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Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, this study examined mothers' socialization of childemotion in suburban middle-class families in Gujarat, India. In particular, a community sample of 602 children, 6 to 8 years, was screened for emotional\\/behavioral problems using a parent-report measure standardized with this population. Based on the screening, four groups of children were formed: those with
Background: Parents' expression of positive emotion towards children who are typically developing (TD) is generally associated with better social development. However, the association between parents' negative emotion expression and social development can be positive or negative depending upon a number of factors, including the child's emotion…
This study investigated the role of maternal socialization and temperament in Turkish preschool children's emotion regulation. Participants consisted of 145 preschoolers (79 boys, 69 girls; M[subscript age]= 62 months), their mothers, and daycare teachers from middle-high socioeconomic suburbs of Istanbul. Maternal child-rearing practices and…
|This study investigated the role of maternal socialization and temperament in Turkish preschool children's emotion regulation. Participants consisted of 145 preschoolers (79 boys, 69 girls; M[subscript age]= 62 months), their mothers, and daycare teachers from middle-high socioeconomic suburbs of Istanbul. Maternal child-rearing practices and…
The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behavior and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n = 96) or without (n = 126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behavior problems. Maternal negative affective behavior, child externalizing emotional expression, and child internalizing emotional expression were observed during a number of lab tasks at child ages 4 and 5, and child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems were assessed via maternal questionnaire at age 6. Path analyses using structural equation modeling were utilized to test the relations among the variables at ages 4, 5, and 6. A parent-driven model of emotionsocialization emerged, wherein stronger relations were found among maternal negative affect and child externalizing emotions and behaviors than among maternal negative affect and child internalizing emotions and behaviors. Early child risk did not appear to alter the overall emotionsocialization process, although higher levels of maternal and child negativity were observed for the children with a developmental risk. Results underscore the complexity of emotionsocialization processes throughout the preschool period.
This paper reports the construction and pilot reliability, validity, and psychometric properties of a new caregiver-child rating scale that emphasizes caregiver-childsocial-emotional interactions and relationships. While the scale was developed and studied in the context of orphanages for young children, it potentially could be used in non-residential early care and education settings as well as for parent-child interactions in the home. The intent was to assess a few dimensions that comprehensively cover the range of caregiver-childsocial-emotional interactions and relationships but could be administered in a relatively short period of time in a variety of situations and would not require extensive coder training, manuals, or materials. Results showed that the scale can be reliably administered even using observation periods as short as five minutes, reliability was replicated over seven different coders working in three different orphanages, and ratings of caregivers were similar across different types of caregiving activities (i.e., feeding, dressing/bathing, free play) and for caregivers attending to children birth to 4 and 4 to 8 yrs. of age. In the orphanage context, factor analyses showed the scale primarily reflects caregiver-child mutual engagement and relationship with subordinate components of caregiver punitiveness and caregiver- vs. child-directed behaviors and intrusiveness.
McCall, Robert B.; Groark, Christina J.; Fish, Larry
In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early
In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early
The goals of the present research were to develop a modified version of an existing self-assessment questionnaire designed to measure parents' emotional style and to examine how the aspects of child regulation may moderate the relation between the emotional styles and social outcomes in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 140 mothers and children (73 males, 67 females, Mage =
Using an AB design With generalization, this study sought to determine the effectiveness of presenting videotaped emotions and Social Stories™ to teach a 9-year-old child With Asperger syndrome to recognize and understand emotions in himself and to generalize them to other situations in his home. Data collected in the child's home shoWed an improvement betWeen baseline and intervention in the
The present study examined gender differences in children's submissive and disharmonious emotions and parental attention to these emotions. Sixty children and their mothers and fathers participated when children were 4 and 6 years old. Children's emotion expression and parental responses during a game were coded. Girls expressed more submissive emotion than boys. Fathers attended more to girls' submissive emotion than to boys' at preschool age. Fathers attended more to boys' disharmonious emotion than to girls' at early school age. Parental attention at preschool age predicted later submissive expression level. Child disharmonious emotion predicted later externalizing symptoms. Gender differences in these emotions may occur as early as preschool age and may be subject to differential responding, particularly by fathers. PMID:15755221
Chaplin, Tara M; Cole, Pamela M; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn
Objective: Depression is common among adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA), but the intervening processes responsible for this outcome have not yet been fully delineated. The present study investigated the mediating role of perceived parental emotionsocialization and alexithymia (difficulties identifying and describing feelings) in explaining the link between CSA and adult depressive symptoms in female veterans. Method: Cross-sectional
Renu Thomas; David DiLillo; Kate Walsh; Melissa A. Polusny
Guided by the emotional security hypothesis developed by Davies & Cummings (1994), studies were conducted to test a conceptual refinement of children's adjustment to parental conflict in relation to hypotheses of other prominent theories. Study 1 examined whether the pattern of child responses to simulations of adult conflict tactics and topics was consistent with the emotional security hypothesis and social learning theory in a sample of 327 Welsh children. Supporting the emotional security hypothesis, child reports of fear, avoidance, and involvement were especially prominent responses to destructive conflict. Study 2 examined the relative roles of childemotional insecurity and social-cognitive appraisals in accounting for associations between parental conflict and child psychological symptoms in a sample of 285 Welsh children and parents. Findings indicated that childemotional insecurity was a robust intervening process in the prospective links between parental conflict and child maladjustment even when intervening processes proposed in the social-cognitive models were included in the analyses. Studies 3 and 4 explored pathways among parental conflict, childemotional insecurity, and psychological adjustment in the broader family context with a sample of 174 children and mothers. Supporting the emotional security hypothesis, Study 3 findings indicated that child insecurity continued to mediate the link between parental conflict and child maladjustment even after specifying the effects of other parenting processes. Parenting difficulties accompanying interparental conflict were related to child maladjustment through their association with insecure parent-child attachment. In support of the emotional security hypothesis, Study 4 findings indicated that family instability, parenting difficulties, and parent-child attachment insecurity potentiated mediational pathways among parental conflict, child insecurity, and maladjustment. Family cohesiveness, interparental satisfaction, and interparental expressiveness appeared to be protective factors in these mediational paths. No support was found for the social learning theory prediction that parent-child warmth would amplify associations between parental conflict and child disruptive behaviors. PMID:12528424
Davies, Patrick T; Harold, Gordon T; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Cummings, E Mark; Shelton, Katherine; Rasi, Jennifer A
|Discusses Montessori theories for development of social, moral, cognitive, and emotional dimensions of the human personality during the second plane of development--age six to puberty--as these theories relate to the theory of optimal experience. (JPB)|
Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children’s emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children’s expression of emotion are associated with children’s negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the strength of associations between child oral health and aspects of the home environment (child behaviour, parental psychological distress and family functioning) in a large sample of 1- to 12-year-old Australian children. METHODS: The current study used data from the 2006 Victorian Child Health and Wellbeing Study. Data were obtained on 4590 primary carers. Measures of the family environment included the level of family functioning, parental psychological distress, child's emotion and behavioural problems and the family structure. RESULTS: The odds of children having good oral health status were lower with increasing parental psychological distress and poor family functioning across all age groups, and lower with increasing child mental health or conduct problems among children aged 4 years or older. Socioeconomic factors were also related to child oral health status, but this was significant only among children aged 4-7 years, with the odds of children having good oral health status 68% higher in households with a yearly income ?AUD$ 60?000 compared with households with income <$20?000 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In order to address inequities in the experience of poor oral health, solutions that encompass social, economic and psychosocial dimensions will be required. Integrating intervention strategies that promote oral, healthy family functioning and the mental health of parents and children into existing systems reaching vulnerable community members may improve child oral health outcomes and reduce the unequal distribution of oral disease across the social gradient. PMID:23551227
Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother–childemotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value\\/danger of children's emotions and parent\\/child roles in emotionsocialization. Mother–childemotion talk was observed during a Lego storytelling task. Children's emotion understanding was
|This paper focuses on the social and emotional needs of children and young people who are refugees. It was inspired by casework undertaken by the author involving a 13-year-old boy who was a refugee from Montenegro. A vignette of the case is presented in addition to a review of relevant literature to illustrate and discuss the various sources of…
This longitudinal study examined processes that mediate the association between maternal depressive symptoms and peer social\\u000a preference during the early school years. Three hundred and fifty six kindergarten children (182 boys) and their mothers participated\\u000a in the study. During kindergarten, mothers reported their level of depressive symptomatology. In first grade, teachers rated\\u000a children’s emotion regulation at school and observers rated
Chi-Ming Kam; Mark T. Greenberg; Karen L. Bierman; John D. Coie; Kenneth A. Dodge; Michael E. Foster; John E. Lochman; Robert J. McMahon; Ellen E. Pinderhughes
The present study examined gender differences in children's submissive and disharmonious emotions and parental attention to these emotions. Sixty children and their mothers and fathers participated when children were 4 and 6 years old. Children's emotion expression and parental responses during a game were coded. Girls expressed more submissive emotion than boys. Fathers attended more to girls' submissive emotion than
Tara M. Chaplin; Pamela M. Cole; Carolyn Zahn-Waxler
Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network (NICHD SECCYD), the authors examined whether interactions between home and child-care quality affect children's social-emotional adjustment at 24, 36, and 54 months (N = 771). Triadic splits on quality of home and child care were used to examine children in specific ecological niches, with a focus on those who experience the double jeopardy of poor quality home and child-care environments. Children in this niche exhibited the highest levels of mother-reported problem behavior and the lowest levels of prosocial behavior. However, there was evidence that children from lower quality home environments were able to benefit from the compensatory influence of high-quality child care. These results suggest policies aimed at the cross-context influences of protective and risky settings. PMID:21291428
Watamura, Sarah Enos; Phillips, Deborah A; Morrissey, Taryn W; McCartney, Kathleen; Bub, Kristen
Early parent–child conversations about past emotional experiences provide a rich environment for the socialization of emotions. This study explored the role of parent and child gender in this process. Participants were 21 White, middle-class, 40- to 45-month-old children and their mothers and fathers. At separate home visits, each parent discussed with their child four specific past events during which the
Robyn Fivush; Melissa A. Brotman; Janine P. Buckner; Sherryl H. Goodman
The current study examined reciprocal parent-childemotion-related behaviors and links to childemotional and psychological functioning. Fifty-four mothers, fathers, and children (7 to 12 years old) participated in four emotion discussions about a time when the child felt angry, happy, sad, and anxious. Supportive emotion parenting (SEP), unsupportive emotion parenting (UEP), and child adaptive/maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) behaviors were coded using Noldus behavioral research software (Noldus Information Technology, 2007). Parents were more likely to follow children's adaptive emotion regulation with supportive versus unsupportive emotional responses and children were more likely to show adaptive versus maladaptive emotion regulation in response to supportive emotion parenting. Interaction patterns involving unsupportive emotion parenting related to child psychological and emotional outcomes. The results provide empirical support for an evocative person-environment framework of emotionsocialization and identify the ways in which particular patterns of interaction relate to psychological functioning in youth. PMID:23066675
|This longitudinal study examined processes that mediate the association between maternal depressive symptoms and peer social preference during the early school years. Three hundred and fifty six kindergarten children (182 boys) and their mothers participated in the study. During kindergarten, mothers reported their level of depressive…
Kam, Chi-Ming; Greenberg, Mark T.; Bierman, Karen L.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Foster, Michael E.; Lochman, John E.; McMahon, Robert J.; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.
This study investigated how transfer from marital conflict affects parents' ability to regulate their children's negative affect displays and how these parent responses impact their children's academic and social adjustment. In addition, the study examined whether parents' gender is associated with parents' reactions to their children's negative…
Bendig's (1) Pittsburgh Scales of Social Extraversion-Introversion (SEI) and Emotionality (Em) were translated so that they were of appropriate reading difficulty for children as well as for adults. The revised scales correlated highly (both .90) with the Pittsburgh scales, and they had high test-retest reliabilities (.92 and .89). Data from samples representing third grade to college ages were presented for
A sense of humor has been linked to social competence, popularity, and adaptability. The purpose of this review was to investigate the extant research in humor in childhood. Emerging work on the neuroanatomy of humor was discussed with findings of right hemispheric involvement for the comprehension and appreciation of humor for the affective network and the left hemisphere for cognitive understanding. These findings are intriguing when examining humor functioning in children with various disabilities, particularly the right hemisphere for children with autistic spectrum disorders or nonverbal learning disabilities. Examination of research in humor in childhood disabilities found most articles on humor in children with autistic spectrum disorder or mental retardation, with few to none in learning disabilities or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It was concluded that further study is needed to understand humor in children with disabilities and that such understanding will assist with interventions. PMID:20558671
|Early social-emotional development occurs in the context of parenting, particularly via processes such as maternal emotionsocialization and parent-child interactions. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that maternal contingent responsiveness partially mediated the relationship between maternal emotionsocialization of toddlers…
Brophy-Herb, Holly E.; Schiffman, Rachel F.; Bocknek, Erika London; Dupuis, Sara B.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Horodynski, Mildred; Onaga, Esther; Van Egeren, Laurie A.; Hillaker, Barbara
Emotionalchild abuse is virtually inevitable in the context of the traditional nuclear family and often has a more detrimental effect on children than other, more widely publicized forms of maltreatment. This paper documents clinical, statistical, and empirical evidence showing that "normative" child-rearing practices in our culture have…
|Emotionalchild abuse is virtually inevitable in the context of the traditional nuclear family and often has a more detrimental effect on children than other, more widely publicized forms of maltreatment. This paper documents clinical, statistical, and empirical evidence showing that "normative" child-rearing practices in our culture have…
The aim of the present study was to examine the relations of parenting style, parent response to negative childemotion, and family emotional expressiveness and support to childemotional eating. Mothers (N=450) completed questionnaires and their 6–8-year-old children (N=450) were interviewed. Results showed that emotional eating was negatively predicted by authoritative parenting style and family open expression of affection and
Glade L. Topham; Laura Hubbs-Tait; Julie M. Rutledge; Melanie C. Page; Tay S. Kennedy; Lenka H. Shriver; Amanda W. Harrist
Children who have suffered early abuse or neglect may later present with significant behavior problems including emotional instability, depression, and a tendency to be aggressive or violent with others. Troublesome behaviors may persist long after the abusive or neglectful environment has changed or the child has been in foster care placement. Neurobiological research has shown that early abuse results in an altered physiological response to stressful stimuli, a response that deleteriously affects the child's subsequent socialization. Pediatricians can assist caregivers by helping them recognize the abused or neglected child's altered responses, formulate more effective coping strategies, and mobilize available community resources. PMID:18762538
Stirling, John; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa
|Through direct observations of activities, conversations, and social interactions involving children with emotional or behavioral challenges, this study investigated practices child care staff used to include these children in their program, as well as child to child interactions, and supports put in place for times of transition between…
Brennan, Eileen M.; Ama, Shane M.; Gordon, Lynwood J.
This paper aims to move the debate over the status of the conflict between emotion and judgement forward by refuting three implicit claims: that conflict between emotion and judgement is always to be avoided; that any conflict should always be resolved and, moreover, that it should be resolved immediately; that judgement should usually take priority in any resolution. Refutation of these three claims leads to recognition of the wide variety of different cases of conflict between emotion and judgement; examination of these cases is aided by consideration of the social context in which the conflicts occur.
Objectives To estimate the prevalence of positive screens for social-emotional problems among preschool-aged children in a low-income clinical population and to explore the family context and receptivity to referrals to help guide development of interventions. Design Observational, cross-sectional study. Setting Two urban primary care clinics. Participants A total of 254 parents of 3- and 4-year-old children at 2 urban primary care clinics. Main Outcome Measures Score on a standardized screen for social-emotional problems (Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional) and answers to additional survey questions about child care arrangements, parental depressive symptoms, and attitudes toward preschool and behavioral health referrals. Results Twenty-four percent (95% CI, 16.5%-31.5%) of children screened positive for social-emotional problems. Among those screening positive, 45% had a parent with depressive symptoms, and 27% had no nonparental child care. Among parents of children who screened positive for social-emotional problems, 79% reported they would welcome or would not mind a referral to a counselor or psychologist; only 16% reported a prior referral. Conclusions In a clinical sample, 1 in 4 low-income preschool-aged children screened positive for social-emotional problems, and most parents were amenable to referrals to preschool or early childhood mental health. This represents an opportunity for improvement in primary prevention and early intervention for social-emotional problems.
Brown, Courtney M.; Copeland, Kristen A.; Sucharew, Heidi; Kahn, Robert S.
|Conceived around the notion that there are multiple sources of influence on children's development, this volume describes when, where, and how parenting matters and the major antecedents and moderators of effective parenting. The chapters of the volume are as follows: (1) "Beyond the Nurture Assumption: Testing Hypotheses about the Child's…
Borkowski, John G.; Ramey, Sharon Landesman; Bristol-Power, Marie
|Social-emotional development is a fundamental part of a child's overall well-being. Healthy development forms a critical foundation for building positive relationships and a strong self-esteem. Social-emotional development includes the ability to express and manage emotions and to establish secure relationships. All children have a natural desire…
|Beland maintains that high school students will need a high level of skill in the social and emotional arena to be ready for competitive employment in the 21st century. In a 2006 survey, human resource professionals said five skills were most crucial to high school graduates' success: professionalism/work ethic; teamwork; oral communications;…
During the toddler period, children begin to shift from being primarily dependent on parents to regulate their emotions to managing their emotions independently. The present study considers how children's propensity towards negative emotional arousal interacts with mothers’ efforts to socializeemotion regulation. Fifty-five low income mothers and their 2-year-old children completed observational assessments measuring mothers’ socialization of emotion regulation, children's reactivity propensity, and children's emotion regulation. Children's propensity towards negative reactivity significantly interacted with mothers’ use of physical soothing. That is, mothers with less reactive children who used more soothing had children who were more likely to use interactive, distraction-based regulatory behaviors during a frustration situation. Theoretical and child care implications of the finding are discussed.
Mirabile, Scott P.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Robison, Sarah D.
This study examined relationships among the ethnic identity, behavior problems, self-esteem, and social support of 166 ethnically\\u000a diverse pregnant and parenting adolescents, the majority of whom were African American and Hispanic American, and their infants.\\u000a Results indicated that pregnant and parenting adolescent females were experiencing nonclinical levels of behavior problems\\u000a on average and did not differ in their ratings of
Child poverty, as a critical indicator of the QOL, is intricately related to the social structure of the community. This hypothesis is explored for the 159 counties of Georgia for the year 2000. The influence of demographic, economic, family and health factors upon child poverty are explored through models of total, black and white child poverty.…
|Child poverty, as a critical indicator of the QOL, is intricately related to the social structure of the community. This hypothesis is explored for the 159 counties of Georgia for the year 2000. The influence of demographic, economic, family and health factors upon child poverty are explored through models of total, black and white child poverty.…
|Objective: Research on and intervention for childemotional abuse and emotional aggression toward children have been severely hampered because there have been no agreed-upon, clinically usable definitions. Methods: We have (a) proposed and field-tested a set of criteria to operationally define childemotional abuse for clinical settings and (b)…
Slep, Amy M. Smith; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.
Previous studies show that preschool children view negative emotions as susceptible to intentional control. However, the extent of this understanding and links with childsocial-emotional adjustment are poorly understood. To examine this, 62 3- and 4-year-olds were presented with puppet scenarios in which characters experienced anger, sadness, and fear. Forty-seven adults were presented with a parallel questionnaire. Participants rated the degree to which six emotion-regulation strategies were effective in decreasing negative emotions. Results showed that even the youngest preschoolers viewed cognitive and behavioral distraction and repairing the situation as relatively effective; compared to adults, however, preschoolers favored relatively “ineffective” strategies such as venting and rumination. Children also showed a functional view of emotion regulation; that effective strategies depend on the emotion being regulated. All participants favored repairing a negative situation to reduce anger and behavioral distraction to reduce sadness and fear. Finally, the more children indicated that venting would reduce negative emotions, the lower their maternal report of social skills. Findings are discussed in terms of functional emotion theory and implications of emotion-regulation understanding for child adjustment.
|We examined associations of maternal and childemotional discourse and childemotion knowledge with children's behavioral competence. Eighty-five upper middle-income, mostly White preschoolers and mothers completed a home-based bookreading task to assess discourse about emotions. Children's anger perception bias and emotion situation knowledge…
Garner, Pamela W.; Dunsmore, Julie C.; Southam-Gerrow, Michael
|Examines the nature of the child and the impact of socialization experiences on his capacity to act nonviolently in a changing social order. Presents a socialization model that draws on different disciplinary frameworks and research areas (animal and human ethnology, social learning theories, altruism studies, and reviews of protest movements).…
|Emotions find their meanings within human relationships that permit emotions to be experienced, expressed, and explored. Social and emotional competence, marked by an understanding, expression, and control of emotion, is one of the hallmarks of emotional discourse--demonstrated in the very nature of interactive communication as individuals relate…
Emotions find their meanings within human relationships that permit emotions to be experienced, expressed, and explored. Social and emotional competence, marked by an understanding, expression, and control of emotion, is one of the hallmarks of emotional discourse--demonstrated in the very nature of interactive communication as individuals relate…
Care for a child with a disability is a stressful experience for parents. It triggers a range of emotions and feelings that require a set of behaviors and attitudes to manage daily life. To face this situation, parents use coping strategies. The purpose of this study was to assess the psychological reactions (depression and anxiety) of parents and the impact of a child's disability on their quality of life (QOL), and to determine their coping strategies. A survey of 50 parents of handicapped children, treated in the neurology department at the Sfax Teaching Hospital in Tunisia, was conducted in September 2010. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the SF-36, and the Brief COPE were used to assess, respectively, depression, anxiety, QOL, and coping strategies in parents. Among the group of parents studied, the anxiety and depression rates were, respectively, 68% and 52%. Depression was more frequent among mothers and was correlated with low educational and socioeconomic levels. Anxiety was found in 70.7% of mothers and 55.6% of fathers with no significant correlation. There was a correlation between anxiety and increased family burden related to the presence of a similar case in the family. The range of coping strategies used includes religion (16%), active coping (16%), planning (16%), acceptance (20%), focus and venting of feelings (10%), and seeking emotionalsocial support (10%). Parents used emotion-focused coping in 68% of cases and problem-centered coping in 32% of cases. The coping strategy choice was significantly correlated with gender. Mothers preferentially used emotion-focused coping. Depressed or anxious parents more frequently used emotion-focused strategies. Religious faith was correlated with a strategy centered on religious coping. The length of follow-up (more than 2years) was correlated with a strategy focused on acceptance. Emotion-focused coping was also correlated with low levels of education and socioeconomic status. We found correlations between depression and different types of emotion-focused coping such as emotional support. Impaired QOL was higher among mothers (58.5% versus 33.3%). It was correlated with depression, anxiety, and the use of emotional coping. Also, it was correlated with low educational and socioeconomic levels and increased family burden related to the presence of a similar case in the family. The size most commonly impaired in mothers was limited due to mental health (56.9% versus 44.4% for fathers). Social functioning (D6) was significantly correlated with the presence of a mental disability, the functional dependence of the child, and increased family burden related to the presence of a similar case in the family. Impaired QOL was found in 66.8% of parents dissatisfied with the explanations given by the medical team. More problem-focused coping was found in parents satisfied with the information given by the medical team compared to those inadequately informed (42.1% versus 25.8%). The presence of a disabled child causes profound changes in the family. The impact of anxiety and depression on parents and on their QOL are considerable. This is a situation that involves an adaptation process. At first, parents may be tempted to use coping strategies focused on religion, a choice related to Arab-Muslim fatalism. Parents should be encouraged to use active coping strategies to support their disabled child better. In addition, adequate information given by the healthcare staff would help them to deal with the child's handicap and would contribute to improving their QOL. PMID:23266169
Ben Thabet, J; Sallemi, R; Hasïri, I; Zouari, L; Kamoun, F; Zouari, N; Triki, C; Maâlej, M
This study examined interrelations among different types of parental emotionsocialization behaviors in 88 mothers and 76 fathers (co-residing with participating mothers) of 8-year-old children. Parents completed questionnaires assessing emotionsocialization behaviors, emotion-related attitudes, and their children’s social functioning. An observed parent-childemotion discourse task and a childsocial-problem solving interview were also performed. Parent gender differences and concordance within couples in emotionsocialization behaviors were identified for some but not all behaviors. Fathers’ reactions to childemotion, family expressiveness, and fathers’ emotion coaching during discussion cohered, and a model was supported in which the commonality among these behaviors was predicted by fathers’ emotion-coaching attitudes, and was associated with children’s social competence. A cohesive structure for the emotionsocialization construct was less clear for mothers, although attitudes predicted all three types of emotionsocialization behavior (reactions, expressiveness, and coaching). Implications for developmental theory and for parent-focused interventions are discussed.
Baker, Jason K.; Fenning, Rachel M.; Crnic, Keith A.
