (6) Drinking water and sanitation in Africa; and (7) maternal health in Africa.…

  16. The Child Abuse Reporting Law. Protecting Children Becomes a Broader Community Responsibility. 2d Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Mason P., Jr.

    North Carolina's Child Abuse Reporting Law makes all citizens legally responsible for reporting incidents of child abuse and neglect. Professionals, such as doctors and teachers, must also give their professional opinions as to the nature, extent, and causes of the damaged child's condition. The basic purpose of the law is to identify children at…

  17. How Safe? The Status of State Efforts To Protect Children in Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gina

    Based on the view that strong state child care licensing policies can influence the quality of child care and thereby enhance children's health and development, this report examines the status of state efforts to improve the quality of child care programs. Almost all data were collected for a 1993 Parenting Magazine survey, and were verified by…

  18. Reporting child abuse cases by dentists working in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

    PubMed

    Al-Amad, Suhail H; Awad, Manal A; Al-Farsi, Laila H; Elkhaled, Rawan H

    2016-05-01

    Reporting of suspicious cases of child abuse is a sensitive issue that is often hindered by uncertainty of diagnosis. This cross sectional study aimed to assess the UAE dentists' experiences in child abuse recognition, the factors that prevent them from reporting suspicious cases to authorities and their perceived training needs. A closed-ended, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 350 dentists working in the UAE. Chi Square test was used to determine association between training needs on child abuse and its reporting rate. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between perceived training needs and other covariates. One hundred and ninety three respondents satisfied the inclusion criteria. Forty seven (25%) dentists reported encountering a suspicious child abuse case at least once in their career, but only 15 (32%) of those reported their suspicion. Fear of making the wrong diagnosis was the most frequent challenge hindering reporting and dentists who demonstrated a need for specialized training were more likely to express this fear (OR = 5.88, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.45; P = 0.00). The majority of UAE dentists do not report their suspicion to authorities and specialized training should be offered to build dentists' capacity in diagnosing and appropriately reporting suspicious child abuse cases. PMID:26950173

  19. Codeine for child pain: new preparation. Helpful in some cases.

    PubMed

    1999-08-01

    (1) This codeine-based syrup is indicated for the treatment of pain in children. It is the first step 2 analgesic (WHO classification) to become available in France for oral treatment of children. (2) Efficacy and the optimal dose regimen are based mainly on lengthy experience with codeine in other countries. Only a few small trials on acute pain are available. (3) The safety profile is that of all opiates: adverse effects comprise mainly constipation, nausea and vomiting. (4) Accidental ingestion by a young child can lead to severe poisoning. PMID:11503826

  20. Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse: The Case of Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hong; Smith-Prince, Jaynina

    2015-01-01

    A number of factors influence the disclosure of child sexual abuse by survivors. While the influence of race and ethnicity on disclosure patterns is getting more attention, little has been written on abused children of Pacific Islanders, due in part to both lack of relevant data and a relatively small Pacific Islander population in the United States. Drawing on interviews with Pacific Islander women who were sexually abused in childhood and who delayed revealing their victimization, we explore the reasons for delayed disclosure. Findings suggest that cultural norms and family dynamics affect disclosure decisions. Concerns for the family and self-blame were the most common reasons for delay and lack of disclosure. We discuss implications of the findings and make policy recommendations. PMID:26061022

  1. Physical Environmental Adversity and the Protective Role of Maternal Monitoring in Relation to Early Child Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Supplee, Lauren H.; Unikel, Emily B.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    Research on the development of externalizing behaviors during early childhood has focused on child and parenting factors. Fewer studies have investigated effects of aversive features of the micro-level physical environment, such as overcrowding and chaos in the home, and the macro-level environment, such as neighborhood quality. This study extends research on physical environmental factors by examining their association with children’s early externalizing behaviors, and exploring how maternal monitoring may serve as a protective factor in such contexts. 120 male toddlers at high risk for developing early externalizing behaviors were followed from ages 2 to 5 years. Direct longitudinal associations were found for micro-level environmental factors beginning at age 2 and for neighborhood risk beginning at age 3. Maternal monitoring served as a protective factor for child externalizing behaviors in the context of neighborhood risk. Implications for prevention research and the development of early externalizing behaviors are discussed. PMID:18311323

  2. Mortality following snake bite envenomation by Bitis arietans in an HIV positive child: A case report.

    PubMed

    Firth, Gregory B; Street, Matthew; Ramguthy, Yammesh; Doedens, Linda

    2016-07-01

    Snake bites occur commonly in the rural areas of South Africa. Hospitals where snake bites are uncommon should always have protocols on standby in the event of such cases presenting. This is the first reported case documenting the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on snake bite in South African children.A case report and review of relevant information about the case was undertaken.We present a case of a 1-year-old child referred from a peripheral hospital following a snake bite to the left upper limb with a compartment syndrome and features of cytotoxic envenomation. The patient presented late with a wide area of necrotic skin on the arm requiring extensive debridement. The underlying muscle was not necrotic. Polyvalent antivenom (South African Institute of Medical Research Polyvalent Snakebite Antiserum) administration was delayed by 4 days after the snake bite. The patient was also diagnosed with HIV and a persistent thrombocytopenia possibly due to both HIV infection and the snake bite venom. Lower respiratory tract infections with subsequent overwhelming sepsis ultimately resulted in the child's death.The case highlights the challenge of treating a snake bite in a young child with HIV and the detrimental outcome of delayed treatment. A protocol is essential in the management of snake bites in all hospitals.Level IV, Case report.This case highlights the interaction of snake bite envenomation and HIV infection on thrombocytopenia. PMID:27399076

  3. Production of Korean Case Particles in a Korean-English Bilingual Child with Specific Language Impairment: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyoung; Gorman, Brenda K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of Korean case particles in a Korean-English bilingual child with specific language impairment (SLI). The child's production of four types of Korean case particles were compared to those of three typically developing children during probe and storytelling tasks. The Korean-English bilingual…

  4. Primary prevention of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Bethea, L

    1999-03-15

    In 1993, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect declared a child protection emergency. Between 1985 and 1993, there was a 50 percent increase in reported cases of child abuse. Three million cases of child abuse are reported in the United States each year. Treatment of the abuser has had only limited success and child protection agencies are overwhelmed. Recently, efforts have begun to focus on the primary prevention of child abuse. Primary prevention of child abuse is defined as any intervention that prevents child abuse before it occurs. Primary prevention must be implemented on many levels before it can be successful. Strategies on the societal level include increasing the "value" of children, increasing the economic self-sufficiency of families, discouraging corporal punishment and other forms of violence, making health care more accessible and affordable, expanding and improving coordination of social services, improving the identification and treatment of psychologic problems, and alcohol and drug abuse, providing more affordable child care and preventing the birth of unwanted children. Strategies on the familial level include helping parents meet their basic needs, identifying problems of substance abuse and spouse abuse, and educating parents about child behavior, discipline, safety and development. PMID:10193598

  5. A Precarious Passage: Aging out of the Child-Only Case Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary Agnes; Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2008-01-01

    Child-only cases, minors who receive welfare benefits as individuals, lose their eligibility at age 18 but face the same challenges to self-sufficiency as other "emerging adults." This study examines how 59 youth in 4 New York State communities thought about and prepared for the termination of their benefits. In 8 focus groups and 12 follow-up…

  6. A Case Study Using Child-Centered Play Therapy Approach to Treat Enuresis and Encopresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuddy-Casey, Maria

    1997-01-01

    Demonstrates an alternative method (nondirective child-centered therapy) in treating enuresis and encopresis resulting from emotional disturbances. Examines various etiologies and approaches to treating these conditions. Provides a case study example. Claims that professionals must differentiate between primary and secondary occurrences of these…

  7. Parasymphyseal fracture associated with fracture of a maxillary primary molar in a child: case report.

    PubMed

    Abdelnur, Juliana Pires; da Rosa Götze, Gabriela; Barreira, Alice Kelly; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2009-04-01

    Bone and posterior tooth fractures can be serious injuries that are difficult to diagnose, particularly in emergencies. The aim of this study was to report a case of a parasymphyseal fracture associated with the fracture of a maxillary primary molar in a child. PMID:19290889

  8. Brief Cognitive Behavioral Family Therapy Following a Child's Coming Out: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Brian L. B.; Doty, Nathan D.

    2010-01-01

    Few interventions have been proposed for the treatment of families following a child's disclosure of nonheterosexuality. To address this gap in the literature, the current paper outlines a brief cognitive behavioral family treatment (CBFT) for families negotiating the coming-out process and illustrates this approach with a case example. Parents'…

  9. Gasoline Abuse in a 10-Year-Old Child with Mental Retardation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mohit; Vankar, GK

    2015-01-01

    Inahalant abuse is of increasing interest in India. The age of onset is typically during adolescence. Gasoline inhalant use is rarely reported in adolescents with intellectual deficit. We report a case of petrol dependence in a 10-year-old child with mental retardation. Possible effect of petrol huffing on behavior and cognition is discussed. PMID:25733844

  10. A rare case of peripheral T-cell lymphoma in 1-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Kandakumar, Vignesh; Ganesan, Prasanth; Bajpai, Peush; Rajendranath, Rejiv; Tenali, Sagar; Majhi, Urmila; Sivaprakasam, Ponni

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) represents approximately 12% of lymphoid neoplasms. They are even rarer in children and represent only 1% of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in this age group. We report a case of PTCL in a 1-year-old female child for its rarity. PMID:22563159

  11. Does Psychotherapy Recover or Invent Child Sexual Abuse Memories? A Case History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milchman, Madelyn Simring

    2008-01-01

    This case describes bodily experiences that appeared to cue child sexual abuse memories during psychotherapy by a woman who was amnesic for her childhood and suffered from chronic dissociative states. Though corroboration was unavailable, she became increasingly confident about her returning memories. Special efforts were made to avoid making…

  12. An Exploration of Infant and Toddler Child Care Consultation: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Christine Marie

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative, multiple case study was an exploration of the professional development (PD) experience of consultation as it occurred within infant and toddler child care settings. Consultation is dependent upon the establishment of a relationship between the consultant and the consultee and offers opportunities for professional growth and…

  13. Testing the Suitability of Mediation of Child Support Orders in Title IV-D Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraufnagel, Scot; Li, Quan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to test mediation versus a traditional court process for the establishment or modification of child support orders. The intention is to determine which dispute resolution process is associated with greater client satisfaction and compliance. An auxiliary objective is to test the type of cases which are most…

  14. Teacher Perspectives on No Child Left Behind and Arts Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spohn, Cydney

    2008-01-01

    The author investigates the condition of a public school's arts education program under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and obtains teachers' perspectives on their experiences under the federal policy. The author used qualitative and quantitative approaches to conduct a case study of an Ohio public school district. The data collected revealed…

  15. Social Service Professionals' Perceptions of Nonoffending Caregivers in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfteich, Paula M.; Cline, Monica L.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess social service workers' perceptions of nonoffending caregivers in cases of child sexual abuse. Attributions of blame were examined by administering questionnaires to staff at local social service agencies. It was hypothesized that social service workers who worked in the field longer, were male, or had less…

  16. Assessing Outcome in Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Child Depression: An Illustrative Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2009-01-01

    Recent meta-analytic data suggest a need for ongoing evaluation of treatments for youth depression. The present article calls attention to a number of issues relevant to the empirical evaluation of if and how cognitive behavior therapy for child depression works. A case series of 6 children and a primary caregiver received treatment--individual…

  17. Arteriovenous fistula of the internal maxillary artery in a child: case report.

    PubMed

    Cluzel, P; Pierot, L; Jason, M; Rose, M; Kieffer, E; Chiras, J

    1992-01-01

    Direct arteriovenous fistulae supplied by the external carotid artery are unusual. Rarely, congenital fistulae have been described involving the head and neck. We describe the first case of congenital internal maxillary arteriovenous fistula in a child. Balloon embolization is currently considered the method of choice for treatment of direct arteriovenous fistula. PMID:1407539

  18. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  19. Understanding Risk and Protective Factors for Child Maltreatment: The Value of Integrated, Population-Based Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Needell, Barbara; Rhodes, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we argue for expanded efforts to integrate administrative data systems as a "practical strategy" for developing a richer understanding of child abuse and neglect. Although the study of child maltreatment is often critiqued for being atheoretical, we believe that a more pressing concern is the absence of population-based and…

  20. Children's Protective Services and Law Enforcement: Fostering Partnerships in Investigations of Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Bernie Sue; Dannenfelser, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Although collaboration in child abuse investigations has been emphasized since 1974, barriers, including role conflicts and organizational differences, have often been reported. This study describes the process of collaboration based on the perceptions of investigators working with a Child Advocacy Center. Telephone interviews were conducted with…

  1. Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Project. Final Report: Innovations in Protective Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis-Small, Lucretia

    This final report is a process evaluation of the Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Project describing the efforts to develop a statewide philosophy and an operational plan in Texas toward primary and secondary prevention of child abuse and neglect. Discussion focuses on the background and origin of the project, first and second year operations…

  2. Innocence, Protection and Failure: Bringing the Child Subject to the Centre of the Politics of the Family. A Response to Cristyn Davies and Kerry Robinson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    In response to Davies and Robinson's article looking at how queer families are positioned and position themselves in relation to neoliberalism, this article brings the child to the centre of the debate to examine how reading the child subject in terms of discourses of innocence and protection might work to maintain the hegemony of the…

  3. Children and Young People at Risk of Social Exclusion: Links between Homelessness, Child Protection and Juvenile Justice. Data Linkage Series. Number 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalders, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Current research demonstrates relationships between child abuse and neglect, homelessness and criminal activity. This report presents key findings from analysis of a data set linking three community-sector data collections: Supported Accommodation Assistance Program (SAAP), juvenile justice supervision, and child protection notifications and…

  4. Attorney work product privilege trumps mandated child abuse reporting law: The case of Elijah W. v. Superior Court.

    PubMed

    Lareau, Craig R

    2015-01-01

    Forensic psychologists and psychiatrists are licensed in their respective professions, but they perform most of their work with attorneys in the legal arena. Both attorneys and mental health professionals place high value on confidentiality of information, reflected in the ethics of their professions and codified into laws governing their work. In psychology and psychiatry, there are some well-known exceptions to confidentiality; two primary exceptions include the mandated reporting of suspected child abuse and various "Tarasoff" duty to warn or protect laws. Generally, however, the corresponding duty for attorneys to report suspected child abuse or to warn or protect intended victims of threatened harm is not as extensive. This difference in mandated reporting responsibilities can create significant difficulties when attorneys need to retain forensic psychologists and psychiatrists to evaluate their clients, especially in criminal contexts. If the retained psychologist or psychiatrist is required to report suspected abuse or threatened harm, the attorney may be harming his or her client's legal interests by using the forensic psychologist or psychiatrist to evaluate his or her client. This article will briefly review the development of mandated reporting laws for psychologists and psychiatrists and juxtapose those with the legal and ethical requirements of confidentiality for attorneys embodied in the attorney-client privilege and attorney work product privilege. The article will then discuss the California Court of Appeals case in Elijah W. v. Superior Court, where the court addressed the issue of whether retained mental health professionals must report suspected child abuse and threatened harm to others as required by law or if they do not need to report because they come under the umbrella of the attorney work product privilege. This California court ultimately concluded that retained psychologists and psychiatrists work under the attorney work product

  5. A social services-public health partnership in child protection: a rural model.

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, E J; Goodall, K

    1985-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the amelioration of individual and family problems which contribute to child abuse and neglect requires a multidisciplinary effort. Unfortunately, however, these efforts are often sporadic or disjointed. This article is a description of a county social service-public health partnership in rural Minnesota which can serve as a model for other agencies interested in developing more interactive relationships with one another to the benefit of dysfunctional families and vulnerable children. A respect for one another's professional knowledge base and skills, a shared philosophy of intervention, and supportive agency administrators are the key components that make this model successful. Social workers and public health nurses working together--and in cooperation with still other professionals in the community--can identify and help to resolve those unmet social, psychological, and health needs which often are found in dysfunctional families. Public health nurses have many talents and a very diverse knowledge base that can be tapped by legally designated social workers who are charged by State statutes with intervening in cases involving physical or sexual abuse or neglect of children. The Brown County, MN, model is an example of a collaborative strategy that can be replicated nationwide. PMID:3934704

  6. Condyloma acuminata in child end laser therapy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Condyloma acuminata are soft, skin colored, fleshy warts that are caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). The disease is highly contagious, can appear singly or in groups, small or large. The incubation period may be from 1–6 months. Although anogenital warts are considered to be sexually transmitted in adults, this may not be the case for children. Genital warts in children may result from several modes of transmission: from the maternal genital tract autoinoculation, from finger warts and nonsexual transmission from members/careers. Case presentation The presented case is a 13-month-old girl. She was hospitalized at the Clinic of Dermatovenerology in 2001 due to papillomatosis changes on the genital area. The changes had started to appear in the sixth month of life, light purple in color, smooth and combined in a tumorous mass, in the vulva and anal areas. Conclusion From this case we can come to the conclusion that condyloma acuminate are not only transmitted sexually but through nonsexual ways as well, such is this case, from the infected mother to the infant. Laser therapy is preferred when multiple warts are spread over a large area as though in our case. PMID:19193210

  7. Differences in the Protective Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Child Overweight and Obesity by Mother's Race.

    PubMed

    Ehrenthal, Deborah B; Wu, Pan; Trabulsi, Jillian

    2016-09-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between infant feeding and risk of child overweight and obesity across race and ethnicity in a diverse community-based cohort. Methods 2172 mother baby dyads were drawn from a prospective cohort constructed using data from electronic medical records linked to birth records. The primary exposure was exclusive breastfeeding at 2 months of age; outcome was BMI Z-score and BMI ≥ 85th percentile (overweight and obese) at 4 years of age. Regression models were adjusted for confounding using covariance balanced propensity score and inverse probability weighting. Results At age 4, exclusively breast fed children had lower BMI Z-score (-0.109, SE = 0.048) and a decreased odds of a BMI ≥ 85th percentile (0.832; 95 % CI 0.792, 0.994), when compared to those exclusively formula-fed or had mixed feeding. Race and ethnicity significantly moderated these associations. Sub-population analysis showed the effect was significant for BMI Z-score (p = 0.0002) and BMI ≥ 85th percentile (p < 0.0001) only for children of NH white mothers. For children of NH black mothers exclusive breastfeeding was not associated with a significant difference in BMI Z-score, however there was an increased odds of overweight or obesity (p = 0.0145). Conclusions The protective effect of breastfeeding against early childhood overweight and obesity may differ by race and ethnicity. This suggests that programs aiming to reduce obesity by increasing rates of breastfeeding may have limited impact for some groups and should be coupled with other racially and ethnically focused efforts to encourage healthy feeding practices in infancy and early childhood. PMID:27178429

  8. Datura stramonium L. poisoning in a geophagous child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bouziri, Asma; Hamdi, Asma; Borgi, Aida; Hadj, Sarra Bel; Fitouri, Zohra; Menif, Khaled; Ben Jaballah, Nejla

    2011-01-01

    Datura stramonium L. (DS) is a wild-growing plant widely distributed and easily accessible. It contains a variety of toxic anticholinergic alkaloids such as atropine, hyoscamine, and scopolamine. Voluntary or accidental ingestion can produce severe anticholinergic poisoning. We report an unusual case of DS intoxication occurring in a geophagous young child after accidental ingestion of the plant. Our case is original because of the young age of the victim and the underlying geophagia facilitating the occurrence of poisoning. PMID:21676236

  9. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    Detection of drugs in a child may be the first objective finding that can be reported in cases of suspected child abuse. Hair and urine toxicology testing, when performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation for suspected child abuse or maltreatment, may serve to facilitate the identification of at-risk children. Furthermore, significant environmental exposure to a drug (considered by law to constitute child abuse in some states) may be identified by toxicology testing of unwashed hair specimens. In order to determine the clinical utility of hair and urine toxicology testing in this population we performed a retrospective chart review on all children for whom hair toxicology testing was ordered at our academic medical center between January 2004 and April 2014. The medical records of 616 children aged 0-17.5 years were reviewed for injury history, previous medication and illicit drug use by caregiver(s), urine drug screen result (if performed), hair toxicology result, medication list, and outcome of any child abuse evaluation. Hair toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 106 cases (17.2%), with unexplained drugs in 82 cases (13.3%). Of these, there were 48 cases in which multiple compounds (including combination of parent drugs and/or metabolites within the same drug class) were identified in the sample of one patient. The compounds most frequently identified in the hair of our study population included cocaine, benzoylecgonine, native (unmetabolized) tetrahydrocannabinol, and methamphetamine. There were 68 instances in which a parent drug was identified in the hair without any of its potential metabolites, suggesting environmental exposure. Among the 82 cases in which hair toxicology testing was positive for unexplained drugs, a change in clinical outcome was noted in 71 cases (86.5%). Urine drug screens (UDS) were performed in 457 of the 616 reviewed cases. Of these, over 95% of positive UDS results could be explained by iatrogenic drug

  10. Frequency and significance of physical evidence in legally proven cases of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    De Jong, A R; Rose, M

    1989-12-01

    Clinicians have long recognized and attorneys have disputed that physical evidence of injury, sexually transmitted diseases, and seminal fluid are often absent in cases of child sexual abuse. To determine the frequency and significance of physical evidence in legally "proven" felony cases with penetration, a retrospective review of sexual abuse court records was done. A total of 45 randomly selected cases were reviewed; 39 (87%) had resulted in conviction of the perpetrator for felony. Charges of vaginal rape were made in 32 cases, and charges of oral and/or anal sodomy in 23 cases. No significant difference in rate of felony conviction was found in cases with or without physical evidence. Of 32 cases without physical evidence, 30 (94%) resulted in felony convictions, whereas only 9 of 13 cases (69%) with physical evidence resulted in a felony conviction. Multiple variables describing the abuse situation were not shown to effect the legal outcome of the cases. Of cases that resulted in felony convictions, physical evidence was present in only 23% (9 of 39). These results should be helpful for the clinician in counseling the family of the sexual abuse victim and the attorney who prosecutes child sexual abuse cases. PMID:2587130

  11. Pre-existing adversity, level of child protection involvement, and school attendance predict educational outcomes in a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Miriam J; Taylor, Catherine L; O'Donnell, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Maltreatment largely occurs in a multiple-risk context. The few large studies adjusting for confounding factors have raised doubts about whether low educational achievement results from maltreatment or co-occurring risk factors. This study examined prevalence, risk and protective factors for low educational achievement among children involved with the child protection system compared to other children. We conducted a population-based record-linkage study of children born in Western Australia who sat national Year 3 reading achievement tests between 2008 and 2010 (N=46,838). The longitudinal study linked data from the Western Australian Department of Education, Department of Child Protection and Family Support, Department of Health, and the Disability Services Commission. Children with histories of child protection involvement (unsubstantiated maltreatment reports, substantiations or out-of-home care placement) were at three-fold increased risk of low reading scores. Adjusting for socio-demographic adversity partially attenuated the increased risk, however risk remained elevated overall and for substantiated (OR=1.68) and unsubstantiated maltreatment (OR=1.55). Risk of low reading scores in the out-of-home care group was fully attenuated after adjusting for socio-demographic adversity (OR=1.16). Attendance was significantly higher in the out-of-home care group and served a protective role. Neglect, sexual abuse, and physical abuse were associated with low reading scores. Pre-existing adversity was also significantly associated with achievement. Results support policies and practices to engage children and families in regular school attendance, and highlight a need for further strategies to prevent maltreatment and disadvantage from restricting children's opportunities for success. PMID:26626345

  12. Case Report: Traumatic anterior cerebral artery aneurysm in a 4-year old child

    PubMed Central

    Munakomi, Sunil; Tamrakar, Karuna; Chaudhary, Pramod; Bhattarai, Binod; Cherian, Iype

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial aneurysm in the proximal part of the anterior cerebral artery in the pediatric population has not been documented so far. Here we report the case of a 4 year-old child who developed a pseudo-aneurysm after minor head trauma and was managed successfully with trapping of the aneurysm. A ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was placed as the child became dependent on extraventricular drain during the post-operative period. The patient made excellent recovery in neurological status within 1 month of post-operative clinical follow up.

  13. Ethical Dilemmas in Protecting Individual Rights Versus Public Protection in the Case of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Phua, Kai-Lit

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases—including emerging and re-emerging diseases such as Ebola and tuberculosis—continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality in the globalizing, contemporary world. This article discusses the ethical issues associated with protecting the rights of individuals versus the protection of the health of populations in the case of infectious diseases. The discussion uses the traditional medical ethics approach together with the public health approach presented by Faden and Shebaya.3 Infectious diseases such as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Nipah virus and HIV/AIDS (together with tuberculosis) will be used to illustrate particular points in the discussion. PMID:24847171

  14. Women convicted of a sexual offence, including child pornography production: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Prat, S; Bertsch, I; Chudzik, L; Réveillère, Ch

    2014-03-01

    All available studies addressing the clinical and legal aspects of child pornography have systematically concerned male abusers. The social lens through which women are viewed tends to play down their responsibility in the sexual abuse of children. Unlike men, women rarely abuse children outside the close or family circle. Furthermore, they have frequently been abused themselves in their childhood. To our knowledge, no cases of women charged with sex-related offences, including child pornography, have been described in the literature. The psychopathological characteristics of female sexual abusers and of the two women in our cases tend to suggest that the deliberate downloading of child pornography images by women is unusual, as their deviant behaviour is not related to paedophile sexual arousal It is hypothesized that the act enables women perpetrators to satisfy the sexual urges of their spouse. Sexual abuse by women exists, but the nature of the abuse appears to be specific to the gender of the perpetrator. We present two cases of women charged with sexual offences concerning minors, including the production of child pornography material. PMID:24661700

  15. Forensic, cultural, and systems issues in child sexual abuse cases--part 2: research and practitioner issues.

    PubMed

    Tishelman, Amy C; Geffner, Robert

    2010-11-01

    This article introduces the second issue of the special double issue focusing on forensic, cultural, and systems issues in child sexual abuse cases. We briefly review the articles, which include a discussion of child sexual abuse myths, an empirical analysis of extended child sexual abuse evaluations, an article on the role of the medical provider in child sexual abuse evaluations, a study of satisfaction levels with multidisciplinary teams in child advocacy centers, and a commentary advocating for the credentialing of forensic interviewers. We call for further empirical examination of media related to child sexual abuse risk, research on appropriate models for extended sexual abuse interviews and evaluations, and optimal practices relevant to each member of multidisciplinary teams in a child advocacy center. PMID:21113831

  16. Fatal child abuse: a study of 13 cases of continuous abuse.

    PubMed

    Kauppi, Anne Leena Marika; Vanamo, Tuija; Karkola, Kari; Merikanto, Juhani

    2012-07-26

    A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn't aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse deaths are prevented by recognition of signs of battering in time. Out of 200 examined intra-familial filicides, 23 (12%) were caused by child battering and 13 (7%) by continuous battering. The medical and court records of the victim and the perpetrator were examined. The perpetrator was the biological mother and the victim was male in 69 per cent of the cases. The abused children were either younger than one year or from two-and-a-half to four years old. Risk factors of the victim (being unwanted, premature birth, separation from the parent caused by hospitalization or custodial care, being ill and crying a lot) and the perpetrator (personality disorder, low socioeconomic status, chaotic family conditions, domestic violence, isolation, alcohol abuse) were common. The injuries caused by previous battering were mostly soft tissue injuries in head and limbs and head traumas and the battering lasted for days or even an year. The final assault was more violent and occurred when the parent was more anxious, frustrated or left alone with the child. The perpetrating parent was diagnosed as having a personality disorder (borderline, narcissistic or dependent) and often substance dependence (31%). None of them were psychotic. Authorities and community members should pay attention to the change in child's behavior and inexplicable injuries or absence from daycare. Furthermore if the parent is immature, alcohol dependent, have a personality disorder and is unable to cope with the demands the small child entails in the parent's life, the child may be in danger. PMID:25478105

  17. [A case report on mobbing in a school child].