This qualitative study examined several ecological aspects of medical social work practice that affect social workers' emotional well-being. Forty-seven medical social workers from seven hospitals participated in small group interviews in which practice experiences were explored. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data, with emotional dissonance emerging as a central theme. Community, family, and individual factors contributing
Objective. Emotional availability (EA) is a relationship construct that can be considered a global index of the emotional quality of parent–child interaction. The present study aimed to address several specific questions about mother–child and father–childemotional availability in families with a child with Down's syndrome (DS). Design. Free-play interactions of 22 children with DS (M chronological age = 35.32 mo)
Simona de Falco; Paola Venuti; Gianluca Esposito; Marc H. Bornstein
Current life emotional experiences have been demonstrated to elicit a process called social sharing of emotion, consisting of repetitive talking about these experiences in conversations with relevant others. Like many diurnal experiences, dreams are generally loaded with emotional elements, and empirical evidence has suggested that individuals share their dreams with others mainly belonging to the circle of intimates. The present
Noting that most individuals working with young children and their families lack the knowledge and skills to identify early warning signs of significant child distress and that most communities lack resources and expertise to address early social and emotional concerns, this report discusses the importance of healthy social and emotional…
|Noting that most individuals working with young children and their families lack the knowledge and skills to identify early warning signs of significant child distress and that most communities lack resources and expertise to address early social and emotional concerns, this report discusses the importance of healthy social and emotional…
|Social-emotional competence--it is a critical part of every child's school success, and just like any academic subject, children need instruction in it. Developed by a top expert, these proven curricula will help promote the social-emotional competence and resilience of children and adolescents. Divided into four age levels from kindergarten…
|The authors tested a series of models linking spanking and childsocial-emotional outcomes using a sample of 3,870 families from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study. Spanking was measured by the number of times the focal child was spanked by the mother at ages 1, 3, and 5. Internalizing and externalizing symptoms were assessed using…
Findings in the social psychology literatures on attitudes, social perception, and emotion demonstrate that social information processing involves embodiment, where embodiment refers both to actual bodily states and to simulations of experience in the brain's modality-specific systems for perception, action, and introspection. We show that embodiment underlies social information processing when the perceiver inter- acts with actual social objects (online
Paula M. Niedenthal; Lawrence W. Barsalou; Piotr Winkielman; Silvia Krauth-Gruber; Francois Ric
The present study was mainly designed to examine the link between child-adult emotional bonds and personality characteristics. A sample of Pakistani adolescents aged between 13 and 14 completed the Emotional Attachment Scale and the Eysenck Junior Personality Questionnaire. Adult subjects to whom the adolescent subjects were predominantly emotionally attached were also asked to complete the Eysenck Adult Personality Questionnaire. The
This article has two broad objectives: (a) It reviews the theoretical and practical litera- ture on the use of games to facilitate social and emotional learning (SEL). (b) Based on this review, it argues that games are a powerful way of developing social and emotional learning in young people. In addition, we draw on our collective experience as educa- tional
The article explores a sociological perspective on grief as a socialemotion. Focusing on the social bond with the deceased, the self-concept of the survivor or the power of feeling rules, general sociological theories of emotions (symbolic interactionism, structural theory, behavioral theory) have the potential to deepen the understanding of…
|After describing social-emotional learning, provides a framework for implementing an effective program that includes, for example, building connections between students and their schools, involving families and communities as partners. Describes three exemplary social and emotional learning programs for grades K-6: Caring School Community,…
Weissberg, Roger P.; Resnik, Hank; Payton, John; O'Brien, Mary Utne
This review evaluates research addressing the association between parent-childemotional interactions and the development and maintenance of depression in adolescence, with a focus on studies using observational research methods that assess parental responses to children and adolescents' emotional displays. We argue that parental socialization behaviors in response to different emotions expressed by youths may have distinct associations with depressive outcomes. In particular, parental behaviors that reinforce depressive behavior, reciprocate aggression, and fail to positively reinforce positive behavior have each been associated with youth depression. This review identifies a need for more observational research, including prospective, longitudinal studies, to better understand these behaviors, elucidate the directionality of influence between parental socialization behaviors and youth depression, and more clearly identify protective parental socialization behaviors. However, the use of existing findings to inform family-based interventions may improve prevention and treatment efforts directed at youth depression. PMID:22717335
Schwartz, Orli S; Sheeber, Lisa B; Dudgeon, Paul; Allen, Nicholas B
This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological. PMID:12157998
|Objective: This paper was intended to distinguish between poor parenting and childemotional maltreatment (CEM), to inform child welfare and public health policymakers of the need for differentiated responses. Methods: Scientific literature was integrated with current practice and assumptions relating to poor/dysfunctional parenting and child…
Social-emotional behavior of 352 3- and 4-year-olds attending private child-care and Head Start programs was observed using the Minnesota Preschool Affect Checklist, Revised (MPAC-R). Goals of the investigation included (a) using MPAC-R data to extract a shortened version, MPAC-R/S, comparing structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and stability of both versions; and, using the shortened measure, to examine (b) age, gender, and risk status differences in social-emotional behaviors; (c) contributions of emotion knowledge and executive function to social-emotional behaviors; and (d) contributions of social-emotional behaviors to early school adjustment and kindergarten academic success. Results show that reliability of MPAC-R/S was as good, or better, than the MPAC-R. MPAC-R/S structure, at both times of observation, included emotionally negative/aggressive, emotionally regulated/prosocial, and emotionally positive/productive behaviors; MPAC-R structure was similar but less replicable over time. Age, gender, and risk differences were found. Children's emotion knowledge contributed to later emotionally regulated/prosocial behavior. Finally, preschool emotionally negative/aggressive behaviors were associated with concurrent and kindergarten school success, and there was evidence of social-emotional behavior mediating relations between emotion knowledge or executive function, and school outcomes. The importance of portable, empirically supported observation measures of social-emotional behaviors is discussed along with possible applications, teacher utilization, and implementation barriers. PMID:22919891
Denham, Susanne A; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Thayer, Sara K; Mincic, Melissa S; Sirotkin, Yana S; Zinsser, Katherine
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe a framework for conceptualizing the role of emotional and social skills in effective leadership and management and provides preliminary suggestions for research and for the development of leader emotional and social skills. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper generalizes a dyadic communications framework in order to describe the process of emotional and
Two hundred and fifty-nine gifted adolescents were assessed on their emotional intelligence and social coping strategies using the Emotional Intelligence Scale (N. S. Schutte et al., Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167–177, 1998) and the Social Coping Questionnaire (M. A. Swiatek, Gifted Child Quaterly, 39, 154–161, 1995). An item factor analysis yielded four dimensions of emotional intelligence, leading to the
This paper reviews current literature relating to parent and childemotional functioning, specifically their emotion regulatory skills and emotional expression. Included are considerations regarding theoretical, methodological, and sampling strengths and weaknesses of existing literature. On the basis of the review, several directions for future…
Bariola, Emily; Gullone, Eleonora; Hughes, Elizabeth K.
|Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-childemotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…
|This study was intended to examine the relationship among children's emotionality, parental meta-emotion, and parent-child attachment. The sample consisted of 546 5th and 6th grade children and their mothers. The test instruments used in this study were the Emotionality subscale of the EAS Temperament Survey (mothers' ratings only), the Parental…
Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-childemotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…
With emergence of new technologies, there has been an explosion of basic and clinical research on the affective and cognitive neuroscience of face processing and emotion perception. Adult emotional face stimuli are commonly used in these studies. For developmental research, there is a need for a validated set of childemotional faces. This paper describes the development of the NIMH ChildEmotional Faces Picture Set (NIMH-ChEFS), a relatively large stimulus set with high quality, color images of the emotional faces of children. The set includes 482 photos of fearful, angry, happy, sad and neutral child faces with two gaze conditions: direct and averted gaze. In this paper we describe the development of the NIMH-ChEFS and data on the set’s validity based on ratings by 20 healthy adult raters. Agreement between the a priori emotion designation and the raters’ labels was high and comparable with values reported for commonly used adult picture sets. Intensity, representativeness, and composite “goodness” ratings are also presented to guide researchers in their choice of specific stimuli for their studies. These data should give researchers confidence in the NIMH-ChEFS’s validity for use in affective and social neuroscience research.
Egger, Helen Link; Pine, Daniel S.; Nelson, Eric; Leibenluft, Ellen; Ernst, Monique; Towbin, Kenneth E.; Angold, Adrian
This paper reviews current literature relating to parent and childemotional functioning, specifically their emotion regulatory\\u000a skills and emotional expression. Included are considerations regarding theoretical, methodological, and sampling strengths\\u000a and weaknesses of existing literature. On the basis of the review, several directions for future research are proposed. First,\\u000a it is argued that consistency in the measurement of emotion regulation is
Emily Bariola; Eleonora Gullone; Elizabeth K. Hughes
|The third volume of a series on child variance discusses delivery systems that service emotionally disturbed children, including educational, legal-correctional, mental health, social welfare, religious, and counter-cultural institutions. Each type of institution is described extensively in terms of the history of its delivery systems in the…
The present invention relates to a method and device for diagnosing and applying treatment for the emotional, physical, spiritual, and cognitive development of a child by presenting illustrations having social and emotional attributes so the emotional, physical, spiritual, and cognitive levels of the child can be further developed in our multicultural society. This is a pyramid with hand/finger puppets, emotional faces, intellectual, educational and physical attributes.
Background The prevalence of social-emotional and behavioral problems is estimated to be 8 to 9% among preschool children. Effective early detection tools are needed to promote the provision of adequate care at an early stage. The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) was developed for this purpose. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the BITSEA to enhance social-emotional and behavioral health of preschool children. Methods and Design A cluster randomized controlled trial is set up in youth health care centers in the larger Rotterdam area in the Netherlands, to evaluate the BITSEA. The 31 youth health care centers are randomly allocated to either the control group or the intervention group. The intervention group uses the scores on the BITSEA and cut-off points to evaluate a child's social-emotional and behavioral health and to decide whether or not the child should be referred. The control group provides care as usual, which involves administering a questionnaire that structures the conversation between child health professionals and parents. At a one year follow-up measurement the social-emotional and behavioral health of all children included in the study population will be evaluated. Discussion It is hypothesized that better results will be found, in terms of social-emotional and behavioral health in the intervention group, compared to the control group, due to more adequate early detection, referral and more appropriate and timely care. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials NTR2035
Background: Emotional/psychological child maltreatment (ECM) is a major public health problem with serious consequences including emotional and behavioral problems. Nevertheless, ECM is an understudied area. Objectives: The aims of this review are to identify measures of ECM and to evaluate their psychometric properties and utilities. We provide a…
Tonmyr, Lil; Draca, Jasminka; Crain, Jennifer; MacMillan, Harriet L.
The paper examines the significance of our emotional life for validation, enrichment and guidance in everyday behavior. Child protection services (CPS) workers need to understand how emotions affect family dynamics and, in particular, parental behavior as a basis for their work with families. Moreover, in order for CPS workers to be aware of, and professionally responsive to, the importance of
The notion of social appraisal emphasizes the importance of a social dimension in appraisal theories of emotion by proposing that the way an individual appraises an event is influenced by the way other individuals appraise and feel about the same event. This study directly tested this proposal by asking participants to recognize dynamic facial expressions of emotion (fear, happiness, or anger in Experiment 1; fear, happiness, anger, or neutral in Experiment 2) in a target face presented at the center of a screen while a contextual face, which appeared simultaneously in the periphery of the screen, expressed an emotion (fear, happiness, anger) or not (neutral) and either looked at the target face or not. We manipulated gaze direction to be able to distinguish between a mere contextual effect (gaze away from both the target face and the participant) and a specific social appraisal effect (gaze toward the target face). Results of both experiments provided evidence for a social appraisal effect in emotion recognition, which differed from the mere effect of contextual information: Whereas facial expressions were identical in both conditions, the direction of the gaze of the contextual face influenced emotion recognition. Social appraisal facilitated the recognition of anger, happiness, and fear when the contextual face expressed the same emotion. This facilitation was stronger than the mere contextual effect. Social appraisal also allowed better recognition of fear when the contextual face expressed anger and better recognition of anger when the contextual face expressed fear. PMID:22288528
|Objective: For child protective services (CPS) youth who may have experienced more than one form of maltreatment, the unique contribution of emotional abuse may be over-looked when other forms are more salient and more clearly outside of accepted social norms for parenting. This study considers the unique predictive value of childhood emotional…
This study presents a model of harsh parenting that has an indirect effect, as well as a direct effect, on child aggression in the school environment through the mediating process of childemotion regulation. Tested on a sample of 325 Chinese children and their parents, the model showed adequate goodness of fit. Also investigated were interaction effects between parents' and
Lei Chang; David Schwartz; Kenneth A. Dodge; Catherine McBride-Chang
|This article examined emotion competence in children exposed to domestic violence (DV). It also examined the hypothesis that children's emotional competence mediates relations between DV and children's later difficulties with peers and behavioral adjustment. DV was assessed when children were at the age of five, emotional competence was assessed…
Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Hessler, Danielle M.; Annest, Amalia
This article examined emotion competence in children exposed to domestic violence (DV). It also examined the hypothesis that children's emotional competence mediates relations between DV and children's later difficulties with peers and behavioral adjustment. DV was assessed when children were at the age of five, emotional competence was assessed…
Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Hessler, Danielle M.; Annest, Amalia
|"From Birth to Sixteen" outlines children's physical, social, emotional and language development from infancy through to adolescence. In both its practical application of research and its contribution to the assessment of child development, this text provides essential reading for those studying, or indeed practising, child development in the…
Purpose – Using the distinction between “private problems” and “public issues” derived from Mill's “sociological imagination”, this paper aims to assess how diverse social theory approaches problematise and define the ways in which social life is shaped and organised with regard to “emotions”. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper's approach is theoretical and novel in the interpretation of an under-development theme in
Mathematics is often thought of as a purely intellectual and unemotional activity. Recently, researchers have begun to question the validity of this approach, arguing that emotions and cognition are intertwined. The emotions expressed during mathematics work may be linked to mathematics achievement. We used behavioral measures to identify the emotions expressed by U.S. mothers and their 11-year-old children while solving
Nicole M. Else-Quest; Janet S. Hyde; Ahalya Hejmadi
Social and emotional development has been considered an important factor in child development which has been placed at the end of the learning spectrum due to high stakes testing. Social and emotional development consists of the relationships an individual has with others, the level of self-control, and the motivation and perseverance a person has during an activity (Bandura, 1989). This
Social and emotional development has been considered an important factor in child development which has been placed at the end of the learning spectrum due to high stakes testing. Social and emotional development consists of the relationships an individual has with others, the level of self-control, and the motivation and perseverance a person has during an activity (Bandura, 1989). This
|Social and emotional development has been considered an important factor in child development which has been placed at the end of the learning spectrum due to high stakes testing. Social and emotional development consists of the relationships an individual has with others, the level of self-control, and the motivation and perseverance a person…
|This study aimed to explore family day care (FDC) educators' knowledge of childsocial and emotional wellbeing and mental health problems, the strategies used to promote children's wellbeing, and barriers and opportunities for promoting children's social and emotional wellbeing. Thirteen FDC educators participated in individual semi-structured…
This study compared the functioning of 20 rural cancer survivors, aged 6 to 16 years, with that of 40 age- and gender-matched school peers. Social competence and emotional health were evaluated, along with academic performance and physical limitations. Eight measures were used: the teacher and parent Child Behavior Check Lists, the Health Resources Inventory, the Vineland Revised Scale of Social
Ardis L. Olson; William E. Boyle; Megan W. Evans; Laura A. Zug
Being involved in bullying places a child at risk of poor psychosocial and educational outcomes. This study aimed to examine the profile of behavioural, emotional and social functioning for two subtypes of bullying: direct and indirect (relational). Pupils aged between 7 and 11 years completed sociometric measures of social inclusion and bullying…
Smith, H.; Polenik, K.; Nakasita, S.; Jones, A. P.
Fifty-six families with a preschool child whose parents varied widely in parental marital satisfaction were studied at two time points: at time-I when the children were 5 years old and again at time-2 when the children were 8 years old. At time-1 each parent was separately interviewed about their “meta-emotion structure”, that is, their feelings about their own emotions, and
Carole Hooven; John Mordechai Gottman; Lynn Fainsilber Katz
|The social problem posed by family conflict to the physical and psychological health and well-being of children, parents, and underlying family relationships is a cause for concern. Inter-parental and parent-child conflict are linked with children's behavioral, emotional, social, academic, and health problems, with children's risk particularly…
Objective. The authors examined mothers’ beliefs about their children's negative emotions and their emotionsocialization practices. Design. A total of 65 African American and 137 European American mothers of 5-year-old children reported their beliefs and typical responses to children's negative emotions, and mothers’ emotion teaching practices were observed. Results. African American mothers reported that the display of negative emotions was
Jackie A. Nelson; Esther M. Leerkes; Marion OBrien; Susan D. Calkins; Stuart Marcovitch
The present study examined whether sex differences in emotion are related to the social context and addressed differences between global, retrospective, and on-line, momentary self-descriptions of emotional experience and expression. Participants provided global, retrospective descriptions of their emotional characteristics at an initial session, and then provided momentary emotion ratings as well as details about the social context in which they
Lucy Robin; Paula R. Pietromonaco; Kristen M. Eyssell
|Preschoolers' socialization of emotion and its contribution to emotional competence is likely to be highly gendered. In their work, the authors have found that mothers often take on the role of emotional gatekeeper in the family, and fathers act as loving playmates, but that parents' styles of socialization of emotion do not usually differ for…
Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Wyatt, Todd M.
Background Associations between parent and child characteristics and how they influence the approach parents take toward children in the feeding environment have not been examined extensively, especially in low-income minority families who are at a higher risk for obesity. The primary aim of the study was to examine positive and negative parent emotions as potential mediators of the relationship between child temperament and parents’ perceptions of strategy effectiveness and problems encountered in feeding children fruit and vegetables. Methods Participants were low-income families (n?=?639, 73% minority, children aged 3–5?years) participating in Head Start programs in two states. Parents completed the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and measures of strategy effectiveness (teachable moments, practical methods, restriction, and enhanced availability) and problems encountered (vegetable characteristics, child attributions for dislike, external influences, and parental demands) in feeding children fruit and vegetables. Results Positive parent emotions partially mediated the relationship between child Effortful Control and strategy effectiveness and fully mediated the relationship between Surgency and strategy effectiveness. Although negative parent emotions were associated with increased perception of problems in feeding children fruit and vegetables, the relationship between Negative Affectivity and problems in feeding was partially mediated by negative parent emotions. Conclusions Positive parent emotions facilitated perceived effectiveness of feeding strategies, with child Effortful Control and Surgency instrumental to this process. Understanding mechanisms in parent–child feeding is important when developing interventions designed to promote healthy child eating behaviors.
The present study examines the contributions of (1) parental socialization of emotion and preschoolers' emotional interaction with parents to their emotional competence, and (2) parental socialization and childemotional competence to their general social competence. Both observational and self-report techniques were used to measure emotionsocialization, emotional competence, and social competence of preschoolers (average age = 49.8 months) from 60
Susanne A. Denham; Jennifer Mitchell-Copeland; Katherine Strandberg; Sharon Auerbach; Kimberly Blair
Background:?To explore whether social or emotional outcomes for high-risk early adolescent youth that attended an established preventive intervention called the Chicago Child–Parent Center Preschool Program (CPC) are moderated by individual, family and program variations.Purpose:?Two questions are addressed: (1) Do the effects of CPC preschool participation on early adolescent social and emotional competency vary by sex of child, family risk status,
Michael D. Niles; Arthur J. Reynolds; Dominique Roe-Sepowitz
This study tests a model of children's emotion regulation (ER) as a moderator of the link between maternal depression and child internalizing problems. Participants were 78 children (ages 4 to 7), including 45 children of mothers with a history of child- hood-onset depression (COD) and 33 children of mothers who had never been de- pressed. ER was assessed observationally during
Jennifer S. Silk; Daniel S. Shaw; Erika E. Forbes; Maria Kovacs
|Describes several skills that educators and parents should promote in children and teens entrusted to their care. The skills include self-awareness, self-regulation of emotion, self-monitoring and performance, empathy and perspective taking, and social skills in handling relationships. (SM)|
Two studies examined whether negative emotional arousal increases the tendency to process social information less carefully. In both studies, subjects were dental patients waiting to receive a filling from a student dentist. In Study 1, 48 subjects responded to illusory correlation materials adopted from Hamilton & Rose (1980). As expected, those above the median on self-reported anxiety were more likely
Robert S. Baron; Mary L. Inman; Chuan Feng Kao; Henrietta Logan
Child developmental attainments can be observed and measured. In this case study I have assessed a child's development and observed his behaviour in different environments. I discuss these observations from a Social Learning Theory perspective, concentrating on the reciprocal interaction between the child's behaviour and his environment. Psychoanalytical theories, cognitive influences, genetic endowment and other biological variables are also discussed.Human
Child abuse, a new name for cruelty to children, is a social phenomenon and not a purely psychological one. Historically, most definitions of child abuse have emphasized physical injury to the very young child. The term should be expanded to include children of all ages and to include sexual and psychological as well as physical abuse. The current…
Although emotions are believed to be socially constructed and important features of family life they are little understood in the context of families making consumption decisions. Our research focuses on understanding individual and social aspects of emotions, including whether parents mirror each other's emotions during family consumption decisions. Our Social Relations Model analyses provide evidence consistent with hypotheses that anger
Rachel Oakley Hsiung; Julie A. Ruth; Richard P. Bagozzi
In social life actions are tightly linked with emotions. The integration of affective- and action-related information has to be considered as a fundamental component of appropriate social understanding. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at investigating whether an emotion (Happiness, Anger or Neutral) dynamically expressed by an observed agent modulates brain activity underlying the perception of his grasping action. As control stimuli, participants observed the same agent either only expressing an emotion or only performing a grasping action. Our results showed that the observation of an action embedded in an emotional context (agent’s facial expression), compared with the observation of the same action embedded in a neutral context, elicits higher neural response at the level of motor frontal cortices, temporal and occipital cortices, bilaterally. Particularly, the dynamic facial expression of anger modulates the re-enactment of a motor representation of the observed action. This is supported by the evidence that observing actions embedded in the context of anger, but not happiness, compared with a neutral context, elicits stronger activity in the bilateral pre-central gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus, besides the pre-supplementary motor area, a region playing a central role in motor control. Angry faces not only seem to modulate the simulation of actions, but may also trigger motor reaction. These findings suggest that emotions exert a modulatory role on action observation in different cortical areas involved in action processing.
AimsEarly neglect has far reaching consequences for a child's emotional, psychological and social development. Professionals lack confidence in identifying the thresholds for action in such cases, and our systematic review aims to define the evidence base for recognising such children.MethodsUsing 160 key words & phrases we searched 18 databases and four websites (1960–2009), supplemented by handsearching journals and references. Of
A Naughton; M Mann; V Tempest; A M Kemp; S Maguire
This study examined if mother or child’s perceived social support decreased the emotional and behavioral consequences of intimate\\u000a partner conflict for 148 African American children ages 8–12. Results revealed that children’s perceived social support mediated\\u000a the relation between intimate partner conflict and children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. Findings also indicated\\u000a a mediational role of mother’s perceived social support in the
Ashley E. Owen; Martie P. Thompson; Michelle D. Mitchell; Sigrid Y. Kennebrew; Anuradha Paranjape; Tiffany L. Reddick; Gabrielle L. Hargrove; Nadine J. Kaslow
|This book looks at children's early development through what are called "touchpoints": times just before a surge of rapid motor, cognitive, or emotional development when, for a short time, children regress in several areas and become difficult to understand. Part 1, called "Touchpoints of Development," is organized around the areas of behavioral…
During the toddler period, children begin to shift from being primarily dependent on parents to regulate their emotions to\\u000a managing their emotions independently. The present study considers how children’s propensity towards negative emotional arousal\\u000a interacts with mothers’ efforts to socializeemotion regulation. Fifty-five low income mothers and their 2-year-old children\\u000a completed observational assessments measuring mothers’ socialization of emotion regulation, children’s
Scott P. Mirabile; Laura V. Scaramella; Sara L. Sohr-Preston; Sarah D. Robison
OBJECTIVE The goal was to examine whether children who screen positive for social-emotional/behavioral problems at 12 to 36 months of age are at elevated risk for social-emotional/behavioral problems in early elementary school. METHODS The sample studied (N = 1004) comprised an ethnically (33.3% minority) and socioeconomically (17.8% living in poverty and 11.3% living in borderline poverty) diverse, healthy, birth cohort from a metropolitan region of the northeastern United States. When children were 12 to 36 months of age (mean age: 23.8 months; SD: 7.1 months), parents completed the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment and questions concerning their level of worry about their child’s behavior, emotions, and social development. When children were in early elementary school (mean age: 6.0 years; SD: 0.4 years), parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist and teachers completed the Teacher Report Form regarding behavioral problems. In a subsample (n = 389), parents reported child psychiatric status. RESULTS Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment screen status and parental worry were associated significantly with school-age symptoms and psychiatric disorders. In multivariate analyses that included Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment status and parental worry, Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment scores significantly predicted all school-age problems, whereas worry predicted only parent reports with the Child Behavior Checklist. Children with of-concern scores on the problem scale of the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment were at increased risk for parent-reported subclinical/clinical levels of problems and for psychiatric disorders. Low competence scores predicted later teacher-reported subclinical/clinical problems and parent-reported disorders. Worry predicted parent-reported subclinical/clinical problems. Moreover, the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment identified 49.0% of children who exhibited subclinical/clinical symptoms according to teachers and 67.9% of children who later met the criteria for a psychiatric disorder. CONCLUSIONS Screening with a standardized tool in early childhood has the potential to identify the majority of children who exhibit significant emotional/behavioral problems in early elementary school.
Negative emotionality is linked to unfavorable life outcomes, but studies have yet to examine negative emotionality of parents and children as predictors of children’s problem behaviors and negative emotion word use in everyday life. This study used a novel naturalistic recording device called the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) to investigate the separate and interactive influences of parent and child negative emotionality on daily child behaviors in a sample of 35 preschool-aged children over two time points separated by one year. Fathers’ negative emotionality predicted children’s whining at Time 1; mothers’ negative emotionality predicted children’s negative emotion word use at Time 1 and increases in children’s arguing/fighting from Time 1 to Time 2. Parents’ ratings of child negative emotionality also were associated with increases in children’s arguing/fighting from Time 1 to Time 2, and child negative emotionality moderated the association between mothers’ negative emotionality and children’s arguing/fighting. Further, children with mothers high in negative emotionality displayed higher levels of problem behaviors when their mothers self-reported low levels of positive emotional expressiveness and/or high levels of negative emotional expressiveness. These findings offer preliminary evidence linking parent and child negative emotionality to everyday child behaviors, and suggest that emotional expressiveness may play a key role in moderating the links between maternal negative emotionality and child behavioral problems.
|Four studies tested a theory that high interparental conflict increases child mental health risk by shaking children's sense of security in the family. Findings showed that children's fear, avoidance, and involvement were prominent responses, especially relative to reactions predicted by other theories. Interparental conflict related to greater…
Davies, Patrick T.; Harold, Gordon T.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark
According to empirical findings, emotional knowledge and false belief understanding seem to be differently linked to social adjustment. However, whereas false belief is assessed through the capacity to identify its behavioral consequences, emotion tasks usually rely on the comprehension of facial expressions and of the situational causes of emotions. The authors examined if the documented relationship between social adjustment and emotion knowledge in children extends to the understanding of behavioral consequences of emotions. Eighty French-speaking preschoolers undertook false belief and consequence-of-emotion tasks. Their social adjustment was measured by the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation. Children's language ability, their parent's level of education, and the familial socioeconomic score were taken into account. Results showed that children's social adjustment was significantly predicted by their knowledge of emotion, but not by their understanding of false belief. The findings confirm the special status of emotion among mental states for social adaptation and specify which dimensions of adaptation to peers and adults are predicted by the child's emotion understanding. They also suggest that the distinction between mind and emotion understanding may be conceptual rather than methodological. PMID:23534099
During the toddler period, children begin to shift from being primarily dependent on parents to regulate their emotions to managing their emotions independently. The present study considers how children's propensity towards negative emotional arousal interacts with mothers' efforts to socializeemotion regulation. Fifty-five low income mothers and…
Mirabile, Scott P.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Robison, Sarah D.
|Young children's emotional competence--regulation of emotional expressiveness and experience when necessary, and knowledge of their own and other's emotions--is crucial for social and academic (i.e., school) success. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms of how young children develop emotional competence. Both parents and teachers…
Emotion regulation is important for psychological well-being. Although it is known that alternative regulation strategies may have different emotional consequences, the effectiveness of such strategies for socially driven emotions remains unclear. In this study we investigated the efficacy of different forms of reappraisal on responses to the selfish and altruistic behavior of others in the Dictator Game. In Experiment 1, subjects mentalized the intentions of the other player in one condition, and took distance from the situation in the other. Emotion ratings were recorded after each offer. Compared with a baseline condition, mentalizing led subjects to experience their emotions more positively when receiving both selfish and altruistic proposals, whereas distancing decreased the valence when receiving altruistic offers, but did not affect the perception of selfish behavior. In Experiment 2, subjects played with both computer and human partners while reappraising the meaning of the player’s intentions (with a human partner) or the meaning of the situation (with a computer partner). Results showed that both contexts were effectively modulated by reappraisal, however a stronger effect was observed when the donor was a human partner, as compared to a computer partner. Taken together, these results demonstrate that socially driven emotions can be successfully modulated by reappraisal strategies that focus on the reinterpretation of others’ intentions.
Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G.
Background Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) is associated with alterations in infant behavior and development that may not be corrected with iron therapy. Objective To determine if a home-based intervention to foster child development improves behavior and development of infants with IDA. Methods Infants with IDA and nonanemic infants aged 6 and 12 months were treated with oral iron and randomly assigned to a year of surveillance or intervention. Infants in the surveillance group were visited weekly, and information on iron intake, feeding, and health were recorded. Infants in the intervention were visited weekly, and the home visits included an hour-long program to foster child development by providing support to the mother-infant relationship. The number of infants enrolled was 128 (66 who received intervention) and 149 (70 intervention) at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Psychologists who were unaware of iron status and intervention assignment assessed infants' cognitive, motor, and social-emotional development (Bayley Scales) at the beginning, midpoint, and end of the year; 116 6-month-olds and 134 12-month-olds had at least 2 assessments. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze change over time. Results Infants with IDA, regardless of enrollment age, were rated as less positive in social-emotional behavior at baseline. There were significant interactions between iron status and intervention associated with change in cognitive performance and positive social-emotional behavior. Infants with IDA who received intervention had developmental trajectories comparable to those of nonanemic infants in the intervention and surveillance groups, but these infants did not catch up in social-emotional behavior. Infants with IDA who received surveillance showed less increase in cognitive scores and had declines in positive social-emotional ratings. Conclusions Home-based intervention to foster child development improved cognitive and social-emotional scores in infants with IDA, but social-emotional differences remained between infants with IDA and those without IDA.
Lozoff, Betsy; Smith, Julia B.; Clark, Katy M.; Perales, Carmen Gloria; Rivera, Francisca; Castillo, Marcela
The present study is the first to examine emotional intelligence in persons with schizotypy. Over 2100 undergraduates were screened for schizotypy with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire – Brief Version. Forty participants identified as persons with high schizotypy and 56 participants identified as persons with low schizotypy completed assessments of emotional intelligence (Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), social functioning (Social Adjustment Scale
The ability of young children to manage their emotions and behaviors and to make meaningful friendships is an important prerequisite for school readiness and academic success. Socially com- petent children are also more academically successful and poor social skills are a strong predictor of academic failure. This article describes The Incredible Years Dinosaur Social Skills and Problem- Solving Child Training
An objection to conclusions of research investigating effects of emotions on cognitive processes is that the effects are due to the activation of semantic concepts rather than to emotional feelings. A sentence unscrambling task was developed to prime concepts of happiness, sadness, or neutral ideas. Pilot studies demonstrated that unscrambling emotional sentences did not affect emotional state but did prime
|The term "EI (emotional intelligence)" was first used in 1990 by Salovey and Mayer. EI involves: (1) the ability to perceive accurately, appraise and express emotion; (2) the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; (3) the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and (4) the ability to regulate…
Social development stresses the importance of working together with others in life. The home setting can emphasize social development and its objectives of instruction. How should parents assist the child in quality social development in which good human relations exist? First and foremost, parents should serve as models to children for good human…
This investigation explored 2 hypotheses derived from socioemotional selectivity theory: (a) Selective reductions in social interaction begin in early adulthood and (b) emotional closeness to significant others increases rather than decreases in adulthood even when rate reductions occur. Transcribed interviews with 28 women and 22 men from the Child Guidance Study, conducted over 34 years, were reviewed and rated for
|Associations between maternal sensitivity to infant distress and nondistress and infant social-emotional adjustment were examined in a subset of dyads from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care (N = 376). Mothers reported on infant temperament at 1 and 6 months postpartum, and maternal sensitivity to distress and nondistress were observed at 6…
Leerkes, Esther M.; Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion
This study examines how mothers with and without a history of childhood-onset depression respond to their 3-9 year-old children's emotions. Mother-child dyads included 55 offspring of mothers with a history of childhood-onset depressive disorders and 57 offspring of never-depressed mothers. Mothers with a history of childhood depression were less likely than were control mothers to respond in supportive ways to their children's negative emotions and were more likely to magnify, punish, or neglect their children's negative emotions. Magnification, neglect, and punishment of children's negative emotions were concurrently associated with children's internalizing symptoms, and neglect and punishment were associated with internalizing over a one year follow-up. Maternal neglect of children's negative emotion was positively associated with later internalizing symptoms for children who already had higher internalizing symptoms at the initial assessment. Findings suggest that atypical socialization of emotion may be one mechanism in the development of internalizing disorders. PMID:21607196
Silk, Jennifer S; Shaw, Daniel S; Prout, Joanna T; O'Rourke, Flannery; Lane, Tonya J; Kovacs, Maria
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is thought to involve emotional hyper-reactivity and emotion dysregulation. However, the precise\\u000a nature of the emotion dysregulation in SAD has not been well characterized. In the present study, the Emotion Regulation Interview\\u000a (ERI) was developed to quantify the frequency and self-efficacy of five emotion regulation strategies specified by Gross’s\\u000a (Review of General Psychology 2: 271–299, 1998)
Kelly H. Werner; Philippe R. Goldin; Tali M. Ball; Richard G. Heimberg; James J. Gross
|This study examined the convergent validity of maternal reports of childemotion in a sample of 190 children between the ages of 3 and 6. Children completed a battery of 10 emotion-eliciting laboratory tasks; their mothers and untrained naive observers rated childemotions (happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, and anger) following each task, and…
Expressed emotion measures, encompassing dimensions of criticism (CRIT), and emotional overinvolvement (EOI) are increasingly being used to assess the parent–child relationship in child clinical populations, despite the lack of studies assessing their validity. We examined the correspondence between CRIT, EOI, and parent–child interactions as observed by neutral coders in a sample of 252 clinic-referred children and adolescents, ages 7–17 years.
Carolyn A. McCarty; Anna S. Lau; Sylvia M. Valeri; John R. Weisz
The present paper gives an account of part of the stage theory of early child development of the French theorist Henri Wallon (1879–1962). Unlike his contemporary Jean Piaget, Wallon concentrated his efforts upon a description of the child's emotional development and the role emotions play in establishing the bond between child and caregiver. The description of Wallon's stage theory is
ObjectiveAlthough there is growing evidence that the emotional dimensions of child maltreatment are particularly damaging, the feasibility and appropriateness of including emotional maltreatment (EM) in child welfare statutes continues to be questioned. Unlike physical and sexual abuse where investigations focus on discreet incidents of maltreatment, EM is not as easily defined and delimited. Through a review of legislation and child
Nico Trocmé; Barbara Fallon; Bruce MacLaurin; Claire Chamberland; Martin Chabot; Tonino Esposito
This meta-analytic review (k = 62 studies; N = 7,613 mother–child dyads) shows that effect sizes for the association between child negative emotionality and parenting were generally small and were moderated by sample and measurement characteristics. The association between more child negative emotionality and less supportive parenting was relatively strong in lower socioeconomic status families, reversed in higher socioeconomic status
Marja C. Paulussen-Hoogeboom; Geert Jan J. M. Stams; Jo M. A. Hermanns; Thea T. D. Peetsma
In this article we examine the role of appeasement in human emotion, social practice, and personality. We first present an analysis of human appeasement. Appeasement begins when the conditions of social relations lead one individual to anticipate aggression from others, is expressed in submissive, inhibited behavior, which in turn evokes inferences and emotions in others that bring about social reconciliation.
Dacher Keltner; Randall C. Young; Brenda N. Buswell
|This article focuses on two aspects of emotional intelligence, emotion understanding and emotion regulation. These abilities are important because of their impact on social communication and the way in which they influence a child's access to knowledge. Caregivers who engage their children in emotion talk may strengthen the ability of their…
In this fMRI study, we investigated the development between adolescence and adulthood of the neural processing of socialemotions. Unlike basic emotions (such as disgust and fear), socialemotions (such as guilt and embarrassment) require the representation of another's mental states. Nineteen adolescents (10–18 years) and 10 adults (22–32 years) were scanned while thinking about scenarios featuring either social or
Stephanie Burnett; Geoffrey Bird; Jorge Moll; Chris Frith; Sarah-jayne Blakemore
In this fMRI study, we investigated the development between adolescence and adulthood of the neural processing of socialemotions. Unlike basic emotions (such as disgust and fear), socialemotions (such as guilt and embarrassment) require the representation of another’s mental states. Nineteen adolescents (10–18 years) and 10 adults (22–32 years) were scanned while thinking about scenarios featuring either social or
Stephanie Burnett; Geoffrey Bird; Jorge Moll; Chris Frith; Sarah-Jayne Blakemore
Tests currently available for measuring children's sensitivity to nonverbal aspects of communication have been criticized on methodological and conceptual grounds. The Child and Adolescent Social Perception Measure (CASP) was developed to meet the need for a clinically useful measure which examines social perception within a semi-naturalistic context. The CASP consists of 10 videotaped scenes, each of which lasts 19–40 seconds.
Joyce Magill-Evans; Cyndie Koning; Anne Cameron-Sadava; Kathy Manyk
|The present research examined the developing awareness in children that one's emotional state need not correspond to how one appears expressively to others. Descriptive data were collected on children's own views about emotion management in interpersonal conflict scenarios and in general hypothetical situations. All of the child variables provide…
ObjectiveTo replicate and extend work on the psychometric properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), a child and parent self-report instrument used to screen for children with anxiety disorders.
BORIS BIRMAHER; DAVID A. BRENT; LAUREL CHIAPPETTA; JEFFREY BRIDGE; SUNEETA MONGA; MARIANNE BAUGHER
... child? Normal behavior in children depends on the child's age, personality, and physical and emotional development. A child's behavior ... as it may confuse your child. Accept your child's basic personality, whether it's shy, social, talkative or active. Basic ...
This review focuses on facial affect (emotion) recognition in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders other than autism. A systematic search, using PRISMA guidelines, was conducted to identify original articles published prior to October 2011 pertaining to face recognition tasks in case-control studies. Used in the qualitative synthesis were: 2 studies on schizophrenia, 18 on mood disorders, 16 on anxiety disorders, 4 on eating disorders, 14 on ADHD and 9 on conduct disorder. Our review suggests that there are abnormalities in facial emotion recognition in a wide range of child psychiatric disorders and that these are likely to have a negative effect on both family and peer relationships. Scope for further research has been identified. PMID:23475001
Collin, Lisa; Bindra, Jasmeet; Raju, Monika; Gillberg, Christopher; Minnis, Helen
Facial emotion expresses feelings, but is also a vehicle for social communication. Using five basic emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, and anger) in a comprehension paradigm, we studied how facial expression reflects inner feelings (emotional expression) but may be socially modulated to communicate a different emotion from the inner feeling (emotive communication, a form of affective theory of mind). Participants were 8- to 12-year-old children with TBI (n = 78) and peers with orthopedic injuries (n = 56). Children with mild-moderate or severe TBI performed more poorly than the OI group, and chose less cognitively sophisticated strategies for emotive communication. Compared to the OI and mild-moderate TBI groups, children with severe TBI had more deficits in anger, fear, and sadness; neutralized emotions less often; produced socially inappropriate responses; and failed to differentiate the core emotional dimension of arousal. Children with TBI have difficulty understanding the dual role of facial emotions in expressing feelings and communicating socially relevant but deceptive emotions, and these difficulties likely contribute to their social problems. PMID:23158960
In the last decades, cognitive and neuroscience findings about emotion have motivated the design of emotional-based architectures\\u000a to model individuals’ behavior. Currently, we are working with a cognitive, multi-layered architecture for Agents, which provides\\u000a them with emotion-influenced behavior and has been extended to model social interactions. This paper shows this architecture,\\u000a focusing on its social features and how it could
Jackeline Spinola De Freitas; Ricardo Imbert; João Queiroz
This chapter provides a review of the literature that examines the role of mothers and fathers in socializingemotion in their sons and daughters during adolescence. Within the context of this chapter, we focus on mother-father similarities, differences, and coordinated efforts in socializing the emotion of their adolescent children. Empirical…
|This chapter provides a review of the literature that examines the role of mothers and fathers in socializingemotion in their sons and daughters during adolescence. Within the context of this chapter, we focus on mother-father similarities, differences, and coordinated efforts in socializing the emotion of their adolescent children. Empirical…
In this paper we integrate claims and ® ndings concerning the social functions of emotions at the individual, dyadic, group, and cultural levels of analysis. Across levels of analysis theorists assume that emotions solve problems important to social relationships in the context of ongoing interactions. Theorists diverge, however, in their assumptions about the origins, de® ning characteristics, and consequences of
We describe a novel wearable device that perceives and reports on social-emotional information in real- time human interaction. Using a wearable camera and other sensors, combined with machine perception algorithms, the system records and analyzes the facial expressions and head movements of the person with whom the wearer is interacting. We propose the application of the social-emotional prosthetic to assist
Parents of gifted children have few guidelines about how to deal with issues resulting from their children's giftedness. Not only intellectual, but also, social and emotional issues provide challenges for parents. Five social\\/emotional traits of giftedness (divergent thinking ability, excitability, sensitivity, perceptiveness and entelechy) are described, and the specific issues that parents must face to enable their children to reach
Child maltreatment is a social disease due to a breakdown in family dynamics and parent child relationships. The family doctor is closest to the family. As such he is the most suitable and effective professional for the prevention and management of the syndrome. This article outlines the types of injury common to this syndrome, with frequently heard complaints from parents. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5
Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) figures prominently in emotional responding, but its exact role remains unclear. The present study tests two hypotheses: (1) Between-person differences in resting RSA are related to emotional reactivity, and (2) within-person changes in RSA are related to regulatory efforts. Pairs of women watched an upsetting film and discussed it. One woman in each of the experimental
Emily A. Butler; Frank H. Wilhelm; JAMES J. GROSSc
Based on the view that social and emotional learning (SEL) needs to be an integral part of middle school education, this book provides an overview to social and emotional learning and the development of middle school students, presents a representative range of SEL programs and perspectives, and offers reflections on the current status of SEL and…
|Based on the view that social and emotional learning (SEL) needs to be an integral part of middle school education, this book provides an overview to social and emotional learning and the development of middle school students, presents a representative range of SEL programs and perspectives, and offers reflections on the current status of SEL and…
IMPORTANCE Maternal depression is a major risk factor for the development of children's mental health problems. No population-based study to date has examined whether early child care spanning the full preschool period from infancy onward is protective for children of depressed mothers. OBJECTIVE To examine whether early child care moderates associations between maternal depressive symptoms (MDSs) and child internalizing problems (emotional problems [EPs], separation anxiety symptoms, and social withdrawal symptoms [SWSs]) during the preschool period. DESIGN AND SETTING Population-based prospective cohort study within the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development. PARTICIPANTS Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development participants (n?=?1759) assessed repeatedly between ages 5 and 60 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES High-level trajectories of EPs, SWSs, and separation anxiety symptoms between ages 17 and 60 months. RESULTS Child care age at entry moderated associations between MDSs and child internalizing problems. Among children of mothers with elevated MDSs, reduced odds ratios for EPs and SWSs were found for those entering child care early (0.24; 95% CI, 0.09-0.66 for EPs and 0.29; 95% CI, 0.09-0.92 for SWSs) or late (0.29; 95% CI, 0.11-0.77 for EPs and 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07-0.65 for SWSs) compared with those remaining in maternal care. Child care type moderated the association between MDSs and child EPs; children of mothers with elevated MDSs who received group-based child care had lower odds ratios for EPs than those who remained in maternal care (0.21; 95% CI, 0.09-0.48) or those who were cared for by a relative or babysitter (0.40; 95% CI, 0.17-0.94). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Regulated early child care services reduced the risks for internalizing problems for children of mothers with elevated MDSs. Regulated child care services may be used as a public health intervention to buffer the negative effect of maternal depression on children's internalizing problems. PMID:23784556
Herba, Catherine M; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel; Liu, Xuecheng; Mongeau, Chantal; Séguin, Jean R; Côté, Sylvana M
In a prospective longitudinal study the authors examined the associations between parent locus of control of reinforcement (LOCR), measured before the birth of a child, and behavioral–emotional outcomes in that child at age 7 years. A total of 307 couples completed questionnaires regarding their emotional status and LOCR at their first prenatal care appointment. When their children turned 7 years
Erin B. Tone; Stephanie Goodfellow; Stephen Nowicki Jr
|Objective: Although there is growing evidence that the emotional dimensions of child maltreatment are particularly damaging, the feasibility and appropriateness of including emotional maltreatment (EM) in child welfare statutes continues to be questioned. Unlike physical and sexual abuse where investigations focus on discreet incidents of…
|Objective: The present study was designed to determine whether parents at high risk for physical child abuse, in comparison with parents at low risk, show deficits in emotion recognition, as well as to examine the moderator effect of gender and stress on the relationship between risk for physical child abuse and emotion recognition. Methods:…
Asla, Nagore; de Paul, Joaquin; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia
|Emotionsocialization begins within the family setting and extends outward as children transition into expanded social worlds. Children contribute to their socialization from the first years of life, so the dynamics between parents and children are reciprocal in nature. Because socialization influences are best inferred from patterns that unfold…
Emotionsocialization begins within the family setting and extends outward as children transition into expanded social worlds. Children contribute to their socialization from the first years of life, so the dynamics between parents and children are reciprocal in nature. Because socialization influences are best inferred from patterns that unfold…
We examined the executive control of emotional information and its relationship to social functioning in individuals at risk for schizophrenia, defined by high social anhedonia (SA). Using the same structure as the Attentional Network Test (ANT), we developed a measure of executive control of emotional information (ANT-Emotion) in which subjects identify the direction of an arrow flanked by irrelevant angry or neutral faces. Subjects completed the ANT, ANT-Emotion, and the Social Adjustment Scale, Self-Report (SAS-SR), a measure of social functioning. While there were no group differences in the alerting, orienting, and executive control networks assessed by the ANT, high SA individuals exhibited a specific impairment in the executive control of emotional information. High SA individuals also reported poorer social functioning. However, executive control of emotional information did not mediate the relationship between SA and social functioning. These findings indicate that, in high-risk populations, the impaired ability to inhibit emotional information allows negative affective stimuli to exert inappropriate influence on cognitive processes. These results are consistent with studies indicating similar findings in schizophrenia patients, suggesting that impaired inhibition of negative emotion may be part of the liability for the disorder. PMID:22425470
Tully, Laura M; Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Hooker, Christine I
An overview is given of the social and emotional adjustment in young survivors of childhood cancer. The results are described in terms of self-esteem, anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress (emotional adjustment), and in terms of behavioral functioning, social competence and school performance (socio-behavioral adjustment). Furthermore, factors related to survivors' adjustment are reported: demographics, illness- and treatment-related factors, coping and social
A wealth of research demonstrates the importance of early parent-child interactions on children's social functioning. However, less is known about the interrelations between child and parent characteristics and parent-child interactions in early childhood. Moreover, few studies have broadly examined the longitudinal relations between these constructs and social competence. This study is an examination of the relations between parent responsiveness, negativity, and emotional supportiveness, attachment security, and child temperament, and their impact on children's social competence from infancy to kindergarten entry. The sample was derived from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Birth Cohort and included 6850 parent-child dyads. Observational and rating scale data were used. The proposed model was nearly fully supported by path analysis, and it provides insight into the complex relations between early parenting behaviors, child characteristics, and parent-child interactions in the development of social competence. PMID:24060065
Rispoli, Kristin M; McGoey, Kara E; Koziol, Natalie A; Schreiber, James B
The social neuroscience of child and adolescent depression is inherently multidisciplinary. Depressive disorders beginning early in life can have serious developmental and functional consequences. Psychopathology research has described depression's defining clinical and contextual features, and intervention research has characterized its response…
This paper examines the construct of social isolation in child maltreatment and reports on a study comparing 300 maltreating and nonmaltreating low-income mothers. Considerable variation was found between the two groups' structural network properties, perception of support, and types of resources received. However, maltreating mothers were not…
|The social neuroscience of child and adolescent depression is inherently multidisciplinary. Depressive disorders beginning early in life can have serious developmental and functional consequences. Psychopathology research has described depression's defining clinical and contextual features, and intervention research has characterized its response…
This study examined whether child temperamental approach reactivity moderated the association between 2 factors, parenting and child control capacities and childemotional self-regulation. Participants (N = 113) were 3- and 4-year-olds (M = 48 months, SD = 5.78) and their mothers. Emotional self-regulation was measured as observed persistence and frustration and as maternal report of compliance. Parental approach, avoidance, control,
This study investigates the construct validity and reliability of the Brief Infant–Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) in a psychiatric clinical sample of toddlers. The sample consisted of a psychiatric clinical sample (N=112) (male, n=79; female, n=33) of toddlers (12- to 42-months old). Both mothers and fathers completed the BITSEA and mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist 2\\/3 (CBCL). Children
Koray Karabekiroglu; Margaret J. Briggs-Gowan; Alice S. Carter; Ayse Rodopman-Arman; Seher Akbas
The social brain undergoes developmental change during adolescence, and pubertal hormones are hypothesized to contribute to this development. We used fMRI to explore how pubertal indicators (salivary concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol and DHEA; pubertal stage; menarcheal status) relate to brain activity during a socialemotion task. Forty-two females aged 11.1 to 13.7 years underwent fMRI scanning while reading scenarios pertaining either to socialemotions, which require the representation of another person’s mental states, or to basic emotions, which do not. Pubertal stage and menarcheal status were used to assign girls to early or late puberty groups. Across the entire sample, the contrast between social versus basic emotion resulted in activity within the social brain network, including dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), the posterior superior temporal sulcus, and the anterior temporal cortex (ATC) in both hemispheres. Increased hormone levels (independent of age) were associated with higher left ATC activity during socialemotion processing. More advanced age (independent of hormone levels) was associated with lower DMPFC activity during socialemotion processing. Our results suggest functionally dissociable effects of pubertal hormones and age on the adolescent social brain.
Goddings, Anne-Lise; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Bird, Geoffrey; Viner, Russell M; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne
Background Previous studies reported that social phobia is associated with a history of child maltreatment. However, most of these studies focused on physical and sexual maltreatment whilst little is known about the specific impact of emotional abuse and neglect on social anxiety. We examined the association between emotional maltreatment, including parental emotional maltreatment as well as emotional peer victimization, and social anxiety symptoms in subjects with various degrees of social anxiety. Methods The study was conducted as a web-based Internet survey of participants (N?=?995) who had social anxiety symptoms falling within the high range, and including many respondents who had scores in the clinical range. The assessment included measures of child maltreatment, emotional peer victimization, social anxiety symptoms and general psychopathology. Results Regression and mediation analyses revealed that parental emotional maltreatment and emotional peer victimization were independently related to social anxiety and mediated the impact of physical and sexual maltreatment. Subjects with a history of childhood emotional maltreatment showed higher rates of psychopathology than subjects with a history of physical maltreatment. Conclusions Although our findings are limited by the use of an Internet survey and retrospective self-report measures, data indicated that social anxiety symptoms are mainly predicted by emotional rather than physical or sexual types of victimization.
This study examined specific forms of emotional reactivity to conflict and temperamental emotionality as explanatory mechanisms in pathways among interparental aggression and child psychological problems. Participants of the multimethod, longitudinal study included 201 two-year-old children and their mothers who had experienced elevated violence…
Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Martin, Meredith J.
|Expressed emotion (EE) is associated with symptoms and treatment outcome in various disorders. Few studies have examined EE in pediatric OCD and none of these has assessed the child's perspective. This study examined the relationship among maternal and child EE, child OCD severity, and OCD-related functioning pre- and post-treatment. At…
Przeworski, Amy; Zoellner, Lori A.; Franklin, Martin E.; Garcia, Abbe; Freeman, Jennifer; March, John S.; Foa, Edna B.
Child welfare agencies are required to provide services that ensure that children receive adequate mental health care. This study provides a comprehensive view of the emotional and behavioral problems of children who are referred to child welfare services, using nationally representative data. Bivariate analyses compare rates by child…
Emotional suppression has been associated with generally negative social consequences ( Butler et al., 2003; Gross & John, 2003). A cultural perspective suggests, however, that these consequences may be moderated by cultural values. We tested this hypothesis in a two-part study, and found that, for Americans holding Western-European values, habitual suppression was associated with self-protective goals and negative emotion. In
This study examined whether mothers and fathers reported using different emotionsocialization strategies and whether these differences were related to preschoolers' gender and emotional expressiveness during peer play. Ninety percent of the children were Caucasian, 6% were Asian-American, and 4% were Mexican-American. The positive expressive behavior of 82 preschoolers participating in two conflict eliciting situations with two same gender peers
Emotion research demonstrates that problems of theoretical interest or practical significance are not divided neatly along disciplinary boundaries. Researchers acknowledge both organic and social underpinnings of emotion, but the intersections between biological and structural processes can be difficult to negotiate. In this article, the authors…
|Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine parenting style in the domain of emotionsocialization through studying the relationships among parenting styles, emotion-related parental practices, and parental goals of Hong Kong-Chinese mothers. Data were collected from 189 Hong Kong-Chinese mothers of 6- to 8-year-old children. Hong…
Attentional biases in the processing of threatening facial expressions in social anxiety are well documented. It is generally assumed that these attentional biases originate in an evaluative bias: socially threatening information would be evaluated more negatively by socially anxious individuals. However, three studies have failed to evidence a negative evaluative bias in the processing of emotional facial expression (EFE) in
Addresses the relative importance of clinical characteristics of the child and parental emotional reactions, to child-rearing practices towards children with hemophilia. Results indicate that mother's emotional reactions appear to have a stronger influence on child-rearing uncertainty and overprotection than clinical characteristics of the child.…
Banis, S.; Suurmeijer, Th. P. B. M.; van Peer, D. R.
|This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7-12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Childemotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In turn,…
To investigate factors involved in the decision to report a possible case of child abuse, 385 college students were exposed to 1 or 4 descriptions of the situation: (a) a socially attractive father with a socially attractive child, (b) a socially attractive father with a socially unattractive child, (c) a socially unattractive father with a socially attractive child, and (d)
Child-to-parent violence (CPV) includes acts committed by a child to intentionally cause physical, psychological, or financial pain to a parent. Available data indicate increasing rates of CPV in Spain, which have been attributed to a tendency toward more permissive parenting styles and changes in the power cycles within the families. The primary aim of this study was to assess the predictive role of some behavioral and emotional characteristics of adolescents who perpetrate CPV. A total of 1,072 adolescents (601 girls) filled out measures of CPV, proactive and reactive aggression, depressive symptoms, and substance abuse at Time 1, and measures of CPV 6 months later. The results showed that CPV was predicted by proactive, but not by reactive, aggression. This finding supports an instrumental role for CPV, which should be understood in the context of permissibility and lack of limits within the family. Depression and substance abuse also predicted the increase of CPV over time. Moreover, there were no sex differences in the prevalence of physical CPV, but verbal CPV was more predominant among girls. Although there were sex differences in some of the risk factors for CPV, the predictive model linking these risks to CPV was similar for boys and girls. Findings of this study suggest a psychological profile that combines internalizing problems and an instrumental use of violence in adolescents who perpetrate CPV. These characteristics are important for interventions. PMID:22935948
Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel
|This outreach project is based on the validated Developmental Therapy-Developmental Teaching model originally designed for young children with severe emotional/behavioral problems and their families. It is an approach that emphasizes the teaching skills that foster a child's social-emotional-behavioral competence. The model has proven effective…
Georgia Univ., Athens. Coll. of Family and Consumer Sciences.