    PubMed

    Holtz, S

    2012-08-01

    Forty percent of the work of a paediatrician in private practice consists of counselling parents and children. There is a danger that behavioural symptoms are not taken seriously and brushed away with simple advices. This case vignette demonstrates that difficult and complex symptoms can be solved by using a concept-oriented approach. PMID:22851462

  18. How Egg Case Proteins Can Protect Cuttlefish Offspring?

    PubMed Central

    Cornet, Valérie; Henry, Joël; Goux, Didier; Duval, Emilie; Bernay, Benoit; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Corre, Erwan; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Sepia officinalis egg protection is ensured by a complex capsule produced by the female accessory genital glands and the ink bag. Our study is focused on the proteins constituting the main egg case. De novo transcriptomes from female genital glands provided essential databases for protein identification. A proteomic approach in SDS-PAGE coupled with MS unveiled a new egg case protein family: SepECPs, for Sepia officinalis Egg Case Proteins. N-glycosylation was demonstrated by PAS staining SDS-PAGE gels. These glycoproteins are mainly produced in the main nidamental glands. SepECPs share high sequence homology, especially in the signal peptide and the three cysteine-rich domains. SepECPs have a high number of cysteines, with conserved motifs involved in 3D-structure. SDS-PAGE showed that SepECPs could form dimers; this result was confirmed by TEM observations, which also revealed a protein network. This network is similar to the capsule network, and it associates these structural proteins with polysaccharides, melanin and bacteria to form a tight mesh. Its hardness and elasticity provide physical protection to the embryo. In addition, SepECPs also have bacteriostatic antimicrobial activity on GRAM- bacteria. By observing the SepECP / Vibrio aestuarianus complex in SEM, we demonstrated the ability of these proteins to agglomerate bacteria and thus inhibit their growth. These original proteins identified from the outer egg case ensure the survival of the species by providing physical and chemical protection to the embryos released in the environment without any maternal protection. PMID:26168161

  19. Child sexual abuse: report of 311 cases with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Essabar, Laila; Khalqallah, Abdenbi; Dakhama, Badr Sououd Benjelloun

    2015-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global problem that has significant consequences for public health; it has been a prominent topic of public concern for more than a decade, but many basic facts about the problem remain unclear or in dispute. We conducted a study of 311 cases of CSA in order to highlight the epidemiological features and negative impact on victims' well-being and to emphasize the need for a multidisciplinary approach to the primary prevention and management of CSA. We noted an increase in cases number with male predominance. Most of our patients came from lower socioeconomic classes. The perpetrators were male in 100% of cases; acquaintances in 70% of cases and family members in 22 cases. Physical examination were normal in 61% of cases, however, a range of psychological and physical effects were identified with dramatic health consequences: three cases of attempted suicide, five pregnancies and one case of HIV virus infection. PMID:26090005

  20. Child sexual abuse: report of 311 cases with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Essabar, Laila; Khalqallah, Abdenbi; Dakhama, Badr Sououd Benjelloun

    2015-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global problem that has significant consequences for public health; it has been a prominent topic of public concern for more than a decade, but many basic facts about the problem remain unclear or in dispute. We conducted a study of 311 cases of CSA in order to highlight the epidemiological features and negative impact on victims’ well-being and to emphasize the need for a multidisciplinary approach to the primary prevention and management of CSA. We noted an increase in cases number with male predominance. Most of our patients came from lower socioeconomic classes. The perpetrators were male in 100% of cases; acquaintances in 70% of cases and family members in 22 cases. Physical examination were normal in 61% of cases, however, a range of psychological and physical effects were identified with dramatic health consequences: three cases of attempted suicide, five pregnancies and one case of HIV virus infection. PMID:26090005

  1. Identifying best practices for "Safe Harbor" legislation to protect child sex trafficking victims: Decriminalization alone is not sufficient.

    PubMed

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Abrams, Susan; Azzi, Veronica F; Ryan, Gery; Brook, Robert; Chung, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Several states have recently enacted "Safe Harbor" laws to redirect child victims of commercial sexual exploitation and child sex trafficking from the criminal justice system and into the child welfare system. No comprehensive studies of Safe Harbor law implementation exist. The nine state Safe Harbor laws enacted by 2012 were analyzed to guide state legislators, health professionals, law enforcement agents, child welfare providers, and other responders to the commercial sexual exploitation of children on the development and implementation of state Safe Harbor laws. The authors conducted 32 semi-structured interviews with Safe Harbor experts in these states. Participants conveyed that Safe Harbor legislation signified a critical paradigm shift, treating commercially sexually exploited youth not as criminals but as vulnerable children in need of services. However, Safe Harbor legislation varied widely and significant gaps in laws exist. Such laws alone were considered insufficient without adequate funding for necessary services. As a result, many well-meaning providers were going around the Safe Harbor laws by continuing to incarcerate commercially sexually exploited youth in the juvenile justice system regardless of Safe Harbor laws in place. This was done, to act, in their view, in what was the best interest of the victimized children. With imperfect laws and implementation, these findings suggest an important role for local and state responders to act together to protect victims from unnecessary criminalization and potential further traumatization. PMID:26520827

  2. Child abuse and osteogenesis imperfecta: how can they be still misdiagnosed? A case report

    PubMed Central

    D’Eufemia, Patrizia; Palombaro, Marta; Lodato, Valentina; Zambrano, Anna; Celli, Mauro; Persiani, Pietro; De Bari, Maria Pia; Sangiorgi, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Summary Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare hereditary disease caused by mutations in genes coding for type I collagen, resulting in bone fragility. In literature are described forms lethal in perinatal period, forms which are moderate and slight forms where the only sign of disease is osteopenia. Child abuse is an important social and medical problem. Fractures are the second most common presentation after skin lesions and may present specific patterns. The differential diagnosis between slight-moderate forms of OI and child abuse could be very challenging especially when other signs typical of abuse are absent, since both could present with multiple fractures without reasonable explanations. We report a 20 months-old female with a history of 4 fractures occurred between the age of three and eighteen months, brought to authorities’ attention as a suspected child abuse. However when she came to our department physical examination, biochemical tests, total body X-ray and a molecular analysis of DNA led the diagnosis of OI. Thus, a treatment with bisphosphonate and a physical rehabilitation process, according to Vojta method, were started with improvement in bony mineralization, gross motor skills and absence of new fracture. In conclusion our case demonstrates how in any child presenting fractures efforts should be made to consider, besides child abuse, all the other hypothesis even the rarest as OI. PMID:23289038

  3. Child abuse and osteogenesis imperfecta: how can they be still misdiagnosed? A case report.

    PubMed

    D'Eufemia, Patrizia; Palombaro, Marta; Lodato, Valentina; Zambrano, Anna; Celli, Mauro; Persiani, Pietro; De Bari, Maria Pia; Sangiorgi, Luca

    2012-09-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare hereditary disease caused by mutations in genes coding for type I collagen, resulting in bone fragility. In literature are described forms lethal in perinatal period, forms which are moderate and slight forms where the only sign of disease is osteopenia. Child abuse is an important social and medical problem. Fractures are the second most common presentation after skin lesions and may present specific patterns.The differential diagnosis between slight-moderate forms of OI and child abuse could be very challenging especially when other signs typical of abuse are absent, since both could present with multiple fractures without reasonable explanations. We report a 20 months-old female with a history of 4 fractures occurred between the age of three and eighteen months, brought to authorities' attention as a suspected child abuse.However when she came to our department physical examination, biochemical tests, total body X-ray and a molecular analysis of DNA led the diagnosis of OI.Thus, a treatment with bisphosphonate and a physical rehabilitation process, according to Vojta method, were started with improvement in bony mineralization, gross motor skills and absence of new fracture.In conclusion our case demonstrates how in any child presenting fractures efforts should be made to consider, besides child abuse, all the other hypothesis even the rarest as OI. PMID:23289038

  4. Child Who Presented with Facial Hematohidrosis Compared with Published Cases

    PubMed Central

    Jafar, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Hematohidrosis is a rare condition in which an individual sweats blood from intact, unbroken skin. The aetiology of hematohidrosis is not clear, although various theories exist to explain such a phenomenon. The general consensus however in the literature relates the finding to dermal capillary blood vessels that rupture under extreme emotional or physical stress exuding blood through the skin. In this case report we disclose a case of 12-year-old girl who presented with unusual painless bleeding from her face, eye, and tear duct. The condition was investigated intensively during hospital admission for a cause, and no actual cause was speculated. The management mostly involved supportive care and medical advice. PMID:27051537

  5. A case of frosted branch angiitis in an immunocompromised child.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Janet Leath; Miller, Marijean

    2015-02-01

    Frosted branch angiitis is a rare vascular reaction believed to be a nonspecific immune response to an infective, neoplastic, or idiopathic insult. The clinical presentation is characteristic and typically affects children and younger adults, and the prognosis is good. We report a case of frosted branch angiitis during immune recovery in a 2-year-old boy with Langerhans cell histiocytosis on systemic immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:25727593

  6. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: What Makes them Effective in Protecting Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraizer, Sherryll; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes a school-based child abuse prevention program. The program's effectiveness is evaluated in terms of prevention of sexual abuse, the age of maximum receptivity to prevention education, and implications of the evaluation for early childhood educators. (RJC)

  7. Trends in risk and protective factors for child bullying perpetration in the United States.

    PubMed

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2013-02-01

    This study examines trends in prevalence and factors associated with bullying perpetration among children 10-17 years old, using the 2003 and 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. A parent-reported bullying measure and NSCH-designed questions were used to measure factors associated with bullying. The 2003 (n = 48,639) and 2007 (n = 44,152) samples were 51 % male, with mean age of 13.5 (standard deviation 2.3). 23 % of children bullied at least sometimes in 2003 and 15 % bullied in 2007. Parental anger with their child, a child emotional/developmental/behavioral problem, and suboptimal maternal mental health were associated with higher bullying odds in 2003 and 2007, whereas parents talking with their child very/somewhat well, and meeting their child's friends were associated with lower odds. Between 2003 and 2007, parental anger with their child was associated with increasing bullying odds and parents' meeting their child's friends was associated with decreasing odds. Targeting these persistent factors may result in effective bullying-prevention interventions. PMID:22661150

  8. Prenatal substance exposure and child self-regulation: Pathways to risk and protection.

    PubMed

    Eiden, Rina D; Godleski, Stephanie; Schuetze, Pamela; Colder, Craig R

    2015-09-01

    A conceptual model of the association between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and child self-regulation via maternal harshness and language development was examined. Specifically, the model tested whether PCE was associated with self-regulation either directly or indirectly via high maternal harshness and poor language development. The role of child sex, autonomic reactivity, and cumulative environmental risk as potential moderators was also explored. The sample was 216 mother-child dyads recruited at birth and assessed at 2, 7, 13, 24, 36, and 48 months of child ages. Participating mothers were primarily African American (72%). Results indicated a significant indirect association between PCE and child effortful control at 36 months via higher maternal harshness. Autonomic reactivity moderated the association between maternal harshness and self-regulation such that among children with poor autonomic reactivity, high maternal harshness was associated with lower conscience at 3 years. Child sex and environmental risk did not moderate the association between PCE and self-regulation. Thus, the quality of caregiving experience played a significant role in the development of self-regulation among PCE children, especially those at higher autonomic risk. In particular, PCE children who also exhibit poor autonomic reactivity may be particularly susceptible to environmental influences such as parenting. PMID:25913650

  9. Idiopathic brachial neuritis in a child: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Shikha; Bhatt, Girish Chandra; Rai, Nirendra; Bhan, Bhavna Dhingra

    2014-01-01

    Brachial neuritis is a rare disease in children, affecting mainly the lower motor neurons of the brachial plexus and/or individual nerves or nerve branches. We report a case of idiopathic brachial plexus neuritis in a 2½-year-old female child admitted with acute respiratory distress and given antibiotic therapy following which she developed weakness of the left hand. She was diagnosed as a case of idiopathic brachial plexus neuritis and was given supportive care. Although, the association with antibiotic therapy in this case could be incidental, indeed it is intriguing and requires further studies. PMID:25624937

  10. Idiopathic brachial neuritis in a child: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shikha; Bhatt, Girish Chandra; Rai, Nirendra; Bhan, Bhavna Dhingra

    2014-01-01

    Brachial neuritis is a rare disease in children, affecting mainly the lower motor neurons of the brachial plexus and/or individual nerves or nerve branches. We report a case of idiopathic brachial plexus neuritis in a 2½-year-old female child admitted with acute respiratory distress and given antibiotic therapy following which she developed weakness of the left hand. She was diagnosed as a case of idiopathic brachial plexus neuritis and was given supportive care. Although, the association with antibiotic therapy in this case could be incidental, indeed it is intriguing and requires further studies. PMID:25624937

  11. Maxillary tumor in a child: An expected case of difficult airway

    PubMed Central

    Reena; Vikram, A

    2016-01-01

    Craniofacial abnormalities in pediatric population fall under the category of expected case of difficult airway. We present here a case of large maxillary tumor in a 9-year-old girl where the relative difficulty was further compounded due to her noncooperation which was again expected from a child. Local anesthetic topicalization of airway followed by slow inhalational induction with gradually increasing sevoflurane, while maintaining her spontaneous breathing, we secured her airway using fiber optic bronchoscopy. The surgery and the extubation went uneventful. In conclusion a planned airway management using fiber optic bronchoscope after airway topicalization and sevoflurane induction is the ideal technique in an expected case of difficult pediatric airway. PMID:27051379

  12. Neurognathostomiasis in a young child in India: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Shilpa; Sayed, Rafat; Garg, Meenal; Patil, Varsha

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilc meningitis is commonly associated with Angiostrongylus and Gnathostoma infection and has largely been reported from Thailand. We present the first case report of neurognathostomaisis in a pediatric patient from India. A 3.5 year old girl presented with fever, parasthesis, behavioral changes followed by flaccid quadriparesis. Neuroimaging showed haemorrhagic radiculomyelitis with cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia. Diagnosis of Gnathostoma infection was confirmed serologically and she was treated with anthelminthic drugs and steroids. This report emphasizes the increasing importance of central nervous system helminithic infections as an alternative diagnosis to common infections like neurotuberculosis in developing countries, even in pediatric patients. Increasing intercontinental travel and migration have increased the incidence and importance in the developed world as well. PMID:26002516

  13. Obturator internus muscle abscess in a child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Manish; Bhaliak, Vijay; Bruce, Colin E

    2008-09-01

    The authors report a case of abscess in the obturator internus muscle, which is a rare occurrence. It was managed with antibiotics and surgical intervention was not necessary. Pyomyositis involving the muscles around the hip needs to be differentiated from septic arthritis and transient synovitis of the hip because these pathologies more commonly afflict this joint. However, when present, abscesses usually affect the psoas or the glutei. Only rarely is the obturator internus involved by the abscess. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging modality of choice to image the obturator internus and to ascertain the diagnosis. Lack of awareness of the existence of this condition leads to a delay in the correct diagnosis. PMID:19471173

  14. 25 CFR 63.36 - What are the special requirements for Indian child protection and family violence prevention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and the number of child abuse, child neglect, and family violence reports received. (3) Assurance that the identity of any person making a report of child abuse or child neglect will not be disclosed... persons who, in good faith, report child abuse or child neglect will not suffer retaliation from...