Position in the social hierarchy is a major determinant of health outcomes. We examined the associations between aspects of social hierarchy and depressive symptoms with a specific focus on one potential psychological mechanism: emotion suppression. Suppressing negative emotion has mental health costs, but individuals with low social power and low social status may use these strategies to avoid conflict. Study 1 assessed perceived social power, tendency to suppress negative emotion, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of women. Low social power was related to greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by emotion suppression. Study 2 examined education as a proxy for social hierarchy position, anger suppression, and depressive symptoms in a national, longitudinal cohort study (The coronary artery risk development in young adults [CARDIA] study; Cutter et al., 1991). Much as in study 1, low education levels were correlated with greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by anger suppression. Further, suppression mediated the relationship between low education and subsequent depression up to 15 years later. These findings support the theory that social hierarchy affects mental health in part through a process of emotion suppression. PMID:22808688
Objective To determine the specific aspects of early parenting in psychosocially at-risk families most strongly related to children’s social-emotional adaptation to school. Methods Cohort study of families (n=318) identified as at-risk for maltreatment of their newborns. Quality of early parenting was observed in the home when the child was one year old. Social-emotional adaptation to school was reported by teachers in first grade. Multivariable models assessed the independent influence of early parenting variables on social-emotional adaptation. Results Early parenting and social-emotional adaptation to school varied greatly across families. Parental warmth was associated with lower teacher ratings of shyness, concentration problems, and peer rejection. Parental lack of hostility was associated with decreased teacher ratings of concentration problems and peer rejection. Parental encouragement of developmental advance was associated with lower ratings of aggression and peer rejection. Provision of materials to promote learning and literacy was associated with lower ratings of concentration problems. Conclusions In this sample of families with multiple psychosocial risks for child maltreatment, specific aspects of early parenting were associated with better social-emotional adaptation to school in the first grade in theoretically predicted ways. Improving parental knowledge about positive parenting via anticipatory guidance should be a focus of well child visits. Well child visit-based interventions to improve the quality of early parenting especially among at-risk families should be studied for their impact on parenting behavior and on children’s successful social-emotional adaptation to school. Primary care providers should reinforce complementary services, such as home visiting, that seek to promote positive parenting.
McFarlane, Elizabeth; Dodge, Rachel A. B.; Burrell, Lori; Crowne, Sarah; Cheng, Tina L.; Duggan, Anne K.
The CDC estimates that 1 in 110 children are now affected by an autism spectrum disorder. This translates to thousands of families facing the challenges associated with raising a child with an ASD. The purpose of this study was to investigate how parental emotional well-being relates to social support and isolation, as well as other types of coping behaviors. Mothers
|Compared family relationships and the social and emotional development of children in families created by new reproductive technologies with those of natural and adoptive families. Found that quality of parenting in experimental families was superior to that of families with a naturally conceived child. No group differences were found for…
The present paper gives an account of part of the stage theory of early child development of the French theorist Henri Wallon (1879-1962). Unlike his contemporary Jean Piaget, Wallon concentrated his efforts upon a description of the child's emotional development and the role emotions play in establishing the bond between child and caregiver. The description of Wallon's stage theory is preceded by biographical information and a presentation of his methodological views. It is argued that Wallon's theory is unique in its focus, exerted influence upon theorists such as Lev Vygotsky, and is basically compatible with modern insights about the nature of child development and the growth of intersubjectivity. PMID:8979855
Relations of maternal and child characteristics to child cortisol reactivity to and recovery from emotional arousal were examined prospectively at approximately 7 months of age (infancy) and then again at approximately 15 months of age (toddlerhood). The sample was diverse and population based (N = 1,292 mother-infant dyads) and included families from predominantly low-income, rural communities. Maternal behavior, family income-to-need ratio and social advantage, and child temperament, attention, and mental development were assessed, and children's saliva was sampled before and after standardized procedures designed to elicit emotional arousal. Maternal engagement in infancy was associated with greater cortisol reactivity at the infancy assessment and with reduced overall cortisol level at the toddler assessment. Also at the toddler assessment, child attention, mental development, and temperamental distress to novelty were associated with increased cortisol reactivity and regulation, whereas temperamental distress to limitations and African American ethnicity were associated with reduced cortisol reactivity. Findings are consistent with prior work linking early caregiving to the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress response system and with a conceptual model in which developing temperament is characterized by the interplay of emotional reactivity and the emergence of the ability to effortfully regulate this reactivity using attention. PMID:18605837
Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas A; Kivlighan, Katie T; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Willoughby, Michael; Greenberg, Mark T; Hibel, Leah C; Fortunato, Christine K
This study investigated parents' emotion-related beliefs, experience, and expression, and children's recognition of their parents' emotions with 40 parent-child dyads. Parents reported beliefs about danger and guidance of children's emotions. While viewing emotion-eliciting film clips, parents self-reported their emotional experience and masking of emotion. Children and observers rated videos of parents watching emotion-eliciting film clips. Fathers reported more masking than mothers and their emotional expressions were more difficult for both observers and children to recognize compared with mothers' emotional expressions. For fathers, but not mothers, showing clearer expressions was related to children's general skill at recognizing emotional expressions. Parents who believe emotions are dangerous reported greater masking of emotional expression. Contrary to hypothesis, when parents strongly believe in guiding their child's emotionsocialization, children showed less accurate recognition of their parents' emotions. PMID:20160992
Dunsmore, Julie C; Her, Pa; Halberstadt, Amy G; Perez-Rivera, Marie B
Expressed emotion measures, encompassing dimensions of criticism (CRIT), and emotional overinvolvement (EOI) are increasingly being used to assess the parent–child relationship in child clinical populations, despite the lack of studies assessing their validity. We examined the correspondence between CRIT, EOI, and parent–child interactions as observed by neutral coders in a sample of 252 clinic-referred children and adolescents, ages 7–17 years. We found support for the validity of the CRIT code, with high critical parents showing more antagonism, negativity, disgust, harshness, and less responsiveness, compared to parents who scored in the low or borderline ranges. In contrast, none of the observed behaviors were found to correspond with parental EOI, suggesting either that this construct lacks validity with juvenile samples or that behaviors that correspond to EOI are difficult to observe. We conclude that high parental CRIT can be used as an index of problematic parent–child interactions.
McCarty, Carolyn A.; Lau, Anna S.; Valeri, Sylvia M.; Weisz, John R.
|Research Findings: Fostering the social competence of at-risk preschoolers would be facilitated by knowing which of children's emotion skills are most salient to social outcomes. We examined the emotion skills and social competence of 44 children enrolled in a Head Start program. Emotion skills were examined in terms of children's emotional…
Spritz, Becky L.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister; Maher, Edward; Zajdel, Ruth T.
Common theories of emotion emphasize valence and arousal dimensions or alternatively, specific emotions, and the search for the underlying neurocircuitry is underway. However, it is likely that other important dimensions for emotional neurocircuitry exist, and one of them is sociality. A social dimension may code whether emotions are addressing an individual's biological\\/visceral need versus more remote social goals involving semantic
Jennifer C. Britton; K. Luan Phan; Stephan F. Taylor; Robert C. Welsh; Kent C. Berridge; I. Liberzon
The social brain undergoes developmental change during adolescence, and pubertal hormones are hypothesized to contribute to this development. We used fMRI to explore how pubertal indicators (salivary concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol and DHEA; pubertal stage; menarcheal status) relate to brain activity during a socialemotion task.…
Goddings, Anne-Lise; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Bird, Geoffrey; Viner, Russell M.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne
|The social brain undergoes developmental change during adolescence, and pubertal hormones are hypothesized to contribute to this development. We used fMRI to explore how pubertal indicators (salivary concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol and DHEA; pubertal stage; menarcheal status) relate to brain activity during a socialemotion task.…
Goddings, Anne-Lise; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Bird, Geoffrey; Viner, Russell M.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne
Behavioral and emotional problems have been observed in emotionally vulnerable children in foster care under certain circumstances. A common pattern involves the unpredictable appearance of a previously absent or unavailable natural parent. Such an occurrence precipitates the reawakening of the child's ambivalent feelings toward both natural and foster parents as well as their fears of abandonment. This frequently leads to
The central goal of the present study was to examine how a child's emotion regulation ability may moderate the relations between teaching styles and anxiety in childhood. Participants were 33 children (21 males, 12 females; mean age 7.5 years, standard deviation = 0.42), their mothers and teachers. Children completed the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire – Revised to assess their emotion
Leadership has both social and emotional components. Social intelligence appears to tap the social component found in leadership.\\u000a Recently, emotional intelligence has surfaced as a stable individual difference variable and appears to tap the emotional\\u000a component of leadership. Mayer and Salovey (1993) suggested that the emotional intelligence and social intelligence constructs\\u000a overlap. This study examined the power of both emotional
The 1995 publication of Goleman's Emotional Intelligence triggered a revolution in mental health promotion. Goleman's examination of Gardner's work on multiple intelligences and current brain research, and review of successful programs that promoted emotional health, revealed a common objective among those working to prevent specific problem behaviors: producing knowledgeable, responsible, nonviolent, and caring individuals. Advances in research and field experiences confirm that school-based programs that promote social and emotional learning (SEL) in children can be powerful in accomplishing these goals. This article reviews the work of the Collaborative to Advance Social and Emotional Learning (CASEL), its guidelines for promoting mental health in children and youth based on SEL, key principles, and examples of exemplary programs. PMID:10900595
Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine parenting style in the domain of emotionsocialization through studying the relationships among parenting styles, emotion-related parental practices, and parental goals of Hong Kong–Chinese mothers. Data were collected from 189 Hong Kong–Chinese mothers of 6- to 8-year-old children. Hong Kong–Chinese mothers reported that among authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting styles,
\\u000a Men and women differ in the regulation of their anger expressions. As the regulation of anger expressions often occurs in\\u000a social interactions, where the pressure for emotion regulation is high, the social context can be considered as important\\u000a in explaining these gender differences. In the present chapter, the association between the social context and the regulation\\u000a of anger expression for
Catharine Evers; Agneta H. Fischer; Antony S. R. Manstead
Although considerable research has examined the relation of couple functioning to childemotional and behavioral problems, comparatively few studies have examined the impact of child functioning on couple well-being and even fewer have investigated recursive or bidirectional influences. We review this literature from both perspectives, and differentiate among studies targeting overall couple functioning and those differentiating specific components of couple
Nina Heinrichs; Anna-Luise Cronrath; Mirjana Degen; Douglas K. Snyder
This paper describes an ongoing evaluation of child psychotherapy with seven children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The assessment and evaluation model used involves parents and enhances shared understanding of each child's experience and characteristics, respecting individual strengths and limitations. Treatment aims include understanding the children's phenomenological experience and enhancing emotional regulation, to produce positive benefits for family life and
Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family, and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of interrelations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M = 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, completed measures of community discord, family relations, and children's regulatory processes (i.e., emotional security) and outcomes. Historical political violence in neighborhoods based on objective records (i.e., politically motivated deaths) were related to family members' reports of current sectarian antisocial behavior and nonsectarian antisocial behavior. Interparental conflict and parental monitoring and children's emotional security about both the community and family contributed to explanatory pathways for relations between sectarian antisocial behavior in communities and children's adjustment problems. The discussion evaluates support for social ecological models for relations between political violence and child adjustment and its implications for understanding relations in other parts of the world. PMID:20423550
Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed
Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of inter-relations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M= 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland completed measures of community discord, family relations, and children’s regulatory processes (i.e., emotional security) and outcomes. Historical political violence in neighborhoods based on objective records (i.e., politically motivated deaths) were related to family members’ reports of current sectarian and non-sectarian antisocial behavior. Interparental conflict and parental monitoring and children’s emotional security about both the community and family contributed to explanatory pathways for relations between sectarian antisocial behavior in communities and children’s adjustment problems. The discussion evaluates support for social ecological models for relations between political violence and child adjustment and its implications for understanding relations in other parts of the world.
Cummings, E. Mark; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed
Social comparisons may seem to serve several positive functions, including self-enhancement. Frequent social comparisons, however, have a dark side. Two studies examined the relationship between frequent social comparisons and destructive emotions and behaviors. In Study 1, people who said they made frequent social comparisons were more likely to experience envy, guilt, regret, and defensiveness, and to lie, blame others, and
Judith B. White; Ellen J. Langer; Leeat Yariv; John C. Welch
In the present study, we investigated the effects of empathic paraphrasing as an extrinsic emotion regulation technique in social conflict. We hypothesized that negative emotions elicited by social conflict can be regulated extrinsically in a conversation by a listener following the narrator's perspective and verbally expressing cognitive empathy. Twenty participants were interviewed on an ongoing or recently self-experienced social conflict. The interviewer utilized 10 standardized open questions inviting participants to describe their perception of the conflict. After each of the 10 descriptions, the interviewer responded by either paraphrasing or taking notes (control condition). Valence ratings pertaining to the current emotional state were assessed during the interview along with psychophysiological and voice recordings. Participants reported feeling less negative after hearing the interviewer paraphrase what they had said. In addition, we found a lower sound intensity of participants' voices when answering to questions following a paraphrase. At the physiological level, skin conductance response, as well as heart rate, were higher during paraphrasing than during taking notes, while blood volume pulse amplitude was lower during paraphrasing, indicating higher autonomic arousal. The results show that demonstrating cognitive empathy through paraphrasing can extrinsically regulate negative emotion on a short-term basis. Paraphrasing led to enhanced autonomic activation in recipients, while at the same time influencing emotional valence in the direction of feeling better. A possible explanation for these results is that being treated in an empathic manner may stimulate a more intense emotion processing helping to transform and resolve the conflict. PMID:23162516
The present study examined Weiss' (1973) typology of social and emotional loneliness. The main purpose of this study was to assess Weiss' proposed links among relational needs, social and emotional loneliness, and mental health. A total of 241 university students responded to a measure of social and emotional loneliness, the social provisions scale and several indices of mental health. Evidence
|A study conducted in two types of laboratory settings and one school setting tested a model of the development of emotional expression. The model included: (1) societal, peer, and family influences; (2) self-factors, such as physiological, affective, motivation, cognitive, and personality variables; and (3) self-mediators, which act as filters…
Background Psycho-social outcome in children after liver transplantation (LT) is known to be inferior to age-related peers. Yet, when children and their parents are questioned by their nurse or physician about the child’s psycho-social well-being, the answers usually are very positive. We hypothesized that patients and their parents after LT report their psycho-social well-being too enthusiastically when enquired by their personal care takers. Methods Inclusion criteria: LT at the Children’s University Hospital of Geneva 1992–2007, age >3?years, <16?years, time after LT >2?years. Children and their parents were questioned by their well-known, familiar nurse at the annual follow up visit about their personal well-being. To allow for evaluation of answers, scores (good, medium, bad) were attributed to the different questions. 46 children were included in the study. Results Mean age at enquiry was 9.7?years (SD 4?years), mean time after LT was 7.5?years (SD 4.2?years). The different themes were reported as good for: parent–child relationship (83%), relationship with peers (98%), relation with siblings (39%), sport activities (54%), play activities (78%), school performance (87%), expression skills (67%), and general behavior (89%). Conclusion Most of our LT children and their parents consider, during a personal interview with a closely related, familiar nurse, that the child’s psycho-social outcome is good. Yet, it is generally acknowledged that children after LT have negatively altered psycho-social outcomes. Thus, emotionally influenced reports about psycho-social outcome in children after LT must be looked at with care.
This paper reports the results from a randomized clinical trial evaluating an adaptation of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies curriculum (PATHS) for preschool-age children in Head Start. PATHS is a universal, teacher-taught social-emotional curriculum that is designed to improve children's social competence and reduce problem behavior. Twenty classrooms in two Pennsylvania communities participated in the study. Teachers in the 10 intervention classrooms implemented weekly lessons and extension activities across a 9-month period. Child assessments and teacher and parent reports of child behavior assessments were collected at the beginning and end of the school year. Analysis of covariance was used to control for baseline differences between the groups and pretest scores on each of the outcome measures. The results suggest that after exposure to PATHS, intervention children had higher emotion knowledge skills and were rated by parents and teachers as more socially competent compared to peers. Further, teachers rated intervention children as less socially withdrawn at the end of the school year compared to controls. PMID:17265130
Domitrovich, Celene E; Cortes, Rebecca C; Greenberg, Mark T
Childsocial anxiety is common, and predicts later emotional and academic impairment. Offspring of socially anxious mothers are at increased risk. It is important to establish whether individual vulnerability to disorder can be identified in young children. The responses of 4.5 year-old children of mothers with social phobia (N = 62) and…
|Childsocial anxiety is common, and predicts later emotional and academic impairment. Offspring of socially anxious mothers are at increased risk. It is important to establish whether individual vulnerability to disorder can be identified in young children. The responses of 4.5 year-old children of mothers with social phobia (N = 62) and…
Randomized social policy experiments (SPEs) are an important methodology for investigating topics in child development. This article provides a framework for understanding how evidence from SPEs can add to knowledge about child development. The use of SPEs for child development questions to date is summarized and lessons from the applied economics…
|Randomized social policy experiments (SPEs) are an important methodology for investigating topics in child development. This article provides a framework for understanding how evidence from SPEs can add to knowledge about child development. The use of SPEs for child development questions to date is summarized and lessons from the applied…
|Emotional and cognitive changes that occur during adolescence set the stage for the development of adaptive or maladaptive beliefs about emotions. Although research suggests that parents' behaviors and beliefs about emotions relate to children's emotional abilities, few studies have looked at parental socialization of children's emotions,…
Hunter, Erin C.; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Shortt, Joann Wu; Davis, Betsy; Leve, Craig; Allen, Nicholas B.; Sheeber, Lisa B.
|This study examined inter-relations among different types of parental emotionsocialization behaviors in 88 mothers and 76 fathers (co-residing with participating mothers) of eight-year-old children. Parents completed questionnaires assessing emotionsocialization behaviors, emotion-related attitudes, and their children's social functioning. An…
Baker, Jason K.; Fenning, Rachel M.; Crnic, Keith A.
One reason that theories of mental illness have made little progress may be their focus on individuals, omitting the social/relational and emotional world. Adding these components will be difficult, however: in modern societies they have become virtually invisible, particularly the emotion of shame. The theory outlined here is based on the work of Cooley, Elias, Lewis and Goffman: shame is both social and individual and, if anticipation is included, virtually omnipresent in modern societies. It is proposed that most symptoms of mental illness are products of shame and relational feedback loops: emotion and alienation can both spiral leading to further alienation and chaotic or hidden emotions. Almost everyone is especially ashamed of their shame. Being ashamed of one's shame and/or anger can spiral when not acknowledged. Under certain conditions, these spirals continue without limit, generating immense force for acting out symptoms or depression. To the extent that this theory is true, we would need to rename the field using non-medical terms, such as emotional/social dysfunction. PMID:22723517
Findings of this observational study of 74 families tentatively support the conclusion that the psychological characteristics of emotional distress, authoritarian child-rearing values, and negative perceptions of children partially mediate the influence of some demographic/stressful life conditions on the positive and negative behaviors of…
...true Reduction for child's social security benefit. 229.56 Section...THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE ...56 Reduction for child's social security benefit. A child's...
Functional neuroimaging investigations in the fields of social neuroscience and neuroeconomics indicate that the anterior\\u000a insular cortex (AI) is consistently involved in empathy, compassion, and interpersonal phenomena such as fairness and cooperation.\\u000a These findings suggest that AI plays an important role in socialemotions, hereby defined as affective states that arise when\\u000a we interact with other people and that depend
The aim of this study was to examine the role of individual differences in children's effortful control in the relation between quality of the child care experience and social adjustment, behavior problems and negative emotionality of preschool children. Within the scope of this study there were two composite measures of quality; quality problems and adult involvement. Quality problems reflecting chaos
This study examined the influence on children's social development of variation in the quality of their child-care environments. The sample consisted of 166 children attending representative child-care centers that varied widely in quality. Possible relations associated with age, child-care experience, and family background were controlled using hierarchical multiple regression. Both global estimates of child-care quality and specific program features, such
|The aim of the research described in this article was the development of an instrument to measure socialemotional characteristics and special educational and pedagogical needs of students in the last grade of primary education. Questionnaires were developed for teachers as well as for students. Exploratory factor analyses showed that the factors…
Meijer, Joost; Fossen, Miriam W. E. B.; van Putten, Cornelis M.; van der Leij, Aryan
We report research on the relations between emotions, display rules, social motives, and facial behaviour. In Study 1 we used a questionnaire methodology to examine how respondents would react to a funny or a not funny joke told to them by a close friend or a stranger. We assessed display rules and motivations for smiling and\\/or laughing. Display rules and
To dissociate the role of visual familiarity from the role of social and emotional factors in recognizing familiar individuals, we measured neural activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while subjects viewed (1) faces of personally familiar individuals (i.e. friends and family), (2) faces of famous individuals, and (3) faces of strangers. Personally familiar faces evoked a stronger response than
M Ida Gobbini; Ellen Leibenluft; Neil Santiago; James V Haxby
|Incorporating social and emotional skills (EI) training into the business communication curriculum is important for preparing students to function effectively in a global workplace with its complex informal networks, intercultural issues, team emphasis, and participatory leadership. EI skills enhance communication behavior in work groups and…
Sigmar, Lucia Stretcher; Hynes, Geraldine E.; Hill, Kathy L.
There is a large body of literature suggesting that students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) lack appropriate social skills, including deficits in building and maintaining interpersonal relationships, prosocial behaviors (e.g., sharing, helping, cooperation), and self-management strategies. While the literature shows small to modest…
The Oz project at Carnegie Mellon is studying the construction of artistically effectivesimulated worlds. Such worlds typically include several agents, which must exhibit broadbehavior. To meet this need, we are developing an agent architecture, called Tok, thatpresently supports reactivity, goals, emotions, and social behavior. Here we briefly introducethe requirements of our application, summarize the Tok architecture, and describe aparticular agent
Context: The physical hazards of farming have been extensively studied and reported upon. Far less studied are the social and emotional impacts of farmwork injuries and deaths. Purpose: To investigate and document broad but targeted issues regarding the impact on individuals, families, and communities of farmwork injuries and fatalities of farmer…
Robertson, S. M.; Murphy, Dennis J.; Davis, Lisa A.
Neuropsychological, psychophysiological and functional imaging research has begun to offer insights into the everyday difficulties in decision-making experienced by some patients with frontal lobe damage. It is widely accepted that the ventral prefrontal cortex plays a pivotal role in social and emotional decision-making. This article will review experimental findings using the Iowa Gambling Task and the Cambridge Gamble Task that
|There is a large body of literature suggesting that students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) lack appropriate social skills, including deficits in building and maintaining interpersonal relationships, prosocial behaviors (e.g., sharing, helping, cooperation), and self-management strategies. While the literature shows small to modest…
... with both the physical and the social/emotional problems associated with OI. They lead happy, interesting and successful lives. ... referrals. Marriage counselors are aware of the stress associated with chronic medical problems. Clergy and church members offer other types of ...
Previous studies indicate that children adopted from Eastern European orphanages, who have experienced early social deprivation, demonstrate decreased glucose metabolism and altered activation patterns in the limbic and para-limbic brain regions. Normal patterns of activation in these brain regions are correlated with the ability to correctly identify emotional expressions in normal populations. Moreover, it has been found that children who
This study applied a social exchange perspective to examine three related aspects of work group behavior: individuals' assessment of the personal costs and rewards of group membership, the overall level of emotional investment in a group, and the external evaluation of group performance. Regression analyses of survey data from 28 ongoing student work groups (134 individuals) indicated that perceptions of
Numerous arguments have addressed the controversies surrounding the category of emotional disturbance (ED) and the exclusion, or proposed inclusion, of students with social maladjustment (SM). In this article we address the consensually agreed upon characteristics of ED that are in common with SM, in addition to examining characteristics that…
Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Theodore, Lea A.; Zhou, Zheng; McCoach, D. Betsy
There are more knowledge bases, skills, and dispositions that teachers need to have than can be covered in undergraduate music teacher education. One knowledge base that music teachers could benefit from, which is rarely covered in preservice teacher education, is socialemotional learning (SEL) and techniques to implement it in their classrooms.…
This research monograph on the social and emotional development of gifted students' is divided into four parts. Part 1 of the report focuses on analysis of the literature. Parts 2-4 present results of seven qualitative and quantitative studies of adolescent development. In Part 2, Studies 1 and 2 expand Lazarus and Folkman's cognitive appraisal…
Callahan, Carolyn M.; Sowa, Claudia J.; May, Kathleen M.; Tomchin, Ellen Menaker; Plucker, Jonathan A.; Cunningham, Caroline M.; Taylor, Wesley
Family physicians will have increasing numbers of patients with arthritis in their practices during the 1990s. Medical management is often complicated by subclinical psychologic, social, and emotional problems, and other problems of everyday living that affect the care of these people. The author reviews some typical patients with arthritis and offers practical suggestions about non-medical treatments that can assist them.
This study used longitudinal, multireporter data, in a community sample, to examine the role of rejection sensitivity in late adolescents' social and emotional development. Rejection sensitivity was linked to a relative increase in adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms over a 3-year period, even after accounting for teens' baseline level of…
The aim of the study was to investigate the structure of social competence among learning disabled children, as reported by themselves and their teachers, and the cognitive and emotional aspects that mediate its level. The sample consisted of 40 learning disabled children and 37 matched nondisabled children. Within Harter's competence model and Schaefer's spherical model, the learning disabled group demonstrated
Research on the communication, language, social, and emotional development of people with autism is reviewed, concerning individuals who either are nonspeaking/limited speaking or use speech as their primary mode of linguistic communication. Research needs for longitudinal studies, investigation of early developmental patterns, and subgroup…
Recent research has indicated that Chinese adolescents face a variety of challenges and difficulties in socioemotional and school adjustment. It has been found that Chinese adolescents' social and behavioral problems, emotional disturbances, and academic difficulties are highly interrelated and contribute to each other during development. Protective and coping resources that are provided in the culture, including extensive family involvement, support
Xinyin Chen; Huichang Chen; Violet Kaspar; Samuel Noh
|There are more knowledge bases, skills, and dispositions that teachers need to have than can be covered in undergraduate music teacher education. One knowledge base that music teachers could benefit from, which is rarely covered in preservice teacher education, is socialemotional learning (SEL) and techniques to implement it in their classrooms.…
|Adolescents' social judgments and emotion attributions about exclusion in three contexts, nationality, gender, and personality, were measured in a sample of 12- and 15-year-old Swiss and non-Swiss adolescents (N = 247). Overall, adolescents judged exclusion based on nationality as less acceptable than exclusion based on gender or personality.…
Although criminal psychopathy is starting to be relatively well described, our knowledge of the characteristics and scientific markers of serial murdering is still very poor. A serial killer who murdered more than five people, KT, was administered a battery of standardized tests aimed at measuring neuropsychological impairment and social/emotional cognition deficits. KT exhibited a striking dissociation between a high level of emotional detachment and a low score on the antisocial behavior scale on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 showed a normal pattern with the psychotic triad at borderline level. KT had a high intelligence score and showed almost no impairment in cognitive tests sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Theory of Mind, Tower of London, this latter evidenced a mild impairment in planning performance). In the tests on moral, emotional and social cognition, his patterns of response differed from matched controls and from past reports on criminal psychopaths as, unlike these individuals, KT exhibited normal recognition of fear and a relatively intact knowledge of moral rules but he was impaired in the recognition of anger, embarrassment and conventional social rules. The overall picture of KT suggests that serial killing may be closer to normality than psychopathy defined according to either the DSM IV or the PCL-R, and it would be characterized by a relatively spared moral cognition and selective deficits in social and emotional cognition domains. PMID:23414440
|The Internet has opened a variety of different avenues for people to interact with each other. As new digital environments are developed, new sets of social skills are needed to appropriately interact. Students with emotional and behavioral disorders often have deficits in social competence and require specialized training in specific social…
The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) is an evidence-based procedure for the assessment of the risk for child abuse in parents. In this study, a German translation of the CAPI was applied to a normal sample of German parents (N = 944). Descriptive analysis of the CAPI scores in the German provides findings comparable to the original standardization sample. The subjects' child abuse risk score was associated with demographic characteristics like education, marital status, occupation and gender. Long-term stability of the child abuse risk score and associations with individual differences in emotional regulation and attachment were investigated in a sub-sample of mothers with high and low child abuse risk scores (N = 69). The findings proved long-term stability. Furthermore associations between the child abuse risk score and anger dispositions were found which, however, were moderated by attachment differences. The findings suggest attachment security as a protective factor against child abuse. PMID:20158169
Elective mutism is a relatively uncommon disorder characterized by consistent failure to speak in specific social settings, such as in school, despite speaking fluently in a variety of other situations. Elective mutism is a very debilitating disorder for the affected child, as well as for their families, with detrimental implications for the development of social skills and learning if not offered appropriate support and treatment. The most promising treatment results have thus by far been achieved through a combination of cognitive behaviour therapy and supportive cooperation between parents, the school, and the treating child psychiatrist, occasionally supplemented with pharmacological treatments such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The available literature on this disorder is still very limited and consists predominantly of case reports. In recent years, however, there has been a growing focus on the etiology and general understanding of the disorder. While still disputed, it has been suggested that elective mutism might be understood as an emotional disorder on a par with e.g. separation anxiety and social phobia. Studies looking at the long-term course of the disorder are urgently required to elucidate whether children presenting elective mutism will be more likely to suffer from emotional disorders in adulthood, and may also ultimately lead to improved treatments for this disabling psychiatric disorder of childhood. PMID:12617045
Emotional maltreatment is associated with detrimental outcomes in youth, yet research investigating its phenomenology, prevalence, and detection has lagged behind that investigating other forms of maltreatment. Researchers, practitioners, and policymakers are challenged by how best to address and identify emotional maltreatment in childhood, given that the indicators are often less overt than those seen with sexual or physical abuse. These
Cognitive reappraisal is a commonly used and highly adaptive strategy for emotion regulation that has been studied in healthy volunteers. Most studies to date have focused on forms of reappraisal that involve reinterpreting the meaning of stimuli and have intermixed social and non-socialemotional stimuli. Here we examined the neural correlates of the regulation of negative emotion elicited by social
Harold W. Koenigsberg; Jin Fan; Kevin N. Ochsner; Xun Liu; Kevin Guise; Scott Pizzarello; Christine Dorantes; Lucia Tecuta; Stephanie Guerreri; Marianne Goodman; Antonia New; Janine Flory; Larry J. Siever
|A recent meta-analysis found that across studies individual differences in aspects of children's emotionality predict social status [Dougherty, L.R., (2006). Children's emotionality and social status: a meta-analytic review. Social Development, 15, 394-417.]. In the present study we extended these findings by examining the emotion of interest and…
Schultz, David; Izard, Carroll E.; Stapleton, Laura M.; Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Bear, George A.
Online Social Networks are so popular nowadays that they are a major component of an individual's social interaction. They are also emotionally-rich environments where close friends share their emotions, feelings and thoughts. In this paper, a new framework is proposed for characterizing emotional interactions in social networks, and then using these characteristics to distinguish friends from acquaintances. The goal is
The present study aimed to explore the outcomes of a small-scale social and emotional learning (SEL) intervention programme regarding the social behaviour and the social position of pupils from culturally diverse backgrounds. Seven primary and secondary education teachers participated in the study along with the pupils attending their classes; among them there were seven pupils from immigrant or repatriated families
This study examined specific forms of emotional reactivity to conflict and temperamental emotionality as explanatory mechanisms in pathways among interparental aggression and child psychological problems. Participants of the multi-method, longitudinal study included 201 two-year-old children and their mothers who had experienced elevated violence in the home. Consistent with emotional security theory, autoregressive structural equation model analyses indicated that children’s fearful reactivity to conflict was the only consistent mediator in the associations among interparental aggression and their internalizing and externalizing symptoms one year later. Pathways remained significant across maternal and observer ratings of children’s symptoms and with the inclusion of other predictors and mediators, including children’s sad and angry forms of reactivity to conflict, temperamental emotionality, gender, and socioeconomic status.
Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Martin, Meredith J.
This study examined specific forms of emotional reactivity to conflict and temperamental emotionality as explanatory mechanisms in pathways among interparental aggression and child psychological problems. Participants of the multimethod, longitudinal study included 201 two-year-old children and their mothers who had experienced elevated violence in the home. Consistent with emotional security theory, autoregressive structural equation model analyses indicated that children's fearful reactivity to conflict was the only consistent mediator in the associations among interparental aggression and their internalizing and externalizing symptoms 1year later. Pathways remained significant across maternal and observer ratings of children's symptoms and with the inclusion of other predictors and mediators, including children's sad and angry forms of reactivity to conflict, temperamental emotionality, gender, and socioeconomic status. PMID:22716918
Davies, Patrick T; Cicchetti, Dante; Martin, Meredith J
|This book synthesizes current thinking about effective social and emotional education of young elementary school children. The book's chapters, by leading national experts, describe the range of programs and perspectives that can be used in elementary schools, focusing on concrete strategies and curricular-based programs that can be integrated…
This study examined the contribution of attachment security and emotion regulation (ER) to the explanation of social information processing (SIP) in middle childhood boys with learning disabilities (LD) and without LD matched on age and grade level. Children analyzed four social vignettes using Dodge's SIP model and completed the Kerns security scale and the children's self-control scale. Study results demonstrated major difficulties in SIP, lower attachment security, and less ER in children with LD compared to children without LD. Attachment as well as the interaction between attachment and ER emerged as important contributors to most SIP steps, suggesting that children with higher security who also have better ER skills will have better SIP capabilities along the different steps, beyond group inclusion. Results were discussed in terms of practical and clinical implications regarding the importance of mother-child attachment and ER skills for social cognitive capabilities in children with LD. PMID:18443148
Context While maternal smoking has been associated with childemotional and behavioral problems, to our knowledge, no study has evaluated the association between overall household smoking and such problems. Objectives To investigate whether children who live with smokers are more likely than children who do not live with smokers to have emotional or behavioral problems and to explore this association in households with non-smoking mothers. Design, Setting, and Participants Nationally representative data from the 2000–2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys, involving 30,668 children aged 5–17 years, were utilized. Associations between childemotional or behavioral problems and household smoking, and child, maternal and family characteristics, were examined. SUDAAN software was used to adjust for complex sampling design. Main Outcome Measures Overall score on the Columbia Impairment Scale (CIS), a 13 item parent-report measure of childemotional or behavioral functioning (range, 0–52, ?16 indicates a child with such problems). Results Children in smoking vs. non-smoking households were significantly more likely to have behavioral problems (17.39% vs 9.29%, P<0.001). After adjusting for all covariates, male sex, older age of child, younger age of mother, unmarried mother, maternal depression, below average maternal physical and mental health, each were independently associated with increased likelihood of emotional and behavioral problems, as was the presence of one or more adult smokers in the household (Adjusted OR 1.42; 95% CI:1.26–1.60). The odds of CIS?16 increased with increasing number of smokers in the household, even among children whose mothers did not smoke. Conclusion Children living with smokers are at increased risk for emotional or behavioral problems, and rates of such problems increase with increasing numbers of smokers in the household, even in the absence of maternal smoking.
Salvo, Elizabeth Poole-Di; Liu, Ying-Hua; Brenner, Samantha; Weitzman, Michael
Background: Previous research has indicated that there may be only a modest degree of agreement between different reporters of a child's\\u000a behaviour (mental health). This raises the possibility that some descriptions of the child's behaviour may reflect the personal\\u000a characteristics of the respondent. We examine two potential sources of bias that may influence reports of a child's behaviour\\/mental\\u000a health. The
J. M. Najman; G. M. Williams; J. Nikles; S. Spence; W. Bor; M. O'Callaghan; R. Le Brocque; M. J. Andersen; G. J. Shuttlewood
Links between political violence and children's adjustment problems are well-documented. However, the mechanisms by which political tension and sectarian violence relate to children's well-being and development are little understood. This study longitudinally examined children's emotional security about community violence as a possible regulatory process in relations between community discord and children's adjustment problems. Families were selected from 18 working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Participants (695 mothers and children, M?=?12.17, SD?=?1.82) were interviewed in their homes over three consecutive years. Findings supported the notion that politically-motivated community violence has distinctive effects on children's externalizing and internalizing problems through the mechanism of increasing children's emotional insecurity about community. Implications are considered for understanding relations between political violence and child adjustment from a social ecological perspective. PMID:20838875
Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed
Links between political violence and children’s adjustment problems are well-documented. However, the mechanisms by which political tension and sectarian violence relate to children’s well-being and development are little understood. This study longitudinally examined children’s emotional security about community violence as a possible regulatory process in relations between community discord and children’s adjustment problems. Families were selected from 18 working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Participants (695 mothers and children, M=12.17, SD=1.82) were interviewed in their homes over three consecutive years. Findings supported the notion that politically-motivated community violence has distinctive effects on children’s externalizing and internalizing problems through the mechanism of increasing children’s emotional insecurity about community. Implications are considered for understanding relations between political violence and child adjustment from a social ecological perspective.
Cummings, E. Mark; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed
Objective. The purpose was to compare emotional availability, maternal self-efficacy beliefs, and child developmental status in caregiver–child relationships with prenatally buprenorphine-exposed and nonexposed 3-year-old children. Design. We compared prenatally buprenorphine-exposed children living either with the biological mother (n = 7) or in foster care (n = 14) to nonexposed participants (n = 13). Emotional availability was coded from videotaped parent-child
Saara Salo; Kaisa Kivistö; Riikka Korja; Zeynep Biringen; Sarimari Tupola; Hanna Kahila; Satu Kivitie-Kallio
Background The prevalence of social-emotional and behavioral problems is estimated to be 8 to 9% among preschool children. Effective\\u000a early detection tools are needed to promote the provision of adequate care at an early stage. The Brief Infant-Toddler Social\\u000a and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) was developed for this purpose. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the BITSEA to\\u000a enhance social-emotional and behavioral
Ingrid Kruizinga; Wilma Jansen; Alice S Carter; Hein Raat
This study examined the relative contributions of emotion knowledge and teacher–child relational variables to school competence. Seventy-four economically and ethnically diverse preschoolers (40 boys, 34 girls) completed an emotion knowledge task and a standardized school competence measure. Classroom teachers and their assistants rated the children's school competence and reported on the quality of their relationships with each child. After accounting
This study investigated the effectiveness of two cognitive appraisal dimensions of emotions, valence and certainty, in advertisements promoting a socially oriented organization. Furthermore, the moderating impact of showing multiple unidentified victims versus showing one identified victim and donation history of the respondents was investigated in 239 adult citizens. Certain emotions proved to be more effective (compatible) than uncertain ones for
Middle schools represent challenges that strongly affect how much energy and focus students bring to academic learning. Kids must develop skills to resist inappropriate sexual behaviors and analyze stressful social situations. Schools should encourage students to develop certain developmental assets: appreciation, belonging, confidence,…
Objectives Lack of feeling connected and poor social problem solving has been described in suicide attempters. However, cognitive substrates of this apparent social impairment in suicide attempters remain unknown. One possible deficit, the inability to recognize others' complex emotional states has been observed not only in disorders characterized by prominent social deficits (autism-spectrum disorders and frontotemporal dementia) but also in depression and normal aging. This study assessed the relationship between socialemotion recognition, problem solving, social functioning, and attempted suicide in late-life depression. Design, Participants, Measurements There were 90 participants: 24 older depressed suicide attempters, 38 non-suicidal depressed elders, and 28 comparison subjects with no psychiatric history. We compared performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test and measures of social networks, social support, social problem solving, and chronic interpersonal difficulties in these three groups. Results Suicide attempters committed significantly more errors in socialemotion recognition and showed poorer global cognitive performance than elders with no psychiatric history. Attempters had restricted social networks: they were less likely to talk to their children, had fewer close friends, and did not engage in volunteer activities, compared to non-suicidal depressed elders and those with no psychiatric history. They also reported a pattern of struggle against others and hostility in relationships, felt a lack of social support, perceived social problems as impossible to resolve, and displayed a careless/ impulsive approach to problems. Conclusions Suicide attempts in depressed elders were associated with poor social problem-solving, constricted social networks, and disruptive interpersonal relationships. Impaired socialemotion recognition in the suicide attempter group was related to global cognitive decline, thus it is possible that cognitive decline is one of the risk factors for suicide attempt in late-life, interacting with social deficits and psychosocial factors.
Szanto, Katalin; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Houck, Patricia R.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Clark, Luke
|Noting the ever-increasing need for quality day care, and the resulting necessity for child caregivers to address the complex development of social, emotional, and motivational structures within a child, this book offers a guide for understanding and fostering the emotional growth of young children. Following an introduction which defines emotion…
Expressed emotion (EE) is associated with symptoms and treatment outcome in various disorders. Few studies have examined EE in pediatric OCD and none of these has assessed the child’s perspective. This study examined the relationship among maternal and child EE, child OCD severity, and OCD-related functioning pre- and post-treatment. At pre-treatment, mothers completed speech samples about the child with OCD and an unaffected sibling. Children with OCD completed speech samples about parents. There were low rates of high maternal EE (child with OCD: 16.1%; sibling: 2.6%) and high child EE about parents (mothers: 11.9%; fathers: 10.2%). High EE was primarily characterized by high criticism, not high overinvolvement. High maternal EE and child EE regarding fathers were associated with pre-treatment child OCD severity but not post-treatment severity. High child and maternal EE were predictive of post-treatment OCD-related functioning. EE may be an important child and maternal trait associated with pre-treatment OCD severity and generalization of treatment gains.
Zoellner, Lori A.; Franklin, Martin E.; Garcia, Abbe; Freeman, Jennifer; March, John S.; Foa, Edna B.
In this study the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the brief infant–toddler socialemotional assessment (BITSEA) were investigated in a community sample. The sample consisted of 462 children (mean age: 24.60±7.93 [12–42] months) who had applied to Turkish health centers for immunization. Both parents completed the BITSEA; mothers completed the child behavior checklist 2\\/3 (CBCL). Internal consistencies
Koray Karabekiroglu; Ayse Rodopman-Arman; Pinar Ay; Mustafa Ozkesen; Seher Akbas; Gokce Nur Tasdemir; Omer Boke; Yildiz Peksen
Negative emotion has been shown to reduce flexibility in cognition and behavior. We examined interpersonal flexibility during negative emotional episodes within parent-child interactions. Fifty-five mothers and early-adolescent daughters were observed during a positive discussion, a negative (conflict) discussion, and another positive discussion. Codes of moment-to-moment changes in emotion expression were used to create state space grids from which measures of emotional valence and flexibility were derived. As expected, mean flexibility was lowest during the conflict discussion when negative emotion peaked, suggesting that interpersonal flexibility decreases with increasing negative emotion. Sub-groups identified as low or high in stress were also compared. Dyads with girls reporting more stressful events showed lower flexibility during the first positive discussion. However, dyads expressing more negative emotion during the conflict discussion were also more flexible, suggesting that flexible dyadic styles permit more negative emotion. These individual difference findings are discussed in terms of the suppression versus expression of negative emotions. PMID:17144756
Sharing others' emotional states may facilitate understanding their intentions and actions. Here we show that networks of brain areas "tick together" in participants who are viewing similar emotional events in a movie. Participants' brain activity was measured with functional MRI while they watched movies depicting unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant emotions. After scanning, participants watched the movies again and continuously rated their experience of pleasantness-unpleasantness (i.e., valence) and of arousal-calmness. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to derive multisubject voxelwise similarity measures [intersubject correlations (ISCs)] of functional MRI data. Valence and arousal time series were used to predict the moment-to-moment ISCs computed using a 17-s moving average. During movie viewing, participants' brain activity was synchronized in lower- and higher-order sensory areas and in corticolimbic emotion circuits. Negative valence was associated with increased ISC in the emotion-processing network (thalamus, ventral striatum, insula) and in the default-mode network (precuneus, temporoparietal junction, medial prefrontal cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus). High arousal was associated with increased ISC in the somatosensory cortices and visual and dorsal attention networks comprising the visual cortex, bilateral intraparietal sulci, and frontal eye fields. Seed-voxel-based correlation analysis confirmed that these sets of regions constitute dissociable, functional networks. We propose that negative valence synchronizes individuals' brain areas supporting emotional sensations and understanding of another's actions, whereas high arousal directs individuals' attention to similar features of the environment. By enhancing the synchrony of brain activity across individuals, emotions may promote social interaction and facilitate interpersonal understanding. PMID:22623534
This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7–12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Childemotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing\\u000a symptoms. In turn, the indirect effect was dependent on the level of maternal support in response to youth’s expressions of
Cynthia SuvegAnne Shaffer; Anne Shaffer; Diana Morelen; Kristel Thomassin
Described preschoolers’ conceptions of the consequences of their own emotions within the family demonstrated the linkage between this aspect of social cognition and emotional competence with peers, and examined contributions of parental emotion to both child variables. A total of 77 4- and 5-year-olds enacted dollhouse vignettes depicting consequences of their emotions. Parents completed questionnaires on negative emotion and sharing
|This report discusses trends in the causes of child deaths in New Jersey in recent years and closely examines child deaths in the state in 1974. Demographic data on child deaths are reported with an emphasis on types of deaths in which neglect or nonaccidental injury are likely to have been a factor. Death certificate data were obtained from the…
Although teaching has been described as a profoundly emotional activity, little is known about the emotional demands faced by teachers or how this impacts on their well-being. This study examined relationships between ‘emotional labour’, burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment) and job satisfaction in a sample of UK teachers. Also examined was whether workplace social support moderated any relationships
This study examined differences between deaf and hearing students' perceptions of their socialemotional adjustment as they transition to college. The 16PF-Adolescent Personality Questionnaire Life Difficulties Scale was completed by 205 deaf students and 185 hearing students. A multivariate analyses of variance and subsequent univariate tests found that deaf students rated themselves as experiencing significantly higher home life difficulties than hearing students, and deaf students rated themselves as having fewer coping difficulties than hearing students. Results also revealed a hearing status by gender interaction with deaf females rating themselves significantly higher on worry than deaf males, hearing females, and hearing males. An exploratory factor analysis of the Life Difficulties subscales yielded three factors of life difficulties for deaf college students but only two factors for hearing college students. These findings suggest that there are differences between deaf and hearing students who are transitioning to college with regards to their social-emotional adjustment. PMID:17437957
Participatory Action Research (PAR) with children and youth is at the intersection of child wellness and social inclusion. Exclusion and marginalization detract from personal and collective health. Inclusion, on the contrary, contributes to wellness. Hence, we should study inclusion and exclusion in the overall context of child wellness. This special issue offers a wealth of methodologies and lessons for fostering inclusion of young people through PAR. In an effort to synthesize my concerns with child wellness, inclusion, and the scholarly work of this special issue, this paper will (a) articulate the values underpinning the philosophy of social inclusion and child wellness, (b) suggest roles and responsibilities for putting these values into action, and (c) integrate the contributions of this special issue into the emerging framework for social inclusion and child wellness. PMID:20532614
Examined R. S. Weiss's (1973) conceptualization of social and emotional loneliness, using survey data on 505 college students that included the UCLA Loneliness Scale––Revised. Social and emotional loneliness, Ss' affective and behavioral reactions to loneliness, Ss' social relationships, and their judgments of the degree to which their relationships supply the 6 social provisions described by Weiss were measured. There were
Dan Russell; Carolyn E. Cutrona; Jayne Rose; Karen Yurko
This paper explores the agenda-setting role of the media in child abuse, citing local and international examples. The author argues that much media coverage of child abuse promotes a conservative, pro-family political agenda, offering a narrow individualistic\\/legalistic view of child abuse as opposed to a broader structural definition. This conservative agenda is particularly reflected in media hostility to social workers
This study used a cross-national framework to examine country, region, and gender differences in emotional availability (EA), a prominent index of mutual socioemotional adaptation in the parent-child dyad. Altogether 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. mothers and their daughters and sons from both rural and metropolitan areas took part in home…
Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Heslington, Marianne; Gini, Motti; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; Giusti, Zeno; de Galperin, Celia Zingman
This study evaluated a writing intervention (journaling) to reduce stress reactions in child protective services workers. The intervention group participants were asked to write about their stress reactions or emotions in a private journal for 15–20 min each day for 3 consecutive days. The control group members were not asked to carry out any intervention activities. Participants in the intervention
Wendy K. Alford; John M. Malouff; Kristy S. Osland
This study tests the processes through which child abuse public service announcements (PSAs) are effective. The proposed model builds upon the persuasion mediation model of Dillard and Peck (2000), which integrates emotional response and perceived effectiveness as antecedents of issue attitudes and behavioral intention. The model tested the mediating role of perceived effectiveness in the persuasion process. Multigroup structural equation
Hye-Jin Paek; Thomas Hove; Mikyoung Kim; Hyun Ju Jeong
|Background: The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinal relations among child maltreatment, emotion regulation, peer acceptance and rejection, and psychopathology. Methods: Data were collected on 215 maltreated and 206 nonmaltreated children (ages 6-12 years) from low-income families. Children were evaluated by camp counselors on…
Background: Children's emotional responses and physiological reactivity to conflict were examined as mediators and moderators in the associations between exposure to parental marital conflict and child adjustment and cognitive problems. Method: One hundred and eighty elementary school children participated. In response to a simulated argument,…
|The goal of the present study was to explore the moderating role of teacher-child relationships in the relation between shyness and socio-emotional adjustment in early elementary school. Participants were n = 169 grade 1 children (M[subscript age] = 76.93 mos, SD = 3.86). Shortly after the start of the school year (September), parents completed…
Arbeau, Kimberley A.; Coplan, Robert J.; Weeks, Murray
The current longitudinal study examined trajectories of child negative emotionality, parenting efficacy, and overreactive parenting among 382 adoptive families during infancy and toddlerhood. Data were collected from adoptive parents when the children were 9-, 18-, and 27-month-old. Latent growth curve modeling indicated age-related increases in…
Lipscomb, Shannon Tierney; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ge, Xiaojia; Reiss, David
Objective. The goals of the study were to provide descriptive information regarding the Emotional Availability (EA) Scales in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to examine the contribution of child functioning and diagnosis and maternal parenting stress and psychological distress to EA Scale scores. Design. 45 preschool-age boys with an ASD and their mothers were assessed using the EA Scales. Three
Smadar Dolev; David Oppenheim; Nina Koren-Karie; Nurit Yirmiya
Socioeconomic inequalities in the health of adults have been largely attributed to lifestyle inequalities. The cognitive development (CD) and emotional health (EH) of the child provides a basis for many of the health-related behaviours which are observed in adulthood. There has been relatively little attention paid to the way CD and EH are transmitted in the foetal and childhood periods,
Jake M. Najman; Rosemary Aird; William Bor; Michael O’Callaghan; Gail M. Williams; Gregory J. Shuttlewood
|This study used a cross-national framework to examine country, region, and gender differences in emotional availability (EA), a prominent index of mutual socioemotional adaptation in the parent-child dyad. Altogether 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. mothers and their daughters and sons from both rural and metropolitan areas took part in home…
Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Heslington, Marianne; Gini, Motti; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; Giusti, Zeno; de Galperin, Celia Zingman
|Associations between family functioning and children's stress hormone levels are explored, by examining how aspects of the interparental relationship (parents' marital satisfaction and parent conflict styles), the mother-child relationship (maternal involvement and warmth) and maternal emotional functioning (depression, anxiety and self-esteem)…
|The promotion of social and emotional learning (SEL) in schools may help prevent emotional and behavioral problems of students. This study evaluated the effects of a SEL curriculum, "Strong Start," on the social-emotional competence of 26 second grade students, using a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design. Results revealed…
Caldarella, Paul; Christensen, Lynnette; Kramer, Thomas J.; Kronmiller, Kalli
|The inclusion of social and emotional learning (SEL) curricula in preschools may help prevent emotional and behavioral problems. This study evaluated the effects of a SEL curriculum, "Strong Start Pre-K," on the social and emotional competence of 52 preschool students using a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design. Teachers rated…
Gunter, Leslie; Caldarella, Paul; Korth, Byran B.; Young, K. Richard
It is now clear that positive emotion leads to enhanced psychological functioning. What is less clear, however, is just why this is so. Drawing on a social-functional perspective, we argue that positive emotional behavior that accurately signals to others the individual's internal state will enhance social connectedness. Positive emotional behavior that does not accurately signal a person's experience—such as a
Iris B. Mauss; Amanda J. Shallcross; Allison S. Troy; Oliver P. John; Emilio Ferrer; Frank H. Wilhelm; James J. Gross
The goals of the present study were to examine (1) the mean-level stability and differential stability of children's positive emotional intensity, negative emotional intensity, expressivity, and social competence from early elementary school-aged to early adolescence, and (2) the associations between the trajectories of children's emotionality and social functioning. Using four waves of longitudinal data (with assessments 2 years apart), parents
Julie Vaughan Sallquist; Nancy Eisenberg; Tracy L. Spinrad; Mark Reiser; Claire Hofer; Qing Zhou; Jeffrey Liew; Natalie Eggum
There is growing interest in understanding how emotion regulation affects adaptation. The present study examined expressive suppression (which involves inhibiting the overt expression of emotion) and how it affects a critical domain of adaptation, social functioning. This investigation focused on the transition to college, a time that presents a variety of emotional and social challenges. Analyses focused on 2 components
Sanjay Srivastava; Maya Tamir; Kelly M. McGonigal; Oliver P. John; James J. Gross
|The present study examined child and maternal predictors of children's social competence in preschool. One hundred ten mothers and their preschool-aged children participated. Mothers completed parent reports of child temperament and self-regulation, and self-reports of maternal separation anxiety. Mothers' interactional style was coded from…
This study informs the social determinants of child health by exploring an understudied aspect of children's social contexts: chaos. Chaos has been conceptualized as crowded, noisy, disorganized, unpredictable settings for child development (Evans, Eckenrode, & Marcynyszyn, 2010). We measure chaos at two levels of children's ecological environment - the microsystem (household) and the mesosystem (work-family-child care nexus) - and at two points in early childhood (ages 3 and 5). Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3288), a study of predominantly low-income women and their partners in large US cities, we develop structural equation models that assess how maternal-rated child health (also assessed at ages 3 and 5) is associated with latent constructs of chaos, and whether there are important reciprocal effects. Autoregressive cross-lagged path analysis suggest that increasing chaos (at both the household and maternal work levels) is associated with worse child health, controlling for key confounders like household economic status, family structure, and maternal health status. Child health has little effect on chaos, providing further support for the hypothesis that chaos is an important social determinant of child health in this sample of relatively disadvantaged children. This suggests child health may be improved by supporting families in ways that reduce chaos in their home and work/family environments, and that as researchers move beyond SES, race, and family structure to explore other sources of health inequalities, chaos and its proximate determinants may be a promising avenue for future research. PMID:23541250
Kamp Dush, Claire M; Schmeer, Kammi K; Taylor, Miles
This review focuses on facial affect (emotion) recognition in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders other than autism. A systematic search, using PRISMA guidelines, was conducted to identify original articles published prior to October 2011 pertaining to face recognition tasks in case-control studies. Used in the qualitative…
Collin, Lisa; Bindra, Jasmeet; Raju, Monika; Gillberg, Christopher; Minnis, Helen
|Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with…
Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.
|This review focuses on facial affect (emotion) recognition in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders other than autism. A systematic search, using PRISMA guidelines, was conducted to identify original articles published prior to October 2011 pertaining to face recognition tasks in case-control studies. Used in the qualitative…
Collin, Lisa; Bindra, Jasmeet; Raju, Monika; Gillberg, Christopher; Minnis, Helen
The present article serves as a quick office reference for clinicians, providing anticipatory guidance about the cognitive and social-emotional development of newborns, and children up to five years of age. The present review links recommendations to specific evidence in the medical literature, citing sources of developmental standards and advice, so that these may be further explored if desired. Practising primary care providers have indicated that these are areas of child development that are not well addressed by training and other available resources. The present article includes parenting information on important clinical presentations with which clinicians may be less familiar, such as promoting attachment, prosocial behaviours, healthy sleep habits, self-discipline and problem-solving; as well as on managing behaviours that are part of normal development, such as separation anxiety, tantrums, aggression, picky eating and specific fears. Information on the development of language, literacy and socialization are also included.