  15. 25 CFR 63.36 - What are the special requirements for Indian child protection and family violence prevention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and the number of child abuse, child neglect, and family violence reports received. (3) Assurance that the identity of any person making a report of child abuse or child neglect will not be disclosed... persons who, in good faith, report child abuse or child neglect will not suffer retaliation from...

  16. 25 CFR 63.36 - What are the special requirements for Indian child protection and family violence prevention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and the number of child abuse, child neglect, and family violence reports received. (3) Assurance that the identity of any person making a report of child abuse or child neglect will not be disclosed... persons who, in good faith, report child abuse or child neglect will not suffer retaliation from...

  17. 25 CFR 63.36 - What are the special requirements for Indian child protection and family violence prevention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., and the number of child abuse, child neglect, and family violence reports received. (3) Assurance that the identity of any person making a report of child abuse or child neglect will not be disclosed... persons who, in good faith, report child abuse or child neglect will not suffer retaliation from...

  18. 25 CFR 63.36 - What are the special requirements for Indian child protection and family violence prevention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and the number of child abuse, child neglect, and family violence reports received. (3) Assurance that the identity of any person making a report of child abuse or child neglect will not be disclosed... persons who, in good faith, report child abuse or child neglect will not suffer retaliation from...

  19. Profile of the Linguistic and Metalinguistic Abilities of a Gifted Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melogno, Sergio; Pinto, Maria Antonietta; Levi, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses the case of a gifted child (9;6 year) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who had a particularly high verbal IQ (146) and a specific cognitive, linguistic, and metalinguistic profile. A description of some salient behavioral characteristics of the child is provided. A metalinguistic ability test assessing metagrammatical,…

  20. Response to Cross and Saxe's "A Critique of the Validity of Polygraph Testing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Vergil L.

    1995-01-01

    Responds to an article (1992) in which Cross and Saxe assert that polygraph testing is inaccurate and inappropriate in the area of child sexual abuse. Presents a summary of recent polygraph validity and reliability studies to refute their claims, and discusses current uses of polygraph testing in child sexual abuse cases. (JPS)

  1. Distal ureteral atresia with ureteropelvic junction obstruction in a female child: a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shuiqing; Xu, Ran; Zhu, Xuan; Zhao, Xiaokun

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes a distal ureteral atresia along with ureteropelvic junction obstruction which occurred in a 19-month-old female child. It is easily to be misdiagnosed as mere ureteropelvic junction obstruction and omitted the combined diagnosis of distal ureteral atresia. Dismembered pyeloplasty was done in local hospital after admission, however with the result of recurrent fever when clamp the left nephrostomy tube and Antegrade urography demonstrated distal ureteral atresia. After two months, boari flap reconstruction was performed for the patient in the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, and the child had good rehabilitation in the end. To our knowledge, this is the first case report on distal ureteral atresia associated with ureteropelvic junction obstruction. PMID:25785157

  2. Acquired constriction ring syndrome as a cause of inconsolable cry in a child: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vinay; Singh, Pankaj; Sharma, Amit; Sarkar, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Acute constriction ring syndrome (ACRS) is a rare clinical condition characterized by formation of a circumferential constriction ring around an appendage or genitalia. Cases are mostly reported in infants and young children. Early recognition and a definitive treatment are of paramount importance in order to avoid irreversible ischemia and possible auto-amputation. We describe a case of a 14-month-old child presented to casualty with a history of refusal to feed and inconsolable cry. Parents noticed a recent swelling of left third toe. On careful examination the child was found to have an acquired constriction ring secondary to a tightly wrapped hair around left third toe. An urgent surgical decompression was done by the orthopaedic team with complete resolution of symptoms. We summarized the pathophysiology of ACRS underlining the need of awareness in treating physicians. The possible medico legal implications should be kept in mind bearing a suggested link with non-accidental injury. PMID:18702819

  3. Trends in child sexual abuse cases referred for forensic examination in Southern Denmark from 2000 to 2011 - Did the 'Tønder-case' have an impact?

    PubMed

    Skovmand, Sofie; Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt

    2015-11-01

    In 2005 a serious case of child sexual abuse from the region of Southern Denmark was revealed to the Danish public. The case became known as the 'Tønder-case'. It was the first in a series of 4-5 serious cases of child maltreatment in Denmark, cases which spurred heavy public debate. In this study all the cases of child sexual abuse referred for forensic examination in a 12 year period, a total of 368 cases, were systematically evaluated. In order to identify any trends that could be correlated to an impact of the 'Tønder-case', cases from 2000 to 2002 and cases from 2009 to 2011 underwent an in-depth analysis. In the 12 year period there was a significant increase in numbers of cases. In the subgroups, comprised of 113 cases meeting the inclusion criteria, we found a significant increase in the frequency of cases involving incest and systematic abuse, as well as an uncorrelated increase in the frequency of cases where children were placed in foster care prior to the examination. These results were countered by a significant decrease in the number cases police reported child sexual abuse in the same period. The possible impact that cases like the 'Tønder-case' and the following press coverage may have on disclosure and the handling of this type of case by authorities is discussed, as well as further perspectives of extensive press coverage. PMID:26454218

  4. A Case of Mycosis Fungoides and Lymphomatoid Papulosis Occurring Simultaneously in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Bognet, Rachel A.; Kozic, Heidi; Lee, Jason B.; Sahu, Joya; Hyde, Patrice M.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have reported an association between lymphomatoid papulosis and other lymphomas, such as mycosis fungoides, Hodgkin’s disease, and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The association between lymphomatoid papulosis and mycosis fungoides has been reported to be between seven and 39 percent. Although a relationship is acknowledged between lymphomatoid papulosis and mycosis fungoides, our understanding is limited. The authors report a case of mycosis fungoides and lymphomatoid papulosis in a child. PMID:23198014

  5. Septic shock, necrotizing pneumonitis, and meningoencephalitis caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in a child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Barreira, Eliane R; Souza, Daniela C; Góes, Patricia F; Bousso, Albert

    2009-04-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important causative agent of respiratory infection in childhood. Although the infection caused by M. pneumoniae is classically described as benign, severe and life-threatening pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications can occur. This study describes the first case of septic shock related to M. pneumoniae in a child with necrotizing pneumonitis, severe encephalitis, and multiple organs involvement, with a favorable outcome after lobectomy and systemic corticosteroids. PMID:19023109

  6. Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis in a child with Down's syndrome: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Aceti, A; Sciutti, R; Bracci, P R; Bertelli, L; Melchionda, F; Cazzato, S

    2012-03-01

    We report the case of a female child with Down's syndrome affected by idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis (IPH), who was successfully treated with hydroxychloroquine. First-line conventional treatment of IPH is traditionally based on systemic corticosteroids; however, many steroid-sparing agents are being increasingly used as adjuncts to corticosteroids in children with recurrent or refractory bleeding. The use of these drugs is particularly promising for maintenance treatment, because it tends to avoid the adverse effects of long-term corticosteroids. PMID:23311126

  7. Multidisciplinary Approach to the Rehabilitation in Management of Child with Early Childhood Caries: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neeraj; Passi, Sidhi; Kumar, Vinay V.

    2013-01-01

    The aesthetic requirement of severely mutilated primary anterior teeth in case of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) has been a challenge to paediatric dentists. ECC involves the upper anterior teeth early in life and by the time the dentist sees the child, most of the coronal structure is lost. This article presents the clinical sequence of rehabilitation of maxillary anterior primary teeth, and the mandibular posterior teeth. PMID:24298533

  8. Child sexual abuse: psychosocial aspects of 101 cases seen in an urban Malaysian setting.

    PubMed

    Kassim, K; Kasim, M S

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes a case note and interview study of a cross sectional sample comprised of all children seen and confirmed as being sexually abused between June 1985 and December 1990 by the Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect (SCAN) Team of Kuala Lumpur General Hospital. A total of 101 cases, which represented 18.2% of all child abuse cases, were seen together with their accompanying adults. Information about ethnicity, socioeconomic status, family constellation relationship of perpetrator to the child, and reported psychosocial factors that could have contributed towards the abuse were recorded. The Indian ethnicity group was found to be overrepresented. The mean age of children was 6-8 years, SD 4.1, with age ranging 1.5-16 years. Forty-one and one-half percent were in the age range 5-9 years. Among the important associated psychosocial factors found were the absence of another adult at home, unemployment, and history of drug abuse among the perpetrators. PMID:7583735

  9. Does working with child abuse cases affect professionals' parenting and the psychological well-being of their children?

    PubMed

    Dursun, Onur Burak; Sener, Mustafa Talip; Esin, Ibrahim Selcuk; Ançi, Yüksel; Yalin Sapmaz, Sermin

    2014-01-01

    Work in the field of sexual abuse is extremely stressful and may arouse negative personal reactions. Although these secondary trauma effects are well described on a personal level, there is not enough evidence to understand whether these professionals carry these effects to their homes, families, and offspring. This study aims to identify the effects of working with child abuse cases on the anxiety level and parenting styles of childhood trauma workers and on their children's well-being. A total of 43 health and legal system workers who worked with abused children in any step of their process and who had children constituted the study group, and 50 control cases, each working in the same institution and having the same occupation as 1 of the participants from the study group and having children but not working directly with children and child abuse cases, were included in the study. Participants were asked to fill out a sociodemographic form, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, the trait portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and an age-appropriate form of the Child Behavior Checklist for each child they had. Professionals in the study working with child abuse cases demonstrated significantly higher democratic parenting attitudes. Law enforcement workers working with child abuse cases demonstrated stricter and more authoritarian parenting strategies, as well as more democratic attitudes, than their colleagues. There was not a statistically significant relationship between child abuse workers' anxiety level and their children's well-being among control subjects. PMID:24983655

  10. Development of the SAFE Checklist Tool for Assessing Site-Level Threats to Child Protection: Use of Delphi Methods and Application to Two Sites in India

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Zuilkowski, Stephanie S.; Ravichandran, Arathi; Einhorn, Honora; Arora, Nikita; Bhattacharya Chakravarty, Aruna; Brennan, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Background The child protection community is increasingly focused on developing tools to assess threats to child protection and the basic security needs and rights of children and families living in adverse circumstances. Although tremendous advances have been made to improve measurement of individual child health status or household functioning for use in low-resource settings, little attention has been paid to a more diverse array of settings in which many children in adversity spend time and how context contributes to threats to child protection. The SAFE model posits that insecurity in any of the following fundamental domains threatens security in the others: Safety/freedom from harm; Access to basic physiological needs and healthcare; Family and connection to others; Education and economic security. Site-level tools are needed in order to monitor the conditions that can dramatically undermine or support healthy child growth, development and emotional and behavioral health. From refugee camps and orphanages to schools and housing complexes, site-level threats exist that are not well captured by commonly used measures of child health and well-being or assessments of single households (e.g., SDQ, HOME). Methods The present study presents a methodology and the development of a scale for assessing site-level child protection threats in various settings of adversity. A modified Delphi panel process was enhanced with two stages of expert review in core content areas as well as review by experts in instrument development, and field pilot testing. Results Field testing in two diverse sites in India—a construction site and a railway station—revealed that the resulting SAFE instrument was sensitive to the differences between the sites from the standpoint of core child protection issues. PMID:26540159

  11. Child Molesters: A Behavioral Analysis. For Law-Enforcement Officers Investigating Cases of Child Sexual Exploitation. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanning, Kenneth V.