Chronic social\\/emotional deficits are common in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), leading to significant functional difficulties. Objective, quantitative tools for assessing social\\/emotional competence are an important adjunct to cognitive assessments. We review existing social\\/emotional measures, conclude that theory of mind tests are not adequate for clinical assessments of social competence, and explain the development and piloting of novel
Catherine A. Hynes; Valerie E. Stone; Louise A. Kelso
Recent developmental cognitive neuroscience research has supported the notion that puberty and adolescence are periods of profound socio-emotional development. The current study was designed to investigate whether the onset of puberty marks an increase in the awareness of complex, or “mixed,” emotions. Eighty-three female participants (aged 9–16 years) were divided into three groups according to a self-report measure of puberty stage (early-, mid- and post-puberty). Participants were presented with emotional scenarios, and used four linear scales to rate their emotional response to each scenario. Scenarios were designed to evoke socialemotions (embarrassment or guilt) or basic emotions (anger or fear), where socialemotions are defined as those which require the representation of others' mental states. We measured the relative complexity or “mixedness” of emotional responses, that is, the degree to which participants reported feeling more than one emotion for a given scenario. We found that mixed emotion reporting increased between early- and post-puberty for socialemotion scenarios, and showed no relationship with age, whereas there was no change in mixed emotion reporting for basic emotion scenarios across age or puberty groups. This suggests that the awareness of mixed emotions develops during the course of puberty, and that this development is specific to socialemotions. Results are discussed in the context of brain development across puberty and adolescence, with speculation regarding the potential implications for education.
|This study represents a quasi-experimental test of the role of early social-emotional experience and adult-child relationships in the development of typically developing children and those with disabilities birth to 4 years of age living in orphanages in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. The three orphanages in the current study were selected…
Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 2008
Examines the relationship between family processes and children's school-based adjustment for a sample of fourth-grade (n=161) and seventh-grade (n=151) children. Analyses indicate that child characteristics demonstrated the most consistent and direct association with school social adjustment. A variety of parent-child interactions and family life…
Objective: To show changes in the way juvenile judges and judicial child protection workers deal with physical child abuse in the period 1960–1995 in the Netherlands.Method: The study is based on an analysis of files on adolescent and younger children placed by juvenile judges in the Dutch judicial child protection system during the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s.Results: The prevalence
Objective. The authors examined the roles of children's approach behavior and maternal emotionsocialization practices in the development of social behavior in unfamiliar and familiar contexts from preschool to early childhood years. Design. At 4.5 years of age, children were observed, and an assessment of approach behavior was obtained; at this time, mothers reported about their emotionsocialization beliefs. Two
Social-emotional learning (SEL) skill includes the ability to encode, interpret, and reason about social and emotional information. In two related studies, we examined the relationship between children's SEL skill, their ability to regulate their own behavior, and the competence of their social interactions. Study 1 included 158 typically developing children ages 4 to 14 years. Study 2 included 126 clinic-referred
Clark McKown; Laura M. Gumbiner; Nicole M. Russo; Meryl Lipton
This study examined emotion regulation skills in 22 sexually maltreated girls and 22 nonmaltreated girls between 6 and 12 years of age to determine how the experience of sexual maltreatment might interfere with normative emotional development. Findings indicated that sexually maltreated girls, compared to nonmaltreated peers, reported different goals (i.e., inhibiting emotion to avoid conflict vs. displaying emotion to rectify, a situation) for managing their emotional expressivity with their parents. They also reported expecting less support and more conflict from parents in response to emotional displays. Finally, maltreated girls expected less practical assistance from all social partners (i.e., mother, father, best friend) following their emotional displays. Surprisingly, however, there were no group differences in girls' ability to generate effective strategies for coping with emotionally arousing situations. Findings are discussed from the functionalist approach to emotional development, emphasizing the importance of social context (i.e., maltreating, nonmaltreating) in the development of children's emotion regulation skills. PMID:12934633
Shipman, Kimberly; Zeman, Janice; Fitzgerald, Monica; Swisher, Lisa M
Three studies used J. D. Mayer and P. Salovey's (1997) theory of emotional intelligence (EI) as a framework to examine the role of emotional abilities (assessed with both self-report and performance measures) in social functioning. Self-ratings were assessed in ways that mapped onto the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), a validated performance measure of EI. In Study 1, self-ratings and
Marc A. Brackett; Susan E. Rivers; Sara Shiffman; Nicole Lerner; Peter Salovey
Over the past two decades, interest in the psychological development of children has steadily increased (Beg, Casey, & Saunders, 2007), presumably because statistics describing childhood psychological illness are alarming. Certain parent interaction styles or behaviors are known to influence child adjustment. According to attachment theory, the reason for these findings is that interaction with a caregiver informs an individual’s construction
Over the past two decades, interest in the psychological development of children has steadily increased (Beg, Casey, & Saunders, 2007), presumably because statistics describing childhood psychological illness are alarming. Certain parent interaction styles or behaviors are known to influence child adjustment. According to attachment theory, the reason for these findings is that interaction with a caregiver informs an individual’s construction
This article examines the positive elements which make social workers continue their career with a focus on statutory child welfare. Such analysis is needed, as existing research tends to highlight stress, exhaustion and career break-up issues. The empirical data consist of focus groups of 28 social workers and a questionnaire addressed to 56 professionals in child welfare in two Finnish
This second of two articles describes the application of disaster mental health interventions within the context of the childssocial ecology consisting of the Micro-, Meso-, Exo-, and Macrosystems. Microsystem interventions involving parents, siblings, and close friends include family preparedness planning andpractice, psychoeducation, role modeling, emotional support, and redirection. Mesosystem interventions provided by schools and faith-based organizations include safety and support, assessment, referral, and counseling. Exosystem interventions include those provided through community-based mental health programs, healthcare organizations, the workplace, the media, local volunteer disaster organizations, and other local organizations. Efforts to build community resilience to disasters are likely to have influence through the Exosystem. The Macrosystem - including the laws, history, cultural and subcultural characteristics, and economic and social conditions that underlie the other systems - affects the child indirectly through public policies and disaster programs and services that become available in the child's Exosystem in the aftermath of a disaster The social ecology paradigm, described more fully in a companion article (Noffsinger Pfefferbaum, Pfefferbaum, Sherrieb, & Norris,2012), emphasizes relationships among systems and can guide the development and delivery of services embedded in naturally-occurring structures in the child's environment. PMID:23894798
Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Jacobs, Anne K; Noffsinger, Mary A; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sherrieb, Kathleen; Norris, Fran H
Much of child illness in developing countries can be explained by what have been called, 'proximate determinants,' principally infant feeding practices and preventive and curative care. During previous field research in a small village in Yemen the author observed that despite the uniformly unhealthy environment, a minority of the families carried most of the burden of child illness and death.
Released on September 6 by the Department of Health and Human Services, this 23-page report compiled by The Child Mental Health Foundations and Agencies Network examines the issues surrounding the social transition of children from pre-school and home environments to K-12 education. The purpose of the monograph "is to summarize the research on the social and emotional risk and protective factors that predict early school outcomes and to analyze the federal policies that seek to improve these outcomes." The publication also explores the existing gaps between research and practice, and makes recommendations for reform.
This study compared the effectiveness of a social story intervention with a social story plus behavior skills training intervention involving family members for a child with autism. A multiple baseline across siblings design was used to assess the impact of the intervention on social interaction of the child with autism, as well as the social interaction of the child's siblings.
|This paper is a working draft of a study which has examined the accumulated research on child growth and development. The draft is designed as an input paper to enable the Marin Social Studies Project to refine its rationale and criteria for a recommended K-12 social studies program of curriculum options. Identification of the capabilities of…
|Child maltreatment increases the risk for impaired social functioning and cortisol regulation. However, the longitudinal interplay among these factors is still unclear. This study aimed to shed light on the effect of maltreatment on social functioning and cortisol regulation over time. The sample consisted of 236 children (mean age 7.64 years, SD…
Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Kim, Jungmeen; Rogosch, Fred A.
This executive summary reports on an investigation of the impact of parent-absence on the socialization of black children. Four different studies were conducted by the Parent Improvement and ChildSocialization Project among respondents identified through lists of inmates supplied by the D.C. Department of Corrections and by visits to penal…
Howard Univ., Washington, DC. Dept. of Psychology.
Although the idea of person in the environment is a dominant paradigm in social work, the concept of environment does not emphasize the idea of geographic location. This qualitative research explores social work supervision of child welfare workers from the perspective of geographic place. Ten supervisors from urban communities and 12 supervisors from northern remote communities were interviewed to assess
|This study examined adolescent paternity through structured interviews with their social workers. It adds to the literature by exploring if there were young men involved with the child protection services (CPS) system who are fathers, identifying their unique needs, and beginning discussions on working with these young men. CPS social workers…
Gordon, Derrick M.; Watkins, Natasha D.; Walling, Sherry M.; Wilhelm, Sara; Rayford, Brett S.
OBJECTIVE To explore physicians’ awareness of and responses to type 2 diabetic patients’ social and emotional difficulties. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted semistructured interviews with 19 physicians. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS Three themes emerged: 1) physicians’ awareness of patients’ social and emotional difficulties: physicians recognized the frequency and seriousness of patients’ social and emotional difficulties; 2) physicians’ responses to patients’ social and emotional difficulties: many reported that intervening with these difficulties was challenging with few treatment options beyond making referrals, individualizing care, and recommending more frequent follow-up visits; and 3) the impact of patients’ social and emotional difficulties on physicians: few available patient treatment options, time constraints, and a perceived lack of psychological expertise contributed to physicians’ feeling frustrated, inadequate, and overwhelmed. CONCLUSIONS Recognition and understanding of physicians’ challenges when treating diabetes patients’ social and emotional difficulties are important for developing programmatic interventions.
Beverly, Elizabeth A.; Hultgren, Brittney A.; Brooks, Kelly M.; Ritholz, Marilyn D.; Abrahamson, Martin J.; Weinger, Katie
|This text on the social and emotional development of gifted children includes the following 24 papers: (1) "Effects of Acceleration on Gifted Learners" (Karen Rogers); (2) "Peer Pressures and Social Acceptance of Gifted Students" (Sylvia Rimm); (3) "Social and Emotional Issues for Exceptional Intellectually Gifted Students" (Miraca Gross); (4)…
Neihart, Maureen, Ed.; Reis, Sally M., Ed.; Robinson, Nancy M., Ed.; Moon, Sidney M., Ed.
In Western societies, parental expression of positive emotion has been positively related to the quality of children's social functioning, whereas their expression of negative emotion has been negatively or inconsistently related. The relations of parental expressivity to 3rd-grade Indonesian children's dispositional regulation, socially appropriate behavior, popularity, and sympathy were examined. Parents, teachers, and peers reported on children's social functioning and
Teaching social-emotional skills to secondary students has been linked to higher student achievement, more positive student motivation and more socially acceptable classroom behaviors (Elias & Arnold, 2006; Weissburg et al., 2003; Kress et al., 2004). Much of the current literature on social-emotional learning (SEL) focuses on research. This piece…
Jones, Jennifer L.; Jones, Karrie A.; Vermette, Paul J.
|Children's social and emotional competence abilities have been linked to successful social interactions and academic performance. This study examined the teacher and observer ratings of social and emotional competence for 89 young (3- to 5-year-old), African American children from economically stressed urban environments. There was a specific…
Humphries, Marisha L.; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.
Our research studies investigated situations involving perceived social injustice. In the first study, we collected 79 items involving unjust situations from 213 undergraduate students. Then, 270 undergraduates completed a questionnaire evaluating the social injustice for these situations. The results of a factor analysis showed that these 79 unjust situations could be classified into four types: (a) deviation from social norms, (b) inhumanity, (c) lack of economic benefit, and (d) deviation from interpersonal norms. In a second research study, we collected 124 items involving unjust situations from 599 undergraduates. The results of factor analyses of data from 386 undergraduates showed eight factors: (a) deviation from public rule, (b) deviation from public manner, (c) violence, (d) misery, (e) low benefit, (f) others benefit by incorrect ways, (g) aggression against others, and (h) lack of concern for others. In a third study, we measured the emotional reactions of 224 undergraduates for 96 of the unjust situations collected in Study 2. The results showed that the emotional reactions differed for each unjust situation. PMID:21400862
Existing assessment instruments (N=54) containing items in the area of early child-care social development were examined in terms of their usefulness with regard to intervention oriented assessment for handicapped children. Tests included four major types: early childhood, social behavior, criterion referenced, and clinical tests. The frequency,…
This study focuses on three aspects of parenting that have been linked theoretically and empirically with the development of childemotion regulation and attention control skills in early childhood: 1) parental stress and distress, 2) the degree of warmth and sensitivity evident in the parent-child relationship, and 3) parental support for the…
This continuation of a previous study (Taumoepeau & Ruffman, 2006) examined the longitudinal relation between maternal mental state talk to 15- and 24-month-olds and their later mental state language and emotion understanding (N= 74). The previous study found that maternal talk about the child's desires to 15-month-old children uniquely predicted children's mental state language and emotion task performance at 24 months. In the present study, at 24 months of age, mothers' reference to others' thoughts and knowledge was the most consistent predictor of children's later mental state language at 33 months. Vygotsky's zone of proximal development provides a framework within which maternal talk, first, about the child's desires and then about others' thoughts and knowledge scaffolds children's social understanding. PMID:18366424
This study investigates the construct validity and reliability of the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) in a psychiatric clinical sample of toddlers. The sample consisted of a psychiatric clinical sample (N=112) (male, n=79; female, n=33) of toddlers (12- to 42-months old). Both mothers and fathers completed the BITSEA and mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist 2/3 (CBCL). Children and their parents were administered a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation. Parents were also given the Autistic Behavior Checklist (AuBC) and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC). The internal consistency of BITSEA scores was good to excellent for both parents. The BITSEA/Problem (P) scores were significantly correlated with Internalizing, Externalizing and Total Problem scores of the CBCL, all subscores of ABC and total score of AuBC. The BITSEA/Competence (C) scores were significantly inversely correlated with ABC total and AuBC lethargy scores. With respect to a community sample, BITSEA/P scores were significantly higher in the disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and anxiety/depression (Anx/Dep) groups and BITSEA/C scores were significantly lower in the autism group. These results support the reliability and validity of the BITSEA as a screening tool that may be employed in primary health care services and in psychiatric clinical settings for assessing social-emotional/behavioral problems and delays in competence in infants and toddlers. PMID:20800285
Karabekiroglu, Koray; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Carter, Alice S; Rodopman-Arman, Ayse; Akbas, Seher
The aim of the school-based drama programme was to enhance childsocial and emotional learning. The programme was implemented by class teachers or teacher-school nurse dyads among fourth and fifth graders (10-12 years old) during the school year 2007-2008. Teachers and school nurses received training before the implementation. One hundred and four students participated. The purpose of the pilot study was to explore student experiences concerning the programme and the learning experiences. After the program, questionnaires with structured and open-ended questions were completed by 90 students (response rate 87%). Additionally, four focus group interviews were conducted. The research data were analysed statistically and by using qualitative data analysis. The quantitative results indicate that most students liked the programme and were enthusiastic about it. According to the qualitative data, students described, e.g. enhanced social and emotional learning and increased understanding of diversity and consequences of bullying. Additionally, drama transformed prosocial behaviour. PMID:21362006
Background The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) is a promising questionnaire for the early detection of psychosocial problems in toddlers. The screening accuracy and clinical application were evaluated. Methods In a community sample of 2-year-olds (N?=?2060), screening accuracy of the BITSEA Problem scale was examined regarding a clinical CBCL1.5-5 Total Problem score. For the total population and subgroups by child’s gender and ethnicity Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated, and across a range of BITSEA Problem scores, sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio’s, diagnostic odds ratio and Youden’s index. Clinical application of the BITSEA was examined by evaluating the relation between the scale scores and the clinical decision of the child health professional. Results The area under the ROC curve (95% confidence interval) of the Problem scale was 0.97(0.95–0.98), there were no significant differences between subgroups. The association between clinical decision and BITSEA Problem score (B?=?2.5) and Competence score (B?=??0.7) was significant (p<0.05). Conclusions The results indicate that the BITSEA Problem scale has good discriminative power to differentiate children with and without psychosocial problems. Referred children had less favourable scores compared to children that were not referred. The BITSEA may be helpful in the early detection of psychosocial problems.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 7-month cognitive behavioral intervention for the facilitation of the social-emotional understanding and social interaction of 15 high-functioning children (8 to 17 years old) with autism. Intervention focused on teaching interpersonal problem solving, affective knowledge, and social interaction. Preintervention and postintervention measures included observations of social interaction, measures of problem solving and of emotion
The associations were studied between early mother–child co-construction of a separation–reunion narrative and children's concurrent and later (a) emotion narratives and (b) behavior problems. Fifty-one children and their mothers were observed during a co-construction task when the children were age 4½. At ages 4½. and 5½, children's narratives were elicited using the MacArthur Story-Stem Battery (MSSB), and mothers completed the
David Oppenheim; Ayelet Nir; Susan Warren; Robert N. Emde
Attention to the total care of the patient and family is needed to promote emotional as well as physical healing. This paper looks at the grief process as experienced by the parents of a burn injured child. Mention is made of non-accidental injuries, accident prevention and the rehabilitation stage of a burn injury. Emphasis is on scalds to toddlers between the ages of 1 to 2 years. PMID:7880137
Family reminiscing is a critical part of family interaction related to child outcome. In this study, we extended previous research by examining both mothers and fathers, in two-parent racially diverse middle-class families, reminiscing with their 9- to 12-year-old children about both the facts and the emotional aspects of shared positive and negative events. Mothers were more elaborative than fathers, and
Robyn Fivush; Kelly Marin; Kelly McWilliams; Jennifer G. Bohanek
Participatory Action Research (PAR) with children and youth is at the intersection of child wellness and social inclusion.\\u000a Exclusion and marginalization detract from personal and collective health. Inclusion, on the contrary, contributes to wellness.\\u000a Hence, we should study inclusion and exclusion in the overall context of child wellness. This special issue offers a wealth\\u000a of methodologies and lessons for fostering
|We examined the influence of children's peer relationships and maternal emotionalsocialization on children's development of emotion knowledge. Children's emotion knowledge was assessed at the beginning (time 1) and end (time 2) of their first semester of kindergarten. Children's peer interactions were measured through observations and teacher…
This article reports on an effectiveness trial of the Tuning in to Kids (TIK) parenting program. TIK aims to improve emotionsocialization practices in parents of preschool children; it is a universal prevention program that teaches parents the skills of emotion coaching and also targets parents' own emotion awareness and regulation. The present study followed a 2 × 2 (Treatment
Katherine R. Wilson; Sophie S. Havighurst; Ann E. Harley
A significant proportion of children with anorectal malformations have long term problems with faecal continence. The psychological consequences of this chronic disability was assessed in 160 children and adolescents. The prevalence of clinically significant emotional problems among the sample overall, as assessed by a diagnostic psychiatric interview (19%), parental assessment (27%), and child self report depressive scale (24%) was higher than expected relative to normative populations. With the exception of the young girls (6-11 years), the incontinent children and adolescents were not judged to be less well adjusted than those with good bowel control. Treatment for anorectal malformations appears to be associated with an increased risk for behavioural and social problems, but this was not related to the level of continence. Parental factors and gender were significantly associated with outcome. These children and families would benefit from psychological evaluation and support especially during early childhood. PMID:7979490
A significant proportion of children with anorectal malformations have long term problems with faecal continence. The psychological consequences of this chronic disability was assessed in 160 children and adolescents. The prevalence of clinically significant emotional problems among the sample overall, as assessed by a diagnostic psychiatric interview (19%), parental assessment (27%), and child self report depressive scale (24%) was higher than expected relative to normative populations. With the exception of the young girls (6-11 years), the incontinent children and adolescents were not judged to be less well adjusted than those with good bowel control. Treatment for anorectal malformations appears to be associated with an increased risk for behavioural and social problems, but this was not related to the level of continence. Parental factors and gender were significantly associated with outcome. These children and families would benefit from psychological evaluation and support especially during early childhood.
Misreading facial expressions as signals of social disapproval, such as anger and disgust, may maintain social anxiety. If so, manipulating face processing could be therapeutic. It remains unclear, however, whether socially anxious individuals are in fact more sensitive to disapproving emotions. We assessed decoding of, and cost attributions to, emotional expressions in high and low socially anxious females (n=102) using five emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness) expressed at 15 intensities (9-65%), providing 75 stimuli (see Supplementary Material). The decoding task briefly presented the stimuli and participants identified the emotion. The cost attribution task asked individuals to rate each stimulus for how costly it would be for them to interact with the person. Random effects regression indicated that social anxiety was not associated with overall decoding accuracy but was associated with a response bias. High socially anxious individuals had a lower threshold for decoding emotions but also more frequently classified low intensity emotions incorrectly. These effects were not emotion-specific. Socially anxious individuals also attributed excessive social cost to expressions of negative valence. Our results provide a novel conceptual framework for understanding emotion decoding in social anxiety, indicating the importance of considering both accuracy and response bias. PMID:23845415
Button, Katherine; Lewis, Glyn; Penton-Voak, Ian; Munafò, Marcus
The relationship between social insurance, which provides families protection against certain risks, and child economic security is understudied. Using the 2004 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) matched to Social Security Administration benefit records, this article investigates the economic welfare effects of the child component of the US Social Security program. We examine how the poverty rate of child
Objective: To investigate the association between the child-care environment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year-olds. Based on an ecological view of environmental influences on health behavior, we hypothesized that the social and physical environment, as well as child characteristics (age and gender), would show independent and interactive effects on children's physical activity intensity. Design: Observations of physical activity intensity
Jessica S. Gubbels; Stef P. J. Kremers; Dave H. H. van Kann; Annette Stafleu; Math J. J. M. Candel; Pieter C. Dagnelie; Carel Thijs; Nanne K. de Vries
From the clinical practice and some experimental studies, it is apparent that paranoid schizophrenia patients tend to assign\\u000a emotional salience to neutral social stimuli. This aberrant cognitive bias has been conceptualized to result from increased\\u000a emotional arousal, but direct empirical data are scarce. The aim of the present study was to quantify the subjective emotional\\u000a arousal (SEA) evoked by emotionally
Evelina Haralanova; Svetlozar Haralanov; Anna Beraldi; Hans-Jürgen Möller; Kristina Hennig-Fast
|Relations of maternal and child characteristics to child cortisol reactivity to and recovery from emotional arousal were examined prospectively at approximately 7 months of age (infancy) and then again at approximately 15 months of age (toddlerhood). The sample was diverse and population based (N = 1,292 mother-infant dyads) and included families…
Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas A.; Kivlighan, Katie T.; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Willoughby, Michael; Greenberg, Mark T.; Hibel, Leah C.; Fortunato, Christine K.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is increasingly recognized as having a negative impact on both the mother and her unborn child. The current study extends previous work to examine the impact of both physical and emotional IPV separately and cumulatively on the mother and her child. Specifically, we used the Fragile Families dataset (N=3961) to determine the effect of
Sarah McMahon; Chien-Chung Huang; Paul Boxer; Judy L. Postmus
Relations of maternal and child characteristics to child cortisol reactivity to and recovery from emotional arousal were examined prospectively at approximately 7 months of age (infancy) and then again at approximately 15 months of age (toddlerhood). The sample was diverse and population based (N = 1,292 mother-infant dyads) and included families…
Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas A.; Kivlighan, Katie T.; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Willoughby, Michael; Greenberg, Mark T.; Hibel, Leah C.; Fortunato, Christine K.
The effects of a school-based social-emotional and character development program, Positive Action, on the developmental trajectory of social-emotional and character-related behaviors was evaluated using data from three\\u000a school-based randomized trials in elementary schools. Results come from 1) 4 years of data from students in 20 Hawai’i schools,\\u000a 2) 3 years of data from students in 14 schools in Chicago and 3) 3 years
Isaac J. Washburn; Alan Acock; Sam Vuchinich; Frank Snyder; Kin-Kit Li; Peter Ji; Joseph Day; David DuBois; Brian R. Flay
\\u000a Stages of social–emotional development are the subject of this chapter. Infants and toddlers live in a maelstrom of strong\\u000a emotions, most of which involve interactions with other people. But the social situations that induce strong emotions, and\\u000a the cognitive capacities children have for coping with them, change dramatically from one stage to the next. The timetable\\u000a of cognitive development helps
The relations between mothers' expressed positive and negative emotion and 55–79-month-olds' (76% European American) regulation, social competence, and adjustment were examined. Structural equation modeling was used to test the plausibility of the hypothesis that the effects of maternal expression of emotion on children's adjustment and social competence are mediated through children's dispositional regulation. Mothers' expressed emotions were assessed during interactions
Nancy Eisenberg; Elizabeth Thompson Gershoff; Richard A. Fabes; Stephanie A. Shepard; Amanda J. Cumberland; Sandra H. Losoya; Ivanna K. Guthrie; Bridget C. Murphy
This article discusses the non-academic, social-emotional factors that contribute to student academic achievement, including the cognitive-behavioral characteristics of underachieving students and those with learning disabilities; the “You Can Do It! Education” (YCDI) theory of achievement; derivative research on social-emotional capabilities, called the Five Foundations (Academic Confidence, Work Persistence, Work Organization, Getting Along, Emotional Resilience) that, when delayed, produce achievement problems;
People feel psychological pain when they are excluded, and this pain is often attenuated when emotional support is received. It is therefore likely that a specific neural mechanism underlies the detection of social exclusion. Similarly, specific neural mechanisms may underlie the beneficial effects of emotional support. Although neuroimaging researchers have recently examined the neural basis of social pain, there is
Parents and teachers reported that 6- to 8-year-old boys with developmental delays were less able to regulate their emotions than nondelayed boys matched on chronological age. Compared to nondelayed boys, boys with developmental delays had more social problems, which persisted and increased over a 3-year period. Children's ability to regulate their emotions explained significant variance in their social problems after
Social and emotional processing uses neural systems involving structures ranging from the brain stem to the associational cortex. Neuroimaging research has attempted to identify abnormalities in components of these systems that would underlie the behavioral abnormalities seen in disorders of social and emotional processing, notably autism spectrum disorders, the focus of this review. However, the findings have been variable. The
|A pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design was used to test the impact of a 30-week, theoretically-based social and emotional learning (SEL) curriculum, The RULER Feeling Words Curriculum ("RULER"), on the academic performance and social and emotional competence of 5th and 6th grade students (N = 273) in fifteen classrooms in three schools.…
Brackett, Marc A.; Rivers, Susan E.; Reyes, Maria R.; Salovey, Peter
The authors propose a model of the prosocial classroom that highlights the importance of teachers' social and emotional competence (SEC) and well-being in the development and maintenance of supportive teacher-student relationships, effective classroom management, and successful social and emotional learning program implementation. This model…
This article examines the Kentucky Initiative for Social Skill and Emotional Development which provides annual training and technical assistance to build early childhood programs' capacity to deliver practices known to promote social and emotional competency. The initiative is based on the 3-tiered Positive Behavior Support model that teaches…
McLaren, Elizabeth M.; Hall, Phyllis J.; Fox, Pamela
|Associations between young children's attributions of emotion at different points in a story, and with regard to their own prediction about the story's outcome, were investigated using two hypothetical scenarios of social and emotional challenge (social entry and negative event). First grade children (N = 250) showed an understanding that…
Eivers, Areana R.; Brendgen, Mara; Borge, Anne I. H.
The current study explored the association between a large-scale federally funded preschool intervention and the social and emotional development of participants. Data were drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS) and included 1,378 primarily African American youth who participated in the CLS and had scores for two or more identifiable social and emotional competency indicators from age 7 through age
Michael D. Niles; Arthur J. Reynolds; Mark Nagasawa; Jie-Qi Chen; Charles Chang
A growing number of children are entering kindergarten without the skills that enable them to be successful in an academic setting. However, it is not children's cognitive skills that concern educators; it is their social and emotional skill deficits that are most troublesome. This article discusses how family and community risk factors can inhibit social and emotional development (i.e., skills
This article reviews the contributions of the Oregon Resiliency Project, an effort to enhance positive social - emotional development of children and youth through social and emotional learning (SEL). The project was launched in 2001 as a collaborative effort between faculty and graduate student researchers at the University of Oregon. The primary aims have included training, outreach, and research in
In this article, the authors argue that secondary school academic subjects should integrate elements of pastoral work into their teaching through the use of collaborative group work. Pupils who are given the opportunity to develop emotionally and socially are more likely to understand each other, which can lead to a reduction of conflict in the classroom. Social and emotional development
|Background: In the studies of acceleration conducted so far a multidimensional perspective has largely been neglected. No attempt has been made to relate social-emotional characteristics of accelerated versus non-accelerated students in perspective of environmental factors. Aims: In this study, social-emotional characteristics of accelerated…
Hoogeveen, Lianne; van Hell, Janet G.; Verhoeven, Ludo
|The aim of this study was to investigate whether school climate and social-emotional learning impact teacher commitment. The sample included 664 public schoolteachers from British Columbia and Ontario in Canada. Participants completed an online questionnaire about teacher commitment, school climate, and social-emotional learning. Binary logistic…
Collie, Rebecca J.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Perry, Nancy E.
This paper explores the emotional aspects of participation within social welfare contexts. The focus is on individual professionals, such as social workers and children's rights workers and their articulation, management and negotiation of the emotional when working with children and young people. The institutions of welfare are also shown to be…
Children who are homeless are reported to have mental health problems at rates of 44% compared to 18% of homed children (1, 2.) A contributing factor to mental health problems can be poor socialemotional development (3.) Mothers who experience homelessness may find facilitating socialemotional development a challenge when basic necessities such as securing food, shelter and clothing are
|Relationships exist between language ability, emotion regulation, and social competence in preschool children. This study examines how these relationships function in elementary school children, and explores whether language ability partially mediates the relationship between emotion regulation and social competence. Second-grade students (N =…
|This article begins with a review of research providing evidence that social-emotional competence is a key component of school readiness and that the foundations for social-emotional competence are laid down in the earliest years. We go on to review effective practices and specific interventions that have been found to strengthen children's…
Gray, Sarah A. O.; Herberle, Amy E.; Carter, Alice S.
|Recognizing facial affect is essential for effective social functioning. This study examines emotion recognition abilities in children aged 7-13 years with High Functioning Autism (HFA = 19), Social Phobia (SP = 17), or typical development (TD = 21). Findings indicate that all children identified certain emotions more quickly (e.g., happy [less…
We describe a wearable device that perceives and reports on social-emotional information in realtime human interaction. Using a wearable camera and other sensors combined with machine perception algorithms, the system records and analyzes the facial expressions and head movements of the person with whom the wearer is interacting. We propose the application of the social-emotional prosthetic to assist the growing
Rana El Kaliouby; Alea Teeters; Rosalind W. Picard
|The relationships among emotional intelligence, social coping, and psychological distress were investigated in a sample of 624 Chinese gifted students in Hong Kong. A mediation-effect model specifying that emotional intelligence had an effect on psychological distress mediated by social coping was hypothesized and tested using structural equation…
This study examined the retrospective reports of family emotionsocialization experiences and current affective distress among 23 Asian American and 31 White American university students with subclinical levels of distress. Results indicated that most of the Asian Americans interviewed recalled being socialized by their family to suppress their emotions, whereas more than half of White Americans recalled being encouraged by
|Background: Little is known about how best to implement behavioral screening recommendations in practice, especially for children in foster care, who are at risk for having social-emotional problems. Two validated screening tools are recommended for use with young children: the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: SocialEmotional (ASQ-SE) identifies…
Jee, Sandra H.; Conn, Anne-Marie; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Blumkin, Aaron; Baldwin, Constance D.; Szilagyi, Moira A.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore three research questions. Are there gender differences in the demonstration of emotional and social intelligence competencies? What is the relationship between emotional and social intelligence competencies and success, and does gender moderate that relationship? Are there differences between the most successful male and female leaders in their demonstration of these
This study investigated gender differences and similarities in the perceived social costs and importance of seeking emotional support regarding work?related problems. Women perceived such emotional support to be significantly more important than did men. No gender differences were identified with respect to the perceived social costs associated with seeking emotional support from coworkers nor in the proportion of emotional support
This study further explored the impact of sectarian violence and children's emotional insecurity about community on child maladjustment using a 4-wave longitudinal design. The study included 999 mother-child dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (482 boys, 517 girls). Across the 4 waves, child mean age was 12.19 (SD = 1.82), 13.24 (SD = 1.83), 13.61 (SD = 1.99), and 14.66 years (SD = 1.96), respectively. Building on previous studies of the role of emotional insecurity in child adjustment, the current study examines within-person change in emotional insecurity using latent growth curve analyses. The results showed that children's trajectories of emotional insecurity about community were related to risk for developing conduct and emotion problems. These findings controlled for earlier adjustment problems, age, and gender, and took into account the time-varying nature of experience with sectarian violence. Discussion considers the implications for children's emotional insecurity about community for relations between political violence and children's adjustment, including the significance of trajectories of emotional insecurity over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23527495
Cummings, E Mark; Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed
|This is the first book to link the issues of emotional literacy, equity and social justice, and the education of the whole child, thus providing the social and political context for emotional literacy. In connecting emotional literacy and equity with the structure of schooling, it establishes that co-educational schools can contribute to enabling…
A secondary analysis of 100 cases histories selected from social service records in a county department of social services (DSS) was conducted to examine the amount and kind of social services that persons identified as having maltreated a child received. Other objectives of the analysis were to observe the pattern of social service utilization over time and to discover what, if any, factors were associated with receiving social services. To accomplish these study objectives, two groups were selected for analysis: a target group of 50 families that had been reported to the county DSS for child maltreatment and a group of 50 families that had never been so reported. Both groups were composed mainly of young and socioeconomically deprived families that were characterized by poor incomes, little education, and low occupational levels. Analyses revealed significant differences in the amount and type of social services used by families in the target group and the comparison group. Although family structure was found to be related to the total amount of social service utilization, the degree of social disorganization within the family did not correlate with utilization. The study results indicate that the level of social services that protective service clients need and the level that they are actually getting should be re-examined.
This paper explores the influence of women's social networks on child survival through a comparative investigation of two ethnic groups in Mali, West Africa. Data are drawn from a study of women's social networks and health conducted during the period 1996–97. Separate samples of 500 ever-married women aged 15–49 were surveyed at two geographically distinct sites representing Bamanan and Fulbe
Alayne M. Adams; Sangeetha Madhavan; Dominique Simon
Awareness of the emotion of those who communicate with others is a fundamental challenge in building affective intelligent systems. Emotion is a complex state of the mind influenced by external events, physiological changes, or relationships with others. Because emotions can represent a user's internal context or intention, researchers suggested various methods to measure the user's emotions from analysis of physiological
Hosub Lee; Young Sang Choi; Sunjae Lee; I. P. Park
... uncomfortable. Being prepared to answer questions removes the element of surprise and makes social experiences easier. Knowledge of ... Click here to return to the Complete Listing of Publications Last Updated: Oct 25, 2007 This post is ...
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the ability of a social marketing intervention to provide families with specific nutrition information, stimulate family discussions on the topic of nutrition, and encourage parents to make changes in their child-feeding practices. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A postcard intervention was administered to families with children aged five to 12 years at three
|The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between child maltreatment, social support, and developmental outcomes in first-year college students. Participants were 202 undergraduate students (137 female, 65 male) who completed surveys at two time points: once before entering college and once during their first year of…
This project was designed to train undergraduate social work students in the field of child welfare, and the goals were: (1) to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the field; (2) to provide intensive training in particular methods of di...
The present meta-analytic review examined the magnitude of the relation between discrete emotion knowledge and three of its most commonly studied correlates in childhood and adolescence: social competence, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. Emotion knowledge demonstrated small to medium-sized relations with each correlate. Moderators of effect size were also examined and included multiple sample and methodological characteristics. Using random effects models, significant moderators of effect size for relations between emotion knowledge and externalizing problems included sample recruitment, sample age, and the source of externalizing problems ratings. Moderators of effect size were not found for emotion knowledge and social competence, and the effect sizes across samples for emotion knowledge and internalizing problems were homogeneous. Results highlight the relatively consistent yet modest relations between emotion knowledge and its correlates. Implications for applied research and new directions for research on emotion knowledge using innovative methods are discussed.
This study investigated the relations among shyness, physiological dysregulation, and maternal emotionsocialization in predicting children’s social behavior with peers during the kindergarten year (n = 66; 29 girls). For shy children, interactions with peers represent potential stressors that can elicit negative emotion and physiological reactions. Behavior during these contexts can be viewed as adaptive (e.g., playing alone) or maladaptive (e.g., watching other children play without joining in) attempts to regulate the ensuing distress. Whether shy children employ adaptive or maladaptive regulatory behaviors was expected to depend on two aspects of emotion regulatory skill: (1) children’s physiological regulation and (2) maternal emotionsocialization. Findings supported the hypotheses. Specifically, shy children with poorer cortisol regulation or mothers who endorsed a higher level of non-supportive emotion reactions engaged in more maladaptive play behaviors, whereas shy children with better cortisol regulation or a high level of supportive maternal emotion reactions engaged in more adaptive play behaviors.
The rational model of the interaction, as derived from the individual perspective, has been unable to replicate the emergence of social phenomena. But by focusing on the physics of interaction, the recently developed social quantum uncertainty relations provide a computational model that functions for individual and social decisions. In this model, emotion signals in the interaction bind individuals into social
|This study explored the use of multimedia, student-generated social skills lessons coupled with teacher facilitation to improve the social skills of middle-school students with emotional disabilities. The effects of teacher-led social skills instruction and the combination of teacher-led and multimedia student-generated social skills instruction…
Cummings, Therese M.; Higgins, Kyle; Pierce, Tom; Miller, Susan; Boone, Randall; Tandy, Richard
The authors examined White and Black participants’ emotional, physiological, and behavioral responses to same-race or different-race evaluators, following rejecting social feedback or accepting social feedback. As expected, in ingroup interactions, the authors observed deleterious responses to social rejection and benign responses to social acceptance. Deleterious responses included cardiovascular (CV) reactivity consistent with threat states and poorer performance, whereas benign responses
Wendy Berry Mendes; Brenda Major; Shannon McCoy; Jim Blascovich
Background Abuse of women occurs in every society of the world. Increased information about the prevalence in industrialized countries, like Norway, is required to make strategies to prevent abuse. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported sexual, physical and emotional abuse in a large obstetric population in Norway, and the associations between exposure to adult abuse, socio-demographics and other characteristics. Methods Our study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBa) Cohort study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The current study included 65,393 women who responded to two extensive postal questionnaires during pregnancy. Any adult abuse is defined as being exposed to one or more types of adult abuse, any child abuse is defined as being exposed to one or more types of child abuse, and any lifetime abuse is defined as being exposed to abuse either as a child and/or as an adult. Perpetrators were categorized as known or stranger. Results Overall, 32% of the women reported any lifetime abuse, 20% reported any adult abuse, 19% reported any child abuse and 6% reported abuse both as adults and as children. Emotional abuse was the most frequently reported type of abuse both as adults (16%) and children (14%). Adult sexual abuse was reported by 5% and child sexual abuse by 7%. Physical abuse was reported by 6% as adults and by 6% as children. Approximately 30% of those reporting adult or child abuse reported exposure to two or three types of abuse. Five percent of the women reported exposure to any abuse during the last 12?months. For all types of abuse, a known perpetrator was more commonly reported. Logistic regression showed that being exposed to child abuse, smoking and drinking alcohol in the first trimester of pregnancy, living alone, and belonging to the eldest age group were significantly associated with being exposed to any adult abuse. Conclusion The reported prevalence of any lifetime abuse was substantial in our low-risk pregnant population. Antenatal care is an opportunity for clinicians to ask about experiences of abuse and identify those at risk.
In recent years, the English education system has reflected a worldwide interest in social and emotional learning (SEL), as evidenced by the national launch of the secondary social and emotional aspects of learning (SEAL) programme in 2007. SEAL is a whole-school approach designed to positively influence a range of pupil outcomes, including increased social and emotional skills, better behaviour and
In recent years, the English education system has reflected a worldwide interest in social and emotional learning (SEL), as evidenced by the national launch of the secondary social and emotional aspects of learning (SEAL) programme in 2007. SEAL is a whole-school approach designed to positively influence a range of pupil outcomes, including increased social and emotional skills, better behaviour and
This experiment addressed the question of whether children's own emotional states influence their accuracy in recognizing emotional states in peers and any motives they may have to intervene in order to change their peers' emotional states. Happiness, sadness, anger, or a neutral state were induced in preschool children, who then viewed slides of other 4-year-old children who were actually experiencing
Charles R. Carlson; Elyse Schwartz Felleman; John C. Masters
The current study examined associations between peer nominations of children's expression of negative emotions and psychological, social, and behavioral correlates in a sample of 523 first graders. Children (85% African American) completed a peer nomination measure for expressing negative emotions. In addition, three other domains of functioning were assessed using multiple raters: internalizing symptoms (self, parent), externalizing behavior (parent, teacher), and social competence (parent, teacher). Regression analyses indicated that peer nominations of negative emotions predicted higher levels of teacher-rated externalizing behavior and lower levels of teacher-rated social competence. Peer nominations of emotions were significantly associated with teacher ratings but unrelated to self- and parent-report measures. Adding to a small but growing literature, our findings underscore the importance of assessing peer perceptions of children's emotional expressivity and their associations to social and psychological functioning in an urban, predominantly African American sample.
Perry-Parrish, Carisa; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Bradshaw, Catherine P.
Autistic and matched non-autistic retarded children were selected for their ability to recognize the correspondence between schematic drawings and videotaped scenes involving people. The subjects of both groups were able to choose schematic drawings of gestures for a person's gestures of emotion enacted on videotape. However, the autistic children were significantly impaired in choosing which of the drawings of gestures should 'go with' videotaped vocalizations and facial expressions characteristic of four emotional states. The results were found to be consistent with results from a previous, related study in which the same subjects had chosen drawn or photographed faces to indicate their judgements of the same videotapes of emotional expression. It is suggested that these findings reflect an important aspect of autistic children's social disability. PMID:3771683
Chronic social/emotional deficits are common in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), leading to significant functional difficulties. Objective, quantitative tools for assessing social/emotional competence are an important adjunct to cognitive assessments. We review existing social/emotional measures, conclude that theory of mind tests are not adequate for clinical assessments of social competence, and explain the development and piloting of novel measures in a small group of moderate to severe TBI patients (N?=?16) and non-brain-damaged controls (N?=?16). The novel measures are the Global Interpersonal Skills Test (GIST), a questionnaire measuring informant-rated social skills; the Assessment of Social Context (ASC), a video-based task examining understanding of others' emotions, attitudes, and intentions; the Social Interpretations Test, a social framing task based on Heider and Simmel ( 1944 ); and Awareness of Interoception, a heartbeat-detection paradigm related to physiological self-awareness. In a MANOVA, other-rated social skills (GIST), ASC, and Awareness of Interoception scores were significantly lower for TBI patients than controls. ASC, r(31)?=?.655, and Social Interpretations, r(31)?=?.460, scores were significantly correlated with informant-rated social skills (GIST). We encourage clinicians to add social/emotional measures to assessments of TBI patients. PMID:21777158
Hynes, Catherine A; Stone, Valerie E; Kelso, Louise A
The parent-therapist program was developed as an alternative to residential treatment centers for severely emotionally disturbed children. Five healthy nuclear families function in a group as an extended family. Each family receives a salary and is responsible for the care and protection of an emotionally disturbed child. Mental health professionals provide the parents with education and supervision. By the end of 1976 a total of 36 children ranging in age from six to 15 had been treated by 20 different parent-therapist couples for periods ranging from nine to 26 months. A comparison of the program with those of two residential centers showed that there was no difference in treatment outcome but that costs for the parent-therapist program were half those for the residential centers. PMID:410724
Individuals with an autistic spectrum disorder are impaired not only in understanding others' mental states, but also in self-regulation of social–emotional behavior. Therefore, a model of the brain in autism must encompass not only those brain systems that subserve social–cognitive and emotional functioning, but also those that subserve the self-regulation of behavior in response to a changing social environment. We
This paper presents a survey of kindergarten children's understanding of social issues. Approximately 350 children from 14 kindergarten classes participated in taped small group discussions with a female interviewer. The classes involved in the study included 11 public school kindergarten classes, two inner city day care center programs and one…
Emotional qualities of the parent-child relationship are thought to influence the offspring’s risk for perpetrating child\\u000a maltreatment in adulthood. The current study examined whether having grown up in an enmeshed or disengaged mother-child relationship,\\u000a hence a relationship characterized by extremes on the continuum of emotional distance, increased the offspring’s risk of child\\u000a maltreatment perpetration in a sample of 178 undergraduate
Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on both individual and social decision-making, however, the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game (DG) in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as more negative), down-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as less negative), as well as a baseline "look" condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, "regulating regions") were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, "regulated regions") were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners' behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal ER strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others' intentions may affect the way we emotionally react. PMID:24027512
Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G
Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on both individual and social decision-making, however, the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game (DG) in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as more negative), down-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as less negative), as well as a baseline “look” condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, “regulating regions”) were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, “regulated regions”) were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners' behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal ER strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others' intentions may affect the way we emotionally react.
Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G.
|A study evaluated a 7-month cognitive behavioral intervention for facilitating social-emotional understanding and social interaction of 15 high-functioning children (ages 8-17) with autism. Intervention focused on interpersonal problem solving, affective knowledge, and social interaction. After treatment, children were more likely to initiate…
\\u000a Humans are extraordinarily social creatures. We evolved large brains with a unique suite of abilities, including empathy,\\u000a consciousness, and language. Our sociocognitive adaptations involve complex integration of neurological (brain) and neuroendocrine\\u000a (hormone) systems. We are just beginning to understand the genetics that underpin these core aspects of the human psyche.\\u000a In this chapter, my goal is to develop ideas from
|Preschoolers' ability to demonstrate awareness of their own emotion is an important socio-emotional competence which has received increasing attention in the developmental literature. The present study examined emotion self-awareness of happiness, sadness, and anger in response to a delay of gratification task in 78 preschool children. Maternal…
This preliminary and exploratory study examined the correlates of 5 aspects of teacher-rated emotion-related regulation (modulation, flexibility, organization, emotion-focused coping, aggressive-coping strategies) in a sample of 36 low- to middle-income African American preschoolers. Results showed that children's empathy, emotional intensity,…
Objective To evaluate discrepancies between parent and child reports on youth’s emotional and behavioral problems in a representative,\\u000a community based sample of Greek 18-year-olds, and to identify associated factors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A total of 2,927 completed pairs of parent-child questionnaires were studied, including the child behavior checklist (CBCL)\\u000a and the youth self-report (YSR). Linear regression analysis was used to identify both child and
Ippolyti Vassi; Alexandra Veltsista; Evangelia Lagona; Artemis Gika; George Kavadias; Chryssa Bakoula
Studies of individuals at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis have revealed deviations in cognitive and neural development before the onset of psychosis. As affective impairments are among the core dysfunctions in psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, this study assessed emotion processing and the relationship with social competence in adolescents at risk for psychosis. Thirty-four adolescents at UHR for psychosis and twenty-three non-clinical controls completed the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, a measure of emotion awareness. Social inadequacy was measured using the Dutch Personality Questionnaire. Schizophrenia spectrum psychopathology was assessed using self-report and clinical instruments. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was used to evaluate intellectual functioning. UHR adolescents showed difficulties in identifying and verbalizing their own emotions, independent of intelligence scores. Emotion awareness problems were related to social inadequacy and schizotypal traits in the high risk group. These findings suggest that UHR adolescents may have reduced emotion awareness, independent of intellectual functioning. The relationship with social inadequate behavior fits with the idea that emotion awareness is a prerequisite for the regulation of emotions in social contexts. In the search for early vulnerability markers of risk for psychosis, studying emotion processing besides cognitive abilities might increase our understanding of 'at risk' developmental pathways. PMID:21094533
van Rijn, Sophie; Schothorst, Patricia; Wout, Mascha van 't; Sprong, Mirjam; Ziermans, Tim; van Engeland, Herman; Aleman, André; Swaab, Hanna
From the clinical practice and some experimental studies, it is apparent that paranoid schizophrenia patients tend to assign emotional salience to neutral social stimuli. This aberrant cognitive bias has been conceptualized to result from increased emotional arousal, but direct empirical data are scarce. The aim of the present study was to quantify the subjective emotional arousal (SEA) evoked by emotionally non-salient (neutral) compared to emotionally salient (negative) social stimuli in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Thirty male inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia psychosis and 30 demographically matched healthy controls rated their level of SEA in response to neutral and negative social scenes from the International Affective Picture System and the Munich Affective Picture System. Schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls had an increased overall SEA level. This relatively higher SEA was evoked only by the neutral but not by the negative social scenes. To our knowledge, the present study is the first designed to directly demonstrate subjective emotional over-arousal to neutral social scenes in paranoid schizophrenia. This finding might explain previous clinical and experimental data and could be viewed as the missing link between the primary neurobiological and secondary psychological mechanisms of paranoid psychotic-symptom formation. Furthermore, despite being very short and easy to perform, the task we used appeared to be sensitive enough to reveal emotional dysregulation, in terms of emotional disinhibition/hyperactivation in paranoid schizophrenia patients. Thus, it could have further research and clinical applications, including as a neurobehavioral probe for imaging studies. PMID:21792533
The ability of the human face to communicate emotional states via facial expressions is well known, and past research has established the importance and universality of emotional facial expressions. However, recent evidence has revealed that facial expressions of emotion are most accurately recognized when the perceiver and expresser are from the same cultural ingroup. The current research builds on this
Instinctual (inborn, genetically-controlled) emotional vocalizations can be used to index internal affective states. Vocal learning adds layers of cognitive complexity to this intrinsic vocal repertoire of animals. This chapter focuses on: (1) the separation calls (cries) of young animals as indicators of emotional distress that have ancestral relationships to human grief and sadness, emotional responses which appear to be related
We are used to speak about the organic pain origin. Meanwhile in actual and old definitions of pain the other determinants, besides the organic one, are included. They are changing the pain threshold and the pain tolerance. Dame Cicely Saunders, who started the modern hospice movement of care for those in advanced stage of disease, describes the concept of "total pain" as involving organic, emotional, spiritual and social determinants. Such pain concept fits into the classical division of pain pathogenesis. The basic forms are: nociceptive, neuropathic and according to the old nomenclature psychogenic. The first one is defense reaction, the second one is due to pathology. The third one is very complex and this article is dealing with it. The patient's emotional reactions, especially the fear and anxiousness producing tension increase the pain. Therefore, different kinds of relaxation or attention distraction can help a lot in relieving the pain. Spiritual pain can be a very difficult symptom increasing the physical pain significantly. Everybody has spiritual needs and they are independent of religious orientation. The experience of life's and suffering's senslessness, personal valulessness and situational hopelessness lowers significantly pain tolerance. The selfconfidence, the confidence in other persons, in somebody over us has the opposite effect. And finally the pain is often easier to cope with in the presence of a friendly person. To be able to complain and to describe one's own fears, especially in connection with the significance of the actual pain, helps a lot. The support of the wider community also helps. We ought to approach the patient holistically, that means also observe the person, the human being suffering, hoping and wishing to be heard, and not to be left alone. PMID:11379199
This study investigated factors associated with social isolation in parents of children with hemangiomas. Eighty-one parents completed questionnaires assessing their emotional distress, social isolation, and coping styles. To explore the relationships between these variables, a path analysis was used to test a model in which clinical characteristics of hemangiomas and parents' coping strategies do not have direct effects on their social isolation but indirect effects via their emotional distress. Bootstrapping was used to assess indirect effects. Time since onset and lesional complications had positive direct effects on parents' social isolation. Lesional visibility and emotion-focused coping had negative indirect effects on parents' social isolation via their emotional distress, while problem-focused coping showed a positive indirect effect. These findings may have implications for clinicians managing parents of children with hemangiomas. PMID:23387298
Neuroscientific research on emotion regulation suggests that the interplay between emotion and cognition may be fundamental to the ability to adaptively regulate emotions. Although emotion and cognition have historically been considered to be in opposition, more recent research suggests that they are also integrated, coordinated, and complementary. In this article, I review studies showing that scalp-recorded event related potentials (ERPs)
Character-based social interfaces present a unique opportunityto integrate emotion into technology interactions. The presentpaper reports on the use of three emotional interactions (humor,praise, and affection) in the audio interfaces for twocharacter-based interactive learning toys. The reasons forselecting the emotions used, the design rationale for theirapplication, and findings from usability testing are reviewed. Itis suggested that as a form of pretend
Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is an established program shown to reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. MBSR is believed to alter emotional responding by modifying cognitive–affective processes. Given that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by emotional and attentional biases as well as distorted negative self-beliefs, we examined MBSR-related changes in the brain–behavior indices of emotional reactivity and regulation
The present study investigated underlying processes of the effect of maltreatment on psychopathology (i.e., internalizing\\u000a and externalizing problems) in a group of 111 maltreated and 110 nonmaltreated 7–10 year-old children (60% boys). We tested\\u000a the moderating and\\/or mediating roles of emotion regulation and the mother-child relationship quality (pattern of relatedness)\\u000a using Structural Equation Modeling. Emotion regulation, but not the pattern of
Lenneke R. A. Alink; Dante Cicchetti; Jungmeen Kim; Fred A. Rogosch
Studies have shown that chronic illness patients encounter difficulties in the social sharing of emotions. Do HIV/AIDS patients present distinguishing traits in the inhibition of illness and non-illness-related emotions? The differences in the social sharing of emotion between 35 HIV/AIDS, 35 diabetic and 34 cancer outpatients were studied. A questionnaire assessed illness-related emotions, social sharing of emotion and emotional inhibition. The HIV/AIDS group significantly presented superior scoring in shame, guilt and non-sharing of illness-related emotions, lower frequencies of social sharing of emotion and less sharing partners. These findings could lead to future research examining the emotional expression of guilt and shame in HIV/AIDS. PMID:23129833
Cantisano, Nicole; Rimé, Bernard; Muñoz-Sastre, María T
Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children's reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems, and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social-ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single- and two-parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children's functioning are discussed. PMID:20604605
Cummings, E Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed
Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, a social ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes was tested. Participants were 700 mother-child (M=12.1years, SD=1.8) dyads from 18 working class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children’s reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single and two parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children’s functioning are discussed.
Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed
Previous research on the communication of emotions has suggested that bargainers obtain higher outcomes if they communicate anger than if they communicate happiness because anger signals higher limits, which in turn leads opponents to give in. Building on a social functional account of communicated emotions, the authors demonstrate that the behavioral consequences of communicated anger strongly depend on structural characteristics
Eric van Dijk; Gerben A. van Kleef; Wolfgang Steinel; Ilja van Beest
|In two experiments we aimed to investigate if individual differences in state-dependent decreases or increases of EEG coherence between prefrontal and posterior cortical regions may be indicative of a mechanism modulating the impact social-emotional information has on an individual. Two independent samples were exposed to an emotional stimulation…
Reiser, Eva M.; Schulter, Gunter; Weiss, Elisabeth M.; Fink, Andreas; Rominger, Christian; Papousek, Ilona
ObjectiveTo examine (1) the extent to which negative perceptions of support from family, school, and peers differ with regard to their impact on emotional and behavioral problems and (2) the extent to which negative perceptions of multiple social support systems are related to the presence of multiple emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence.
In this article, social expertise is considered in terms of (1) internal motivational goal- based abilities and (2) external communicative behavior. Because of the important functional role that emotions play in human decision-making and in human-human communication, we propose a paradigm for modeling some of the functions of emotions in intelligent autonomous artificial agents to enhance both (a) robot autonomy
School?age children with movement problems such as Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are known to have social and emotional difficulties. However, little research has investigated younger children to determine whether these problems emerge at school age or are present earlier. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between motor coordination, emotional recognition and internalising behaviours in young
Jan P. Piek; Greer S. Bradbury; Sharon C. Elsley; Lucinda Tate
|This study examines the development of emotion in 108 children from a small Northern California city aged 6-7, 8-9, and 10-11 years. The paper specifically examines: (1) children's beliefs about emotion management that contribute to their preinteraction expectancies; (2) the sorts of socializing messages children appear to be responding to; and…
|This article provides a review of research into the social and emotional functioning of adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI). In particular, we focus on peer relations, peer friendships, bullying, emotional difficulties and psychiatric difficulties. As a group, adolescents with SLI tend to be more vulnerable to problems in these…
|This study examined whether the relation between maladaptive emotion regulation and aggression was mediated by deviant social information processing (SIP). Participants were 193 preschool children. Emotion regulation and aggression were rated by teachers. Deviant SIP (i.e., attribution of hostile intent, aggressive response generation, aggressive…
|The present study examines the genesis of emotional exhaustion among undergraduate social work students in Hong Kong. Of particular concern are the relationships among key factors, including the student's idealism, altruism and career orientation, and emotional exhaustion. To investigate this, the study employed survey data collected from 165…
|This article examines how American middle-class children learn and acquire culturally appropriate emotions and sentiments, focusing especially on children's experiences. By analysing children's emotional worlds as well as adult socialization practices, the article shows that children actively reinterpret, reconstruct and reformulate various…
This prospective, longitudinal study examines individual differences in two conceptu- ally related but empirically distinct domains of social-cognitive competence (cognitive interpretive understanding and interpersonal perspective co-ordination) as modera- tors of the relation between peer rejection and neglect and behavioral and emotional problems in grades 2 and 3. As expected, peer rejection and neglect increased risks for behavioral and emotional problems
Wendy L. G. Hoglund; Christopher E. Lalonde; Bonnie J. Leadbeater
|Patterns of development of ToM-emotion abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, social understanding and ToM-emotion abilities were examined. EDEI-R (Perron-Borelli, M. (1996). "Echelles Differentielles…
The present meta-analytic review examined the magnitude of the relation between discrete emotion knowledge and three of its most commonly studied correlates in childhood and adolescence: social competence, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. Emotion knowledge demonstrated small to medium-sized relations with each correlate.…
|Understanding the functions of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has important implications for the development and refinement of theoretical models and treatments of NSSI. Emotional and social vulnerabilities associated with five common functions of NSSI-emotion relief (ER), feeling generation (FG), self-punishment (SP), interpersonal influence…
Turner, Brianna J.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Layden, Brianne K.
This theme issue addresses emotional and social issues faced by children and their families across a number of disability areas, with emphasis on needs the disabled have in common with all people, the value of tangible and emotional support for all family members, the need for comprehensive services, and the expertise that families can bring to…
|The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between students' emotional intelligence, social bond, and their interactions in an online learning environment. This study examined emotional aspects of online interaction in both synchronous and asynchronous online learning environments. A conceptual framework was developed based…
This study builds on earlier work showing that adult emotional competencies (EC) could be improved through a relatively brief training. In a set of 2 controlled experimental studies, the authors investigated whether developing EC could lead to improved emotional functioning; long-term personality changes; and important positive implications for physical, psychological, social, and work adjustment. Results of Study 1 showed that
Patterns of development of ToM-emotion abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, social understanding and ToM-emotion abilities were examined. EDEI-R (Perron-Borelli, M. (1996). "Echelles Differentielles…
This study examined significant others’ expressed emotion (EE) and a closely related construct, perceived criticism, as predictors of cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome in a sample of 40 patients with social phobia (social anxiety disorder). Patients enrolled in group therapy for social phobia completed pre- and post-treatment questionnaire measures of perceived criticism and anxious and depressive symptoms. Designated significant others were assessed
Jason M. Fogler; Martha C. Tompson; Gail Steketee; Stefan G. Hofmann
The social skills and social perception of schizophrenia patients in response to negative affect was examined as a function of family expressed emotion (EE). Patients participated in a role-play test, a social perception test, and a problem-solving discussion with a family member and were assessed on several measures of symptomatology. EE of family members was evaluated with the Camberwell Family
Kim T. Mueser; Alan S. Bellack; Julie H. Wade; Steven L. Sayers; Ann Tierney; Gretchen Haas
This paper provides a framework for a social game that has as a goal improving the social interaction skills through associative play. It de- scribes the design of the game platform and an ongoing study on the percep- tion of emotional expression from motion cues for communication and social coordination. Especially, children with autism spectrum disorders are target- ed, since
|Many students identified with emotional or behavioral disorders have social skill deficits, often displayed as less mature or inappropriate social behavior. Students may have difficulty engaging in appropriate play or social interactions and may at times become aggressive. The inability to interact with others has a negative impact on academic…
Variations in parents' emotionsocialization have been linked to children's social competence (SC) and behavior problems, but parental influences do not act independently of children's characteristics. A biopsychosocial model was tested, in which children's parasympathetic regulation of cardiac function and paternal and maternal socialization of…
This research aims to understand to what extent primary school pupils who stay at the Institution of Social Services and Child Protection dormitories participate in social science lessons. Data were obtained from pupils staying at the Institution of Social Services and Child Protection dormitories and attending primary schools in Istanbul and…
This study utilized a social control framework to assess whether parents' physical activity level moderated the relationship between parents' use of social influences and their children's physical activity level. Parents reported their personal and child's physical activity levels as well as the frequency with which they used various social control tactics in relation to their child's physical activity. A series
Kevin S. Spink; Shaelyn M. Strachan; Patrick Odnokon
Previous research has established that child welfare workers lack important information about child maltreatment fatalities and risk factors leading to death. Further, training has not been associated with improvements in knowledge. The authors assessed the presence of evidence-based information about child maltreatment fatalities and risk factors for death in 24 social science textbooks about child abuse and neglect or child welfare. The results indicate that basic information, such as definitions and incidence rates of child maltreatment fatalities are routinely included in social science textbooks, but information about child, parent, and household risk factors are not, and that inaccurate information is often included. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24066634
Individual differences in emotionality and regulation are central to conceptions of temperament and personality. In this article, conceptions of emotionality and regulation and ways in which they predict social functioning are examined. Linear (including additive) and nonlinear effects are reviewed. In addition, data on mediational and moderational relations from a longitudinal study are presented. The effects of attention regulation on social functioning were mediated by resiliency, and this relation was moderated by negative emotionality at the first, but not second, assessment. Negative emotionality moderated the relation of behavior regulation to socially appropriate/prosocial behavior. These results highlight the importance of examining different types of regulation and the ways in which dispositional characteristics interact in predicting social outcomes. PMID:10653511
Relations of maternal and child characteristics to child cortisol reactivity to and recovery from emotional arousal were examined prospectively at approximately 7 months of age (infancy) and then again at approximately 15 months of age (toddlerhood). The sample was diverse and population based (N = 1,292 mother–infant dyads) and included families from predominantly low-income, rural communities. Maternal behavior, family income-to-need
Clancy Blair; Douglas A. Granger; Katie T. Kivlighan; Roger Mills-Koonce; Michael Willoughby; Mark T. Greenberg; Leah C. Hibel; Christine K. Fortunato
Recently, research has begun to identify cognitive and social–emotional predictors of early academic success. Yet few studies have examined the mechanisms by which children's social–emotional skills are associated with later academic success. The present study examines the associations between preschool emotion knowledge, kindergarten attention skills, and first grade academic competence in a sample of mostly disadvantaged children. Results indicate that
Brittany L. Rhoades; Heather K. Warren; Celene E. Domitrovich; Mark T. Greenberg
The aim of this study was to investigate whether a Dutch social and emotional learning (SEL) programme for adolescents had a positive influence on suicidality and on hypothesised protective factors. The hypothesised protective factors included self-esteem, general belief in self-efficacy, expressing negative emotions, and attitudes to using social and emotional skills for suicidality. The study also explored a mediation model
Carolien Gravesteijn; Ren Diekstra; Marcin Sklad; Micha de Winter
|This short-term longitudinal study examined relations between emotion knowledge and social functioning in a sample of low-income kindergarten and 1st graders. Individual differences in spontaneous emotion naming and emotion recognition skills were used to predict children's social functioning at school, including peer-nominated sociometric…
|Social comparison can elicit emotions such as envy, which can affect social interactions. The emergence and development of such socialemotions through ontogeny, and their influence on social interaction, are unknown. We tested 182 children from 7 to 13 years of age with a novel monetary reward-and-punishment task measuring envy and Schadenfreude…
Humans in different cultures develop a similar capacity to recognize the emotional signals of diverse facial expressions. This capacity is mediated by a brain network that involves emotion-related brain circuits and higher-level visual-representation areas. Recent studies suggest that the key components of this network begin to emerge early in life. The studies also suggest that initial biases in emotion-related brain
BACKGROUND: Ethnic diversity in schools increases due to globalization. Thus, the children's social-emotional competence development must be considered in the context of a multi-ethnic classroom. METHODS: In this study, the social-emotional competence of 65 Asian-American and Latin-American children was observed at the beginning and the end of their kindergarten year. RESULTS: Initially, significant differences existed among these ethnic groups in
Katja Petrowski; Ulf Herold; Peter Joraschky; Agnes von Wyl; Manfred Cierpka
This study investigated the effects of locus of control and other predictors on personal-emotional and social adjustment to community college in English-language-learner students. Results indicated that locus of control was significantly associated with both social adjustment and personal-emotional adjustment. Students with more external locus of control showed better adjustment to college. Stress and being first in the family to attend
\\u000a Building on social cognitive theories, we argue that similar to other forms of self-regulation, emotion regulation is influenced\\u000a by three social cognitive factors: first, beliefs about controllability and self-efficacy; second, values and goals; and,\\u000a third, strategies and competencies. Whereas strategies and competencies have received considerable attention in the emotion\\u000a regulation literature, this has not been the case for the other
OBJECTIVE. The goal was to examine whether children who screen positive for social- emotional\\/behavioral problems at 12 to 36 months of age are at elevated risk for social-emotional\\/behavioral problems in early elementary school. METHODS. The sample studied (N 1004) comprised an ethnically (33.3% minority) and socioeconomically (17.8% living in poverty and 11.3% living in borderline poverty) diverse, healthy, birth cohort
Early Head Start children may be more likely to exhibit difficulties with social–emotional functioning due to the high-risk environments in which they live. However, positive parenting may serve as a protective factor against the influence of risk on children's outcomes. The current study examines the effects of contextual and proximal risks on children's social–emotional outcomes and whether these effects are
Jessica E. Vick Whittaker; Brenda Jones Harden; Heather M. See; Allison D. Meisch; T’Pring R. Westbrook
Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are associated with impairments in facial emotion perception and Theory of Mind (ToM). These social cognitive skills deficits may be related to a reduced capacity to effectively regulate one's own emotions according to the social context. We therefore set out to examine the relationship between social cognitive abilities and the use of cognitive strategies for regulating negative emotion in SZ and BD. Participants were 56 SZ, 33 BD, and 58 healthy controls (HC) who completed the Ekman 60-faces test of facial emotion recognition; a sub-set of these participants also completed The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT) and the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ). SZ participants demonstrated impairments in emotion perception on both the Ekman and the TASIT Emotion Evaluation tests relative to BD and HC. While both SZ and BD patients showed ToM deficits (i.e., perception of sarcasm and lie) compared to HC, SZ patients demonstrated significantly greater ToM impairment compared to BD. There were also distinct patterns of cognitive strategies used to regulate emotion in both patient groups: those with SZ were more likely to engage in catastrophizing and rumination, while BD subjects were more likely to blame themselves and were less likely to engage in positive reappraisal, relative to HC. In addition, those with SZ were more likely to blame others compared to BD. Associations between social cognition and affect regulation were revealed for HC only: TASIT performance was negatively associated with more frequent use of rumination, catastrophizing, and blaming others, such that more frequent use of maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies was associated with poor social cognitive performance. These associations were not present in either patient group. However, both SZ and BD patients demonstrated poor ToM performance and aberrant use of emotion regulation strategies consistent with previous studies. SZ also showed basic emotion recognition deficits relative to BD and HC. That there were no associations between social cognition and the capacity to self-regulate negative emotion in SZ and BD (in the context of poor social cognition and maladaptive regulatory strategies) suggests that dysfunction in fronto-limbic brain networks may underpin both social cognitive deficits and the use of maladaptive cognitive strategies in these disorders, albeit by potentially different routes. PMID:23423878
Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are associated with impairments in facial emotion perception and Theory of Mind (ToM). These social cognitive skills deficits may be related to a reduced capacity to effectively regulate one’s own emotions according to the social context. We therefore set out to examine the relationship between social cognitive abilities and the use of cognitive strategies for regulating negative emotion in SZ and BD. Participants were 56 SZ, 33 BD, and 58 healthy controls (HC) who completed the Ekman 60-faces test of facial emotion recognition; a sub-set of these participants also completed The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT) and the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ). SZ participants demonstrated impairments in emotion perception on both the Ekman and the TASIT Emotion Evaluation tests relative to BD and HC. While both SZ and BD patients showed ToM deficits (i.e., perception of sarcasm and lie) compared to HC, SZ patients demonstrated significantly greater ToM impairment compared to BD. There were also distinct patterns of cognitive strategies used to regulate emotion in both patient groups: those with SZ were more likely to engage in catastrophizing and rumination, while BD subjects were more likely to blame themselves and were less likely to engage in positive reappraisal, relative to HC. In addition, those with SZ were more likely to blame others compared to BD. Associations between social cognition and affect regulation were revealed for HC only: TASIT performance was negatively associated with more frequent use of rumination, catastrophizing, and blaming others, such that more frequent use of maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies was associated with poor social cognitive performance. These associations were not present in either patient group. However, both SZ and BD patients demonstrated poor ToM performance and aberrant use of emotion regulation strategies consistent with previous studies. SZ also showed basic emotion recognition deficits relative to BD and HC. That there were no associations between social cognition and the capacity to self-regulate negative emotion in SZ and BD (in the context of poor social cognition and maladaptive regulatory strategies) suggests that dysfunction in fronto-limbic brain networks may underpin both social cognitive deficits and the use of maladaptive cognitive strategies in these disorders, albeit by potentially different routes.
Rowland, Jesseca E.; Hamilton, Meelah K.; Vella, Nicholas; Lino, Bianca J.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Green, Melissa J.
This study examined whether the relation between maladaptive emotion regulation and aggression was mediated by deviant social information processing (SIP). Participants were 193 preschool children. Emotion regulation and aggression were rated by teachers. Deviant SIP (i.e., attribution of hostile intent, aggressive response generation, aggressive response evaluation and decision) was measured from children's responses to hypothetical social conflicts. Findings revealed that the relation between maladaptive emotion regulation and aggression was direct and not mediated by SIP biases (i.e., aggressive response generation, aggressive response evaluation and decision). Results are discussed from a theoretical and methodological perspective. PMID:21901542
Behavioral research on negotiation in recent years has been dominated by the decision-making research paradigm, which accords a relatively narrow role to emotions. Decision-making researchers have considered emotions primarily in terms of how an individual's positive or negative affect impacts, and usually impedes, his or her information processing. Drawing on recent advances in psychology and other fields, we propose an
Introduction: Emotions have not been regarded as very relevant in educational processes, despite early sociologists underlining the importance of feelings in education. The focus of this research is on the teaching of Physical Education at the Primary School level in Spain. Method: We reflect on the importance of emotions in education from the…
Emotion theory emphasizes the distinction between social vs non-socialemotional-processing (E-P) although few functional neuroimaging studies have examined whether the neural systems that mediate social vs non-social E-P are similar or distinct. The present fMRI study of script-driven imagery in 20 women demonstrates that social E-P, independent of valence, more strongly recruits brain regions involved in social- and self-referential processing, specifically the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate/precuneus, bilateral temporal poles, bilateral temporoparietal junction and right amygdala. Functional response within brain regions involved in E-P was also significantly more pronounced during negatively relative to positively valenced E-P. Finally, the effect for social E-P was increased for positive relative to negative stimuli in many of these same regions. Future research directions for social and affective neuroscience are discussed.
Dozois, David J. A.; Neufeld, Richard W. J.; Densmore, Maria; Stevens, Todd K.; Lanius, Ruth A.
|A study examined the effects of pullout small-group and teacher-directed classroom-based social skills instruction on antisocial behaviors of five third- and fourth-grade students at risk for emotional or behavioral disorders. Results indicated moderate reduction in antisocial behaviors during small-group social skills instruction. (Contains…
|This study examines how mothers with and without a history of childhood-onset depression respond to their 3-9 year-old children's emotions. Mother-child dyads included 55 offspring of mothers with a history of childhood-onset depressive disorders and 57 offspring of never-depressed mothers. Mothers with a history of childhood depression were less…
Silk, Jennifer S.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Prout, Joanna T.; O'Rourke, Flannery; Lane, Tonya J.; Kovacs, Maria
This study examines how mothers with and without a history of childhood-onset depression respond to their 3-9 year-old children's emotions. Mother-child dyads included 55 offspring of mothers with a history of childhood-onset depressive disorders and 57 offspring of never-depressed mothers. Mothers with a history of childhood depression were less…
Silk, Jennifer S.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Prout, Joanna T.; O'Rourke, Flannery; Lane, Tonya J.; Kovacs, Maria
Recognizing facial affect is essential for effective social functioning. This study examines emotion recognition abilities in children aged 7-13 years with High Functioning Autism (HFA = 19), Social Phobia (SP = 17), or typical development (TD = 21). Findings indicate that all children identified certain emotions more quickly (e.g., happy < anger, disgust, sad < fear) and more accurately (happy) than other emotions (disgust). No evidence was found for negative interpretation biases in children with HFA or SP (i.e., all groups showed similar ability to discriminate neutral from non-neutral facial expressions). However, distinct between-group differences emerged when considering facial expression intensity. Specifically, children with HFA detected mild affective expressions less accurately than TD peers. Behavioral ratings of social effectiveness or social anxiety were uncorrelated with facial affect recognition abilities across children. Findings have implications for social skills treatment programs targeting youth with skill deficits. PMID:22528028
|This article discusses the risks and possibilities of communicating and educating the child's emotional self in a formal classroom environment. Through designing and implementing an expressive arts curricular intervention in a Scottish primary school classroom, my research produces an example of how therapeutic notions focused upon health and…
This article discusses the risks and possibilities of communicating and educating the child's emotional self in a formal classroom environment. Through designing and implementing an expressive arts curricular intervention in a Scottish primary school classroom, my research produces an example of how therapeutic notions focused upon health and wellbeing can be integrated into contemporary education. Four case studies are provided
Objective To identify patterns of distress among mothers of children with cancer over the initial 6 months of treatment and to examine these patterns as predictors of child somatic and emotional distress. Method Data were gathered regarding maternal perceived stress and affective distress from mothers of children (N = 65, mean age = 8.3 years) with cancer at 2 to
|The aim of this cross-sectional community-based study was to examine the sensitivity and specificity of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) to the diagnosis of anxiety disorders (AD). Participants were 119 students aged 9-18. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by a psychiatrist throughout a structural clinical…
|Objectives: This study was designed to assess the incidence of childemotional and physical abuse, associated risk factors and psychosocial symptoms in a cross-cultural comparison between post-communist bloc countries. Method: One-thousand one-hundred forty-five children ages 10-14 from Latvia (N=297), Lithuania (N=300), Macedonia (N=302), and…
The neurochemical changes underlying human emotions and social behavior are largely unknown. Here we report on the changes in the levels of two hypothalamic neuropeptides, hypocretin-1 (Hcrt-1) and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), measured in the human amygdala. We show that Hcrt-1 levels are maximal during positive emotion, social interaction, and anger, behaviors that induce cataplexy in human narcoleptics. In contrast, MCH levels are minimal during social interaction, but are increased after eating. Both peptides are at minimal levels during periods of postoperative pain despite high levels of arousal. MCH levels increase at sleep onset, consistent with a role in sleep induction, whereas Hcrt-1 levels increase at wake onset, consistent with a role in wake induction. Levels of these two peptides in humans are not simply linked to arousal, but rather to specific emotions and state transitions. Other arousal systems may be similarly emotionally specialized.
Blouin, Ashley M.; Fried, Itzhak; Wilson, Charles L.; Staba, Richard J.; Behnke, Eric J.; Lam, Hoa A.; Maidment, Nigel T.; Karlsson, Karl AE.; Lapierre, Jennifer L.; Siegel, Jerome M.
...child's disability determination...regulations of the Social Security Administration...DISABILITY Disability Determinations...Regulations of the Social Security Administration...child's disability determination...regulations of the Social Security...
...child's disability determination...regulations of the Social Security Administration...DISABILITY Disability Determinations...Regulations of the Social Security Administration...child's disability determination...regulations of the Social Security...
We studied parent-childsocial interactions in a naturalistic tabletop setting. Our approach was to analyze the real-time sensorimotor dynamics of the social partners as they engage in joint object play. From the child's point of view, what she perceives critically depends on her own and her social partner's actions, as well as on her actions on objects. These interdependencies may
Alfredo F. Pereira; Chen Yu; Linda B. Smith; Hongwei Shen
|The applicability of the Age and Stages Questionnaires: SocialEmotional (ASQ-SE; J. Squires, D. Bricker & E. Twombly, 2003) for Turkish children was examined. A total of 608 mothers completed the ASQ-SE's. Overall sensitivity and overall specificity were 83.7% and 89.9%, respectively. Test-retest reliability, assessed by classifying children as…
A brief overview of current views of child development is provided, with particular attention given to the role the child's physical and social environment plays in influencing the developmental process. Examples from the recent literature are used to illustrate how these factors can influence lead exposure and most importantly how they might interact with lead to ameliorate or exacerbate possible lead effects. An example is provided which demonstrates that failure to control adequately and to adjust the data statistically to correct for the influence of these factors can lead one erroneously to attribute cognitive and behavioral changes to lead. Finally, data from the Cincinnati Prospective Lead Study are presented to illustrate the application of structural equation modeling as a means for unraveling the complex web of sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral influences on childhood lead exposure.