    This booklet provides a behavioral analysis of child molesters. The terms child molesters and pedophiles are defined and distinctions are drawn between the two. The second section develops a law enforcement typology differing from those of mental health professionals, focusing on pre-arrest behavior or pre-identification behavior of child…

  12. Carpal tunnel syndrome in Mucopolysaccharidoses. A report of four cases in child.

    PubMed

    Bona, I; Vial, C; Brunet, P; Couturier, J C; Girard-Madoux, M; Bady, B; Guibaud, P

    1994-12-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is very uncommon in childhood. Sixty-five cases are reported in the literature, principally due to metabolic diseases. In Mucopolysaccharidoses, prospective studies (Wraith and Alani, 1990) found a bilateral CTS in about 90%. We report four cases of Mucopolysaccharidoses, diagnosed on clinical and biological data (two cases of Hurler disease, and two cases of Hunter disease), in children aged less than five years. Each child had claw hands, without thenar atrophy. Median nerve conduction studies and electromyography confirm the CTS. Motor and sensory nerve conductions are normal in other nerves. Concentric needle studies show in two cases, on abductor pollicis brevis, spontaneous activities as repetitive discharges, fasciculations and multiplets. Median nerve stimulations reveal responses with late potentials during 70 ms due to reinnervation. The physiopathology of those carpal tunnel syndromes is discussed. PMID:7882890

  13. Primary endobronchial myxoid leiomyoma in a child: An unusual case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Ashutosh; Dubey, Suparna; Sabhikhi, Abha K; Bal, Sabyasachi

    2016-01-01

    Primary leiomyomas are rare benign tumors of the lung and only 25 cases have been documented in children, most of which are endobronchial. Leiomyomas are benign smooth muscle neoplasms, usually diagnosed on morphological characteristics. However, immunohistochemistry plays a crucial role in the lineage differentiation when these are encountered at unusual sites or with unexpected morphological features. We report a case of endobronchial tumor of a 13-year-old male child who presented with a dry cough and hemoptysis. A mass lesion in the right main bronchus was detected by bronchoscopy and contrast-enhanced computed tomography. On histopathological examination of the resected specimen, a diagnosis of myxoid leiomyoma was made. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of myxoid leiomyoma to be reported in the respiratory tract. This case also demonstrates the need for a high index of suspicion and the role of immunomarkers in the diagnosis of such challenging cases. PMID:26960646

  14. Human Rights and Decision-Making in Child Protection through Explicit Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joe; Taylor, Brian; Mc Call, Susannah

    2006-01-01

    A recent judgement in February 2005 by the Lord Chief Justice in Northern Ireland that a Health and Social Services Trust had breached a parent's Article 8 Right to Family Life in the process used to take a young child into care has stimulated major debate about the interface between the Human Rights Act (1998) and professional decision-making in…

  15. Protecting the Child Victim of Sex Crimes Committed by Adults. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Francis, Vincent

    This document presents data on the dimensions and severity of the problem of child sex victimization in an effort to arouse community concern for the welfare of these children. Interviews were conducted with 250 families of abused children from New York City. A study was made of the possible damage to mental health and personality development of…

  16. Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed linkages of mothers' emotion coaching and children's emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity with children's adjustment in 72 mother-child dyads seeking treatment for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Dyads completed the questionnaires and discussed emotion-related family events. Maternal emotion coaching…

  17. Child Protection and Self-Regulation in the Internet Industry: The UK Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, John; Hilton, Zoe

    2009-01-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK), the number of convictions for offences related to child abuse images fell back following the police investigation dubbed "Operation Ore", but have still continued at levels unimaginable only 10 years ago. However, while government and the internet industry deserve credit for the steps they have taken to reduce the…

  18. Children's Participation in Child-Protection Processes as Experienced by Foster Children and Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polkki, Pirjo; Vornanen, Riitta; Pursiainen, Merja; Riikonen, Marjo

    2012-01-01

    Children in foster care often have no means of influencing matters that concern them, and can easily become outsiders in their own lives. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child enshrines the rights of capable children to express their views freely in matters affecting them and to be heard in any judicial or administrative…

  19. Acute dapsone poisoning in a 3-year-old child: Case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sunilkumar, Menon Narayanankutty; Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Parvathy, Vadakut Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Dapsone (DDS-diamino diphenyl sulphone) is a sulfone antibiotic being used for a variety of clinical conditions. Poisoning in children by DDS is rarely reported. Poisoning in acute cases will be frequently unrecognized due to relative lack of severe signs and symptoms. Methemoglobinemia is the major life-threatening situation associated with poisoning of DDS. Hence, any delay for medical attention can lead to increased rate of mortality. In this case, we describe acute DDS poisoning in a 3-year-old child and the successful management using intravenous methylene blue. PMID:26488029

  20. Acute appendicitis presenting as thigh abscess in a child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S B; Gupta, Vipul; Sharma, S C

    2005-04-01

    A case of retrocecal appendicitis is described in a 6-year-old male child who presented with thigh abscess. The presence of a positive psoas stretch test, feculent discharge, an enteric growth on bacteriological examination, and intraabdominal fluid collection on abdominal ultrasound provided clues to the presence of an intraabdominal source of sepsis. Laparotomy revealed a perforated retrocecal appendix with surrounding collection communicating into the thigh. Appendectomy with drainage of retroperitoneal and thigh collections under adequate antibiotic coverage resulted in a satisfactory recovery. We describe our experience with the present case and discuss the pertinent literature. PMID:15756560

  1. ANXIETY AND ATTACHMENT TO THE MOTHER IN PRESCHOOLERS RECEIVING PSYCHIATRIC CARE: THE FATHER-CHILD ACTIVATION RELATIONSHIP AS A PROTECTIVE FACTOR.

    PubMed

    Gaumon, Sébastien; Paquette, Daniel; Cyr, Chantal; Émond-Nakamura, Mutsuko; St-André, Martin

    2016-07-01

    This 49-family study is the first to explore the father-child relationship in a clinical population of preschoolers (at a tertiary care child psychiatry clinic) and to examine its relation to child anxiety and attachment to the mother. A moderation model of the father-child activation relationship on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety was tested and discussed. Analyses confirmed the expected independence between mother-child attachment and father-child activation as well as the association between mother-child attachment and anxiety. The highest levels of anxiety were found in insecure children, and more specifically, in insecure-ambivalent children and insecure disorganized-controlling children of the caregiving subtype. Hypotheses regarding the relation between anxiety and activation were only partially confirmed. Finally, the activation relationship with the father was shown to have a moderating effect on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety; activation by the father may be considered either a protective or a risk factor. Results for this clinical population of young children are discussed in the light of attachment theory and activation relationship theory. The study's findings have the potential to contribute to the development of preventative, diagnostic, and intervention programs that take both parental figures into account. PMID:27333431

  2. Child labor: a forgotten focus for child welfare.

    PubMed

    Otis, J; Pasztor, E M; McFadden, E J

    2001-01-01

    Child labor is driven by child and family impoverishment, market forces, and political apathy concerning the rights of the child. Although a fundamental concern of the early 20th century child welfare system, today child labor is often seen as outside the scope of child welfare and child protective services. Making child labor a focus of child advocacy activity once again could do much to better the lives of children. PMID:11678418

  3. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in child victims of sexual abuse: perceived social support as a protection factor.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad

    2016-08-01

    Background Social support has been shown to play a protective role against the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in individuals exposed to trauma. Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perceived social support on depression and PTSD in child victims of sexual abuse and to determine the relationship between them. Method In total 182 victims of sexual abuse aged 6-18 at time of interview were assessed. Clinical interviews, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPTS-RI) were used to assess children's psychological status, while the Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (PSSS-R) was used to measure social support. Results Girls had significantly higher median CDI and CPTS-RI scores than boys, while no significant difference was determined between boys and girls in terms of PSSS-R scores. A statistically significant negative correlation was determined between CDI and PSSS-R scores, CPTS-RI scores and PSSS-R scores in girls, while no significant correlation was identified in male victims. Conclusions In conclusion, we think that social support networks for victims of sexual abuse need to be broadened and increased, and that importance should be attached to protective approaches in that context. PMID:26906641

  4. Dentist attitudes and responsibilities concerning child sexual abuse. A review and a case report

    PubMed Central

    Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo; Márquez-Preciado, Raúl; Olguín-Vivar, Ana-Isabel; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, child abuse and neglect is “every kind of physical, sexual, emotional abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, commercial or other exploitation resulting in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power”. The aim of the present report is to inform about the most relevant aspects of child abuse and the characteristics of injuries to the head, neck, and orofacial regions, in addition to the suggested role of, and management by, the dentist for the evaluation of this condition, and also for reporting a case of a physically and sexually abused girl aged 5 years 8 months. Throughout the appointments, some type of abuse in this patient was suspected by the treating dentists at the clinic, mainly due to the initial behavior exhibited by the patient in the dental chair. Based on the clinical diagnostic an intensive preventive plan and restorative treatment was realized. The timely detection of the signs and symptoms of sexual abuse, often present in the orofacial region, place the pediatric dentist in a strategic situation, with the capacity to recognize, register, and later report those cases considered as suspect, including the dental treatment delivered and the intensive behavioral-psychological management, in order to achieve acceptation by the otherwise very anxious patient of the indicated restorative and preventive dental procedures. Key words:Child abuse, dentistry, behavior management. PMID:26330943

  5. Prosthetic Oral Rehabilitation of a Child With S-ECC: A Case Report with Histopathologic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tannure, P N; Moraes, G G; Borba, McU; Abrahão, A; Andrade, Mtrc; Fidalgo, Tks

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the treatment planning of a young child with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) as well as the prosthetic rehabilitation technique. A 3-year-old female child was referred to the pediatric dentistry clinic with the chief complaint of tooth pain, difficulty in eating and recurrent hospitalizations caused by dental infections. The mother reported intermittent episodes of fever and recurrent swelling of child's face. The girl presented angular cheilitis and was referred to a dietitian. The treatment plain consisted on a behavior changes in oral hygiene habits, exodontias of all primary teeth and oral rehabilitation with a prosthesis. The extracted teeth with periapical lesions were submitted to histopathologic analysis (hematoxilin and eosin staining) and revealed an inflammatory infiltrate. The aesthetic requirement of children with S-ECC has been a challenge to pediatric dentists. In the present case, the oral rehabilitation provided for the children better aesthetic, nutrition, phonation, and functional conditions. PMID:26551361

  6. Ventriculoatrial shunt catheter displacement in a child with partial anomalous pulmonary venous return: case report.

    PubMed

    Elhammady, Mohamed Samy A; Benglis, David M; Bhatia, Sanjiv; Sandberg, David I; Ragheb, John

    2008-07-01

    Ventriculoatrial (VA) shunts remain the most used alternative to ventriculoperitoneal shunts in infants with hydrocephalus. The authors report a case of an acute VA shunt malfunction as a result of distal catheter displacement in an 18-month-old girl with partial anomalous pulmonary venous return. The child presented with respiratory compromise, and a chest radiograph revealed a lung infiltrate and normal position of the distal shunt catheter tip. Computed tomography demonstrated stable ventricle size in comparison with previous studies. As the patient's respiratory distress progressed, she required intubation, mechanical ventilation with high airway pressures and inspired oxygen concentrations, muscle relaxants, and sedation. A routine morning chest radiograph several days after admission revealed displacement of the distal catheter into the left innominate vein. Later that day the child's pupils were noted to be large and unreactive and a distal shunt malfunction was diagnosed. Complications of VA shunts and the presumed mechanism by which the catheter became displaced are discussed. PMID:18590399

  7. Child abuse: multiple foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Wadhera, Raman; Kalra, Vijay; Gulati, Sat Paul; Ghai, Anju

    2013-02-01

    The incidents of foreign body ingestion in infants and children are usually viewed as accidents, but these events may be a form of child abuse. We are reporting a case of child abuse who presented with multiple foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract. Physicians are required to report abuse when they have reason to believe or to suspect that it occurred. The purpose of reporting is not punishment of the perpetrator - it is the protection of the child. It is certainly in the best interest of the child, because child abuse is a recurrent and usually escalating problem that exposes the child to substantial risk. PMID:23164499

  8. Extended evaluations in cases of child sexual abuse: how many sessions are sufficient?

    PubMed

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2010-11-01

    This article provides new findings from a national study involving 18 forensic interview sites of 137 children who were randomly assigned to a four or eight session extended evaluation. Cases assigned to the eight session protocol were significantly more likely to be classified "credible disclosure" of sexual abuse (56.6%) than cases assigned to the four session protocol (29.5%) and significantly less likely to be classified "credible nondisclosure" of sexual abuse (9.2%) than cases in the four session protocol (24.6%). When four versus eight sessions, demographic variables, and case characteristics were entered into a regression, variables that predicted likelihood of sexual abuse were eight session protocol, older victim age, and caretaker belief the child had been sexually abused. When new disclosures were examined by session in the eight session protocol, 95% of new disclosures occurred by the sixth session. PMID:21113833

  9. [Anesthesia using intramuscular methohexital for cerebral computed tomography in the child. Apropos of 100 cases].

    PubMed

    Bemer, M; Schwindenhammer, J; Pecourt, E; Bertocchi, M L; Poussel, J F

    1988-12-01

    Computed Tomography scans of the head demand a perfect motionless state, requiring sedation or general anesthesia for young children. Taking into account that CT Scan is innocuous, the proposed method of sedation must be devoid of any risk. A study was made about one hundred cases of intramuscular methohexital sedation of children, ages 3 weeks to 6 years (average age 26.05 +/- 19.95 months and average weight 9.9 +/- 4.07 kilograms). Children's medical antecedents were heavy foetal suffering, artificial ventilation at birth time, anticonvulsant medication for thirty percent of children. Average duration of the Scan was 35.8 +/- 12 minutes, with injection of contrast material in 83 percent of children. Injection of iodized material brings on a glow of warmth that can induce withdrawal movements of the child. Contrast material is used at the dose of 2 milliliters per kilogram. In general, CT Scan is performed after a clinical examination of the child, without any premedication. The child receives methohexital saline 2.5 percent solution intramuscularly deep in outer upper quadrant of the buttock, 10 mg per kilogram-1. Once the sedation is obtained, an infusion of isotonic glucose is set on to compensate fasting. The child, spontaneously breathing, is clinically and under ECG monitoring watched over at a distance. At the end of the Scan, children are observed in the recovery ward for 46 +/- 18 minutes before going back to their ward or their parents. Intramuscular methohexital provided adequate sedation to 96 patients. Two cases of failure to achieve a motionless state required general anesthesia induced with halothane.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3219635

  10. Implacably hostile or appropriately protective? Women managing child contact in the context of domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christine

    2008-04-01

    The United Kingdom has seen conflicting developments in safeguarding women's and children's safety when there has been domestic violence. Although criminal justice responses have improved, child contact arrangements following parental separation remain dominated by pro-contact models that fail to take full account of the impact of domestic violence. Drawing on qualitative research in U.K. child contact (visitation) centers, this article presents women's perspectives to demonstrate how family court proceedings and welfare practices marginalized violence and exposed women and children to further abuse. This builds on previous articles in the journal to show how, in the post-separation family, contact now constitutes a significant site for continuing violence. PMID:18359876

  11. [Selected legal aspects of the protection of the unborn child in the light of the draft amendment to the Polish Penal Code].

    PubMed

    Urbaniak, Moniak; Spaczyński, Robert Z

    2015-10-01

    Criminal Law Codification Commission, acting at the Ministry of Justice prepared proposals for amendments in the Polish Penal Code, related to offenses against life and health that were presented to the public in 2013. The draft provides for the protection of the child in the prenatal stage, introducing a new category of the entity to be protected, which is "unborn child" and "unborn child able to live outside the mother's body". These regulations provide for mothers criminal liability and responsibility of the medical staff (a doctor), as well as the child's father to the extent in which he is obliged to take steps aimed at rescuing the fetus. It is doctor's responsibility to show particular care for human health and life since a doctor has special medical knowledge and that is regulated by art. 30 of the act on professions of doctor and dentist. The proposed rule changes were not brought before the legislature in the current term of the Sejm (2011-2015), but due to the development of medicine, including obstetrical ultrasound, which enables visualization of a child that moves in the womb and is treated as a separate entity with distinct personal features the grounds are given for the opinion that the issue of the legal status of the unborn child, particularly in the context of causing death of a child in the last phase before birth as a result of medical malpractice or other external factors will be back in the public discussion. PMID:26677590

  12. Parental spanking of 1-year-old children and subsequent child protective services involvement✩

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shawna J.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of U.S. parents spank their children, often beginning when their children are very young. We examined families (N=2,788) who participated in a longitudinal community-based study of new births in urban areas. Prospective analyses examined whether spanking by the child's mother, father, or mother's current partner when the child was 1-year-old was associated with household CPS involvement between age 1 and age 5. Results indicated that 30% of 1-year-olds were spanked at least once in the past month. Spanking at age 1 was associated with increased odds of subsequent CPS involvement (adjusted odds ratio=1.36, 95% CI [1.08, 1.71], p<.01). When compared to non-spanked children, there was a 33% greater probability of subsequent CPS involvement for children who were spanked at age 1. Given the undesirable consequences of spanking children and a lack of empirical evidence to suggest positive effects of physical punishment, professionals who work with families should counsel parents not to spank infants and toddlers. For optimal benefits, efforts to educate parents regarding alternative forms of discipline should begin during the child's first year of life. PMID:24602690

  13. Parental spanking of 1-year-old children and subsequent child protective services involvement.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawna J; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Berger, Lawrence M

    2014-05-01

    The majority of U.S. parents spank their children, often beginning when their children are very young. We examined families (N=2,788) who participated in a longitudinal community-based study of new births in urban areas. Prospective analyses examined whether spanking by the child's mother, father, or mother's current partner when the child was 1-year-old was associated with household CPS involvement between age 1 and age 5. Results indicated that 30% of 1-year-olds were spanked at least once in the past month. Spanking at age 1 was associated with increased odds of subsequent CPS involvement (adjusted odds ratio=1.36, 95% CI [1.08, 1.71], p<.01). When compared to non-spanked children, there was a 33% greater probability of subsequent CPS involvement for children who were spanked at age 1. Given the undesirable consequences of spanking children and a lack of empirical evidence to suggest positive effects of physical punishment, professionals who work with families should counsel parents not to spank infants and toddlers. For optimal benefits, efforts to educate parents regarding alternative forms of discipline should begin during the child's first year of life. PMID:24602690

  14. Spinal Cord Injury without Radiological Abnormality in an 8 Months Old Female Child: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Kunal R.; Chandanwale, Ajay S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Spinal cord injury in children frequently occurs without fracture or dislocation. SCIWORA is a syndrome occurring when the spinal cord sustains neural damage during a traumatic event without positive radiographic findings. The incidence of SCIWORA was found to be 8% to 32% in various studies with very few cases documented in children below the age of 1 year. We report such a case of spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality in an 8 months old female child. Case Report: An 8 months old female child was brought to the emergency room after a history of fall from the bed four days back. External spine examination revealed no abnormality. She had no upper or lower limb movements, both active and withdrawal movements with painful tactile stimuli, power was grade 0; are flexic; abdominal cremasteric and anal reflexes were absent, bladder was palpable and urine could be expressed on manual pressure. MRI of cervical spine with screening of whole spine: suggestive of non hemorrhagic cord edema at C4 level, with suspicious tear of anterior longitudinal ligament at that level. The child was immobilized in pediatric cervical collar and treatment was initiated with corticosteroids and the dose adjusted as per age of the patient. A paediatric physiotherapist started with physical therapy after four days of commencement of treatment. Conclusion: In present times with wide spread use of MRI, the definition of SCIWORA is slowly turning towards spinal cord injury without neuroimaging abnormality [4]. Traumatic spinal cord infarction is a special type of SCIWORA which presents with normal radiology with delayed neurological deterioration [1]. Corticosteroid usage has been useful in cases of SCIWORA as proved by NASCISII Trial. PMID:27299114

  15. Is Child Sexual Abuse Declining in Canada? An Analysis of Child Welfare Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin-Vezina, Delphine; Helie, Sonia; Trocme, Nico

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Canadian victimization surveys and police databases suggest that, overall, no decline in sexual crimes in Canada had occurred lately. We aimed at reviewing the existing data from Canadian child protection services to further explore whether a decline in the number of substantiated child sexual abuse (CSA) cases has occurred during the…

  16. Fingers to the Bone: United States Failure To Protect Child Farmworkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Lee

    Agricultural work is the most hazardous and grueling area of employment open to U.S. children and is also the least protected. Adolescent farmworkers labor under more dangerous conditions than their peers working in nonagricultural settings and also face persistent wage exploitation and fraud. These adolescent workers are protected less under U.S.…

  17. Protective Factors for Children of Alcoholics: Parenting, Family Environment, Child Personality, and Contextual Supports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Lisa C.; Chassin, Laurie

    The purposes of this study were to identify factors that would ameliorate the risk for substance abuse problems among children of alcoholics (COA), and to explore mechanisms of protection, particularly the Stress-Buffering model. Protective factors for children of alcoholics were examined in a controlled study (N=386). Three possible models are…

  18. A Welcome for Every Child: How France Protects Maternal and Child Health--A New Frame of Reference for the United States. A Report of the French-American Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Gail

    This report presents findings of a study tour organized by the French-American Foundation, for 13 United States' health care professionals to examine and interpret the nearly 50-year-old French maternal and child health care system, Protection maternelle et infantile (PMI). Chapter 1 describes the operation of PMI and the possibility of similar…

  19. A case of bilateral submandibular gland mucoceles in a 16-month-old child

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hye Jung; Kim, Seoung Geun; Kim, Jong Duk; Kim, Jun Hyeng; Kim, Jun Hyen

    2012-01-01

    Mucoceles are common benign cystic lesions of the oral cavity that develop following extravasation or retention of mucous material from the major or minor salivary glands. Mucoceles are usually located in the lower lip (60 to 70% of cases), and the floor of the mouth is only involved in 6 to 15% of cases. Submandibular gland mucocele is extremely rare but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of swelling at the submandibular triangle in young children. We present the rare case of a 16-month-old child who was diagnosed with bilateral submandibular gland mucocele, presenting as serial swellings in both submandibular regions. We removed the cystic mass with the submandibular and sublingual glands to prevent recurrence. PMID:22745647

  20. Acute Glomerulonephritis in a Child with Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Falsaperla, Raffaele; Giunta, Leandra; Spataro, Giuseppina; Rapisarda, Venerando; Velardita, Mario; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Pavone, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Background. Infectious diseases seem to be an important and independent risk factor for renal failure, but the underlying mechanism of renal involvement during some kinds of infectious diseases is still unclear, even if the literature data report immunomediated and/or autoimmune mechanisms to explain the pathogenic relationship between the two diseases. In paediatric patients, Chlamydia pneumoniae is a rare cause of renal complications and it may manifest in several ways, mainly involving the respiratory system, even if also renal and glomerulalr complications, have been described. Case Diagnosis/Treatment. Herein we report a case of a 3-year-old child who developed an acute glomerulonephritis that was chronologically, clinically, and biologically related to a previous Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. On our knowledge, in the literature it is the youngest patient with renal involvement during course of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection ever reported. Conclusions. The present case supports the hypothesis of a rather close causal relationship between this infective agent and renal and glomerular symptoms occurred in this child, during an acute episode of respiratory disease. PMID:23970901

  1. Acute Glomerulonephritis in a Child with Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vitaliti, Giovanna; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Giunta, Leandra; Spataro, Giuseppina; Rapisarda, Venerando; Velardita, Mario; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Pavone, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Background. Infectious diseases seem to be an important and independent risk factor for renal failure, but the underlying mechanism of renal involvement during some kinds of infectious diseases is still unclear, even if the literature data report immunomediated and/or autoimmune mechanisms to explain the pathogenic relationship between the two diseases. In paediatric patients, Chlamydia pneumoniae is a rare cause of renal complications and it may manifest in several ways, mainly involving the respiratory system, even if also renal and glomerulalr complications, have been described. Case Diagnosis/Treatment. Herein we report a case of a 3-year-old child who developed an acute glomerulonephritis that was chronologically, clinically, and biologically related to a previous Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. On our knowledge, in the literature it is the youngest patient with renal involvement during course of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection ever reported. Conclusions. The present case supports the hypothesis of a rather close causal relationship between this infective agent and renal and glomerular symptoms occurred in this child, during an acute episode of respiratory disease. PMID:23970901

  2. Child maltreatment and neglect, or poverty and ignorance: An old case from the museum.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Slobodan; Živković, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    We present an old case, from the year 1928, of a girl who, as an 18-month-old, had ingested a small amount of lye, and over time oesophageal stenosis had developed. However, her parents had not taken her to hospital until 4 months after the event, after an episode of bloody vomiting. She spent the remaining time of her life in the hospital, where she died as a 3-year-old. Her parents did not visit once during that time. After the autopsy, the opinion about the cause and mechanism of death had five steps: the immediate cause of death was purulent pneumonia, which was a complication of small pox and severe undernourishment; the severe undernourishment was the consequence of a narrowed part of the oesophagus; this developed due to the ingestion of the corrosive agent; and it remained uncertain whether the ingestion of the corrosive agent was accidental or homicidal in manner. The presented case could be an example of possible child maltreatment and neglect in rural parts of society, from almost 90 year ago; at the time these cases were not recognized and treated as they would be today. This is also an example of how the forensic pathologist, via the conclusion about the cause of death, highlighted the parents' carelessness and neglect of the child. PMID:26101443

  3. [Oral plasmablastic lymphoma in a human immunodeficiency virus positive child: a case report].

    PubMed

    Astolfo, María Florencia; D'Antonio, Federico; Dartiguelongue, Juan B; Arabolaza, María N; Cheistwer, Ariel; De Matteo, Elena; Torrado, Lidia; Martínez Iriart, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare and aggressive subtype of diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, originally described in the oral cavity of male adults with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It is composed of neoplastic ceils which resemble immunoblasts but present immunophenotype distinctive of plasma cell and Epstein-Barr virus latent infection. In children, it is an even rarer disease. We present a case of oral plasmablastic lymphoma in a vertically transmitted human immunodeficiency virus-positive five-year-old child. PMID:27079412

  4. Recurrent meningitis with upper airway obstruction in a child: frontonasal encephalocele- a case report.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Soumya; Kapoor, Rohit; Paul, Premila; Yadav, Rakesh

    2014-08-01

    Nasal encephalocele are rare congenital anomalies; these benign masses may be confused with nasal dermoids, hemangiomas, nasal gliomas and anterior skull base masses. These lesions have concomitant defects in the anterior cranial fossa thus this potential communication can cause recurrent episodes of meningitis and/or difficulty in breathing and cosmetic anomalies. We bring a case of a 6-year-old child who presented to the clinic with multiple episodes of meningitis which was associated with nasal discharge. The imaging studies and nasal fluid analysis confirmed it as cerebrospinal fluid; subsequently imaging findings concluded it as frontonasal encephalocele which was later resected and patient showed improvement. PMID:25302244

  5. Culture proven Salmonella typhi co-infection in a child with Dengue fever: a case report.

    PubMed

    Srinivasaraghavan, Rangan; Narayanan, Parameswaran; Kanimozhi, Thandapani

    2015-09-01

    Infectious diseases are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Sometimes concurrent infections with multiple infectious agents may occur in one patient, which make the diagnosis and management a challenging task. The authors here present a case of co-infection of typhoid fever with dengue fever in a ten-year-old child and discuss the pertinent issues. The authors emphasize that the risk factors predicting the presence of such co-infections, if developed, will be immensely useful in areas where dengue outbreak occurs in the background of high transmission of endemic infections. PMID:26409747

  6. Rosai-Dorfman disease with spontaneous resolution: case report of a child

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Felipe Barbosa; Barcelos, Pedro Samuel de Valões; Constâncio, Ana Paula Nunes; Nogueira, Cleto Dantas; Melo-Filho, Antônio Aldo

    2011-01-01

    Rosai-Dorfman disease is a self-limiting condition caused by histiocyte proliferation within the sinusoids of lymph nodes and in extranodal tissue. It is a rare disease, particularly in children, that progresses with extensive lymphadenopathy. This paper reports on the case of a 2-year-old child with progressive cervical lymphadenopathy associated with persistent fever and radiological findings suggestive of lymphoma. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry studies of a lymph node biopsy established the diagnosis of Rosai-Dorfman disease. Both lymphadenopathy and fever resolved spontaneously. PMID:23049324

  7. A case of postvaricella cerebral angiopathy with a good outcome in a child

    PubMed Central

    Magagnini, Maria Cristina; Spina, Luisa La; Gioé, Daniela; Campo, G. Del; Belfiore, G.; Smilari, P.; Greco, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral vasculopathy is a serious but uncommon complication of varicella-zoster-virus (VZV) infection. Diagnosis is based on a recent history of VZV infection, signs and symptoms of transient ischemic attack or stroke, and vascular anomalies on neuroimaging. We report a case of postvaricella cerebral angiopathy in a 5-year-old child, who was admitted after three episodes of transient right hemiplegia, each one lasting a few minutes. He had contracted chicken pox, the month prior to admission. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintense signals in the left lenticular and caudate nuclei, which can be considered to be a result of vasculopathy. PMID:26167223

  8. A case of postvaricella cerebral angiopathy with a good outcome in a child.

    PubMed

    Magagnini, Maria Cristina; Spina, Luisa La; Gioé, Daniela; Campo, G Del; Belfiore, G; Smilari, P; Greco, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral vasculopathy is a serious but uncommon complication of varicella-zoster-virus (VZV) infection. Diagnosis is based on a recent history of VZV infection, signs and symptoms of transient ischemic attack or stroke, and vascular anomalies on neuroimaging. We report a case of postvaricella cerebral angiopathy in a 5-year-old child, who was admitted after three episodes of transient right hemiplegia, each one lasting a few minutes. He had contracted chicken pox, the month prior to admission. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintense signals in the left lenticular and caudate nuclei, which can be considered to be a result of vasculopathy. PMID:26167223

  9. Development of an instrument to understand the child protective services decision-making process, with a focus on placement decisions.

    PubMed

    Dettlaff, Alan J; Christopher Graham, J; Holzman, Jesse; Baumann, Donald J; Fluke, John D

    2015-11-01

    When children come to the attention of the child welfare system, they become involved in a decision-making process in which decisions are made that have a significant effect on their future and well-being. The decision to remove children from their families is particularly complex; yet surprisingly little is understood about this decision-making process. This paper presents the results of a study to develop an instrument to explore, at the caseworker level, the context of the removal decision, with the objective of understanding the influence of the individual and organizational factors on this decision, drawing from the Decision Making Ecology as the underlying rationale for obtaining the measures. The instrument was based on the development of decision-making scales used in prior decision-making studies and administered to child protection caseworkers in several states. Analyses included reliability analyses, principal components analyses, and inter-correlations among the resulting scales. For one scale regarding removal decisions, a principal components analysis resulted in the extraction of two components, jointly identified as caseworkers' decision-making orientation, described as (1) an internal reference to decision-making and (2) an external reference to decision-making. Reliability analyses demonstrated acceptable to high internal consistency for 9 of the 11 scales. Full details of the reliability analyses, principal components analyses, and inter-correlations among the seven scales are discussed, along with implications for practice and the utility of this instrument to support the understanding of decision-making in child welfare. PMID:25913382

  10. Profiles of Intimate Partner Violence Victimization, Substance Misuse, and Depression Among Female Caregivers Involved with Child Protective Services

    PubMed Central

    Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Connell, Christian M.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, substance misuse, and depression are highly prevalent among female caregivers involved with child protective services (CPS). Understanding heterogeneity in the occurrence of these problems is essential to improving pathways to intervention for women in this population. Latent class analysis was employed to determine whether there exist homogeneous subgroups of female caregivers who experience different patterns of IPV victimization, substance misuse, and depression. A restricted three-class solution best fit the data, suggesting high risk, moderate risk, and no risk subgroups. A substantial number of female caregivers comprise the high-risk subgroup (33%) in which caregivers reported very high rates of IPV victimization, substance misuse, and depression. Only a very small proportion comprised the no-risk subgroup (9%). Findings emphasize the heterogeneity among subgroups of female caregivers based on these risk factors, which may have implications for practitioners, such as CPS caseworkers, and researchers alike. PMID:26617433

  11. Protecting the future of indigenous children and nations: an examination of the Indian Child Welfare Act.

    PubMed

    Weaver, H N; White, B J

    1999-01-01

    The Indian Child Welfare Act is a landmark piece of legislation, passed in response to a long history of Native American children being alienated from their families and communities. The Act has far reaching implications for social workers and human service professionals who have any involvement with Native American children or families. Still, many professionals are either unaware of the Act all together or do not know how to effectively implement its provisions in their practice. This lack of awareness and other factors such as inadequate funding have meant that the Act has never realized its full potential to reduce the number of children in out-of-home care. In order to increase awareness about the Act and to make its implementation in day to day social services more practical, this article provides background information on the factors leading to the Act, information on the law itself, and recommendations for practitioners, administrators, and students in the human services. PMID:10538185

  12. Genetic influences can protect against unresponsive parenting in the prediction of child social competence.

    PubMed

    Van Ryzin, Mark J; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    Although social competence in children has been linked to the quality of parenting, prior research has typically not accounted for genetic similarities between parents and children, or for interactions between environmental (i.e., parental) and genetic influences. In this article, the possibility of a Gene x Environment (G × E) interaction in the prediction of social competence in school-age children is evaluated. Using a longitudinal, multimethod data set from a sample of children adopted at birth (N = 361), a significant interaction was found between birth parent sociability and sensitive, responsive adoptive parenting when predicting child social competence at school entry (age 6), even when controlling for potential confounds. An analysis of the interaction revealed that genetic strengths can buffer the effects of unresponsive parenting. PMID:25581124

  13. The parent-child-therapist alliance: A case study using a strategic approach.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Thirusha; Behari, Sheethal

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we present a single case study of a clinical approach that addresses the needs of parents and their children in psychotherapy. The approach begins by addressing the child's and parent's concerns separately at first by establishing strong therapeutic alliances with each, and then proceeds to address the concerns of the parent-child dyad. The basic premise is that the therapeutic alliance is the central element to successful outcomes in psychotherapy. The nature of alliance-building and its associated methods and techniques have been extensively considered for adult therapy. However, there is considerably less written on the therapeutic alliance with children and adolescents in the context of family interventions. We briefly examine some theoretical dimensions and applications of the therapeutic alliance in psychotherapy with children/adolescents and their parents. A three-phase alliance-building psychotherapy strategy, founded on the idea that each therapeutic relationship warrants an effective working alliance, is proposed. The case of a single mother and her adolescent daughter is employed to illustrate the strategy. PMID:25859699

  14. [Congenital toxoplasmosis. 5 cases of mother-to-child transmission of pre-pregnancy infection].

    PubMed

    Desmonts, G; Couvreur, J; Thulliez, P

    1990-09-29

    Five cases of congenital toxoplasmosis consecutive to a maternal toxoplasma infection that had preceded pregnancy were observed. One woman with normal immune system had developed a well-documented lymph node toxoplasmosis 2 months before conceiving. Four women had chronic toxoplasmosis diagnosed in the course of an immunosuppressive disease: Hodgkin's disease in 1 case, systemic lupus erythematosus in 2 cases and pancytopenia in 1 case. Toxoplasmosis had been recognized 3, 5 and 10 years respectively before conception in 3 women, and at an uncertain date in 1 woman. Three women had received corticosteroids during pregnancy, and 2 had undergone splenectomy. Among the 6 children (2 were twins), 1 presented with severe foetal disease at birth, 1 developed lethal systemic toxoplasmosis after birth, 1 showed hydrocephalus with therapeutically well-controlled chorioretinitis, 1 had isolated eye lesion and 2 had asymptomatic infection. The parasite seems to have been transmitted after the 20th week of pregnancy in all cases. The physiopathology of mother-to child toxoplasma transmission, the role played by maternal immunodeficiency and the practical implications of these exceptional cases are discussed. PMID:2146635

  15. Constraint-induced movement therapy for a child with hemiparesis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fergus, Andrea; Buckler, Jessica; Farrell, Janeen; Isley, Melinda; McFarland, Meghan; Riley, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    This case report describes the outcomes of a method of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) incorporated into a home program using a minimally restrictive constraint over an 18-month period. The movement of the uninvolved hand and wrist of a 13-month-old child with hemiparesis was constrained with a soft removable mitt. Caregivers performed CIMT in 2 intense periods and weaning periods, and a home exercise period. Two independent raters performed video analysis of the quantity and quality of upper extremity. All measures showed improvement. Reaches with the involved upper extremity increased from 8.9% to 41.0%. Use of advanced grasp patterns increased from 3.3% to 76.1%. Successful release of objects improved from 0% to 73.0%. Caregivers reported functional improvements and strong positive feedback regarding success, ease, and satisfaction with CIMT. This case demonstrates positive outcomes using a clinically feasible method of CIMT with far reaching implications on function. PMID:18703966

  16. Evidence-Informed, Individual Treatment of a Child with Sexual Behavior Problems: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Allen, Brian; Berliner, Lucy

    2015-11-01

    Children with sexual behavior problems pose a significant challenge for community-based mental health clinicians. Very few clinical trials are available to guide intervention and those interventions that are available are based in a group format. The current case study demonstrates the application of evidence-informed treatment techniques during the individual treatment of a 10-year-old boy displaying interpersonal sexual behavior problems. Specifically, the clinician adapts and implements a group-based model developed and tested by Bonner et al. (1999) for use with an individual child and his caregivers. Key points of the case study are discussed within the context of implementing evidence-informed treatments for children with sexual behavior problems. PMID:25784200

  17. Serious Illness, Injury, and Death in Child Protection and Preparation for End-of-Life Situations among Child Welfare Services Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikai, Ellen L.; Herrin, Charlotte; Tang, Maggie; Church, Wesley T., II

    2008-01-01

    A mailed survey of child welfare workers in one southern state assessed various aspects of encounters with end-of-life situations in practice. Findings revealed that child deaths, children with life-threatening or life-limiting illnesses, and parental deaths were most commonly encountered and that coworkers were relied on for support. Many had no…

  18. Eye Safety At-A-Glance: Protecting Your Child's Vision in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Sports-related eye injuries are quite common, yet the number of children who use protective eyewear (safety glasses or goggles) is extremely low. More than 600,000 eye injuries related to sports occur each year, and approximately one-third of these injuries occur in children. When children participate in sports they not only increase their…

  19. International Law as Remedy: When the State Breaches Child Protection Statutes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessant, Judith

    2011-01-01

    While legislative frameworks prescribe the legal obligations of the parents to protect and nurture their children, there is no equivalent legal framework requiring and sanctioning the conduct of agents of the state who act in loco parentis. In consequence some children continue to be "at risk" and may even be in greater danger once the state has…

  20. Proceedings of an African Symposium on the World of Work and the Protection of the Child (Yaounde, Cameroon, Africa, December 12-15, 1979.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Inst. for Labour Studies, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This publication contains the working papers from a symposium in which Africans active in the field of child welfare and protection discussed the conditions under which children are raised and the impact that this has on their future labor force participation. While this symposium was limited to the African context, it is hoped that it will mark…

  1. Psychological Maltreatment--Maltreatment of the Mind: A Catalyst for Advancing Child Protection toward Proactive Primary Prevention and Promotion of Personal Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Stuart N.; Glaser, Danya

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child protection, as primarily applied toward narrow corrective intervention, has been judged to be inadequate in dealing with the wide variety of forms and levels of physical, psychological and sexual violence to which children are subjected throughout the world. Concern about this state of affairs has grown as a part of a global…

  2. Evaluation of the Sustainability and Clinical Outcome of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) in a Child Protection Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolko, David J.; Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; Gully, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the sustainability and outcome of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) as delivered by practitioners in a community-based child protection program who had received training in the model several years earlier. Formerly described as Abuse-Focused CBT, AF-CBT is an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for…

  3. Length of Time to Resolve Criminal Charges of Child Sexual Abuse: A Three-County Case Study.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Wendy A; Lippert, Tonya; Edelson, Meredyth Goldberg; Jones, Lisa M

    2015-08-01

    The present study sought to examine the court culture of three Oregon counties and their timelines for resolving felony child sexual abuse cases. Specifically, we examined (a) case outcomes, churning (i.e., the extent to which four court events were rescheduled), the length of time to reach a criminal case resolution, and how this length of time compared to that for felonies generally; (b) whether mandatory minimum sentences affected resolution timeliness; and (c) key stakeholders' perceptions about their local court culture. Data included retrospective case-file abstraction (N = 532) on all felony child sex crimes for a 2-year period and interviews with legal professionals (N = 23). Across all three counties, a minority of child sexual abuse cases (18% to 47%) were resolved within the target timeframe of 4 months. In contrast, most felonies (65% to 77%) were resolved within this timeframe. The rescheduling of trials and the requirement of mandatory minimum sentences for some felony child sexual abuse crimes increased the time until case resolution. Results suggest that court cultures that are hierarchical and cooperative may lead to longer case resolution times than court cultures that are self-managing or autonomous. Implications of these results and other results are discussed. PMID:26206709

  4. 1. The myth of child rape as a cure for HIV/AIDS in Transkei: a case report.

    PubMed

    Meel, B L

    2003-01-01

    South Africa has one of the highest cases of HIV/AIDS infection in Africa, and Transkei, a former black homeland, now a part of the Eastern Cape Province, is one locality with a large number of HIV/AIDS sufferers. The unemployment level is very high and crime, including child rape, is very common. This report presents the case of a victim of rape, a nine-year old female child who was brought to the Umtata General Hospital, a victim of the mistaken belief that sex with a virgin will cure an HIV-infected person or AIDS sufferer of his illness. The alleged rapist was an HIV-positive uncle of the child. The myth of the 'HIV/AIDS virgin cure' is prevalent in the community. The history, physical examination and laboratory investigations of this case are given. A conclusion is drawn and preventive methods are suggested. PMID:12627683

  5. Low-Velocity Nail-Gun Injuries to the Interventricular Septum: Report of Two Cases, One in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Michalsen, Kara L.; Iguidbashian, John P.; Kyser, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Nail-gun injury to the heart is rare. Nail-gun injury to the interventricular septum is rarer: we could find only 5 reported cases, and none involving a child. We report 2 additional cases, in which nails penetrated the interventricular septum without causing acute pericardial tamponade, heart block, or shunt across the septum. Transesophageal echocardiography provides a dynamic way to evaluate the patient preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively. In the cases reported here, both the adult with multiple interventricular nails and the child with a single nail underwent foreign-object removal via median sternotomy. The child needed cardiopulmonary bypass for removal of the nail. There were no short-term or long-term sequelae from these interventricular septal injuries. PMID:26413027

  6. Spinal subdural hematoma revealing hemophilia A in a child: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Behzad; Ghodsi, Mohammad; Ketabchi, Ebrahim; Bakhtiari, Abbas; Mostajabi, Pardis

    2003-01-01

    Background Intraspinal bleeding especially in the form of subdural hematoma is rare in hemophiliacs. In the present case, we report a neglected hemophilic A child with such a problem and discuss its management options. Case Presentation A 9-year old hemophilic A boy presented with quadriparesis, confusion and meningismus after a fall 4 days previously. There was no sign of direct trauma to his back. His CT Scan and MRI showed spinal extramedullary hematoma extended from C5 to L2. We corrected the factor VIII level, but two days later, the patient's lower limbs weakened to 1/5 proximally as well as distally. We performed a laminectomy from T11 to L2, according to the level of the maximal neurological deficit and recent deterioration course. The subdural hematoma was evacuated. The hematoma in other spinal levels was managed conservatively. In the week following the operation, the patient's neurological status approached normal. Conclusion This case calls attention to the clinical manifestation, radiological features and management options of the rarely reported intraspinal hematoma in hemophilic children. Although this case has been managed operatively for its hematoma in the thoracolumbar region, at the same time it can be considered a successful case of conservative management of intraspinal hematoma in the cervicothoracic region. Both conservative and surgical management could be an option in managing these patients considering their neurological course. PMID:12904268

  7. Spinal subdural hematoma revealing hemophilia A in a child: A case report.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Behzad; Ghodsi, Mohammad; Ketabchi, Ebrahim; Bakhtiari, Abbas; Mostajabi, Pardis

    2003-08-01

    BACKGROUND: Intraspinal bleeding especially in the form of subdural hematoma is rare in hemophiliacs. In the present case, we report a neglected hemophilic A child with such a problem and discuss its management options. CASE PRESENTATION: A 9-year old hemophilic A boy presented with quadriparesis, confusion and meningismus after a fall 4 days previously. There was no sign of direct trauma to his back. His CT Scan and MRI showed spinal extramedullary hematoma extended from C5 to L2. We corrected the factor VIII level, but two days later, the patient's lower limbs weakened to 1/5 proximally as well as distally. We performed a laminectomy from T11 to L2, according to the level of the maximal neurological deficit and recent deterioration course. The subdural hematoma was evacuated. The hematoma in other spinal levels was managed conservatively. In the week following the operation, the patient's neurological status approached normal. CONCLUSION: This case calls attention to the clinical manifestation, radiological features and management options of the rarely reported intraspinal hematoma in hemophilic children. Although this case has been managed operatively for its hematoma in the thoracolumbar region, at the same time it can be considered a successful case of conservative management of intraspinal hematoma in the cervicothoracic region. Both conservative and surgical management could be an option in managing these patients considering their neurological course. PMID:12904268

  8. [The Paris cell for collecting preoccupying information (la CRIP 75): an organization at the heart of child protection].

    PubMed

    Magny, J; Reveillère, C

    2011-09-01

    Within the objective of coordinating actions of the different partners whose mission involves childhood protection measures, and to allow convergence of preoccupying information toward a centralized unit, law n(o) 2007-293 of 5 March 2007 reforming child protection requires the creation of a departmental cell for the collection, processing, and assessment of preoccupying information (cellule départementale, de recueil, de traitement, et d'évaluation des informations préoccupantes, CRIP) on the circumstances of a minor in danger or at risk of being so. The CRIP 75 is a multidisciplinary cell comprising an administrative pole, a socio-educational pole, and a medical health officer. Its mission is to participate in assessing preoccupying information and directing it appropriately, with a preference toward treating situations within an administrative framework and in accordance with the parents. The public prosecutor is only called in when the recommended measures have not provided an adequate response to the danger. Situations that are a matter for prosecution as a criminal offence are transmitted directly to the public prosecutor's office, as are situations for which the social or medico social services are unable to make an assessment. PMID:21816589

  9. Pyogenic Sacroiliitis in a 13-Month-Old Child: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Julien; Julien, Leroux; Bernardini, Isabelle; Isabelle, Bernardini; Grynberg, Lucie; Lucie, Grynberg; Grandguillaume, Claire; Claire, Grandguillaume; Michelin, Paul; Paul, Michelin; Ould Slimane, Mourad; Slimane, Ould Slimane; Nectoux, Eric; Eric, Nectoux; Deroussen, François; François, Deroussen; Gouron, Richard; Richard, Gouron; Angelliaume, Audrey; Audrey, Angelliaume; Ilharreborde, Brice; Brice, Ilharreborde; Renaux-Petel, Mariette; Mariette, Renaux-Petel

    2015-10-01

    Pyogenic sacroiliitis is exceptional in very young children. Diagnosis is difficult because clinical examination is misleading. FABER test is rarely helpful in very young children. Inflammatory syndrome is frequent. Bone scintigraphy and MRI are very sensitive for the diagnosis. Joint fluid aspiration and blood cultures are useful to identify the pathogen. Appropriate antibiotic therapy provides rapid regression of symptoms and healing. We report the case of pyogenic sacroiliitis in a 13-month-old child.Clinical, biological, and imaging data of this case were reviewed and reported retrospectively.A 13-month-old girl consulted for decreased weight bearing without fever or trauma. Clinical examination was not helpful. There was an inflammatory syndrome. Bone scintigraphy found a sacroiliitis, confirmed on MRI. Aspiration of the sacroiliac joint was performed. Empiric intravenous biantibiotic therapy was started. Patient rapidly recovered full weight bearing. On the 5th day, clinical examination and biological analysis returned to normal. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was switched for oral. One month later, clinical examination and biological analysis were normal and antibiotic therapy was stopped.Hematogenous osteoarticular infections are common in children but pyogenic sacroiliitis is rare and mainly affects older children. Diagnosis can be difficult because clinical examination is poor. Moreover, limping and decreased weight bearing are very common reasons for consultation. This may delay the diagnosis or refer misdiagnosis. Bone scintigraphy is useful to locate a bone or joint disease responsible for limping. In this observation, bone scintigraphy located the infection at the sacroiliac joint. Given the young age, MRI was performed to confirm the diagnosis. Despite the very young age of the patient, symptoms rapidly disappeared with appropriate antibiotic therapy.We report the case of pyogenic sacroiliitis in a 13-month-old child. It reminds the risk of

  10. Protecting Children in Day Care: Building a National Background Check System. Hearing before the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session on the National Child Protection Act of 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    In his opening statement at this hearing, committee chairman Senator Joseph Biden mentioned the National Child Protection Act of 1991; praised Oprah Winfrey's efforts to support programs and legislation to prevent sexual abuse of children; presented data on the incidence of sexual abuse of children in the home and in day care centers; and…

  11. Protecting people in cities: the disturbing case of Haiti.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Elizabeth; Ferro-Ribeiro, Sara

    2012-07-01

    Humanitarian actors have sought increasingly not only to assist people affected by natural disasters but also to protect them. This paper examines the efforts of international humanitarian actors to protect Haitians affected by the devastating earthquake of 12 January 2010. It begins with an analysis of the particular difficulties of conceptualising and operationalising protection in an urban environment and traces the efforts of international actors on the ground to develop appropriate protection strategies. The particular difficulties of working with camps and spontaneous settlements in urban areas are explored as are the challenges that stemmed from working with different levels of governmental authorities and a multitude of humanitarian actors. The paper concludes by highlighting some of the lessons learned from the successes and failures of international protection efforts in Haiti. It is hoped that these may assist future efforts to protect people living in urban environments. PMID:22687156

  12. Abusive head trauma and accidental head injury: a 20-year comparative study of referrals to a hospital child protection team

    PubMed Central

    John, Simon; Vincent, Andrea L; Reed, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aim To describe children referred for suspected abusive head trauma (AHT) to a hospital child protection team in Auckland, New Zealand. Methods Comparative review of demographics, histories, injuries, investigations and diagnostic outcomes for referrals under 15 years old from 1991 to 2010. Results Records were available for 345 children. Referrals increased markedly (88 in the first decade, 257 in the second), but the diagnostic ratio was stable: AHT 60%, accidental or natural 29% and uncertain cause 11%. The probability of AHT was similar regardless of socio-economic status or ethnicity. In children under 2 years old with accidental head injuries (75/255, 29%) or AHT (180/255, 71%), characteristics of particular interest for AHT included no history of trauma (88/98, 90%), no evidence of impact to the head (84/93, 90%), complex skull fractures with intracranial injury (22/28, 79%), subdural haemorrhage (160/179, 89%) and hypoxic ischaemic injury (38/39, 97%). In children over 2 years old, these characteristics did not differ significantly between children with accidental head injuries (21/47, 45%) and AHT (26/47, 55%). The mortality of AHT was higher in children over 2 years old (10/26, 38%) than under 2 years (19/180, 11%). Conclusions The striking increase in referrals for AHT probably represents increasing incidence. The decision to refer a hospitalised child with a head injury for assessment for possible AHT should not be influenced by socio-economic status or ethnicity. Children over 2 years old hospitalised for AHT are usually injured by mechanisms involving impact and should be considered at high risk of death. PMID:26130384

  13. A rare case of cystic ganglionosis in a child with associated imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Nathan P; Meyers, Arthur B; Szabo, Sara; Vo, Nghia J

    2016-03-01

    Ganglia are benign soft tissue masses that are found adjacent to joints and tendons. They can be multifocal but they are rarely more numerous than a few around any given joint. "Cystic ganglionosis" has been used to describe a condition in which multifocal and extensive ganglia are present. We present a rare case of cystic ganglionosis in a Caucasian girl with clinical symptoms detected at 6 months of age. To the authors' knowledge, only a single other case report of cystic ganglionosis is documented in the English medical literature. The ganglia in this case are more extensive, manifested at an earlier age and caused erosions of multiple bones, a rarely observed complication of ganglia. Additionally, radiograph, MR and sonographic images collected over 9 years time allows for a detailed description of the imaging characteristics of this case of cystic ganglionosis, and offers unique insight into the natural history of this diagnosis. Extensive ganglia in multiple locations in a young child should alert clinicians to the possibility of cystic ganglionosis. Disease progression may lead to deleterious effects on bone warranting the use of maintenance imaging and possibly surgical resection of symptomatic lesions. PMID:26577814

  14. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... limited to a high incidence of child sexual abuse, a high incidence of violent crimes, a high incidence of... requests must demonstrate a high incidence of child sexual abuse, a high incidence of violent crimes, a... abuse, child neglect, and family violence on Indian reservations, but may not be used to supplant...

  15. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... limited to a high incidence of child sexual abuse, a high incidence of violent crimes, a high incidence of... requests must demonstrate a high incidence of child sexual abuse, a high incidence of violent crimes, a... abuse, child neglect, and family violence on Indian reservations, but may not be used to supplant...

  16. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... limited to a high incidence of child sexual abuse, a high incidence of violent crimes, a high incidence of... requests must demonstrate a high incidence of child sexual abuse, a high incidence of violent crimes, a... abuse, child neglect, and family violence on Indian reservations, but may not be used to supplant...

  17. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... limited to a high incidence of child sexual abuse, a high incidence of violent crimes, a high incidence of... requests must demonstrate a high incidence of child sexual abuse, a high incidence of violent crimes, a... abuse, child neglect, and family violence on Indian reservations, but may not be used to supplant...

  18. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... limited to a high incidence of child sexual abuse, a high incidence of violent crimes, a high incidence of... requests must demonstrate a high incidence of child sexual abuse, a high incidence of violent crimes, a... abuse, child neglect, and family violence on Indian reservations, but may not be used to supplant...

  19. 22 CFR 96.53 - Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... result in the termination of the legal relationship between the child and his or her family of origin; (2..., family history, medical history (including that of the child's family), and any special needs of...

  20. Spontaneous ventral spinal epidural hematoma in a child: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ratre, Shailendra; Yadav, Yadram; Choudhary, Sushma; Parihar, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is very uncommon cause of spinal cord compression. It is extremely rare in children and is mostly located in dorsal epidural space. Ventral spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is even rarer, with only four previous reports in childrens. We are reporting fifth such case in a 14 year old male child. He presented with history of sudden onset weakness and sensory loss in both lower limbs with bladder bowel involvment since 15 days. There was no history of trauma or bleeding diasthesis. On clinical examination he had spastic paraplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of dorsal spine was suggestive of ventral spinal epidural hematoma extending from first to sixth dorsal vertebrae. Laminectomy of fourth and fifth dorsal vertebrae and complete evacuation of hematoma was done on the same day of admission. Postoperatively the neurological status was same. PMID:27114667